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Sample records for bolus chasing computed

  1. The application of DSA bolus chase technology in diagnosing the vascular disorders of lower extremities due to diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) bolus chase technology in diagnosing the vascular disorders of lower extremities due to diabetes mellitus. Methods: From January 2004 to March 2010, DSA was performed in forty-five diabetes patients with suspicious vascular diseases of lower extremities. Among them, 24 cases (31 lower limbs)were examined with DSA bolus chase technology and the remaining 21 cases (21 lower limbs)were examined with traditional segmentational technique. The contrast dosage used in angiography, the total exposure time, the examination time and the imaging value for making diagnosis were analyzed and compared between two techniques. Results: For DSA bolus chase technology group, the contrast dosage used in angiography, the total exposure time and the examination time were 25.26 ml, 13.23 s and 37.26 min, respectively,with an average exposure of 101.65 pictures. For traditional segmentational technique group, the contrast dosage used in angiography, the total exposure time and the examination time were 130.00 ml, 52.38 s and 50.48 min, respectively, with an average exposure of 118.33 pictures. The percentage of high quality images in bolus chase technology group and in traditional segmentational technique group were 90.3% and 90.5%, respectively. All the images could meet the requirements for making a reliable diagnosis. Conclusion: Digital subtraction angiography by using bolus-chase technology can well demonstrate the vascular pathology of lower extremities caused by diabetes mellitus, obtain sufficient imaging information necessary for making a reliable diagnosis. DSA bolus chase technology is superior to traditional segmentational technique in shortening procedure time, reducing contrast medium dosage and decreasing radiation dose. (authors)

  2. Bolus characteristics based on Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaoming

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed contrast bolus propagation model is essential for optimizing bolus-chasing Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA. Bolus characteristics were studied using bolus-timing datasets from Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA for adaptive controller design and validation. Methods MRA bolus-timing datasets of the aorta in thirty patients were analyzed by a program developed with MATLAB. Bolus characteristics, such as peak position, dispersion and bolus velocity, were studied. The bolus profile was fit to a convolution function, which would serve as a mathematical model of bolus propagation in future controller design. Results The maximum speed of the bolus in the aorta ranged from 5–13 cm/s and the dwell time ranged from 7–13 seconds. Bolus characteristics were well described by the proposed propagation model, which included the exact functional relationships between the parameters and aortic location. Conclusion The convolution function describes bolus dynamics reasonably well and could be used to implement the adaptive controller design.

  3. Optical tracking of contrast medium bolus to optimize bolus shape and timing in dynamic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisa, Fabian; Brauweiler, Robert; Peetz, Alexander; Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is the optimal synchronization of scan start and duration with contrast medium administration in order to optimize image contrast and to reduce the amount of contrast medium. We present a new optically based approach, which was developed to investigate and optimize bolus timing and shape. The time-concentration curve of an intravenously injected test bolus of a dye is measured in peripheral vessels with an optical sensor prior to the diagnostic CT scan. The curves can be used to assess bolus shapes as a function of injection protocols and to determine contrast medium arrival times. Preliminary results for phantom and animal experiments showed the expected linear behavior between dye concentration and absorption. The kinetics of the dye was compared to iodinated contrast medium and was found to be in good agreement. The contrast enhancement curves were reliably detected in three mice with individual bolus shapes and delay times of 2.1, 3.5 and 6.1 s, respectively. The optical sensor appears to be a promising approach to optimize injection protocols and contrast enhancement timing and is applicable to all modalities without implying any additional radiation dose. Clinical tests are still necessary.

  4. The comparison of bolus tracking and test bolus techniques for computed tomography thoracic angiography in healthy beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Cassel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography thoracic angiography studies were performed on five adult beagles using the bolus tracking (BT technique and the test bolus (TB technique, which were performed at least two weeks apart. For the BT technique, 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent was injected intravenously. Scans were initiated when the contrast in the aorta reached 150 Hounsfield units (HU. For the TB technique, the dogs received a test dose of 15% of 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent, followed by a series of low dose sequential scans. The full dose of the contrast agent was then administered and the scans were conducted at optimal times as identified from time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation in HU was measured in the aorta (Ao and right caudal pulmonary artery (rCPA. Additional observations included the study duration, milliAmpere (mA, computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI[vol] and dose length product (DLP. The attenuation in the Ao (BT = 660 52 HU ± 138 49 HU, TB = 469 82 HU ± 199 52 HU, p = 0.13 and in the rCPA (BT = 606 34 HU ± 143 37 HU, TB = 413 72 HU ± 174.99 HU, p = 0.28 did not differ significantly between the two techniques. The BT technique was conducted in a significantly shorter time period than the TB technique (p = 0.03. The mean mA for the BT technique was significantly lower than the TB technique (p = 0.03, as was the mean CTDI(vol (p = 0.001. The mean DLP did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.17. No preference was given to either technique when evaluating the Ao or rCPA but the BT technique was shown to be shorter in duration and resulted in less DLP than the TB technique.

  5. Thoracic pathologies on scout views and bolus tracking slices for computed tomographic cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M.; Fiehler, J.; Buhk, J.H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Henes, F.O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence of additional thoracic pathologic findings (TPF) detected on scout views and corresponding bolus tracking slices (SVBT) for computed tomographic cerebral angiography (CTCA) and to test the reliability and accuracy of these findings. The study collective included 505 consecutive patients who underwent multidetector CTCA. Appendant SVBT of all patients were reviewed for any pathologic findings and patient medical reports were analyzed, if any medical treatment was initiated for the detected pathologic findings. In 18 patients thoracic CT scans were performed in the same session. These were additionally reviewed by two blinded observers to test for intra- and interobserver reliability as well as for accuracy of detecting thoracic pathologies on SVBT. TPF were detected in 165 (33 %) SVBT. The five most common pathologic findings were: pleural effusion, 12 %; pneumonia, 8 %; atelectasis/dystelecatsis, 6 %; pericardial effusion, 2 % and elevated diaphragm, 1 %. For 48 % of these findings medical treatment was initiated. SVBT showed a sensitivity of 53 %, a specificity of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 89 %, a negative predictive value of 94 % and accuracy of 94 % for the detection of TPF. The intraobserver reliability was very good and the interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement. SVBT for CTCA should be reviewed with care by radiologists, since additional TPF can affect patient management. Nevertheless, despite a high specificity of SVBT for detecting TPF, an only moderate sensitivity has to be taken into account.

  6. Computer simulations suggest that acute correction of hyperglycaemia with an insulin bolus protocol might be useful in brain FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, R.; Brenner, W.; Apostolova, I.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Santer, R. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Center for Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Paediatrics; Silverman, D.H.S. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology

    2009-07-01

    FDG PET in hyperglycaemic subjects often suffers from limited statistical image quality, which may hamper visual and quantitative evaluation. In our study the following insulin bolus protocol is proposed for acute correction of hyperglycaemia (> 7.0 mmol/l) in brain FDG PET. (i) Intravenous bolus injection of short-acting insulin, one I.E. for each 0.6 mmol/l blood glucose above 7.0. (ii) If 20 min after insulin administration plasma glucose is {<=} 7.0 mmol/l, proceed to (iii). If insulin has not taken sufficient effect step back to (i). Compute insulin dose with the updated blood glucose level. (iii) Wait further 20 min before injection of FDG. (iv) Continuous supervision of the patient during the whole scanning procedure. The potential of this protocol for improvement of image quality in brain FDG PET in hyperglycaemic subjects was evaluated by computer simulations within the Sokoloff model. A plausibility check of the prediction of the computer simulations on the magnitude of the effect that might be achieved by correction of hyperglycaemia was performed by retrospective evaluation of the relation between blood glucose level and brain FDG uptake in 89 subjects in whom FDG PET had been performed for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The computer simulations suggested that acute correction of hyperglycaemia according to the proposed bolus insulin protocol might increase the FDG uptake of the brain by up to 80%. The magnitude of this effect was confirmed by the patient data. The proposed management protocol for acute correction of hyperglycaemia with insulin has the potential to significantly improve the statistical quality of brain FDG PET images. This should be confirmed in a prospective study in patients. (orig.)

  7. Chasing Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Brock; Shleifer, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model in which rational but uninformed traders occasionally chase noise as if it were information, thereby amplifying sentiment shocks and moving prices away from fundamental values. We fill a theoretical gap in the literature by showing conditions under which noise traders can have an impact on market equilibrium disproportionate to their size in the market. The model offers a partial explanation for the surprisingly low market price of financial risk in the Spring of 2007.

  8. Optimizing computed tomography pulmonary angiography using right atrium bolus monitoring combined with spontaneous respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Wang; Jian, Li; Rui, Zhai [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, Department of Computed Tomography, Jining City, ShanDong Province (China); Wen, Li [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Jining, ShanDong (China); Dai, Lun-Hou [Shandong Chest Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jinan, ShanDong (China)

    2015-09-15

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) aims to provide pulmonary arterial opacification in the absence of significant pulmonary venous filling. This requires accurate timing of the imaging acquisition to ensure synchronization with the peak pulmonary artery contrast concentration. This study was designed to test the utility of right atrium (RA) monitoring in ensuring optimal timing of CTPA acquisition. Sixty patients referred for CTPA were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 30): CTPA was performed using bolus triggering from the pulmonary trunk, suspended respiration and 70 ml of contrast agent (CA). Group B (n = 30): CTPA image acquisition was triggered using RA monitoring with spontaneous respiration and 40 ml of CA. Image quality was compared. Subjective image quality, average CT values of pulmonary arteries and density difference between artery and vein pairs were significantly higher whereas CT values of pulmonary veins were significantly lower in group B (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the proportion of subjects where sixth grade pulmonary arteries were opacified (P > 0.05). RA monitoring combined with spontaneous respiration to trigger image acquisition in CTPA produces optimal contrast enhancement in pulmonary arterial structures with minimal venous filling even with reduced doses of CA. (orig.)

  9. Electrical characterization of bolus material as phantom for use in electrical impedance and computed tomography fusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvind Kaur Grewal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are widely used in medical imaging to predict image quality prior to clinical imaging. This paper discusses the possible use of bolus material, as a conductivity phantom, for validation and interpretation of electrical impedance tomography (EIT images. Bolus is commonly used in radiation therapy to mimic tissue. When irradiated, it has radiological characteristics similar to tissue. With increased research interest in CT/EIT fusion imaging there is a need to find a material which has both the absorption coefficient and electrical conductivity similar to biological tissues. In the present study the electrical properties, specifically resistivity, of various commercially available bolus materials were characterized by comparing their frequency response with that of in-vivo connective adipose tissue. It was determined that the resistivity of Gelatin Bolus is similar to in-vivo tissue in the frequency range 10 kHz to 1MHz and therefore has potential to be used in EIT/CT fusion imaging studies.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Contrast Agent Bolus Dispersion in a Coronary Bifurcation: Impact on MRI-Based Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced first-pass magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in combination with a tracer kinetic model, for example, MMID4, can be used to determine myocardial blood flow (MBF and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR. Typically, the arterial input function (AIF required for this methodology is estimated from the left ventricle (LV. Dispersion of the contrast agent bolus might occur between the LV and the myocardial tissue. Negligence of bolus dispersion could cause an error in MBF determination. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bolus dispersion in a simplified coronary bifurcation geometry including one healthy and one stenotic branch on the quantification of MBF and MPR. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were combined with MMID4. Different inlet boundary conditions describing pulsatile and constant flows for rest and hyperemia and differing outflow conditions have been investigated. In the bifurcation region, the increase of the dispersion was smaller than inside the straight vessels. A systematic underestimation of MBF values up to −16.1% for pulsatile flow and an overestimation of MPR up to 7.5% were found. It was shown that, under the conditions considered in this study, bolus dispersion can significantly influence the results of quantitative myocardial MR-perfusion measurements.

  11. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Young [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jung Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination.

  12. Usefulness of the Bolus-Tracking Baseline Scan for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Steatosis in Abdominal Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common pathology in western societies. Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the liver is a valuable tool in determining the presence of steatosis hepatis, but in most departments standard CT protocols of abdomen often do not include unenhanced scans anymore. In a small series of 22 patients the liver density was measured in the acquired low-dose baseline scan for bolus tracking and was compared to the measurement in a regular unenhanced CT scan of the upper abdomen. The mean difference between the unenhanced CT scan and the low-dose baseline scan was 3.4 HU (range 0.2–8.6 HU); the difference between these two scans was 5 HU or smaller in 82% of the patients. There was a significant difference between the two used CT scanners; this has to be kept in mind before implementing this approach into daily practice. All but one patient with fatty liver disease on unenhanced CT were diagnosed using the baseline scan. The baseline scan for bolus tracking may be useful for the diagnosis or in the followup of fatty liver disease

  13. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  14. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, W.; Zwaka, P.A.; Sohns, J.M.; Schwarz, A.; Lotz, J. [University Medical Center Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sohns, C.; Vollmann, D.; Zabel, M.; Hasenfuss, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology; Schneider, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics

    2014-11-15

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  15. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy.

  16. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy

  17. Evaluation of Pharyngeal Function between No Bolus and Bolus Propofol Induced Sedation for Advanced Upper Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsuke Kiriyama; Hiroshi Naitoh; Minoru Fukuchi; Takaharu Fukasawa; Kana Saito; Yuichi Tabe; Hayato Yamauchi; Tomonori Yoshida; Hiroyuki Kuwano

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess pharyngeal function between no bolus and bolus propofol induced sedation during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection. A retrospective study was conducted involving consecutive gastric cancer patients. Patients in the no bolus group received a 3 mg/kg/h maintenance dose of propofol after the initiation of sedation without bolus injection. All patients in the bolus group received the same maintenance dose of propofol with bolus 0.5 mg/kg propofol injection. Pharyn...

  18. A Theory of Ambulance Chasing

    CERN Document Server

    Backović, Mihailo

    2016-01-01

    Ambulance chasing is a common socio-scientific phenomenon in particle physics. I argue that despite the seeming complexity, it is possible to gain insight into both the qualitative and quantitative features of ambulance chasing dynamics. Compound-Poisson statistics suffices to accommodate the time evolution of the cumulative number of papers on a topic, where basic assumptions that the interest in the topic as well as the number of available ideas decrease with time appear to drive the time evolution. It follows that if the interest scales as an inverse power law in time, the cumulative number of papers on a topic is well described by a di-gamma function, with a distinct logarithmic behavior at large times. In cases where the interest decreases exponentially with time, the model predicts that the total number of papers on the topic will converge to a fixed value as time goes to infinity. I demonstrate that the two models are able to fit at least 9 specific instances of ambulance chasing in particle physics us...

  19. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The...

  20. Annual narrative report 1995: Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The...

  1. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report - 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The...

  2. Three-dimensional customized bolus for intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a patient with Kimura's disease involving the auricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J W; Yea, J W

    2016-05-01

    In radiotherapy, a commercial bolus often does not provide a suitable fit over irregular surfaces. To address this issue, we fabricated a customized bolus using 3D printing technology. The aim of our study was to evaluate the application of this 3D-printed bolus in a clinical setting. The patient was a 45-year-old man with recurrent Kimura's disease involving the auricle, receiving radiotherapy in our oncology department. A customized bolus, 5mm in thickness, was fabricated based on reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images. The bolus was printed on a Dimension 1200 series SST 3D printer. Repeat CT-based simulation indicated an acceptable fit of the 3D-printed bolus to the target region, with a maximum air gap of less than 5mm at the tragus. Most of the surface area of the target region was covered by the 95% isodose line. The plan with the 3D-printed bolus improved target coverage compared to that without a bolus. And the plan with the 3D-printed bolus yielded comparable results to those with the paraffin wax bolus. In conclusion, a customized bolus using a 3D printer was successfully applied to an irregular surface. PMID:27020714

  3. Bolus propagation in pig ureter in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    van Mastrigt, Ron; Tauecchio, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    textabstractPig ureters were made to propagate injected fluid boluses by electrical stimulation in vitro. The propagation velocity was determined from EMG measurements made at several points along the ureter. It was found that this velocity varied both along the ureter and as a function of time, and that it was related to the contraction pressure but not to the bolus size.

  4. Qualitative indices and enhancement rate of CT pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: Comparison between test bolus and bolus-tracking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moradi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the qualitative indices and enhancement rate of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism using Test bolus and Bolus-tracking techniques. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients with suspected pulmonary embolism that passed informed consent were randomly divided in the two groups. In each group, demographic characteristics, qualitative indices, and enhancement rate of CTPA were recorded. Results: The diagnostic result obtained in majority of the participants in the two groups (88.5 % in Test bolus group vs. 73.1% in the Bolus tracking group. In the case of quantitative variables, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups (P > 0.05. The only statistically significant difference between the two groups is average of "X-ray dose". Conclusion: The results of our study show that there is no statistically significant difference between the Bolus Tracking and Test Bolus techniques for producing more homogeneous enhancement.

  5. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  6. Chinese Learning Journeys: Chasing the Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Eight students from mainland China chart their learning journeys across national and continental boundaries and socio-cultural contexts. The five women and three men structure their experiences of studying in China and the West around the turning points and life changing choices they made in chasing their dreams. They embody its emergent…

  7. Oesophageal food bolus impaction in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Slobodan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The diagnosis of food bolus impaction in the esophagus is based on the data obtained from the patient, clinical examination, radiographic diagnosis, and endoscopy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of possible factors causing oesophageal impaction of food boluses in elderly people. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included six male and eight female patients treated at the Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat Disease in Novi Sad. Results. Post-corrosive oesophageal stricture was diagnosed in 28.57% of patients and non-corrosive stricture was found in 21.43%. Total tooth loss was recorded in 64.29% of patients and 14.29% of patients had partial tooth loss. An impacted food bolus was located at a distance of 15-25 cm or 30-40 cm distance from the upper incisors in 42.86% of the study sample. Discussion and conclusion. The impaction of food boluses in the esophagus is significantly higher in women, usually after 76 years of age. There is a positive correlation between the presence of oesophageal stricture and recurrence of food bolus impaction. Partial and total tooth loss is present in a high percentage but there is no correlation with the food bolus impaction. Impaction of food bolus was equally found in the upper and lower third of the oesophagus and it was usually meat. Radiographic diagnosis should precede each esophagoscopy. Esophagoscopy with rigid oesophagoscope is a reliable method for the extraction of a bolus of food from the oesophagus in elderly patients.

  8. A Study on the Necessary Number of Bolus Treatments in Radiotherapy after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Chae Seon; Kim, Jong Sik; Kim, Young Kon; Park, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMR) is known to decrease loco-regional recurrence. Adequate skin and dermal dose are achieved by adding bolus. The more difficult clinical issue is determining the necessary number of bolus treatment, given the limits of normal skin tolerance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the necessary number of bolus treatment after PMR in patients with breast cancer. Four female breast cancer patients were included in the study. The median age was 53 years(range, 38-74), tumor were left sided in 2 patients and right sided in 2 patients. All patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after MRM. Radiotherapy was delivered to the chest wall (C.W) and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCL) using 4 MV X-ray. The total dose was 50 Gy, in 2 Gy fractions (with 5 times a week). CT was performed for treatment planning, treatment planning was performed using A DAC-Pinnacles{sup 3} (Phillips, USA) for all patients without and with bolus. Bolus treatment plans were generated using image tool (0.5 cm of thickness and 6 cm of width). Dose distribution was analyzed and the increased skin dose rate in the build-up region was computed and the skin dose using TLD-100 chips (Harshaw, USA) was measured. No significant difference was found in dose distribution without and with bolus; C.W coverage was 95-100% of the prescribed dose in both. But, there was remarkable difference in the skin dose to the scar. The skin dose to the scar without and with bolus were 100-105% and 50-75%. The increased skin dose rates in the build-up region for Pt. 1, Pt. 2. Pt. 3 and Pt. 4 were 23.3%, 35.6%, 34.9%, and 41.7%. The results of measured skin dose using TLD-100 chips in the cases without and with bolus were 209.3 cGy and 161.1 cGy, 200 cGy and 150.2 cGy, 211.4 cGy and 160.5 cGy, 198.6 cGy and 155.5 cGy for Pt. 1, Pt. 2, Pt. 3, and Pt. 4. It was concludes through this analysis that the adequate number of bolus treatments is 50-60% of the treatment program. Further

  9. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. 520.420... Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.25 gram of chlorothiazide. (2...) Specifications. Each bolus contains 2 grams of chlorothiazide. (2) Sponsor. See No. 000006 in § 510.600(c)...

  10. Episodic chasing in pathological gamblers using the Iowa gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J.; Rojskjaer, S.; Nygaard, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    "Chasing ones losses" is a key symptom among pathological gamblers (PGs). This study focuses on quantitative differences in episodic chasing (i.e., sequences of disadvantageous decisions within a single gambling session) between PGs and non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). We compared 61 PGs and 39 ...... advantageous and disadvantageous (i.e., chasing) players, but there was no interaction with group or gender. The results suggest that quantifiable within-session gambling behavior holds important implications for detecting underlying vulnerabilities to gambling pathology......."Chasing ones losses" is a key symptom among pathological gamblers (PGs). This study focuses on quantitative differences in episodic chasing (i.e., sequences of disadvantageous decisions within a single gambling session) between PGs and non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). We compared 61 PGs and 39...

  11. Toxic leucoencephalopathy after 'chasing the dragon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Saini, Monica

    2015-06-01

    Toxic leucoencephalopathy (TLE) is a rare neurological complication of heroin abuse. 'Chasing the dragon' is an inhalational mode of heroin abuse that originated in Southeast Asia. Intriguingly, no cases of TLE have been reported from this region, although the inhalational mode of heroin abuse is common. We herein report the case of a middle-aged man with a history of polysubstance abuse who presented with progressive neurological symptoms and progressed to an uncommunicative state. While the initial impression was that of iatrogenic parkinsonism, diffuse leucoencephalopathy with sparing of the cerebellum was noted on magnetic resonance imaging. In view of his history of inhalational heroin abuse close to the onset of the neurological symptoms, a diagnosis of TLE was made. No clinical improvement was noted with administration of a dopaminergic agent. This is the first known case of delayed TLE following heroin inhalation from Southeast Asia with the unusual feature of cerebellar sparing.

  12. Chases and escapes the mathematics of pursuit and evasion

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We all played tag when we were kids. What most of us don't realize is that this simple chase game is in fact an application of pursuit theory, and that the same principles of games like tag, dodgeball, and hide-and-seek are also at play in military strategy, high-seas chases by the Coast Guard, and even romantic pursuits. In Chases and Escapes, Paul Nahin gives us the first complete history of this fascinating area of mathematics, from its classical analytical beginnings to the present day. Drawing on game theory, geometry, linear algebra, target-tracking algorithms, and much

  13. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  14. A study on developing customized bolus using 3D prints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sang Min; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jin Uk; Yeom, Du Seok [Dept. of Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%} and V{sub 95%} in treatment plan through Eclipse. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average 3.9 cm{sup 3} at the customized bolus. And it was average 29.6cm{sup 3} at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1 cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. The

  15. A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161005.html A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go' At least 14 crashes ... it remains imperative for people to understand the dangers of driving with that level of distraction. "This ...

  16. Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  17. For College Freshmen, Four-Legged Friends Chase Away Homesickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chase Away Homesickness Dog therapy helps boost students' life satisfaction, researchers say To use the sharing features on ... were much less homesick and had significantly higher satisfaction with life. For students in the control group, levels of ...

  18. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Chase Encirclement Stress Studies (CHESS) 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CHase Encirclement Stress Studies (CHESS) are part of a comprehensive research program designed to investigate the status of dolphin stocks that are involved in...

  19. Accuracy of pencil-beam redefinition algorithm dose calculations in patient-like cylindrical phantoms for bolus electron conformal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the improved accuracy of the pencil beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA) compared to the pencil beam algorithm (PBA) for bolus electron conformal therapy using cylindrical patient phantoms based on patient computed tomography (CT) scans of retromolar trigone and nose cancer.Methods: PBRA and PBA electron dose calculations were compared with measured dose in retromolar trigone and nose phantoms both with and without bolus. For the bolus treatment plans, a radiation oncologist outlined a planning target volume (PTV) on the central axis slice of the CT scan for each phantom. A bolus was designed using the planning.decimal® (p.d) software (.decimal, Inc., Sanford, FL) to conform the 90% dose line to the distal surface of the PTV. Dose measurements were taken with thermoluminescent dosimeters placed into predrilled holes. The Pinnacle3 (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MD) treatment planning system was used to calculate PBA dose distributions. The PBRA dose distributions were calculated with an in-house C++ program. In order to accurately account for the phantom materials a table correlating CT number to relative electron stopping and scattering powers was compiled and used for both PBA and PBRA dose calculations. Accuracy was determined by comparing differences in measured and calculated dose, as well as distance to agreement for each measurement point.Results: The measured doses had an average precision of 0.9%. For the retromolar trigone phantom, the PBRA dose calculations had an average ±1σ dose difference (calculated − measured) of −0.65%± 1.62% without the bolus and −0.20%± 1.54% with the bolus. The PBA dose calculation had an average dose difference of 0.19%± 3.27% without the bolus and −0.05%± 3.14% with the bolus. For the nose phantom, the PBRA dose calculations had an average dose difference of 0.50%± 3.06% without bolus and −0.18%± 1.22% with the bolus. The PBA dose calculations had an average

  20. Knowing When to Stop: The Brain Mechanisms of Chasing Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Woolrich, Mark; Passingham, Dick;

    2008-01-01

    adult participants decided to chase losses or decided to quit gambling to prevent further losses.ResultsChasing losses was associated with increased activity in cortical areas linked to incentive-motivation and an expectation of reward. By contrast, quitting was associated with decreased activity...... in pathological gambling might involve a failure to appropriately balance activity within neural systems coding conflicting motivational states. Similar mechanisms might underlie the loss-of-control over appetitive behaviors in other impulse control disorders....

  1. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Juciléia Dalmazo; Lilian Rose Otoboni Aprile; Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteratio...

  2. On diagram-chasing in double complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, George M

    2011-01-01

    Diagram-chasing arguments frequently lead to "magical" relations between distant points of diagrams: exactness implications, connecting morphisms, etc.. These long connections are usually composites of short "unmagical" connections, but the latter, and the objects they join, are not visible in the proofs. I try to remedy this situation. Given a double complex in an abelian category, we consider, for each object A of the complex, the familiar horizontal and vertical homology objects at A, and two other objects, which we name the "donor" A_{\\box} and and the "receptor" ^{\\box}A at A. For each arrow of the double complex, we prove the exactness of a 6-term sequence of these objects (the "Salamander Lemma"). Standard results such as the 3x3-Lemma, the Snake Lemma, and the long exact sequence of homology associated with a short exact sequence of complexes, are obtained as easy applications of this lemma. We then obtain some generalizations of the last of the above examples, getting various exact diagrams from doub...

  3. 'Chasing the Dragon' - imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Chasing the dragon' refers to the inhalation of heroin pyrolysate vapors produced when the freebase form of heroin is heated. Inhalation of these vapors can result in a rare toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The patients may progress through 3 defined clinical stages, with one-quarter reaching the terminal stage, which invariably leads to death. Imaging and, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates white matter findings that are felt to be specific for this entity and essential in its early diagnosis. We present the typical imaging findings in a pictorial essay format, using images taken from 9 patients who presented within an 18-month period at UBC-affiliated hospitals. These findings include low computed tomography (CT) attenuation and high T2 MRI signal most commonly in the posterior cerebral and cerebellar white matter, cerebellar peduncles, splenium of the corpus callosum, and posterior limb of the internal capsules. In addition, there is often selective, symmetric involvement of the corticospinal tract, the medial lemniscus, and the tractus solitarius. We also present the variable diffusion-weighted imaging arid apparent diffusion coefficient findings from 4 of our patients, which to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature. (author)

  4. Analysis of bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Meng, Diwen

    2015-06-01

    The ejection of drugs from micropipettes is practiced frequently in biomedical research and clinical studies however, little is known about the dynamics of this process. The fundamentals of disperse fluid injection via a capillary into an ambient immiscible fluid have been investigated extensively. Here, we experimentally investigate the bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems, where the injection and ambient fluid are the same. We experimentally measure the temporal evolution of the bolus formation in the same fluid. There are three different bolus formation mechanisms that arise from different Re t regimes: a) a nearly spherical bolus, b) a pear-like bolus, and c) a large distortion or axial jet. We examine the scaled dimensions of the bolus, R b/D t, L b/D t, H/D t, and α, as a function of the dimensionless parameters such as tip Reynolds number, Re t, dimensionless value of g/(D t (.) V t), the dimensionless time, tV t/D t, and the distance between the edge of the micropipette and the free surface, D/D t. The bolus radius for 0.2 < Re t < 30 grows according to t (1/2) in the entire time range, which allows us to estimate the time for complete bolus formation. PMID:26100535

  5. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  6. Chase Lake Prairie Project/WMD: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The...

  7. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The CHASE 2008 workshop is concerned with exploring the cooperative and human aspects of software engineering, and providing a forum for discussing high-quality research. Accepted papers reflect diversity of the field of software engineering – ranging from requirements to testing, and from...... ethnographic research to experiments. Moreover, the background of attendees reflects the diversity of researchers in this domain, ranging from sociology to psychology, from informatics to software engineering. CHASE 1008 met its goals in presenting high-quality research and building community through a mixture...

  8. A Performance Analysis of Chasing Intruders by Implementing Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahdi Ebadati E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An Intrusion Detection System in network fetches the intrusions information from systems by using Mobile Agents aid. Intrusion Detection System detects intrusions based on the collected information and routes the intrusion. The intelligent decisions on communications, permit agents to gain their goals more efficiently and provide more survivability and security of an agent system. The proposed model showed a formal representation of information assurance in agent messaging over a dynamic network by probability of redundant routes. The proposed Intrusion Detection System, chase intruders and collect information by the Mobile Agents. Our propose architecture is an information exchange method and chasing intrusion along with a method by implementing Mobile Agents.

  9. The benefit of individualized custom bolus in the postmastectomy radiation therapy: numerical analysis with 3-D treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Ho; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Keum, Ki Chang; Han, Yong Yih; Kim, Yong Bae; Chu, Sung Sil; Suh, Chang Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To reduce the irradiation dose to the lungs and heart in the case of chest wall irradiation using an oppositional electron beam, we used an individualized custom bolus, which was precisely designed to compensate for the differences in chest wall thickness. The benefits were evaluated by comparing the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) and dose statistics both with and without boluses Boluses were made, and their effects evaluated in ten patients treated using the reverse hockey-stick technique. The electron beam energy was determined so as to administer 80% of the irradiation prescription dose to the deepest lung-chest wall border, which was usually located at the internal mammary lymph node chain. An individualized custom bolus was prepared to compensate for a chest wall thinner than the prescription depth by meticulously measuring the chest wall thickness at 1 cm{sup 2} intervals on the planning CT images. A second planning CT was obtained overlying the individualized custom bolus for each patient's chest wall. 3-D treatment planning was performed using ADAC-Pinnacle{sup 3} for all patients with and without bolus, NTCPs based on 'the Lyman-Kutcher' model were analyzed and the mean, maximum, minimum doses, V{sub 50} and V{sub 95} for the heart and lungs were computed. The average NTCPs in the ipsilateral lung showed a statistically significant reduction (p<0.01), from 80.2{+-}3.43% to 47.7{+-}4.61%, with the use of the individualized custom boluses. The mean lung irradiation dose to the ipsilateral lung was also significantly reduced by about 430 cGy from 2757 cGy to 2,327 cGy (p<0.01). The V{sub 50} and V{sub 95} in the ipsilateral lung markedly decreased from the averages of 54.5 and 17.4% to 45.3 and 11.0%, respectively. The V{sub 50} and V{sub 95} in the heart also decreased from the averages of 16.8 and 6.1% to 9.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The NTCP in the contralateral lung and the heart were 0%, even for the cases with no bolus

  10. 75 FR 3251 - JP Morgan Chase and Company; JP Morgan Investment Banking, Global Corporate Financial Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration JP Morgan Chase and Company; JP Morgan Investment Banking, Global... workers and former workers of JP Morgan Chase and Company, JP Morgan Investment Banking, Global Corporate... petitioner alleged that workers worked for JP Morgan Chase and Company, Global Corporate Financial...

  11. CHASE assessment of the North Sea – a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, N.; Andersen, Jesper; Høgåsen, T.;

    In this pilot study, hazardous substances in the North Sea were assessed and classified using the HELCOM Chemical Substances Status Assessment Tool (CHASE). The study was based on monitoring by Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Together, 1350...

  12. Volatilisation of diacetylmorphine: In vitro simulation of 'chasing the dragon'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Klous; W.C. Lee; W. van den Brink; J.M. van Ree; J.H. Beijnen

    2006-01-01

    In preparation for a trial on co-prescription of heroin to chronic treatment-resistant addicts, a pharmaceutical dosage form for smokable heroin was developed. During development of this product (a mixture of diacetylmorphine and caffeine), in vitro experiments were performed simulating 'chasing the

  13. Optimal Set-point Chasing of Position Moored Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens; Bernt, Leira

    2010-01-01

    high, position mooring systems apply thruster forces to protect mooring lines and position accuracy may need be relaxed. This paper suggests an new position chasing algorithm that works entirely online, is optimal according to a criterion and can protect any number of mooring lines simultaneously...

  14. Methods of bolusing the tracheostomy stoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The tracheostomy stoma is a potential site of recurrence for patients who have subglottic cancer or subglottic spread of cancer. In these patients, it is important that the anterior supraclavicular field does not underdose the posterior wall of the tracheostomy stoma when using a 6-MV anterior photon field. Conventionally, this problem is surmounted with placement of a plastic tracheostomy tube, which is uncomfortable for the patient, potentially traumatic, and can interfere with vocalization via a tracheal esophageal puncture. Our study was designed to investigate the dosimetry of this region and see if alternate methods would be effective. Methods and Materials: A phantom was constructed using a No. 6 tracheostomy tube as the model for the tracheostomy curvature and size. Using the water-equivalent phantom, film dosimetry, and films oriented parallel to the en face field, we investigated the dose at the depth of the surface of the posterior wall of the phantom's tracheostomy stoma. Dose was measured both in space and at the tissue interface by scanning points of interest both horizontally and vertically. We measured doses with a No. 6 and No. 8 plastic tracheostomy tube, either 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm of bolus (1-cm airhole) with no tracheostomy tube, as well as 0.3 cm and 0.6 cm tissue-equivalent Aquaplast (Med-Tec Co., Orange City, Iowa) over the tracheostomy. Dosimetry at the posterior interface was confirmed using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Three mm and 6 mm of Aquaplast produced a posterior tracheal dose of 93% and 100%. Conclusion: There is no need for these patients to wear a temporary plastic tracheostomy tube during their external radiation therapy. Aquaplast should allow better position reproducibility, reduce trauma, not interfere with patient respiratory efforts, and be compatible with vocalization via a tracheal esophageal puncture

  15. A mathematical model for the movement of food bolus of varying viscosities through the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra

    2011-09-01

    This mathematical model is designed to study the influence of viscosity on swallowing of food bolus through the esophagus. Food bolus is considered as viscous fluid with variable viscosity. Geometry of esophagus is assumed as finite length channel and flow is induced by peristaltic wave along the length of channel walls. The expressions for axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, volume flow rate and stream function are obtained under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The impacts of viscosity parameter on pressure distribution, local wall shear stress, mechanical efficiency and trapping are numerically discussed with the help of computational results. On the basis of presented study, it is revealed that swallowing of low viscous fluids through esophagus requires less effort in comparison to fluids of higher viscosity. This result is similar to the experimental result obtained by Raut et al. [1], Dodds [2] and Ren et al. [3]. It is further concluded that the pumping efficiency increases while size of trapped bolus reduces when viscosity of fluid is high.

  16. JPMorgan Chase London Whale H: Cross-Border Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Arwin G. Zeissler; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    As a global financial service provider, JPMorgan Chase (JPM) is supervised by banking regulatory agencies in different countries. Bruno Iksil, the derivatives trader primarily responsible for the $6 billion trading loss in 2012, was based in JPM’s London office. This office was regulated both by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) of the United States and by the Financial Services Authority (FSA), which served as the sole regulator of all financial services in the United Kingd...

  17. Northern Lights Chase Tours : Experiences from Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bertella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of northern lights chase tourism, a particular type of northern lights tourism consisting in guided tours that have the goal to find good views of the northern lights. The theoretical approach is based on the understanding of the northern lights experience as a visual experience, and on the recognition of the tourism practitioners as the driving force to new product development. The empirical case concerns the recent development of northern lights chas...

  18. Water bolus for electron irradiation of the ear canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate that water bolus in the external ear can decrease the dose inhomogeneity caused by auricular surface irregularities when the ear is in an electron-beam field. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions with and without water bolus in the external ear were calculated for a representative patient. The electron dose calculations were made using the Hogstrom pencil beam algorithm as implemented in 3D by Starkschall. To demonstrate the use of water bolus in the ear clinically, the case of a patient with squamous carcinoma of the concha who was treated with electrons is presented. Results: Water bolus markedly lessens the dose heterogeneity caused by the surface irregularities of the ear and the air in the external auditory canal. In the test case, the maximum dose was reduced by 25% using this technique. Conclusion: When the ear is in an electron beam field, warm water should be placed in the external auditory canal and concha. This maneuver may reduce the incidence of auricular complications that occur after electron-beam therapy

  19. 21 CFR 520.540b - Dexamethasone tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of dexamethasone. (2) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use. (i) Dexamethasone bolus is indicated in cases where cattle and horses require additional steroid... use in viral infections during the viremic stage. With bacterial infections, appropriate...

  20. Effects of Verbal Cue on Bolus Flow during Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…

  1. SU-C-213-06: Dosimetric Verification of 3D Printed Electron Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, K; Corbett, M; Pelletier, C; Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Jung, J [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effect of 3D printed bolus in an anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: Conformable bolus material was generated for an anthropomorphic phantom from a DICOM volume. The bolus generated was a uniform expansion of 5mm applied to the nose region of the phantom, as this is a difficult area to uniformly apply bolus clinically. A Printrbot metal 3D Printer using PLA plastic generated the bolus. A 9MeV anterior beam with a 5cm cone was used to deliver dose to the nose of the phantom. TLD measurements were compared to predicted values at the phantom surface. Film planes were analyzed for the printed bolus, a standard 5mm bolus sheet placed on the phantom, and the phantom with no bolus applied to determine depth and dose distributions. Results: TLDs measured within 2.5% of predicted value for the 3D bolus. Film demonstrated a more uniform dose distribution in the nostril region for the 3d printed bolus than the standard bolus. This difference is caused by the air gap created around the nostrils by the standard bolus, creating a secondary build-up region. Both demonstrated a 50% central axis dose shift of 5mm relative to the no bolus film. HU for the bolus calculated the PLA electron density to be ∼1.1g/cc. Physical density was measured to be 1.3g/cc overall. Conclusion: 3D printed PLA bolus demonstrates improved dosimetric performance to standard bolus for electron beams with complex phantom geometry.

  2. Bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling: theoretical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. E.; Blau, C. W.; Kerskens, C. M.

    2009-03-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can be used to provide a quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion. Despite the development of a number of theoretical models to facilitate quantitative ASL, some key challenges still remain. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel quantitative ASL method based on a macroscopic model that reduces the number of variables required to describe the physiological processes involved. To this end, a novel Fokker-Planck equation consisting of stochastically varying macroscopic variables was derived from a general Langevin equation. ASL data from the rat brain was acquired using a bolus-tracking ASL protocol where a bolus of labelled spins flowing from an inversion plane in the neck into an imaging plane in the brain can be observed. Bolus durations of 1.5 s, 2.0 s and 3.0 s were used and the solution to the Fokker-Planck equation for the boundary conditions of bolus-tracking ASL was fitted to the experimental data using a least-squares fit. The mean transit time (MTT) and capillary transit time (CTT) were calculated from the first and second moments of the resultant curve respectively and the arterial transit time (ATT) was calculated by subtracting the CTT from the MTT. The average MTT, CTT and ATT values were 1.75 ± 0.22 s, 1.43 ± 0.12 s and 0.32 ± 0.04 s respectively. In conclusion, a new ASL protocol has been developed by combining the theoretical model with ASL experiments. The technique has the unique ability to provide solutions for varying bolus volumes and the generality of the new model is demonstrated by the derivation of additional solutions for the continuous and pulsed ASL (CASL and PASL) techniques.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1660c - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. 520....1660c Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or bolus contains 250, 500, or 1,000 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsors. For sponsors in §...

  4. Reflections on the development of CHASE Children's Hospice Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, A

    2001-01-01

    The tasks along the way to developing a children's hospice service are examined. CHASE Children's Hospice Service aims to establish a network of care for life-limited and life-threatened children, young people and their families. The services will be provided for families living mainly in SW London, Surrey and parts of West Sussex. They will comprise a source of palliative and respite care for the children and their families in their own homes (community care), backed-up by a respite care service in the related hospice at Artington, near Guildford (Christopher's).

  5. Building 059: Phase 1 Pipe Chase Room Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Phase I activities and results of the Building 059 Remediation project. The project consisted of removing, packaging, and shipping approximately 30 linear feet of 5-ft-dia activated steel vacuum duct and supports, over 100 tons of activated sand, and miscellaneous other radioactive waste for burial at the DOE radioactive burial site in Hanford, Washington. A total of 4562 ft3 of low specific activity waste was disposed of during the project. Following removal of the activated materials, the region of water intrusion into the Pipe Chase Room was identified and sealed. All technical objectives of the Phase I portion of the project were achieved

  6. Virtual bolus for total body irradiation treated with helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Gilles; Izar, Françoise; Ferrand, Régis; Bardies, Manuel; Ken, Soléakhéna; Simon, Luc

    2015-11-08

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for total body irradiation (TBI) is practiced in several centers using the TomoTherapy System. In this context the planning target volume (PTV) is the entire body including the skin. A safety margin in the air surrounding the body should be added to take into account setup errors. But using inverse planning, over-fluence peak could be generated in the skin region to insure dose homogeneity. This work proposes to study the performance of the use of a virtual bolus (VB). A VB is a material placed on the skin surface during planning, but absent for the real treatment. The optimal VB that compensates large setup errors without introducing a high-dose increase or hot spots for small setup errors was determined. For two cylindrical phantoms, 20VBs with different densities, thicknesses or designs were tested. Dose coverage of the PTV (V95%) in the presence of simulated setup errors was computed to assess the VB performance. A measure of the dose increase in the phantom center due to the absence of the VB during treatment was also achieved. Finally, the fluence peak at the phantom edge was measured in complete buildup conditions using a large phantom and a detector matrix. Using these VBs, simulated setup errors were compensated to a minimum value of 2.6 and 2.1 cm for small and large phantom, respectively (and only 1.2 and 1.7 cm with no VB). An optimal double-layer VB was found with a density of 0.4 kg.m(-3) and a total thickness of 8mm; an inner layer of 5 mm was declared as the target for the treatment planning system and an additional layer of 3 mm was added to avoid the over-fluence peak. Using this VB, setup errors were compensated up to 2.9 cm. The dose increase was measured to be only +1.5% at the phantom center and over-fluence peak was strongly decreased.

  7. Environmental effects on compulsive tail chasing in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric disorder observed both in humans and animals. Examples of Canine Compulsive Disorder (CD include excessive tail chasing (TC, light/shadow chasing and flank sucking. We performed a questionnaire survey to investigate the characteristics of compulsive (TC and its possible associations with environmental correlates and personality in a pet population of 368 dogs from four dog breeds. We observed an early onset of TC at 3-6 months of age and a large variation in TC frequency in all breeds, with an overrepresentation of milder cases. Almost half of the TC dogs showed lowered responsiveness during bouts and displayed also other types of compulsions more often than the controls. Interestingly, dogs that received dietary supplements, especially vitamins and minerals, expressed less TC compared to dogs that did not receive any supplements. Neutered females had less TC, suggesting an influence of ovarian hormones on TC. Tail chasers were shyer and had separated earlier from their mothers than the controls. Finally, our genetic study did not find an association between TC and CDH2, a locus previously associated with the canine flank sucking compulsion. In conclusion, the early-onset and the variable nature of the repetitive behaviour, which is affected by environmental factors such as micronutrients, neutering and maternal care, share several similar components between canine and human compulsions and supports canine TC as a model for human OCD.

  8. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  9. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. METHODS: We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. RESULTS: The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. CONCLUSIONS: A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  10. A retrospective comparison of smart prep and test bolus multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal arterial opacification is crucial in imaging the pulmonary arteries using computed tomography (CT). This poses the challenge of precisely timing data acquisition to coincide with the transit of the contrast bolus through the pulmonary vasculature. The aim of this quality assurance exercise was to investigate if a change in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scanning protocol resulted in improved opacification of the pulmonary arteries. Comparison was made between the smart prep protocol (SPP) and the test bolus protocol (TBP) for opacification in the pulmonary trunk. A total of 160 CTPA examinations (80 using each protocol) performed between January 2010 and February 2011 were assessed retrospectively. CT attenuation coefficients were measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) using regions of interest at the level of the pulmonary trunk. The average pixel value, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and minimum were recorded. For each of these variables a mean value was then calculated and compared for these two CTPA protocols. Minimum opacification of 200 HU was achieved in 98% of the TBP sample but only 90% of the SPP sample. The average CT attenuation over the pulmonary trunk for the SPP was 329 (SD = ±21) HU, whereas for the TBP it was 396 (SD = ±22) HU (P = 0.0017). The TBP also recorded higher maximum (P = 0.0024) and minimum (P = 0.0039) levels of opacification. This study has found that a TBP resulted in significantly better opacification of the pulmonary trunk than the SPP

  11. A retrospective comparison of smart prep and test bolus multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckling, Tara [Medical Imaging Department, Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital, Tamworth, New South Wales (Australia); Smith, Tony [University Department of Rural Health, The University of Newcastle, Tamworth, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe (Australia); Medical Imaging Department, Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital, Tamworth, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    Optimal arterial opacification is crucial in imaging the pulmonary arteries using computed tomography (CT). This poses the challenge of precisely timing data acquisition to coincide with the transit of the contrast bolus through the pulmonary vasculature. The aim of this quality assurance exercise was to investigate if a change in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scanning protocol resulted in improved opacification of the pulmonary arteries. Comparison was made between the smart prep protocol (SPP) and the test bolus protocol (TBP) for opacification in the pulmonary trunk. A total of 160 CTPA examinations (80 using each protocol) performed between January 2010 and February 2011 were assessed retrospectively. CT attenuation coefficients were measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) using regions of interest at the level of the pulmonary trunk. The average pixel value, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and minimum were recorded. For each of these variables a mean value was then calculated and compared for these two CTPA protocols. Minimum opacification of 200 HU was achieved in 98% of the TBP sample but only 90% of the SPP sample. The average CT attenuation over the pulmonary trunk for the SPP was 329 (SD = ±21) HU, whereas for the TBP it was 396 (SD = ±22) HU (P = 0.0017). The TBP also recorded higher maximum (P = 0.0024) and minimum (P = 0.0039) levels of opacification. This study has found that a TBP resulted in significantly better opacification of the pulmonary trunk than the SPP.

  12. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  13. Analysis of bolus formation from the micropipette ejection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Diwen; Mirbod, Parisa

    2013-11-01

    Ejection of drugs from micropipettes has significant applications in biomedical research and clinical studies, however little is known about the dynamics of the process involved. The experimental results show that micropipette ejection systems operate in a tip Reynolds number (Ret). A series of experiments was performed from a micropipette to visualize the shape of the droplet. The observations led to the following conclusions: a) A nearly spherical bolus, closely corresponding to Sampson flow through a circular orifice, could be achieved provided at Ret 1 an axial jet develops. Consequently, the transition point between the flow domains represents an important operating point. In this research, laminar is demarcated from turbulent regime by studying the influence of the various material and process parameters on the transition point. Three-dimensional numerical simulations on bolus formation and growth with different tip diameter were investigated and the results were validated with the experimental observations. Effects of fluid physical properties, operation conditions and tip exit size on bolus behavior were also analyzed.

  14. Single dose testosterone administration reduces loss chasing in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Liu, Jinting; Qu, Lujing; Eisenegger, Christoph; Clark, Luke; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-09-01

    Testosterone has been linked to modulation of impulsivity and risky choice, potentially mediated by changes in reward or punishment sensitivity. This study investigated the effect of testosterone on risk-taking and the adjustment of risk-taking on trials following a gain or a loss. Loss chasing is operationalized herein as the propensity to recover losses by increasing risky choice. Healthy female participants (n=26) received a single-dose of 0.5mg sublingual testosterone in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. At 240min post-administration, participants performed a gambling task with a high and a low risk option. In the placebo condition, participants were more likely to choose the high risk option following losses compared to wins. This effect was abolished on the testosterone session. Ignoring prior outcomes, no overall changes in risk-taking were observed. Our data indicate that testosterone affects human decision-making via diminishing sensitivity to punishment. PMID:27236486

  15. A Single-Molecule Hershey-Chase Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Van Valen, David; Chen, Yi-Ju; Tuson, Hannah; Wiggins, Paul; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Hershey and Chase used phages to establish DNA as the carrier of genetic information in 1952, the precise mechanisms of phage DNA translocation have been a mystery. While bulk measurements have set a time scale for in vivo DNA translocation during bacteriophage infection, measurements of DNA ejection by single bacteriophages have only been made in vitro. Here, we present direct visualization of single bacteriophages infecting individual Escherichia coli cells. For bacteriophage lambda, we establish a mean ejection time of roughly 5 minutes with significant cell-to-cell variability, including pausing events. In contrast, corresponding in vitro single-molecule ejections take only 10 seconds to reach completion and do not exhibit significant variability. Our data reveal that the velocity of ejection for two different genome lengths collapses onto a single curve. This suggests that in vivo ejections are controlled by the amount of DNA ejected, in contrast with in vitro DNA ejections, which are governed...

  16. NO2 DOAS Measurements of Traffic Emissions by Chasing Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Lipkowitsch, Ivo; Chan, Ka Lok; Bräu, Melanie; Wenig, Mark

    2016-04-01

    On this poster we present NO2 measurements using a Cavity-Enhanced DOAS on a measurement bus which we used to chase other vehicles to measure their NO2 emissions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from on-road vehicles have received highly attention recently due to the increasing trend of ambient NOx level. It is particularly important to identify and quantify the direct emission and secondary formation of NO2 contributed by traffic emissions, in order to study the impact to the local air quality. We sampled on-road emissions in different environments and different driving conditions (e.g. urban, highway, different speeds). We analyse the data set in terms of spatial and temporal variability to search for temporal and spatial patterns. We present mean values sorted for different vehicle types, distance to the target car and travelling speeds to provide an emission data base from this measurement study.

  17. Internal wave bolus detection and analysis by a Lagrangian coherent structure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Michael R.; Salvador-Vieira, G.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2015-11-01

    The shoaling of vertical mode internal waves on a continental shelf produces boluses, which are trapped regions of fluid that travel up the shelf with the wave. Unlike a propagating solitary wave, these boluses can transport material with the wave. Boluses have been observed to transport oxygen depleted water and induce rapid changes in temperature both of which have potential ramifications for marine biology. We extend a number of two-layer studies by investigating bolus generation and material transport in continuously stratified fluids. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a 4 m long tank and are complemented by 2-dimensional numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The boundaries of a bolus are identified using a Lagrangian based coherent structure method relying on trajectory clustering. The time evolution of material transport by the bolus is investigated as a function of the stratification, wave properties, and the angle of the sloping topography. ONR MURI Grant No. N000141110701.

  18. The influence of a solid and liquid bolus on food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a radiological method to demonstrate food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux (GER), a comparative study was carried out employing a solid, already validated bolus versus a liquid one. One hundred and four consecutive patients received both a solid and a liquid bolus in randomized order. GER was observed in 37 (35.6%) patients receiving the solid bolus versus 28 (26.9%) with the liquid one. This means that the solid bolus provokes significantly more reflux (P<0.02). GER, grade II (reflux above the level of the carina), occurred equally often as a result of both types of bolus, however. The study suggests that significant, food-stimulated GER is independent of the consistency of the foodstuffs and may be detected employing a liquid bolus. This result might be used in the examination of infants for GER, using milk as a food stimulus. (orig.)

  19. Postprandial transduodenal bolus transport is regulated by complex peristaltic sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Nam Nguyen; Ron Winograd; Gerson Ricardo Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between the patterns of postprandial peristalsis and transduodenal bolus transport in healthy subjects.METHODS: Synchronous recording of chyme transport and peristaltic activity was performed during the fasting state and after administration of a test meal using a special catheter device with cascade configuration of impedance electrodes and solid-state pressure transducers. The catheter was placed into the duodenum,where the first channel was located in the first part of the duodenum and the last channel at the duodenojejunal junction. After identification of previously defined chyme transport patterns the associated peristaltic patterns were analyzed.RESULTS: The interdigestive phase 3 complex was reliably recorded with both techniques. Of 497 analyzed impedance bolus transport events, 110 (22%) were short-spanned propulsive, 307 (62%) long-spanned propulsive, 70 (14%)complex propulsive, and 10 (2%) retrograde transport.Short-spanned chyme transports were predominantly associated with stationary or propagated contractions propagated over short distance. Long-spanned and complex chyme transports were predominantly associated with propulsive peristaltic patterns, which were frequently complex and comprised multiple contractions. Propagated double wave contraction, propagated contraction with a clustered contraction, and propagated cluster of contractions have been identified to be an integralted part of a peristaltic sequence in human duodenum.CONCLUSION: Combined impedancometry andmanometry improves the analysis of the peristaltic patterns that are associated with postprandial transduodenal chyme transport. Postprandial transduodenal bolus transport is regulated by propulsive peristaltic patterns, which are frequently complex but well organized. This finding should be taken into consideration in the analysis of intestinal motility studies.

  20. A tracer bolus method for investigating glutamine kinetics in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Mori

    Full Text Available Glutamine transport between tissues is important for the outcome of critically ill patients. Investigation of glutamine kinetics is, therefore, necessary to understand glutamine metabolism in these patients in order to improve future intervention studies. Endogenous glutamine production can be measured by continuous infusion of a glutamine tracer, which necessitates a minimum measurement time period. In order to reduce this problem, we used and validated a tracer bolus injection method. Furthermore, this method was used to measure the glutamine production in healthy volunteers in the post-absorptive state, with extra alanine and with glutamine supplementation and parenteral nutrition. Healthy volunteers received a bolus injection of [1-13C] glutamine, and blood was collected from the radial artery to measure tracer enrichment over 90 minutes. Endogenous rate of appearance (endoRa of glutamine was calculated from the enrichment decay curve and corrected for the extra glutamine supplementation. The glutamine endoRa of healthy volunteers was 6.1±0.9 µmol/kg/min in the post-absorptive state, 6.9±1.0 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine (p = 0.29 versus control, 6.1±0.4 µmol/kg/min with extra alanine only (p = 0.32 versus control, and 7.5±0.9 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine and parenteral nutrition (p = 0.049 versus control. In conclusion, a tracer bolus injection method to measure glutamine endoRa showed good reproducibility and small variation at baseline as well as during parenteral nutrition. Additionally, we showed that parenteral nutrition including alanyl-glutamine increased glutamine endoRa in healthy volunteers, which was not attributable to the alanine part of the dipeptide.

  1. Frequency of Mealtime Insulin Bolus Predicts Glycated Hemoglobin in Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Susana R.; DeLurgio, Stephen A.; Fridlington, Amanda; Cohoon, Cyndy; Turpin, Angela L.; Clements, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Within pediatric diabetes management, two electronic measures of adherence exist: frequency of daily blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and the BOLUS score, a measure of frequency of mealtime insulin bolusing. Past research has demonstrated that the BOLUS score is superior to daily BGM in predicting youths' glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a cross-sectional study. We present data comparing the two adherence measures in predicting HbA1c using a prospective, longitudinal design.

  2. Impact of bolus volume on small intestinal intra-luminal impedance in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam; Q; Nguyen; Laura; K; Bryant; Carly; M; Burgstad; Robert; J; Fraser; Daniel; Sifrim; Richard; H; Holloway

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of bolus volume on the characteristics of small intestinal (SI) impedance signals.METHODS: Concurrent SI manometry-impedance measurements were performed on 12 healthy volunteers to assess the pattern of proximal jejunal fluid bolus movement over a 14 cm-segment.Each subject was given 34 boluses of normal saline (volume from 1 to 30 mL) via the feeding tube placed immediately above the proximal margin of the studied segment.A bolus-induced impedance event occurred if there was > 12%...

  3. Comparison of bolus remifentanil versus bolus fentanyl for blunting cardiovascular intubation responses in children: a randomized, double-blind study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Quan-yong; XUE Fu-shan; LIAO Xu; LIU He-ping; LUO Mao-ping; XU Ya-chao; LIU Yi; ZHANG Yan-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The authors found no study to compare the efficacy of bolus dose fentanyl and remifentanil blunting the cardiovascular intubation response in children, so they designed this randomized, double-blind clinical study to assess the effects of remifentanil 2 ug/kg and fentanyl 2 ug/kg by bolus injection on the cardiovascular intubation response in healthy children.Methods One hundred and two children, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 1-2 and scheduled for elective plastic surgery under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into one of two groups to receive the following treatments in a double blind manner: remifentanil 2 ug/kg (Group R) and fentanyl 2 ug/kg (Group F) when anesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium. The orotracheal intubation was performed using a direct laryngoscope. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before anesthesia induction (baseline values), immediately before intubation, at intubation and every minute for 5 minutes after intubation. The percent changes of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR relative to baseline values and the rate pressure product (RPP) at every observing point were calculated. The incidences of SBP and HR percent changes >30% of baseline values and RPP >22 000 during the observation were recorded. Results There were no significant differences between groups in the demographic data, baseline values of BP and HR and the intubation time. As compared to baseline values, BP, HR and RPP at intubation and their maximum values during observation increased significantly in Group F, but they all decreased significantly in Group R. BP, HR and RPP at all observed points, and their maximum values during the observation, were significantly different between groups. There were also significant differences between groups in the percent change of SBP and HR relative to baseline values at all observed points and their maximum percent changes during the observation. The

  4. Intestinal propulsion of a solid non-deformable bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahof, R; Fedotov, E

    2005-07-01

    A mathematical model of a segment of the gut with an enclosed pellet is constructed. The gut is represented as a thin deformable soft biological shell with the pellet modeled as a non-deformable solid. Mechanical properties of the gut wall were represented as longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers embedded in stroma that satisfies the general type of nonlinear orthotropy. Deformations of the wall are finite. Bolus propulsion is numerically simulated by generation and propagation of an electromechanical wave along the syncytia. Pharmacological manipulation is applied to model 5-HT type 3 antagonist (Lotronex, GlaxoSmithKline) and 5-HT type 4 agonist (Zelnorm, Novartis, AB) drugs on the dynamics of bolus progression. The results lead to new quantitative insights into the complex spatio-temporal patterns of gastrointestinal transit. It is demonstrated that the reciprocal relationship in contraction of the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle syncytia is necessary to provide the "mixing" type of movements during the preparatory phase of propulsion. Strong simultaneous contractions of the both smooth muscle layers are required to expel the "mixed" pellet from the segment. The model is implemented as an interactive software system, Gut Discovery(www.aincompany.com), and accurately predicts the effects of drugs on gut motility.

  5. Bolus injection of acetylcholine terminates atrial fibrillation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleidervish, Ilya A; Goldberg, Yuri; Ovsyshcher, I Eli

    2008-01-28

    It is well established that a tonic increase in the availability of the atrial muscarinic K(+) channels, either by enhanced vagal tone or by steady infusion of a low-dose of cholinergic or adenosine receptor agonists, promotes the genesis of atrial fibrillation. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that bolus administration of a muscarinic receptor agonist would destabilize and terminate atrial arrhythmia by uniformly and transiently activating K(+) channels throughout the atria, and that if the agonist was rapidly hydrolysable, it would dissipate before the more tonic, pro-arrhythmic effects could take hold. The episodes of untreated atrial fibrillation, induced in anesthetized rats by programmed electrical stimulation via trans-esophageal bipolar catheter, lasted on average 8.6+/-2.2 min (n=32). Intravenous injection of a model hydrolysable muscarinic agonist, acetylcholine (0.2 mg/kg body weight), converted atrial fibrillation into sinus rhythm within 8.4+/-1.9 s (n=10, Ppre-atrial fibrillation values within 10-20 s of injection. In conclusion, our evidence indicates that bolus administration of rapidly hydrolysable muscarinic agonist could be an effective way to pharmacologically terminate atrial fibrillation and restore sinus rhythm. PMID:18078927

  6. Avidin chase reduces side effects of radioimmunotherapy in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ping Li; Yong-Xian Wang; Kai Huang; Hui Zhang; Chun-Fu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of avidin chase on the side effects of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma and therapeutic outcome.METHODS: Purified anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (McAb)was biotinylated with NHS-biotin, and then radiolabeled with 188Re by the direct method. 188Re-labeledbiotinylated anti-CEA McAb (188Re-CEA McAb-Bt) was intravenously injected followed by intravenous injection of avidin after 24 h. SPECT imaging and biodistribution study were performed at 28-48 h after the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt. Three groups of nude mice subcutaneously grafted with human colon carcinoma were treated 7 d after the graft. Mice in the avidin chase group received intravenous injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg) followed by intravenous injection of cold avidin (80 μg) after 24 h. Mice in the control group (treated group without avidin chase) only received the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg), another control group (non-treated group) only received 0.1 mL normal saline solution. Toxicity was evaluated on the basis of change of body weight and peripheral WBC counts, and therapy effects were determined by variation in tumor volume. Histological analysis of tumors was also performed.RESULTS: Avidin chase markedly accelerated the clearance of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt from the blood and normal tissues. The tumor uptakes of 188Re-CEA Mc Ab-Bt at 28 h were 5.90 and 6.42% ID/g, respectively, in chase group and in non-chase group, while the tumor-to-background (T/NT) ratios were 3.19 and 0.56, respectively. The tumor uptake was slightly decreased by avidin chase, but the T/NT ratios were increased. In treated groups the growth rate of body weight and the number of WBC decreased after injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt, and the WBC counts recovered earlier in the group with avidin chase than in the group without avidin chase. Compared to the nontreated group, treated groups with and without avidin chase showed significant anti

  7. Automatic measurement of contrast bolus distribution in carotid arteries using a C-arm angiography system to support interventional perfusion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieselmann, Andreas; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Yu, Deuerling-Zheng; Boese, Jan; Hornegger, Joachim; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Brain perfusion CT using a C-arm angiography system capable of CT-like imaging could optimize patient treatment during stroke therapy procedures. For this application, an intra-arterial contrast bolus injection at the aortic arch could be used provided that the location of the injection catheter enables uniform distribution of the bolus into the two common carotid arteries (CCA). In this work, we present a novel method to support optimal injection catheter placement by providing additional quantitative information about the distribution of the contrast bolus into the CCAs. Our fully automatic method uses 2-D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images following a test bolus injection. It segments both CCAs and computes the relative contrast distribution. We have tested the method in DSA data sets from 5 healthy pigs and our method achieved successful segmentation of both CCAs in all data sets. The results showed that the contrast is uniformly distributed (mean relative difference less or equal than 10%) if the injection location is properly chosen.

  8. Chelate chase of radiopharmaceuticals reversibly bound to monoclonal antibodies improves dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred micrograms of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CHA 255 with a binding constant Kb of 4 x 109 was complexed with indium-111 labeled BLEDTA II, GLEDTA IV, benzyl EDTA, and an EDTA conjugate of Fab. The 24-hour tumor and organ distribution in BALB/c mice bearing KHJJ tumors was studied for each compound alone, the antibody complex, and 3 hours following a chelate chase of the antibody complex. Whole-body biological half-life was measured for 7 days with and without a chelate chase for each antibody complex. The 24-hour whole-body counts dropped 20-60% within 3 hours of administering the chelate chase. Blood concentration fell over 89% within 3 hours of administering the chase and there was a decrease in concentration in all organs, except the kidneys, of 10 to 85%. Theoretical equivalent human doses were calculated from the 24-hour organ concentrations, effective half-life, and MIRD 11 S values (absorbed dose per cumulated activity). Liver and spleen were the target organs, with the dose ranging from 0.50 to 3.91 rads per millicurie. The reduction in organ radiation dose varied up to 95% following the chelate chase. Rapid selective renal clearance of chelate labeled radiopharmaceuticals by competitive inhibition (chelate chase) of their reversible binding to monoclonal antibodies, greatly improves the radiation dosimetry of tumor imaging agents. 28 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  9. 虚拟人追逐行为的一种决策模型%Decision-making Model of Virtual Human's Chasing Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玉龙; 刘箴

    2012-01-01

    Behavior simulation is an important issue in the field of virtual reality, chasing is a common behavior of animal and human, and modeling chasing behavior is an interesting topic. A chasing behavior between chaser and escaper was analyzed, the parameters of human physiology and emotion were introduced, and the formulas among emotion, energy and velocity were set up. The behavior decision model was proposed based on non-cooperative dynamic game. A simulation test on a computer was designed. The result shows that the method can well simulate some physiological features and psychological characteristics of human’s chasing behavior.%行为仿真是虚拟现实领域中的一个重要课题,追逐是动物和人类最常见的行为,建立追逐行为模型是一个有趣的话题。分析了一种包含追逐者和逃跑者的追逐行为,引入人的生理参数和情绪参数,建立了情绪、体力和速度之间的计算公式。根据非合作动态博弈原理建立了行为决策模型,我们在计算上进行了仿真实验,结果表明,我们的模型能较好模拟生命体追逐行为的一些生理特征和心理特性。

  10. Patterns of Light Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Beeson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Light is all around us – even when we do not see it. Our eyes do not detect the higher energy and shorter-than-visible-wavelength ultraviolet radiation, yet we know it is there from the sunburn we receive in Arizona. We know that window glass can block ultraviolet rays so we do not get a burn while driving with the windows rolled up. Our eyes do not detect the low-energy, long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation but we know it exists from discussions of war applications and televised images of guided weapons targets. We also know about radio waves from the little boxes that talk to us and x-rays from the dentist's office. Patterns of Light, Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs, written by Steve Beeson and Jim Mayer starts with the visible – the straight path of light. It continues with chapters detailing reflection (mirrors, storefront windows) and refraction (eyeglasses, binoculars). Color is then introduced with the query "Why is the sky blue?" After answering that and other similar questions ("Wh...

  11. ECMO: Improving our Results by Chasing the Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Canêo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As Marcelo Giugale published in the Financial Times, Latin America, on the whole, has not excelled at innovation - doing the same things in a new and better way or at doing new things. It has been slow to acquire, adopt and adapt technologies by this time available in other places[1]. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is not a new technology, its use in Latin America is not widespread as needed. Furthermore, we still have a number centers doing ECMO, not reporting their cases, lacking a structured training program and not registered with the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO. With this scenario, and accepting that ECMO is the first step in any circulatory support program, it is difficult to anticipate the incorporation of new and more complex devices as the technologically advanced world is currently doing. However, the good news is that with the support of experts from USA, Europe and Canada the results in Latin America ELSO'S centers are improving by following its guidelines for training, and using a standard educational process. There is no doubt that we can learn a great deal from the high velocity organizations - the rabbits - whom everyone chases but never catches, that manage to stay ahead because of their endurance, responsiveness, and their velocity in self-correction[2].

  12. 'Chasing the Dragon' - imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, J. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: jeff_hagel@hotmail.com; Andrews, G. [UBC Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vertinsky, T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Heran, M.K.S. [Vancouver General Hospital, Div. of Neuroradiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keogh, C. [BC Cancer Agency, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    'Chasing the dragon' refers to the inhalation of heroin pyrolysate vapors produced when the freebase form of heroin is heated. Inhalation of these vapors can result in a rare toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The patients may progress through 3 defined clinical stages, with one-quarter reaching the terminal stage, which invariably leads to death. Imaging and, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates white matter findings that are felt to be specific for this entity and essential in its early diagnosis. We present the typical imaging findings in a pictorial essay format, using images taken from 9 patients who presented within an 18-month period at UBC-affiliated hospitals. These findings include low computed tomography (CT) attenuation and high T2 MRI signal most commonly in the posterior cerebral and cerebellar white matter, cerebellar peduncles, splenium of the corpus callosum, and posterior limb of the internal capsules. In addition, there is often selective, symmetric involvement of the corticospinal tract, the medial lemniscus, and the tractus solitarius. We also present the variable diffusion-weighted imaging arid apparent diffusion coefficient findings from 4 of our patients, which to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature. (author)

  13. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, W; Swann, B; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice.

  14. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice

  15. Efficacy of bolus intravenous iron treatment in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Normocytic, normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of chronic renal failure and it is common in patients on chronic dialysis treatment. It causes decrease in oxygen supply to tissues, increases cardiac minute volume, causes left ventricular hyperthrophy, cardiac insufficiency, disorders related to cognitive functions and immune response, and increases morbidity and mortality rates. The leading cause of anemia in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD is iron depletion and most patients on PD need oral or parenteral iron supplementation. The aim of this study was to evaluate our first experience with bolus intravenous ferrogluconate therapy in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis at the Nephrology Clinic of the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS. Material and Methods. We examined 11 patients, 7 males and 4 females, mean-age 49 years (range 31 to 68 years on chronic PD. All patients received blood transfusions, oral or intramuscular iron supplementation before 465 to 665 mg ferrogluconate therapy was given in 500 ml. saline intravenous infusion; 5 of them were on erythropoietin therapy and 2 of them started with EPO therapy after the ferrogluconate therapy. Results. The blood count improved during the first 3 months after application of bolus intravenous iron therapy (ferrogluconate; erythropoietin dose was not increased during the follow-up. Some patients suffered from side effects during infusion and 6 patients received the complete treatment. Discussion. Blood count improves in a number of patients affected by end-stage renal disease during the first months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD treatment. But a large number of patients on chronic CAPD treatment are iron-depleted and they require oral or parenteral substitution. Side effects and complications of intravenous iron therapy were not severe and only one patient suffered from allergic manifestations. Ferremia and blood count improved in patients

  16. A Bolus Calculator Based on Continuous-Discrete Unscented Kalman Filtering for Type 1 Diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Aradóttir, Tinna Björk; Hagdrup, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    after or 30 minutes after the beginning of the meal). We implement a continuous-discrete unscented Kalman filter to estimate the states and insulin sensitivity. These estimates are used in a bolus calculator. The numerical results demonstrate that administering the meal bolus 15 minutes after mealtime...

  17. Bolus dose with continuous infusion of midazolam as sedation for outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyk, N H; Zacharias, M; Wanwimolaruk, S

    1992-06-01

    This double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial in 41 patients for 3rd molar surgery compared the safety, amnesic properties and psychomotor recovery between a bolus injection of midazolam and a bolus injection followed by continuous infusion of midazolam. The latter showed good safety and better amnesia to events during the procedure, but prolonged the recovery time. PMID:1640130

  18. Efficacy of intraruminal albendazole boluses against Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I

    1992-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of albendazole (ABZ) in intraruminal boluses (Proftril-Captec) was investigated in sheep harbouring naturally acquired Dicrocoelium infection. The anthelmintic efficacy was assessed by coprological testing during the autumn pasture and comparison of worm counts in 22 necropsied animals (11 treated and 11 untreated) at the end of the experiment. The mean faecal egg count (EPG) in treated animals dropped significantly during week 2, and between the 4th and the 12th week the faecal samples were almost negative. The health status of treated animals improved significantly during the first 2 weeks. Helminthological dissection of livers and small intestines revealed 91.8% efficacy, but a small number of live adult flukes were found in all treated animals.

  19. Correlation of esophageal pressure-flow analysis findings with bolus transit patterns on videofluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, T I; Szczesniak, M M; Maclean, J; Myers, J C; Rommel, N; Cock, C; Cook, I J

    2016-01-01

    Pressure-flow analysis quantifies the interactions between bolus transport and pressure generation. We undertook a pilot study to assess the interrelationships between pressure-flow metrics and fluoroscopically determined bolus clearance and bolus transport across the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). We hypothesized that findings of abnormal pressure-flow metrics would correlate with impaired bolus clearance and reduced flow across the EGJ. Videofluoroscopic images, impedance, and pressure were recorded simultaneously in nine patients with dysphagia (62-82 years, seven male) tested with liquid barium boluses. A 3.6 mm diameter solid-state catheter with 25 × 1 cm pressure/12 × 2 cm impedance was utilized. Swallowed bolus clearance was assessed using a validated 7-point radiological bolus transport scale. The cumulative period of bolus flow across the EGJ was also fluoroscopically measured (EGJ flow time). Pressure only parameters included the length of breaks in the 20 mmHg iso-contour and the 4 second integrated EGJ relaxation pressure (IRP4s). Pressure-flow metrics were calculated for the distal esophagus, these were: time from nadir impedance to peak pressure (TNadImp to PeakP) to quantify bolus flow timing; pressure flow index (PFI) to integrate bolus pressurization and flow timing; and impedance ratio (IR) to assess bolus clearance. When compared with controls, patients had longer peristaltic breaks, higher IRs, and higher residual EGJ relaxation pressures (break length of 8 [2, 13] vs. 2 [0, 2] cm, P = 0.027; IR 0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.0, P = 0.019; IRP4s 11 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 1 mmHg, P = 0.070). There was a significant positive correlation between higher bolus transport scores and longer peristaltic breaks (Spearman correlation r = 0.895, P times correlated with a shorter TNadImp to PeakP (r = -0.733, P metric TNadImp to PeakP appears to be a marker of the period of time over which the bolus flows across the EGJ. PMID:25515292

  20. The use of Coca-Cola in the management of bolus obstruction in benign oesophageal stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, N D; Rees, M

    1993-03-01

    Oesophageal stricture is a complication of oesophageal reflux and may itself be complicated by bolus obstruction. We reviewed the records of patients presenting with dysphagia and who were found to have benign oesophageal strictures. We studied the outcome of bolus obstruction in 13 episodes affecting eight patients. In six episodes Coca-Cola was administered on the day before endoscopy, and in all these patients the bolus had cleared. In seven episodes nothing was administered before endoscopy, and in all seven a bolus was evident at endoscopy. In five of these seven the bolus was removed piecemeal and in each of these instances the endoscope had to be passed between two and five times. In the remaining two instances the procedure was abandoned and the patients returned to the ward for the administration of Coca-Cola. At subsequent endoscopy these patients were found to be clear of any bolus. These results suggest that the administration of Coca-Cola (or other aerated drinks) may clear a bolus in the acutely obstructed oesophagus. PMID:8476194

  1. Efficacy study of Styplon Vet Bolus as supportive therapy in management of hemorrhagic conditions of ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Ravikumar

    Full Text Available On-field trial was conducted in dairy animals to evaluate efficacy of Styplon Vet Bolus (M/s Himalaya Drug Company, Banglore, India as supportive therapy in management of hemorrhagic conditions (Hematuria, hemoagalectia, bleeding wounds, uterine bleeding and epistaxis of ruminants. Styplon Vet 1-2 boli twice daily was administered to cows and buffaloes, and ½ bolus twice daily for sheep till they recover clinically. The results indicated that Styplon Vet Bolus is a safe and effective styptic in ruminants. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 470-471

  2. The rapid-chase theory does not extend to movement execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, Jenna C; Chua, Romeo; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-05-01

    It is assumed that the processing of a prime followed by a mask occurs sequentially in a feedforward manner when the three (initiation, takeover, and independence) criteria outlined by the rapid-chase theory are met. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the processing of the prime and mask fit the predictions of the rapid-chase theory when the prime and mask are presented during an ongoing movement. In two experiments, participants made rapid pointing movements to a target indicated by the mask. In Experiment 1, the prime was presented at movement onset and the prime-mask stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was manipulated. In Experiment 2, the prime-mask SOA was constant but the delay between movement and prime onset was manipulated. Although the results support the initiation and takeover criteria, the data did not support the independence criterion. Consequently, the rapid-chase theory does not appear to extend to movement execution. PMID:26998560

  3. Chasing the dragon-Toxic leukoencephalopathy(Heroin-Induced Spongiform Leukoencephalopathy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初建平

    2012-01-01

    @@ "Chasing the dragon" is a toxic leukoencephalopathy caused by inhalation of heroin fumes.The term"chasing the dragon"appears to have originated in China in the 1920s and became a popular mechanism of heroin administration in the 1950s in Hong Kong because the drug was cheap but impure.A small quantity of powder is placed on aluminium foil,which is then heated underneath with a lighter or matches.The heroin liquefies into a reddish brown glob, which moves around on the foil and emits a white vapor.The glob or"dragon"is"chased"with the lighter underneath while the vapor is sucked through a straw or pipe.

  4. GammeV and GammeV-CHASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, W.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model might include Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) that address questions such as what is the nature of dark matter or even shed insight into the underlying nature of dark energy. WISPs are a general class of particles that include axions, axion-like particles, hidden sector photons, milli-charged particles, chameleons, etc. The GammeV (Gamma to milli-eV) experiment originated in 2007 in order to test a positive anomalous axion-like particle interpretation of the PVLAS experiment which was not evident in subsequent data. The experiment was also motivated as it was realized that the milli-eV scale appears naturally in a see-saw between the electroweak and Planck scales, neutrino mass differences, the dark energy density, and the possible mass for certain dark matter candidates. GammeV was first to exclude both a scalar and pseudoscalar axion-like particle interpretation of the anomalous PVLAS result setting a limit of around 3.1 x 10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1} on the coupling to photons for low mass axion-like particles. It has also been found that the parameter space of a variety of other WISP candidates is both largely unexplored and is accessible by modest experiments employing lasers and possibly accelerator magnets. GammeV data has also been used to set limits on possible hidden sector photons. Further work by the GammeV team has focused on a reconfiguration of the apparatus to be sensitive to possible chameleon particles. Chameleons are scalar (or pseudoscalar) particles that couple to the stress energy tensor in a potential such that their properties depend on their environment. In particular, a chameleon acquires an effective mass which increases with local matter density, {rho}. For a certain class of such potentials, the chameleon field has properties that might explain dark energy. GammeV set the first limits on the coupling of chameleons to photons. A dedicated follow-up experiment, GammeV-CHASE, (CHameleon Afterglow

  5. [The Difference of CT Value Related to Monitor Position in the Head CT-angiography Bolus Tracking Method for Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizui, Masato; Mizoguchi, Yuji; Tashiro, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The head computed tomography-angiography (head CT-A) examination is excellent for the detection and diagnosis of cerebral artery aneurysm. If we use bolus tracking method when implementing this examination, we must choose a monitoring point. We investigated the influence which the monitoring point (MCA or carotid-A) exerts on the CT value. As for the result, MCA monitoring point method was more excellent than the carotid artery monitoring point method. The CT value was higher about 50 HU in the MCA monitoring point than in the carotid artery monitoring point (average;carotid artery: 349.6±57.8 HU, MCA: 413.2±67.9 HU). So, we conclude that in the bolus tracking method of monitoring point of head CTA, MCA monitoring point should be used.

  6. INDUCED SPUTUM DERIVES FROM THE CENTRAL AIRWAYS: CONFIRMATION USING A RADIOLABELED AEROSOL BOLUS DELIVERY TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indirect evidence suggests that induced sputum derives from the surfaces of the bronchial airways. To confirm this experimentally, we employed a radiolabeled aerosol bolus delivery technique that preferentially deposits aerosol in the central airways in humans. We hypothesized th...

  7. Causes of death after fluid bolus resuscitation: new insights from FEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST study) was an extremely well conducted study that gave unexpected results. The investigators had reported that febrile children with impaired perfusion treated in low-income countries without access to intensive care are more likely to die if they receive bolus resuscitation with albumin or saline compared with no bolus resuscitation at all. In a secondary analysis of the trial, published in BMC Medicine, the authors found that increased mortal...

  8. The Effects of Bolus Consistency in Pharyngeal Transit Duration during Normal Swallowing

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Ikjae; Kim, Youngsun; Oommen, Elizabeth; Kim, Hyungi; Ko, Myoung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of age, gender and bolus consistency in normal populations using the temporal measurement of Pharyngeal Transit Duration (PTD), which reflects the duration of bolus flow from the ramus of the mandible to the upper esophageal sphincter. Method 40 normal and healthy subjects had Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Examinations (VFSEs) of 5 ml thin and nectar thick liquids, and puree consistencies. A slow motion and frame by frame analysis was performed. Three-way analy...

  9. Potential of 3D printing technologies for fabrication of electron bolus and proton compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Fisher, Ted; Zhang, Miao; Kim, Leonard; Chen, Ting; Narra, Venkat; Swann, Beth; Singh, Rachana; Siderit, Richard; Yin, Lingshu; Teo, Boon-Keng Kevin; McKenna, Michael; McDonough, James; Ning, Yue J

    2015-05-08

    In electron and proton radiotherapy, applications of patient-specific electron bolus or proton compensators during radiation treatments are often necessary to accommodate patient body surface irregularities, tissue inhomogeneity, and variations in PTV depths to achieve desired dose distributions. Emerging 3D printing technologies provide alternative fabrication methods for these bolus and compensators. This study investigated the potential of utilizing 3D printing technologies for the fabrication of the electron bolus and proton compensators. Two printing technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS), and two printing materials, PLA and polyamide, were investigated. Samples were printed and characterized with CT scan and under electron and proton beams. In addition, a software package was developed to convert electron bolus and proton compensator designs to printable Standard Tessellation Language file format. A phantom scalp electron bolus was printed with FDM technology with PLA material. The HU of the printed electron bolus was 106.5 ± 15.2. A prostate patient proton compensator was printed with SLS technology and polyamide material with -70.1 ± 8.1 HU. The profiles of the electron bolus and proton compensator were compared with the original designs. The average over all the CT slices of the largest Euclidean distance between the design and the fabricated bolus on each CT slice was found to be 0.84 ± 0.45 mm and for the compensator to be 0.40 ± 0.42 mm. It is recommended that the properties of specific 3D printed objects are understood before being applied to radiotherapy treatments.

  10. Double Bolus Application in TWIST-MR-Angiography of the Cervical Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Korn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present work was to test the feasibility of the time-resolved MR-angiography (TWIST-MRA of cervical arteries using double bolus injection. Material and Methods. TWIST-MRA with a temporal resolution of 8.4 seconds for each frame and a spatial resolution with a voxel size of   was performed in 24 patients. A biphasic bolus injection protocol was used with the second injection being started 21 seconds after the first contrast dye bolus. Diagnostic image quality was rated according to a 4-point scale. Results. In 12 patients (50% no clear separation between the cervical venous and arterial vessels was evident after the first bolus injection. Using TWIST-MRA data acquired after the second bolus a sufficient diagnostic image quality (rating , mean 3.5 could be obtained in 22 of 24 patients (92%. Discussion. The double bolus injection protocol using TWIST-MRA allows for very good separation of the cervical arteries.

  11. Pressure Flow Analysis in the Assessment of Preswallow Pharyngeal Bolus Presence in Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence is evident in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Pressure flow analysis (PFA using high resolution manometry with impedance (HRMI with AIMplot software is a method for objective interpretation of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter (UES pressures and bolus flow patterns during swallowing. This study aimed to observe alterations in PFA metrics in the event of preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence as seen on videofluoroscopy (VFSS. Methods. Swallows from 40 broad dysphagia patients and 8 controls were recorded with a HRMI catheter during simultaneous VFSS. Evidence of bolus presence and level reached prior to pharyngeal swallow onset was recorded. AIMPlot software derived automated PFA functional metrics. Results. Patients with bolus movement to the pyriform sinuses had a higher SRI, indicating greater swallow dysfunction. Amongst individual metrics, TNadImp to PeakP was shorter and flow interval longer in patient groups compared to controls. A higher pharyngeal mean impedance and UES mean impedance differentiated the two patient groups. Conclusions. This pilot study identifies specific altered PFA metrics in patients demonstrating preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence to the pyriform sinuses. PFA metrics may be used to guide diagnosis and treatment of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and track changes in swallow function over time.

  12. Search Characteristics and the Effects of Experience on End Users of PaperChase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Natalie Schoch

    1991-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined transaction logs of end users of PaperChase searching UM-MEDLINE at the University of Michigan to describe the use of various search features and to determine the effects of search experience on the use of search features. Boolean operators are discussed, and further studies are suggested. (23 references) (LRW)

  13. The comparison of imaging quality between bolus-triggering and test-bolus technique used in 64-slice spiral CT angiography of lower extremity arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of multi-slice CT angiography (MSCTA) of lower limbs in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) using the test-bolus technique. Methods: Forty-four patients with PAOD were enrolled consecutively in the study. In group 1, 18 subjects underwent CTA by bolus triggering method and in group 2, 26 subjects underwent CTA by test-bolus technique. During scanning procedure in group 2 subjects, the bolus transit time to aorta (TAO), popliteal arteries (TPOP) and aorto-popliteal bolus transit time (Tt) were calculated through dynamic acquisition at their respective level and the delay time were immediately set as TAO and scan time as double Tt. Two independent senior attending physicians with training experience in interpreting CTA determined the quality of each arterial segment visualization based on 5 parameters (1. visible farthest branch, 2. clarity of vessels border, 3. presence of venous contamination, 4. grading of stenosis, 5. CT value at 4 arterial segments). Inter-observer agreement on imaging quality between readers was evaluated using Cohen's k statistic by calculating K values. χ2 test and t test were used to compare the quality of images in both groups. Results: In group 2 patients, a larger individual variation in transit time of the contrast to reach aorta was obserued [TAO=(17.1±2.6) s with a range of 12.0-22.0 s] and aorto-popliteal transit time [Tt=(14.8±5.5) s with a range of 8.0-24.0 s]. CTA of group 2 patients demonstrated better quality over group 1 patients' CTA, especifically in the infra-popliteal and foot area arteries. There was an excellent inter-observer agreement for group 2 patients (K>0.80) whereas in group 1 agreement in infra-popliteal segments for venous contamination (K value 0.60) and stenosis degree (K value 0.50) were not satisfactory enough. Group 1 patients were reported to have more severe stenosis in infra-popliteal and foot arteries (χ2=30.55 and 22.41, P<0

  14. Cineradiography of the liquid bolus swallow. A study of the speed ot the bolus and peristaltic wave and of movement of the hyoid bone, larynx, and epiglottis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the evaluation of the dysphagic patient, radiology is crucial as a technique for monitoring morphology and function. In particular, high-speed cineradiography can reveal a variety of pharyngeal dysfunctions. However, in the literature and in practice the difference between normal and abnormal function is not always clear. This monography is based on high-speed cineradiographies of swallowing in 75 non-dysphagic volunteers and in 189 dysphagic patients. The purpose was to study whether differences in bolus volumes, patient position, age and gender had any effects on the following parameters: the speed of the peristaltic wave and apex of the liquid barium bolus, the length of movement and the movement pattern of the hyoid bone and larynx, and epiglottic function. The study disclosed that the speed of the bolus, the anterior-superior movement and net movement of the hyoid bone increased significantly with larger bolus volumes. The position of the individual in relation to gravity significantly influenced the speed of peristalsis. In most of the measured parameters there were no differences between non-dysphagic and dysphagic individuals expect for differences in the intrapersonal variations and in the anterior-superior movement of the hyoid bone. In patients with pharyngeal dysfunction the initial stage of the elevation of the larynx was significantly lower than in patients without dysfunction. The approximation of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone was significantly greater in individuals with normal epiglottic function than in those with epiglottic dysmobility. It is suggested that abnormal speed of peristalsis may be a mild form of dysfunction. Measurements of the aforementioned speed and movements can be done if bolus volume, age and position of the patient, film speed and magnifications factors are known. Hypotheses concerning epiglottic function and central control of swallowing are proposed. (au)

  15. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 × 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

  16. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein [Electrical Engineering Group, Department of Physics and Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Tromsoe, N-9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R [Radiation Oncology Department, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)], E-mail: Yngve.Birkelund@uit.no

    2009-07-07

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 x 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

  17. The Consideration of Bolus Effects of Games Attached on Lesion area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of skin dose and PDD by using wounds protecting gauzes or Vaselinespread gauzes. And it was studied that the possibility to substitute custom bolus into gauzes. 4 MV photon (CL600C, varian, US), Polystyrene Phantom (30(W) X 30(L) X 30(H)) with Markus chamber(PTW, US) were used for dose measurement. This study was distinguished natural gauzes and spread over Vaseline gauzes. We gave variety to the gauze thickness at 5, 10 and 15 sheets respectively. For comparison between using bolus and not that, we had used 1.0 cm thickness bolus so that analyzed surface dose and PDD at the same conditions above mentioned. When maximum point was defined as reference point, surface dose was measured as 35% in open beam. When the gauzes were attached to surface as 5, 10 and 15 sheets, surface dose were increased as 69, 80 and 91% respectively according to thickness of gauzes. When spread over Vaseline gauzes were attached to surface as 5, 10 and 15 sheets, surface dose were increased respectively as 98, 100 and 98% according to thickness of gauzes. Also when 0.5 cm bolus and 5 sheets gauzes were composed, surface dose was measured as 98%. The gauzes that were attached to skin surface in radiation therapy had been scattering material and contributed increasing surface dose without variation of percentage depth dose. However, if we want to delivery much dose to skin surface then we have to apply many sheets of gauzes to skin surface. Although we get easy that result by bolus or spread over Vaseline gauzes, we have to revise percentage depth dose at calculation. Therefore, if we find pertinent conditions based on measured data that are considered skin dose and patient setup efficiency, to replace custom bolus with gauzes will be helpful to efficient treatment.

  18. Oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiani RA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Aguiar Cassiani, Carla Manfredi Santos, José Baddini-Martinez, Roberto Oliveira Dantas Department of Medicine, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, may have swallowing dysfunction. Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing in patients with COPD. Methods: We studied 16 patients with clinical manifestations and pulmonary function tests diagnosis of COPD (mean age: 68 years and 15 nonsmoking healthy volunteers (mean age: 65 years with normal pulmonary function tests. All subjects were submitted to clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Each subject performed in duplicate swallows of 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid bolus, paste bolus, and a solid bolus. Results: In general, the duration of the events of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was longer in COPD patients than controls. The difference was significant in the laryngeal vestibular closure, hyoid movement, and pharyngeal transit with swallows of both volumes of liquid bolus; in oral–pharyngeal transit with 5 mL paste bolus; and in pharyngeal and oral–pharyngeal transit with solid bolus. The difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit was higher in control subjects than in patients with COPD. Conclusion: The results suggested that patients with COPD have a longer pharyngeal swallowing phase than normal subjects, which is associated with a decrease in the difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit. Keywords: COPD, videofluoroscopy, oral–pharyngeal transit, swallowing, deglutition

  19. Optimum bolus wizard settings in insulin pumps in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A J B; Ostenfeld, A; Pipper, C B;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate current insulin pump settings in an optimally regulated paediatric population using bolus wizard. METHODS: We used a retrospective study design to analyse data from 124 children on insulin pump therapy who had optimum HbA1c levels [... hypoglycaemic events. Bolus wizard settings were used to calculate the insulin to carbohydrate factors and insulin sensitivity factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the variables associated with the calculation factors. RESULTS: Insulin to carbohydrate factor varied from 276 in the youngest...

  20. Use of an automated bolus calculator in MDI-treated type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Meldgaard, Merete; Serifovski, Nermin;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of flexible intensive insulin therapy (FIIT) and an automated bolus calculator (ABC) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population treated with multiple daily injections. Furthermore, to test the feasibility of teaching FIIT in a 3-h structured course.......To investigate the effect of flexible intensive insulin therapy (FIIT) and an automated bolus calculator (ABC) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population treated with multiple daily injections. Furthermore, to test the feasibility of teaching FIIT in a 3-h structured course....

  1. Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

    2014-07-30

    Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. PMID:24746392

  2. Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Peters, Gerrit; Mills, Margaret E J; Speakman, John R; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Marks, Nikki J; Scantlebury, Michael

    2013-10-23

    Predator-prey interactions are fundamental in the evolution and structure of ecological communities. Our understanding, however, of the strategies used in pursuit and evasion remains limited. Here, we report on the hunting dynamics of the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Using miniaturized data loggers, we recorded fine-scale movement, speed and acceleration of free-ranging cheetahs to measure how hunting dynamics relate to chasing different sized prey. Cheetahs attained hunting speeds of up to 18.94 m s(-1) and accelerated up to 7.5 m s(-2) with greatest angular velocities achieved during the terminal phase of the hunt. The interplay between forward and lateral acceleration during chases showed that the total forces involved in speed changes and turning were approximately constant over time but varied with prey type. Thus, rather than a simple maximum speed chase, cheetahs first accelerate to decrease the distance to their prey, before reducing speed 5-8 s from the end of the hunt, so as to facilitate rapid turns to match prey escape tactics, varying the precise strategy according to prey species. Predator and prey thus pit a fine balance of speed against manoeuvring capability in a race for survival. PMID:24004493

  3. Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Peters, Gerrit; Mills, Margaret E J; Speakman, John R; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Marks, Nikki J; Scantlebury, Michael

    2013-10-23

    Predator-prey interactions are fundamental in the evolution and structure of ecological communities. Our understanding, however, of the strategies used in pursuit and evasion remains limited. Here, we report on the hunting dynamics of the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Using miniaturized data loggers, we recorded fine-scale movement, speed and acceleration of free-ranging cheetahs to measure how hunting dynamics relate to chasing different sized prey. Cheetahs attained hunting speeds of up to 18.94 m s(-1) and accelerated up to 7.5 m s(-2) with greatest angular velocities achieved during the terminal phase of the hunt. The interplay between forward and lateral acceleration during chases showed that the total forces involved in speed changes and turning were approximately constant over time but varied with prey type. Thus, rather than a simple maximum speed chase, cheetahs first accelerate to decrease the distance to their prey, before reducing speed 5-8 s from the end of the hunt, so as to facilitate rapid turns to match prey escape tactics, varying the precise strategy according to prey species. Predator and prey thus pit a fine balance of speed against manoeuvring capability in a race for survival.

  4. ERASED-CHASE DECODING FOR RS-CODED MPSK SIGNALING OVER A RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chaojun; Sun Yue; Wang Xinmei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a novel dual-metric,the maximum and minimum Squared Euclidean Distance Increment(SEDI)brought by changing the hard decision symbol,is introduced to measure the reliability of the received M-ary Phase Shift Keying(MPSK)symbols over a Rayleigh fading channel.Based on the dual-metric,a Chase-type soft decoding algorithm,which is called erased-Chase algorithm,is developed for Reed-Solomon(RS)coded MPSK schemes.The proposed algorithm treats the unreliable symbols with small maximum SEDI as erasures,and tests the non-erased unreliable symbols with small minimum SEDI as the Chase-2 algorithm does.By introducing optimality test into the decoding procedure,much more reduction in the decoding complexity can be achieved.Simulation results of the RS(63,42,22)-coded 8-PSK scheme over a Rayleigh fading channel show that the proposed algorithm provides a very efficient tradeoff between the decoding complexity and the error performance.Finally,an adaptive scheme for the number of erasures is introduced into the decoding algorithm.

  5. Chasing the limits of the one electron approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kędziera, Dariusz [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Mentel, Łukasz M. [Section of Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-06

    Rapid progress in the development of computational methods for quantum chemistry is not properly balanced by the development of basis sets. Even in the case of few-electron systems it is hard to find basis set which are able to reproduce the ECG benchmarks with the mhartree accuracy. In this paper we show early work on improvements of the basis sets for small atomic and molecular systems. As a starting point the ground state of lithium atom and the lowest states of lithium dimer will be investigated. The exploratory optimization of the exponents of primitive gaussians will be based on even tempered scheme combined with CISD method.

  6. Unknown Safety and Efficacy of Smartphone Bolus Calculator Apps Puts Patients at Risk for Severe Adverse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irl B; Parkin, Christopher G

    2016-07-01

    Manual calculation of bolus insulin dosages can be challenging for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) therapy. Automated bolus calculator capability has recently been made available via enhanced blood glucose meters and smartphone apps. Use of this technology has been shown to improve glycemic control and reduce glycemic variability without changing hypoglycemia; however, the clinical utility of app-based bolus calculators has not been demonstrated. Moreover, recent evidence challenges the safety and efficacy of these smartphone apps. Although the ability to automatically calculate bolus insulin dosages addresses a critical need of MDI-treated individuals, this technology raises concerns about efficacy of treatment and the protection of patient safety. This article discusses key issues and considerations associated with automated bolus calculator use. PMID:26798082

  7. Cardiorespiratory effects of intravenous bolus administration and infusion of ketamine-midazolam in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-10-01

    Twelve healthy dogs were used to determine the cardiorespiratory effects of i.v. administered ketamine (10 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg). Half the dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (K-M) as a bolus over 30 seconds and the other half received the K-M as an infusion over 15 minutes. Induction of anesthesia by use of K-M was good in all dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a bolus or infusion induced minimal cardiorespiratory effects, except for significant (P dogs of the infusion group. Mild and transient respiratory depression was observed in dogs of both groups immediately after administration of K-M, but was greater in dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group. Duration of action of K-M for chemical restraint was short. Salivation and defecation were observed in a few dogs. Extreme muscular tone developed in 1 dog after K-M bolus administration. PMID:8250397

  8. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  9. The effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N.B. Molenaar; P.J. Gezelle Meerburg; J. Luraschi; T. Whittle; M. Schimmel; F. Lobbezoo; C.C. Peck; G.M. Murray; I. Minami

    2012-01-01

    Masticatory efficiency in individuals with extensive tooth loss has been widely discussed. However, little is known about jaw movement smoothness during chewing and the effect of differences in food bolus location on movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to determ

  10. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, H. W.; Staal, M. J.; van Laar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Pilot study. Objective: To study the effect of pulsatile bolus infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on daily ITB dose, in patients showing dose increases, probably due to tolerance. Setting: Department of neurology and neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherland

  11. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam administered concurrently with ketamine after intravenous bolus or infusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-12-01

    Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine tranquilizer, has been considered by some veterinary anaesthesiologists to be suitable as a combination anaesthetic agent when administered concurrently with ketamine because of its water solubility and miscibility with ketamine. However, the pharmacokinetics of midazolam have not been extensively described in the dog. Twelve clinically healthy mixed breed dogs (22.2-33.4 kg) were divided into two groups at random and were administered ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) either as an intravenous bolus over 30 s (group 1) or as an i.v. infusion in 0.9% NaCl (2 ml/kg) over 15 min. Blood samples were obtained immediately before the drugs were injected and periodically for 6 h afterwards. Serum concentrations were determined using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Serum concentrations were best described using a two-compartment open model and indicated a t1/2-alpha of 1.8 min and t1/2-beta of 27.8 min after i.v. bolus, and t1/2-alpha of 1.35 min and t1/2-beta of 31.6 min after i.v. infusion. The calculated pharmacokinetic coefficient B was significantly smaller after i.v. infusion (429 +/- 244 ng/ml) than after i.v. bolus (888 +/- 130 ng/ml, P = 0.004). Furthermore, AUC was significantly smaller after i.v. infusion (29,800 +/- 6120 ng/h/ml) than after i.v. bolus (42,500 +/- 8460 ng/h/ml, P infusion (17.4 +/- 4.00 ml/min/kg than after i.v. bolus (12.1 +/- 2.24 ml/min/kg, P < 0.05). No other pharmacokinetic value was significantly affected by rate of intravenous administration. PMID:8126758

  12. Chasing the Chelyabinsk asteroid N-body style

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente; Aarseth, S J

    2015-01-01

    On 2013 February 15 a small asteroid rammed against the atmosphere above the region of Chelyabinsk in Russia, producing the most powerful superbolide since the Tunguska event in 1908. Lacking proper astrometric observations, the pre-impact orbit of this object has been determined using videos, satellite images, and pure geometry. Unfortunately, more than two years after the event, the published estimates vary so much that there is no clear orbital solution that could be used to investigate the origin of the impactor and the existence of dynamically, or perhaps even genetically, related asteroids. Here, we revisit this topic using a full N-body approach. A robust statistical test is applied to published solutions to discard those unable to produce a virtual impact at the observed time (03:20:20.8 s UTC). The same N-body methodology and the latest ephemerides are used to compute a new orbital solution: a=1.6247 AU, e=0.5318, i=3.9750 degrees, Omega=326.4607 degrees, and omega=109.7012 degrees. This new solution...

  13. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C

    2006-06-01

    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  14. Optimal scan techniques for dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the liver. Usefulness of test injection method and automated bolus tracking technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine optimal scan techniques and important factors in dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the liver. Comparing the influence of test bolus injection to that of the automatic trigger was done in the same cases. One hundred patients were enrolled in the whole liver dynamic study using a 1.5 T MR system. MR imaging using a power injector was performed in 85 cases, while manual injection was performed in the other 15 cases. Fast spoiled GRASS (FSPGR) or enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (efgre3d) pulse sequence was used for the study. MR SmartPrep, which is a computer assisted bolus tracking technique, was performed in 37 of the 57 cases with efgre3d. Both test bolus and MR SmartPrep were used in 10 of the 57 cases. Hepatic arterial phase images were designated to 3 grades of scan timing. Optimal timing was determined when a faint depiction of portal vein in addition to a description of second branches of the hepatic artery were present. The best timing was found in efgre3d 3 ml/s with a SmartPrep in which the acquisition delay time was 10 s. The mean delay time from the initiation of contrast agent administration to the beginning of arterial phase scanning was 17.0±4.71 s (mean±SD, range 10-29 s). Although similar effects might be achieved when the test injection method is used, it requires complicated steps. These results indicate that we can perform optimal timing for the hepatic arterial phase of dynamic MR imaging. We can also set the delay time for individual cases with the power injector. (author)

  15. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  16. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus. Contexto Durante a deglutição o bolo estimula os receptores sensoriais da boca, faringe, laringe e esôfago. Os alimentos doces e sem gosto são mais aceitáveis para a deglutição do que os alimentos amargos, que tem gosto desagradável para a maioria dos indivíduos. A hipótese destes autores era que a ingestão de um bolo amargo pode alterar o trânsito oral

  17. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shiqin [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Moran, Kathryn [Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Robar, James L. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.

  18. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  19. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology

  20. OPTIMAL REGIMENS OF THE BASAL-BOLUS INSULIN THERAPY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Galkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine peculiarities in regimens of the pump insulin therapy and to reveal the optimal basal-to-bolus insulin ratio that are necessary for achieving optimal glycemic control in adoles-cents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.  82 adolescents at the age of 14–18 with T1DM, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII from 5 months to 7.5 years were monitored with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system «Guar-dian Real Time» or CGM system, built in MiniMed Paradigm Revel System 722 (Medtronic Minimed, USA. Assessing the quality of glycaemic control was based on the level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. The results of CGM were reviewed and average for 3 days performances: total daily dose of insulin, dose of basal and bolus insulin, basal-to-bolus insulin ratio, carbohydrate content of the meal, expressed in BE, carbohydrate ratio, insulin sensitivity factor were determined. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups: group 1 – adolescents with the optimal/suboptimal glycemic control (n = 55, 2 – adolescents with long-standing poorly controlled T1DM (n = 27. Average total daily dose of basal insulin (U in a day, U per kg in a day in adolescents group 1 was significantly higher, com-pared with patients in group 2 (р = 0.043; р = 0.038 respectively. Patients in group 2 received more car-bohydrates with a meal intake and had higher doses of average total daily bolus insulin. The average ba-sal-to-bolus ratio from group 1 patients was 51/49%, compared with group 2 patients – 45/55% (р = 0.026.  An important condition for achieving optimal glycemic control is a high level of compliance and skills of adolescents. Optimal well-balanced basal-to-bolus insulin ratio in adolescents with T1DM on CSII, which can provide improvements in blood glucose management and reducing the risk of complications of the disease, is 51/49%. 

  1. Reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination: the potential beneficial effect of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Computed Tomography (CT) is the leading contributor to medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Although the use of CT brain scans for patients with head injuries and convulsions has shown a tremendous growth, it has raised substantial concerns in the general public because of the risk of radiation-induced cataracts: the current available strategies to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens region are limited. Therefore, the present research project was initiated with the aim of evaluating the potential benefit of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield on reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination. Materials and methods: We conducted a series of phantom studies to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) that is delivered to the eye lens region during CT brain examination under the effect of different scanning and shielding setups. Results: Our results indicated, during CT brain examination: (1) a drastic reduction of 92.5% in the ESD to the eye lens region was found when the CT gantry was tilted from 0 deg. (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy) to 30 deg. cranially (overall ESD = 2.4 mGy), and (2) when the CT gantry was positioned at 0 deg. (the common practice in the clinical setting), the setups with the application of a) a bismuth shield, b) a bismuth shield with a face shield (air gap), c) a bismuth shield with bolus, and d) a bismuth shield with bolus and an air gap can result in an acceptable level of image quality with a smaller overall ESD delivered to the eye lens region (overall ESD = 23.2 mGy, 24 mGy, 21 mGy and 19.9 mGy, respectively) than the setup without the bismuth shield applied (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy). Conclusion: When the primary beam scanning through the eye lens region is unavoidable during CT brain examination, the combined use of a bismuth shield with bolus and a face shield is an easy-to-use and inexpensive shielding setup to reduce the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens region while

  2. Combined left and right ventricular volume determination by radionuclide angiocardiography using double bolus and equilibrium technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Stubgaard, M; Møgelvang, J;

    1990-01-01

    by indicator dilution. The radionuclide technique comprised four steps: (1) a first-pass study of right ventricle; (2) a bolus study of left ventricle; (3) an equilibrium study of left ventricle; (4) determination of the distribution volume of red blood cells. Absolute volumes of left ventricle were determined......Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were studied. Left and right ventricular volumes including cardiac output (forward flow) were determined by radionuclide angiocardiography using a double bolus and equilibrium technique. As reference, cardiac output was simultaneously measured...... from steps 2 + 3 + 4. Absolute volumes of right ventricle were calculated from stroke volume and right ventricular ejection fraction (EF) which in turn was determined from step 1 by creating composite systolic and composite diastolic images. There was an acceptable agreement between stroke volume...

  3. Surfactant bolus instillation: effects of different doses on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, M.; Segerer, Hugo; Kiessling, C.; Obladen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen preterm infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome were randomly allocated to receive either high-dose (200 mg/kg) or low-dose (100 mg/kg) surfactant treatment. Retreatments were done with the low dose. Blood pressure, blood gases and cerebral blood flow velocities were determined before and after 24 bolus instillations. With the high dose mean blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity dropped significantly. With the low dose only mean cerebral blood flow velocity...

  4. Continuous-infusion cisplatin and bolus 5-fluorouracil in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, M R; Belliveau, J F; Weitberg, A B; Sabbath, K; Wiemann, M C; Cummings, F J; Calabresi, P

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-one evaluable patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma were treated with a combination of continuous-infusion cisplatin (25 mg/m2/day X 3 days) and bolus 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m2/day X 3 days). Toxicity was minimal. Seven patients (33%) responded. All responses were observed among the 16 previously untreated patients (44%) and lasted a median of 30 weeks. The results indicate the need for phase III trials of this treatment.

  5. Comparison of continuous epidural infusion and programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Y; Li Q; Yang R; Liu J

    2016-01-01

    Yunan Lin, Qiang Li, Jinlu Liu, Ruimin Yang, Jingchen Liu Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China Background: This study aims to investigate differences between continuous epidural infusion (CEI) and programmed intermittent epidural bolus (IEB) analgesia for the Chinese parturients undergoing spontaneous delivery and to approach their safety to parturients and neonates.Methods: Two hundred ...

  6. Dynamic properties of chasers in a moving queue based on a delayed chasing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guo; Jian-Xun, Ding; Xiang, Ling; Qin, Shi; Reinhart, Kühne

    2016-05-01

    A delayed chasing model is proposed to simulate the chase behavior in the queue, where each member regards the closest one ahead as the target, and the leader is attracted to a target point with slight fluctuation. When the initial distances between neighbors possess an identical low value, the fluctuating target of the leader can cause an amplified disturbance in the queue. After a long period of time, the queue recovers the stable state from the disturbance, forming a straight-line-like pattern again, but distances between neighbors grow. Whether the queue can keep stable or not depends on initial distance, desired velocity, and relaxation time. Furthermore, we carry out convergence analysis to explain the divergence transformation behavior and confirm the convergence conditions, which is in approximate agreement with simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71071044, 71001001, 71201041, and 11247291), the Doctoral Program of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110111120023 and 20120111120022), the Postdoctoral Fund Project of China (Grant No. 2013M530295), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB725404), and 1000 Plan for Foreign Talent, China (Grant No. WQ20123400070).

  7. A Novel Pulse-Chase Paradigm to Visualize the Trafficking of Transport Vesicles in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bassam, Sarmad

    In neurons transmembrane proteins are targeted to dendrites in vesicles that traffic solely within the somatodendritic compartment. How these vesicles are retained within the somatodendritic domain is unknown. Here we adapt a novel pulse chase system that allows synchronous release of exogenous transmembrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum using FKBP12 and Rapamycin. We demonstrate proof-of-concept and establish protein trafficking controls in incremental steps. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in studying protein trafficking and establish parameters for analysis of time-lapse images. We implement this novel pulse-chase strategy to track the movements of post-Golgi transport vesicles. Surprisingly, we found that post-Golgi vesicles carrying dendritic proteins were equally likely to enter axons and dendrites. However, once such vesicles entered the axon they very rarely moved beyond the axon initial segment, but instead either halted or reversed direction in an actin and Myosin Va-dependent manner. In contrast, vesicles carrying either an axonal or a nonspecifically localized protein only rarely halted or reversed and instead generally proceeded to the distal axon. Thus, our results are consistent with the axon initial segment behaving as a vesicle filter that mediates the differential trafficking of transport vesicles.

  8. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M;

    2000-01-01

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the...... bolus/infusion (B/I) experiment was applied. It was predicted that a B/I protocol with infusion of one-third of the initial bolus per hour would be appropriate. Steady-state conditions were attained in extrastriatal regions within 3-4 h but the infusion continued up to 7 h in order to minimize the...... has a unique signal-to-noise ratio compared to [(123)I]IBZM but present difficulties for steady-state measurements of striatal regions. The bolus/infusion approach is particularly feasible for quantification of the binding potential in extrastriatal regions....

  9. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, after one bolus oral administration in buffaloes calves: Preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo breeding system has a great economic importance in South-America, principally in marginal or sub-tropical lands. The therapeutic recommendations applied to a single ruminant species are extrapolated to others but important differences among those were recognized. Marbofloxacin bolus is indicated in the treatment of neonatal gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli, in calves (25-50kg. The aim of this study was determined the pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin after oral administration, as bolus, following the label approved recommendations to cattle. One bolus (50 mg was administered in two clinically healthy buffaloes (two days-old, 48-50kg. Plasma concentrations of the marbofloxacin were determined by a HPLC/u.v. method. After oral administration, the values obtained were: tmax=0.5-6h, Cmax= 1.19-0.04μg/mL, AUCt=1.57-0.38μg·h/mL and MRTt= 3.34-6.92h, for calves 1 and 2 respectively. Fluoroquinolones act by concentration dependant killing mechanism, so high plasma concentration initially is important. For this reason, the recommended dose of 1mg/kg is inadequate in buffaloes.

  10. Optimising the scan delay for arterial phase imaging of the liver using the bolus tracking technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, RS; Kumar, G; Abdullah, BJJ; Ng, KH; Vijayananthan, A; Mohd. Nor, H; Liew, YW

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the delay time before the initiation of arterial phase scan in the detection of focal liver lesions in contrast enhanced 5 phase liver CT using the bolus tracking technique. Patients and Methods: Delay - the interval between threshold enhancement of 100 hounsfield unit (HU) in the abdominal aorta and commencement of the first arterial phase scan. Using a 16 slice CT scanner, a plain CT of the liver was done followed by an intravenous bolus of 120 ml nonionic iodinated contrast media (370 mg I/ml) at the rate of 4 mL/s. The second phase scan started immediately after the first phase scan. The portal venous and delay phases were obtained at a fixed delay of 60 s and 90 s from the beginning of contrast injection. Contrast enhancement index (CEI) and subjective visual conspicuity scores for each lesion were compared among the three groups. Results: 84 lesions (11 hepatocellular carcinomas, 17 hemangiomas, 39 other hypervascular lesions and 45 cysts) were evaluated. CEI for hepatocellular carcinomas appears to be higher during the first arterial phase in the 6 seconds delay group. No significant difference in CEI and mean conspicuity scores among the three groups for hemangioma, other hypervascular lesions and cysts. Conclusion: The conspicuity of hepatocellular carcinomas appeared better during the early arterial phase using a bolus tracking technique with a scan delay of 6 seconds from the 100 HU threshold in the abdominal aorta. PMID:22287986

  11. Bolus electron conformal therapy for the treatment of recurrent inflammatory breast cancer: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Michelle M., E-mail: mmkim@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Kanke, James E.; Zhang, Sean; Perkins, George H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of locoregionally recurrent breast cancer in patients who have previously undergone radiation therapy is challenging. Special techniques are often required that both eradicate the disease and minimize the risks of retreatment. We report the case of a patient with an early-stage left breast cancer who developed inflammatory-type recurrence requiring re-irradiation of the chest wall using bolus electron conformal therapy with image-guided treatment delivery. The patient was a 51-year-old woman who had undergone lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and adjuvant whole-breast radiation therapy for a stage I left breast cancer in June 1998. In March 2009, she presented at our institution with biopsy-proven recurrent inflammatory carcinoma and was aggressively treated with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by mastectomy that left a positive surgical margin. Given the patient's prior irradiation and irregular chest wall anatomy, bolus electron conformal therapy was used to treat her chest wall and draining lymphatics while sparing the underlying soft tissue. The patient still had no evidence of disease 21 months after treatment. Our results indicate that bolus electron conformal therapy is an accessible, effective radiation treatment approach for recurrent breast cancer in patients with irregular chest wall anatomy as a result of surgery. This approach may complement standard techniques used to reduce locoregional recurrence in the postmastectomy setting.

  12. Chasing Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Flavio Marques; Pitchford, Rohan

    2002-01-01

    We examine the problem faced by a company that wishes to purchase patents in the hands of two di¤erent patent owners. Complementarity of these patents in the production process of the company is a prime e¢ciency reason for them being owned (or licenced) by the company. We show that this very same complementarity can lead to patent owners behaving strategically in bargaining, and delaying their sale to the company. When the company is highly leveraged, such ine¢cient delay is limited. Comparat...

  13. CHASE '10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....

  14. "Chasing Spots"

    OpenAIRE

    Höltgen, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Das Berliner Computerspiele-Museum stellt zusammen mit einem Special Guest pünktlich zur Games Convention 2009 eine "History of Videogames"-Timeline vor. Die Geschichte der Videospiele ist am Maßstab der Mediengeschichte gemessen noch recht jung. Als Kapitel des Computerzeitalters ist sie jedoch längst Gegenstand archäologischen Interesses. Das Berliner Computerspiele-Museum hat jetzt eine interaktive "History of Videogames" auf seinen Webseiten veröffentlicht, die nach und nach die wesentlic...

  15. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  16. Development of a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for the quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfakih Khaled

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual-bolus protocol enables accurate quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF by first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. However, despite the advantages and increasing demand for the dual-bolus method for accurate quantification of MBF, thus far, it has not been widely used in the field of quantitative perfusion CMR. The main reasons for this are that the setup for the dual-bolus method is complex and requires a state-of-the-art injector and there is also a lack of post processing software. As a solution to one of these problems, we have devised a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for use in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to show the setup and feasibility of the universal dual-bolus injection scheme. Methods The universal dual-bolus injection scheme was tested using multiple combinations of different contrast agents, contrast agent dose, power injectors, perfusion sequences, and CMR scanners. This included 3 different contrast agents (Gd-DO3A-butrol, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, 4 different doses (0.025 mmol/kg, 0.05 mmol/kg, 0.075 mmol/kg and 0.1 mmol/kg, 2 different types of injectors (with and without "pause" function, 5 different sequences (turbo field echo (TFE, balanced TFE, k-space and time (k-t accelerated TFE, k-t accelerated balanced TFE, turbo fast low-angle shot and 3 different CMR scanners from 2 different manufacturers. The relation between the time width of dilute contrast agent bolus curve and cardiac output was obtained to determine the optimal predefined pause duration between dilute and neat contrast agent injection. Results 161 dual-bolus perfusion scans were performed. Three non-injector-related technical errors were observed (1.9%. No injector-related errors were observed. The dual-bolus scheme worked well in all the combinations of parameters if the optimal predefined pause was used. Linear regression analysis showed that the optimal duration for the predefined

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  1. A pulse-chase strategy for EdU labelling assay is able to rapidly quantify cell division orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofeng; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of the direction of cell division is an important, yet difficult, task to analyse how a plant organ acquires its final shape from an initially small group of cells. We introduce a method that rapidly and easily quantifies cell division direction and is applicable to all plant species. A pulse-chase strategy for 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labelling assay was established and was shown to be successful for leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Juncus prismatocarpus. By optimization of the pulse and chase periods, most of the signals obtained were sets of daughter nuclei. For Arabidopsis, the optimal time was a 45-min pulse and a 7-h chase. For J. prismatocarpus, the optimal time was a 2-h pulse and a 13.5-h chase. The positions of the daughter nuclei were used to quantify cell division direction in the Arabidopsis leaf primordia. Overall, cell division along the proximal-distal axis was more frequent than along the medial-lateral axis. In petiole, major vein, minor vein and margin areas, the major cell division direction seemed to be coincident with the direction of auxin flow. The advantages of our method over the few methods used previously are discussed. We anticipate that it will provide opportunities to study plant development in the near future. PMID:27121010

  2. A pulse-chase strategy for EdU labelling assay is able to rapidly quantify cell division orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofeng; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of the direction of cell division is an important, yet difficult, task to analyse how a plant organ acquires its final shape from an initially small group of cells. We introduce a method that rapidly and easily quantifies cell division direction and is applicable to all plant species. A pulse-chase strategy for 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labelling assay was established and was shown to be successful for leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Juncus prismatocarpus. By optimization of the pulse and chase periods, most of the signals obtained were sets of daughter nuclei. For Arabidopsis, the optimal time was a 45-min pulse and a 7-h chase. For J. prismatocarpus, the optimal time was a 2-h pulse and a 13.5-h chase. The positions of the daughter nuclei were used to quantify cell division direction in the Arabidopsis leaf primordia. Overall, cell division along the proximal-distal axis was more frequent than along the medial-lateral axis. In petiole, major vein, minor vein and margin areas, the major cell division direction seemed to be coincident with the direction of auxin flow. The advantages of our method over the few methods used previously are discussed. We anticipate that it will provide opportunities to study plant development in the near future.

  3. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Pulse-chase labelling studies on maltase-glucoamylase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Sjöström, H; Norén, Ove

    1983-01-01

    The biogenesis of three intestinal microvillar enzymes, maltase-glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.20), aminopeptidase A (aspartate aminopeptidase, EC 3.4.11.7) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small-intestinal explants kept in organ culture. The earliest...

  4. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Pulse-chase labelling studies on aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael

    1982-01-01

    The biogenesis of two microvillar enzymes, aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48)-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.10), was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small-intestinal explants kept in organ culture. Both enzymes became inserted into the membrane during or immediately after...

  5. Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Norrild, B; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    chase times the Mr of both molecules increased to 187,000-201,000 (A) and 137,000-158,000 (B). These were similar to the sizes of D2-CAM labeled with [14C]glucosamine, [3H]fucose and [14C]mannosamine, indicating that the higher Mr species are glycoproteins. In the presence of tunicamycin, which...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  7. Chasing Science at Sea: Racing Hurricanes, Stalking Sharks, and Living Undersea With Ocean Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cindy

    2008-12-01

    Ellen Prager's new book, Chasing Science at Sea, is a personal account of why fieldwork is so important in many areas of ocean science, and how exciting that fieldwork can be. Prager has interwoven her own story of studying carbonates at the interface between biology and geology with stories from friends and colleagues. Storm stories and up-close-and-personal encounters with ocean creatures such as reef squid, marine iguanas, and whales abound. Throughout the book, she emphasizes the idea that the combination of observations and serendipity plays a critical role in science, and she gives examples of where this combination has led to especially important discoveries (e.g., that of hydrothermal vent organisms).

  8. Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The pixelated rectangle we spend most of our day staring at in silence is not the television as many long feared, but the computer-the ubiquitous portal of work and personal lives. At this point, the computer is almost so common we don't notice it in our view. It's difficult to envision that not that long ago it was a gigantic, room-sized structure only to be accessed by a few inspiring as much awe and respect as fear and mystery. Now that the machine has decreased in size and increased in popular use, the computer has become a prosaic appliance, little-more noted than a toaster. These dramati

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  11. Time course of expiratory propofol after bolus injection as measured by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Wiepcke, Dirk; Praun, Siegfried; Dolch, Michael E; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav

    2012-04-01

    Propofol in exhaled breath can be detected and monitored in real time by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry (IMR-MS). In addition, propofol concentration in exhaled breath is tightly correlated with propofol concentration in plasma. Therefore, real-time monitoring of expiratory propofol could be useful for titrating intravenous anesthesia, but only if concentration changes in plasma can be determined in exhaled breath without significant delay. To evaluate the utility of IMR-MS during non-steady-state conditions, we measured the time course of both expiratory propofol concentration and the processed electroencephalography (EEG) as a surrogate outcome for propofol effect after an IV bolus induction of propofol. Twenty-one patients scheduled for routine surgery were observed after a bolus of 2.5 mg kg(-1) propofol for induction of anesthesia. Expiratory propofol was measured using IMR-MS and the cerebral propofol effect was estimated using the bispectral index (BIS). Primary endpoints were time to detection of expiratory propofol and time to onset of propofol's effect on BIS, and the secondary endpoint was time to peak effect (highest expiratory propofol or lowest BIS). Expiratory propofol and changes in BIS were first detected at 43 ± 21 and 49 ± 11 s after bolus injection, respectively (P = 0.29). Peak propofol concentrations (9.2 ± 2.4 parts-per-billion) and lowest BIS values (23 ± 4) were reached after 208 ± 57 and 219 ± 62 s, respectively (P = 0.57). Expiratory propofol concentrations measured by IMR-MS have similar times to detection and peak concentrations compared with propofol effect as measured by the processed EEG (BIS). This suggests that expiratory propofol concentrations may be useful for titrating intravenous anesthesia.

  12. Intermittent boluses versus pump continuous infusion for endoscopist-directed propofol administration in colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. González-Santiago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: non-anesthesiologist administration of propofol (NAAP using continuous infusion systems may achieve a more sustained sedative action. Aim: to compare intermittent boluses (IB with pump continuous infusion (PCI for NAAP, targeted to moderate sedation, for colonoscopy. Methods: 192 consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive IB (20 mg propofol boluses on demand or PCI (3 mg/kg/h plus 20 mg boluses on demand. Sedation could be stopped at cecal intubation at the discretion of the endoscopist. Satisfaction rates of the patient, nurses and endoscopist, propofol doses, depth of sedation (at the beginning, at cecal intubation and at the end, recovery times, complications and were collected. Results: there were no differences between groups regarding patient, nurse or endoscopist satisfaction rates with procedural sedation. Propofol doses (mg were significantly higher during the induction phase (86 [30-172] vs. 78 [30-160], p 0.03 and overall (185 [72-400] vs. 157 [60-460], p = 0.003 for PCI group. 81 % of assessments of the depth of sedation were moderate. The level of sedation (O/AAS scale was borderline significantly deeper at cecal intubation (2.38 vs. 2.72; p = 0.056 and at the end of the procedure (4.13 vs. 4.45; p = 0.05 for PCI group, prolonging thus early recovery time (6.3 vs. 5.1 minutes, p = 0.008, but not discharge time. Complications, all of them in minors, were non-significantly more frequent in the PCI group (9 vs. 7 %, p = 0.07. Conclusions: NAAP for colonoscopy was safely administered with comparable satisfaction and complication rates with either IB or PCI.

  13. Prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults presenting with oesophageal food bolus obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neel; Heerasing; Shok; Yin; Lee; Sina; Alexander; Damian; Dowling

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To look at the relationship between eosinophilic oesophagitis(EO) and food bolus impaction in adults. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed medical records of 100 consecutive patients who presented to our hospital with oesophageal food bolus obstruction(FBO) between 2012 and 2014. In this cohort, 96 were adults(64% male), and 4 paediatric patients were excluded from the analysis as our centre did not have paediatric gastroenterologists. Eighty-five adult patients underwent emergency gastroscopy. The food bolus was either advanced into the stomach using the push technique or retrieved using a standard retrieval net. Biopsies were obtained in 51 patients from the proximal and distal parts of the oesophagus at initial gastroscopy. All biopsy specimens were assessed and reviewed by dedicated gastrointestinal pathologists at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital Geelong. The diagnosis of EO was defined and established by the presence of the following histological features:(1) peak eosinophil counts > 20/hpf;(2) eosinophil microabscess;(3) superficial layering of eosinophils;(4) extracellular eosinophil granules;(5) basal cell hyperplasia;(6) dilated intercellular spaces; and(7) subepithelial or lamina propria fibrosis. The histology results of the biopsy specimens were accessed from the pathology database of the hospital and recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Our cohort had a median age of 60. Seventeen/51(33%) patients had evidence of EO on biopsy findings. The majority of patients with EO were male(71%). Classical endoscopic features of oesophageal rings, furrows or white plaques and exudates werefound in 59% of patients with EO. Previous episodes of FBO were present in 12/17 patients and 41% had a history of eczema, hay fever or asthma. Reflux oesophagitis and benign strictures were found in 20/34 patients who did not have biopsies. CONCLUSION: EO is present in approximately one third of patients who are admitted with FBO. Biopsies should be performed

  14. Recombinant human interleukin-3: pharmacokinetics after intravenous and subcutaneous bolus injection and effects on granulocyte kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, D J; Folke, M; Mortensen, B T; Nissen, N I

    1994-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of E. coli derived recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) was studied following intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) bolus injection of rhIL-3. After i.v. bolus injection in eight patients, serum peak levels of 34.5-135.0 ng/ml were reached, followed by a rapid decline with a t1/2 alpha of 17 +/- 2 min and a t1/2 beta of 59 +/- 7 min. After s.c. bolus injection in five patients, the absorption was more prolonged with peak serum levels reached at 2.8 +/- 0.4 h. Elimination was also more protracted, and serum base-line levels were reached at 14-24 h. The immediate effect of rhIL-3 on peripheral white blood cells was less pronounced and more variable than previously found for G- or GM-CSF. Following i.v. administration, neutrophils showed a moderate drop to median 64% of initial values (range 42-85%) at median 30 min after injection (range 15-60 min) followed by an increase at 24 h to 69-288% of initial values. Eosinophils dropped to a median nadir of 34% and then gradually increased to maximum values in the range 135-720% at 18-24 h. The effect of rhIL-3 was further examined following i.v. injection of autologous 111Indium-labelled granulocytes in six patients. In steady state, i.v. injection of rhIL-3 caused a moderate drop in 111Indium activity of peripheral blood within 20 min without tendency to subsequent recovery. No change occurred in the activity recorded over the lungs and liver. The activity over the spleen decreased moderately in two patients. These results are strikingly different from those previously obtained after i.v. injection of rhGM-CSF.

  15. Intraoperative imaging of cortical perfusion by time-resolved thermography using cold bolus approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmach, Julia; Schnabel, Christian; Hoffmann, Nico; Radev, Yordan; Sobottka, Stephan; Kirsch, Matthias; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    During the past decade, thermographic cameras with high thermal and temporal resolution of up to 30 mK and 50 Hz, respectively, have been developed. These camera systems can be used to reveal thermal variations and heterogeneities of tissue and blood. Thus, they provide a fast, sensitive, noninvasive, and label-free application to investigate blood perfusion and to detect perfusion disorders. Therefore, time-resolved thermography is evaluated and tested for intraoperative imaging of the cerebral cortex during neurosurgeries. The motivation of this study is the intraoperative evaluation of the cortical perfusion by observing the temporal temperature curve of the cortex during and after the intravenous application of a cold bolus. The temperature curve caused by a cold bolus is influenced by thermodilution, depending on the temperature difference to the patient's circulation, and the pattern of mixing with the patient's blood. In this initial study, a flow phantom was used in order to determine the temperature variations of cold boli under stable conditions in a vascular system. The typical temperature profile of cold water passing by can be approximated by a bi- Gaussian function involving a set of four parameters. These parameters can be used to assess the cold bolus, since they provide information about its intensity, duration and arrival time. The findings of the flow phantom can be applied to thermographic measurements of the human cortex. The results demonstrate that time-resolved thermographic imaging is a suitable method to detect cold boli not only at a flow phantom but also at the human cortex.

  16. INFLUENCE OF AGE ON SWALLOWS OF A HIGHLY VISCOUS LIQUID BOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslania Viviane NASCIMENTO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Swallow function has a decline with aging, mainly in those over 80 years old. In the population over 69 years, about 11% of subjects reported symptoms indicative of significant dysphagia. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the hypothesis that older asymptomatic subjects before 80 years old have compensations to sustain a safe and efficient swallow, at least with swallows of liquid bolus. Methods We performed videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallows in 55 normal volunteers, a younger group with 33 subjects (16 men and 17 women aged 19 to 55 years, mean 35.5±9.8 years, and an older group with 22 subjects (15 men and 7 women aged 56 to 77 years, mean 64.8±6.8 years. The subjects swallowed in duplicate 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid barium with a pH of 7.9, density of 1.82 g/cm3, and viscosity of 895 cp. Results The mean duration of pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were longer in the younger group compared with the older group. The relation between pharyngeal clearance duration and hyoid movement duration was similar in younger and older subjects, for 5 mL and 10 mL bolus volumes. Conclusions On average, a highly viscous liquid bolus crosses the pharynx faster in older subjects (56-77 years old than in younger subjects (19-55 years old, which suggested an adaptation to the aging process to maintain a safe swallow.

  17. OPTIMAL REGIMENS OF THE BASAL-BOLUS INSULIN THERAPY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    G A Galkina; A. A. Voropay; M. A. Levkovich; S. V. Vorobiov; M V Komkova; N. V. Morozova

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine peculiarities in regimens of the pump insulin therapy and to reveal the optimal basal-to-bolus insulin ratio that are necessary for achieving optimal glycemic control in adoles-cents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).  82 adolescents at the age of 14–18 with T1DM, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from 5 months to 7.5 years were monitored with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system «Guar-dian Real Time» or CGM system, built in MiniM...

  18. Continuous infusion or bolus injection of loop diuretics for congestive heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Patricio; Rain, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Paola

    2016-04-22

    Loop diuretics are widely used in acute heart failure. However, there is controversy about the superiority of continuous infusion over bolus administration. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews including 11 pertinent randomized controlled trials overall. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded continuous administration of loop diuretics probably reduces mortality and length of stay compared to intermittent administration in patients with acute heart failure.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous bolus administration and infusion of ketamine-midazolam in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-10-01

    Cardiovascular effects of IV administered ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) were determined in 12 healthy isoflurane-anesthetized (1.7% end-tidal concentration) dogs. Six dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (K-M) as a bolus over 30 seconds and 6 dogs received K-M as an infusion over 15 minutes. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a bolus and an infusion caused early significant (P dogs of the infusion group and returned to the baseline value near the end of the study. One dog died after K-M bolus administration. Mean maximal decreases from baseline for systemic blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke index were significantly (P dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group; therefore, cardiovascular effects of K-M after infusion were less severe than those after bolus. Base excess and pHa decreased significantly (P infusion group, although similar changes occurred in both groups. Four dogs were maintained with 1.7% end-tidal isoflurane to determine temporal effects of isoflurane; these dogs did not receive K-M. Increases in heart rate, cardiac index, stroke index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indexes were significant (P < 0.05) at various sample collection intervals, particularly during the later stages of the study. Isoflurane anesthesia effectively blocked the cardiostimulatory properties of K-M.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8250398

  20. Note: Utilization of polymer gel as a bolus compensator and a dosimeter in the near-surface buildup region for breast-conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Hiraku, E-mail: fuseh@ipu.ac.jp; Inohira, Masaya; Kawamura, Hiraku; Fujisaki, Tatsuya [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0331 (Japan); Shinoda, Kazuya [Graduate School of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsumi [Department of Radiological Technology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakae, Takeji [Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Tangential beam radiotherapy is routinely used for radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. A tissue-equivalent bolus placed on the irradiated area shifts the depth of the dose distribution; this bolus provides uniform dose distribution to the breast. The gel bolus made by the BANG-Pro{sup ®} polymer gel and in an oxygen non-transmission pack was applicable as a dosimeter to measure dose distribution in near-surface buildup region. We validated the use of the gel bolus to improve in the whole-breast/chest wall, including the near-surface buildup region.

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  8. Bolus timing in high-pitch CT angiography of the aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeres, Martin, E-mail: beeres@gmx.net [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Loch, Matthias, E-mail: MatthiasLoch@gmx.net [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Schulz, Boris, E-mail: boris.schell@googlemail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Kerl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kerl@gmail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Al-Butmeh, Firas, E-mail: Firas.Albutmeh@gmail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bodelle, Boris, E-mail: bbodelle@googlemail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Herrmann, Eva, E-mail: Herrmann@Med.Uni-Frankfurt.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana, E-mail: tatjanagruber2004@yahoo.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Lee, Clara, E-mail: Clara.Lee@kgu.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Jacobi, Volkmar, E-mail: Volkmar.Jacobi@kgu.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); and others

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To investigate the bolus geometry in high-pitch CT angiography (CTA) of the aorta without ECG synchronisation in comparison to single-source CT. Methods: Overall 160 consecutive patients underwent CTA either in conventional single-source mode with a pitch of 1.2 (group 1), or in dual-source mode with a pitch of 3.0 (groups 2, 3 and 4) using different contrast media timings with bolus triggering at 140 HU (5 s, group 1; 10 s, group 2; 12 s, group 3; 14 s, group 4). Contrast material, saline flush, flow rate and kV/mAs settings were kept equal for optimum comparability. Aortic attenuation was measured along the z-axis of the patient at different anatomic landmarks and subjective image quality was compared. Results: The most homogeneous enhancement of the aorta was reached with a delay of 10 s after reaching the trigger threshold. The imaging length was not significantly different, but the examination time was significantly (p < 0.001) shorter in the high-pitch group (7.7 s vs. 1.7 s for group 1 vs. 2, 3 and 4). Conclusion: In high-pitch CT angiography using a start delay of 10 s after a trigger threshold of 140 HU in the descending aorta is reached, a homogenous contrast along the z-axis is accomplished.

  9. Oscillation and collective conveyor of water-in-oil droplets by microfluidic bolus flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmura, Takuya; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Maeda, Yusuke T

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic techniques have been extensively developed to realize micro-total analysis systems in a small chip. For microanalysis, the trapping or arranging of objects in a line is a critical step. Physical effects such as inertial lift force have been utilized so far, however, hydrodynamic interaction in a many body system is yet to be explored despite its relevance to pattern formation. Here, we report water-in-oil (W/O) droplets can be transported with sequential order in the grid of one-dimensional array of another large W/O droplets. As each droplet comes close to an interspace of the large droplet array, while exhibiting persistent back-and-forth motion, it is conveyed at a velocity equal to the droplet array. The droplet also makes asymmetric orbit to and from the large droplet behind, suggesting vortex like stream was involved. We confirm the appearance of closed streamlines, which called bolus flow, in numerical simulation based on lattice Boltzmann method. The existence region of bolus flow account...

  10. The Effect of Bolus Volume on Hyoid Kinematics in Healthy Swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyoid movement in swallowing is biomechanically linked to closure of the laryngeal vestibule for airway protection and to opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. Studies suggest that the range of hyoid movement is highly variable in the healthy population. However, other aspects of hyoid movement such as velocity remain relatively unexplored. In this study, we analyze data from a sample of 20 healthy young participants (10 male to determine whether hyoid movement distance, duration, velocity, and peak velocity vary systematically with increases in thin liquid bolus volume from 5 to 20 mL. The temporal correspondence between peak hyoid velocity and laryngeal vestibule closure was also examined. The results show that maximum hyoid position and peak velocity increase significantly for 20 mL bolus volumes compared to smaller volumes, and that the timing of peak velocity is closely linked to achieving laryngeal vestibule closure. This suggests that generating hyoid movements with increased power is a strategy for handling larger volumes.

  11. Peristaltic Transport of a Rheological Fluid: Model for Movement of Food Bolus Through Esophagus

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, J C

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanical peristaltic transport through esophagus has been of concern in the paper. A mathematical model has been developed with an aim to study the peristaltic transport of a rheological fluid for arbitrary wave shapes and tube lengths. The Ostwald-de Waele power law of viscous fluid is considered here to depict the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid. The model is formulated and analyzed with the specific aim of exploring some important information concerning the movement of food bolus through the esophagus. The analysis has been carried out by using lubrication theory. The study is particularly suitable for cases where the Reynolds number is small. The esophagus is treated as a circular tube through which the transport of food bolus takes places by periodic contraction of the esophageal wall. Variation of different variables concerned with the transport phenomena such as pressure, flow velocity, particle trajectory and reflux are investigated for a single wave as well as for a train of periodic per...

  12. Ocular dynamics of Garcinia cola (Heckel on healthy volunteers following bolus ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Igwe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia cola Heckel, an angiospermae belonging to the  family Guttiferae, is known in commerce as bitter cola. It is a plant found in the West African subregion, mostly in moist conditions, and often in association with Cola acuminata. The seeds are highly valued ingredients in African ethonomedicine. The seeds have several social uses and applications in folk medicine. These seeds are ordinarily chewed by the local people without prescription or restriction. In an in vivo case control study, the effects of Garcinia cola on some visual functions: pupil diameter, near point of convergence (NPC, amplitude of accommodation (AA, intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity (VA and habitual phoria; following bolus ingestion of 20 g was undertaken using healthy visually active volunteers. Results showed that bolus ingestion of Garcinia cola constricted the pupil by 68%, reduced the NPC by 28%, increased the AA by 17.8% at peak effect and decreased the intraocular pressure by 31% without affecting the distance and near VA. The lateral phoria at far and near tended towards esophoria. Possibly the miotic effect and reduction in IOP could be of benefit to patients with raised IOP where conventional drugs may not be effective. Also it is possible that the effects on phoria could be exploited in oculomotor function in combination with visual training.

  13. A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release

    CERN Document Server

    De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

  14. Electronic identification of cattle: interference in the reading of ceramic bolus transponders in the presence of ruminal magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ferri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors assess the reading performances of electronic transponders encased in ceramic boluses, utilised as identification (ID instruments for production ruminants, and the possible influence of the magnet, which is located in the fore-stomach of ruminants. Research has been conducted in free-range Friesian dairy herds in the Teramo Province. The use of the electronic bolus to identify cattle appears to provide better guarantees than the traditional methods used and meets the requirements of identifying individual animals at the farm level. Results demonstrate how the presence of both the magnet and the ceramic bolus, equipped with a transponder, makes it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to read the code. However, the electronic ID system is the best instrument currently available. The authors confirm the validity of this method and highlight some problems that still need to be solved.

  15. High bolus tirofiban vs abciximab in acute STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI - The tamip study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Balghith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI has been shown to be an effective therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI. Glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockers reduce thrombotic complications in patients undergoing PCI. Most available data relate to Reopro, which has been registered for this indication. GP IIb/IIIa reduce unfavorable outcome in U/A and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI patients. Only few studies focused on high dose Aggrastat for STEMI patients in the emergency department (ED before PCI. The aim is to increase the patency during the time awaiting coronary angioplasty in patients with acute MI. Objectives: To study the effect of upfront high bolus dose (HDR of tirofiban on the extent of residual ST segment deviation 1 hour after primary PCI and the incidence of TIMI 3 flow of the infarct-related artery (IRA. Materials and Methods: A randomized, open label, single center study in the ED. A total of 90 patients with acute ST-elevation MI, diagnosed clinically by ECG criteria (ST segment elevation of >2 mm in two adjacent ECG leads, and with an expectation that a patient will undergo primary PCI. Patients were aged 21-85 years and all received heparin 5000 u, aspirin 160 mg, and Plavix 600 mg. Patients were divided in two groups (group I: triofiban high bolus vs group II: Reopro with 45 patients in each group. In group I, high bolus triofiban 25 mcg/kg over 3 min was started in the ED with maintenance infusion of 0.15 mcg/ kg/min continued for 12 hours and transferred to cath lab for PCI. Patients in group II were transferred to cath lab, where a standard dose of Reopro was given with a bolus of 0.25 mcg/kg and maintenance infusion of 0.125 mcg/kg/min over 12 hours. Results: ST segment resolution and TIMI flow were evaluated in both groups before and after PCI. Thirty-five patients (78% enrolled in group I and 29 patients (64% in group II had resolution of ST segment (P-value 0

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  3. A CHASE domain containing protein kinase OsCRL4, represents a new AtCRE1-like gene family in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秋敏; 姜华武; 齐晓朋; 丁洁; 吴平

    2004-01-01

    AtCRE1 is known to be a cytokinin receptor inArabidopsis. The AtCRE1 protein contains CHASE domain at the N-terminal part, followed by a transmitter (histidine kinase) domain and two receiver domains. The N-terminal CHASE domain of AtCRE1 contains putative recognition sites for cytokinin. Five CHASE domains containing proteins were found in rice, OsCRLla, OsCRLlb, OsCRL2, OsCRL3, and OsCRL4. OsCRL1a, OsCRL1b, OsCRL2 and OsCRL3 contain the four domains existing in CRE1, whereas OsCRL4 only contains the CHASE domain and a putative Ser/Thr protein kinase domain The authors cloned the encoding gene OsCRL4 and found that it represents a new member of the cytokinin receptor protein in rice.

  4. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Johnson Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year....

  5. "The relationship between pharmacokinetic variables and pharmacodynamic profiles of bolus versus continuous infusion of furosemide in critically ill patients"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the pharmacokinetic variables of continuous infusion and intermittent bolus injection of furosemide and the possible relationship between its pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacodynamic profile among intensive care unit (ICU patients were studied. In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, twelve patients received IV bolus of 20 mg of the drug during 3 hours period and, the drug dose was doubled, when the urine output was less than 1 ml/kg/h (group 1. The other nine patients received a continuous intravenous furosemide infusion at the rate of 0.1 mg/kg/h (group 2. The amount of furosemide in serum was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results showed a positive correlation between plasma clearance of furosemide and its diuretic activity (P=0.01. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Vd (l, CL (ml/min, Ke (min-1 and t½ (min in continuous infusion patients were not significantly differed from the bolus patients (P-values 0.5, 0.9, 0.9,0.9, respectively. Nevertheless the observed plasma clearance of drug in the continuous infusion group was clinically higher than bolus injection group and as a result the cumulative urine output per hour per mg of furosemide in a continuous infusion was observed to be higher than bolus(P=0.2. Changes in serum sodium and potassium were similar for both groups, but bolus injection patients were associated with higher potassium depletion (P=0.001. Therefore, continuous infusion seems to be better means of diuretic therapy in critically ill patients.

  6. Myocardial extravascular extracellular volume fraction measurement by gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance in humans: slow infusion versus bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Bobby L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve measures quantify diffuse fibrosis not readily detectable by conventional late gadolinium (Gd enhancement (LGE. Ve measurement requires steady state equilibrium between plasma and interstitial Gd contrast. While a constant infusion produces steady state, it is unclear whether a simple bolus can do the same. Given the relatively slow clearance of Gd, we hypothesized that a bolus technique accurately measures Ve, thus facilitating integration of myocardial fibrosis quantification into cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR workflow routines. Assuming equivalence between techniques, we further hypothesized that Ve measures would be reproducible across scans. Methods In 10 volunteers (ages 20-81, median 33 yr, 3 females, we compared serial Ve measures from a single short axis slice from two scans: first, during a constant infusion, and second, 12-50 min after a bolus (0.2 mmol/kg gadoteridol on another day. Steady state during infusion was defined when serial blood and myocardial T1 data varied Results No subject exhibited LGE near the short axis slices where Ve was measured. The Ve range was 19.3-29.2% and 18.4-29.1% by constant infusion and bolus, respectively. In GEE models, serial Ve measures by constant infusion and bolus did not differ significantly (difference = 0.1%, p = 0.38. For both techniques, Ve was strongly related to age (p Conclusion Myocardial Ve can be measured reliably and accurately 12-50 minutes after a simple bolus. Ve measures are also reproducible across CMR scans. Ve estimation can be integrated into CMR workflow easily, which may simplify research applications involving the quantification of myocardial fibrosis.

  7. Allocation and residence time of photosynthetic products in a boreal forest using a low-level 14C pulse-chase labeling technique

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, MS; Czimczik, CI; McDuffee, KE; Trumbore, SE

    2007-01-01

    Much of our understanding about how carbon (C) is allocated in plants comes from radiocarbon (14C) pulse-chase labeling experiments. However, the large amounts of 14C required for decay-counting mean that these studies have been restricted for the most part to mesocosm or controlled laboratory experiments. Using the enhanced sensitivity for 14C detection available with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we tested the utility of a low-level 14C pulse-chase labeling technique for quantifying ...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  9. Management of hypertensive emergencies of pregnancy by hydralazine bolus injection vs continuous drip--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Mosammat Rashida; Quadir, Ehsan; Begum, Anowara; Akhter, Sayeba; Rahman, Khalilur

    2002-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted at Dhaka Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh. The objective was to identify the time required to control high blood pressure levels in obstetric patients by injection of hydralazine in a bolus intravenous dose vs continuous drip. Seventy-seven patients with eclampsia and hypertensive emergencies comprised the target population. Patients were managed either by hydralazine drip in normal saline (existing official protocol, n = 33) or hydralazine bolus injection (as experiment, n = 44) until diastolic blood pressure fell to 90-95 mmHg. Results were compared. Student's t-test was done for statistical significance, and a P value of hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. PMID:12466730

  10. A bolus/infusion paradigm for the novel NMDA receptor SPET tracer [{sup 123}i]CNS 1261

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressan, Rodrigo A; Erlandsson, Kjell E-mail: k.erlandsson@nucmed.ucl.ac.uk; Mulligan, Rachel S; Gunn, Roger N.; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Owens, Jonathan; Cullum, Ian D.; Ell, Peter J.; Pilowsky, Lyn S

    2004-02-01

    We have previously performed quantitative kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I]CNS 1261, a new SPET ligand for the MK801 intrachannel site of the NMDA receptor. We now report a bolus-infusion protocol, which eliminates the need for arterial blood sampling. Dynamic SPET scanning and venous blood sampling were performed in 7 healthy volunteers. Good agreement was obtained between kinetic and equilibrium analysis. SPET scanning with a bolus-infusion protocol is a valid method to estimate the total volume of distribution for [{sup 123}I]CNS 1261 in clinical populations.

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  12. Estimation of contrast agent bolus arrival delays for improved reproducibility of liver DCE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Manil D.; Bainbridge, Alan; Atkinson, David; Punwani, Shonit; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Taylor, Stuart A.

    2016-10-01

    Delays between contrast agent (CA) arrival at the site of vascular input function (VIF) sampling and the tissue of interest affect dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI pharmacokinetic modelling. We investigate effects of altering VIF CA bolus arrival delays on liver DCE MRI perfusion parameters, propose an alternative approach to estimating delays and evaluate reproducibility. Thirteen healthy volunteers (28.7  ±  1.9 years, seven males) underwent liver DCE MRI using dual-input single compartment modelling, with reproducibility (n  =  9) measured at 7 days. Effects of VIF CA bolus arrival delays were assessed for arterial and portal venous input functions. Delays were pre-estimated using linear regression, with restricted free modelling around the pre-estimated delay. Perfusion parameters and 7 days reproducibility were compared using this method, freely modelled delays and no delays using one-way ANOVA. Reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis of agreement. Maximum percent change relative to parameters obtained using zero delays, were  -31% for portal venous (PV) perfusion, +43% for total liver blood flow (TLBF), +3247% for hepatic arterial (HA) fraction, +150% for mean transit time and  -10% for distribution volume. Differences were demonstrated between the 3 methods for PV perfusion (p  =  0.0085) and HA fraction (p  <  0.0001), but not other parameters. Improved mean differences and Bland-Altman 95% Limits-of-Agreement for reproducibility of PV perfusion (9.3 ml/min/100 g, ±506.1 ml/min/100 g) and TLBF (43.8 ml/min/100 g, ±586.7 ml/min/100 g) were demonstrated using pre-estimated delays with constrained free modelling. CA bolus arrival delays cause profound differences in liver DCE MRI quantification. Pre-estimation of delays with constrained free modelling improved 7 days reproducibility of perfusion parameters in volunteers.

  13. Changes in thymidylate synthase mRNA in blood leukocytes from patients with colorectal cancer after bolus administration of 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnrooth, E; Sørensen, B; Poulsen, J H;

    2000-01-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is considered the standard antineoplastic drug of choice for metastatic colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that 5-FU administered as bolus infusion is cytotoxic mainly through an RNA damaging effect. We investigated the effect of i.v. bolus 5-FU 500-600 mg/m2 on the 5-FU...

  14. The reliability and validity of passive leg raise and fluid bolus to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing emergency department patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Nicolaj; Shogilev, Daniel J; Skibsted, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the reproducibility of passive leg raise (PLR) and fluid bolus (BOLUS) using the Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM; Cheetah Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) for assessment of fluid responsiveness (FR) in spontaneously breathing emergency department (ED) patients. METHO...

  15. Degradation dynamics of microRNAs revealed by a novel pulse-chase approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Matteo J; Ghini, Francesco; Cerruti, Benedetta; de Pretis, Stefano; Bonetti, Paola; Giacomelli, Chiara; Gorski, Marcin M; Kress, Theresia; Pelizzola, Mattia; Muller, Heiko; Amati, Bruno; Nicassio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of miRNAs is critical to the definition of cell identity and behavior in normal physiology and disease. To date, the dynamics of miRNA degradation and the mechanisms involved in remain largely obscure, in particular, in higher organisms. Here, we developed a pulse-chase approach based on metabolic RNA labeling to calculate miRNA decay rates at genome-wide scale in mammalian cells. Our analysis revealed heterogeneous miRNA half-lives, with many species behaving as stable molecules (T1/2> 24 h), while others, including passenger miRNAs and a number (25/129) of guide miRNAs, are quickly turned over (T1/2= 4-14 h). Decay rates were coupled with other features, including genomic organization, transcription rates, structural heterogeneity (isomiRs), and target abundance, measured through quantitative experimental approaches. This comprehensive analysis highlighted functional mechanisms that mediate miRNA degradation, as well as the importance of decay dynamics in the regulation of the miRNA pool under both steady-state conditions and during cell transitions. PMID:26821571

  16. Sperm whale predator-prey interactions involve chasing and buzzing, but no acoustic stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, A; Johnson, M; Wilson, M; Aguilar Soto, N; Madsen, P T

    2016-01-01

    The sperm whale carries a hypertrophied nose that generates powerful clicks for long-range echolocation. However, it remains a conundrum how this bizarrely shaped apex predator catches its prey. Several hypotheses have been advanced to propose both active and passive means to acquire prey, including acoustic debilitation of prey with very powerful clicks. Here we test these hypotheses by using sound and movement recording tags in a fine-scale study of buzz sequences to relate the acoustic behaviour of sperm whales with changes in acceleration in their head region during prey capture attempts. We show that in the terminal buzz phase, sperm whales reduce inter-click intervals and estimated source levels by 1-2 orders of magnitude. As a result, received levels at the prey are more than an order of magnitude below levels required for debilitation, precluding acoustic stunning to facilitate prey capture. Rather, buzzing involves high-frequency, low amplitude clicks well suited to provide high-resolution biosonar updates during the last stages of capture. The high temporal resolution helps to guide motor patterns during occasionally prolonged chases in which prey are eventually subdued with the aid of fast jaw movements and/or buccal suction as indicated by acceleration transients (jerks) near the end of buzzes. PMID:27340122

  17. Research on efficient edge-chasing deadlock detection/resolution for distributed systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xin; Jin Feng; Yang Xiaozong

    2006-01-01

    Numerous edge-chasing deadlock detection algorithms were developed for the cycle detection in distributed systems, but their detections had the n steps speed limitation and n(n-1) overhead limitation to detect a cycle of size n under the one-resource request model. Since fast deadlock detection is critical, this paper proposed a new algorithm to speed up the detection process. In our algorithm, when the running of a transaction node is blocked, the being requested resource nodes reply it with the waiting or being waited message simultaneously, so the blocked node knows both its predecessors and successors, which helps it detecting a cycle of size 2 directly and locally. For the cycle of size n (n>2), a special probe is produced which has the predecessors information of its originator, so the being detected nodes know their indirect predecessors and direct successors, and can detect the cycle within n-2 steps. The proposed algorithm is formally proved to be correct by the invariant verification method. Performance evaluation shows that the message overhead of our detection is (n2-n-2)/2, hence both the detection speed and message cost of the proposed algorithm are better than that of the existing algorithms.

  18. Bolus tracking with nanofilter-based multispectral videography for capturing microvasculature hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Kaminska, Bozena; St. Lawrence, Keith; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2014-04-01

    Multispectral imaging is a highly desirable modality for material-based analysis in diverse areas such as food production and processing, satellite-based reconnaissance, and biomedical imaging. Here, we present nanofilter-based multispectral videography (nMSV) in the 700 to 950 nm range made possible by the tunable extraordinary-optical-transmission properties of 3D metallic nanostructures. Measurements made with nMSV during a bolus injection of an intravascular tracer in the ear of a piglet resulted in spectral videos of the microvasculature. Analysis of the multispectral videos generated contrast measurements representative of arterial pulsation, the distribution of microvascular transit times, as well as a separation of the venous and arterial signals arising from within the tissue. Therefore, nMSV is capable of acquiring serial multispectral images relevant to tissue hemodynamics, which may have application to the detection and identification of skin cancer.

  19. Evaluation of T2* change in hollow fiber dialyzer after bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated in a simulation that diffusion is an important component in determining T2* contrast. When a high-susceptibility agent permeates from intravascular to extracellular space, the changes in its spatial distribution affect the signal intensity of T2*-weighted images so as to potentially represent a diffusion process. To experimentally demonstrate the effects of permeation on T2*-weighted images, we assessed the dynamic changes in T2* signal after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (Magnevist: Schering) solution into a hollow fiber dialyzer as a phantom of intravascular and extracellular space. The signal intensity of the hollow fiber dialyzer in gradient-echo images was compared with that in spin-echo images. (author)

  20. Individualized chest wall compensating bolus for electron irradiation following mastectomy: an ultrasound approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-mode ultrasound is used in a procedure to construct individualized tissue compensating bolus for electron beam irradiation of the chest wall, where the thickness of tissues over the lung may vary by as much as 3 cm. Electron energies corresponding to the thickest tissues in the field would normally cause lung tissues beneath the thinner regions to receive the full tumor dose. The problem is made more serious by the fact that electron ranges in lung are 2-3 times greater than in muscle. We feel that some form of individualized compensation is necessary for patients with large variations in chest wall thickness within a given electron treatment field. The A-Scan procedure is particularly suited to deliniation of the pleura-lung interface because of the strong identifiable reflection from this discontinuity. In the first approach, a moldable gelatanous bolus material, mixed to transmit ultrasound at 5 MHz with a velocity equal to the speed of sound in muscle, is placed on the chest wall covering the entire field. The thickness of the compensating material is then reduced at each point in the field so that the total thickness (muscle plus compensator) indicated by the A-scan is everywhere the same as the chosen maximum treatment depth. Because the compensator has nearly the same electron stopping power as muscle, the compensated chest wall is now uniform in thickness over the entire field. In the second approach, we sacrifice the one-step advantages of using sonically transparent compensator material in order to obtain a more rugged and rapid setting compensator. Four patients have been treated with no evidence of pneumonitis. The more elegant combination of these two approaches awaits the development of rugged materials which are both quick setting and sonically transparent

  1. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. PMID:26103485

  2. Low-dose esmolol bolus reduces seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. van den Broek (Walter); A.F. Leentjens; A. Kusuma (Ari); J.A. Bruijn (Jan); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe have measured the effect of a bolus dose of esmolol 80 mg i.v. on heart rate, and systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We also assessed seizure duration using both the cuff method and tw

  3. Implementation of a split-bolus single-pass CT protocol at a UK major trauma centre to reduce excess radiation dose in trauma pan-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To quantify the dose reduction and ensure that the use of a split-bolus protocol provided sufficient vascular enhancement. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2014, both split bolus and traditional two-phase scans were performed on a single CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare) using a two-pump injector (Medrad Stellant). Both protocols used Siemens' proprietary tube current and tube voltage modulation techniques (CARE dose and CARE kV). The protocols were compared retrospectively to assess the dose–length product (DLP), aortic radiodensity at the level of the coeliac axis and radiodensity of the portal vein. Results: There were 151 trauma CT examinations during this period. Seventy-eight used the split-bolus protocol. Seventy-one had traditional two-phase imaging. One patient was excluded as they were under the age of 18 years. The radiodensity measurements for the portal vein were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the split-bolus protocol. The mean aortic enhancement in both protocols exceeded 250 HU, although the traditional two-phase protocol gave greater arterial enhancement (p<0.001) than the split-bolus protocol. The split-bolus protocol had a significantly lower (p<0.001) DLP with 43.5% reduction in the mean DLP compared to the traditional protocol. Conclusion: Split-bolus CT imaging offers significant dose reduction for this relatively young population while retaining both arterial and venous enhancement. -- Highlights: •We implemented a split bolus pan-CT protocol for trauma CT. •We compared the radiation dose and vascular enhancement of the split bolus protocol to a traditional two phase protocol. •The split bolus protocol had a 43.5% reduction in mean DLP

  4. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M; Swahn, C G; Halldin, C; Friberg, L; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    2000-06-15

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the quantification of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in humans. In this way the distribution volume of the tracer can be determined from a single SPECT image and one blood sample. Based on bolus experiments, an algorithm using conventional convolution arguments for prediction of the outcome of a bolus/infusion (B/I) experiment was applied. It was predicted that a B/I protocol with infusion of one-third of the initial bolus per hour would be appropriate. Steady-state conditions were attained in extrastriatal regions within 3-4 h but the infusion continued up to 7 h in order to minimize the significance of individual differences in plasma clearance and binding parameters. A steady-state condition, however, could not be attained in striatal brain regions using a B/I protocol of 20 h, even after 11 h. Under near steady-state conditions a striatal:cerebellar ratio of 23 was demonstrated. Epidepride has a unique signal-to-noise ratio compared to [(123)I]IBZM but present difficulties for steady-state measurements of striatal regions. The bolus/infusion approach is particularly feasible for quantification of the binding potential in extrastriatal regions. PMID:10819910

  5. A model of emotion game for chasing between virtual humans%一种虚拟人追逐过程中的情绪博弈模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玉龙; 刘箴

    2012-01-01

    追逐行为在人类社会生活中十分常见,模拟追逐过程中的情绪变化,有助于揭示情绪和运动的关系.在借鉴博弈论的基础上,研究了虚拟人围绕障碍物追逐的情绪博弈模型,依据追逐的剧情,拟定了虚拟人的情绪强度公式,定量描述了虚拟人的速度和体力的变化,提出了追逐过程中虚拟人情绪博弈策略.采用OpenSceneGraph图形库实现了虚拟人追逐动画,实验结果表明,该模型能很好地模拟追逐中虚拟人情绪的变化规律.%Chasing behavior is very common in human social life, and simulation of the emotion variation in a cha-sing process is helpful to reveal the relationship between emotion and motion. An emotion game model for chasing between virtual human around obstacles was studied on the basis of game theory. The formulas of the emotion inten-sities were constructed by a chasing story, and the variation of a virtual human' s speed and energy were quantita-tively described. The emotion game strategy for a chasing process was presented. The chasing behavior animation of a virtual human was realized in an OpenSceneGraph graphic library. The experimental results show that the model can closely simulate the variation of emotion in a chasing process.

  6. Visual processing in rapid-chase systems: Image processing, attention, and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchmidt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be classified so rapidly that their analysis may be based on a single sweep of feedforward processing through the visuomotor system. Behavioral criteria for feedforward processing can be evaluated in response priming tasks where speeded pointing or keypress responses are performed towards target stimuli which are preceded by prime stimuli. We apply this method to several classes of complex stimuli. 1 When participants classify natural images into animals or non-animals, the time course of their pointing responses indicates that prime and target signals remain strictly sequential throughout all processing stages, meeting stringent behavioral criteria for feedforward processing (rapid-chase criteria. 2 Such priming effects are boosted by selective visual attention for positions, shapes, and colors, in a way consistent with bottom-up enhancement of visuomotor processing, even when primes cannot be consciously identified. 3 Speeded processing of phobic images is observed in participants specifically fearful of spiders or snakes, suggesting enhancement of feedforward processing by long-term perceptual learning. 4 When the perceived brightness of primes in complex displays is altered by means of illumination or transparency illusions, priming effects in speeded keypress responses can systematically contradict subjective brightness judgments, such that one prime appears brighter than the other but activates motor responses as if it was darker. We propose that response priming captures the output of the first feedforward pass of visual signals through the visuomotor system, and that this output lacks some characteristic features of more elaborate, recurrent processing. This way, visuomotor measures may become dissociated from several aspects of conscious vision. We argue that "fast" visuomotor measures predominantly driven by feedforward processing should supplement "slow" psychophysical measures predominantly based on visual

  7. ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION: ROLE OF I.V. BOLUS DOSE OF ESMOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND LIGNOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE : A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of intravenous Bolus dose of Esmolol Hydrochloride and Lignocaine Hydrochloride to attenuate the Haemodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal intubation. MATERIALS & METHODS : A study of Esmolol hydrochloride and Lignocaine hydrochloride in attenuation of the cardiovascular respons e during Laryngoscopy and intubation was compared in 50 adult patient, undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia. This study was taken in 2 groups. Group - I consists of 25 patients, where Lignocaine hydrochloride 2 mg per kg IV was used for attenuation of cardiovascular response to Laryngoscopy and intubation. Group - II consists of 25 patients where Esmolol hydrochloride 200 mg IV bolus was used as study drug. RESULTS : Results of the present study are consistent with the studies in attenuating haemodyna mic responses to Laryngoscopy and intubation by the use of intravenous bolus dose of 200 mg of Esmolol is superior to Lignocaine hydrochloride. 2mg per kg body weight IV bolus. CONCLUSION : It establishes the usefulness of intravenous bolus dose of Esmolol to attenuate the haemodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. This study shows the 200 mg of bolus dose of Esmolol hydrochloride is superior to intravenous Lignocaine hydrochloride 2 mg per kg body weight IV bolus to attenuate the ha emodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. No side effects were noted with Esmolol and Lignocaine hydrochloride

  8. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleson, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z [Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies.

  9. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies

  10. Continuous versus bolus cardiac output monitoring during or thotopic liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Ping Bao; Jian Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac output monitoring is important for critical patients. This study aimed to determine the delayed response of continuous cardiac output (CCO) thermodilution measurement, whether CCO and bolus cardiac output (BCO) thermodilution agree sufifciently to be used interchangeably, and whether CCO monitoring is reliable for patients undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS:Thirteen patients undergoing liver transplan-tation without veno-venous bypass were studied (37-66 years old, weight 46-75 kg). Continuous and bolus thermodilution measurements were performed at predeifned time points using an "Opti-Q" SvO2/CCO monitor (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL, USA). Bias and 95% limits of agreement were calculated according to Bland and Altman analysis. The limits of agreement by which two methods are judged to be interchangeable were deifned in advance as ±(13%× BCOmean) L/min. The repeatability and relative error of CCO, and the differences between CCO and the mean of the two measurements were calculated. RESULTS:Cardiac output measurements yielded 196 data pairs with ranges of 1.9 to 17.9 L/min for CCO and 2.1 to 18.3 L/min for BCO. The response time of CCO was delayed in the early phases after caval clamping and after reperfusion. At most of the measurement points, bias and 95%limits of agreement were-0.18±1.91 L/min. 95%limits of agreement did not fall within the predetermined limits of agreement of ±1.14 L/min. The repeatability coefifcient of CCO was 0.36 L/min and the relative error was 4.6±4.7%. The mean difference between CCO and the average of the two methods was-0.09 L/min (0.49 L/min). CONCLUSIONS:In patients undergoing liver transplan-tation, the delayed response of CCO limits its application during the early phases after caval clamping and after reperfusion of the graft. The two methods are not interchangeable even in hemodynamic stability. Continuous thermodilution monitoring, however, is reliable or acceptable for clinical purposes.

  11. Radiation dermatitis caused by a bolus effect from an abdominal compression device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael; Wei, Randy L; Yu, Suhong; Sehgal, Varun; Klempner, Samuel J; Daroui, Parima

    2016-01-01

    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 176 evaluated the dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices. The report analyzed the extensive physics-based literature on couch tops, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) frames, and body immobilization bags, while noting the scarcity of clinical reports of skin toxicity because of external devices. Here, we present a clinical case report of grade 1 abdominal skin toxicity owing to an abdominal compression device. We discuss the dosimetric implications of the utilized treatment plan as well as post hoc alternative plans and quantify differences in attenuation and skin dose/build-up between the device, a lower-density alternative device, and an open field. The description of the case includes a 66-year-old male with HER2 amplified poorly differentiated distal esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiation and the use of an abdominal compression device. Radiation was delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 2 arcs using abdominal compression and image guidance. The total dose was 50.4Gy delivered over 40 elapsed days. With 2 fractions remaining, the patient developed dermatitis in the area of the compression device. The original treatment plan did not include a contour of the device. Alternative post hoc treatment plans were generated, one to contour the device and a second with anterior avoidance. In conclusion, replanning with the device contoured revealed the bolus effect. The skin dose increased from 27 to 36Gy. planned target volume (PTV) coverage at 45Gy was reduced to 76.5% from 95.8%. The second VMAT treatment plan with an anterior avoidance sector and more oblique beam angles maintained PTV coverage and spared the anterior wall, however at the expense of substantially increased dose to lung. This case report provides an important reminder of the bolus effect from external devices such as abdominal compression. Special

  12. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  13. A randomized phase III multicenter trial comparing irinotecan in combination with the Nordic bolus 5-FU and folinic acid schedule or the bolus/infused de Gramont schedule (Lv5FU2) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimelius, B; Sørbye, H; Balteskard, L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare irinotecan with the Nordic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (FA) bolus schedule [irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) on day 1, 5-FU 500 mg/m(2) and FA 60 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 2 (FLIRI)] or the Lv5FU2 schedule [irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) on day 1, FA 200 mg/m(2), 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m(2......). RESULTS: Patient characteristics were well balanced. PFS did not differ between groups (median 9 months, P = 0.22). Overall survival (OS) was also similar (median 19 months, P = 0.9). Fewer objective responses were seen in the FLIRI group (35% versus 49%, P = 0.001) but the metastatic resection rate did...

  14. Cross comparison and modelling of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Franklin Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We have studied statistical characteristics of five share price time series. For each stock price, we estimated a best fit quantitative model for the monthly closing price as based on the decomposition into two defining consumer price indices selected from a large set of CPIs. It was found that there are two pairs of similar models (Bank of America/Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs/JPMorgan Chase) with a standalone model for Franklin Resources. From each pair, one can choose the company with t...

  15. Dosimetry characterization and clinical application of Exa skin: Bolus of high of high density for use with photons; Caracterizacion dosimetrica y aplicacion clinica de Exaskin: bolus de alta densidad para uso con fotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Seidel, M.; Velazquez Miranda, S.

    2013-07-01

    Bolus of high density eXaSkin of density 1.6 g/cm{sub 3} is calculated correctly in the planning systems, is easy to use and generates optimum coupling with the radiation area, at the same time which is easily reproducible in their placement, avoiding the use of electron beams. On the other hand its behavior varies very slightly with the presence of air gaps. (Author)

  16. Effects of advanced carbohydrate counting guided by an automated bolus calculator in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (StenoABC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Schmidt, S; Vistisen, D;

    2016-01-01

    -centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy. In a 1:1-ratio, participants were randomized to receive training in either advanced......AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single...... carbohydrate counting using mental calculations (MC group) or advanced carbohydrate counting using an automated bolus calculator (ABC group) during a 3.5-h group training course. For 12 months after training, participants attended a specialized diabetes centre quarterly. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c...

  17. Changes in basal rates and bolus calculator settings in insulin pumps during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jonathan M; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    and HbA1c were recorded. Results were compared with 96 women with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injection therapy. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio decreased at all three main meals. The most pronounced decrease was observed at breakfast, where the carbohydrate......c levels during pregnancy, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio declined 4-fold from early to late pregnancy, whereas......OBJECTIVE: To explore insulin pump settings in a cohort of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator. METHODS: Twenty-seven women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy were included in this study. At 8, 12, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, insulin pump settings...

  18. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of bolus-administered mannitol in patients undergoing elective craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Kotaro; Baker, Max T; Han, Tae-Hyung; Weeks, Julie B; Todd, Michael M

    2010-05-01

    To better understand mannitol pharmacokinetics, the authors constructed and compared population models for high-versus low-dose bolus infusions in humans. Patients (aged 18-75, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1-3) scheduled for elective craniotomy with an anticipated need for intraoperative mannitol were randomly assigned to receive either 0.5 (n = 10) or 1.0 (n = 12) g/kg of 20% mannitol over 15 minutes. Serial blood samples were collected at the predetermined intervals over 12 hours. Plasma mannitol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography and subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis; a 3-compartment model best described mannitol disposition characteristics. Weight and dose were the important covariates for rapid peripheral volume of distribution (V2) and central clearance (CL1), respectively. Estimated population means were 2.80, 8.86, and 12.0 L for central (V1), rapid (V2), and slow (V3) volumes of distribution, respectively. Clearances of the central compartments (CL1) were 0.07 versus 0.04 L/min in the high-versus low-dose group, respectively. Thus, mannitol kinetics can be considered as nonlinear. Clearances of the rapid peripheral (CL2) and slow peripheral compartments (CL3) were identical (2.07 and 0.16 L/min) in both. The current weight-based dosing guidelines yielded greater than expected plasma drug concentrations in obese patients. PMID:20051588

  19. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  20. Basal or bolus dose, which is the key factor in CSII?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Nai-long; XUE Bing; LIN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of HbA1c level evaluating the total daily basal insulin dose by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in 268 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 5-point capillary blood glucose was monitored in pre- and post-CSII and the insulin dose which could stabilize blood glucose was defmed as the total daily dose of insulin,including basal and bolus total dose. Correlation between HbA1c level and total daily dose of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was analyzed. Correlation between HbA1c level and 5-point capillary blood glucose was also analyzed. Results:Obvious correlation was observed between HbA1c level and the basal total daily dose of insulin if HbA1c was more than 9.3%(r=0.635, P<0.05). The average of 5-point capillary blood glucose was best correlated with HbA1c and fasting blood glucose next best. Conclusion: HbA1c level can forecast basal total daily dose of insulin in CSII.

  1. Diclofenac Sodium Bolus Injection (Dyloject(TM)): A Review in Acute Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2016-08-01

    An intravenous bolus formulation of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium has been developed using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) as a solubility enhancer. HPβCD diclofenac (Dyloject(TM)) is available for use in adults in the USA for the management of mild to moderate pain, and as monotherapy or in combination with opioid analgesics for the management of moderate to severe pain. In two multicentre, phase III studies in adults with acute moderate to severe postoperative pain, HPβCD diclofenac significantly reduced pain intensity and the need for rescue medication compared with placebo. In these studies, the tolerability profile of HPβCD diclofenac was generally similar to that of placebo and adverse events were mostly mild to moderate in severity. Constipation, infusion-site pain and dizziness were the most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring numerically more frequently with HPβCD diclofenac than placebo. Therapy with HPβCD diclofenac does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, renal or bleeding-related adverse events versus placebo. Thus, HPβCD diclofenac extends the treatment options currently available for the management of moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. PMID:27447189

  2. Longitudinal dispersion of Xenon-133 bolus in the oropharynx and the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at confirming that the upper airways (oropharynx) cannot be considered as a simple dead space playing no specific role in the mixing and to establish the transfer function of these airways during inspiration and expiration. The experiments are performed on five healthy subjects. A 133Xe bolus is injected in front of the lips while the subject breathes air at a constant flow rate. The radioactivity is measured during inspiration and expiration by two counter probes in front of the lips and at the level of the upper opening of the trachea. The experimental outputs, under the glottis for inspiration and in front of the lips for expiration, are compared with the responses of a mathematical model which takes into account the longitudinal mixing of gas in the oropharynx and the larynx. This method mades it possible to determine the parameters which the transfer function depends on. Our results suggest that the relationships between the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and the product of the mean axial velocity u by the diameter d or the length L of the upper airways, is linear. The transfer function is the same for the five subjects but the inspiratory and expiratory transfer functions are different

  3. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; SATO, JUICHI; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10–90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrati...

  4. Low-dose esmolol bolus reduces seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, Walter; Leentjens, A.F.; Kusuma, Ari; Bruijn, Jan; Mulder, Paul

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe have measured the effect of a bolus dose of esmolol 80 mg i.v. on heart rate, and systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We also assessed seizure duration using both the cuff method and two-lead EEG. We studied 20 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-patient blocked randomized study. No patient was receiving psychotherapeutic drugs or had cardiovascular disease. Esmolol significantly reduced he...

  5. Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

  6. Locoregional Outcomes of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Standard Fractionation Radiation and Daily Skin Bolus in the Taxane Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess locoregional outcomes of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients who received standard fractionation radiation with daily skin bolus and taxanes as part of combined-modality therapy (CMT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 107 patients diagnosed with IBC between January 1995 and March 2006 who presented to our department for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Results: All patients received chemotherapy (95% anthracycline and 95% taxane), modified radical mastectomy, and RT to the chest wall and regional lymphatics using standard fractionation to 50 Gy and daily skin bolus. The RT to the chest wall was delivered via electrons (55%) or photons (45%) in daily fractions of 180 cGy (73%) or 200 cGy (27%). Scar boost was performed in 11%. A majority (84%) of patients completed the prescribed treatment. Median follow-up was 47 months (range, 10-134 months). Locoregional control (LRC) at 3 years and 5 years was 90% and 87%, respectively. Distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) at 3 years and 5 years was 61% and 47%, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent locoregional control was observed in this population of IBC patients who received standard fractionation radiation with daily skin bolus and taxanes as part of combined-modality therapy. Distant metastases-free survival remains a significant therapeutic challenge.

  7. Decoding Biosynthetic Pathways in Plants by Pulse-Chase Strategies Using 13CO2 as a Universal Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelbert Bacher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 13CO2 pulse-chase experiments monitored by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry can provide 13C-isotopologue compositions in biosynthetic products. Experiments with a variety of plant species have documented that the isotopologue profiles generated with 13CO2 pulse-chase labeling are directly comparable to those that can be generated by the application of [U-13C6]glucose to aseptically growing plants. However, the application of the 13CO2 labeling technology is not subject to the experimental limitations that one has to take into account for experiments with [U-13C6]glucose and can be applied to plants growing under physiological conditions, even in the field. In practical terms, the results of biosynthetic studies with 13CO2 consist of the detection of pairs, triples and occasionally quadruples of 13C atoms that have been jointly contributed to the target metabolite, at an abundance that is well above the stochastic occurrence of such multiples. Notably, the connectivities of jointly transferred 13C multiples can have undergone modification by skeletal rearrangements that can be diagnosed from the isotopologue data. As shown by the examples presented in this review article, the approach turns out to be powerful in decoding the carbon topology of even complex biosynthetic pathways.

  8. Dynamic computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic computed tomography (CT) studies of the brain are based on a rapid intravenous bolus injection of radiographic contrast material immediately followed by serial CT scans. The recycling times for this technique are 1 sec or less. Dynamic studies, which are relatively non-invasive, add considerable information to the static cerebral scan as it is presently performed. The resulting time-density patterns are described and typical examples of each are shown. (orig.)

  9. Automated bolus advisor control and usability study (ABACUS: does use of an insulin bolus advisor improve glycaemic control in patients failing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI therapy? [NCT01460446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavan David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming, people may rely on empirical estimates, which can result in persistent hypoglycaemia and/or hyperglycaemia. Use of automated bolus advisors (BA has been shown to help insulin pump users to more accurately meet prandial insulin dosage requirements, improve postprandial glycaemic excursions, and achieve optimal glycaemic control with an increased time within optimal range. Use of a BA containing an early algorithm based on sliding scales for insulin dosing has also been shown to improve HbA1c levels in people treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI. We designed a study to determine if use of an automated BA can improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in people treated with MDI. Methods/design The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS is a 6-month, prospective, randomised, multi-centre, multi-national trial to determine if automated BA use improves glycaemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in people using MDI with elevated HbA1c levels (#62;7.5%. A total of 226 T1DM and T2DM participants will be recruited. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of 90 participants, which will provide #62;80% power to detect a mean difference of 0.5%, with SD of 0.9%, using a one-sided 5% t-test, with 5% significance level. Other measures of glycaemic control, self-care behaviours and psychosocial issues will also be assessed. Discussion It is critical that healthcare providers utilise available technologies that both facilitate effective glucose management and address concerns about safety and lifestyle. Automated BAs may help people using MDI to

  10. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus

  11. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxa, Jan, E-mail: baxaj@fnplzen.cz [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Vendiš, Tomáš [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Moláček, Jiří [Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Lucie [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Flohr, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Korporaal, Johannes G. [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography Division, Forchheim (Germany); Ferda, Jiří [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus.

  12. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  13. Quantification of myocardial perfusion using CMR with a radial data acquisition: comparison with a dual-bolus method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liyong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative estimates of myocardial perfusion generally require accurate measurement of the arterial input function (AIF. The saturation of signal intensity in the blood that occurs with most doses of contrast agent makes obtaining an accurate AIF challenging. This work seeks to evaluate the performance of a method that uses a radial k-space perfusion sequence and multiple saturation recovery times (SRT to quantify myocardial perfusion with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods Perfusion CMR was performed at 3 Tesla with a saturation recovery radial turboFLASH sequence with 72 rays. Fourteen subjects were given a low dose (0.004 mmol/kg of dilute (1/5 concentration contrast agent (Gd-BOPTA and then a higher non-dilute dose of the same volume (0.02 mmol/kg. AIFs were calculated from the blood signal in three sub-images with differing effective saturation recovery times. The full and sub-images were reconstructed iteratively with a total variation constraint. The images from the full 72 ray data were processed to obtain six tissue enhancement curves in two slices of the left ventricle in each subject. A 2-compartment model was used to determine absolute flows Results The proposed multi-SRT method resulted in AIFs that were similar to those obtained with the dual-bolus method. Myocardial blood flow (MBF estimates from the dual-bolus and the multi-SRT methods were related by MBFmulti-SRT = 0.85MBFdual-bolus + 0.18 (r = 0.91. Conclusions The multi-SRT method, which uses a radial k-space perfusion sequence, can be used to obtain an accurate AIF and thus quantify myocardial perfusion for doses of contrast agent that result in a relatively saturated AIF.

  14. Contrast agent bolus tracking with a fixed threshold or a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Rief, Matthias; Zimmermann, Elke; Greupner, Johannes; Richter, Felicitas; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Comparison of bolus tracking with a fixed threshold versus a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography. We retrospectively analysed 320-row coronary CT angiography of 50 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. Twenty-five examinations were initiated by a bolus tracking method (group 1), 25 examinations with a manual fast surestart (group 2). Mean attenuation values in the ascending aorta were 519 ± 111 Hounsfield units (HU) in group 1 and 476 ± 65 HU in group 2 (p = 0.10). Assessable vessel lengths were 171 ± 44 mm vs 172 ± 29 mm for the right coronary artery (p = 0.91), 11 ± 4 mm vs 12 ± 4 mm for the left main (p = 0.9), 163 ± 28 mm vs 151 ± 26 mm for the left anterior descending coronary artery (p = 0.11) and 125 ± 41 mm vs 110 ± 37 mm for the left circumflex coronary artery (p = 0.18). Image quality for all coronary arteries was not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.41). The attenuation ratio between the left and right ventricle was 2.8 ± 0.7 vs 3.6 ± 1.0 (p = 0.003). Significantly less contrast agent was used in group 2 (64 ± 6 ml vs 80 ± 0 ml; p < 0.001). Bolus tracking with a fixed threshold and with a manual fast start are both suitable methods; the fast start allowed a reduction of contrast agent volumes. (orig.)

  15. Capillary permeability of 99mTc-DTPA in canine myocardium determined by intracoronary bolus injection and residue detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Efsen, F; Haunsø, S

    1989-01-01

    Capillary permeability of 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA; MW 485.0) and 51chromium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (51Cr-EDTA; MW 340.2) was studied in an in vivo canine heart preparation by the single injection, residue detection (SIRD) method. In experiments on open...... chest dogs (group A) these indicators were administered separately as bolus injections into a cannulated diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the curve of the response function was recorded by external activity registration. In further experiments on closed and open...

  16. Chasing 5-sigma: Prospects for searches for long-duration gravitational-waves without time slides

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Thrane, Eric; Christensen, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The detection of unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts by ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors is a major goal for the advanced detector era. These searches are commonly cast as pattern recognition problems, where the goal is to identify statistically significant clusters in spectrograms of strain power when the precise signal morphology is unknown. In previous work, we have introduced a clustering algorithm referred to as "seedless clustering," and shown that it is a powerful tool for detecting weak long-lived (10-1000s) signals in background. However, as the algorithm is currently conceived, in order to carry out an all-sky search on a $\\approx$ year of data, significant computational resources may be required in order to carry out background estimation. Alternatively, some of the sensitivity of the search must be sacrificed to control computational costs. The sensitivity of the algorithm is limited by the amount of computing resources due to the requirement of performing background studi...

  17. Identificação de Paspalum notatum fluegge e Axonopus affinis chase através da análise de fragmentos foliares Identification of Paspalum notatum fluegge and Axonopus affinis chase through leaf fragments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Lopes Nogueira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização e identificação de fragmentos foliares de Paspalum notatum Fluegge e Axonopus affinis Chase, como forma de subsidiar projetos de avaliação da dieta de animais fistulados. Para a caracterização das espécies, foram feitas várias coletas de folhas em áreas de pastagem natural do Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS, de maio de 1992 a junho de 1993. A diferenciação das espécies foi baseada no padrão de nervação, presença de pêlos e características do ápice e bordo foliar, observadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A habilidade de um observador em identificar fragmentos das duas espécies numa mistura e a eficácia dos descritores foliares mencionados foram testadas através de análise estatística. Desta forma, foi constatado que o padrão de nervação é o melhor critério de diferenciação e que A. affinis difere de P. notatum, basicamente, pelo ápice foliar obtuso e pela presença de nervuras quaternárias. A análise estatística confirmou a capacidade do observador em reconhecer fragmentos das duas espécies.This research aimed at the characterization and identification of leaves, fragments of Paspalum notatum Fluegge and Axonopus affinis Chase, for future studies of diet evaluation of fistuleted animals. For the species characterization, several collections of leaves were made in native pasture areas at the UFSM Campus (Santa Maria, RS from May, 1992 to June, 1993. The differentiation of the species was based on the leave’s venation pattern, hair presence, leaf border and apex features, observed with a stereomicroscope. The obverver’s ability to identify the two species of leaves in a misture were tested with statistical analysis. It was observed that the venation pattern is the best characterization criteria and that A. affinis differs from P. notatum mainly by the obtuse leaf apex and by the quaternary vein presence. The statistical analysis

  18. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Hobart Lake Easement Refuge, Stoney Slough Easement Refuge, Tomahawk Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year....

  19. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Hobart Lake Easement Refuge, Stoney Slough Easement Refuge, Tomahawk Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year....

  20. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Hobart Lake Easement Refuge, Stoney Slough Easement Refuge, Tomahawk Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year....

  1. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the CHASE from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 27 December 1973 to 07 January 1974 (NODC Accession 7400475)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the CHASE within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 5100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  2. Oceanographic station data from CTD and bottle casts from the CHASE from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 24 March 1972 to 18 April 1972 (NODC Accession 7300020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the CHASE within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 4100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  3. Oceanographic station data from CTD casts from the CHASE AND ESCANABA from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) and E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean 11 April 1969 to 12 May 1969 (NODC Accession 6900885)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the CHASE and ESCANABA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W), E (3500N 04800W), and in...

  4. Evaluation of bolus electron conformal therapy compared with conventional techniques for the treatment of left chest wall postmastectomy in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opp, Dan, E-mail: Daniel.Opp@moffitt.org; Forster, Kenneth; Li, Weiqi; Zhang, Geoffrey; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2013-01-01

    Postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) lowers local-regional recurrence risk and improves survival in selected patients with breast cancer. The chest wall and lower axilla are technically challenging areas to treat with homogenous doses and normal tissue sparing. This study compares several techniques for PMRT to provide data to guide selection of optimal treatment techniques. Twenty-five consecutive left-sided patients treated postmastectomy were contoured using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas guidelines then planned using 4 different PMRT techniques: opposed tangents with wedges (3-dimensional [3D] wedges), opposed tangents with field-in-field (FiF) modulation, 8-field intensity modulation radiotherapy (IMRT), and custom bolus electron conformal therapy (BolusECT, .decimal, Inc., Sanford, FL). Required planning target volume (PTV) coverage was held constant, and then dose homogeneity and normal tissue dose parameters were compared among the 4 techniques. BolusECT achieved clincally acceptable PTV coverage for 22 out of 25 cases. Compared with either tangential technique, IMRT and BolusECT provided the lowest heart V{sub 25} doses (3.3% ± 0.9% and 6.6% ± 3.2%, respectively with p < 0.0001). FiF had the lowest mean total lung dose (7.3 ± 1.1 Gy, with p = 0.0013), IMRT had the lowest total lung V{sub 20} (10.3% ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001), and BolusECT had the lowest mean heart dose (7.3 ± 2.0 Gy, p = 0.0002). IMRT provided the optimal dose homogeneity and normal tissue sparing compared with all other techniques for the cases in which BolusECT could not achieve acceptable PTV coverage. IMRT generally exposes contralateral breast and lung to slightly higher doses. Optimal PMRT technique depends upon patient anatomy. Patients whose maximal target volume depth is about 5.7 cm or less can be treated with BolusECT-assisted 12 or 15 MeV electron beams. At these energies, BolusECT has comparable dose-volume statistics as IMRT and lower heart V{sub 25} than opposed

  5. Acute Effect of Whole-Body Periodic Acceleration on Brachial Flow-Mediated Vasodilatation Assessed by a Novel Semi-Automatic Vessel Chasing UNEXEF18G System

    OpenAIRE

    Takase, Bonpei; Hattori, Hidemi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Uehata, Akimi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Fujita, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated application of whole-body periodic acceleration (WBPA) upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and improves brachial artery endothelial function (BAEF) as assessed by measurement of flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD). However, the acute effect of a single application of WBPA on BAEF has not been fully characterized. In addition, although a novel semi-automatic vessel chasing system (UNEXEF18G) has now been developed in Japan, the direct comparison of UNEXEF18G with a...

  6. A two-year revision: cross comparison and modeling of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Franklin Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately two years ago we presented results of price modeling and extensive statistical analysis for share prices of five banks: Bank of America (BAC), Franklin Resources (BEN), Goldman Sachs (GS), JPMorgan Chase (JPM), and Morgan Stanley (MS). Using monthly closing prices (adjusted for splits and dividends) as a proxy to stock prices, we estimated the best fit (LSQ) quantitative price models based on the decomposition into two defining consumer price indices selected from a large set of...

  7. Costs of locomotion in polar bears: when do the costs outweigh the benefits of chasing down terrestrial prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Iles, David T.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs between locomotory costs and foraging gains are key elements in determining constraints on predator–prey interactions. One intriguing example involves polar bears pursuing snow geese on land. As climate change forces polar bears to spend more time ashore, they may need to expend more energy to obtain land-based food. Given that polar bears are inefficient at terrestrial locomotion, any extra energy expended to pursue prey could negatively impact survival. However, polar bears have been regularly observed engaging in long pursuits of geese and other land animals, and the energetic worth of such behaviour has been repeatedly questioned. We use data-driven energetic models to examine how energy expenditures vary across polar bear mass and speed. For the first time, we show that polar bears in the 125–235 kg size range can profitably pursue geese, especially at slower speeds. We caution, however, that heat build-up may be the ultimate limiting factor in terrestrial chases, especially for larger bears, and this limit would be reached more quickly with warmer environmental temperatures. PMID:27757238

  8. Plasma level monitoring of the major metabolites of diacetylmorphine (heroin) by the "chasing the dragon" route in severe heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, N; Demaret, I; Ansseau, M; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Charlier, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify if severe physical health problems frequently encountered in heroin addicts and the concomitant use of alcohol and legal or illegal drugs other than heroin influenced the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of heroin. We conducted a 90 minutes follow-up of the plasma concentrations of the pharmaceutical heroin, named diacetylmorphine (DAM), in patients recruited in a DAM assisted treatment centre. TADAM (Traitement Assisté par DiAcétylMorphine) aimed to compare the efficacy of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for heroin users considered as treatment resistant patients and who have severe physical and mental health problems. Eleven patients were recruited. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 45 and 90 minutes after DAM administration. All patients received DAM by the "chasing the dragon" route. Plasma samples were analyzed by a previously described ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) method. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and 8 metabolite concentrations ratios were calculated to evaluate the influence of various factors (DAM dose, patient pathologies, concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin, alcohol and cocaine) on heroin metabolite pharmacokinetics. It seemed to be not affected by the DAM dose, patient pathologies and the concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin and alcohol. Cocaine use was the only parameter which showed differences in heroin pharmacokinetics.

  9. Chase Sound Boys Out of Earth”: The Aura of Dubplate Specials in Finnish Reggae Sound System Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ramstedt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to expand our understanding of how dubplate specials are produced, circulated, and culturally valued in the international reggae sound system culture of the dub diaspora by analysing the production and performance of “Chase the Devil” (2005, a dubplate special commissioned by the Finnish MPV sound system from Jamaican reggae singer Max Romeo. A dubplate special is a unique recording where, typically, a reggae artist re-records the vocals to one of his or her popular songs with new lyrics that praise the sound system that commissioned the recording. Scholars have previously theorized dubplates using Walter Benjamin’s concept of aura, thereby drawing attention to the exclusivity and uniqueness of these traditionally analog recordings. However, since the advent of digital technologies in both recording and sound system performance, what Benjamin calls the “cult value” of producing and performing dubplates has become increasingly complex and multi-layered, as digital dubplates now remediate prior aesthetic forms of the analog. By turning to ethnographic accounts from the sound system’s DJ selectors, I investigate how digital dubplates are still culturally valued for their aura, even as the very concept of aura falls into question when applied to the recording and performance of digital dubplates.

  10. GH receptor signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in human subjects following exposure to an intravenous GH bolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Jessen, Niels; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke;

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates muscle and fat metabolism, which impacts on body composition and insulin sensitivity, but the underlying GH signaling pathways have not been studied in vivo in humans. We investigated GH signaling in biopsies from muscle and abdominal fat obtained 30 (n = 3) or 60 (n...... was detected in muscle and fat of all subjects after GH. Activation of MAPK was observed in several lysates but without GH dependency. Neither PKB/Akt nor PI 3-kinase activity was affected by GH. GH-induced STAT5 DNA binding and expression of IGF-I mRNA were detected in fat, whereas expression of SOCS-1 and -3...... tended to increase after GH in muscle and fat, respectively. We conclude that 1) STAT5 is acutely activated in human muscle and fat after a GH bolus, but additional downstream GH signaling was significant only in fat; 2) the direct GH effects in muscle need further characterization; and 3) this human...

  11. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo......- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of an empirical constant phi Gd, absolute regional CBF was calculated from MRI. The spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of CBF measurements by MRI were better than by the H215O-PET protocol. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral...... blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...

  12. Model of the Glucose-Insulin-Glucagon Dynamics after Subcutaneous Administration of a Glucagon Rescue Bolus in Healthy Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Haidar, Ahmad;

    In healthy individuals, insulin and glucagon work in a complex fashion to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. This regulation is distorted in patients with diabetes. The hepatic glucose response due to an elevated glucagon level depends on the current insulin concentration and thus...... endogenous glucose production (EGP) can not be modelled without knowledge of the concentration of both hormones in plasma. Furthermore, literature suggests an upper limit to EGP irrespective of glucagon levels. We build a simulation model of the glucose-insulin-glucagon dynamics in man including saturation...... effect of EGP. Ten healthy subjects received a 1 mg subcutaneous (SC) glucagon bolus (GlucaGen®). Plasma samples were collected until 300 minutes post dose and analyzed for glucagon, insulin, and glucose concentrations. All observations were used to fit a physiological model of the glucose...

  13. Comparação do tempo de recuperação do mivacúrio em bolus e em infusão contínua Comparación del tiempo de recuperación del mivacúrio en bolus y en infusión continuada Comparison of recovery time of bolus and continuous infusion mivacurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O mivacúrio é um bloqueador neuromuscular (BNM de ação curta, que apresenta uma duração total não ultrapassando 24 minutos. As primeiras comunicações científicas relataram não haver diferenças significativas no tempo de recuperação, independentemente da forma de administração. No entanto, a experiência clínica aponta para recuperações mais prolongadas quando se administra o fármaco em infusão contínua. Este trabalho tem por objetivo comparar o tempo de recuperação do mivacúrio quando administrado em bolus e em forma contínua, em um grupo de pacientes jovens e adultos. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 40 pacientes jovens sem doenças neuromusculares. Após receberem midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica, foram monitorizados na sala de operação com ECG na derivação D II e realizada a aferição da pressão arterial indireta por método automático. Todos receberam propofol e fentanil, e a anestesia foi mantida com isoflurano, óxido nitroso e oxigênio. Após a indução, foram instalados o monitor da transmissão neuromuscular por acelerometria e, após a intubação, o capnógrafo e o analisador de gases. Foram divididos em 2 grupos iguais de acordo com o regime de administração de mivacúrio: os do grupo 1 receberam somente dose inicial em bolus e os do grupo 2, após a dose inicial e terem recuperado 10% de T1, receberam infusão contínua para manter uma T1 nesse valor. Foram anotados em ambos os grupos os valores de T1 e T4/T1 na fase de recuperação, a partir de T1 em 10% da resposta inicial, de minuto a minuto, até 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação às variáveis antropométricas. O grupo 2 apresentou tempo de recuperação mais lenta do que os pacientes que receberam somente a dose inicial em bolus. Houve grande variação de doses de infusão entre pacientes e no próprio paciente no decorrer da infusão. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes jovens e adultos

  14. Predicting erythroid response to recombinant erythropoietin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy following a single subcutaneous bolus in patients with myelodysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    BOWEN, D; Hyslop, A.; Keenan, N.; Groves, M.; Culligan, D.; Johnson, P; Shaw, A.; Geddes, F.; Evans, P.; Porter, J.; Cavill, I.

    2006-01-01

    We randomized 21 patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to receive a single subcutaneous bolus of recombinant erythropoietin (epoietin) +/- granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or placebo and monitored erythropoietic response over 7 days. In this small study, the reticulocyte response at day 7 was highly predictive of subsequent response to a therapeutic trial of epoietin + G-CSF.

  15. ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION: ROLE OF I.V. BOLUS DOSE OF ESMOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND LIGNOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE : A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Padma; Mydhili

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of intravenous Bolus dose of Esmolol Hydrochloride and Lignocaine Hydrochloride to attenuate the Haemodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal intubation. MATERIALS & METHODS : A study of Esmolol hydrochloride and Lignocaine hydrochloride in attenuation of the cardiovascular respons e during Laryngoscopy and intubation was compared in 50 adult patient, undergoing s...

  16. SU-E-T-356: Accuracy of Eclipse Electron Macro Monte Carlo Dose Algorithm for Use in Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of electron dose distribution calculated by the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with recent commercially available bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to those previously measured for cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV CT anatomy for each site. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The bolus ECT treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and calculated using the maximum allowable histories (2×109), resulting in a statistical error of <0.2%. Smoothing was not used for these calculations. Differences between eMC-calculated and measured dose distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Results: Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom showed 89% (41/46) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of −0.12% with a standard deviation of 2.56%. Results for the nose phantom showed 95% (54/57) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of 1.12% with a standard deviation of 3.03%. Dose calculation times for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 15 min and 22 min, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a Varian Eclipse framework agent server (FAS). Results of this study were consistent with those previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and for the .decimal, Inc. pencil beam redefinition algorithm used to plan the bolus. Conclusion: These results show that the accuracy of the Eclipse eMC algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT

  17. Dynamic computed tomographic scans in experimental brain abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic computed tomographic scans were performed in an experimental brain abscess model to establish criteria that could be utilized in abscess staging. The vascular phase of the time-density curves did not differentiate cerebritis and capsule stages. The amount of residual enhancement after the first pass of an intra-arterial contrast bolus differed between major abscess stages, the greater residual enhancement being noted in the capsule stage. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic computed tomographic scans in experimental brain abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzmann, D.R.; Britt, R.H.; Placone, R.C.

    1984-07-01

    Dynamic computed tomographic scans were performed in an experimental brain abscess model to establish criteria that could be utilized in abscess staging. The vascular phase of the time-density curves did not differentiate cerebritis and capsule stages. The amount of residual enhancement after the first pass of an intra-arterial contrast bolus differed between major abscess stages, the greater residual enhancement being noted in the capsule stage.

  19. Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease: A New Role for Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Olsan, Adam D.; Matthews, Charles C.; Sullivan, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a common noninvasive, definitive, alternative to ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy scan and pulmonary angiography in the evaluation of patients suspected of having pulmonary emboli. Additionally, recent articles have investigated the possibility of using CT to identify deep venous thrombi following a spiral CT pulmonary angiogram. Using the same bolus of contrast as that administered for a CT pulmonary angiogram, the ultimate g...

  20. CHASE domain-containing receptors play an essential role in the cytokinin response of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Lindner, Ann-Cathrin; Gruhn, Njuscha; Šimura, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Gonneau, Martine; Nogué, Fabien; Heyl, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    While the molecular basis for cytokinin action is quite well understood in flowering plants, little is known about the cytokinin signal transduction in early diverging land plants. The genome of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S. encodes three classical cytokinin receptors, the CHASE domain-containing histidine kinases, CHK1, CHK2, and CHK3. In a complementation assay with protoplasts of receptor-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in cytokinin binding assays, we found evidence that CHK1 and CHK2 receptors can function in cytokinin perception. Using gene targeting, we generated a collection of CHK knockout mutants comprising single (Δchk1, Δchk2, Δchk3), double (Δchk1,2, Δchk1,3, Δchk2,3), and triple (Δchk1,2,3) mutants. Mutants were characterized for their cytokinin response and differentiation capacities. While the wild type did not grow on high doses of cytokinin (1 µM benzyladenine), the Δchk1,2,3 mutant exhibited normal protonema growth. Bud induction assays showed that all three cytokinin receptors contribute to the triggering of budding, albeit to different extents. Furthermore, while the triple mutant showed no response in this bioassay, the remaining mutants displayed budding responses in a diverse manner to different types and concentrations of cytokinins. Determination of cytokinin levels in mutants showed no drastic changes for any of the cytokinins; thus, in contrast to Arabidopsis, revealing only small impacts of cytokinin signaling on homeostasis. In summary, our study provides a first insight into the molecular action of cytokinin in an early diverging land plant and demonstrates that CHK receptors play an essential role in bud induction and gametophore development.

  1. Feasibility of power contrast injections and bolus triggering during CT scans in oncologic patients with totally implantable venous access ports of the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Conventional totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are not approved for power contrast injections but often remain the only venous access site in oncologic patients. Therefore, these devices can play an important role if patients with a TIVAP are scheduled for a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) as vascular access may become more difficult during the course of chemotherapy. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of power injections in conventional TIVAPs in the forearm and to analyze the feasibility of bolus triggering during CT scans. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed 177 power injections in 141 patients with TIVAPs in the forearm. Between October 2008 and March 2010 all patients underwent power injections (1.5 mL/s, 150 psi) via the TIVAP for ceCT because conventional vascular access via a peripheral vein had failed. Adequate functioning and catheter's tip location after injection were evaluated. Peak injection pressure and attenuation levels of aorta, liver and spleen were analyzed and compared with results of 50 patients who were injected via classical peripheral cannulas (3 mL/s, 300 psi). Feasibility of automatic scan initiation was evaluated. In vitro the port was stressed with 5 mL/s (300 psi). Results: One TIVAP showed tip dislocation with catheter rupture. Three (2.1%) devices were explanted owing to assumed infection within 4 weeks after the injection. Mean injection pressure was 121.9 ±24.1 psi. Triggering with automatic scan initiation succeeded in 13/44 (29.6%) scans. Injection via classical cannulas resulted in significantly higher enhancement (p < 0.05). In vitro the port system tolerated flow rates of up to 5 mL/s, injection pressures of up to 338 psi. Conclusion: Power injection is a safe alternative for patients with TIVAPs in the forearm if classic vascular access ultimately fails. Triggering was successful in one-third of the attempts. Image quality in the arterial phase

  2. Feasibility of power contrast injections and bolus triggering during CT scans in oncologic patients with totally implantable venous access ports of the forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltz, Jan Peter; Machann, Wolfram; Noack, Claudia; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph (Julius-Maximilians-Univ. of Wuerzburg, Inst. of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)), e-mail: Goltz@roentgen.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2011-02-15

    Background: Conventional totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are not approved for power contrast injections but often remain the only venous access site in oncologic patients. Therefore, these devices can play an important role if patients with a TIVAP are scheduled for a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) as vascular access may become more difficult during the course of chemotherapy. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of power injections in conventional TIVAPs in the forearm and to analyze the feasibility of bolus triggering during CT scans. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed 177 power injections in 141 patients with TIVAPs in the forearm. Between October 2008 and March 2010 all patients underwent power injections (1.5 mL/s, 150 psi) via the TIVAP for ceCT because conventional vascular access via a peripheral vein had failed. Adequate functioning and catheter's tip location after injection were evaluated. Peak injection pressure and attenuation levels of aorta, liver and spleen were analyzed and compared with results of 50 patients who were injected via classical peripheral cannulas (3 mL/s, 300 psi). Feasibility of automatic scan initiation was evaluated. In vitro the port was stressed with 5 mL/s (300 psi). Results: One TIVAP showed tip dislocation with catheter rupture. Three (2.1%) devices were explanted owing to assumed infection within 4 weeks after the injection. Mean injection pressure was 121.9 +-24.1 psi. Triggering with automatic scan initiation succeeded in 13/44 (29.6%) scans. Injection via classical cannulas resulted in significantly higher enhancement (p < 0.05). In vitro the port system tolerated flow rates of up to 5 mL/s, injection pressures of up to 338 psi. Conclusion: Power injection is a safe alternative for patients with TIVAPs in the forearm if classic vascular access ultimately fails. Triggering was successful in one-third of the attempts. Image quality in the arterial

  3. SU-E-T-541: Bolus Effect of Thermoplastic Masks in IMRT and VMAT Head and Neck Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, H; Nedzi, L; Chen, S; Jiang, S; Zhao, B [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the bolus effect of thermoplalstic mask on patient skin dose during multi-field IMRT and VMAT treatment. Methods: The clinically approved target contours for five head and neck patients were deformably registered to an anthropomorphic Rando phantom. Two plans: Multifield IMRT plan with 7-9 beams and VMAT plan with 2-4 arcs were created for each patient following same dose constraints. 3mm skin was excluded from PTVs but not constrained during optimization. The prescription dose was 200-220 cGy/fraction. A thermoplastic head and shoulder mask was customized for the Rando phantom. Each plan was delivered to the phantom twice with and without mask. During each delivery, two rectangular strips of EBT3 films (1cm x 6.8cm) were placed across the anterior upper and lower neck near PTVs to measure the surface dose. For consistency films were positioned at same locations for same patient. A total of 8 film strips were obtained for each patient. Film dose was calibrated in the range of 0-400cGy on the day of plan delivery. For dose comparison 3 regions of interests (ROIs) of 1×1 cm{sup 2} were selected at left, right and middle part of each film, resulting in 6 point doses at each plan delivery. Results: The films without mask show relatively uniform dose distribution while those with mask clearly show mesh pattern of mask, usually indicating an increase in skin dose. On average the increase in skin dose over all ROIs with mask was 31.9%(±14.8%) with a range of 11.4%- 58.4%. There is no statistically significant difference (p=0.44) between skin dose increase in VMAT (30.8%±15.3%) and IMRT delivery (33.0%±14.9%). Conclusion: Thermoplastic immobilization masks increase surface dose for HN patient by around 30%. The magnitude is comparable between multi-field IMRT and VMAT. Radiochromic EBT3 film serves as an effective tool to quantify bolus effect.

  4. Finns det nån här? – Förmedling av paranormala fenomen i TV-serien Chasing the Dead

    OpenAIRE

    Heinänen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Genom denna kvalitativa innehållsanalys av TV-serien Chasing the Dead, undersöks på vilket sätt dokumenterade "bevis" på paranormala audiovisuella fenomen har presenterats av seriemakarna. Materialet analyseras med hjälp av forskningsresultat från, för denna TV-genre relevanta, studier av fenomen som Electronic Voice Phenomenon, Electro Magnetic Field, Orber. Biologiska fenomen som Apophenia och Pareidolia har tagits i beaktande då materialet har analyserats. Syftet med denna underso...

  5. Assessment of the arteriovenous cerebrovascular system by multi-slice CT. A single-bolus, monophasic protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingebiel, R.; Zimmer, C. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section; Rogalla, P.; Kivelitz, D. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Bohner, G. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section; Goetze, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lehmann, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: We present a protocol for the non-invasive angiographic assessment of the arterial and venous cerebrovascular (CV) system by multi-slice CT. Material and Methods: Data acquisition was performed in a multi-slice CT scanner with a scan range from the carotid bifurcation to the vertex and manual scan start following i.v. administration of 120 ml iodinated contrast medium with a flow rate of 4 ml/s. This protocol was applied in 12 patients with symptoms of acute CV insufficiency. Results: In all patients, comprehensive imaging of the arteriovenous CV system was achieved including the common carotid bifurcation, the third segment of the major cerebral arteries, the dural sinus and the internal cerebral veins. Various CV pathologies, such as a territorial artery occlusion, a thrombotic obstruction of the internal carotid artery, an intracranial arteriovenous malformation and a sinus vein thrombosis, were successfully evaluated. Conclusion: Comprehensive assessment of the arteriovenous CV system is possible by the use of a single-bolus, monophasic multi-slice scan technique.

  6. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  7. Comparative study of intravenous urographic bolus (I.U.B.) and intravenous urographic infusion (I.U.I.) in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two urographic methods were compared: the intravenous urographic bolus (i.u.b.) and the intravenous urographic infusion (i.u.i.). In both methods, two groups of seven healthy adult dogs of both sexes, weighing7.0 to 16.5 kg were used and were anaesthesized with 2% thiopentone sodium in doses of 20 mg/kg via cephalica. In the i.u.b., meglumine diatrizoate (Hypaque-M, 60%) was injected via saphena with a concentration of 282 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 564 mg of iodine per kg. In the i.u.i., meglumine diatrizoate was injected via saphena by drip infusion with a concentration of 200 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 500 mg of iodine per kg. Three series of two X-rays each were taken in ventrodorsal projection 1, 4 and 8 min and left lateral recumbency 30 sec after administering the contrast medium. The X-ray plates obtained were analyzed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outline, and kidney size. The advance speed of the contrast medium was higher in the i.u.i., reaching the kidney, ureter and bladder 1 min after administration in both projections; in ventrodorsal projections in the i.u.b. only the kidneys were reached while in the left lateral recumbency, the kidney and ureters were reached

  8. Effect of Admission Oral Diuretic Dose on Response to Continuous versus Bolus Intravenous Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure: An Analysis from DOSE-AHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ravi V.; McNulty, Steven; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael; Braunwald, Eugene; Givertz, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from the Diuretic Optimization Strategies in Acute Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) study suggest that an initial continuous infusion of loop diuretics is not superior to bolus dosing with regard to clinical endpoints in AHF. We hypothesized that outpatient furosemide dose was associated with congestion and poorer renal function, and explored the hypothesis that a continuous infusion may be more effective in patients on higher outpatient diuretic doses. Methods DOSE-AHF randomized 308 patients within 24 hours of admission to high vs. low initial intravenous diuretic dose given as either a continuous infusion or bolus. We compared baseline characteristics and assessed associations between mode of administration (bolus vs. continuous) and outcomes in patients receiving high-dose (≥120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=177) versus low-dose (<120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=131) outpatient diuretics. Results Patients on higher doses of furosemide were less frequently on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P=.01), and had worse renal function and more advanced symptoms. There was a significant interaction between outpatient dose and mode of therapy (P=0.01) with respect to net fluid loss at 72 hours after adjusting for creatinine and intensification strategy. Admission diuretic dose was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization at 60 days (adjusted HR=1.08 per 20-mg increment in dose, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, P=.03). Conclusions In acute HF, patients on higher diuretic doses have greater disease severity, and may benefit from an initial bolus strategy. PMID:23194486

  9. The effect of faecally excreted ivermectin and fenbendazole on the insect colonisation of cattle dung following the oral administration of sustained-release boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L; Wall, R; Woolford, A; Djeddour, D

    1996-04-01

    The effects of faecal drug residues following the administration of anthelmintics in the form of sustained-release boluses, on dung-colonising Coleoptera and Diptera are reported. In blind field trials, pats of standard weight and size were prepared from the dung of cattle treated with an ivermectin (Ivomec SR Bolus, MSD Agvet) or a fenbendazole (Panacur Bolus, Hoechst) sustained-release bolus, and from a third control group of cattle that received no treatment. Pats were recovered after 7, 14, 21 and 42 days in the field and searched for invertebrates. There were no differences in the numbers of adult beetles found in the pats from the three treatment groups. Pats made from the dung of ivermectin-treated animals contained no larval Diptera Cyclorrhapha and significantly fewer larval Scarabaeidae than pats made from the dung of the other two groups. Furthermore, larval Scarabaeidae in the ivermectin pats were inhibited in their development. The pats from fenbendazole-treated animals contained similar numbers of larval Scarabaeidae and Diptera to the pats from untreated animals throughout the trial. At 42 days, the solid matter of the control and fenbendazole-containing cow pats were reduced to a crumbling, granular texture, while the pats from the ivermectin-treated animals were solid and compacted. Pitfall trapping, using traps baited with dung from the three groups, showed no significant difference between the numbers of adult Scarabaeidae attracted, though a trend towards higher numbers attracted to the dung of both anthelmintic-treated groups was evident. The results provide evidence of the toxic effects of excreted ivermectin on key dung-colonising families of insects, and show that fenbendazole lacks such toxic effects.

  10. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; MacDonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent naso...

  11. Chase the direct impact of rainfall into groundwater in Mt. Fuji from multiple analyses including microbial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kenji; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki

    2016-04-01

    A huge amount of groundwater is stored in subsurface environment of Mt. Fuji, the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Based on the concept of piston flow transport of groundwater an apparent residence time was estimated to ca. 30 years by 36Cl/Cl ratio (Tosaki et al., 2011). However, this number represents an averaged value of the residence time of groundwater which had been mixed before it flushes out. We chased signatures of direct impact of rainfall into groundwater to elucidate the routes of groundwater, employing three different tracers; stable isotopic analysis (delta 18O), chemical analysis (concentration of silica) and microbial DNA analysis. Though chemical analysis of groundwater shows an averaged value of the examined water which was blended by various water with different sources and routes in subsurface environment, microbial DNA analysis may suggest the place where they originated, which may give information of the source and transport routes of the water examined. Throughout the in situ observation of four rainfall events showed that stable oxygen isotopic ratio of spring water and shallow groundwater obtained from 726m a.s.l. where the average recharge height of rainfall was between 1500 and 1800 m became higher than the values before a torrential rainfall, and the concentration of silica decreased after this event when rainfall exceeded 300 mm in precipitation of an event. In addition, the density of Prokaryotes in spring water apparently increased. Those changes did not appear when rainfall did not exceed 100 mm per event. Thus, findings shown above indicated a direct impact of rainfall into shallow groundwater, which appeared within a few weeks of torrential rainfall in the studied geological setting. In addition, increase in the density of Archaea observed at deep groundwater after the torrential rainfall suggested an enlargement of the strength of piston flow transport through the penetration of rainfall into deep groundwater. This finding was

  12. EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DELETERIOUS RHIZOBACTERIA ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF AXONOPUS AFFINIS (CHASE AND LENS ESCULENTA (MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.J Pacheco-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las malezas ocasionan una gran pérdida en las tierras agrícolas y comúnmente, las medidas de manejo y contención de estas especies se dan con la aplicación de herbicidas, sin embargo; en años recientes se ha presentado un interés en establecer mecanismos de biocontrol seguros, con el empleo de bacterias inhibidoras del crecimiento conocidas como rizobacterias deletéreas (Deleterious rhizobacteria: DRBque se consideran generalmente como no parasíticas, y causan, de manera sutil, efectos deletéreos a través de la producción de metabolitos dañinos a las plantas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la producción de ácido cianhídrico de pseudomonas rizobacterianas de malezas de un cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. y evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de éstas sobre el crecimiento radical de plántulas de Axonopus affinis (Chase y Lens esculenta (Moench. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos con relación a la evidencia de que los aislados de pseudomonadas son rizobacterias cianogénicas y de su efecto fitotóxico medido sobre las especies vegetales bajo estudio; se sugieren a éstas como posibles agentes de biocontrol con pastos que sean considerados malezas; ya que en general se observó que inhiben su crecimiento radical; sin embargo, un enfoque particular lo tiene la rizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. A52, la cual presentó no solamente actividad como una DRB sino también como una rizobacteria promotora del crecimiento vegetal; lo que la hace más importante de analizar en cuanto a su potencial y espectro de acción; tanto para malezas monocotiledóneas como para dicotiledóneas, recomendable como un posible agente de biocontrol con actividad múltiple.

  13. Intracoronary Compared to Intravenous Bolus Abciximab during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients Reduces 30-day Mortality and Target Vessel Revascularization: A Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan; Abildgaard, Ulrik; Galloe, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Abciximab is beneficial in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). However, the optimal administration route of the initial bolus of abciximab, that is, intravenous (IV) versus intracoronary (IC), has...... been questioned. Preliminary studies suggest that IC-bolus is superior, probably due to high local concentration. In this study, we assess the short-term efficacy and safety of IC compared to IV bolus of abciximab in patients with STEMI during pPCI. Methods: In 2006-2008, we randomized 355 STEMI...... patients who underwent pPCI and had indication for abciximab to either IV or IC bolus followed by a 12-hour IV infusion. Primary end-points at 30 days were target vessel revascularization (TVR), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or death, and the composite of the three. Secondary end-points were...

  14. Treatment of Advanced Gastric Carcinoma Patients with Calcium Folinate, a 5-Fluorouracil Bolus and Continous Infusion with 5-Infusion with 5-Fluorouracil Combined with Oxaliplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilian Liang; Saihong Chen; Dachao Pan; Jierong Xie; Liangzhen Cai; Shujun Li

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the therapeutic effects and toxicity of high-dose-folinic acid plus a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) bolus and continuous infusion with 5-FU combined with locally produced oxaliplatin (L-HOP)in treating advanced gastric carcinoma patients.METHODS Sixty-five patients with advanced gastric carcinoma were treated with high-dose-folinic acid plus a 5-FU bolus and a 48-h continuous infusion of 5-FU combined with oxaliplatin. The effects of treatment and toxicity were observed.RESULTS There were 4 complete responses, 26 partial responses,30 with no change and 5 with progressive disease. The overall effective response rate was 46.2% (30/65). The median duration was 7 months, with the main side effects including nausea and vomiting, peripheral phlebitis, alopecia, leukopenia, dental ulcers,peripheral neuritis and diarrhea. All the side effects were tolerated and minimal.CONCLUSION The results showed that high-dose folinic acid plus a 5-FU bolus and continuous infusion of 5-FU combined with oxaliplatin appears to be a safe and effective therapy for patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. This therapeutic regimen is of value for these patients.

  15. Laser Stimulation of the Chloroplast/Endoplasmic Reticulum Nexus in Tobacco Transiently Produces Protein Aggregates (Boluses) within the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Stimulates Local ER Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence R. Griffing

    2011-01-01

    Does the ER subdomain that associates with the chloroplast in vivo,hereafter referred to as the chloroplast/ER nexus,play a role in protein flow within the ER? In studies of tobacco cells either constitutively or transiently expressing ER-retained luminal,GFP-HDEL,or trans-membrane,YFP-RHD3,fluorescent fusion proteins,brief 405-nm (3-6-mW) laser stimulation of the nexus causes a qualitative difference in the movement and behavior of proteins in the ER.Photostimulating the nexus produces fluorescent protein punctate aggregates (boluses) within the lumen and membrane of the ER.The aggregation propagates through the membrane network throughout the cell,but within minutes can revert to normal,with disaggregation propagating back toward the originally photostimulated nexus.In the meantime,the ER grows and anastomoses around the chloroplast,forming a dense cisternal and tubular network.If this network is again photostimulated,bolus formation does not recur and,if the photostimulation results in photobleaching,fluorescence recovery after photobleaching occurs as it would typically in areas away from the nexus.Bolus propagation is not mediated by the actin cytoskeleton,but can be reversed by pre-conditioning the cells for 30 min with high,40-45℃,temperature (heat stress).Because it is not reversed with heat stress,the reorganization of the ER at the nexus following photostimulation is a separate event.

  16. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4, were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt. Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt. Maintenance of anesthesia in Group 1 was done with a repeat bolus of propofol (at 2 mg/kg bwt, while in Group 2 it was done with a constant infusion of propofol (at 0.2 mg/kg bwt/min. Gastrotomy was performed in both groups, and anesthesia was maintained for 60 min. Physiological, analgesic, anesthetic parameters and plasma glucose concentration were measured. There was no significant (P>0.05 difference found in the analgesia and pedal reflex scores, durations of analgesia and recumbency, recovery time and standing time between the groups. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature reduced significantly (P0.05 between the groups. In conclusion, both maintenance protocols are suitable for dogs, although the repeat bolus technique produces marked cardiopulmonary depression.

  17. Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30/70: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Compared With Once-Daily Biphasic Human Insulin and Basal-Bolus Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Tim; Heinemann, Lutz; Hövelmann, Ulrike; Brauns, Bianca; Nosek, Leszek; Haahr, Hanne L.; Olsen, Klaus J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pharmacological profiles of biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30) once daily (OD), twice daily (b.i.d.), and three times daily (t.i.d.) were compared with other insulin regimens in two crossover glucose clamp studies of insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS Study 1 consisted of BIAsp 30 OD, b.i.d., and t.i.d. versus biphasic human insulin 30/70 (BHI 30), OD (n = 24). Study 2 examined BIAsp 30 t.i.d. versus basal-bolus therapy (insulin glargine OD plus insulin glulisine t.i.d.) (n = 24). Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) were investigated over 24 h. RESULTS Study 1: PK and PD were markedly different between BIAsp 30 OD and BHI 30 OD: the maximum insulin concentration and glucose infusion rate (GIR) were higher for BIAsp 30; time to maximum metabolism was 1.7 h sooner for BIAsp 30. Study 2: both regimens showed three distinct prandial-related GIR peaks. GIR 24-h area under the curve for BIAsp t.i.d. was higher than for basal-bolus therapy: 2,585.2 vs. 2,289.2 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS BIAsp had pharmacological advantages over BHI. BIAsp t.i.d. had a similar PD profile to basal-bolus therapy. PMID:19487640

  18. Similar insulin secretory response to a gastric inhibitory polypeptide bolus injection at euglycemia in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Siepmann, Nina;

    2003-01-01

    Insulin secretion following the intravenous infusion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished in patients with type 2 diabetes and at least a subgroup of their first-degree relatives at hyperglycemic clamp conditions. Therefore, we studied the effects of an intravenous bolus administ......Insulin secretion following the intravenous infusion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished in patients with type 2 diabetes and at least a subgroup of their first-degree relatives at hyperglycemic clamp conditions. Therefore, we studied the effects of an intravenous bolus...... administration of GIP at normoglycemic conditions in the fasting state. Ten healthy control subjects were studied with an intravenous bolus administration of placebo, and of 7, 20, and 60 pmol GIP/kg body weight (BW), respectively. Forty-five first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched...... of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc tests. Insulin secretion was stimulated after the administration of 20 and of 60 pmol GIP/kg BW in the dose-response experiments (P rise of insulin and C-peptide concentrations in the first...

  19. Chasing the radium rainbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the discovery of radium, its potential for curing cancer was realized. This important use, along with industrial applications, generated a demand which was met by the establishment of a radium mining and extraction industry. The first large supplier was the United States, later completely supplanted by Belgium. The Canadian radium industry arose with Eldorado Gold Mines Ltd. mining pitchblende ore near Great Bear Lake and extracting radium at Port Hope. The venture foundered financially, but Eldorado's technical and marketing expertise provided the foundation for later successes in fields in which Canada is now a world leader

  20. Chasing Graduate Jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Irene; Wright, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the relationship between under-employment and migration amongst five cohorts of graduates of Scottish higher education institutions with micro-data collected by the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data indicate that there is a strong positive relationship between migration and graduate employment - those graduates who move after graduation from Scotland to the rest of the UK or abroad have a much higher rate of graduate employment. Versions of probit r...

  1. Chasing the holy grail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenvey, N.

    2001-05-01

    Sufficient port capacity for South Africa's coal exporters remains a dream, despite the promises of recent years. The only firm plans for Richards Bay Terminal seem to be an expansion of capacity by 10 mt to 82 mtpa. An environmental impact assessment is currently being made. Mozambique's port of Maputo however does seem to be progressing well. Phase two of a construction development which will double production capacity starts later this year. 4 photos.

  2. Chasing the Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    People’s pursuit of better lives pushes the nation forward The belief that anyone can live a better life in the United States through hard workis called the American Dream. Many European settlers were drawn to the new continent by the American Dream.

  3. Chasing the Silver Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Occurring on only a few dozen rivers around the world, tidal bores are as rare as they are intriguing. Michael Berry outlines the science behind this natural phenomenon and describes his sighting in China of one of the most spectacular bores of them all.

  4. Chasing Unachievable Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Today, teachers complain about the lack of physical education time and the lack of physical education programming. In addition, a great deal of time is spent advocating the relationship between "healthy mind-healthy body." Today's drive to show a relationship between physical fitness/activity and academic achievement is really not different than…

  5. Infants' perception of chasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenhuis, W.E.; House, B.; Barrett, H.C.; Johnson, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These que

  6. Chasing the Hofstadter Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indu

    2014-03-01

    The experimental observation of the Hofstadter butterfly, the fascinating quantum fractal that also encodes the Chern numbers associated with quantum Hall state, continues to remain a challenging task. It may be possible to observe the fine structure of the butterfly, consisting of small gaps of the spectrum characterized by topological invariants greater than unity, with a resolution matching that of the Chern-1 gaps that form the skeleton of the butterfly. The tiny gaps of the butterfly emanating from a rational flux p / q are found to be associated with infinity of possible solutions (of Diophantine equation)for the rational flux. Not supported by the simple square lattice nearest-neighbor hopping model of the Hofstadter system, these solutions are found to be hiding in neighborhood of these fluxes. By perturbing this simple system, it is possible to ``amplify'' these small gaps corresponding to higher Chern states where they replace the Chern 1 gap of the Hofstadter butterfly. In other words, by tuning a parameter, it is possible to induce topological quantum phase transitions where the finer gaps become the new major gaps that dominate the spectrum. This may provide a possible pathway to see the topological landscape of the Hofstadter butterfly fractal in its entirety.

  7. Chasing Captain Hook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Somalia has come into the international media spotlight because of the high-profile pirate attacks off its coast. But piracy is only part of the Horn of Africa country’s ordeal. Somalia has been embroiled in armed conflicts between feuding warlords since 1991, without a central government that can put the country under effective control. In an interview with Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei, Somalia’s Ambassador to China Mohammed Awil called on the international community to help his war-torn country fight piracy, stop illegal fishing and waste dumping in Somali waters and achieve peace and reconciliation. The ambassador also gave positive evaluation to China’s naval presence on Somali waters. Excerpts of the interview follow

  8. Chasing Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species—naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities. PMID:27631692

  9. Computational Study of Computed Tomography Contrast Gradients in Models of Stenosed Coronary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Parastou; Seo, Jung-Hee; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; George, Richard; Lardo, Albert C; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-09-01

    Recent computed tomography coronary angiography (CCTA) studies have noted higher transluminal contrast agent gradients in arteries with stenotic lesions, but the physical mechanism responsible for these gradients is not clear. We use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling coupled with contrast agent dispersion to investigate the mechanism for these gradients. Simulations of blood flow and contrast agent dispersion in models of coronary artery are carried out for both steady and pulsatile flows, and axisymmetric stenoses of severities varying from 0% (unobstructed) to 80% are considered. Simulations show the presence of measurable gradients with magnitudes that increase monotonically with stenotic severity when other parameters are held fixed. The computational results enable us to examine and validate the hypothesis that transluminal contrast gradients (TCG) are generated due to the advection of the contrast bolus with time-varying contrast concentration that appears at the coronary ostium. Since the advection of the bolus is determined by the flow velocity in the artery, the magnitude of the gradient, therefore, encodes the coronary flow velocity. The correlation between the flow rate estimated from TCG and the actual flow rate in the computational model of a physiologically realistic coronary artery is 96% with a R2 value of 0.98. The mathematical formulae connecting TCG to flow velocity derived here represent a novel and potentially powerful approach for noninvasive estimation of coronary flow velocity from CT angiography. PMID:26102356

  10. MPI as high temporal resolution imaging technique for in vivo bolus tracking of Ferucarbotran in mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Salamon, J.; Hofmann, M.; Kaul, M. G.; Adam, G.; Ittrich, H.; Knopp, T.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to achieve a real time 3D visualisation of the murine cardiovascular system by intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles using Magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Material and Methods: MPI scans of FVB mice were performed using a 3D imaging sequence (1T/m gradient strength, 10mT drive-field strength). A dynamic scan with a temporal resolution of 21.5ms per 3D volume acquisition was performed. 50μl ferucarbotran (Resovist®, Bayer Healthcare AG) were injected into the tail vein after baseline MPI measurements. As MPI delivers no anatomic information, MRI scans at a 7T ClinScan (Bruker) were performed using a T2-weighted 2D TSE sequence. The reconstruction of the MPI data was performed on the MPI console (ParaVision 6.0/MPI, Bruker). Image fusion was done using additional image processing software (Imalytics, Philips). The dynamic information was extracted using custom software developed in the Julia programming environment. Results: The combined MRI-MPI measurements were carried out successfully. MPI data clearly demonstrated the passage of the SPIO tracer through the inferior vena cava, the heart and finally the liver. By co-registration with MRI the anatomical regions were identified. Due to the volume frame rate of about 46 volumes per second a signal modulation with the frequency of the heart beat was detectable and a heart beat of 520 beats per minute (bpm) has been assumed. Moreover, the blood flow velocity of approximately 5cm/s in the vena cava has been estimated. Conclusions: The high temporal resolution of MPI allows real-time imaging and bolus tracking of intravenous injected nanoparticles and offers a real time tool to assess blood flow velocity.

  11. In vivo measurement of haloperidol affinity to dopamine D2/D3 receptors by [123I]IBZM and single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Toska, K; Friberg, L;

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a steady-state bolus-integration method with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) tracer, [123I]IBZM, for determination of in vivo affinity of haloperidol. The nonspecific binding of [123I]IBZM was examined in the rat...

  12. Relative contributions of rhizosphere and microbial respiration to belowground and total ecosystem respiration in arctic tussock tundra: results of a 13C pulse-chase experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, A. D.; Sullivan, P.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Steltzer, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many arctic ecosystems that have historically been strong carbon (C) sinks are becoming sources of C to the atmosphere. Although ecosystem respiration is the largest C flux out of ecosystems, our ability to model respiration lags considerably behind our ability to model photosynthesis in the Arctic. Understanding the controls on respiration is especially important for an ecosystem which appears to be experiencing the greatest climate warming and also contains large stores of soil C. Partitioning respiration into its component fluxes and identifying factors controlling respiration of each component is a critical first step towards improving our ability to model changes in respiration. However, partitioning belowground constituents has proven to be challenging in most ecosystems. Therefore, to accurately estimate rhizosphere respiration and bulk soil microbial respiration in moist acidic tussock tundra, we selected an isotopic method that results in minimal disturbance of belowground processes. In mid July of 2011, we introduced a 13CO2 label into a clear ecosystem CO2 flux chamber, allowed the vegetation to incorporate the label through photosynthesis and returned 2 days and 4 days after labeling to follow the movement of the 13C signal. A smaller CO2 flux chamber was used to chase the label separately in tussock and inter-tussock areas. All above ground plant tissue was clipped immediately before the chase measurements and soil cores were taken immediately after chasing the label. Syringe samples (n=5 or 6) were collected from the small flux chamber at regular intervals as CO2 concentrations were allowed to build, and Keeling plots were used to estimate δ13C of belowground respiration. After completing the field measurements, the soil cores were sorted into live roots and root free soil. Samples of each were incubated in mason jars placed in a 10°C water bath. The jars were scrubbed free of CO2 and syringe samples were collected from each jar after CO2

  13. Tube potential can be lowered to 80 kVp in test bolus phase of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) to save dose without compromising diagnostic quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.C.L.; Manghat, N.E.; Hamilton, M.C.K. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Joshi, D.; Lyen, S.M. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Negus, I.S. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performing the test bolus (TB) of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) at 80 kVp reduces dose without compromising diagnostic quality. An 80 kVp TB protocol for CTCA and CTPA was retrospectively compared to standard TB protocol (non-obese: 100 kVp, obese: 120 kVp). CT angiogram parameters were unchanged between cohorts. Thirty-seven consecutive 80 kVp TB CTCA images were compared to 53 standard CTCA images. Fifty consecutive CTPAs from each protocol were analysed. Diagnostic quality of the CT angiogram was assessed by: mean attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the ascending aorta (AA) in CTCA and in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) in CTPA, diagnostic rate, and number of repeated monitoring scans. Mean effective dose was estimated using the dose-length product. Mean TB effective doses were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) for 80 kVp scans compared to the standard in non-obese CTCA (0.15 ± 0.04 mSv Vs 0.33 ± 0.09 mSv), obese CTCA (0.17 ± 0.06 mSv Vs 0.57 ± 0.12 mSv), and CTPA patients (0.07 ± 0.03 mSv Vs 0.15 ± 0.06 mSv). No difference was demonstrated in mean attenuation, SNR (AA), SNR (MPA), diagnostic rates, or number of repeated monitoring scans between protocols. Routinely performing TB at 80 kVp, regardless of body habitus, in CTCA and CTPA results in a small but significant dose reduction, without compromising CT angiogram diagnostic quality. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of bolus and continuous infusion of esmolol on hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation and sternotomy in coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Mercanooglu Efe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized, prospective and double blinded study is to investigate effects of different esmolol use on hemodynamic response of laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation and sternotomy in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: After approval of local ethics committee and patients' written informed consent, 45 patients were randomized into three groups equally. In Infusion Group; from 10 min before intubation up to 5th minute after sternotomy, 0.5 mg/kg/min esmolol infusion, in Bolus Group; 2 min before intubation and sternotomy 1.5 mg/kg esmolol IV bolus and in Control Group; %0.9 NaCl was administered. All demographic parameters were recorded. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before infusion up to anesthesia induction in every minute, during endotracheal intubation, every minute for 10 minutes after endotracheal intubation and before, during and after sternotomy at first and fifth minutes. RESULTS: While area under curve (AUC (SAP × time was being found more in Group B and C than Group I, AUC (SAP × T int and T st and AUC (SAP × T2 was found more in Group B and C than Group I (p < 0.05. Moreover AUC (HR × T st was found less in Group B than Group C but no significant difference was found between Group B and Group I. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that esmolol infusion is more effective than esmolol bolus administration on controlling systolic arterial pressure during endotracheal intubation and sternotomy in CABG surgery.

  15. Meta-analysis of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin used in a basal–bolus regimen for the treatment of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Simon; Bode, Bruce; Kozlovski, Plamen; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of two different insulin formulations, insulin aspart (IAsp) and regular human insulin (RHI), for prandial insulin coverage with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin as basal insulin using a meta-analysis approach. The primary endpoint was change in A1c over time. Secondary endpoints included incidence of hypoglycemia and postprandial glycemic control. Methods Clinical trials (Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes) complying with Good Clinical Practice, and with individual patient data, were included in the meta-analysis. Trials were randomized, consisting of (at least) two treatment arms and had a minimum duration of 12 weeks. Estimates were calculated using fixed-effects and random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed for each analysis. The effect of baseline parameters on A1c was analyzed in extended simultaneous models. Results The mean difference in A1c was 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.15; −0.04], P < 0.001) in favor of IAsp. Higher accumulated dose of IAsp, higher age and increased rates of hypoglycemia were associated with improved A1c outcome. Fasting plasma glucose was not significantly different between regimens. Postprandial glucose was significantly lower after treatment with IAsp compared with RHI, but the analysis did present a significant level of heterogeneity (P < 0.001). The overall rate of hypoglycemia was the same with both regimens, but nocturnal hypoglycemia was significantly lower with IAsp. Conclusions A basal–bolus regimen with IAsp as bolus insulin provided minimal, but statistically significant, improvement in overall glycemic control with a lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes, compared with a corresponding regimen with bolus RHI. PMID:23586846

  16. Black carbon, particle number concentration and nitrogen oxide emission factors of random in-use vehicles measured with the on-road chasing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ježek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF of black carbon (BC, particle number (PN and nitrogen oxides (NOx were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years, decreased by 60 and 47% from those in use for 5–10 years, respectively, the median NOx and PN EFs, of goods vehicles that were in use for less than five years, decreased from those in use for 5–10 years by 52 and 67%, respectively. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25% of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61% of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements with sophisticated post processing individual vehicles EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and monitor how the numerous emission reduction approaches are reflected in on-road driving

  17. Quantitative Determination of Ursolic Acid in Dashanzha Bolus by Spectrophotometry%分光光度法测定大山楂丸中熊果酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 陈新梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立可见分光光度法测定自制大山楂丸中熊果酸含量的方法.方法 采用可见分光光度法,用5%香草醛-冰醋酸、高氯酸显色,以熊果酸标准品为对照,波长545 nm处测定自制大山楂丸中熊果酸的含量.结果 熊果酸在12~60 μg/mL浓度范围内具有良好的吸光度与浓度的线性关系(r=0.9995);样品平均回收率为98.47%,RSD=1.57%.精密度、重现性好;对照品和样品溶液在1h内稳定.结论 此法操作方便、简练、高效,可用于大山楂丸中熊果酸含量的测定.%Objective To establish a method for the determination of ursolic acid in Dashanzha bolus by spectrophotometry.Methods With spectrophotometry,5 % vanillin-acetic acid,perchloric acid for color,the ursolic acid standard control,ursolic acid content of homemade Dashanzha bolus was determined at the wavelength of 545 nm.Results The method can accurately determined the content of malol in Dashanzha bolus.ursolic acid at the concentration of 12~60 μg/mL had a good linear relationship between the absorbance and the concentration (r=0.9995).Sample average recovery rate was 98.47 %,RSD=1.57 %.Standard and sample solution were stable within 1 h.Conclusion The method has the advantages of convenient operation,simplicity,high efficiency,and can be used for determination of ursolic acid content in Dashanzha bolus.

  18. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-01-01

    The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4), were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt) and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt). Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt) and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt). Ma...

  19. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the value of a single bolus intravenous alfentanil in CT colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boellaard Thierry N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although CT colonography is a less invasive alternative for colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer, procedural pain is common. In several studies, CT colonography pain and burden is higher than in colonoscopy. Apart from discomfort, anxiety and its related stress-induced peri- procedural side effects, this may influence the adherence for CT colonography as a possible screening tool for colorectal cancer. We hypothesize that a single bolus intravenous alfentanil will give a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain defined as at least 1.3 point reduction on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS. Methods/Design A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which patients scheduled for elective CT colonography in a single tertiary centre are eligible for inclusion. The first 90 consenting patient will be block-randomized to either the alfentanil group or the placebo group. Before bowel insufflation, the alfentanil group receives a single bolus intravenous alfentanil 7.5 μg/kg dissolved in 0.9% NaCl, while the placebo group receives an intravenous bolus injection of pure 0.9% NaCl. For both groups an equal amount of fluid per kilogram (75 μL/kg is injected. The primary outcome is the difference in maximum pain on an 11-point NRS. Secondary outcomes include: pain and burden of different CT colonography aspects, side effects, procedural time and recovery time. For the primary outcome an independent samples t-test is performed and a P value Discussion This study will provide evidence whether a single bolus intravenous alfentanil gives a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain during CT colonography. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2902 This trial will be conducted in accordance with the protocol and in compliance with the moral, ethical, and scientific principles governing clinical research as set out in the Declaration of Helsinki (1989 and Good Clinical Practice

  20. Non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this pilot study we explored whether contrast-material bolus propagation time and speed in the pulmonary arteries (PAs) determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) can distinguish between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH). Twenty-three patients (18 with and 5 without PH) were examined with a DCE-CT sequence following their diagnostic or follow-up right-sided heart catheterisation (RHC). X-ray attenuation over time curves were recorded for regions of interest in the main, right and left PA and fitted with a spline fit. Contrast material bolus propagation speeds and time differences between the peak concentrations were compared with haemodynamic parameters from RHC. Bolus speed correlated (ρ = -0.55) with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and showed a good discriminative power between patients with and without PH (cut-off speed 317 mm/s; sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 %). Additionally, time differences between peaks correlated with mPAP (ρ = 0.64 and 0.49 for right and left PA, respectively) and discrimination was achieved with sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 % (cut-off time 0.15 s) and sensitivity 93 %/specificity 80 % (cut-off time 0.45 s), respectively. Bolus propagation speed and time differences between contrast material peaks in the PA can identify PH. This method could be used to confirm the indication for RHC in patients screened for pulmonary hypertension. (orig.)

  1. Non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienn, Michael; Balint, Zoltan [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Kovacs, Gabor; Tscherner, Maria; Olschewski, Horst [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Medical University of Graz, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graz (Austria); Avian, Alexander [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Medical University of Graz, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Graz (Austria); Johnson, Thorsten R. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kullnig, Peter [DiagnostikZentrum Graz, Graz (Austria); Stollberger, Rudolf [Graz University of Technology, Institute for Medical Engineering, Graz (Austria); Olschewski, Andrea [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Medical University of Graz, Experimental Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    In this pilot study we explored whether contrast-material bolus propagation time and speed in the pulmonary arteries (PAs) determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) can distinguish between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH). Twenty-three patients (18 with and 5 without PH) were examined with a DCE-CT sequence following their diagnostic or follow-up right-sided heart catheterisation (RHC). X-ray attenuation over time curves were recorded for regions of interest in the main, right and left PA and fitted with a spline fit. Contrast material bolus propagation speeds and time differences between the peak concentrations were compared with haemodynamic parameters from RHC. Bolus speed correlated (ρ = -0.55) with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and showed a good discriminative power between patients with and without PH (cut-off speed 317 mm/s; sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 %). Additionally, time differences between peaks correlated with mPAP (ρ = 0.64 and 0.49 for right and left PA, respectively) and discrimination was achieved with sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 % (cut-off time 0.15 s) and sensitivity 93 %/specificity 80 % (cut-off time 0.45 s), respectively. Bolus propagation speed and time differences between contrast material peaks in the PA can identify PH. This method could be used to confirm the indication for RHC in patients screened for pulmonary hypertension. (orig.)

  2. Development and Clinical Implementation of a Universal Bolus to Maintain Spot Size During Delivery of Base of Skull Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Both@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shen, Jiajian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Kirk, Maura; Lin, Liyong; Tang, Shikui; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lustig, Robert; Lin, Haibo; Deville, Curtiland; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Tochner, Zelig; McDonough, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To report on a universal bolus (UB) designed to replace the range shifter (RS); the UB allows the treatment of shallow tumors while keeping the pencil beam scanning (PBS) spot size small. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with brain cancers treated from 2010 to 2011 were planned using the PBS technique with bolus and the RS. In-air spot sizes of the pencil beam were measured and compared for 4 conditions (open field, with RS, and with UB at 2- and 8-cm air gap) in isocentric geometry. The UB was applied in our clinic to treat brain tumors, and the plans with UB were compared with the plans with RS. Results: A UB of 5.5 cm water equivalent thickness was found to meet the needs of the majority of patients. By using the UB, the PBS spot sizes are similar with the open beam (P>.1). The heterogeneity index was found to be approximately 10% lower for the UB plans than for the RS plans. The coverage for plans with UB is more conformal than for plans with RS; the largest increase in sparing is usually for peripheral organs at risk. Conclusions: The integrity of the physical properties of the PBS beam can be maintained using a UB that allows for highly conformal PBS treatment design, even in a simple geometry of the fixed beam line when noncoplanar beams are used.

  3. Computed tomography angiography of carotid and coronary artery via a single-bolus injection protocol: a feasibility study using 320-row multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the feasibility of using a single-dose injection protocol in CT angiography (CTA) of the carotid and coronary artery with 320-row multidetector CT. A total of 82 consecutive patients with suspected carotid artery disease underwent an original CTA protocol aiming at capturing the extra-cranial carotid arteries and coronary arteries simultaneously using 320-row MDCT. The image quality, attenuation, and CNRs of the carotid and coronary arteries were assessed. The lag time (between two separated volumetric acquisitions) was compared between patients with and without cardiac venous opacification (CVO). The contrast medium volume and radiation dose were recorded. The image quality was 99.4 % diagnostic in carotid and 86.9 % in coronary artery segments. The mean attenuation of carotid and coronary arteries ranged from 462.2 Hu to 533.7 Hu, 415.9 Hu to 454.7 Hu respectively. The mean CNR of the carotid and coronary artery ranged from 15.8 to 18.9 and 17.7 to 20.4 respectively. The lag time in patients with and without CVO was 5.75 ± 1.64 s vs. 4.21 ± 1.14 s (p < 0.05). The mean radiation dose was 6.6 ± 4.1 mSv.The mean contrast media volume was 71.9 ± 9.1 ml. The carotid and coronary artery can be imaged simultaneously via our original single-dose injection CTA protocol using 320-row CT with adequate image quality. (orig.)

  4. Computed tomography angiography of carotid and coronary artery via a single-bolus injection protocol: a feasibility study using 320-row multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, WeiGuo [The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Department of Radiology, SuZhou (China); Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Jin, Hang; Chen, Gang; Chen, Wenfang; Gu, Junying; Zeng, Mengsu [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the feasibility of using a single-dose injection protocol in CT angiography (CTA) of the carotid and coronary artery with 320-row multidetector CT. A total of 82 consecutive patients with suspected carotid artery disease underwent an original CTA protocol aiming at capturing the extra-cranial carotid arteries and coronary arteries simultaneously using 320-row MDCT. The image quality, attenuation, and CNRs of the carotid and coronary arteries were assessed. The lag time (between two separated volumetric acquisitions) was compared between patients with and without cardiac venous opacification (CVO). The contrast medium volume and radiation dose were recorded. The image quality was 99.4 % diagnostic in carotid and 86.9 % in coronary artery segments. The mean attenuation of carotid and coronary arteries ranged from 462.2 Hu to 533.7 Hu, 415.9 Hu to 454.7 Hu respectively. The mean CNR of the carotid and coronary artery ranged from 15.8 to 18.9 and 17.7 to 20.4 respectively. The lag time in patients with and without CVO was 5.75 ± 1.64 s vs. 4.21 ± 1.14 s (p < 0.05). The mean radiation dose was 6.6 ± 4.1 mSv.The mean contrast media volume was 71.9 ± 9.1 ml. The carotid and coronary artery can be imaged simultaneously via our original single-dose injection CTA protocol using 320-row CT with adequate image quality. (orig.)

  5. Study and establishment of a computer program for radiotherapy treatment planning development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern radiotherapy requires the use of computers. In addition to their accuracy, computers involve an appreciable saving of time in the calculation of isodoses, permitting us to change several times a technique in order to choose the best dose distribution for each case of tumor. The aim of this work was to set a computer program calculating a suitable dose distribution for a given treatment. The algorithm of calculation of the depth dose used in our program permits us to calculate the dose distribution for all photon energies used in radiotherapy, whatever are the energy and modification of the field by the use of wedge filters or bolus

  6. Black carbon, particle number concentration and nitrogen oxide emission factors of random in-use vehicles measured with the on-road chasing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, I.; Katrašnik, T.; Westerdahl, D.; Močnik, G.

    2015-10-01

    The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF) of black carbon (BC), particle number (PN) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote-sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years decreased by 60 and 47 % from those in use for 5-10 years, respectively; the median NOx and PN EFs of goods vehicles that were in use for less than 5 years decreased from those in use for 5-10 years by 52 and 67 %, respectively. Surprisingly, we found an increase of BC EFs in the newer goods vehicle fleet compared to the 5-10-year old one. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally, a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25 % of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61 % of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements and sophisticated post processing, individual vehicle EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and

  7. Effects of orally applied butyrate bolus on histone acetylation and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in the liver of chicken – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mátis Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate is known as histone deacetylase inhibitor, inducing histone hyperacetylation in vitro and playing a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. We hypothesized that butyrate, endogenously produced by intestinal microbial fermentation or applied as a nutritional supplement, might cause similar in vivo modifications in the chromatin structure of the hepatocytes, influencing the expression of certain genes and therefore modifying the activity of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes. Methods An animal study was carried out in chicken as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate’s epigenetic actions in the liver. Broiler chicks in the early post-hatch period were treated once daily with orally administered bolus of butyrate following overnight starvation with two different doses (0.25 or 1.25 g/kg body weight per day for five days. After slaughtering, cell nucleus and microsomal fractions were separated by differential centrifugation from the livers. Histones were isolated from cell nuclei and acetylation of hepatic core histones was screened by western blotting. The activity of CYP2H and CYP3A37, enzymes involved in biotransformation in chicken, was detected by aminopyrine N-demethylation and aniline-hydroxylation assays from the microsomal suspensions. Results Orally added butyrate, applied in bolus, had a remarkable impact on nucleosome structure of hepatocytes: independently of the dose, butyrate caused hyperacetylation of histone H2A, but no changes were monitored in the acetylation state of H2B. Intensive hyperacetylation of H3 was induced by the higher administered dose, while the lower dose tended to increase acetylation ratio of H4. In spite of the observed modification in histone acetylation, no significant changes were observed in the hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 activity. Conclusion Orally added butyrate in bolus

  8. ESTUDIO DEL EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE BIOFERTILIZANTES SOBRE ALGUNAS VARIABLES DE CRECIMIENTO Y RENDIMIENTO EN Gerbera jamesonii cv. Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Soroa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo experimental se desarrolló con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de la aplicación de biofertilizantes a partir de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA y rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (RPCV, sobre algunas variables de crecimiento y rendimiento en Gerbera jamesonii cv. Bolus, especie que se emplea como flor cortada y planta florecida en macetas. La experiencia mostró que se produjeron importantes incrementos al emplear estos microorganismos en el cultivo en estudio, siendo el tratamiento inoculado con Glomus fasciculatum el que mejor se comportó de manera integral y destacándose al analizar las variables: diámetro de las flores (27.9 % de incremento, rendimiento e inicio de la floración (50 días antes con respecto al tratamiento control.

  9. 捕凰捉影化境八章(七)%Chasing the Charm of the Landscape The Seventh of Eight Chapters of Perfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董豫赣

    2009-01-01

    Comparing with the chapter "Managing Place" that puts focus on the principle of "exquisite and appropriate", this chapter does not mean to put forward a new topic, but attempts to elaborates on the "ingenuity" in "Managing Place" from the perspective of the female in Lao-tzu's theory. In addition, this chapter tries to borrow the idea from the female perspective in Su Shi's theory of "chasing the ingenuity", so as to supplement the rough understanding from the male perspective on "Managing Place".%与"经营位置"一章将重点集中在"精而合宜"的"原理性"综述相比,这一章"捕凰捉影"并非另起主题,它只是试图基于老子的雌性视角,详细讨论"经营位置"里相关"巧而得体"的"巧妙"部分,并期望着能假借苏轼的"求物之妙"的女性视角,来弥补男性"形势"对"经营位置"的粗犷理解,并深入山水经营的动态过程中,以进行更为精妙的讨论.

  10. An isotope approach based on C-13 pulse-chase labelling vs. the root trenching method to separate heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration in cultivated peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, C.; Pitkamaki, A. S.; Tavi, N. M.; Koponen, H. T.; Martikainen, P. J. [Univ.of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science], e-mail: christina.biasi@uef.fi

    2012-11-01

    We tested an isotope method based on C-13 pulse-chase labelling for determining the fractional contribution of soil microbial respiration to overall soil respiration in an organic soil (cutaway peatland, eastern Finland), cultivated with the bioenergy crop, reed canary grass. The plants were exposed to CO{sub 2}-13 for five hours and the label was thereafter determined in CO{sub 2} derived from the soil-root system. A two-pool isotope mixing model was used to separate sources of respiration. The isotopic approach showed that a minimum of 50% of the total CO{sub 2} originated from soil-microbial respiration. Even though the method uses undisturbed soil-plant systems, it has limitations concerning the experimental determination of the true isotopic signal of all components contributing to autotrophic respiration. A trenching experiment which was comparatively conducted resulted in a 71% fractional contribution of soil-microbial respiration. This value was likely overestimated. Further studies are needed to evaluate critically the output from these two partitioning approaches. (orig.)

  11. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT-Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented

  12. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT‑Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Woias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24, spleen (3/24, kidney (4/24, liver (5/24, and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively. Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes. Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4, lung (3/6 or lumbar spine (0/2, as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  13. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT-Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantscheff, Peter, E-mail: jantscheff@tumorbio.uni-freiburg.de [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Esser, Norbert [ProQinase GmbH, Breisacher Str. 117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Geipel, Andreas; Woias, Peter [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ziroli, Vittorio [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Goldschmidtboing, Frank [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Massing, Ulrich [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-06-17

    The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  14. Monte-Carlo-Model for the aerosol bolus dispersion in the human lung. Part 2. Model predictions for the diseased lung; Monte-Carlo-Modell der Aerosolbolusdispersion in der menschlichen Lunge. Teil 2. Modellvorhersagen fuer die kranke Lunge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, R.; Pawlak, E.; Hofmann, W. [Salzburg Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Physik und Biophysik

    2007-07-01

    After a mathematical extension of the existing model for the theoretical description of the aerosol bolus dispersion, the behavior of particle pulses in diseased lung structures was simulated. The geometry used for healthy lungs was modified in two aspects: First, a modelling of possible airway obstructions, which usually occur in patients with chronic bronchitis, chronic asthma or cystic fibrosis, was carried out and, second, a theoretical approximation of the emphysema, being observed in lungs of smokers, but also as an accompanying phenomenon in obstructive diseases, was established. According to the modified model, in lungs with airway obstructions the exhaled bolus exhibited a decreased dispersion with respect to healthy subjects, whereas in emphysematous lungs the respective half-width of the peak was increased. Standard deviation and skewness of the bolus were similarly influenced by the modified lung architecture. A combination of airway obstruction and emphysema caused an extensive compensation of individual dispersion effects, complicating a secure distinction from the healthy lung. According to the model, a special diagnostic value may be assigned to the bolus deposition, showing significant deviations from the normal case for all simulated diseases. (orig.)

  15. Efficacy and safety of single-bolus tenecteplase compared with front-loaded alteplase in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective Previous study showed tenecteplase and alteplaxe were equovalent for 30-day mortality in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this open-label, randomized, multi-center, angiographic trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of tenecteplase compared with alteplase in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods We recruited patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset from October, 2002 to March,2004, in 5 hospitals in Beijing. After giving informed consent, patients were randomly assigned a single-bolus injection of tenecteplase (30-50 mg according to body weight) or front loaded alteplase (100 mg), and underwent coronary angiography at 90 min after starting the study drug. All patients received aspirin and heparin (target activated partial thromboplastin time 50-70 s). The primary efficacy end point was the rate of TIMI grade 3 flow at 90 minutes. Other efficacy end points included TIMI grade 2/3 flow at 90 minutes. Safety end points included all stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), moderate/severe hemorrhage (except for ICH), all-cause mortality at 30-days, and major non-fatal cardiac events at 30 days. Results Overall 110 patients were eligible for statistical analysis, with 58 patients assigned to receive tenecteplase and 52 patients to alteplase. Tenecteplase produced a rate of TIMI grade 3 flow at 90 minutes after the start of thrombolysis(68.4%) similar to that of alteplase (66.7%, P=1.0); the rates of TIMI grade 2 or 3 were similar for patients treated with tenecteplase versus alteplase (89.5% versus 80.4%, respectively, P=0.278). At 30 days, rates for all strokes were similar for the two groups (5.17% for tenecteplase and 1.92% for alteplase, P=0.62); rates of ICH were 3.45% and 1.92% (tenecteplase and rt-PA,P=1.00) respectively. The rate of moderate/severe hemorrhage was 8.62% with tenecteplase and 5.77% with alteplase (P=0.72); total

  16. Comparison of thrice daily biphasic human insulin (30/70) versus basal detemir & bolus aspart in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundar, G.; Bhansali, Anil; Walia, Rama; Dutta, Pinaki; Upreti, Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Conventionally, biphasic human insulin (30/70, BHI) is used twice daily for the management of patients with diabetes. However, this regimen is suboptimal to control post-lunch and/or pre-dinner hyperglycaemia in some patients. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of thrice-daily biphasic human insulin (30/70, BHI) versus basal detemir and bolus aspart (BB) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: In this open labelled randomized pilot study, 50 patients with uncontrolled T2DM on twice-daily BHI and insulin sensitizers were randomized either to BHI thrice-daily or BB regimen. HbA1c, six point plasma glucose profile, increment in insulin dose, weight gain, hypoglycaemic episodes and cost were compared between the two treatment groups at the end of 12 wk. Results: Mean HbAlc (±SD) decreased from 9.0±0.9 per cent at randomization to 7.9±0.8 per cent in BHI (P<0.001) and from 9.4±1.3 to 8.2±1.0 per cent in BB regimen (P<0.001) after 12 wk of treatment. The mean (±SEM) weight gain in patients in the BHI regimen was 1.5±0.33 kg compared to 1.4±0.34 kg in the BB regimen. Insulin dose increment at 12 wk was significantly more in the BB regimen 0.46±0.32 U/kg/day compared to 0.15±0.21 U/kg/day in the BHI regimen (P<0.001). The incidence of major as well as minor hypoglycaemic episodes was not different in both the regimen. The BB regimen was more expensive than the BHI regimen (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: The thrice daily biphasic human insulin regimen is non-inferior to the basal bolus insulin analogue regimen in terms efficacy and safety in patients with poorly controlled T2DM. However, these data require further substantiation in large long term prospective studies. PMID:22382187

  17. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  18. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  19. Comparison of first pass bolus AIFs extracted from sequential {sup 18}F-FDG PET and DSC-MRI of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Eleanor, E-mail: ee244@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EB (United Kingdom); Ward, Alexander O.; Buonincontri, Guido; Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-11

    Accurate kinetic modelling of in vivo physiological function using positron emission tomography (PET) requires determination of the tracer time–activity curve in plasma, known as the arterial input function (AIF). The AIF is usually determined by invasive blood sampling methods, which are prohibitive in murine studies due to low total blood volumes. Extracting AIFs from PET images is also challenging due to large partial volume effects (PVE). We hypothesise that in combined PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR), a co-injected bolus of MR contrast agent and PET ligand can be tracked using fast MR acquisitions. This protocol would allow extraction of a MR AIF from MR contrast agent concentration–time curves, at higher spatial and temporal resolution than an image-derived PET AIF. A conversion factor could then be applied to the MR AIF for use in PET kinetic analysis. This work has compared AIFs obtained from sequential DSC-MRI and PET with separate injections of gadolinium contrast agent and {sup 18}F-FDG respectively to ascertain the technique′s validity. An automated voxel selection algorithm was employed to improve MR AIF reproducibility. We found that MR and PET AIFs displayed similar character in the first pass, confirmed by gamma variate fits (p<0.02). MR AIFs displayed reduced PVE compared to PET AIFs, indicating their potential use in PET/MR studies.

  20. Effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus supplement on growth performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abdelrahman, Mutassim M; Harron, Raafat M

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus (TMB) supplement on the productive performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels under natural grazing conditions. Fifteen 6-month-old growing male camels (average bodyweight 139.51 ± 26.49 kg) were used in a 150-day trial. Animals were individually housed in a shaded pen and randomly assigned to receive zero (control group, CON), one (TMB1), or two (TMB2) long-acting TMBs. Feed intake was measured weekly, and camels were weighed monthly. Blood samples were collected from all camels on days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 to obtain metabolic profiles. Zinc, selenium, copper, cobalt, and manganese concentrations were determined in the diet, serum, and liver. In comparison with controls, giving camels one TMB increased the average daily gain (14.38%; P copper, selenium, cobalt, and manganese were greater (P mineral profiles of camels. Different levels, sources, and synergistic combinations of trace minerals can be used in further studies to elucidate their abilities to increase productive variables as well as their availability and cost to the camel industry. PMID:26894497

  1. Blood Glucose Control Using a Novel Continuous Blood Glucose Monitor and Repetitive Intravenous Insulin Boluses: Exploiting Natural Insulin Pulsatility as a Principle for a Future Artificial Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils K. Skjaervold

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a glucose regulatory algorithm by employing the natural pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion and the oscillatory pattern of resting blood glucose levels and further to regulate the blood glucose level in diabetic pigs by this method. We developed a control algorithm based on repetitive intravenous bolus injections of insulin and combined this with an intravascular blood glucose monitor. Four anesthetized pigs were used in the study. The animals developed a mildly diabetic state from streptozotocin pretreatment. They were steadily brought within the blood glucose target range of 4.5–6.0 mmol/L in 21 to 121 min and kept within that range for 128 to 238 min (hypoglycemic values varied from 2.9 to 51.1 min. The study confirmed our hypotheses regarding the feasibility of this new principle for blood glucose control, and the algorithm was constantly improved during the study to produce the best results in the last animals. The main obstacles were the drift of the IvS-1 sensor and problems with the calibration procedure, which calls for an improvement in the sensor stability before this method can be applied fully in new studies in animals and humans.

  2. Plasma free amino acid kinetics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a bolus injection of 15N-labeled amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jacob William; Yanke, Dan; Mirza, Jeff; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2011-02-01

    To gain insight into the metabolic design of the amino acid carrier systems in fish, we injected a bolus of (15)N amino acids into the dorsal aorta in mature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The plasma kinetic parameters including concentration, pool size, rate of disappearance (R(d)), half-life and turnover rate were determined for 15 amino acids. When corrected for metabolic rate, the R(d) values obtained for trout for most amino acids were largely comparable to human values, with the exception of glutamine (which was lower) and threonine (which was higher). R(d) values ranged from 0.9 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (lysine) to 22.1 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (threonine) with most values falling between 2 and 6 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1). There was a significant correlation between R(d) and the molar proportion of amino acids in rainbow trout whole body protein hydrolysate. Other kinetic parameters did not correlate significantly with whole body amino acid composition. This indicates that an important design feature of the plasma-free amino acids system involves proportional delivery of amino acids to tissues for protein synthesis.

  3. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects Contrações esofágicas, trânsito do bolo e percepção do trânsito após deglutições de bolos líquido e sólido em voluntários normais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.CONTEXTO: Disfagia esofágica é a sensação de que o alimento ingerido tem trânsito lento ou é bloqueado em sua passagem para o estômago. Nem sempre o sintoma é associado com alterações em trânsito ou motilidade. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar, em voluntários normais, a

  4. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered “excellent”, 33% “good”, and 900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a “fair/poor” cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with “fair/poor” physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported “excellent”, “good”, and “fair/poor” cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with “fair/poor” outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose ≥16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy. Conclusions: Whole-breast IMRT is associated with very low rates of local recurrence at 5 years, 83%-98% “good/excellent” cosmetic outcomes, and minimal

  5. Does the time of the sampling matter in 13C pulse labeling and chasing experiments? A case study on beech seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Karlowsky, Stefan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Calfapietra, Carlo; Gessler, Arthur; Brugnoli, Enrico; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    13C pulse labeling and chasing is a valuable and very popular tool for determination of the fate and turnover rates of C in plant-soil systems. Continuous isoflux measurements became an accessible reality allowing to cover completely the diurnal variation in label assimilation and respiration fluxes. Label turnover in multiple pools, especially of those located belowground, is more often assessed instead by isolated day-time samplings. By increasing the sampling frequency of belowground compartments we aimed to catch the short-term diurnal variations in label allocation and to link these processes with label dynamics in the aboveground biomass. For these purposes we labeled 3-m height soil-grown European beech seedlings with 13C enriched CO2 and traced the flow of 13C within belowground plant-soil continuum. Continuous soil isoflux measurements were accompanied by a 3-h-frequency sampling of root and soil material during the first 48 h, followed by a daily sampling in the successive 5 days. The amount of label found in microbial biomass depended partially on the amount of roots in the sample. Microbial biomass C (MBC) and microbial respiration showed very strong correlation, suggesting the possibility to use one as a proxy of the other. MBC enrichment showed a clear diurnal pattern with night-time and early morning peaks. These peaks were similar in shape and shifted by one sampling when compared to root sugars enrichment. Soil respiration showed instead a single bell-shape peak in 13C, likely due to a sequence of peaks of root and microbial origin. 13C flow into soil microbial functional groups was assessed less frequently through phospholipid fatty acid analyses (PLFA). The microorganisms were separated into two distinct groups by the time of the appearance of the label in the single PLFAs. The first group was characterized by a fast appearance of the label and higher enrichment and was composed of Gram negative bacteria and saprotrophic fungi likely living in

  6. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Lanea M.M., E-mail: Lanea.Keller@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sopka, Dennis M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and <1.5% 'fair/poor'. For physician-reported cosmesis, boost doses {>=}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy

  7. Cloud Computing Vs. Grid Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi; Amid Khatibi Bardsiri

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing emerges as one of the hottest topic in field of information technology. Cloud computing is based on several other computing research areas such as HPC, virtualization, utility computing and grid computing. In order to make clear the essential of cloud computing, we propose the characteristics of this area which make cloud computing being cloud computing and distinguish it from other research areas. The service oriented, loose coupling, strong fault tolerant, business model and...

  8. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography scan delay in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukosevicius Saulius

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA is widely applied in the evaluation of cerebral vessels. Contrast enhancement in cerebral CTA without care or test bolus is not always sufficient for high-quality images. AIMS: Evaluation of the possibilities of calculation of scan delay for cerebral CTA in case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, based on clinical data of a patient and to find out prognostic error of the model. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study in Neurosurgery and Radiology departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scan delay in 53 patients suffering an acute SAH was measured employing test bolus technique. Cerebral CTA was performed afterwards. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SPSS for Windows v.10.1 software package was applied for dispersion analysis, including one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov′s test and Levene′s Test of Equality of Error Variances. RESULTS: A statistical model for the prediction of scan delay in SAH was developed. Cerebral CTA scan delay was dependent upon age, neurological status and impact of the latter factors together (P<0.05. The determined mean square error of prognosis of scan delay of the developed model equals 3.3 sec. CONCLUSION: Using our proposed model it is possible to estimate an optimal delay time for CTA in most patients with SAH with a determined error.

  9. Chasing extreme blazars with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bassani, Loredana; Landi, R; Malizia, A; Bird, A J; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2013-01-01

    Within the blazar population, hard X-ray selected objects are of particular interest as they tend to lie at each end of the blazar sequence. In particular, flat spectrum radio quasars located at high redshifts display the most powerful jets, the largest black hole masses and the most luminous accretion disks: their spectral energy distribution has a Compton peak in the sub-MeV region which favours their detection by instruments like INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT. These sources are even more extreme than blazars selected in other wavebands, like, for example, the gamma-ray range explored by Fermi. Here we report on a sample of 12 high redshift blazars detected so far by INTEGRAL, including 3 newly identified objects. Some properties of the combined IBIS/BAT sample of high redshift blazars (z>2) are also compared to those of a similar similar sample obtained by Fermi.

  10. Einstein Chases a Light Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This is a prelude to a book which I intend to publish. This paper describes my temporary thoughts on Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity. See my papers on my thoughts on Einstein's pathway to his general theory of relativity. Never say that you know how Einstein had arrived at his special theory of relativity, even if you read his letters to his wife and friends, and some other primary documents. Einstein gave many talks and wrote pieces, but at the end of the day, he told very little geographical, historical and biographical details pertaining to the years he had spent in the patent office. I thus bring here my jigsaw puzzle and warn the reader again, this is my creation and not Einstein's...

  11. Chasing White-Light Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    In this memoir I describe my life in research, mostly in the area of solar physics. The recurring theme is "white-light flares," and several sections of this paper deal with this and related phenomena; I wind up describing how I see the state of the art in this still-interesting and crucially important (as it has been since 1859) area of flare research. I also describe my participation in two long-lived satellite programs dedicated to solar observations ( Yohkoh and RHESSI) and elaborate on their discoveries. These have both helped with white-light flares both directly and also with closely related X-ray and γ-ray emissions), with the result that this article leans heavily in that direction.

  12. Influence of muscle activation and mucosal material property on esophageal transport: study based on a fully-resolved computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John; Kahrilas, Peter; Patankar, Neelesh

    2014-11-01

    Esophageal transport involves interactions between food (bolus), the esophageal walls (composed of mucosal, circular muscle (CM) and longitudinal muscle (LM) layers), and neurally coordinated muscle activation including CM contraction and LM shortening. Due to the complexity of these interactions, few studies have been conducted on the mechanical role of the mucosal layer in esophageal transport. Also poorly understood are the collaborative roles of CM contraction and LM shortening and the influence of their synchronization. Here, based on a fully-resolved computational model that we developed, we investigated the individual roles of CM contraction and LM shortening, compared bolus transport with various levels of discoordination between CM and LM activation, and studied the role of the mucosa and how its stiffening influenced transport. These preliminary findings should help understand the synergy between LM, CM, and the mucosal layer in facilitating bolus transport, thereby providing insight into related physiology and pathophysiology. The support of Grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902 from NIH is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Metabolism of the A{sub 1} adenosine receptor PET ligand [{sup 18}F]CPFPX by CYP1A2: implications for bolus/infusion PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusch, Andreas [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Aachen, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bier, Dirk [Institute for Neuroscience and Biophysics (INB4)-Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Holschbach, Marcus H. [Institute for Neuroscience and Biophysics (INB4)-Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Woitalla, Dirk [Neurological Department, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44791 Bochum (Germany); Elmenhorst, David [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Winz, Oliver H. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Zilles, Karl [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Bauer, Andreas [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: an.bauer@fz-juelich.de

    2006-10-15

    The A{sub 1} adenosine receptor positron emission tomography (PET) ligand 8-cyclopentyl-3-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-1-propylxanthine ([{sup 18}F]CPFPX, ) undergoes a fast hepatic metabolism. An optimal design of PET quantitation approaches (e.g., bolus/infusion studies) necessitates the knowledge of factors that influence this metabolism. Metabolites of were separated by radio thin-layer chromatography. Metabolism in vivo, in pooled human liver microsomes and in recombinant human cytochrome isoenzyme preparations was studied. Dynamic PET studies using were performed on three controls and two patients, one treated with the antidepressant and inhibitor of cytochrome CYP1A2 fluvoxamine, the other suffering from liver cirrhosis. CPFPX is metabolized by cytochrome CYP1A2 with high selectivity [K {sub M}=1.1 {mu}M (95% confidence interval, or CI, 0.6-2.0 {mu}M) and V {sub max}=243 pmol min{sup -1} mg{sup -1} (95% CI, 112-373 pmol min{sup -1} mg{sup -1}) corresponding to 2.4 pmol min{sup -1} pmol{sup -1} cytochrome P-450]. This metabolism can competitively be inhibited by fluvoxamine with K {sub I}=68 nM (95% CI, 34-138 nM). At least eight compounds found in human plasma and in the CYP1A2 in vitro preparations have an identical migration pattern and account together for >90% and >80% of the respective metabolite yield. Metabolism was considerably delayed in the two patients. In conclusion, is metabolized by cytochrome CYP1A2. Its metabolism is therefore subdued to disease-related or xenobiotic-induced changes of CYP1A2 activity. The identification of the metabolic pathway of 1 allows to optimize image quantification in A{sub 1} adenosine receptor PET studies.

  14. Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavana Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is such a type of computing environment, where business owners outsource their computing needs including application software services to a third party and when they need to use the computing power or employees need to use the application resources like database, emails etc., they access the resources via Internet. Cloud computing the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a (typically the Internet).

  15. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  16. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.). Although most people would think that analog synthesizers and electronic music substantially predate the use of computers in music, many experiments and complete computer music systems were being constructed and used as early as the 1950s.

  17. Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavana Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is such a type of computing environment, where business owners outsource their computing needs including application software services to a third party and when they need to use the computing power or employees need to use the application resources like database, emails etc., they access the resources via Internet

  18. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  19. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-01

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers on demand. In this article,we describe the grid computing model and enumerate themajor differences between grid and cloud computing.

  20. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  1. Computational composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Redström, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Computational composite is introduced as a new type of composite material. Arguing that this is not just a metaphorical maneuver, we provide an analysis of computational technology as material in design, which shows how computers share important characteristics with other materials used in design...... and architecture. We argue that the notion of computational composites provides a precise understanding of the computer as material, and of how computations need to be combined with other materials to come to expression as material. Besides working as an analysis of computers from a designer’s point of view...

  2. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Truhlar, Donald G.; McKoy, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  3. Perceptual effects of bolus size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    A trained panel of 19 subjects were asked to rate a number of sensory attributes of commercially available vanilla custard desserts. Stimuli were placed in plastic cups and were sampled using 11-mm-diameter straws. In total, 304 samples were weighed before and after sampling and the volume ingested

  4. Test-retest reproducibility of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 ligand [{sup 18}F]FPEB with bolus plus constant infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyung; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Planeta, Beata; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Lim, Keunpoong; Lin, Shu-Fei; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); McCarthy, Timothy J. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ding, Yu-Shin [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Evan D.; Williams, Wendol A. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-09-15

    [{sup 18}F]FPEB is a promising PET radioligand for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), a potential target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of [{sup 18}F]FPEB in the human brain. Seven healthy male subjects were scanned twice, 3 - 11 weeks apart. Dynamic data were acquired using bolus plus infusion of 162 ± 32 MBq [{sup 18}F]FPEB. Four methods were used to estimate volume of distribution (V{sub T}): equilibrium analysis (EQ) using arterial (EQ{sub A}) or venous input data (EQ{sub V}), MA1, and a two-tissue compartment model (2 T). Binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was also estimated using cerebellar white matter (CWM) or gray matter (CGM) as the reference region using EQ, 2 T and MA1. Absolute test-retest variability (aTRV) of V{sub T} and BP{sub ND} were calculated for each method. Venous blood measurements (C{sub V}) were compared with arterial input (C{sub A}) to examine their usability in EQ analysis. Regional V{sub T} estimated by the four methods displayed a high degree of agreement (r{sup 2} ranging from 0.83 to 0.99 among the methods), although EQ{sub A} and EQ{sub V} overestimated V{sub T} by a mean of 9 % and 7 %, respectively, compared to 2 T. Mean values of aTRV of V{sub T} were 11 % by EQ{sub A}, 12 % by EQ{sub V}, 14 % by MA1 and 14 % by 2 T. Regional BP{sub ND} also agreed well among the methods and mean aTRV of BP{sub ND} was 8 - 12 % (CWM) and 7 - 9 % (CGM). Venous and arterial blood concentrations of [{sup 18}F]FPEB were well matched during equilibrium (C{sub V} = 1.01 . C{sub A}, r{sup 2} = 0.95). [{sup 18}F]FPEB binding shows good TRV with minor differences among analysis methods. Venous blood can be used as an alternative for input function measurement instead of arterial blood in EQ analysis. Thus, [{sup 18}F]FPEB is an excellent PET imaging tracer for mGluR5 in humans. (orig.)

  5. Duality Computing in Quantum Computers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Gui-Lu; LIU Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a duality computing mode, which resembles particle-wave duality property when a quantum system such as a quantum computer passes through a double-slit. In this mode, computing operations are not necessarily unitary. The duality mode provides a natural link between classical computing and quantum computing. In addition, the duality mode provides a new tool for quantum algorithm design.

  6. Computational manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.

  7. Contextual Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Porzel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the latest in knowledge representation and human-computer interaction to address the problem of contextual computing in artificial intelligence. It uses high-level context to solve some challenging problems in natural language understanding.

  8. Stream Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kak, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    Stream computing is the use of multiple autonomic and parallel modules together with integrative processors at a higher level of abstraction to embody "intelligent" processing. The biological basis of this computing is sketched and the matter of learning is examined.

  9. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  10. Computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  11. Computer Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelle, Richard; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes the nature and use of computer algebra and its applications to various physical sciences. Includes diagrams illustrating, among others, a computer algebra system and flow chart of operation of the Euclidean algorithm. (SK)

  12. Cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kodera, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with cloud computing in Czech Republic, specifically providers of cloud services. In theoretical part there will be explained what is cloud computing, different kinds of cloud computing, virtualization necessary for cloud computing, main concerns about cloud security and also, where cloud is physically stored. In practical part author choose the best solution for company from selected cloud providers in the Czech Republic by using mathematical methods, then author compare th...

  13. Computable models

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al

  14. Computing fundamentals introduction to computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    The absolute beginner's guide to learning basic computer skills Computing Fundamentals, Introduction to Computers gets you up to speed on basic computing skills, showing you everything you need to know to conquer entry-level computing courses. Written by a Microsoft Office Master Instructor, this useful guide walks you step-by-step through the most important concepts and skills you need to be proficient on the computer, using nontechnical, easy-to-understand language. You'll start at the very beginning, getting acquainted with the actual, physical machine, then progress through the most common

  15. Quantum Computing for Computer Architects

    CERN Document Server

    Metodi, Tzvetan

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore

  16. Computer Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This manual designed to provide the teacher with methods of understanding the computer and its potential in the classroom includes four units with exercises and an answer sheet. Unit 1 covers computer fundamentals, the mini computer, programming languages, an introduction to BASIC, and control instructions. Variable names and constants described…

  17. Computational Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    of the new microprocessors and network technologies. However, the understanding of the computer represented within this program poses a challenge for the intentions of the program. The computer is understood as a multitude of invisible intelligent information devices which confines the computer as a tool...

  18. Computing Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... general computational issues, and finally applications that model behavior in religious contexts....

  19. Computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Edward K

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It focuses on the deeper aspects of the two recognized subdivisions of Computer Science, Software and Hardware. These subdivisions are shown to be closely interrelated as a result of the stored-program concept. Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It includes certain classical theoretical computer science topics such as Unsolvability (e.g. the halting problem) and Undecidability (e.g. Godel's incompleteness theorem) that treat problems that exist under the Church-Turing thesis of computation. These problem topics explain in

  20. Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mirashe, Shivaji P.; Kalyankar, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    Computing as you know it is about to change, your applications and documents are going to move from the desktop into the cloud. I'm talking about cloud computing, where applications and files are hosted on a "cloud" consisting of thousands of computers and servers, all linked together and accessible via the Internet. With cloud computing, everything you do is now web based instead of being desktop based. You can access all your programs and documents from any computer that's connected to the ...

  1. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  2. Parallel computations

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Parallel Computations focuses on parallel computation, with emphasis on algorithms used in a variety of numerical and physical applications and for many different types of parallel computers. Topics covered range from vectorization of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) algorithm on the Cray-1 to calculation of table lookups and piecewise functions. Single tridiagonal linear systems and vectorized computation of reactive flow are also discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins by classifying parallel computers and describing techn

  3. Computer Science Research: Computation Directorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, M.J. (ed.); Grupe, K.F. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains short papers in the following areas: large-scale scientific computation; parallel computing; general-purpose numerical algorithms; distributed operating systems and networks; knowledge-based systems; and technology information systems.

  4. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  5. Computer programming and computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hassitt, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    Computer Programming and Computer Systems imparts a "reading knowledge? of computer systems.This book describes the aspects of machine-language programming, monitor systems, computer hardware, and advanced programming that every thorough programmer should be acquainted with. This text discusses the automatic electronic digital computers, symbolic language, Reverse Polish Notation, and Fortran into assembly language. The routine for reading blocked tapes, dimension statements in subroutines, general-purpose input routine, and efficient use of memory are also elaborated.This publication is inten

  6. Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, A M

    1998-01-01

    The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarise not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, the review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the EPR experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory, and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are described, including key distribution, teleportation, data compression, quantum error correction, the universal quantum computer and qua...

  7. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  8. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  9. Computer Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and development of computer software. Programing, programing languages, types of software (including dynamic spreadsheets), and software of the future are among the topics considered. (JN)

  10. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  11. Computational Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ Computer science is the discipline that anchors the computer industry which has been improving processor performance, communication bandwidth and storage capacity on the so called "Moore's law" curve or at the rate of doubling every 18 to 24 months during the past decades.

  12. Computational Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Eric; University of Pennsylvania; Gomes, Carla P.; Cornell University; Williams, Brian; Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Computational sustainability problems, which exist in dynamic environments with high amounts of uncertainty, provide a variety of unique challenges to artificial intelligence research and the opportunity for significant impact upon our collective future. This editorial provides an overview of artificial intelligence for computational sustainability, and introduces this special issue of AI Magazine.

  13. Cafeteria Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervarics, Charles

    1992-01-01

    By relying on new computer hardware and software, school food service departments can keep better records of daily food consumption, free and reduced-price meals, inventory, production, and other essentials. The most commonly used systems fall into two basic categories: point-of-sale computers and behind-the-counter systems. State funding efforts…

  14. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  15. GPGPU COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN OANCEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the first idea of using GPU to general purpose computing, things have evolved over the years and now there are several approaches to GPU programming. GPU computing practically began with the introduction of CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture by NVIDIA and Stream by AMD. These are APIs designed by the GPU vendors to be used together with the hardware that they provide. A new emerging standard, OpenCL (Open Computing Language tries to unify different GPU general computing API implementations and provides a framework for writing programs executed across heterogeneous platforms consisting of both CPUs and GPUs. OpenCL provides parallel computing using task-based and data-based parallelism. In this paper we will focus on the CUDA parallel computing architecture and programming model introduced by NVIDIA. We will present the benefits of the CUDA programming model. We will also compare the two main approaches, CUDA and AMD APP (STREAM and the new framwork, OpenCL that tries to unify the GPGPU computing models.

  16. Quantum Computation in Computational Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Sadakane, Kunihiko; Sugawara, Noriko; Tokuyama, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    We discuss applications of quantum computation to geometric data processing. These applications include problems on convex hulls, minimum enclosing balls, linear programming, and intersection problems. Technically, we apply well-known Grover’s algorithm (and its variants) combined with geometric algorithms, and no further knowledge of quantum computing is required. However, revealing these applications and emphasizing potential usefulness of quantum computation in geometric data processing wi...

  17. Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The basic ideas and principles of granular computing (GrC) have been studied explicitly or implicitly in many fields in isolation. With the recent renewed and fast growing interest, it is time to extract the commonality from a diversity of fields and to study systematically and formally the domain independent principles of granular computing in a unified model. A framework of granular computing can be established by applying its own principles. We examine such a framework from two perspectives,granular computing as structured thinking and structured problem solving. From the philosophical perspective or the conceptual level,granular computing focuses on structured thinking based on multiple levels of granularity. The implementation of such a philosophy in the application level deals with structured problem solving.

  18. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  19. Computational Streetscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Torrens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streetscapes have presented a long-standing interest in many fields. Recently, there has been a resurgence of attention on streetscape issues, catalyzed in large part by computing. Because of computing, there is more understanding, vistas, data, and analysis of and on streetscape phenomena than ever before. This diversity of lenses trained on streetscapes permits us to address long-standing questions, such as how people use information while mobile, how interactions with people and things occur on streets, how we might safeguard crowds, how we can design services to assist pedestrians, and how we could better support special populations as they traverse cities. Amid each of these avenues of inquiry, computing is facilitating new ways of posing these questions, particularly by expanding the scope of what-if exploration that is possible. With assistance from computing, consideration of streetscapes now reaches across scales, from the neurological interactions that form among place cells in the brain up to informatics that afford real-time views of activity over whole urban spaces. For some streetscape phenomena, computing allows us to build realistic but synthetic facsimiles in computation, which can function as artificial laboratories for testing ideas. In this paper, I review the domain science for studying streetscapes from vantages in physics, urban studies, animation and the visual arts, psychology, biology, and behavioral geography. I also review the computational developments shaping streetscape science, with particular emphasis on modeling and simulation as informed by data acquisition and generation, data models, path-planning heuristics, artificial intelligence for navigation and way-finding, timing, synthetic vision, steering routines, kinematics, and geometrical treatment of collision detection and avoidance. I also discuss the implications that the advances in computing streetscapes might have on emerging developments in cyber

  20. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy K. Khenner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education; on comparing the notion of «computational thinking» with related concepts used in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature.Results. The concept «computational thinking» is analyzed from the point of view of intuitive understanding and scientific and applied aspects. It is shown as computational thinking has evolved in the process of development of computers hardware and software. The practice-oriented interpretation of computational thinking which dominant among educators is described along with some ways of its formation. It is shown that computational thinking is a metasubject result of general education as well as its tool. From the point of view of the author, purposeful development of computational thinking should be one of the tasks of the Russian education.Scientific novelty. The author gives a theoretical justification of the role of computational thinking schemes as metasubject results of learning. The dynamics of the development of this concept is described. This process is connected with the evolution of computer and information technologies as well as increase of number of the tasks for effective solutions of which computational thinking is required. Author substantiated the affirmation that including «computational thinking » in the set of pedagogical concepts which are used in the national education system fills an existing gap.Practical significance. New metasubject result of education associated with

  1. Computer interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Dixey, Graham

    1994-01-01

    This book explains how computers interact with the world around them and therefore how to make them a useful tool. Topics covered include descriptions of all the components that make up a computer, principles of data exchange, interaction with peripherals, serial communication, input devices, recording methods, computer-controlled motors, and printers.In an informative and straightforward manner, Graham Dixey describes how to turn what might seem an incomprehensible 'black box' PC into a powerful and enjoyable tool that can help you in all areas of your work and leisure. With plenty of handy

  2. Computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, I S

    1965-01-01

    Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the

  3. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  4. Computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.

  5. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C

    2012-01-01

    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  6. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  7. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  8. Essential Function of Children Chase Slapstick Game and its Influencing Factors%幼儿追逐打闹游戏的本质功能及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞

    2014-01-01

    幼儿追逐打闹游戏是一种很常见的游戏,其对幼儿的身体、情感和社会性交往都非常有利,但由于其很容易发展成攻击性行为,很多幼儿园教师和家长都反对这种游戏,本文力图分析幼儿打闹游戏的影响因素,为幼儿打闹游戏提供一定的指导建议。%Children chase slapstick game is a very common game, their children's physical, emotional and social interactions are very favorable, but because of its very likely to develop into aggressive behavior, a lot of kindergarten teachers and parents are opposed to this kind of game, This paper tries to analyze the factors affecting children slapstick game provides some guid-ance is recommended for young children slapstick game.

  9. Cytokinin concentrations and CHASE-DOMAIN CONTAINING HIS KINASE 2 (NaCHK2)- and NaCHK3-mediated perception modulate herbivory-induced defense signaling and defenses in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Martin; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Brütting, Christoph; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Herbivore attack elicits changes in cytokinins (CKs), but how these changes influence defense signaling remains poorly described. We investigated the influence of the CK pathway on the well-described inducible defense pathways of Nicotiana attenuata in response to wounding with and without elicitors from the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. CK pathway manipulation often suffers from substantial side effects on plant growth and development. We therefore used multiple manipulation tools including spray application of CKs, chemically-inducible expression of the CK biosynthesis enzyme isopentenyltransferase, and transient and constitutive RNAi-mediated gene silencing of CK receptors to resolve the function of CKs in plant defense. The results demonstrated that CK concentrations in leaves and perception through CHASE-DOMAIN CONTAINING HIS KINASE 2 (NaCHK2) and NaCHK3 were important for the accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and phenolamides and proteinase inhibitor activity. By contrast, the CK pathway did not promote the accumulation of the active JA-isoleucine conjugate and negatively regulated the release of specific green leaf volatile esters. Interestingly, CK signaling also promotes the systemic phenolamide accumulation. We conclude that the CK pathway is an important regulator of herbivory-inducible defense signaling and chemistry, which expands its reported participation in adjusting a plant's physiology to abiotic and biotic stress responses. PMID:25919325

  10. Chasing the Identification of ASCA Galactic Objects (ChIcAGO) - An X-ray Survey of Unidentified Sources in the Galactic Plane I: Source Sample and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, G E; Kaplan, D L; Slane, P O; Muno, M P; Posselt, B; Hong, J; Murray, S S; Steeghs, D T H; Brogan, C L; Drake, J J; Farrell, S A; Benjamin, R A; Chakrabarty, D; Drew, J E; Finley, J P; Grindlay, J E; Lazio, T J W; Lee, J C; Mauerhan, J C; van Kerkwijk, M H

    2014-01-01

    We present the Chasing the Identification of ASCA Galactic Objects (ChIcAGO) survey, which is designed to identify the unknown X-ray sources discovered during the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey (AGPS). Little is known about most of the AGPS sources, especially those that emit primarily in hard X-rays (2-10 keV) within the F_x ~ 10^-13 to 10^-11 erg cm^-2 s^-1 X-ray flux range. In ChIcAGO, the subarcsecond localization capabilities of Chandra have been combined with a detailed multi-wavelength follow-up program, with the ultimate goal of classifying the >100 unidentified sources in the AGPS. Overall to date, 93 unidentified AGPS sources have been observed with Chandra as part of the ChIcAGO survey. A total of 253 X-ray point sources have been detected in these Chandra observations within 3' of the original ASCA positions. We have identified infrared and optical counterparts to the majority of these sources, using both new observations and catalogs from existing Galactic plane surveys. X-ray and infrared population...

  11. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  12. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  13. Computational creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Mántaras Badia, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies, and in particular artificial intelligence, are drastically changing the nature of creative processes. Computers are playing very significant roles in creative activities such as music, architecture, fine arts, and science. Indeed, the computer is already a canvas, a brush, a musical instrument, and so on. However, we believe that we must aim at more ambitious relations between computers and creativity. Rather than just seeing the computer as a tool to help human creators, we could see it as a creative entity in its own right. This view has triggered a new subfield of Artificial Intelligence called Computational Creativity. This article addresses the question of the possibility of achieving computational creativity through some examples of computer programs capable of replicating some aspects of creative behavior in the fields of music and science.Las nuevas tecnologías y en particular la Inteligencia Artificial están cambiando de forma importante la naturaleza del proceso creativo. Los ordenadores están jugando un papel muy significativo en actividades artísticas tales como la música, la arquitectura, las bellas artes y la ciencia. Efectivamente, el ordenador ya es el lienzo, el pincel, el instrumento musical, etc. Sin embargo creemos que debemos aspirar a relaciones más ambiciosas entre los ordenadores y la creatividad. En lugar de verlos solamente como herramientas de ayuda a la creación, los ordenadores podrían ser considerados agentes creativos. Este punto de vista ha dado lugar a un nuevo subcampo de la Inteligencia Artificial denominado Creatividad Computacional. En este artículo abordamos la cuestión de la posibilidad de alcanzar dicha creatividad computacional mediante algunos ejemplos de programas de ordenador capaces de replicar algunos aspectos relacionados con el comportamiento creativo en los ámbitos de la música y la ciencia.

  14. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  15. [DNA computing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błasiak, Janusz; Krasiński, Tadeusz; Popławski, Tomasz; Sakowski, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Biocomputers can be an alternative for traditional "silicon-based" computers, which continuous development may be limited due to further miniaturization (imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) and increasing the amount of information between the central processing unit and the main memory (von Neuman bottleneck). The idea of DNA computing came true for the first time in 1994, when Adleman solved the Hamiltonian Path Problem using short DNA oligomers and DNA ligase. In the early 2000s a series of biocomputer models was presented with a seminal work of Shapiro and his colleguas who presented molecular 2 state finite automaton, in which the restriction enzyme, FokI, constituted hardware and short DNA oligomers were software as well as input/output signals. DNA molecules provided also energy for this machine. DNA computing can be exploited in many applications, from study on the gene expression pattern to diagnosis and therapy of cancer. The idea of DNA computing is still in progress in research both in vitro and in vivo and at least promising results of these research allow to have a hope for a breakthrough in the computer science. PMID:21735816

  16. Multiparty Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan

    In this thesis we study a problem of doing Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS) and Multiparty Computations in a model where private channels between the players and a broadcast channel is available. The adversary is active, adaptive and has an unbounded computing power. The thesis is based on two...... an impossibility result indicating that a similar equivalence does not hold for Multiparty Computation (MPC): we show that even if protocols are given black-box access for free to an idealized secret sharing scheme secure for the access structure in question, it is not possible to handle all relevant access...... adversary structure. We propose new VSS and MPC protocols that are substantially more efficient than the ones previously known. Another contribution of [2] is an attack against a Weak Secret Sharing Protocol (WSS) of [3]. The attack exploits the fact that the adversary is adaptive. We present this attack...

  17. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  18. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  19. Distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Van Renesse, R

    1991-01-01

    This series will start with an introduction to distributed computing systems. Distributed computing paradigms will be presented followed by a discussion on how several important contemporary distributed operating systems use these paradigms. Topics will include processing paradigms, storage paradigms, scalability and robustness. Throughout the course everything will be illustrated by modern distributed systems notably the Amoeba distributed operating system of the Free University in Amsterdam and the Plan 9 operating system of AT&T Bell Laboratories. Plan 9 is partly designed and implemented by Ken Thompson, the main person behind the successful UNIX operating system.

  20. Computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  1. Reconfigurable Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Joao MP

    2011-01-01

    As the complexity of modern embedded systems increases, it becomes less practical to design monolithic processing platforms. As a result, reconfigurable computing is being adopted widely for more flexible design. Reconfigurable Computers offer the spatial parallelism and fine-grained customizability of application-specific circuits with the postfabrication programmability of software. To make the most of this unique combination of performance and flexibility, designers need to be aware of both hardware and software issues. FPGA users must think not only about the gates needed to perform a comp

  2. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  3. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  4. Computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Gollmann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A completely up-to-date resource on computer security Assuming no previous experience in the field of computer security, this must-have book walks you through the many essential aspects of this vast topic, from the newest advances in software and technology to the most recent information on Web applications security. This new edition includes sections on Windows NT, CORBA, and Java and discusses cross-site scripting and JavaScript hacking as well as SQL injection. Serving as a helpful introduction, this self-study guide is a wonderful starting point for examining the variety of competing sec

  5. Computer busses

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, William

    2000-01-01

    As more and more equipment is interface or'bus' driven, either by the use of controllers or directly from PCs, the question of which bus to use is becoming increasingly important both in industry and in the office. 'Computer Busses' has been designed to help choose the best type of bus for the particular application.There are several books which cover individual busses, but none which provide a complete guide to computer busses. The author provides a basic theory of busses and draws examples and applications from real bus case studies. Busses are analysed using from a top-down approach, helpin

  6. Probabilistic reward- and punishment-based learning in opioid addiction: Experimental and computational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Sheynin, Jony; Balsdon, Tarryn; Luzardo, Andre; Beck, Kevin D; Hogarth, Lee; Haber, Paul; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Addiction is the continuation of a habit in spite of negative consequences. A vast literature gives evidence that this poor decision-making behavior in individuals addicted to drugs also generalizes to laboratory decision making tasks, suggesting that the impairment in decision-making is not limited to decisions about taking drugs. In the current experiment, opioid-addicted individuals and matched controls with no history of illicit drug use were administered a probabilistic classification task that embeds both reward-based and punishment-based learning trials, and a computational model of decision making was applied to understand the mechanisms describing individuals' performance on the task. Although behavioral results showed that opioid-addicted individuals performed as well as controls on both reward- and punishment-based learning, the modeling results suggested subtle differences in how decisions were made between the two groups. Specifically, the opioid-addicted group showed decreased tendency to repeat prior responses, meaning that they were more likely to "chase reward" when expectancies were violated, whereas controls were more likely to stick with a previously-successful response rule, despite occasional expectancy violations. This tendency to chase short-term reward, potentially at the expense of developing rules that maximize reward over the long term, may be a contributing factor to opioid addiction. Further work is indicated to better understand whether this tendency arises as a result of brain changes in the wake of continued opioid use/abuse, or might be a pre-existing factor that may contribute to risk for addiction.

  7. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  8. [Grid computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinsky, H

    2003-01-01

    "Turn on a water spigot, and it's like tapping a bottomless barrel of water. Ditto for electricity: Flip the switch, and the supply is endless. But computing is another matter. Even with the Internet revolution enabling us to connect in new ways, we are still limited to self-contained systems running locally stored software, limited by corporate, institutional and geographic boundaries" (1 page).

  9. Computational Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Voss, Stefan; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2013-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized...... in topical sections named: maritime shipping, road transport, vehicle routing problems, aviation applications, and logistics and supply chain management....

  10. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  11. Computing News

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N

    2001-01-01

    We are still five years from the first LHC data, so we have plenty of time to get the computing into shape, don't we? Well, yes and no: there is time, but there's an awful lot to do! The recently-completed CERN Review of LHC Computing gives the flavour of the LHC computing challenge. The hardware scale for each of the LHC experiments is millions of 'SpecInt95' (SI95) units of cpu power and tens of PetaBytes of data storage. PCs today are about 20-30SI95, and expected to be about 100 SI95 by 2005, so it's a lot of PCs. This hardware will be distributed across several 'Regional Centres' of various sizes, connected by high-speed networks. How to realise this in an orderly and timely fashion is now being discussed in earnest by CERN, Funding Agencies, and the LHC experiments. Mixed in with this is, of course, the GRID concept...but that's a topic for another day! Of course hardware, networks and the GRID constitute just one part of the computing. Most of the ATLAS effort is spent on software development. What we ...

  12. Computational trigonometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, K. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    By means of the author`s earlier theory of antieigenvalues and antieigenvectors, a new computational approach to iterative methods is presented. This enables an explicit trigonometric understanding of iterative convergence and provides new insights into the sharpness of error bounds. Direct applications to Gradient descent, Conjugate gradient, GCR(k), Orthomin, CGN, GMRES, CGS, and other matrix iterative schemes will be given.

  13. 追逐驱赶所引起的胁迫对鱼类先天性防御能力的影响%Effect of Chased and Rammed Stress on Innate Defense Activity of Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进; 李小玲

    2004-01-01

    A Study was conducted to evaluate the effect of stress, which is caused by chase and ram on the innate defense activity of spot-tail bass. Because spot-tail bass(Sciaenops ocellatus)are aggressive, within a few hours of post-transferring two fish of different size into an aquarium, large fish always became dominant, and challenged, chased and rammed subordinate small fish. The cortisol concentration in the plasma of the subordinate was significantly increased over that of the dominate, indicating that the subordinate was stressed. The number of neutrophils that migrated to the swim bladder,where formalin-killed bacterial cells were injected, was significantly decreased in the subordinate, and their phagocytic and respiratory burst activities were both reduced. A stress hormone, cortisol, also suppressed in vitro degranulation of spot-tail bass eosinophilic granular cells, which are thought to contain neutrophil-migrating factors in their granules. Artificial challenge with Edwardsiella tarda revealed the elevated susceptibility of the cortisol-implanted fish to edwardsiellosis. The results obtained from the present study suggest that secreted cortisol under stressful conditions directly impairs the innate cellular defence in spot-tail bass(Sciaenops ocellatus), and therefore the stressed fish fail to defeat invading microorganisms.%研究了由追著驱赶引起的胁迫对斑尾鲈先天性防御能力的影响.斑尾鲈具有好斗相残性,实验中观察到,将不同个体大小的斑尾鲈放入同一水体中几小时后,个体稍大的追逐驱赶个体稍小的,处于生态主导地位,而小鱼则处于从属地位.对小鱼血浆内的皮质醇含量进行测定,其值显著高于大鱼血浆内皮质醇的含量,处于胁迫当中.注射灭活细菌到鱼鳔内,游向鱼鳔的嗜中性粒细胞,受胁迫鱼明显少于非受胁迫鱼.且其吞噬活力和呼吸爆发活力也相应下降.同时,体外研究也表明,胁迫抑制了斑尾鲈嗜酸性粒

  14. 流变学流体的蠕动传输:食道中食物块的运动模型%Peristaltic Transport of a Rheological Fluid:Model for Movement of Food Bolus Through Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J·C·密斯拉; S·麦蒂; 海治

    2012-01-01

    研究食道中蠕动传输的流体力学.对任意的波形和任意的管道长度,建立起流变学流体蠕动传输的数学模型.用粘性流体的Ostwald-de Waele幂定律,描述非Newton流体的流动特性.解析公式化模型,详细且精确地给出食物块在食道中蠕动传输相关的一些重要性质.分析中应用了润滑理论,本研究特别适合于Reynolds数不大的情况.将食道看作环形的管道,通过食道壁周期性的收缩来传输食物块.就单个波和周期性收缩一组波的传播,研究与传输过程有关变量的变化,如压力、流速、食物颗粒轨迹以及流量等.局部压力的变化,对流变指数n有着高度的敏感性.研究结果清晰地表明,食物块在食道中蠕动传输时,Newton流体或流变学流体构成的连续流体,以组合波传播比大间隔单波传播,传输效率要高得多.%Fluid mechanical peristaltic transport through esophagus had been of concern. A mathematical model had been developed with an aim to study the peristaltic transport of a rheo-logical fluid for arbitrary wave shapes and tube lengths. The Ostwald-de Waele power law of viscous fluid was considered here to depict the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid. The model was formulated and analyzed with the specific aim of exploring some important information concerning the movement of food bolus through the esophagus. The analysis had been carried out by using lubrication theory. The study was particularly suitable for cases where the Reynolds number was small. The esophagus was treated as a circular tube through which the transport of food bolus takes places by periodic contraction of the esophageal wall. Variation of different variables concerned with the transport phenomena such as pressure, flow velocity, particle trajectory and reflux were investigated for a single wave as well as for a train of periodic peristaltic waves. Locally variable pressure was seen to be highly sensitive to the flow index n

  15. TD-SCDMA基于HSUPA技术的追踪合并HARQ应用研究%Research on the Application of Chase Combining HARQ Based on HSUPA Technology in TD-SCDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张军

    2011-01-01

    High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is used to improve uplink packet data transfer rate, and to reduce latency in TD-SCDMA. Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) used in HSUPA can enlarge the success rate of the decoder and increase the reliability during the transfer service. The theory of HARQ in TDSCDMA system are elaborated, a proposal which applied chase combining to HARQ is raised in HSUPA. Under the condition of proper channel model , the uplink performance with different control parameters has been simulated. It is found out that the proposal can increase the system throughput and decrease the BIER effectively and feasibly.%TD-SCDMA采用高速上行分组接入技术是为了显著提高上行分组数据的传输速率,同时减少传输延迟.其中采用的混合自动重传技术可以提高译码的成功率,使数据传输更加可靠.阐述了混合自动重传技术的原理,提出了一种在高速上行分组接入中将追踪合并算法应用于混合自动重传技术的方案,并在专有信道模型条件下对不同参数的上行链路性能进行了仿真,结果表明,该方案对于提高上行链路的吞吐量和降低误块率具有较好的作用.

  16. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  17. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  18. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  19. Chasing the Origin of Viruses: Capsid-Forming Genes as a Life-Saving Preadaptation within a Community of Early Replicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalasvuori, Matti; Mattila, Sari; Hoikkala, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Virus capsids mediate the transfer of viral genetic information from one cell to another, thus the origin of the first viruses arguably coincides with the origin of the viral capsid. Capsid genes are evolutionarily ancient and their emergence potentially predated even the origin of first free-living cells. But does the origin of the capsid coincide with the origin of viruses, or is it possible that capsid-like functionalities emerged before the appearance of true viral entities? We set to investigate this question by using a computational simulator comprising primitive replicators and replication parasites within a compartment matrix. We observe that systems with no horizontal gene transfer between compartments collapse due to the rapidly emerging replication parasites. However, introduction of capsid-like genes that induce the movement of randomly selected genes from one compartment to another rescues life by providing the non-parasitic replicators a mean to escape their current compartments before the emergence of replication parasites. Capsid-forming genes can mediate the establishment of a stable meta-population where parasites cause only local tragedies but cannot overtake the whole community. The long-term survival of replicators is dependent on the frequency of horizontal transfer events, as systems with either too much or too little genetic exchange are doomed to succumb to replication-parasites. This study provides a possible scenario for explaining the origin of viral capsids before the emergence of genuine viruses: in the absence of other means of horizontal gene transfer between compartments, evolution of capsid-like functionalities may have been necessary for early life to prevail.

  20. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  1. Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...

  2. Egalitarian computing

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Alex; Khovratovich, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore several contexts where an adversary has an upper hand over the defender by using special hardware in an attack. These include password processing, hard-drive protection, cryptocurrency mining, resource sharing, code obfuscation, etc. We suggest memory-hard computing as a generic paradigm, where every task is amalgamated with a certain procedure requiring intensive access to RAM both in terms of size and (very importantly) bandwidth, so that transferring the com...

  3. Everything Computes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bill; Hofmann

    1999-01-01

    Dear American Professor, I am a student in Beijing. At the beginning of last semester, we fourroommates gathered some 10,000 yuan (a big sum here. approximately 1150USD ) and bought a computer, which is our joint-property. Since the computercame into our room, it was used round the clock except the time we were havingc1asses. So even at midnight, when I woke up from the dream, I could still see

  4. Computer Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.

  5. Effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy on glycemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Ito, Mariko Abe, Shinichi Antoku, Takashi Omoto, Masahiro Shinozaki, Shinya Nishio, Mizuo Mifune, Michiko ToganeDepartment of Diabetes, Metabolism and Kidney Disease, Edogawa Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy (PPT injected three times a day to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy (B2B on glycemic control and quality of life were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: The clinical course was prospectively observed during the first 16 weeks after switching to B2B (insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine before breakfast and dinner in 27 subjects previously treated with PPT using 50/50 premixed insulin. The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ was administered at the start and end of the study.Results: The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level (8.3%±1.8% to 8.2%±1.1% and the DTSQ score did not change between the start and end of the study. An improvement in HbA1c level was found in nine (33% subjects. The change in HbA1c showed a significant negative correlation with baseline HbA1c, and was significantly better in patients with a baseline HbA1c >8.0% than in those with an HbA1c ≤8.0% (−0.9±2.0 versus 0.3±0.6, respectively, P=0.02. The change in DTSQ score representing treatment satisfaction was significantly greater in patients whose HbA1c level was improved than in those in whom it was not (2.7±3.6 versus −0.8±3.5, P=0.04.Conclusion: B2B was noninferior to PPT with regard to HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. B2B should be considered particularly for subjects whose glycemic control is poor despite PPT.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin therapy, basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy, prandial premixed insulin therapy, Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire

  6. The effects of exhaustive chasing training on the growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in Spinibarbus sinensis and Procypris rabaudi%力竭追赶训练对两种鲤科鱼类生长和摄食代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀明; 于丽娟; 曹振东; 付世建; 张耀光

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of exhaustive chasing training on the growth performance and postprandial metabolic response of Spinibarbus sinensis and Procypris rabaudi, several growth parameters and postprandial metabolic rates were measured on the non-trained and trained groups of two fish species at (25±0. 5 ) ℃. Fish in the trained groups were performed exhaustive chasing training once daily for 21 days. Exhaustive chasing training resulted in significant decrease in feed intake, feed conversion rate, weight specific growth rate, length specific growth rate, the peak metabolic rates, the energy expended on specific dynamic action (SDA) and SDA coefficients compared with those of non-trained group in S. sinensis ( P < 0. 05 ). Resting metabolic rates, times of peak metabolic rate and durations of SDA were not significantly different between non-trained and trained groups in S. sinensis. Exhaustive chasing training elicited significant decrease in feed conversion rate, weight specific growth rate, length specific growth rate, resting metabolic rates and peak metabolic rates compared to those of the non-trained group in P. rabaudi ( P < 0. 05 ) . However, feed intake, times of peak metabolic rate, durations of SDA, factorial metabolic scopes, the energy expended on SDA and SDA coefficients were not significantly different between the non-trained group and trained group in P. rabaudi. The results suggested that; ( 1 )The growth rates decreased significantly in S. sinensis and P. rabaudi by exhaustive chasing training. (2) S. sinensis and P. rabaudi a-dopt different feeding metabolic adaptation strategies under the condition of exhaustive chasing training.%为了考查力竭训练对养殖鱼类生长能力和摄食代谢影响,在25℃条件下,测定了中华倒刺鲃(Spinibarbus sinensis)和岩原鲤(Procypris rabaudi)幼鱼各自非训练组和训练组(力竭追赶训练1次/d,历时21 d)的生长参数和摄食代谢反应.结果显示:训练组中华倒刺鲃幼

  7. ROLE OF MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS OF AUGMENTATION MAMMOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Abduraimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the findings has shown that the complex use of radiation studies allows the valid diagnosis of the complications due to aug- mentation mammoplasty to be established.Due to its high informative value, multislice computed tomographic (MSCT mammography should be used as an adjuvant in high- risk patients and when there are contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging.Bolus intravenous contrast-enhanced MSCT mammography has proved to be highly effective in differentiating scar tissue from cancer recurrences.The inclusion of this technique into the examination program for patients with the nodules of irregular shape being around the implant, detected at ultrasonography and magnetic resonance mammography, may increase the specificity of noninvasive diagnosis of cancer, thus reducing the number of excision biopsies.

  8. Bacteria as computers making computers

    OpenAIRE

    Danchin, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    Various efforts to integrate biological knowledge into networks of interactions have produced a lively microbial systems biology. Putting molecular biology and computer sciences in perspective, we review another trend in systems biology, in which recursivity and information replace the usual concepts of differential equations, feedback and feedforward loops and the like. Noting that the processes of gene expression separate the genome from the cell machinery, we analyse the role of the separa...

  9. Customizable computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Gill, Michael; Reinman, Glenn; Xiao, Bingjun

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of Dennard scaling in the early 2000s, improving the energy efficiency of computation has been the main concern of the research community and industry. The large energy efficiency gap between general-purpose processors and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) motivates the exploration of customizable architectures, where one can adapt the architecture to the workload. In this Synthesis lecture, we present an overview and introduction of the recent developments on energy-efficient customizable architectures, including customizable cores and accelerators, on-chip memory

  10. Computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  11. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity correlates with cortical perfusion parameters determined by bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Shane; Rouine, Jennifer; McIntosh, Allison; Kerskens, Christian; Harkin, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in astrocyte number and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in the animal laboratory has enabled an investigation of the relationship between pathological and neuroimaging markers in animal models. However the physiological processes which underlie these markers and their role in mediating behavioural deficits is still poorly understood. Rodent models have provided us with important insights into physiological and cellular mechanisms which may mediate anxiety and depression-related behaviours. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a strain which endogenously expresses highly anxious and depressive-like behaviours and has previously been reported to exhibit alterations in immunoreactivity for the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in brain sub-regions relative to more stress resilient out-bred strains. Here we report that the depressive and anxiety-like behaviours exhibited by the WKY rat strain are associated with alterations in brain morphology including a decrease in hippocampal volume, coupled with reduced resting state frontal cortical perfusion as assessed by MR bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) relative to the out-bred Wistar strain. Pre-limbic cortical GFAP immunoreactivity and astrocyte cell number were positively correlated with cortical blood perfusion in the WKY strain. These experiments provide a link between pathological and neuroimaging markers of aberrant astrocytic function and add validity to the WKY rat as a model for co-morbid anxiety and depression. PMID:27068181

  12. Computational Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Astsatryan, H. V.

    2015-07-01

    Present astronomical archives that contain billions of objects, both Galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allow new studies and discoveries. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories (VO) use available databases and current observing material as a collection of interoperating data archives and software tools to form a research environment in which complex research programs can be conducted. Most of the modern databases give at present VO access to the stored information, which makes possible also a fast analysis and managing of these data. Cross-correlations result in revealing new objects and new samples. Very often dozens of thousands of sources hide a few very interesting ones that are needed to be discovered by comparison of various physical characteristics. VO is a prototype of Grid technologies that allows distributed data computation, analysis and imaging. Particularly important are data reduction and analysis systems: spectral analysis, SED building and fitting, modelling, variability studies, cross correlations, etc. Computational astrophysics has become an indissoluble part of astronomy and most of modern research is being done by means of it.

  13. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  14. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. PMID:26792536

  15. Quantitative analysis of portal flow in patients with active chronic hepatitis. Magnetic Resonance Angiography with bolus tracking versus color Doppler US; Determinazione quantitativa del flusso nella vena porta nei soggetti con epatopatia cronica attiva. Confronto tra angiografia con Risonanza Magnetica con bolo di protoni marcati ed eco color-Doppler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, R.; Barbaro, B.; Prudenzano, R.; Cina, A.; Marano, P. [Policlinico A. Gemelli, Rome (Italy). Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-03-01

    To assess the accuracy of time-of-flight MR Angiography (MRA) with bolus tracking in evaluation mean blood velocity and flowrate in the portal vein in patients with chronic hepatitis versus healthy volunteers. Bolus tracking MRA is superior to color Doppler US in quantitating blood flow in the portal vein is evaluating changes after a meal. Decreased mean velocity and flowrate may indicate impaired function, as it happens in early chronic hepatitis. [Italian] Il lavoro si prefine lo scopo di determinare al'accuratezza dell'angio-RM nel tempo di transito ('time of flight') con tecnica del bolo di protoni marcati ('bolus tracking') nella quantizzazione del flusso nella vena porta nei pazienti con epatopatia cronica, a confronto di una popolazione di volontari sani. Lo studio evidanzia la capacita' dell'angio-RM, nel quantizzare il flusso nella vena porta e nel rilevare le modifiche dopo pasto, a confronto con l'eco color Doppler, la cui riduzione puo' essere indice della ridotta riserva funzionale, come avviene nei soggetti affetti da epatopatia cronica attiva.

  16. Computer Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur AĞAOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial that gifted and talented students should be supported by different educational methods for their interests and skills. The science and arts centres (gifted centres provide the Supportive Education Program for these students with an interdisciplinary perspective. In line with the program, an ICT lesson entitled “Computer Tree” serves for identifying learner readiness levels, and defining the basic conceptual framework. A language teacher also contributes to the process, since it caters for the creative function of the basic linguistic skills. The teaching technique is applied for 9-11 aged student level. The lesson introduces an evaluation process including basic information, skills, and interests of the target group. Furthermore, it includes an observation process by way of peer assessment. The lesson is considered to be a good sample of planning for any subject, for the unpredicted convergence of visual and technical abilities with linguistic abilities.

  17. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  18. 抗帕丸对帕金森病模型小鼠行为及纹状体内多巴胺水平的影响%Effects of Kangpa bolus on behaviors and dopamine concentration of striatum in Parkinson's disease model animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕; 阚红卫; 徐鹏夫; 魏安祥; 杨士友

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察抗帕丸对帕金森病模型动物行为学和纹状体内多巴胺及代谢产物的影响.方法 建立小鼠肌肉震颤和僵直模型,记录抗帕丸能否拮抗其震颤僵直行为.利用小鼠跳台实验,避暗实验,观察抗帕丸能否改善其学习记忆行为.制作大鼠帕金森病模型,观察抗帕丸能否改变其旋转行为,并用ELISA法测定损伤侧纹状体内多巴胺(DA)及高香草酸(HVA)含量.结果 抗帕丸大、中剂量组小鼠肌肉震颤持续时间[(548.0±27.0)s,590.9±28.7)s]较模型组[(723.1±79.3)8]明显减少(P<0.01);抗帕丸大、中、小剂量组小鼠肌肉僵直持续时间[(2300.1±352.5)s,(2478.2 ±276.6)s,(2559.3±207.6)s]较模型组[(3194.5±251.7)s]明显减少(P<0.01);抗帕丸大、中剂量组小鼠跳台的错误次数[(1.60±0.97)次,(1.80±0.63)次]较模型组[(3.10±0.74)次]明显减少(P<0.01);抗帕丸大、中剂量组小鼠避暗的错误次数[(0.80±0.79)次,(1.10±0.74)次]较模型组[(2.30±0.68)次]明显减少(P<0.01);抗帕丸大、中剂量组治疗3周后,帕金森病大鼠30 min内的旋转圈数[(286.5±12.1)次,(296.6±12.7)次]较模型组[(340.6±18.8)次]明显减少(P<0.01);抗帕丸大、中剂量组损伤侧纹状体内DA[(18.90±4.01,17.30±3.01)nmol/L]、HVA[(1.50±1.39,1.39±0.53)nmoL/L]的含量较模型组[DA(9.43±1.79)nmol/L,HVA(0.87±0.12)nmol/L]明显增高(P<0.01).结论 抗帕丸对帕金森病模型动物具有一定治疗作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Kangpa bolus on behaviors, dopamine and its metabolites of striatum in animals with Parkinson' s disease (PD). Methods The mice models of muscle tremor and rigor were established to observe the antagonism of Kangpa bolus. Step-down and step-through tests were used to evaluate the effects of Kangpa bolus on learning and memory function in mice. The rat model of PD was established to observe the effects of Kangpa bolus on rotation behaviors. The contents of DA and homovanillic acid

  19. Chasing Jenner's vaccine: revisiting cowpox virus classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin S Carroll

    Full Text Available Cowpox virus (CPXV is described as the source of the first vaccine used to prevent the onset and spread of an infectious disease. It is one of the earliest described members of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes the viruses that cause smallpox and monkeypox in humans. Both the historic and current literature describe "cowpox" as a disease with a single etiologic agent. Genotypic data presented herein indicate that CPXV is not a single species, but a composite of several (up to 5 species that can infect cows, humans, and other animals. The practice of naming agents after the host in which the resultant disease manifests obfuscates the true taxonomic relationships of "cowpox" isolates. These data support the elevation of as many as four new species within the traditional "cowpox" group and suggest that both wild and modern vaccine strains of Vaccinia virus are most closely related to CPXV of continental Europe rather than the United Kingdom, the homeland of the vaccine.

  20. Chasing information to search in random environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, J-B; Vergassola, M [Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA 2171, Unit In Silico Genetics, 75724 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Bechet, M Bailly [Universite C Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, 69622, Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: jbmasson@pasteur.fr

    2009-10-30

    We discuss search strategies for finding sources of particles transported in a random environment and detected by the searcher(s). The mixing of the particles in the environment is supposed to be strong, so that strategies based on concentration-gradient ascent are not viable. These dilute conditions are common in natural environments typical of searches performed by insects and birds. The sparseness of the detections constitutes the major stumbling block in developing efficient olfactory robots to detect mines, chemical leaks, etc. We first discuss a search strategy, 'infotaxis', recently introduced for the search of a single source by a single robot. Decisions are made by locally maximizing the rate of acquisition of information on the location of the source and they balance exploration and exploitation. We present numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of the method and, most importantly, its robustness to lack of detailed modeling of the transport of particles in the random environment. We then introduce a novel formulation of infotaxis for collective searches where a swarm of robots is available and must be coordinated. Gains in the search time are impressive and the method can be further generalized to deal with conflicts arising in the identification of multiple sources.

  1. Chasing the cuprates with dilatonic dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Amoretti, Andrea; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field and momentum dissipation are key ingredients in describing condensed matter systems. We include them in gauge/gravity and systematically explore the bottom-up panorama of holographic IR effective field theories based on bulk Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangians plus scalars. Notably, this general class of theories - at the core of a long-standing AdS/CMT program - appears not to be capable of accommodating the fundamental phenomenology of the cuprate transport. We analyze in particular the temperature scaling of the resistivity and of the Hall angle. We keep a problematic attitude and illustrate weak and strong points of the approach.

  2. Innovation and Growth Chasing a Moving Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Innovation is crucial to long-term economic growth, even more so in the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis. In this volume, the OECD and the World Bank jointly take stock of how globalisation is posing new challenges for innovation and growth in both developed and developing countries, and how countries are coping with them. The authors discuss options for policy initiatives that can foster technological innovation in the pursuit of faster and sustainable growth. The various chapters highlight how the emergence of an integrated global market affects the impact of national inno

  3. Chasing Ocean Eddies and Pyrenean Sheep!

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    This video was recorded live at the annual Spatial Lightning Talks on February 27, 2013 at the Mosher Alumni House, UC Santa Barbara. Each speaker was allotted three minutes to present a topic related to space —geographic or otherwise.

  4. Principal as Curriculum Leader: Chase Manhattan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzillo, Eileen; Scheinbart, Diane S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program initiated at a high school in New York City that identified learning styles of special education students in an effort to increase their achievement. Concludes that the program led to gains in motivation as well as achievement. Contains materials used to identify learning styles. (FL)

  5. The existence of a bug chasing subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Roloff, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This study attempted to authenticate the existence of a controversial subculture of gay men, the 'bug chasers', whose main attribute is an active desire to voluntarily contract the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and examine the tenacity with which this subculture actually searches for seroconversion. Using a quasi-randomized survey of personal profiles, bug chasers were compared against barebackers, a culture of gay men that practice intentional unprotected anal intercourse. Bug chasers were authenticated as an observable subculture of barebackers where most reported apathy to the serostatus of their partner or an active want of a serodiscordant partner, and a preference towards practicing unprotected anal intercourse. As anticipated, two subgroups with varying tenacities were found within the sample of bug chasers. Apathetic chasers were found only to be in search of partners with sero-ambiguous status. Ardent chasers were found only to be in search of certifiably serodiscordant partners.

  6. ADDICT: Advanced Instruction Chasing for Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Tözün, Pinar; Atta, Islam; Ailamaki, Anastasia; Moshovos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlight that traditional transaction processing systems utilize the micro-architectural features of modern processors very poorly. L1 instruction cache and long-latency data misses dominate execution time. As a result, more than half of the execution cycles are wasted on memory stalls. Previous works on reducing stall time aim at improving locality through either hardware or software techniques. However, exploiting hardware resources based on the hints given by the software...

  7. Hemophagocytic syndrome: a dilemma chasing the intensivists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Façanha Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or hemophagocytic syndrome is represented by an uncontrolled inflammatory response characterized by marked histiocyte activation and a cytokine storm. The entity may present a primary or genetic type, and the secondary type is usually triggered by infectious diseases of any kind, autoimmune disease, or neoplasia. This entity, although well described and with definite diagnostic criteria, still remains misdiagnosed because of the overlap presentation with other inflammatory processes. The authors present the case of a 13-year-old girl who was submitted to an appendicectomy complicated with a pericolic abscess, which required a second operation in order to be drained surgically. During the postoperative period of this second surgical procedure, the patient remained febrile, developing cytopenias, and multiple organ failure. Unfortunately, she died despite the efforts of the intensive care. The autopsy findings were characteristic of hemophagocytic syndrome. The authors report the case to call attention to this diagnosis whenever unexpected outcomes of infections are experienced.

  8. Chasing the negawatt: visualization for sustainable living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Lyn; Rodgers, Johnny; Muise, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Energy and resource management is an important and growing research area at the intersection of conservation, sustainable design, alternative energy production, and social behavior. Energy consumption can be significantly reduced by simply changing how occupants inhabit and use buildings, with little or no additional costs. Reflecting this fact, an emerging measure of grid energy capacity is the negawatt: a unit of power saved by increasing efficiency or reducing consumption.Visualization clearly has an important role in enabling residents to understand and manage their energy use. This role is tied to providing real-time feedback of energy use, which encourages people to conserve energy.The challenge is to understand not only what kinds of visualizations are most effective but also where and how they fit into a larger information system to help residents make informed decisions. In this article, we also examine the effective display of home energy-use data using a net-zero solar-powered home (North House) and the Adaptive Living Interface System (ALIS), North House's information backbone. PMID:20650713

  9. Chasing Hamiltonian structure in gyrokinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burby, J W

    2015-01-01

    Hamiltonian structure is pursued and uncovered in collisional and collisionless gyrokinetic theory. A new Hamiltonian formulation of collisionless electromagnetic theory is presented that is ideally suited to implementation on modern supercomputers. The method used to uncover this structure is described in detail and applied to a number of examples, where several well-known plasma models are endowed with a Hamiltonian structure for the first time. The first energy- and momentum-conserving formulation of full-F collisional gyrokinetics is presented. In an effort to understand the theoretical underpinnings of this result at a deeper level, a \\emph{stochastic} Hamiltonian modeling approach is presented and applied to pitch angle scattering. Interestingly, the collision operator produced by the Hamiltonian approach is equal to the Lorentz operator plus higher-order terms, but does not exactly conserve energy. Conversely, the classical Lorentz collision operator is provably not Hamiltonian in the stochastic sense.

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  12. Observation of the CSF pulsatile flow in the aqueduct using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking, 3; The pathophysiological significance of the pulsatile flow patterns in adult patients with ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Satoshi (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    The to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in the aqueduct in ten normal adults, ten patients with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), and fourteen patients with idiopathic ventriculomegaly were analyzed using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking. The to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in the aqueduct were thus classified into four types according to their maximum velocity and the relative time duration of their flow in the rostral and caudal directions. The correlation between the clinical symptoms, the CT findings, the RI-cisternography findings, the results of the ICP monitorings, and the CSF pulsatile-flow patterns were then analyzed. In secondary NPH disclosing frequent B waves on ICP monitoring, the maximum velocity of the CSF flow in the aqueduct was over 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the CSF flow was longer in the caudal direction than in the rostral direction. Furthermore, the faster the maximum velocity of the CSF flow, the larger the ventricular size on CT and the more severe the CSF malabsorption on cisternography. In idiopathic ventriculomegaly, only two cases demonstrated the same CSF flow pattern as was shown in secondary NPH; the other cases demonstrated other CSF flow patterns, which were considered to indicate hydrocephalus ex vacuo or arrested hydrocephalus. The CSF pulsatile-flow pattern was assumed to change according to the degree of the CSF circulatory disorder, its compensatory process, and the plasticity of the brain. The investigation of the CSF pulsatile flow gives important information for the evaluation of various hydrocephalic conditions. (author).

  13. Observation of the CSF pulsatile flow in an aqueduct using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking, (2); The classification of pulsatile-flow patterns in adult patients with ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Satoshi; Akada, Shouhiro; Deguchi, Itaru; Miwa, Tetsurou; Itoh, Hiroshi (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Various to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in an aqueduct were analyzed in ten normal volunteers, in ten patients with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus, in nine patients with idiopathic ventriculomegaly, and in five cases of brain atrophy using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking. The to-and-fro motion patterns were classified into four types. Type I; in which the velocity of the CSF in the aqueduct is slower than 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is longer than in the rostral. Type II; in which the velocity of the CSF in the aqueduct is faster than 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is longer than in the rostral. Type III; in which the velocity is relatively faster than Type I, but the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is shorter than in the rostral. Type IV; in which the velocity is slower than 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is shorter than in the rostral. In secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), the flow patterns were all of Type II. In idiopathic ventriculomegaly, the cases of which showed ventricular reflux on RI-cisternography, the flow patterns were divided into three types (II, III and IV). In the cases of brain atrophy, who did not show ventricular reflux on RI-cisternography, the flow patterns were all of Type I. We conclude that the evaluation of the CSF pulsatile flow in the aqueduct can give new clinical information for use in investigating the pathogenesis of the ventriculomegaly. (author).

  14. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  15. Study of Quantum Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Anil Patil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the detailed information about Quantum computer, and difference between quantum computer and traditional computers, the basis of Quantum computers which are slightly similar but still different from traditional computer. Many research groups are working towards the highly technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. Quantum computer is very much use full for computation purpose in field of Science and Research. Large amount of data and information will be computed, processing, storing, retrieving, transmitting and displaying information in less time with that much of accuracy which is not provided by traditional computers.

  16. Molecular imaging with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a quantitative technique that employs rapid sequences of CT images after bolus administration of intravenous contrast material to measure a range of physiological processes related to the microvasculature of tissues. By combining knowledge of the molecular processes underlying changes in vascular physiology with an understanding of the relationship between vascular physiology and CT contrast enhancement, DCE-CT can be redefined as a molecular imaging technique. Some DCE-CT derived parameters reflect tissue hypoxia and can, therefore, provide information about the cellular microenvironment. DCE-CT can also depict physiological processes, such as vasodilatation, that represent the physiological consequences of molecular responses to tissue hypoxia. To date the main applications have been in stroke and oncology. Unlike some other molecular imaging approaches, DCE-CT benefits from wide availability and ease of application along with the use of contrast materials and software packages that have achieved full regulatory approval. Hence, DCE-CT represents a molecular imaging technique that is applicable in clinical practice today.

  17. HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING APPLIED TO CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Luxingzi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce high performance computing and cloud computing. The purpose was also to describe how to apply high performance computing to cloud computing as well as its possibilities and challenges. There were two case studies in the thesis project to present the application of cloud computing. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this research. The majority of materials were from books and Internet resources. The thesis may be us...

  18. Computing handbook computer science and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Teofilo; Tucker, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Overview of Computer Science Structure and Organization of Computing Peter J. DenningComputational Thinking Valerie BarrAlgorithms and Complexity Data Structures Mark WeissBasic Techniques for Design and Analysis of Algorithms Edward ReingoldGraph and Network Algorithms Samir Khuller and Balaji RaghavachariComputational Geometry Marc van KreveldComplexity Theory Eric Allender, Michael Loui, and Kenneth ReganFormal Models and Computability Tao Jiang, Ming Li, and Bala

  19. Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

  20. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability. Does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. (author)

  1. Distributed Computing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Firoj Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in hardware costs and advances in computer networking technologies have led to increased interest in the use of large-scale parallel and distributed computing systems. Distributed computing systems offer the potential for improved performance and resource sharing. In this paper we have made an overview on distributed computing. In this paper we studied the difference between parallel and distributed computing, terminologies used in distributed computing, task allocation in distributed computing and performance parameters in distributed computing system, parallel distributed algorithm models, and advantages of distributed computing and scope of distributed computing.

  2. 桂附地黄丸干预主要组织相容性复合物半相合移植小鼠慢性移植物抗宿主病的效应%Effect of Guifu rehmaniae bolus on preventing chronic graft versus host disease in major histocompatibilty complex halpo-identical bone marrow transplantation mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴顺杰; 梁凯雯; 吴远彬; 周健; 涂三芳

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, the method for the treatment of chronic graft versus host disease is not ideal due the adverse reactions, founding the traditional Chinese medicine for effective intervention and treatment of chronic graft versus host disease is one of the common focuses of attention for the transplant scholars. OBJECTIVE: To observe effect of Guifu rehmaniae bolus on preventing chronic graft versus host disease in major histocompatibilty complex halpo-identical bone marrow transplantation mice. METHODS: Transplantation models of major histocompatibilty complex halpo-identical hematopoietic stem cells transplantation mice were established by transplanting the hematopoietic stem cells of male Balb/cH-2d mice to female (Balb/cxC57BL/6) F1 H-2d/b (CB6F1) mice. After transplantation, 24 recipient mice were divided into two groups: Guifu rehmaniae bolus group and blank group, mice in the Guifu rehmaniae bolus group were lavaged from the first day after transplantation with 0.2 mL Guifu rehmaniae bolus liquid twice per day; mice in the blank group were lavaged with the same dose of normal saline and lasted for 100 days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Five mice died in the Guifu rehmaniae bolus group, and all mice died in the blank group at 86 days after transplantation (P=0.004). The mice in the blank group depressed at 35 days after transplantation and the mice in the Guifu rehmaniae bolus group depressed at 45 days after transplantation, and the clinical score in the blank group was significantly higher than that in the Guifu rehmaniae bolus group (P < 0.05). Pathological observation showed that the mice with chronic graft versus host disease in Guifu rehmaniae bolus group mostly classified from 0 to 1 grade. Compared with blank group, the liver, skin and small intestine tissue of the mice in Guifu rehmaniae bolus group were improved. Guifu rehmaniae bolus can relieve symptoms of chronic graft versus host disease in major histocompatibilty complex halpo-identical bone

  3. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim [Aarhus University Hospital, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus C (Denmark); Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva [Dr. Josep Trueta Girona University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona (Spain); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elisabeth A. [Cambrigde University Hospitals, Addenbrooke, Stroke Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, INSERM U894, Paris (France)

    2015-07-15

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  4. Applied Parallel Computing Industrial Computation and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Olesen, Dorte

    Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)......Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)...

  5. Further computer appreciation

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2014-01-01

    Further Computer Appreciation is a comprehensive cover of the principles and aspects in computer appreciation. The book starts by describing the development of computers from the first to the third computer generations, to the development of processors and storage systems, up to the present position of computers and future trends. The text tackles the basic elements, concepts and functions of digital computers, computer arithmetic, input media and devices, and computer output. The basic central processor functions, data storage and the organization of data by classification of computer files,

  6. [Disseminated histoplasmosis treated by boluses of fluconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandengue Ebenye, C; Takuefou Mfangam, B; Nouédoui, C; Atangana, P J A

    2015-01-01

    We report a case in which an HIV-infected man was cured of disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii) after treatment by high-dose fluconazole (1,600 mg taken four times daily) for 2 months, combined with active antiretroviral therapy. The choice of fluconazole at this dosage was motivated by its availability as a generic and thus inexpensive medication, the patient's precarious status, and his critical clinical condition. At the end of the second month of treatment, the patient chose to stop the fluconazole, which he could no longer afford, while continuing the antiretroviral treatment, which was free. The clinical and laboratory improvement observed from the first week has continued to progress for more than 8 months after fluconazole treatment stopped. This single case needs - and deserves - to be confirmed in a series of patients. Nonetheless it makes it possible to envision fluconazole as a low-cost and efficacious antifungal agent for the treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Typologies of Computation and Computational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark; Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    We need much better understanding of information processing and computation as its primary form. Future progress of new computational devices capable of dealing with problems of big data, internet of things, semantic web, cognitive robotics and neuroinformatics depends on the adequate models of computation. In this article we first present the current state of the art through systematization of existing models and mechanisms, and outline basic structural framework of computation. We argue tha...

  8. 金匮肾气丸对肾阳虚小鼠血浆内皮素一氧化氮含量的影响%Effects of Kidney-Qi Bolus on Level of Endothelin and Nitrous Oxide in Plasm of Mice with Renal-yang Asthenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 兰金美; 李冬梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of the Kidney-Qi Bolus on the level of Endothelin ( ET )and nitrous oxide ( NO ) in the plasm of mice with renal yang asthenia, for finding out furtherly its molecule mechanism of warm-yang action.Methods: To establish the mouse model of renal yang asthenia syndrome by peffusing the stomach with adenine 30mg/100g body weighted continuously for 30 days, at the same time, as well as perfusing mice with the Kidney-Qi Bolus in the Kiclney-Qi Bolus group and detect the ET and NO levels in plasma on the last day.Results: Levels of ET were significantly higher in plasma of the renal yang asthenia mice than those of the normal-control( P<O.05 ), but lower in the Kidney-Qi Bolus group( P<0.05 ),and levels of NO were lower but insignificantly in the Kidney-Qi Bolus group than these two groupa(P>0.05).Conclusion: The Kidney-Qi Bolus could inhibit ET going-up in the plasm and thus correct the imbalance of vasoconstrictive and vasodilative factors under the state of Renal-yang asthenia, it is also one of the molecule mechanism of warm-yang action.%目的:了解金匮肾气丸对肾阳虚状态下血浆内皮素、一氧化氮含量改变的影响,以进一步明确其温肾壮阳(温阳)作用的分子机制.方法:用腺嘌呤灌胃复制小鼠肾阳虚模型,并在肾阳虚形成过程中予金匮肾气丸干预,通过硝酸还原酶法和放射免疫法分别检测血浆一氧化氮(NO)和内皮素(ET)的含量.结果:血浆内皮素含量在肾阳虚组高于正常对照组(P<0.05),在金匮肾气丸组则低于肾阳虚组(P<0.05),一氧化氮在肾阳虚组低于正常对照组及金匮肾气丸组,但3组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:金匮肾气丸可抑制血浆ET水平升高而纠正肾阳虚状态下缩血管与舒张血管因素的动态平衡失调,这也是其温阳作用的分子机制之一.

  9. 右归丸对肾阳虚大鼠垂体-性腺轴动态影响的实验研究%The dynamic effects of yougui bolus on pituitary-goand axis in the kidney yang diifciency rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马娜; 罗来成; 王永霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the change law of kidney yang deifciency syndrome, the dynamic effects of yougui bolus on pituitary-gonad axis in the kidney yang diifciency rats was observed. Method 90 SD male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, normal control group, model group and yougui bolus group. The rats were given hydrocortisonc by intramuscular injection for 29 days to made diifciency of kidney yang models. Rats in normal control group and model group were administered with normal saline by oral gavage, and rats in yougui bolus group were given by yougui bolus from the 8th day for 22 days. Hormone contents of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone) and T (testosterone) in sera of the pituitary-target gland axises were measured by radioimmunoassay on the 15th day, 23th day and 30th day. Pituitary and testis were weighed. Result There was an obvious adjustment function of yougui bolus on pituitary-goand axis in rats with kidney yang deficiency. In the early period, on the 15th day, FSH changed synchronously compared to LH and T. Conclusion The adjustments is dynamic of yougui bolus on pituitary-gonad axis in rats with kidney yang deifciency.%目的:研究右归丸对肾阳虚大鼠垂体-性腺轴的动态影响。方法选取SD雄性大鼠90只,随机分为正常对照组,模型组和右归丸组。大鼠后肢肌内注射氢化可的松,连续29天,制造肾阳虚证模型。正常对照组、模型组和右归丸组SD雄性大鼠于第8天分别用生理盐水和右归丸煎液灌胃,连续22天。分别于第15、23、30天后采用血清放射免疫法测定SD大鼠血清中垂体-性腺轴激素促卵泡激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、睾酮(T)的含量,并取垂体和睾丸称取重量。结果右归丸对肾阳虚大鼠垂体-性腺轴的动态变化有明显的调整作用。在实验早期(第15天),FSH与LH、T波动幅度不一致。结论右归丸对肾阳虚大鼠垂体-性腺轴的调整呈动态变化。

  10. Democratizing Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Ryoo, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    Computer science programs are too often identified with a narrow stratum of the student population, often white or Asian boys who have access to computers at home. But because computers play such a huge role in our world today, all students can benefit from the study of computer science and the opportunity to build skills related to computing. The…

  11. Computational Methods for Simulating Quantum Computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, H. De; Michielsen, K.

    2006-01-01

    This review gives a survey of numerical algorithms and software to simulate quantum computers. It covers the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum algorithms and includes a few examples that illustrate the use of simulation software for ideal and physical models of quantum computers.

  12. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.

  13. 加减葫芦巴丸治疗子宫内膜异位症(腺肌病)痛经40例疗效观察%Effect observation on treatment of dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis(adenomyosis)with Modified Fenugreek Bolus in 40 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁峰; 王铁枫; 史梅莹; 王东红

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察加减葫芦巴丸对子宫内膜异位症(腺肌病)痛经的临床疗效及血清CA125的影响.方法:运用加减葫芦巴丸治疗寒凝血瘀型子宫内膜异位症(腺肌病)痛经患者40例,观察治疗3个月前后在症状、体征变化、生活质量及CA125等指标的改变.结果:40例患者总有效率95%,治疗前后CA125有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:加减葫芦巴丸可有效缓解内异症(腺肌病)患者痛经症状,降低血清CA125水平,是治疗该病安全有效的药物.%Objective: Clinical effect observation on the treatment of dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis (adenomyosis)with Modified Fenugreek Bolus and its effect of serum CA125.Methods: Used the Modified Fenugreek Bolus to treat patients of dysmenorrhea with cold coagulation and blood stasis due to endometriosis (adenomyosis).After 3 months treatment compared with before treatment, observed the changes of target of symptoms, signs, Life Quality Scale and serum CA125.Results: The total effective of 40 cases was 95%, there was a significant difference in the serum CA125 between before and after treatment.Conclusion: The Modified Fenugreek Bolus can relieve the dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis (adenomyosis), reduction of serum CA125 levels, is a safe and effective drug to treat this disease.

  14. Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anitha, R; Lekshmi, R; Kumar, M; Bonato, Anthony; Graña, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This book contains cutting-edge research material presented by researchers, engineers, developers, and practitioners from academia and industry at the International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models (ICC3) organized by PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during December 19–21, 2013. The materials in the book include theory and applications for design, analysis, and modeling of computational intelligence and security. The book will be useful material for students, researchers, professionals, and academicians. It will help in understanding current research trends and findings and future scope of research in computational intelligence, cyber security, and computational models.

  15. Soft computing in computer and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Fray, Imed; Pejaś, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a carefully selected and reviewed collection of papers presented during the 19th Advanced Computer Systems conference ACS-2014. The Advanced Computer Systems conference concentrated from its beginning on methods and algorithms of artificial intelligence. Further future brought new areas of interest concerning technical informatics related to soft computing and some more technological aspects of computer science such as multimedia and computer graphics, software engineering, web systems, information security and safety or project management. These topics are represented in the present book under the categories Artificial Intelligence, Design of Information and Multimedia Systems, Information Technology Security and Software Technologies.

  16. Cloud Computing (4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ 8 Case Study Cloud computing is still a new phenomenon. Although many IT giants are developing their own cloud computing infrastructures,platforms, software, and services, few have really succeeded in becoming cloud computing providers.

  17. PR Educators Stress Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the varied roles computers play in public relations education. Asserts that, because computers are used extensively in the public relations field, students should become acquainted with the varied capabilities of computers and their role in public relations practice. (MM)

  18. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  19. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  20. Computing technology in the 1980's. [computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have been led by consistently improving semiconductor technology. The semiconductor industry has turned out ever faster, smaller, and less expensive devices since transistorized computers were first introduced 20 years ago. For the next decade, there appear to be new advances possible, with the rate of introduction of improved devices at least equal to the historic trends. The implication of these projections is that computers will enter new markets and will truly be pervasive in business, home, and factory as their cost diminishes and their computational power expands to new levels. The computer industry as we know it today will be greatly altered in the next decade, primarily because the raw computer system will give way to computer-based turn-key information and control systems.