WorldWideScience

Sample records for boltzmann collision integral

  1. Linearized Boltzmann collision integral with the correct cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yongbin; White, R. D.

    2014-07-01

    In the calculation of the linearized Boltzmann collision operator for an inverse-square force law interaction (Coulomb interaction) F(r)=κ /r2, we found the widely used scattering angle cutoff θ ≥θmin is a wrong practise since the divergence still exists after the cutoff has been made. When the correct velocity change cutoff |v '-v|≥δmin is employed, the scattering angle can be integrated. A unified linearized Boltzmann collision operator for both inverse-square force law and rigid-sphere interactions is obtained. Like many other unified quantities such as transition moments, Fokker-Planck expansion coefficients and energy exchange rates obtained recently [Y. B. Chang and L. A. Viehland, AIP Adv. 1, 032128 (2011)], the difference between the two kinds of interactions is characterized by a parameter, γ, which is 1 for rigid-sphere interactions and -3 for inverse-square force law interactions. When the cutoff is removed by setting δmin=0, Hilbert's well known kernel for rigid-sphere interactions is recovered for γ = 1.

  2. Linearized Boltzmann collision integral with the correct cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the calculation of the linearized Boltzmann collision operator for an inverse-square force law interaction (Coulomb interaction) F(r)=κ/r2, we found the widely used scattering angle cutoff θ≥θmin is a wrong practise since the divergence still exists after the cutoff has been made. When the correct velocity change cutoff |v′−v|≥δmin is employed, the scattering angle can be integrated. A unified linearized Boltzmann collision operator for both inverse-square force law and rigid-sphere interactions is obtained. Like many other unified quantities such as transition moments, Fokker-Planck expansion coefficients and energy exchange rates obtained recently [Y. B. Chang and L. A. Viehland, AIP Adv. 1, 032128 (2011)], the difference between the two kinds of interactions is characterized by a parameter, γ, which is 1 for rigid-sphere interactions and −3 for inverse-square force law interactions. When the cutoff is removed by setting δmin=0, Hilbert's well known kernel for rigid-sphere interactions is recovered for γ = 1

  3. An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The full (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. Three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent v2 values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from Elab=2-160 A GeV. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source created in central

  4. An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2009-04-22

    In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The full (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. Three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent v{sub 2} values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160 A GeV. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source

  5. Convolution Inequalities for the Boltzmann Collision Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ricardo J.; Carneiro, Emanuel; Gamba, Irene M.

    2010-09-01

    We study integrability properties of a general version of the Boltzmann collision operator for hard and soft potentials in n-dimensions. A reformulation of the collisional integrals allows us to write the weak form of the collision operator as a weighted convolution, where the weight is given by an operator invariant under rotations. Using a symmetrization technique in L p we prove a Young’s inequality for hard potentials, which is sharp for Maxwell molecules in the L 2 case. Further, we find a new Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev type of inequality for Boltzmann collision integrals with soft potentials. The same method extends to radially symmetric, non-increasing potentials that lie in some {Ls_{weak}} or L s . The method we use resembles a Brascamp, Lieb and Luttinger approach for multilinear weighted convolution inequalities and follows a weak formulation setting. Consequently, it is closely connected to the classical analysis of Young and Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequalities. In all cases, the inequality constants are explicitly given by formulas depending on integrability conditions of the angular cross section (in the spirit of Grad cut-off). As an additional application of the technique we also obtain estimates with exponential weights for hard potentials in both conservative and dissipative interactions.

  6. Droplet collision simulation by multi-speed lattice Boltzmann method

    OpenAIRE

    Lycett-Brown, D.; Karlin, I.V.; Luo, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    Realization of the Shan-Chen multiphase flow lattice Boltzmann model is considered in the framework of the higher-order Galilean invariant lattices. The present multiphase lattice Boltzmann model is used in two dimensional simulation of droplet collisions at high Weber numbers. Results are found to be in a good agreement with experimental findings.

  7. A path-integral approach to the collisional Boltzmann gas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C Y

    2000-01-01

    Collisional effects are included in the path-integral formulation that was proposed in one of our previous paper for the collisionless Boltzmann gas. In calculating the number of molecules entering a six-dimensional phase volume element due to collisions, both the colliding molecules and the scattered molecules are allowed to have distributions; thus the calculation is done smoothly and no singularities arise.

  8. Boltzmann equation integration in thermionic converter conditions. Part II. Terms in Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoenescu, M.L.

    1977-06-01

    The terms in Boltzmann kinetic equation corresponding to elastic short range collisions, inelastic excitational collisions, coulomb interactions and electric field acceleration are evaluated numerically for a standard distribution function minimizing the computational volume by expressing the terms as linear combinations with recalculable coefficients, of the distribution function and its derivatives. The present forms are suitable for spatial distribution calculations.

  9. Multiple anisotropic collisions for advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a symmetrized framework for the analysis of the anisotropic advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes. Two main approaches build the anisotropic diffusion coefficients either from the anisotropic anti-symmetric collision matrix or from the anisotropic symmetric equilibrium distribution. We combine and extend existing approaches for all commonly used velocity sets, prescribe most general equilibrium and build the diffusion and numerical-diffusion forms, then derive and compare solvability conditions, examine available anisotropy and stable velocity magnitudes in the presence of advection. Besides the deterioration of accuracy, the numerical diffusion dictates the stable velocity range. Three techniques are proposed for its elimination: (i) velocity-dependent relaxation entries; (ii) their combination with the coordinate-link equilibrium correction; and (iii) equilibrium correction for all links. Two first techniques are also available for the minimal (coordinate) velocity sets. Even then, the two-relaxation-times model with the isotropic rates often gains in effective stability and accuracy. The key point is that the symmetric collision mode does not modify the modeled diffusion tensor but it controls the effective accuracy and stability, via eigenvalue combinations of the opposite parity eigenmodes. We propose to reduce the eigenvalue spectrum by properly combining different anisotropic collision elements. The stability role of the symmetric, multiple-relaxation-times component, is further investigated with the exact von Neumann stability analysis developed in diffusion-dominant limit.

  10. Transition flow ion transport via integral Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach is developed to solve the Integral Boltzmann Equation for the evolving velocity distribution of a source of ions, undergoing electrostatic acceleration through a neutral gas target. The theory is applicable to arbitrarily strong electric fields, any ion/neutral mass ratio greater than unity, and is not limited to spatially isotropic gas targets. A hard sphere collision model is used, with a provision for inelasticity. Both axial and radial velocity distributions are calculated for applications where precollision radial velocities are negligible, as is the case for ion beam extractions from high pressure sources. Theoretical predictions are tested through an experiment in which an atmospheric pressure ion source is coupled to a high vacuum energy analyser. Excellent agreement results for configurations in which the radial velocity remains small. Velocity distributions are applied to predicting the efficiency of coupling an atmospheric pressure ion source to a quadrupole mass spectrometer and results clearly indicate the most desirable extracting configuration. A method is devised to calculate ion-molecule hard sphere collision cross sections for easily fragmented organic ions

  11. Boltzmann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the development of an object-oriented programming methodology for particle simulations. It is established on the [m reductionist] view that many physical phenomena cana be reduced to many-body problems. By doing the reduction, many seemly unrelated physical phenomena can be simulated in a systematic way and a high-level programming system can be constructed to facilitate the programming and the solution of the simulations. In the object-oriented particle simulation methodology, a hierarchy of abstract particles is defined to represent a variety of characteristics in physical system simulations. A simulation program is constructed from particles derived from the abstract particles. The object- oriented particle simulation methodology provides a unifying modeling and simulation framework for a variety of simulation applications with the use of particle methods. It allows easy composition of simulation programs from predefined software modules and facilitates software reusability. It greatly increase the productivity of simulation program constructions. Boltzmann (after Ludwig Boltzmann, 1844-1906) is a prototype programming system in the object-oriented particle simulation methodology. Boltzmann is implemented in C++ and the X Window System. It contains a library of data types and functions that support simulations in particle methods. Moreover, it provides a visualization window to support friendly user-computer interaction. Examples of the application of the Boltzmann programming system are presented. The effectiveness of the object-oriented particle simulation methodology is demonstrated. A user's manual is included in the appendix

  12. Sharp anisotropic estimates for the Boltzmann collision operator and its entropy production

    CERN Document Server

    Gressman, Philip T

    2010-01-01

    This article provides sharp constructive upper and lower bound estimates for the non-linear Boltzmann collision operator with the full range of physical non cut-off collision kernels ($\\gamma > -n$ and $s\\in (0,1)$) in the trilinear $L^2(\\R^n)$ energy $\\langle \\mathcal{Q}(g,f),f\\rangle$. These new estimates prove that, for a very general class of $g(v)$, the global diffusive behavior (on $f$) in the energy space is that of the geometric fractional derivative semi-norm identified in the linearized context in our earlier works [2009 arXiv:0912.0888v1, 2010, 2010 arXiv:1002.3639v1]. We further prove new global entropy production estimates with the same anisotropic semi-norm. This resolves the longstanding, widespread heuristic conjecture about the sharp diffusive nature of the non cut-off Boltzmann collision operator in the energy space $L^2(\\R^n)$.

  13. On global boundedness of higher velocity moments for solutions to the linear Boltzmann equation with hard sphere collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the time- and space-dependent linear Boltzmann equation for elastic or inelastic (granular) collisions. First, in the angular cut-off case or with hard sphere collisions, mild L1-solutions are constructed as limits of iterate functions. Then, in the case of hard sphere collisions together with, e.g., specular boundary conditions, global boundedness in time of higher velocity moments is proved, using our old collision velocity estimates together with a Jensen inequality. This generalizes our earlier results for hard inverse collision forces, and also results given by other authors from the space-homogeneous case to our space-dependent one.

  14. Different Scalable Implementations of Collision and Streaming for Optimal Computational Performance of Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva, Nicholas; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    In the past 25 years, the mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has become an increasingly popular approach to simulate incompressible flows including turbulent flows. While LBM solves more solution variables compared to the conventional CFD approach based on the macroscopic Navier-Stokes equation, it also offers opportunities for more efficient parallelization. In this talk we will describe several different algorithms that have been developed over the past 10 plus years, which can be used to represent the two core steps of LBM, collision and streaming, more effectively than standard approaches. The application of these algorithms spans LBM simulations ranging from basic channel to particle laden flows. We will cover the essential detail on the implementation of each algorithm for simple 2D flows, to the challenges one faces when using a given algorithm for more complex simulations. The key is to explore the best use of data structure and cache memory. Two basic data structures will be discussed and the importance of effective data storage to maximize a CPU's cache will be addressed. The performance of a 3D turbulent channel flow simulation using these different algorithms and data structures will be compared along with important hardware related issues.

  15. Group symmetry of the collision integral applied to moment method solutions of kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examine the moment equations in the case of general potential of intermolecular interaction. Moment equations are exact relations for macroscopic quantities for every solution of the Boltzmann equation. Analytical research of the Maxwellian gas relaxation becomes an exact solvable problem for the system of moment equations. A new technique, using the rotational group representation theory and Fourier transformation of the collision integral, is briefly described. The methods presented allow one to give the solution to another old problem, the calculation of the matrix elements of linearized collision integral (of ''integral brackets'' from the Chapman-Enskog theory, in particular)

  16. Application of the theory of dynamical systems to the Boltzmann equation for gas mixtures with constant collision frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis looks into some qualitative properties, of dynamical systems occurring as ordinary differential equations. Essential information about the structure of the solution can be obtained without explicitly solving a linear system of differential equations with constant coefficients. This can be achieved by decomposing the operator of such a system into a semisimple and a nilpotent part. Fundamental theorems, concerning the existence of the solutions are discussed as well as the problem of stability of equilibrium points in dynamical systems (Liapunov's theorem). Gradient systems, special forms of dynamical systems, have particular properties that simplify the analysis of their flow. Finally, by applying the theory of dynamical systems to the Boltzmann equation with constant collision frequencies an investigation of equilibrium points is carried out. A mixture of three gases consisting of particles that interact through different collision mechanisms serves as the physical model. (Suda)

  17. Relaxation rates and collision integrals for Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Gust, Erich D.; Reichl, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Near equilibrium, the rate of relaxation to equilibrium and the transport properties of excitations (bogolons) in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are determined by three collision integrals, $\\mathcal{G}^{12}$, $\\mathcal{G}^{22}$, and $\\mathcal{G}^{31}$. All three collision integrals conserve momentum and energy during bogolon collisions, but only $ \\mathcal{G}^{22}$ conserves bogolon number. Previous works have considered the contribution of only two collision integrals, $ \\mathcal{G...

  18. A treecode-accelerated boundary integral Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatics of solvated biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weihua; Krasny, Robert

    2013-08-01

    We present a treecode-accelerated boundary integral (TABI) solver for electrostatics of solvated biomolecules described by the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The method employs a well-conditioned boundary integral formulation for the electrostatic potential and its normal derivative on the molecular surface. The surface is triangulated and the integral equations are discretized by centroid collocation. The linear system is solved by GMRES iteration and the matrix-vector product is carried out by a Cartesian treecode which reduces the cost from O(N2) to O(NlogN), where N is the number of faces in the triangulation. The TABI solver is applied to compute the electrostatic solvation energy in two cases, the Kirkwood sphere and a solvated protein. We present the error, CPU time, and memory usage, and compare results for the Poisson-Boltzmann and Poisson equations. We show that the treecode approximation error can be made smaller than the discretization error, and we compare two versions of the treecode, one with uniform clusters and one with non-uniform clusters adapted to the molecular surface. For the protein test case, we compare TABI results with those obtained using the grid-based APBS code, and we also present parallel TABI simulations using up to eight processors. We find that the TABI solver exhibits good serial and parallel performance combined with relatively simple implementation, efficient memory usage, and geometric adaptability.

  19. Boltzmann collision term and energy transfer in a stationary two-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem considered is the feasibility of unconventional - other than Tokamak - fusion methods: driven plasma and DD or p + B11 → 3 He4 reactions. A necessary condition is that the energy loss rate from the injected ion beam to the plasma should be smaller than the power generated. In the introduction the energy loss mechanism are enumerated Part I is concerned with the derivation and solution of a Boltzmann equation appropriate to the problem. At the end of this part the reasons are discussed why the attempt at the solution failed. Apparently because of lack of time this sophisticated method is abandoned and simpler methods are used in Part II. An estimation of the energy transfer rate is made and a result identical to that of Glasstone-Lovberg is obtained. A parametrical study with emphasis of the He3 semicatalysed DD reaction is undertaken. One conclusion is that the assumption of Tsub(e) = 1/10 Tsub(i) gives only for the latter reaction a power ratio of 0724 < 1 at Tsub(i) = 1000keV and Tsub(e) = 100keV. The other conclusion is that kTsub(i) approximately kTsub(e) should be fulfilled (i.e. thermal equilibrium) in order that the energy taken away by the ions disappearing through the loss cone should be smaller than the fusion energy generated. (G.Q.)

  20. Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Filbet, Francis

    2011-04-01

    The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  1. INTEGRAL COLLISION KERNEL FOR THE GROWTH OF AEROSOL PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyong Xie

    2005-01-01

    Integral collision kernel is elucidated using experimental results for titania, silica and alumina nanoparticles synthesized by FCVD process, and titania submicron particles synthesized in a tube furnace reactor. The integral collision kernel was obtained from a particle number balance equation by the integration of collision rates from the kinetic theory of dilute gases for the free-molecule regime, from the Smoluchowski theory for the continuum regime, and by a semi-empirical interpolation for the transition regime between the two limiting regimes. Comparisons have been made on particle size and the integral collision kernel, showing that the predicted integral collision kernel agreed well with the experimental results in Knudsen number range from about 1.5 to 20.

  2. Exact solutions to the Boltzmann equation by mapping the scattering integral into a differential operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, Jorge; Borges, Volnei; Van der Laan, Flavio T., E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br, E-mail: ftvdl@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Pesquisas Radiologicas; Ribeiro, Vinicius G., E-mail: vinicius_ribeiro@uniritter.edu.br [Centro Universitario Ritter dos Reis (UNIRITTER), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Marcio G., E-mail: phd.marcio@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Tramandai, RS (Brazil). Departamento Interdisciplinar do Campus Litoral Norte

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a new analytical method for solving the Boltzmann equation. In this formulation, a linear differential operator is applied over the Boltzmann model, in order to produce a partial differential equation in which the scattering term is absent. This auxiliary equation is solved via reduction of order. The exact solution obtained is employed to define a precursor for the buildup factor. (author)

  3. Eigenfunctions for Liouville Operators, Classical Collision Operators, and Collision Bracket Integrals in Kinetic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2010-01-01

    In the kinetic theory of dense fluids the many-particle collision bracket integral is given in terms of a classical collision operator defined in the phase space. To find an algorithm to compute the collision bracket integrals, we revisit the eigenvalue problem of the Liouville operator and re-examine the method previously reported[Chem. Phys. 20, 93(1977)]. Then we apply the notion and concept of the eigenfunctions of the Liouville operator and knowledge acquired in the study of the eigenfun...

  4. Uniform in time lower bound for solutions to a quantum Boltzmann equation of bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Toan T.; Tran, Minh-Binh

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum Boltzmann equation, which describes the growth of the condensate, or in other words, models the interaction between excited atoms and a condensate. In this work, the full form of Bogoliubov dispersion law is considered, which leads to a detailed study of surface integrals inside the collision operator on energy manifolds. We prove that positive radial solutions of the quantum Boltzmann equation are bounded from below by a Gaussian, uniformly in time.

  5. Shock-wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, B. M.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of strong plane shock waves in a perfect monatomic gas was studied using four nonlinear models of the Boltzmann equation. The models involved the use of a simplified collision operator with velocity-independent collision frequency, in place of the complicated Boltzmann collision operator. The models employed were the BGK and ellipsoidal models developed by earlier authors, and the polynomial and trimodal gain function models developed during the work. An exact set of moment equations was derived for the density, velocity, temperature, viscous stress, and heat flux within the shock. This set was reduced to a pair of coupled nonlinear integral equations and solved using specially adapted numerical techniques. A new and simple Gauss-Seidel iteration was developed during the work and found to be as efficient as the best earlier iteration methods.

  6. Cultural Collision and Integration Reflected in The Wedding Banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Lingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Through the exploration of the typical plots in The Wedding Banquet,this paper mainly discusses the cultural collision and integration between Chinese culture and American culture.It aims at making an effort which will contribute to broaden the field of intercultural communication research.

  7. Integrating Collision Avoidance, Lane Keeping, and Cruise Control With an Optimal Controller and Fuzzy Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Grefe, William Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents collision avoidance integrated with lane keeping and adaptive cruise control for a car. Collision avoidance is the ability to avoid obstacles that are in the vehicleâ s path, without causing damage to the obstacle or car. There are three types of collision avoidance controllers, passive, active, and semi-active. This thesis is designed using active collision avoidance controllers. There are two controllers developed for collision avoidance in this paper. They are ...

  8. Backward mapping solutions of the Boltzmann equation in cylindrically symmetric, uniformly charged auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, John Z. G.; St.-Maurice, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    By applying a backward mapping technique, we solve the Boltzmann equation to investigate the effects of ion-neutral collisions on the ion velocity distribution and related transport properties in cylindrically symmetric, uniformly charged auroral ionosphere. Such a charge geometry introduces a radial electric field which increases linearly with distance from the axis of symmetry. In order to obtain complete analytical solutions for gaining physical insights into more complicated problems, we have substituted a relaxation collision model for the Boltzmann collision integral in the Boltzmann equation. Our calculations show that collisions drive the velocity distribution to a "horseshoe" shape after a few collision times. This feature extends to all radial positions as long as the electric field keeps increasing linearly versus radius. If the electric field is introduced suddenly, there is a transition from the collision-free pulsating Maxwellian distributions obtained in previous work (Ma and St.-Maurice, J. Geophys. Res., 113:A05312, 2008) to the "horseshoe" shapes on a time scale of within the few collision times. We also show how the transport properties evolve in a similar fashion, from oscillating to a non-oscillating features over the same time interval.

  9. Time rate collision matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations

  10. Physical and mathematical justification of the numerical Brillouin zone integration of the Boltzmann rate equation by Gaussian smearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illg, Christian; Haag, Michael; Teeny, Nicolas; Wirth, Jens; Fähnle, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    Scatterings of electrons at quasiparticles or photons are very important for many topics in solid-state physics, e.g., spintronics, magnonics or photonics, and therefore a correct numerical treatment of these scatterings is very important. For a quantum-mechanical description of these scatterings, Fermi's golden rule is used to calculate the transition rate from an initial state to a final state in a first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. One can calculate the total transition rate from all initial states to all final states with Boltzmann rate equations involving Brillouin zone integrations. The numerical treatment of these integrations on a finite grid is often done via a replacement of the Dirac delta distribution by a Gaussian. The Dirac delta distribution appears in Fermi's golden rule where it describes the energy conservation among the interacting particles. Since the Dirac delta distribution is a not a function it is not clear from a mathematical point of view that this procedure is justified. We show with physical and mathematical arguments that this numerical procedure is in general correct, and we comment on critical points.

  11. A lattice based solution of the collisional Boltzmann equation with applications to microchannel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative approach for solution of the collisional Boltzmann equation for a lattice architecture is presented. In the proposed method, termed the collisional lattice Boltzmann method (cLBM), the effects of spatial transport are accounted for via a streaming operator, using a lattice framework, and the effects of detailed collisional interactions are accounted for using the full collision operator of the Boltzmann equation. The latter feature is in contrast to the conventional lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) where collisional interactions are modeled via simple equilibrium based relaxation models (e.g. BGK). The underlying distribution function is represented using weights and fixed velocity abscissas according to the lattice structure. These weights are evolved based on constraints on the evolution of generalized moments of velocity according to the collisional Boltzmann equation. It can be shown that the collision integral can be reduced to a summation of elementary integrals, which can be analytically evaluated. The proposed method is validated using studies of canonical microchannel Couette and Poiseuille flows (both body force and pressure driven) and the results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from conventional LBMs and experiments where available. Unlike conventional LBMs, the proposed method does not involve any equilibrium based approximations and hence can be useful for simulation of highly nonequilibrium flows (for a range of Knudsen numbers) using a lattice framework. (paper)

  12. Determination of a basic set of Eigen-functions and of the corresponding norm in the case of the one-velocity integral differential Boltzmann equation in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present work is to draw up a basic set of orthogonal eigenfunctions; resolution of the one-velocity integral-differential Boltzmann equation; this in the case of a spherical geometry system. (author)

  13. Particle production and Boltzmann integral form of relativistic quantum transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3+3+1 dimensional relativistic quantum transport equation for the fermion matter field, combines the particle pair production with flow phenomena, which occur at very different time scale. A direct numerical treatment of dynamical situations is therefore practically impossible. The authors attempt a seperation of these two sectors by the method of prediagonalization of the integral equations. They exploit the structure of the resolvent of the transport equations: it contains two poles corresponding to the flow sector and two to the pair production sector. Their hope for practical applications is to treat matter flow as a classical phenomenon and to be able to obtain an integral term describing the pair production accurately

  14. From Newton's law to the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off

    OpenAIRE

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cutoff starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combin...

  15. Effect of electron-neutral collisions on the satellites of the Thomson scattering spectrum in arc plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron-neutral collisions on the high frequency spectrum of laser radiation scattered by the free electrons of a plasma is investigated for a partially ionized H2 arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. The calculations are carried out along Gorog's theory solving the linearized Boltzmann equation for electrons with a collision term. The collision integral is approximated by a Krook relaxation model with the collision frequency determined from experimental electron-atom scattering data. (orig./GG)

  16. Nonequilibrium phenomena in QCD and BEC. Boltzmann and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockamp, T.

    2006-12-22

    In chapter 2 we chose the real time formalism to discuss some basic principles in quantum field theory at finite temperature. This enables us to derive the quantum Boltzmann equation from the Schwinger-Dyson series. We then shortly introduce the basic concepts of QCD which are needed to understand the physics of QGP formation. After a detailed account on the bottom-up scenario we show the consistency of this approach by a diagramatical analysis of the relevant Boltzmann collision integrals. Chapter 3 deals with BEC dynamics out of equilibrium. After an introduction to the fundamental theoretical tool - namely the Gross-Pitaevskii equation - we focus on a generalization to finite temperature developed by Zaremba, Nikuni and Griffin (ZNG). These authors use a Boltzmann equation to describe the interactions between condensed and excited atoms and manage in this way to describe condensate growth. We then turn to a discussion on the 2PI effective action and derive equations of motion for a relativistic scalar field theory. In the nonrelativistic limit these equations are shown to coincide with the ZNG theory when a quasiparticle approximation is applied. Finally, we perform a numerical analysis of the full 2PI equations. These remain valid even at strong coupling and far from equilibrium, and thus go far beyond Boltzmann's approach. For simplicity, we limit ourselves to a homogeneous system and present the first 3+1 dimensional study of condensate melting. (orig.)

  17. Volume integral of particle-particle collision probability in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Average volume integrals per nucleon of particle-particle collision probability in nuclear matter are evaluated using the preequilibrium exciton model. The results obtained are in quite reasonable accord with the volume integrals of optical model absorptive potentials

  18. High order numerical methods for the space non-homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present accurate methods for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation of rarefied gas. The methods are based on a time splitting technique. The transport is solved by a third order accurate (in space) positive and flux conservative (PFC) method. The collision step is treated by a Fourier approximation of the collision integral, which guarantees spectral accuracy in velocity, coupled with several high order integrators in time. Strang splitting is used to achieve second order accuracy in space and time. Several numerical tests illustrate the properties of the methods

  19. Deriving thermal lattice-Boltzmann models from the continuous Boltzmann equation: theoretical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Philippi, P C; Surmas, R; Philippi, Paulo Cesar; Santos, Luis Orlando Emerich dos; Surmas, Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    The particles model, the collision model, the polynomial development used for the equilibrium distribution, the time discretization and the velocity discretization are factors that let the lattice Boltzmann framework (LBM) far away from its conceptual support: the continuous Boltzmann equation (BE). Most collision models are based on the BGK, single parameter, relaxation-term leading to constant Prandtl numbers. The polynomial expansion used for the equilibrium distribution introduces an upper-bound in the local macroscopic speed. Most widely used time discretization procedures give an explicit numerical scheme with second-order time step errors. In thermal problems, quadrature did not succeed in giving discrete velocity sets able to generate multi-speed regular lattices. All these problems, greatly, difficult the numerical simulation of LBM based algorithms. In present work, the systematic derivation of lattice-Boltzmann models from the continuous Boltzmann equation is discussed. The collision term in the li...

  20. Non-linear effects in the Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boltzmann equation is studied by defining an integral transformation of the energy distribution function for an isotropic and homogeneous gas. This transformation may be interpreted as a linear superposition of equilibrium states with variable temperatures. It is shown that the temporal evolution features of the distribution function are determined by the singularities of said transformation. This method is applied to Maxwell and Very Hard Particle interaction models. For the latter, the solution of the Boltzmann equation with the solution of its linearized version is compared, finding out many basic discrepancies and non-linear effects. This gives a hint to propose a new rational approximation method with a clear physical meaning. Applying this technique, the relaxation features of the BKW (Bobylev, Krook anf Wu) mode is analyzed, finding a conclusive counter-example for the Krook and Wu conjecture. The anisotropic Boltzmann equation for Maxwell models is solved as an expansion in terms of the eigenfunctions of the corresponding linearized collision operator, finding interesting transient overpopulation and underpopulation effects at thermal energies as well as a new preferential spreading effect. By analyzing the initial collision, a criterion is established to deduce the general features of the final approach to equilibrium. Finally, it is shown how to improve the convergence of the eigenfunction expansion for high energy underpopulated distribution functions. As an application of this theory, the linear cascade model for sputtering is analyzed, thus finding out that many differences experimentally observed are due to non-linear effects. (M.E.L.)

  1. Matrix-valued Quantum Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mendl, Christian B

    2013-01-01

    We develop a numerical framework for the quantum analogue of the "classical" lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), with the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution replaced by the Fermi-Dirac function. To accommodate the spin density matrix, the distribution functions become 2x2-matrix valued. We show that the efficient, commonly used BGK approximation of the collision operator is valid in the present setting. The framework could leverage the principles of LBM for simulating complex spin systems, with applications to spintronics.

  2. Estimates of solutions of linear Boltzmann equation at large time and spectral singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The spectral analysis of the dissipative linear transport (Boltzmann) operator with polynomial collision integral by the Szokefalvi-Nagy - Foias functional model is given. An exact estimate for the reminder in the asymptotic of the corresponding evolution semigroup is proved in the isotropic case. In the general case, it is shown that the operator has finitely many eigenvalues and spectral singularities and an absolutely continuous essential spectrum, and an upper estimate for the reminder is established.

  3. Integrated Azimuthal Correlations in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at CERN SPS

    OpenAIRE

    Grebieszkow, Katarzyna; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    Azimuthal correlations of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS are discussed. The correlations quantified by the integral measure Phi are shown to be dominated by effects of collective flow.

  4. Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C System for Smart Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and demonstrate a low cost, lightweight, miniaturized Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C...

  5. Relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis gives a self-contained treatment of the relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma. Here plasma means any mixture containing electrically charged particles. The relativistic Boltzmann equation is linearized for the case of a plasma. The Chapman-Enskog method is elaborated further for transport phenomena. Linear laws for viscous phenomena are derived. Then the collision term in the Boltzmann theory is dealt with. Using the transport equation, a kinetic theory of wave phenomena is developed and the dissipation of hydromagnetic waves in a relativistic plasma is investigated. In the final chapter, it is demonstrated how the relativistic Boltzmann theory can be applied in cosmology. In doing so, expressions are derived for the electric conductivity of the cosmological plasma in the lepton era, the plasma era and the annihilation era. (Auth.)

  6. Nuclear Flow in Consistent Boltzmann Algorithm Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kortemeyer, G.; Daffin, F.; Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the stochastic Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) for numerically solving the collision-term in heavy-ion transport theories of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type. The first major modification we consider is changes in the collision rates due to excluded volume and shadowing/screening effects (Enskog theory). The second effect studied by us is the inclusion of an additional advection term. These modifications ensure a non-vanishing second virial and change the ...

  7. Nonlinear Boltzmann equation for the homogeneous isotropic case: Some improvements to deterministic methods and applications to relaxation towards local equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asinari, P.

    2011-03-01

    Boltzmann equation is one the most powerful paradigms for explaining transport phenomena in fluids. Since early fifties, it received a lot of attention due to aerodynamic requirements for high altitude vehicles, vacuum technology requirements and nowadays, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMs). Because of the intrinsic mathematical complexity of the problem, Boltzmann himself started his work by considering first the case when the distribution function does not depend on space (homogeneous case), but only on time and the magnitude of the molecular velocity (isotropic collisional integral). The interest with regards to the homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation goes beyond simple dilute gases. In the so-called econophysics, a Boltzmann type model is sometimes introduced for studying the distribution of wealth in a simple market. Another recent application of the homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation is given by opinion formation modeling in quantitative sociology, also called socio-dynamics or sociophysics. The present work [1] aims to improve the deterministic method for solving homogenous isotropic Boltzmann equation proposed by Aristov [2] by two ideas: (a) the homogeneous isotropic problem is reformulated first in terms of particle kinetic energy (this allows one to ensure exact particle number and energy conservation during microscopic collisions) and (b) a DVM-like correction (where DVM stands for Discrete Velocity Model) is adopted for improving the relaxation rates (this allows one to satisfy exactly the conservation laws at macroscopic level, which is particularly important for describing the late dynamics in the relaxation towards the equilibrium).

  8. Boltzmann's Concept of Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe and analyze the concept of reality developed by the Austrian theoretical physicist Ludwig Boltzmann. It is our thesis that Boltzmann was fully aware that reality could, and actually was, described by different points of view. In spite of this, Boltzmann did not renounce the idea that reality is real. We also discuss his main motivations to be strongly involved with philosophy of science, as well as further developments made by Boltzmann himself of his main philosop...

  9. Collision kernels for the Waldmann-Snider equation: generalization to gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeio, Lucio; Monchick, Louis

    1995-02-01

    In this paper we generalize the collision kernel method, which had only been worked out for the test particle limit of the linearized Waldmann-Snider equations, to the general linearized Waldmann-Snider equations for non-equilibrium gas mixtures of finite concentration. By using the total angular momentum representation for the transition matrix and a suitable coordinate transformation, which takes advantage of the rotational symmetries of the kernel, the ten-dimensional collision integrals are reduced to sets of two-dimensional integrals. The transformation by Hilbert of the classical Boltzmann equation for rigid spheres to a Fredholm integral equation with symmetric kernel has thus been extended to the Waldmann-Snider equation for diatomic molecules. This transformation enables the extension of collocation methods, which have been profitably used with model Boltzmann equations, to quantum Boltzmann equations that describe the kinetic theory of gases with real molecules.

  10. Evaluation of the Finite Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for Binary Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Matin, Rastin; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the commonly used lattice Boltzmann method, off-lattice Boltzmann methods decouple the velocity discretization from the underlying spatial grid, thus allowing for more efficient geometric representations of complex boundaries. The current work combines characteristic-based integration of the streaming step with the free-energy based multiphase model by Lee et. al. [Journal of Computational Physics, 206 (1), 2005 ]. This allows for simulation time steps more than an order of magnitude larger than the relaxation time. Unlike previous work by Wardle et. al. [Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 65 (2), 2013 ] that integrated intermolecular forcing terms in the advection term, the current scheme applies collision and forcing terms locally for a simpler finite element formulation. A series of thorough benchmark studies reveal that this does not compromise stability and that the scheme is able to accurately simulate flows at large density and viscosity contrasts.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann approaches to magnetohydrodynamics and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellar, Paul

    2010-03-01

    J u B E g We present a lattice Boltzmann approach for magnetohydrodynamics and electromagnetism that expresses the magnetic field using a discrete set of vector distribution functions i. The i were first postulated to evolve according to a vector Boltzmann equation of the form ti+ ξi.∇i= - 1τ ( i- i^(0) ), where the ξi are a discrete set of velocities. The right hand side relaxes the i towards some specified functions i^(0) of the fluid velocity , and of the macroscopic magnetic field given by = ∑ii. Slowly varying solutions obey the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. This lattice Boltzmann formulation has been used in large-scale (up to 1800^3 resolution) simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. However, this is only the simplest form of Ohm's law. We may simulate more realistic extended forms of Ohm's law using more complex collision operators. A current-dependent relaxation time yields a current-dependent resistivity η(|∇x|), as used to model ``anomalous'' resistivity created by small-scale plasma processes. Using a hydrodynamic matrix collision operator that depends upon the magnetic field , we may simulate Braginskii's magnetohydrodynamics, in which the viscosity for strains parallel to the magnetic field lines is much larger than the viscosity for strains in perpendicular directions. Changing the collision operator again, from the above vector Boltzmann equation we may derive the full set of Maxwell's equations, including the displacement current, and Ohm's law, - 1c^2 tE+ ∇x= μo,= σ( E + x). The original lattice Boltzmann scheme was designed to reproduce resistive magnetohydrodynamics in the non-relativistic limit. However, the kinetic formulation requires a system of first order partial differential equations with collision terms. This system coincides with the full set of Maxwell's equations and Ohm's law, so we capture a much wider range of electromagnetic phenomena, including electromagnetic waves.

  12. Behaviour of ion velocity distributions for a simple collision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Maurice, J.-P.; Schunk, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the ion velocity distributions for a weakly ionized plasma subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. An exact solution to Boltzmann's equation has been obtained by replacing the Boltzmann collision integral with a simple relaxation model. At altitudes above about 150 km, where the ion collision frequency is much less than the ion cyclotron frequency, the ion distribution takes the shape of a torus in velocity space for electric fields greater than 40 mV/m. This shape persists for one to two hours after application of the electric field. At altitudes where the ion collision and cyclotron frequencies are approximately equal (about 120 km), the ion velocity distribution is shaped like a bean for large electric field strengths. This bean-shaped distribution persists throughout the lifetime of ionospheric electric fields. These highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions may have an appreciable affect on the interpretation of ion temperature measurements.

  13. Numerical investigations of low-density nozzle flow by solving the Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zheng-Tao; Liaw, Goang-Shin; Chou, Lynn Chen

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-difference code to solve the BGK-Boltzmann equation has been developed. The solution procedure consists of three steps: (1) transforming the BGK-Boltzmann equation into two simultaneous partial differential equations by taking moments of the distribution function with respect to the molecular velocity u(sub z), with weighting factors 1 and u(sub z)(sup 2); (2) solving the transformed equations in the physical space based on the time-marching technique and the four-stage Runge-Kutta time integration, for a given discrete-ordinate. The Roe's second-order upwind difference scheme is used to discretize the convective terms and the collision terms are treated as source terms; and (3) using the newly calculated distribution functions at each point in the physical space to calculate the macroscopic flow parameters by the modified Gaussian quadrature formula. Repeating steps 2 and 3, the time-marching procedure stops when the convergent criteria is reached. A low-density nozzle flow field has been calculated by this newly developed code. The BGK Boltzmann solution and experimental data show excellent agreement. It demonstrated that numerical solutions of the BGK-Boltzmann equation are ready to be experimentally validated.

  14. Relativistic Entropy and Related Boltzmann Kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaniadakis, G

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the particular form of the two-particle correlation function, in the collisional integral of the classical Boltzmman equation, fix univocally the entropy of the system, which turn out to be the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. In the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation, some standard generalizations, with respect its classical version, imposed by the special relativity, are customarily performed. The only ingredient of the equation, which tacitely remains in its original classical form, is the two-particle correlation function, and this fact imposes that also the relativistic kinetics is governed by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. Indeed the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation admits as stationary stable distribution, the exponential Juttner distribution. Here, we show that the special relativity laws and the maximum entropy principle, suggest a relativistic generalization also of the two-particle correlation function and then of the entropy. The so obtained, fully relativ...

  15. Algorithms and FORTRAN programs to calculate classical collision integrals for realistic intermolecular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical methods and computer programs are given to evaluate, for an arbitrary intermolecular potential, the classical transport collision integrals which appear in the kinetic theory of dilute gases. The method of Gaussian quadrature was employed to integrate the triple integral. A detailed discussion is given of the mathematics necessary to determine the boundaries of the individual integrations as well as a detailed analysis of errors introduced by the numerical procedures. Results for a recently published helium potential, the HFDHE2, are given. 5 references

  16. Collision integral in the kinetic equation for a rarefied electron gas with allowance for its spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision integral in the kinetic equation for a rarefied spin-polarized gas of fermions (electrons) is derived. The collisions between these fermions and the collisions with much heavier particles (ions) forming a randomly located stationary background (gas) are taken into account. An important new circumstance is that the particle-particle scattering amplitude is not assumed to be small, which could be obtained, for example, in the first Born approximation. The derived collision integral can be used in the kinetic equation, including that for a relatively cold rarefied spin-polarized plasma with a characteristic electron energy below α2mec2, where α is the fine-structure constant

  17. The Boltzmann equation in the difference formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoke, Abraham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brooks III, Eugene D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    First we recall the assumptions that are needed for the validity of the Boltzmann equation and for the validity of the compressible Euler equations. We then present the difference formulation of these equations and make a connection with the time-honored Chapman - Enskog expansion. We discuss the hydrodynamic limit and calculate the thermal conductivity of a monatomic gas, using a simplified approximation for the collision term. Our formulation is more consistent and simpler than the traditional derivation.

  18. The Boltzmann equation in the difference formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First we recall the assumptions that are needed for the validity of the Boltzmann equation and for the validity of the compressible Euler equations. We then present the difference formulation of these equations and make a connection with the time-honored Chapman - Enskog expansion. We discuss the hydrodynamic limit and calculate the thermal conductivity of a monatomic gas, using a simplified approximation for the collision term. Our formulation is more consistent and simpler than the traditional derivation.

  19. The Milne problem for the Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existence, uniqueness and asymptotic properties are proved for the solution of the Milne problem for the Boltzmann equation, in which the incoming velocity distribution and the total mass flux are specified arbitrarily. The collision law corresponds to a hard sphere gas. The solution uses energy estimates and is similar to that of Bardos, Santos and Sentis for neutron transport. From the Milne problem one can then easily deduce the solution of the Kramers problem

  20. Nonlocal Boltzmann theory of plasma channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.S.; Melendez, R.E.

    1983-01-03

    The mathematical framework for the LLNL code NUTS is developed. This code is designed to study the evolution of an electron-beam-generated plasma channel at all pressures. The Boltzmann treatment of the secondary electrons presented include all inertial, nonlocal, electric and magnetic effects, as well as effects of atomic collisions. Field equations are advanced simultaneously and self-consistently with the evolving plasma currents.

  1. Nonlocal Boltzmann theory of plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical framework for the LLNL code NUTS is developed. This code is designed to study the evolution of an electron-beam-generated plasma channel at all pressures. The Boltzmann treatment of the secondary electrons presented include all inertial, nonlocal, electric and magnetic effects, as well as effects of atomic collisions. Field equations are advanced simultaneously and self-consistently with the evolving plasma currents

  2. Numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the shock wave in a gas mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, A A

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of a shock wave for a two-, three- and four-component gas mixture on the basis of numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the model of hard sphere molecules. For the evaluation of collision integrals we use the Conservative Projection Method developed by F.G. Tscheremissine which we extended to gas mixtures in cylindrical coordinates. The transition from the upstream to downstream uniform state is presented by macroscopic values and distribution functions. The obtained results were compared with numerical and experimental results of other authors.

  3. DIRECT INTEGRATION OF THE COLLISIONLESS BOLTZMANN EQUATION IN SIX-DIMENSIONAL PHASE SPACE: SELF-GRAVITATING SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a scheme for numerical simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems which directly integrates the Vlasov-Poisson equations in six-dimensional phase space. Using the results from a suite of large-scale numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the present scheme can simulate collisionless self-gravitating systems properly. The integration scheme is based on the positive flux conservation method recently developed in plasma physics. We test the accuracy of our code by performing several test calculations, including the stability of King spheres, the gravitational instability, and the Landau damping. We show that the mass and the energy are accurately conserved for all the test cases we study. The results are in good agreement with linear theory predictions and/or analytic solutions. The distribution function keeps the property of positivity and remains non-oscillatory. The largest simulations are run on 646 grids. The computation speed scales well with the number of processors, and thus our code performs efficiently on massively parallel supercomputers.

  4. Direct Integration of the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation in Six-dimensional Phase Space: Self-gravitating Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Kohji; Umemura, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for numerical simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems which directly integrates the Vlasov--Poisson equations in six-dimensional phase space. By the results from a suite of large-scale numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the present scheme can simulate collisionless self-gravitating systems properly. The integration scheme is based on the positive flux conservation method recently developed in plasma physics. We test the accuracy of our code by performing several test calculations including the stability of King spheres, the gravitational instability and the Landau damping. We show that the mass and the energy are accurately conserved for all the test cases we study. The results are in good agreement with linear theory predictions and/or analytic solutions. The distribution function keeps the property of positivity and remains non-oscillatory. The largest simulations are run on 64^6 grids. The computation speed scales well with the number of processors, and thus our co...

  5. The design and realization of a Lightweight RFID Mechanism Integrating Security and Anti-collision

    OpenAIRE

    songsen yu; yun Peng; Jian Yang; jiajing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    RFID security and RFID anti-collision are research hotspots of RFID technology in the internet of things, most of the existing studies took them as separated parts and researched them individually. This paper attempts to deal with them as a whole, with a strategy integrating lightweight random key double-authentication and dynamic slot-ALOHA protocol. The processing mechanism, performance comparison and algorithm realization are given in this paper. The new mechanism not only maintains the ad...

  6. Differential and integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for inelastic collisions of OH(X) with Xe have been measured at a collision energy of 483 cm−1. The hydroxyl (OH) radicals were initially prepared in the X2Π3/2 (v = 0, j = 1.5, f) level using the hexapole electric field selection method. Products were detected state-selectively by [2 + 1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of OH, combined with velocity-map imaging. Integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe at a collision energy of 490 cm−1 were also measured by laser-induced fluorescence. The results are compared with exact close-coupling quantum mechanical scattering calculations on the only available ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is generally very satisfactory. This highlights the ability of such measurements to test the available PES for such a benchmark open-shell system. The agreement between experiment and theory for DCSs is less satisfactory at low scattering angles, and possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. Finally, theoretical calculations of OH(X) + He DCSs have been obtained at various collision energies and are compared with those of OH(X) + Xe. The role of the reduced mass in the DCSs and partial cross sections is also examined

  7. Differential and integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Gautam; Saha, Ashim Kumar; Meulen, J. J. ter; Parker, David H., E-mail: parker@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Marinakis, Sarantos, E-mail: s.marinakis@qmul.ac.uk [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Joseph Priestley Building, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-21

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for inelastic collisions of OH(X) with Xe have been measured at a collision energy of 483 cm{sup −1}. The hydroxyl (OH) radicals were initially prepared in the X{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v = 0, j = 1.5, f) level using the hexapole electric field selection method. Products were detected state-selectively by [2 + 1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of OH, combined with velocity-map imaging. Integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe at a collision energy of 490 cm{sup −1} were also measured by laser-induced fluorescence. The results are compared with exact close-coupling quantum mechanical scattering calculations on the only available ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is generally very satisfactory. This highlights the ability of such measurements to test the available PES for such a benchmark open-shell system. The agreement between experiment and theory for DCSs is less satisfactory at low scattering angles, and possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. Finally, theoretical calculations of OH(X) + He DCSs have been obtained at various collision energies and are compared with those of OH(X) + Xe. The role of the reduced mass in the DCSs and partial cross sections is also examined.

  8. Differential and integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Gautam; Saha, Ashim Kumar; ter Meulen, J J; Parker, David H; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2015-01-21

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for inelastic collisions of OH(X) with Xe have been measured at a collision energy of 483 cm(-1). The hydroxyl (OH) radicals were initially prepared in the X(2)Π3/2 (v = 0, j = 1.5, f) level using the hexapole electric field selection method. Products were detected state-selectively by [2 + 1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of OH, combined with velocity-map imaging. Integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe at a collision energy of 490 cm(-1) were also measured by laser-induced fluorescence. The results are compared with exact close-coupling quantum mechanical scattering calculations on the only available ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is generally very satisfactory. This highlights the ability of such measurements to test the available PES for such a benchmark open-shell system. The agreement between experiment and theory for DCSs is less satisfactory at low scattering angles, and possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. Finally, theoretical calculations of OH(X) + He DCSs have been obtained at various collision energies and are compared with those of OH(X) + Xe. The role of the reduced mass in the DCSs and partial cross sections is also examined. PMID:25612711

  9. Ludwig Boltzmann: Atomic genius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the centenary of the death of Ludwig Boltzmann, Carlo Cercignani examines the immense contributions of the man who pioneered our understanding of the atomic nature of matter. The man who first gave a convincing explanation of the irreversibility of the macroscopic world and the symmetry of the laws of physics was the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who tragically committed suicide 100 years ago this month. One of the key figures in the development of the atomic theory of matter, Boltzmann's fame will be forever linked to two fundamental contributions to science. The first was his interpretation of 'entropy' as a mathematically well-defined measure of the disorder of atoms. The second was his derivation of what is now known as the Boltzmann equation, which describes the statistical properties of a gas as made up of molecules. The equation, which described for the first time how a probability can evolve with time, allowed Boltzmann to explain why macroscopic phenomena are irreversible. The key point is that while microscopic objects like atoms can behave reversibly, we never see broken coffee cups reforming because it would involve a long series of highly improbable interactions - and not because it is forbidden by the laws of physics. (U.K.)

  10. An extension of the Boltzmann relation to collisionless magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutralization of positive space charge is studied for density perturbations of limited spatial extent in a collisionfree magnetized plasma. It is found that a local density maximum gets a positive potential which depends only on the ambient electron temperature Te and the relative increase in density ne/ne0. For small density increases, below 5%, the resulting relation between potential and plasma density agrees closely with the Boltzmann relation, which applies in the presence of collisions. For larger density increases, the difference from the Boltzmann relation rapidly becomes large, e.g. a factor 2 for a 50% density increase, and a factor 3 for a 100% density increase. The result constitutes (1) a justification for using the Boltzmann relation also in collisionless magnetized plasma, provided that the density perturbations are small, and (2) a general relation which replaces the Boltzmann relation for large-amplitude perturbations. (au)

  11. The Boltzmann-Langevin approach and its application to nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the Boltzmann-Langevin approach which provides a description of the strongly out of equilibrium dynamics encountered in the course of violent heavy-ion collisions. After having introduced the Boltzmann-Langevin model we present some applications to a situation where fluctuations are expected to play an important role: the production of Intermediate Mass Fragments in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies of a few tens of MeV/u. (authors)

  12. Stochastic particle approximations for generalized Boltzmann models and convergence estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Carl; Méléard, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    We specify the Markov process corresponding to a generalized mollified Boltzmann equation with general motion between collisions and nonlinear bounded jump (collision) operator, and give the nonlinear martingale problem it solves. We consider various linear interacting particle systems in order to approximate this nonlinear process. We prove propagation of chaos, in variation norm on path space with a precise rate of convergence, using coupling and interaction graph techniqu...

  13. Classical non-Markovian Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexanian, Moorad, E-mail: alexanian@uncw.edu [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina 28403-5606 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The modeling of particle transport involves anomalous diffusion, (x²(t) ) ∝ t{sup α} with α ≠ 1, with subdiffusive transport corresponding to 0 < α < 1 and superdiffusive transport to α > 1. These anomalies give rise to fractional advection-dispersion equations with memory in space and time. The usual Boltzmann equation, with only isolated binary collisions, is Markovian and, in particular, the contributions of the three-particle distribution function are neglected. We show that the inclusion of higher-order distribution functions give rise to an exact, non-Markovian Boltzmann equation with resulting transport equations for mass, momentum, and kinetic energy with memory in both time and space. The two- and the three-particle distribution functions are considered under the assumption that the two- and the three-particle correlation functions are translationally invariant that allows us to obtain advection-dispersion equations for modeling transport in terms of spatial and temporal fractional derivatives.

  14. Celebrating Cercignani's conjecture for the Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Villani, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Cercignani\\'s conjecture assumes a linear inequality between the entropy and entropy production functionals for Boltzmann\\'s nonlinear integral operator in rarefied gas dynamics. Related to the field of logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and spectral gap inequalities, this issue has been at the core of the renewal of the mathematical theory of convergence to thermodynamical equilibrium for rarefied gases over the past decade. In this review paper, we survey the various positive and negative results which were obtained since the conjecture was proposed in the 1980s. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  15. Variably saturated flow described with the anisotropic Lattice Boltzmann methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ginzburg, I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the numerical solution of highly nonlinear parabolic equations with Lattice Boltzmann techniques. They are first developed for generic advection and anisotropic dispersion equations (AADE). Collision configurations handle the anisotropic diffusion forms by using either anisotropic eigenvalue sets or anisotropic equilibrium functions. The coordinate transformation from the orthorhombic (rectangular) discretization grid to the cuboid computational grid is equivalen...

  16. Thermalization, evolution and LHC observables in integrated hydrokinetic model of A+A collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Naboka, V Yu; Sinyukov, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    A further development of the evolutionary picture of A+A collisions, which we call the integrated HydroKinetic Model (iHKM), is proposed. The model comprises generator of the initial state GLISSANDO, pre-thermal dynamics of A+A collisions leading to thermalization, subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon and hadron medium (vHLLE), its particlization and subsequent hadronic cascade UrQMD. We calculate all charged particle multiplicities, pion, kaon and antiproton spectra, elliptic flows and interferometry radii for Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energy $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV at different centralities. It is found that the combination of initial conditions, which are strongly anisotropic over momentum and formed at very small initial time 0.1 fm/c, small mean relaxation time of the thermalization process and minimal value of shear viscosity ($\\eta/s = \\frac{1}{4\\pi}$) gives the best description of the experimental data. At the same time it is observed that the isotropic initial conditi...

  17. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  18. Collision integral in the kinetic equation for a rarefied electron gas with allowance for its spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasorov, P. V.; Fomin, I. V., E-mail: fominalsha@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    The collision integral in the kinetic equation for a rarefied spin-polarized gas of fermions (electrons) is derived. The collisions between these fermions and the collisions with much heavier particles (ions) forming a randomly located stationary background (gas) are taken into account. An important new circumstance is that the particle-particle scattering amplitude is not assumed to be small, which could be obtained, for example, in the first Born approximation. The derived collision integral can be used in the kinetic equation, including that for a relatively cold rarefied spin-polarized plasma with a characteristic electron energy below α{sup 2}m{sub e}c{sup 2}, where α is the fine-structure constant.

  19. Fast low-rank approximations of multidimensional integrals in ion-atomic collisions modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Litsarev, M S

    2015-01-01

    An efficient technique based on low-rank separated approximations is proposed for computation of three-dimensional integrals arising in the energy deposition model that describes ion-atomic collisions. Direct tensor-product quadrature requires grids of size $4000^3$ which is unacceptable. Moreover, several of such integrals have to be computed simultaneously for different values of parameters. To reduce the complexity, we use the structure of the integrand and apply numerical linear algebra techniques for the construction of low-rank approximation. The resulting algorithm is $10^3$ faster than spectral quadratures in spherical coordinates used in the original DEPOSIT code. The approach can be generalized to other multidimensional problems in physics.

  20. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations.

  1. Bistable solutions for the electron energy distribution function in electron swarms in xenon: a comparison between the results of first-principles particle simulations and conventional Boltzmann equation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatko, Nikolay; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-08-01

    At low reduced electric fields the electron energy distribution function in heavy noble gases can take two distinct shapes. This ‘bistability effect’—in which electron-electron (Coulomb) collisions play an essential role—is analyzed here for Xe with a Boltzmann equation approach and with a first principles particle simulation method. The solution of the Boltzmann equation adopts the usual approximations of (i) searching for the distribution function in the form of two terms (‘two-term approximation’), (ii) neglecting the Coulomb part of the collision integral for the anisotropic part of the distribution function, (iii) treating Coulomb collisions as binary events, and (iv) truncating the range of the electron-electron interaction beyond a characteristic distance. The particle-based simulation method avoids these approximations: the many-body interactions within the electron gas with a true (un-truncated) Coulomb potential are described by a molecular dynamics algorithm, while the collisions between electrons and the background gas atoms are treated with Monte Carlo simulation. We find a good general agreement between the results of the two techniques, which confirms, to a certain extent, the approximations used in the solution of the Boltzmann equation. The differences observed between the results are believed to originate from these approximations and from the presence of statistical noise in the particle simulations.

  2. From collision to collaboration - Integrating informal recyclers and re-use operators in Europe: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Nesić, Jelena; Savain, Rachel; Luppi, Pietro; Sinnott, Portia; Petean, Flaviu; Pop, Flaviu

    2016-09-01

    The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems.This review focuses on the period from 2004 through the first half of 2016. The 78 sources on European (and neighbouring) informal recycling and re-use are contextualised with global sources and experience. The articles focus on informal recovery in and at the borders of the European Union, document the conflicts and collisions, and elaborate some constructive approaches towards legalisation, integration, and reconciliation. The overarching recommendation, to locate the issue of informal recovery and integration in the framework of the European circular economy package, is supported by four specific pillars of an integration strategy: Documentation, legalisation, occupational and enterprise recognition, and preparation for structural integration. PMID:27449318

  3. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: Relativistic Boltzmann-Langevin model for heavy-ion collision; K+ production far below free neucleon-nucleon threshold and damping of collective vibrations in a memory-dependent transport model

  4. Lattice Boltzmann Large Eddy Simulation Model of MHD

    CERN Document Server

    Flint, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The work of Ansumali \\textit{et al.}\\cite{Ansumali} is extended to Two Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in which energy is cascaded to small spatial scales and thus requires subgrid modeling. Applying large eddy simulation (LES) modeling of the macroscopic fluid equations results in the need to apply ad-hoc closure schemes. LES is applied to a suitable mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann representation from which one can recover the MHD equations in the long wavelength, long time scale Chapman-Enskog limit (i.e., the Knudsen limit). Thus on first performing filter width expansions on the lattice Boltzmann equations followed by the standard small Knudsen expansion on the filtered lattice Boltzmann system results in a closed set of MHD turbulence equations provided we enforce the physical constraint that the subgrid effects first enter the dynamics at the transport time scales. In particular, a multi-time relaxation collision operator is considered for the density distribution function and a single rel...

  5. First-principles particle simulation and Boltzmann equation analysis of Negative Differential Conductivity and Transient Negative Mobility effects in xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Donko, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The Negative Differential Conductivity and Transient Negative Mobility effects in xenon gas are analyzed by a first-principles particle simulation technique and via an approximate solution of the Boltzmann transport equation (BE). The particle simulation method is devoid of the approximations that are traditionally adopted in the BE solutions in which (i) the distribution function is searched for in a two-term form, (ii) the Coulomb part of the collision integral for the anisotropic part of the distribution function is neglected, (iii) Coulomb collisions are treated as binary events, and (iv) the range of the electron-electron interaction is limited to a cutoff distance. The results obtained from the two methods are, for both effects, in good qualitative agreement, small differences are attributed to the approximations listed above.

  6. Langevin theory of fluctuations in the discrete Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, M; Varnik, F; Adhikari, R

    2010-01-01

    The discrete Boltzmann equation for both the ideal and a non-ideal fluid is extended by adding Langevin noise terms in order to incorporate the effects of thermal fluctuations. After casting the fluctuating discrete Boltzmann equation in a form appropriate to the Onsager-Machlup theory of linear fluctuations, the statistical properties of the noise are determined by invoking a fluctuation-dissipation theorem at the kinetic level. By integrating the fluctuating discrete Boltzmann equation, the fluctuating lattice Boltzmann equation is obtained, which provides an efficient way to solve the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics for ideal and non-ideal fluids. Application of the framework to a generic force-based non-ideal fluid model leads to ideal gas-type thermal noise. Simulation results indicate proper thermalization of all degrees of freedom.

  7. On the full Boltzmann equations for Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Garayoa, J; Pinto, T; Rius, N; Vives, O

    2009-01-01

    We consider the full Boltzmann equations for standard and soft leptogenesis, instead of the usual integrated Boltzmann equations which assume kinetic equilibrium for all species. Decays and inverse decays may be inefficient for thermalising the heavy-(s)neutrino distribution function, leading to significant deviations from kinetic equilibrium. We analyse the impact of using the full kinetic equations in the case of a previously generated lepton asymmetry, and find that the washout of this initial asymmetry due to the interactions of the right-handed neutrino is larger than when calculated via the integrated equations. We also solve the full Boltzmann equations for soft leptogenesis, where the lepton asymmetry induced by the soft SUSY-breaking terms in sneutrino decays is a purely thermal effect, since at T=0 the asymmetry in leptons cancels the one in sleptons. In this case, we obtain that in the weak washout regime (K ~< 1) the final lepton asymmetry can change up to a factor four with respect to previous...

  8. On the Boltzmann Equation with Stochastic Kinetic Transport: Global Existence of Renormalized Martingale Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Punshon-Smith, Samuel; Smith, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the Cauchy problem for the Boltzmann equation with stochastic kinetic transport. Under a cut-off assumption on the collision kernel and a coloring hypothesis for the noise coefficients, we prove the global existence of renormalized (in the sense of DiPerna/Lions) martingale solutions to the Boltzmann equation for large initial data with finite mass, energy, and entropy. Our analysis includes a detailed study of weak martingale solutions to a class of linear stochastic kin...

  9. Weighted particle method for solving the Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new, deterministic, method of solution of the nuclear Boltzmann equation. In this Weighted Particle Method two-body collisions are treated by a Master equation for an occupation probability of each numerical particle. We apply the method to the quadrupole motion of 12C. A comparison with usual stochastic methods is made. Advantages and disadvantages of the Weighted Particle Method are discussed

  10. Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, E.; Niemi, H.; Rischke, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    Fluid-dynamical equations of motion can be derived from the Boltzmann equation in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which is in local thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., isotropic in momentum space in the rest frame of a fluid element. However, in situations where the single-particle distribution function is highly anisotropic in momentum space, such as the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies, such an expansion is bound to break dow...

  11. Dynamics of Annihilation I : Linearized Boltzmann Equation and Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    de Soria, M. I. Garcia; Maynar, P.; Schehr, G.; Barrat, A.; Trizac, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of a system of freely moving particles, in which binary encounters lead either to an elastic collision or to the disappearance of the pair. Such a system of {\\em ballistic annihilation} therefore constantly looses particles. The dynamics of perturbations around the free decay regime is investigated from the spectral properties of the linearized Boltzmann operator, that characterize linear excitations on all time scales. The linearized Boltzma...

  12. The Nonclassical Diffusion Approximation to the Nonclassical Linear Boltzmann Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Vasques, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We show that, by correctly selecting the probability distribution function $p(s)$ for a particle's distance-to-collision, the nonclassical diffusion equation can be represented exactly by the nonclassical linear Boltzmann equation for an infinite homogeneous medium. This choice of $p(s)$ preserves the $true$ mean-squared free path of the system, which sheds new light on the results obtained in previous work.

  13. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe2+ + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2016-07-01

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe2+ and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 + in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe2+ + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe+ and N2 + product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å2 to about 40 Å2 with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe2+ - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies.

  14. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe(2+) + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Michael L; Prince, Benjamin D; Bemish, Raymond J

    2016-07-28

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe(2+) and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 (+) in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe(2+) + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe(+) and N2 (+) product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å(2) to about 40 Å(2) with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe(2+) - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies. PMID:27475363

  15. Problems of interaction of a supersonic gas mixture with a wall solved by the projection method applied to the full Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Numerical solution of non-steady problems of supersonic inflow of a binary mixture of a rarefied gas on a normally posed wall with mirror and diffuse reflection laws is obtained on the basis of the kinetic Boltzmann equation for the model of hard sphere molecules. For calculation of collision integrals we apply the projection method, developed by Tcheremissine for a one-component gas and generalized by the author for a binary gas mixture in the case of cylindrical symmetry. We demonstrate a good qualitative agreement of our results with other authors for one-component gases.

  16. Albedo of low-energy light ions: case of anisotropic approximation of the collision integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For diffusion and slowing-down of low-energy light ions, the linear transport equation in the path length form was rederived taking into account a common anisotropic approximation of the collision integral. Assuming that the transport cross section depends only on the ion initial energy, the equation was Laplace-transformed over the relative path length and half-space albedo problem was considered by using the ordinary DPN technique. The Laplace-transformed reflection function was found in the lowest order of DPN flux approximation, and then was inverted analytically leading to the distribution of backscattered particles in the relative path-length. For the general power potential V(R)∞R-1/m the particle reflection coefficient was obtained as a series, while for the special case of the inverse square potential (m=1/2) this coefficient was determined in a compact form. The present approach was compared with the TRIM simulations of helium ion reflection, as well as with the Tilinin - Betz fitting formula and the MARLOWE simulations of proton reflection. (author)

  17. Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098

  18. Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-06-01

    Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.

  19. Predictions of nearshore hydrodynamics based on free-surface lattice Boltzmann approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, J. B.; Mier-Torrecilla, M.; Zurita-Gotor, M.; Holman, D. M.

    2012-04-01

    The focus of the present free-surface model developments is to utilize gas dynamics theory to predict and investigate underlying mechanisms of the dynamics of nonlinear water waves. Since water wave mechanics is a topic not concerned with the notions from thermodynamics, the basics of the physics of incompressible gas dynamics provides a relatively simple means for describing the theory and predictions of nonlinear wave propagation through advanced random and nonlinear particle collision processes [1]. Nonlinear free-surface physics are investigated using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) at intermediate to shallow water depth. The LBM simulates fluid flow by tracking particle distributions in a Lagrangian manner. The particles are constrained to move on regular or octree lattices depending on wave steepness and/or wave-structure interaction details sought. The Boltzmann equation relates the time evolution and spatial variation of a collection of molecules to a collision operator that describes the interaction of the molecules. Mathematically, the collision integral of the LB equation poses difficulties when solution of the equation is sought. Investigators overcome this through descriptions of models with different levels of accuracy in the approximations of the integral. We consider a model in which the collision assumption is approximated by a multiple relaxation time form. The free-surface algorithm involves an interface tracking scheme based on the volume fraction of the fluid combined with the LBM for the advection equation in which the solver reconstructs the missing probability distribution functions taking into account the distance to the interface [2, 3]. The approximate forms of the LBM describe comparisons of the nonlinear shallow water equations and the Navier Stokes equations. Test cases involving predictions of run-up/run-down on cylinders and beaches are shown. The wet-dry interface conditions, viscosity treatment, surface break-up amongst others

  20. Integrating small mammal community variables into aircraft-wildlife collision management plans at Namibian airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptfleisch, Morgan L; Avenant, Nico L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding ecosystems within and around airports can help to determine the causes and possible mitigation measures for collisions between aircraft and wildlife. Small mammal communities are an important component of the semi-arid savanna ecosystems of Namibia, its productivity and its ecosystem integrity. They are also a major direct attractant for raptors at airports. The present study compared the abundance and diversity of small mammals between Namibia's 2 main airport properties (Hosea Kutako International Airport and Eros Airport), and among areas of land used for various purposes surrounding the airports. A total of 2150 small mammals (3 orders, 11 species) were captured over 4 trapping seasons. Small mammal abundance was significantly higher at the end of the growing season than during the non-growing season. The grass mowing regimen in current management plans at the airports resulted in a significant reduction of small mammal abundance at Hosea Kutako during the non-growing season only, thus indicating that annual mowing is effective but insufficient to reduce the overall abundance of mammal prey species for raptors. Small mammal numbers were significantly higher at Hosea Kutako Airport compared to the cattle and game farming land surrounding the airport, while no differences in small mammal densities or diversity were found for areas with different land uses at and surrounding Eros. The study suggests that the fence around Hosea Kutako provides a refuge for small mammals, resulting in higher densities. It also indicates that different surrounding land use practices result in altered ecosystem function and productivity, an important consideration when identifying wildlife attractants at airports. PMID:26331534

  1. Fast Maximum Entropy Moment Closure Approach to Solving the Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summy, Dustin; Pullin, Dale

    2015-11-01

    We describe a method for a moment-based solution of the Boltzmann Equation (BE). This is applicable to an arbitrary set of velocity moments whose transport is governed by partial-differential equations (PDEs) derived from the BE. The equations are unclosed, containing both higher-order moments and molecular-collision terms. These are evaluated using a maximum-entropy reconstruction of the velocity distribution function f (c , x , t) , from the known moments, within a finite-box domain of single-particle velocity (c) space. Use of a finite-domain alleviates known problems (Junk and Unterreiter, Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 2002) concerning existence and uniqueness of the reconstruction. Unclosed moments are evaluated with quadrature while collision terms are calculated using any desired method. This allows integration of the moment PDEs in time. The high computational cost of the general method is greatly reduced by careful choice of the velocity moments, allowing the necessary integrals to be reduced from three- to one-dimensional in the case of strictly 1D flows. A method to extend this enhancement to fully 3D flows is discussed. Comparison with relaxation and shock-wave problems using the DSMC method will be presented. Partially supported by NSF grant DMS-1418903.

  2. Celebrating Cercignani's conjecture for the Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Desvillettes, Laurent; Villani, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Cercignani's conjecture assumes a linear inequality between the entropy and entropy production functionals for Boltzmann's nonlinear integral operator in rarefied gas dynamics. Related to the field of logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and spectral gap inequalities, this issue has been at the core of the renewal of the mathematical theory of convergence to thermodynamical equilibrium for rarefied gases over the past decade. In this review paper, we survey the various positive and negative results which were obtained since the conjecture was proposed in the 1980s.

  3. Integral transport multiregion geometrical shadowing factor for the approximate collision probability matrix calculation of infinite closely packed lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral transport method of calculating the geometrical shadowing factor in multiregion annular cells for infinite closely packed lattices in cylindrical geometry is developed. This analytical method has been programmed in the TPGS code. This method is based upon a consideration of the properties of the integral transport method for a nonuniform body, which together with Bonalumi's approximations allows the determination of the approximate multiregion collision probability matrix for infinite closely packed lattices with sufficient accuracy. The multiregion geometrical shadowing factors have been calculated for variations in fuel pin annular segment rings in a geometry of annular cells. These shadowing factors can then be used in the calculation of neutron transport from one annulus to another in an infinite lattice. The result of this new geometrical shadowing and collision probability matrix are compared with the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction and the probability matrix using constant shadowing on Yankee fuel elements in an infinite lattice. In these cases the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction factor and collision probability matrix using constant shadowing are in difference by at most 6.2% and 6%, respectively

  4. Dynamics of annihilation. I. Linearized Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Soria, María Isabel; Maynar, Pablo; Schehr, Grégory; Barrat, Alain; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2008-05-01

    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a system of freely moving particles, in which binary encounters lead either to an elastic collision or to the disappearance of the pair. Such a system of ballistic annihilation therefore constantly loses particles. The dynamics of perturbations around the free decay regime is investigated using the spectral properties of the linearized Boltzmann operator, which characterize linear excitations on all time scales. The linearized Boltzmann equation is solved in the hydrodynamic limit by a projection technique, which yields the evolution equations for the relevant coarse-grained fields and expressions for the transport coefficients. We finally present the results of molecular dynamics simulations that validate the theoretical predictions. PMID:18643046

  5. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  6. A Note on Boltzmann Brains

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the observed arrow of time is equivalent, under general assumptions, to explaining why Boltzmann brains do not overwhelm ordinary observers. It is usually thought that this provides a condition on the decay rate of every cosmologically accessible de Sitter vacuum, and that this condition is determined by the production rate of Boltzmann brains calculated using semiclassical theory built on each such vacuum. We argue, based on a recently developed picture of microscopic quantum gravitational degrees of freedom, that this thinking needs to be modified. In particular, depending on the structure of the fundamental theory, the decay rate of a de Sitter vacuum may not have to satisfy any condition except possibly the one imposed by the Poincare recurrence. The framework discussed here also addresses the question of whether a Minkowski vacuum may produce Boltzmann brains.

  7. A note on Boltzmann brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the observed arrow of time is equivalent, under general assumptions, to explaining why Boltzmann brains do not overwhelm ordinary observers. It is usually thought that this provides a condition on the decay rate of every cosmologically accessible de Sitter vacuum, and that this condition is determined by the production rate of Boltzmann brains calculated using semiclassical theory built on each such vacuum. We argue, based on a recently developed picture of microscopic quantum gravitational degrees of freedom, that this thinking needs to be modified. In particular, depending on the structure of the fundamental theory, the decay rate of a de Sitter vacuum may not have to satisfy any condition except for the one imposed by the Poincaré recurrence. The framework discussed here also addresses the question of whether a Minkowski vacuum may produce Boltzmann brains.

  8. Chebyshev collocation spectral lattice Boltzmann method for simulation of low-speed flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejranfar, Kazem; Hajihassanpour, Mahya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the Chebyshev collocation spectral lattice Boltzmann method (CCSLBM) is developed and assessed for the computation of low-speed flows. Both steady and unsteady flows are considered here. The discrete Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation based on the pressure distribution function is considered and the space discretization is performed by the Chebyshev collocation spectral method to achieve a highly accurate flow solver. To provide accurate unsteady solutions, the time integration of the temporal term in the lattice Boltzmann equation is made by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. To achieve numerical stability and accuracy, physical boundary conditions based on the spectral solution of the governing equations implemented on the boundaries are used. An iterative procedure is applied to provide consistent initial conditions for the distribution function and the pressure field for the simulation of unsteady flows. The main advantage of using the CCSLBM over other high-order accurate lattice Boltzmann method (LBM)-based flow solvers is the decay of the error at exponential rather than at polynomial rates. Note also that the CCSLBM applied does not need any numerical dissipation or filtering for the solution to be stable, leading to highly accurate solutions. Three two-dimensional (2D) test cases are simulated herein that are a regularized cavity, the Taylor vortex problem, and doubly periodic shear layers. The results obtained for these test cases are thoroughly compared with the analytical and available numerical results and show excellent agreement. The computational efficiency of the proposed solution methodology based on the CCSLBM is also examined by comparison with those of the standard streaming-collision (classical) LBM and two finite-difference LBM solvers. The study indicates that the CCSLBM provides more accurate and efficient solutions than these LBM solvers in terms of CPU and memory usage and an exponential

  9. The Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown how a formally exact Kubo-like response theory equivalent to the Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport can be constructed. The response theory gives the general wavevector and time-dependent velocity distribution at any time in terms of an initial distribution function, to which is added the response induced by a generalized perturbation over the intervening time. The usual Kubo linear response result for the distribution function is recovered by choosing the initial velocity distribution to be Maxwellian. For completeness the response theory introduces an exponential convergence function into the response time integral. This is equivalent to using a modified Boltzmann equation but the general form of the transport theory is not changed. The modified transport theory can be used to advantage where possible convergence difficulties occur in numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation. This paper gives a systematic development of the modified transport theory and shows how the response theory fits into the broader scheme of solving the Boltzmann equation. The discussion extends both the work of Kumar et al. (1980), where the distribution function is expanded out in terms of tensor functions, and the propagator description where the non-hydrodynamic time development of the distribution function is related to the wavevector dependent Green function of the Boltzmann equation

  10. Collision Rates in Charged Granular Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffler, T. (Thomas); Wolf, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The dissipation rate due to inelastic collisions between equally charged, insulating particles in a granular gas is calculated. It is equal to the known dissipation rate for uncharged granular media multiplied by a Boltzmann-like factor, that originates from Coulomb repulsion. Particle correlations lead to an effective potential that replaces the bare Coulomb potential in the Boltzmann factor. Collisional cooling in a granular gas proceeds with the known t^-2 -law, until the kinetic energy of...

  11. Joint Training of Deep Boltzmann Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new method for training deep Boltzmann machines jointly. Prior methods require an initial learning pass that trains the deep Boltzmann machine greedily, one layer at a time, or do not perform well on classifi- cation tasks.

  12. Bistable solutions for the electron energy distribution function in electron swarms in xenon via Boltzmann equation analysis and particle simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Dyatko, Nikolay; Donko, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    At low reduced electric fields the electron energy distribution function in heavy noble gases can take two distinct shapes. This "bistability effect" - in which electron-electron (Coulomb) collisions play an essential role - is analyzed here for Xe with a Boltzmann equation approach and with a first principles particle simulation method. The solution of the Boltzmann equation adopts the usual approximations of (i) searching for the distribution function in the form of two terms ("two-term app...

  13. On Exact Solutions to the Cylindrical Poisson-Boltzmann Equation with Applications to Polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, C. A.; Widom, H.

    1997-01-01

    Using exact results from the theory of completely integrable systems of the Painleve/Toda type, we examine the consequences for the theory of polyelectrolytes in the (nonlinear) Poisson-Boltzmann approximation.

  14. Differential kinetic equations for a Rayleigh gas with inelastic collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Leonardo; Carbognani, Albino

    Starting from the collision integral of the appropriate generalized Boltzmann equation (Waldmann-Trübenbacher equation), a differential collision operator for a Rayleigh gas with inelastic collisions, i.e. for heavy (atomic) particles dilutely dispersed in a light molecular background gas, is obtained. The procedure is based on the assumption that the heavy particles are not too far from the thermal equilibrium with the background gas, and leads to an approximate operator which is correct up to (and including) the first-order terms in the ratio between the light-particle mass and the sum of the masses of a light particle and of a heavy particle. The obtained operator reduces to the usual Fokker-Planck collision operator when only elastic collisions are considered. All the steps of the procedure are briefly discussed and the use of the new operator in approximate (differential) kinetic equations appropriate to some possible physical situations is examined. Finally, the rather abstract kinetic equation (of the Fokker-Planck type) previously obtained by Mazo is led to its explicit final form and criticized.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann method and its application in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoli

    2013-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new simulation technique for the modeling of complex fluid systems and has attracted interest from researchers in computational physics. Unlike the traditional CFD methods, which solve the conservation equations of macroscopic properties (i.e., mass, momentum, and energy) numerically, LBM models the fluid consisting of fictive particles, and such particles perform consecutive propagation and collision processes over a discrete lattice mesh.This book will cover the fundamental and practical application of LBM. The first part of the book consists of

  16. Azimuthally-integrated HBT parameters for charged pions in nuclear-nuclear collisions versus initial energy

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the paper energy dependence of space-time extent of charged pion source is studied for various ion collisions for all experimentally available energies. There are no sharp changing of femtoscopy parameter values with increasing of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ in domain of collision energies $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\geq 5$ GeV. Energy dependence of estimations for emission duration is almost flat for all energy domain under study within large error bars. Analytic function is suggested for smooth approximation of energy dependence of main HBT parameters. Fit curves demonstrate reasonable agreement with experimental data for most femtoscopy parameters in energy domain $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\geq 5$ GeV. Estimations of femtoscopy observables are obtained for energies of the LHC and FCC project.

  17. Ludwig Boltzmann A Pioneer of Modern Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Flamm, D

    1997-01-01

    In two respects Ludwig Boltzmann was a pioneer of quantum mechanics. First because in his statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics he introduced the theory of probability into a fundamental law of physics and thus broke with the classical prejudice, that fundamental laws have to be strictly deterministic. Even Max Planck had not been ready to accept Boltzmann's statistical methods until 1900. With Boltzmann's pioneering work the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics had already a precedent. In fact in a paper in 1897 Boltzmann had already suggested to Planck to use his statistical methods for the treatment of black body radiation. The second pioneering step towards quantum mechanics was Boltzmann's introduction of discrete energy levels. Boltzmann used this method already in his 1872 paper on the H-theorem. One may ask whether Boltzmann considered this procedure only as a mathematical device or whether he attributed physical significance to it. In this connection Ostwald repo...

  18. Application of Littlewood-Paley decomposition to the regularity of Boltzmann type kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the regularity of kinetic equations of Boltzmann type.We use essentially Littlewood-Paley method from harmonic analysis, consisting mainly in working with dyadics annulus. We shall mainly concern with the homogeneous case, where the solution f(t,x,v) depends only on the time t and on the velocities v, while working with realistic and singular cross-sections (non cutoff). In the first part, we study the particular case of Maxwellian molecules. Under this hypothesis, the structure of the Boltzmann operator and his Fourier transform write in a simple form. We show a global C∞ regularity. Then, we deal with the case of general cross-sections with 'hard potential'. We are interested in the Landau equation which is limit equation to the Boltzmann equation, taking in account grazing collisions. We prove that any weak solution belongs to Schwartz space S. We demonstrate also a similar regularity for the case of Boltzmann equation. Let us note that our method applies directly for all dimensions, and proofs are often simpler compared to other previous ones. Finally, we finish with Boltzmann-Dirac equation. In particular, we adapt the result of regularity obtained in Alexandre, Desvillettes, Wennberg and Villani work, using the dissipation rate connected with Boltzmann-Dirac equation. (author)

  19. A Novel Control Algorithm for Integration of Active and Passive Vehicle Safety Systems in Frontal Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wallner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates an approach to integrate active and passive safety systems of passenger cars. Worldwide, the introduction of Integrated Safety Systems and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS is considered to continue the today

  20. The relativistic linear Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the relativistic linear Boltzmann transport equation is applied to an experiment in pion production by 740 MeV protons incident on a variety of nuclei. This equation is solved by the Monte Carlo method of generating a single particle intranuclear cascade. The transport equation is derived starting with the N-body equation of motion for quantum mechanics in phase in order to determine under what conditions it is a valid approximation. It is shown that it should be a valid semi-classical approximation provided that: (1) The kinetic energy of the transport particle is much greater than its energy of interaction with the mean nuclear potential field. (2) The two-body collision interactions which make up the single particle intranuclear cascade take place over space and time intervals which are small relative to the internucleon space and time intervals for interactions within the nucleus and also compared to the space and time scales over which the probability distribution undergoes variation. In the pion production calculation condition (2) is only approximately met but reasonable agreement with the experimental data is obtained similar to that obtained in other theoretical calculations compared to this experiment

  1. Quantum corrections for Boltzmann equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Levy; PETER

    2008-01-01

    We present the lowest order quantum correction to the semiclassical Boltzmann distribution function,and the equation satisfied by this correction is given. Our equation for the quantum correction is obtained from the conventional quantum Boltzmann equation by explicitly expressing the Planck constant in the gradient approximation,and the quantum Wigner distribution function is expanded in pow-ers of Planck constant,too. The negative quantum correlation in the Wigner dis-tribution function which is just the quantum correction terms is naturally singled out,thus obviating the need for the Husimi’s coarse grain averaging that is usually done to remove the negative quantum part of the Wigner distribution function. We also discuss the classical limit of quantum thermodynamic entropy in the above framework.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann method for bosons and fermions and the fourth order Hermite polynomial expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Doria, M M; Pereira, R M; Aibe, Valter Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    The Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator is considered for the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions. We show that the expansion of the microscopic velocity in terms of Hermite polynomials must be carried until the fourth order to correctly describe the energy equation. The viscosity and thermal coefficients, previously obtained by J.Y. Yang et al through the Uehling-Uhlenbeck approach, are also derived here. Thus the construction of a lattice Boltzmann method for the quantum fluid is possible provided that the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions are expanded until fourth order in the Hermite polynomials.

  3. Numerical scheme for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Mendl, Christian B.

    2015-06-01

    We develop an efficient algorithm for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation derived from the Hubbard model. The distribution functions are 2 × 2 matrix-valued to accommodate the spin degree of freedom, and the scalar quantum Boltzmann equation is recovered as a special case when all matrices are proportional to the identity. We use Fourier discretization and fast Fourier transform to efficiently evaluate the collision kernel with spectral accuracy, and numerically investigate periodic, Dirichlet and Maxwell boundary conditions. Model simulations quantify the convergence to local and global thermal equilibrium.

  4. Numerical scheme for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    We develop an efficient algorithm for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation derived from the Hubbard model. The distribution functions are 2 x 2 matrix-valued to accommodate the spin degree of freedom, and the scalar quantum Boltzmann equation is recovered as special case when all matrices are proportional to the identity. We use Fourier discretization and fast Fourier transform to efficiently evaluate the collision kernel with spectral accuracy, and numerically investigate periodic, Dirichlet and Maxwell boundary conditions. Model simulations quantify the convergence to local and global thermal equilibrium.

  5. On Training Deep Boltzmann Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins, Guillaume; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua

    2012-01-01

    The deep Boltzmann machine (DBM) has been an important development in the quest for powerful "deep" probabilistic models. To date, simultaneous or joint training of all layers of the DBM has been largely unsuccessful with existing training methods. We introduce a simple regularization scheme that encourages the weight vectors associated with each hidden unit to have similar norms. We demonstrate that this regularization can be easily combined with standard stochastic maximum likelihood to yie...

  6. Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamic fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, Matteo; Kröger, Martin; Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2009-11-01

    We apply the method of invariant manifolds to derive equations of generalized hydrodynamics from the linearized Boltzmann equation and determine exact transport coefficients, obeying Green-Kubo formulas. Numerical calculations are performed in the special case of Maxwell molecules. We investigate, through the comparison with experimental data and former approaches, the spectrum of density fluctuations and address the regime of finite Knudsen numbers and finite frequencies hydrodynamics. PMID:20364972

  7. Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamic fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Colangeli, M.; Kroger, M.; Ottinger, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the method of invariant manifolds to derive equations of generalized hydrodynamics from the linearized Boltzmann equation and determine exact transport coefficients, obeying Green-Kubo formulas. Numerical calculations are performed in the special case of Maxwell molecules. We investigate, through the comparison with experimental data and former approaches, the spectrum of density fluctuations and address the regime of finite Knudsen numbers and finite frequencies hydrodynamics.

  8. Ordinal Boltzmann Machines for Collaborative Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Truyen, Tran The; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative filtering is an effective recommendation technique wherein the preference of an individual can potentially be predicted based on preferences of other members. Early algorithms often relied on the strong locality in the preference data, that is, it is enough to predict preference of a user on a particular item based on a small subset of other users with similar tastes or of other items with similar properties. More recently, dimensionality reduction techniques have proved to be equally competitive, and these are based on the co-occurrence patterns rather than locality. This paper explores and extends a probabilistic model known as Boltzmann Machine for collaborative filtering tasks. It seamlessly integrates both the similarity and co-occurrence in a principled manner. In particular, we study parameterisation options to deal with the ordinal nature of the preferences, and propose a joint modelling of both the user-based and item-based processes. Experiments on moderate and large-scale movie recomm...

  9. Time-dependent integral transport equation kernels, leakage rates and collision rates for plane and spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-dependent integral transport equation flux and current kernels for plane and spherical geometry are derived for homogeneous media. Using the multiple collision formalism, isotropic sources that are delta distributions in time are considered for four different problems. The plane geometry flux kernel is applied to a uniformly distributed source within an infinite medium and to a surface source in a semi-infinite medium. The spherical flux kernel is applied to a point source in an infinite medium and to a point source at the origin of a finite sphere. The time-dependent first-flight leakage rates corresponding to the existing steady state first-flight escape probabilities are computed by the Laplace transform technique assuming a delta distribution source in time. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, for a spatially uniform source is obtained for a slab and a sphere. Time-dependent first-flight leakage rates are also determined for the general two region spherical medium problem for isotropic sources with a delta distribution in time uniformly distributed throughout both the inner and outer regions. The time-dependent collision rates due to the uncollided neutrons are computed for a slab and a sphere using the time-dependent first-flight leakage rates and the time-dependent continuity equation. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, is also considered

  10. A hybrid method for the solution of linear Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper presents a novel method for the solution of linear Boltzmann equation. • The hybrid method, based on multiple collisions, combines transport with diffusion. • The physical basis of the method is discussed together with the mathematical model. • Results show its performance in terms of accuracy and computational time. • The extension of the method to more general configurations is discussed. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach devised to solve the transport of neutral particles in scattering and absorbing media. The solution to the linear Boltzmann equation is sought starting from a multi-collision approach of the integro-differential equation which is combined with an approximate model for the description of the residue after truncation of the Neumann series. In the paper, the theoretical basis of such hybrid method is discussed together with the physical intuition at the basis of the methodology. Results for both steady-state and transient problems are presented and an extension to general multi-dimensional, anisotropic problem is reported

  11. Performance evaluation of the general characteristics based off-lattice Boltzmann and DUGKS methods for low speed continuum flows: A comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lianhua; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    The general characteristics based off-lattice Boltzmann scheme (BKG) proposed by Bardow et~al.(2006), and the discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) are two methods that successfully overcome the time step restriction by the collision time, which is commonly seen in many other kinetic schemes. Basically, the BKG scheme is a time splitting scheme, while the DUGKS is an un-split finite volume scheme. In this work, we first perform a theoretical analysis of the two schemes in the finite volume framework by comparing their numerical flux evaluations. It is found that the effects of collision term are considered in the reconstructions of the cell-interface distribution function in both schemes, which explains why they can overcome the time step restriction and can give accurate results even as the time step is much larger than the collision time. The difference between the two schemes lies in the treatment of the integral of the collision term, in which the Bardow's scheme uses the rectangular rule while the ...

  12. Student understanding of the Boltzmann factor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Trevor I; Thompson, John R

    2015-01-01

    We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable, nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us to develop a guided-inquiry tutorial activity, centered around the derivation of the Boltzmann factor, for use in undergraduate statistical mechanics courses. We report on the development process of our tutorial, including data from teaching interviews and classroom observations on student discussions about the Boltzmann f...

  13. Azimuthally Integrated HBT Parameters for Charged Pions in Nucleus-Nucleus Interactions versus Collision Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependence of spatiotemporal characteristics of particle emission region is studied for charged pions produced in nuclear collisions. No dramatic change is observed for the HBT parameters with increasing of the center-of-mass (c.m.) energy per nucleon-nucleon pair, √(sNN), for √(sNN) of a few GeV to a few TeV. The emission duration is obtained to be almost independent of the c.m. energy within the measurement uncertainties. The analytic function is suggested for a smooth approximation of the energy dependence of the main HBT parameters. The fits demonstrate reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Predictions are made for future LHC and FCC experiments

  14. Transmission ionization chambers for measurements of air collision kerma integrated over beam area. Factors limiting the accuracy of calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerma-area product meters (KAP meters) are frequently used in diagnostic radiology to measure the integral of air-collision kerma over an area A(∫A Kc,air dA) perpendicular to the x-ray beam. In this work, a precise method for calibrating a KAP meter to measure ∫A Kc,air dA is described and calibration factors determined for a broad range of tube potentials (40-200kV). The integral is determined using a large number of TL dosimeters spread over and outside the nominal field area defined as the area within 50% of maximum Kc,air. The method is compared to a simplified calibration method which approximates the integral by multiplying the kerma in the centre of the field by the nominal field area Anom. While the calibration factor using the precise method is independent of field area and distance from the source, that using the simplified method depends on both. This can be accounted for by field inhomogeneities caused by the heel effect, extrafocal radiation and scattered radiation from the KAP meter. The deviations between the calibration factors were as large as ±15% for collimator apertures of 5-100cm2 and distances from the source of 50 - 160 cm. The uncertainty in the calibration factor using the precise method was carefully evaluated and the expanded relative uncertainty estimated to be ±3% with a confidence level of 95%. (author)

  15. The non-linear Boltzmann equation and its application to time and space dependent problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is divided into two parts which both involve finding solutions of the Boltzmann Equation. The motivation behind Part 1 is laser fusion where energy transport is by electrons but the temperature gradients are so large in relation to their mean free paths that classical conduction theory breaks down. In this treatment the electron distribution function is found from an appropriate space-dependent Boltzmann Equation and thus physical quantities (in particular heat flux) are calculated for typical parameters from laser fusion. In part 2, an analytic solution of a certain non-linear one-dimensional Boltzmann Equation is obtained which describes the temporal relaxation to equilibrium of a system of particles. Solutions to the corresponding linearised equation and two E.G.K models (with energy-dependent and ''averaged'' collision times) are also derived and compared with that of the non-linear equation. (author)

  16. Step 1:Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This document provides definition of technology human interface requirements for Collision Avoidance (CA). This was performed through a review of CA-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 CA work package were considered... Beginning with the HSI high-level functional requirement for CA, and CA technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge CA system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain CA information and affect an avoidance maneuver. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate CA technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how CA operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary CA functionality to the UA-pilot system .Requirements and guidelines for CA are partitioned into four categories: (1) General, (2) Alerting, (3) Guidance, and (4) Cockpit Display of Traffic Information. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  17. Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Dam T; Stephanov, Mikhail A

    2015-07-10

    Using a covariant formalism, we construct a chiral kinetic theory Lorentz invariant to order O(ℏ), which includes collisions. We find a new contribution to the particle number current due to the side jumps required by the conservation of angular momentum during collisions. We also find a conserved symmetric stress-energy tensor as well as the H function obeying Boltzmann's H theorem. We demonstrate their use by finding a general equilibrium solution and the values of the anomalous transport coefficients characterizing the chiral vortical effect. PMID:26207458

  18. Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Stephanov, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    Using a covariant formalism, we construct a chiral kinetic theory Lorentz invariant to order $\\mathcal O(\\hbar)$ which includes collisions. We find a new contribution to the particle number current due to the side jumps required by the conservation of angular momentum during collisions. We also find a conserved symmetric stress-energy tensor as well as the $H$-function obeying Boltzmann's $H$-theorem. We demonstrate their use by finding a general equilibrium solution and the values of the anomalous transport coefficients characterizing chiral vortical effect.

  19. On the intermittency and correlation integral of multiparticle final states in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation that using correlation integral instead of factorial moments in the investigation of intermittency phenomena will change the anomalous scaling behaviour in the decreasing of rapidity bin. It is pointed out that the correlation integral and factorial moments probably reflect different physical aspects. In order to eliminate the artificial factor in bin-division, a method of randomly moving the starting point of bin-division in the investigation of factorial moments is proposed. It is also shown that the spiky events have important contribution to the intermittency indices

  20. Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.

    1996-01-01

    Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...

  1. Pore-scale lattice Boltzmann simulation of laminar and turbulent flow through a sphere pack

    CERN Document Server

    Fattahia, Ehsan; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Rüde, Ulrich; Manhart, Michael; Helmig, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method can be used to simulate flow through porous media with full geometrical resolution. With such a direct numerical simulation, it becomes possible to study fundamental effects which are difficult to assess either by developing macroscopic mathematical models or experiments. We first evaluate the lattice Boltzmann method with various boundary handling of the solid-wall and various collision operators to assess their suitability for large scale direct numerical simulation of porous media flow. A periodic pressure drop boundary condition is used to mimic the pressure driven flow through the simple sphere pack in a periodic domain. The evaluation of the method is done in the Darcy regime and the results are compared to a semi-analytic solution. Taking into account computational cost and accuracy, we choose the most efficient combination of the solid boundary condition and collision operator. We apply this method to perform simulations for a wide range of Reynolds numbers from Stokes flo...

  2. Radiative or neutron transport modeling using a lattice Boltzmann equation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, H.; Patil, D. V.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE)-based framework is used to obtain the solution for the linear radiative or neutron transport equation. The LBE framework is devised for the integrodifferential forms of these equations which arise due to the inclusion of the scattering terms. The interparticle collisions are neglected, hence omitting the nonlinear collision term. Furthermore, typical representative examples for one-dimensional or two-dimensional geometries and inclusion or exclusion of the scattering term (isotropic and anisotropic) in the Boltzmann transport equation are illustrated to prove the validity of the method. It has been shown that the solution from the LBE methodology is equivalent to the well-known Pn and Sn methods. This suggests that the LBE can potentially provide a more convenient and easy approach to solve the physical problems of neutron and radiation transport.

  3. Dynamics of density fluctuations in a non-Markovian Boltzmann- Langevin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of the past few years, the nuclear Boltzmann-Langevin (BL)model has emerged as a promising microscopic model for nuclear dynamics at intermediate energies. The BL model goes beyond the much employed Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model, and hence it provides a basis for describing dynamics of density fluctuations and addressing processes exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking and catastrophic transformations in nuclear collisions, such as induced fission and multifragmentation. In these standard models, the collision term is treated in a Markovian approximation by assuming that two-body collisions are local in both space and time, in accordance with Boltzmann's original treatment. This simplification is usually justified by the fact that the duration of a two-body collision is short on the time scale characteristic of the macroscopic evolution of the system. As a result, transport properties of the collective motion has then a classical character. However, when the system possesses fast collective modes with characteristic energies that are not small in comparision with the temperature, then the quantum-statistical effects are important and the standard Markovian treatment is inadequate. In this case, it is necessary to improve the one-body transport model by including the memory effect due to the finite duration of two-body collisions. First we briefly describe the non-Markovian extension of the BL model by including the finite memory time associated with two-body collisions. Then, using this non-Markovian model in a linear response framework, we investigate the effect of the memory time on the agitation of unstable modes in nuclear matter in the spinodal zone, and calculate the collisional relaxation rates of nuclear collective vibrations

  4. Rigorous asymptotic and moment-preserving diffusion approximations for generalized linear Boltzmann transport in arbitrary dimension

    OpenAIRE

    d'Eon, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We derive new diffusion solutions to the monoenergetic generalized linear Boltzmann transport equation (GLBE) for the stationary collision density and scalar flux about an isotropic point source in an infinite $d$-dimensional absorbing medium with isotropic scattering. We consider both classical transport theory with exponentially-distributed free paths in arbitrary dimensions as well as a number of non-classical transport theories (non-exponential random flights) that describe a broader clas...

  5. Three-Dimensional Multi-Relaxation Time (MRT) Lattice-Boltzmann Models for Multiphase Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Premnath, Kannan N.; Abraham, John

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice-Boltzmann (LB) models for multiphase flow are presented. In contrast to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model, a widely employed kinetic model, in MRT models the rates of relaxation processes owing to collisions of particle populations may be independently adjusted. As a result, the MRT models offer a significant improvement in numerical stability of the LB method for simulating fluids with lower viscosities. We show th...

  6. Dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shallow water flows with the Peano framework

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2015-09-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. We present a dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann (LB) implementation for solving the shallow water equations (SWEs). Our implementation extends an existing LB component of the Peano framework. We revise the modular design with respect to the incorporation of new simulation aspects and LB models. The basic SWE-LB implementation is validated in different breaking dam scenarios. We further provide a numerical study on stability of the MRT collision operator used in our simulations.

  7. Metallic transport near a quantum critical point in organic superconductors from a renormalized Boltzmann theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Maryam; Bourbonnais, Claude

    2015-03-01

    The electrical and thermal transport properties of the normal state of quasi-1D superconductors like Bechgaard salts are investigated by combining the linearised Boltzmann equation and the renormalisation group (RG) method. The collision integral operator is calculated using the Umklapp scattering amplitudes obtained by the RG method yielding the electrical resistivity(ρ) and Seebeck coefficient(S). The power law dependence, ρ (T) ~Tα , for resistivity is obtained by changing the antinesting parameter t⊥' simulating the pressure distance from the quantum critical point (QCP) between spin-density-wave (SDW) and d-wave SC (SCd) in the phase diagram. The resistivity evolves from a linear component (α ~= 1) at the QCP towards a Fermi liquid component (α ~= 2) with increasing t⊥', which confirms an extended region of quantum criticality as a result of interference between SCd and SDW causing an anomalous growth of Umklapp scattering. Its anisotropy is also tied to the k⊥-dependence of hot/cold scattering regions along the Fermi surface. Similar calculations for the Seebeck coefficient show deviations from the usual linear temperature dependence and also a change of sign near a SDW instability.

  8. Two temperature gas equilibration model with a Fokker-Planck type collision operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, A. R.; Chacón-Acosta, G.; García-Perciante, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The equilibration process of a binary mixture of gases with two different temperatures is revisited using a Fokker-Planck type equation. The collision integral term of the Boltzmann equation is approximated by a Fokker-Planck differential collision operator by assuming that one of the constituents can be considered as a background gas in equilibrium while the other species diffuses through it. As a main result the coefficients of the linear term and of the first derivative are modified by the temperature and kinetic energy difference of the two species. These modifications are expected to influence the form of the solution for the distribution function and the corresponding transport equations. When temperatures are equal, the usual result of a Rayleigh gas is recovered.

  9. Collision kernels for the Waldmann-Snider equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Robert

    1987-04-01

    A collision kernel for the Waldmann-Snider collision operator has been derived for a rigid rotor in a monatomic heat bath. The general form of the collision kernel is reduced to a classical Boltzmann form when the rotor is restricted to the ground rotational state. A similar form for the collision kernel is obtained with the use of the spherical approximation for the scattering matrix and by considering only elastic collisions. In addition, an outline of how this may be applied to line shape calculations is given for arbitrary gas pressures.

  10. Near-integrability and confinement for high-energy hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Orland, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We investigate an effective Hamiltonian for QCD at large s, in which longitudinal gauge degrees of freedom are suppressed, but not eliminated. In an axial gauge the effective field theory is a set of coupled (1+1)-dimensional principal-chiral models, which are completely integrable. The confinement problem is solvable in this context, and we find the longitudinal and transverse string tensions with techniques already used for a similar Hamiltonian in (2+1)-dimensions. We find some a posteriori justification for the effective Hamiltonian as an eikonal approximation. Hadrons in this approximation consist of partons, which are quarks and soliton-like excitations of the sigma models. Diffractive hadron-hadron scattering appears primarily due to exchange of longitudinal flux between partons.

  11. Multiphase lattice Boltzmann methods theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Haibo; Lu, Xiyun

    2015-01-01

    Theory and Application of Multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Methods presents a comprehensive review of all popular multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Methods developed thus far and is aimed at researchers and practitioners within relevant Earth Science disciplines as well as Petroleum, Chemical, Mechanical and Geological Engineering. Clearly structured throughout, this book will be an invaluable reference  on the current state of all popular multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Methods (LBMs). The advantages and disadvantages of each model are presented in an accessible manner to enable the reader to choose the

  12. Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Etele; Niemi, Harri; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2016-06-01

    Fluid-dynamical equations of motion can be derived from the Boltzmann equation in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which is in local thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., isotropic in momentum space in the rest frame of a fluid element. However, in situations where the single-particle distribution function is highly anisotropic in momentum space, such as the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies, such an expansion is bound to break down. Nevertheless, one can still derive a fluid-dynamical theory, called anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics, in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function, f^0 k, which incorporates (at least parts of) the momentum anisotropy via a suitable parametrization. We construct such an expansion in terms of polynomials in energy and momentum in the direction of the anisotropy and of irreducible tensors in the two-dimensional momentum subspace orthogonal to both the fluid velocity and the direction of the anisotropy. From the Boltzmann equation we then derive the set of equations of motion for the irreducible moments of the deviation of the single-particle distribution function from f^0 k. Truncating this set via the 14-moment approximation, we obtain the equations of motion of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics.

  13. Application of Littlewood-Paley decomposition to the regularity of Boltzmann type kinetic equations; Application de la decomposition de Littlewood-Paley a la regularite pour des equations cinetiques de type Boltzmann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL Safadi, M

    2007-03-15

    We study the regularity of kinetic equations of Boltzmann type.We use essentially Littlewood-Paley method from harmonic analysis, consisting mainly in working with dyadics annulus. We shall mainly concern with the homogeneous case, where the solution f(t,x,v) depends only on the time t and on the velocities v, while working with realistic and singular cross-sections (non cutoff). In the first part, we study the particular case of Maxwellian molecules. Under this hypothesis, the structure of the Boltzmann operator and his Fourier transform write in a simple form. We show a global C{sup {infinity}} regularity. Then, we deal with the case of general cross-sections with 'hard potential'. We are interested in the Landau equation which is limit equation to the Boltzmann equation, taking in account grazing collisions. We prove that any weak solution belongs to Schwartz space S. We demonstrate also a similar regularity for the case of Boltzmann equation. Let us note that our method applies directly for all dimensions, and proofs are often simpler compared to other previous ones. Finally, we finish with Boltzmann-Dirac equation. In particular, we adapt the result of regularity obtained in Alexandre, Desvillettes, Wennberg and Villani work, using the dissipation rate connected with Boltzmann-Dirac equation. (author)

  14. Atomic collisions, inelastic indeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercegol, Herve; Ferrando, Gwenael; Lehoucq, Roland

    At the turn of the twentieth century, a hot controversy raged about the ability of Boltzmann's framework to take care of irreversibility. The so-called Loschmidt's paradox progressively faded with time during the last hundred years, due to the predictive efficiency of statistical mechanics. However, one detail at the origin of the controversy - the elasticity of atomic collisions - was not completely challenged. A semi-classical treatment of two atoms interacting with the vacuum zero-point field permits to predict a friction force acting against the rotation of the pair of atoms. By its form and its level, the calculated torque is a candidate as a physical cause for diffusion of energy and angular momentum, and consequently for entropy growth. It opens the way to a revision of the standard vision of irreversibility. This presentation will focus on two points. First we will discuss the recent result in a broader context of electromagnetic interactions during microscopic collisions. The predicted friction phenomenon can be compared to and distinguished from Collision-Induced Emission and other types of inelastic collisions. Second we will investigate the consequences of the friction torque on calculated trajectories of colliding atoms, quantifying the generation of dimers linked by dispersion forces.

  15. Exact results for the Boltzmann equation and Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost no analytical solutions have been found for realistic intermolecular forces, largely due to the complicated structure of the collision term which calls for the construction of simplified models, in which as many physical properties are maintained as possible. In the first three chapters of this thesis such model Boltzmann equations are studied. Only spatially homogeneous gases with isotropic distribution functions are considered. Chapter I considers transition kernels, chapter II persistent scattering models and chapter III very hard particles. The second part of this dissertation deals with Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for the size distribution function in a coagulating system, with chapters devoted to the following topics: kinetics of gelation and universality, coagulation equations with gelation and exactly soluble models of nucleation. (Auth./C.F.)

  16. On the Three-dimensional Central Moment Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Premnath, Kannan N; 10.1007/s10955-011-0208-9

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann method based on central moments is derived. Two main elements are the local attractors in the collision term and the source terms representing the effect of external and/or self-consistent internal forces. For suitable choices of the orthogonal moment basis for the three-dimensional, twenty seven velocity (D3Q27), and, its subset, fifteen velocity (D3Q15) lattice models, attractors are expressed in terms of factorization of lower order moments as suggested in an earlier work; the corresponding source terms are specified to correctly influence lower order hydrodynamic fields, while avoiding aliasing effects for higher order moments. These are achieved by successively matching the corresponding continuous and discrete central moments at various orders, with the final expressions written in terms of raw moments via a transformation based on the binomial theorem. Furthermore, to alleviate the discrete effects with the source terms, they are treated to be temporally semi-...

  17. Relativistic collision rate calculations for electron-air interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent data available on differential cross sections for electron-air interactions are used to calculate the avalanche, momentum transfer, and energy loss rates that enter into the fluid equations. Data for the important elastic, inelastic, and ionizing processes are generally available out to electron energies of 1--10 kev. Prescriptions for extending these cross sections to the relativistic regime are presented. The angular dependence of the cross sections is included where data is available as is the doubly differential cross section for ionizing collisions. The collision rates are computed by taking moments of the Boltzmann collision integrals with the assumption that the electron momentum distribution function is given by the Juettner distribution function which satisfies the relativistic H- theorem and which reduces to the familiar Maxwellian velocity distribution in the nonrelativistic regime. The distribution function is parameterized in terms of the electron density, mean momentum, and thermal energy and the rates are therefore computed on a two-dimensional grid as a function of mean kinetic energy and thermal energy

  18. An introduction to the theory of the Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Boltzmann's equation (or Boltzmann-like equations) appears extensively in such disparate fields as laser scattering, solid-state physics, nuclear transport, and beyond the conventional boundaries of physics and engineering, in the fields of cellular proliferation and automobile traffic flow. This introductory graduate-level course for students of physics and engineering offers detailed presentations of the basic modern theory of Boltzmann's equation, including representative applications using both Boltzmann's equation and the model Boltzmann equations developed within the text. It emphasizes

  19. Student understanding of the Boltzmann factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us to develop a guided-inquiry tutorial activity, centered around the derivation of the Boltzmann factor, for use in undergraduate statistical mechanics courses. We report on the development process of our tutorial, including data from teaching interviews and classroom observations of student discussions about the Boltzmann factor and its derivation during the tutorial development process. This additional information informed modifications that improved students' abilities to complete the tutorial during the allowed class time without sacrificing the effectiveness as we have measured it. These data also show an increase in students' appreciation of the origin and significance of the Boltzmann factor during the student discussions. Our findings provide evidence that working in groups to better understand the physical origins of the canonical probability distribution helps students gain a better understanding of when the Boltzmann factor is applicable and how to use it appropriately in answering relevant questions.

  20. Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Hai

    2000-01-01

    We formulate a new thermal lattice Boltzmann model to simulate compressible flows with a high Mach number.The main difference from the standard lattice Boltzmann models is that the particle velocities are no longer a constant, varying with the mean velocity and internal energy. The proper heat conduction term in the energy equation is recovered by modification of the fluctuating kinetic energy transported by particles. The simulation of Couette flow is in good agreement with the analytical solutions.

  1. A Viscosity Adaptive Lattice Boltzmann Method

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis describes the development and validation of a viscosity adaption method for the numerical simulation of non-Newtonian fluids on the basis of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), as well as the development and verification of the related software bundle SAM-Lattice. By now, Lattice Boltzmann Methods are established as an alternative approach to classical computational fluid dynamics methods. The LBM has been shown to be an accurate and efficient tool for the numerical...

  2. Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S

    2015-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion. PMID:26565365

  3. Boltzmann map for quantum oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors define a map tau on the space of quasifree states of the CCR or CAR of more than one harmonic oscillator which increases entropy except at fixed points of tau. The map tau is the composition of a double stochastic map T*, and the quasifree reduction Q. Under mixing conditions on T, iterates of tau take any initial state to the Gibbs states, provided that the oscillator frequencies are mutually rational. They give an example of a system with three degrees of freedom with energies omega1, omega2, and omega3 mutually irrational, but obeying a relation n1omega1 + n2omega2 = n3omega3, n/sub i/epsilon Z. The iterated Boltzmann map converges from an initial state rho to independent Gibbs states of the three oscillators at betas (inverse temperatures) β1, β2, β3 obeying the equation n1omega1β1 + n2omega3β1number. The equilibrium state can be rewritten as a grand canonical state. They show that for two, three, or four fermions we can get the usual rate equations as a special case

  4. A Revisiting of the -Stability Theory of the Boltzmann Equation Near Global Maxwellians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua

    2015-07-01

    We study the -stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian. When an initial datum is a perturbation of a global Maxwellian, we show that the -distance between two classical solutions can be controlled by the initial data in a Lipschitz manner, which illustrates the Lipschitz continuity of the solution operator for the Boltzmann equation in -topology. Our local-in-time -stability results cover cutoff very soft potentials as well as non-cutoff hard and soft potentials. These cases were not treated in the previous work (Ha et al. in Arch Ration Mech Anal 197:657-688, 2010). Thus, our results together with the results in Ha et al. (2010) complete the -stability theory for the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian. For this -stability estimate, we use the coercivity estimate of the linearized collision operator, the smallness of perturbation in a mixed Lebesgue norm, and Strichartz-type estimates of perturbation. We also show that for all classical solutions available in the literature, the Lipschitz constant can be chosen as independent of time to obtain the uniform -stability of the Boltzmann equation.

  5. How particles emerge from decaying classical fields in heavy ion collisions: towards a kinetic description of the Glasma

    OpenAIRE

    Gelis, F.; Jeon, S.; Venugopalan, R.

    2007-01-01

    We develop the formalism discussed previously in hep-ph/0601209 and hep-ph/0605246 to construct a kinetic theory that provides insight into the earliest ``Glasma'' stage of a high energy heavy ion collision. Particles produced from the decay of classical fields in the Glasma obey a Boltzmann equation whose novel features include an inhomogeneous source term and new contributions to the collision term. We discuss the power counting associated with the different terms in the Boltzmann equation ...

  6. Diffusive Boltzmann equation, its fluid dynamics, Couette flow and Knudsen layers

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, Rafail V

    2016-01-01

    In the current work we propose a diffusive modification of the Boltzmann equation. This naturally leads to the corresponding diffusive fluid dynamics equations, which we numerically investigate in a simple Couette flow setting. This diffusive modification is based on the assumption of the "imperfect" model collision term, which is unable to track all collisions in the corresponding real gas particle system. The effect of missed collisions is then modeled by an appropriately scaled long-term homogenization process of the particle dynamics. The corresponding diffusive fluid dynamics equations are produced in a standard way by closing the hierarchy of the moment equations using either the Euler or the Grad closure. In the numerical experiments with the Couette flow, we discover that the diffusive Euler equations behave similarly to the conventional Navier-Stokes equations, while the diffusive Grad equations additionally exhibit Knudsen-like velocity boundary layers. We compare the simulations with the correspond...

  7. Drag correlation for dilute and moderately dense fluid-particle systems using the lattice Boltzmann method

    CERN Document Server

    Bogner, Simon; Rüde, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of flow through static random assemblies of monodisperse, spherical particles. A lattice Boltzmann approach based on a two relaxation time collision operator is used to obtain reliable predictions of the particle drag by direct numerical simulation. From these predictions a closure law $F(Re, {\\phi})$ of the drag force relationship to the bed density ${\\phi}$ and the particle Reynolds number $Re$ is derived. The present study includes densities ${\\phi}$ ranging from $0.01$ to $0.35$ with Re ranging up to $300$, that is compiled into a single drag correlation valid for the whole range. The corelation has a more compact expression compared to others previously reported in literature. At low particle densities, the new correlation is close to the widely used Wen & Yu - correlation. Recently, there has been reported a discrepancy between results obtained using different numerical methods, namely the comprehensive lattice Boltzmann study of Beetstra et al. (2007) and the p...

  8. Stability of Global Solution to Boltzmann-Enskog Equation with External Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG ZHENG-LU; MA LI-JUN; YAO ZHENG-AN

    2012-01-01

    In the presence of external forces depending only on the time and space variables,the Boltzmann-Enskog equation formally conserves only the mass of the system,and its entropy functional is also nonincreasing.Corresponding to this type of equation,we first give some hypotheses of its bicharacteristic equations and then get some results about the stablity of its global solution with the help of two new Lyapunov functionals:one is to describe interactions between particles with different velocities and the other is to measure the L1 distance between two mild solutions.The former Lyapunov functional yields the time-asymptotic convergence of global classical solutions to the collision free motion while the latter is applied into the verification of the L1 stability of global mild solutions to the Boltzmann-Enskog equation for a moderately or highly dense gas in the influence of external forces.

  9. On the Stability of the Finite Difference based Lattice Boltzmann Method

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, M.F.

    2013-06-01

    This paper is devoted to determining the stability conditions for the finite difference based lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In the current scheme, the 9-bit two-dimensional (D2Q9) model is used and the collision term of the Bhatnagar- Gross-Krook (BGK) is treated implicitly. The implicitness of the numerical scheme is removed by introducing a new distribution function different from that being used. Therefore, a new explicit finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method is obtained. Stability analysis of the resulted explicit scheme is done using Fourier expansion. Then, stability conditions in terms of time and spatial steps, relaxation time and explicitly-implicitly parameter are determined by calculating the eigenvalues of the given difference system. The determined conditions give the ranges of the parameters that have stable solutions.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann Simulations in the Slip and Transition Flow Regime with the Peano Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    We present simulation results of flows in the finite Knudsen range, which is in the slip and transition flow regime. Our implementations are based on the Lattice Boltzmann method and are accomplished within the Peano framework. We validate our code by solving two- and three-dimensional channel flow problems and compare our results with respective experiments from other research groups. We further apply our Lattice Boltzmann solver to the geometrical setup of a microreactor consisting of differently sized channels and a reactor chamber. Here, we apply static adaptive grids to fur-ther reduce computational costs. We further investigate the influence of using a simple BGK collision kernel in coarse grid regions which are further away from the slip boundaries. Our results are in good agreement with theory and non-adaptive simulations, demonstrating the validity and the capabilities of our adaptive simulation software for flow problems at finite Knudsen numbers.

  11. Numerical modeling of microchannel gas flows in the transition flow regime via cascaded lattice Boltzmann method

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    As a numerically accurate and computationally efficient mesoscopic numerical method, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has achieved great success in simulating microscale rarefied gas flows. In this paper, an LB method based on the cascaded collision operator is presented to simulate microchannel gas flows in the transition flow regime. The Bosanquet-type effective viscosity is incorporated into the cascaded lattice Boltzmann (CLB) method to account for the rarefaction effects. In order to gain accurate simulations and match the Bosanquet-type effective viscosity, the combined bounce-back/specular-reflection scheme with a modified second-order slip boundary condition is employed in the CLB method. The present method is applied to study gas flow in a microchannel with periodic boundary condition and gas flow in a long microchannel with pressure boundary condition over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. The predicted results, including the velocity profile, the mass flow rate, and the non-linear pressure deviatio...

  12. Phantom cosmology and Boltzmann brains problem

    CERN Document Server

    Astashenok, Artyom V; Yurov, Valerian V

    2013-01-01

    We consider the well-known Boltzmann brains problem in frames of simple phantom energy models with little rip, big rip and big freeze singularity. It is showed that these models (i) satisfy to observational data and (ii) may be free from Boltzmann brains problem. The human observers in phantom models can exist only in during for a certain period $tBoltzmann brains problem doesn't appear. The bounds on model parameters derived from such requirement don't contradict to allowable range from observational data.

  13. Boltzmann-Electron Model in Aleph.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Thomas Patrick; Hooper, Russell

    2014-11-01

    We apply the Boltzmann-electron model in the electrostatic, particle-in-cell, finite- element code Aleph to a plasma sheath. By assuming a Boltzmann energy distribution for the electrons, the model eliminates the need to resolve the electron plasma fre- quency, and avoids the numerical %22grid instability%22 that can cause unphysical heating of electrons. This allows much larger timesteps to be used than with kinetic electrons. Ions are treated with the standard PIC algorithm. The Boltzmann-electron model re- quires solution of a nonlinear Poisson equation, for which we use an iterative Newton solver (NOX) from the Trilinos Project. Results for the spatial variation of density and voltage in the plasma sheath agree well with an analytic model

  14. Boltzmann statistical consideration on the excitation mechanism of iron atomic lines emitted from glow discharge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2011-11-15

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3-6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3-4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.

  15. Boltzmann statistical consideration on the excitation mechanism of iron atomic lines emitted from glow discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3–6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3–4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: ► This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. ► A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. ► We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. ► It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.

  16. Kinetic Boltzmann, Vlasov and Related Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sinitsyn, Alexander; Vedenyapin, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Boltzmann and Vlasov equations played a great role in the past and still play an important role in modern natural sciences, technique and even philosophy of science. Classical Boltzmann equation derived in 1872 became a cornerstone for the molecular-kinetic theory, the second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) and derivation of the basic hydrodynamic equations. After modifications, the fields and numbers of its applications have increased to include diluted gas, radiation, neutral particles transportation, atmosphere optics and nuclear reactor modelling. Vlasov equation was obtained in

  17. Grid refinement for entropic lattice Boltzmann models

    CERN Document Server

    Dorschner, B; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel multi-domain grid refinement technique with extensions to entropic incompressible, thermal and compressible lattice Boltzmann models. Its validity and accuracy are accessed by comparison to available direct numerical simulation and experiment for the simulation of isothermal, thermal and viscous supersonic flow. In particular, we investigate the advantages of grid refinement for the set-ups of turbulent channel flow, flow past a sphere, Rayleigh-Benard convection as well as the supersonic flow around an airfoil. Special attention is payed to analyzing the adaptive features of entropic lattice Boltzmann models for multi-grid simulations.

  18. Rigorous Navier-Stokes Limit of the Lattice Boltzmann Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Junk, Michael; Yong, Wen-An

    2001-01-01

    Here we riqorously investigate the diffusive limit of a velocity-discrete Boltzmann equation which is used in the lattice Boltzmann method to construct approximate solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation.

  19. 46 CFR 179.310 - Collision bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkheads. 179.310 Section 179.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Watertight Integrity Requirements § 179.310 Collision bulkheads. (a) Each collision...

  20. A Fluctuating Lattice Boltzmann Method for the Diffusion Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    We derive a fluctuating lattice Boltzmann method for the diffusion equation. The derivation removes several shortcomings of previous derivations for fluctuating lattice Boltzmann methods for hydrodynamic systems. The comparative simplicity of this diffusive system highlights the basic features of this first exact derivation of a fluctuating lattice Boltzmann method.

  1. Test of Information Theory on the Boltzmann Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2002-01-01

    We examine information theory using the steady-state Boltzmann equation. In a nonequilibrium steady-state system under steady heat conduction, the thermodynamic quantities from information theory are calculated and compared with those from the steady-state Boltzmann equation. We have found that information theory is inconsistent with the steady-state Boltzmann equation.

  2. Test of Information Theory on the Boltzmann Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeon-Deuk; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2003-01-01

    We examine information theory using the steady-state Boltzmann equation. In a nonequilibrium steady-state system under steady heat conduction, the thermodynamic quantities from information theory are calculated and compared with those from the steady-state Boltzmann equation. We have found that information theory is inconsistent with the steady-state Boltzmann equation.

  3. Boundary layers and incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier limit of the Boltzmann Equation in Bounded Domain (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ning; Masmoudi, Nader

    2015-01-01

    We establish the incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier limit for solutions to the Boltzmann equation with a general cut-off collision kernel in a bounded domain. Appropriately scaled families of DiPerna-Lions-(Mischler) renormalized solutions with Maxwell reflection boundary conditions are shown to have fluctuations that converge as the Knudsen number goes to zero. Every limit point is a weak solution to the Navier-Stokes-Fourier system with different types of boundary conditions depending on ...

  4. Wind-Driven, Double-Gyre, Ocean Circulation in a Reduced-Gravity, 2.5-Layer, Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A coupled lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with second-order accuracy is applied to the reduced-gravity,shallow water, 2.5-layer model for wind-driven double-gyre ocean circulation. By introducing the secondorder integral approximation for the collision operator, the model becomes fully explicit. The Coriolis force and other external forces are included in the model with second-order accuracy, which is consistent with the discretization accuracy of the LB equation. The feature of the multiple equilibria solutions is found in the numerical experiments under different Reynolds numbers based on this LB scheme. With the Reynolds number increasing from 3000 to 4000, the solution of this model is destabilized from the anti-symmetric double-gyre solution to the subtropic gyre solution and then to the subpolar gyre solution. The transitions between these equilibria states are also found in some parameter ranges. The time-dependent variability of the circulation based on this LB simulation is also discussed for varying viscosity regimes. The flow of this model exhibits oscillations with different timescales varying from subannual to interannual. The corresponding statistical oscillation modes are obtained by spectral analysis. By analyzing the spatiotemporal structures of these modes, it is found that the subannual oscillation with a 9-month period originates from the barotropic Rossby basin mode, and the interannual oscillations with periods ranging from 1.5 years to 4.6 years originate from the recirculation gyre modes, which include the barotropic and the baroclinic recirculation gyre modes.

  5. High-accuracy calculations of sixteen collision integrals for Lennard-Jones (12–6) gases and their interpolation to parameterize neon, argon, and krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inverse problem of parameterizing intermolecular potentials given macroscopic transport and thermodynamic data is addressed. Procedures are developed to create arbitrary-precision algorithms for transport collision integrals, using the Lennard-Jones (12–6) potential as an example. Interpolation formulas are produced that compute these collision integrals to four-digit accuracy over the reduced-temperature range 0.3≤T⁎≤400, allowing very fast computation. Lennard-Jones parameters for neon, argon, and krypton are determined by simultaneously fitting the observed temperature dependences of their viscosities and second virial coefficients—one of the first times that a thermodynamic and a dynamic property have been used simultaneously for Lennard-Jones parameterization. In addition to matching viscosities and second virial coefficients within the bounds of experimental error, the determined Lennard-Jones parameters are also found to predict the thermal conductivity and self-diffusion coefficient accurately, supporting the value of the Lennard-Jones (12–6) potential for noble-gas transport-property correlation

  6. Pair Production in the Quantum Boltzmann Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Jochen

    1994-01-01

    A source term in the quantum Boltzmann equation, which accounts for the spontaneous creation of $e^+e^-$-pairs in external electric fields, is derived from first principles and evaluated numerically. Careful analysis of time scales reveals that this source term is generally non-Markovian. This implies in particular that there may be temporary violations of the $H$-theorem.

  7. The Quantum Boltzmann Equation in Semiconductor Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Snoke, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum Boltzmann equation, or Fokker-Planck equation, has been used to successfully explain a number of experiments in semiconductor optics in the past two decades. This paper reviews some of the developments of this work, including models of excitons in bulk materials, electron-hole plasmas, and polariton gases.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann Models for Complex Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Flekkoy, E. G.; Herrmann, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    We present various Lattice Boltzmann Models which reproduce the effects of rough walls, shear thinning and granular flow. We examine the boundary layers generated by the roughness of the walls. Shear thinning produces plug flow with a sharp density contrast at the boundaries. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.

  9. Boltzmann und das Ende des mechanistischen Weltbildes

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Der Wissenschaftshistoriker und Physiker Jürgen Renn untersucht die Rolle des österreichischen Physikers und Philosophen Ludwig Boltzmann (18441906) bei der Entwicklung der modernen Physik. Boltzmann war einer der letzen Vertreter des mechanistischen Weltbildes und stand somit am Ende eines Zeitalters. Renn porträtiert den Wissenschaftler aber als einen Pionier der modernen Physik, dessen Beschäftigung mit den inneren Spannungen der klassischen Physik ihn visionär zukünftige Fragestellungen aufgreifen ließ. So befasste sich Boltzmann etwa mit den Grenzproblemen zwischen Mechanik und Thermodynamik, die ihn zur Entwicklung immer raffinierterer Instrumente der statistischen Physik antrieb, die schließlich zu Schlüsselinstrumenten der modernen Physik wurden. Boltzmanns Werk steht somit am Übergang vom mechanistischen Weltbild zur Relativitäts- und Quantentheorie. Der Aussage des viel bekannteren Physikers Albert Einstein, dass Fantasie wichtiger sei als Wissen, hält Jürgen Renn im Hinblick auf Leben ...

  10. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a viscoelastic shear-thinning fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenkort, S; Voigtmann, Th

    2015-07-28

    We present a hybrid lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of flow glass-forming fluids, characterized by slow structural relaxation, at the level of the Navier-Stokes equation. The fluid is described in terms of a nonlinear integral constitutive equation, relating the stress tensor locally to the history of flow. As an application, we present results for an integral nonlinear Maxwell model that combines the effects of (linear) viscoelasticity and (nonlinear) shear thinning. We discuss the transient dynamics of velocities, shear stresses, and normal stress differences in planar pressure-driven channel flow, after switching on (startup) and off (cessation) of the driving pressure. This transient dynamics depends nontrivially on the channel width due to an interplay between hydrodynamic momentum diffusion and slow structural relaxation. PMID:26233150

  11. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a viscoelastic shear-thinning fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenkort, S.; Voigtmann, Th.

    2015-07-01

    We present a hybrid lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of flow glass-forming fluids, characterized by slow structural relaxation, at the level of the Navier-Stokes equation. The fluid is described in terms of a nonlinear integral constitutive equation, relating the stress tensor locally to the history of flow. As an application, we present results for an integral nonlinear Maxwell model that combines the effects of (linear) viscoelasticity and (nonlinear) shear thinning. We discuss the transient dynamics of velocities, shear stresses, and normal stress differences in planar pressure-driven channel flow, after switching on (startup) and off (cessation) of the driving pressure. This transient dynamics depends nontrivially on the channel width due to an interplay between hydrodynamic momentum diffusion and slow structural relaxation.

  12. The Non-Classical Boltzmann Equation, and Diffusion-Based Approximations to the Boltzmann Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Martin; Larsen, Edward W; Vasques, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We show that several diffusion-based approximations (classical diffusion or SP1, SP2, SP3) to the linear Boltzmann equation can (for an infinite, homogeneous medium) be represented exactly by a non-classical transport equation. As a consequence, we indicate a method to solve diffusion-based approximations to the Boltzmann equation via Monte Carlo, with only statistical errors - no truncation errors.

  13. Lattice-Boltzmann method for the simulation of multiphase mass transfer and reaction of dilute species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaud, Antoine; Zhao, Shufang; Wang, Kai; Cheng, Yi; Luo, Guangsheng

    2014-05-01

    Despite the popularity of the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) in simulating multiphase flows, a general approach for modeling dilute species in multiphase systems is still missing. In this report we propose to modify the collision operator of the solute by introducing a modified redistribution scheme. This operator is based on local fluid variables and keeps the parallelism inherent to LBM. After deriving macroscopic transport equations, an analytical equation of state of the solute is exhibited and the method is proven constituting a unified framework to simulate arbitrary solute distribution between phases, including single-phase soluble compounds, amphiphilic species with a partition coefficient, and surface-adsorbed compounds. PMID:25353915

  14. A Study of Parton Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC using Transport Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, Y.; Vance, S. E.; Csizmadia, P.

    2001-01-01

    Parton energy loss in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies is studied by numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation for the partons including $2 \\leftrightarrow 2$ and $2 \\to 2 + final state radiation$ collision processes. Final particle spectra are obtained using two hadronization models; the Lund string fragmentation and independent fragmentation models. Recent, preliminary $\\pi^0$ transverse momentum distributions from central Au+Au collisions at RHIC are reproduced using gluon-g...

  15. A unified gas-kinetic scheme for continuum and rarefied flows IV: Full Boltzmann and model equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Kun; Sun, Quanhua; Cai, Qingdong

    2016-06-01

    Fluid dynamic equations are valid in their respective modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. With a variation of the modeling scales, theoretically there should have a continuous spectrum of fluid dynamic equations. Even though the Boltzmann equation is claimed to be valid in all scales, many Boltzmann solvers, including direct simulation Monte Carlo method, require the cell resolution to the order of particle mean free path scale. Therefore, they are still single scale methods. In order to study multiscale flow evolution efficiently, the dynamics in the computational fluid has to be changed with the scales. A direct modeling of flow physics with a changeable scale may become an appropriate approach. The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is a direct modeling method in the mesh size scale, and its underlying flow physics depends on the resolution of the cell size relative to the particle mean free path. The cell size of UGKS is not limited by the particle mean free path. With the variation of the ratio between the numerical cell size and local particle mean free path, the UGKS recovers the flow dynamics from the particle transport and collision in the kinetic scale to the wave propagation in the hydrodynamic scale. The previous UGKS is mostly constructed from the evolution solution of kinetic model equations. Even though the UGKS is very accurate and effective in the low transition and continuum flow regimes with the time step being much larger than the particle mean free time, it still has space to develop more accurate flow solver in the region, where the time step is comparable with the local particle mean free time. In such a scale, there is dynamic difference from the full Boltzmann collision term and the model equations. This work is about the further development of the UGKS with the implementation of the full Boltzmann collision term in the region

  16. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  17. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetrius, Lloyd A., E-mail: ldemetr@oeb.harvard.edu

    2013-09-01

    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  18. A spectral-Lagrangian Boltzmann solver for a multi-energy level gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a spectral-Lagrangian method is proposed for the full, non-linear Boltzmann equation for a multi-energy level gas typical of a hypersonic re-entry flow. Internal energy levels are treated as separate species and inelastic collisions (leading to internal energy excitation and relaxation) are accounted for. The formulation developed can also be used for the case of a gas mixture made of monatomic gases without internal energy (where only elastic collisions occur). The advantage of the spectral-Lagrangian method lies in the generality of the algorithm in use for the evaluation of the elastic and inelastic collision operators, as well as the conservation of mass, momentum and energy during collisions. The latter is realized through the solution of constrained optimization problems. The computational procedure is based on the Fourier transform of the partial elastic and inelastic collision operators and exploits the fact that these can be written as weighted convolutions in Fourier space with no restriction on the cross-section model. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical examples for both space homogeneous and in-homogeneous problems. Computational results are compared with those obtained by means of the DSMC method in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed spectral-Lagrangian method

  19. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.

    2013-09-01

    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  20. Multiblock approach for the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying

    2014-04-01

    A multiblock approach for the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method (TLBM) with multiple-relaxation-time collision scheme is proposed based on the Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interaction between blocks is executed in the moment space directly and an external force term is considered. Theoretical analysis shows that all the nonequilibrium parts of the nonconserved moments should be rescaled, while the nonequilibrium parts of the conserved moments can be calculated directly. Moreover, a local scheme based on the pseudoparticles for computing heat flux is proposed with no need to calculate temperature gradient based on the finite-difference scheme. In order to validate the multiblock approach and local scheme for computing heat flux, thermal Couette flow with wall injection is simulated and good results are obtained, which show that the adoption of the multiblock approach does not deteriorate the convergence rate of TLBM and the local scheme for computing heat flux has second-order convergence rate. Further application of the present approach is the simulation of natural convection in a square cavity with the Rayleigh number up to 109.

  1. Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified.

  2. Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, E; Rischke, D H

    2016-01-01

    Fluid-dynamical equations of motion can be derived from the Boltzmann equation in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which is in local thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., isotropic in momentum space in the rest frame of a fluid element. To zeroth order this expansion yields ideal fluid dynamics, to first order Navier-Stokes theory, and to second order transient theories of dissipative fluid dynamics. However, in situations where the single-particle distribution function is highly anisotropic in momentum space, such as the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies, such an expansion is bound to break down. Nevertheless, one can still derive a fluid-dynamical theory, so-called anisotropic fluid dynamics, in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which incorporates (at least parts of) the momentum anisotropy via a suitable parametrization. In this paper we derive, up to terms of second order in this expansion, the equations of mo...

  3. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of droplet evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2014-09-04

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We study the utility and validity of lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations to explore droplet evaporation driven by a concentration gradient. Using a binary-fluid lattice-Boltzmann algorithm based on Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, we study the evaporation of planar films and 3D sessile droplets from smooth solid surfaces. Our results show that LB simulations accurately reproduce the classical regime of quasi-static dynamics. Beyond this limit, we show that the algorithm can be used to explore regimes where the evaporative and diffusive timescales are not widely separated, and to include the effect of boundaries of prescribed driving concentration. We illustrate the method by considering the evaporation of a droplet from a solid surface that is chemically patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. This journal is

  4. Lattice Boltzmann model for wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Yan, Guangwu; Shi, Xiubo

    2009-08-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional wave equation is proposed by using the higher-order moment method. The higher-order moment method is based on the solution of a series of partial differential equations obtained by using multiscale technique and Chapman-Enskog expansion. In order to obtain the lattice Boltzmann model for the wave equation with higher-order accuracy of truncation errors, we removed the second-order dissipation term and the third-order dispersion term by employing the moments up to fourth order. The reversibility in time appears owing to the absence of the second-order dissipation term and the third-order dispersion term. As numerical examples, some classical examples, such as interference, diffraction, and wave passing through a convex lens, are simulated. The numerical results show that this model can be used to simulate wave propagation. PMID:19792280

  5. Variance-reduced particle simulation of the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Gregg A; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G

    2009-05-01

    We present an efficient variance-reduced particle simulation technique for solving the linearized Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation used for phonon, electron, and radiative transport, as well as for kinetic gas flows. The variance reduction is achieved by simulating only the deviation from equilibrium. We show that in the limit of small deviation from equilibrium of interest here, the proposed formulation achieves low relative statistical uncertainty that is also independent of the magnitude of the deviation from equilibrium, in stark contrast to standard particle simulation methods. Our results demonstrate that a space-dependent equilibrium distribution improves the variance reduction achieved, especially in the collision-dominated regime where local equilibrium conditions prevail. We also show that by exploiting the physics of relaxation to equilibrium inherent in the relaxation-time approximation, a very simple collision algorithm with a clear physical interpretation can be formulated. PMID:19518597

  6. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Li; Yuan Zhang; Yue Ji

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provi...

  7. Lattice Boltzmann Model and Geophysical Hydrodynamic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯士德; 杨京龙; 郜宪林; 季仲贞

    2002-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann equation model in a rotating system is developed by introducing the Coriolis force effect.The geophysical hydrodynamic equation can be derived from this model. Numerical computations are performed to simulate the cylindrical annulus experiment and Benard convection. The numerical results have shown the flow behaviour of large-scale geostrophic current and Benard convection cells, which verifies the applicability of this model to both theory and experiment.

  8. Geometry of the restricted Boltzmann machine

    OpenAIRE

    Cueto, Maria Angelica; Morton, Jason; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The restricted Boltzmann machine is a graphical model for binary random variables. Based on a complete bipartite graph separating hidden and observed variables, it is the binary analog to the factor analysis model. We study this graphical model from the perspectives of algebraic statistics and tropical geometry, starting with the observation that its Zariski closure is a Hadamard power of the first secant variety of the Segre variety of projective lines. We derive a dimension formula for the ...

  9. Improved learning algorithms for restricted Boltzmann machines

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun

    2011-01-01

    A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is often used as a building block for constructing deep neural networks and deep generative models which have gained popularity recently as one way to learn complex and large probabilistic models. In these deep models, it is generally known that the layer-wise pretraining of RBMs facilitates finding a more accurate model for the data. It is, hence, important to have an efficient learning method for RBM. The conventional learning is mostly performed us...

  10. Beyond Poisson-Boltzmann: Numerical Sampling of Charge Density Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Frédéric; Delarue, Marc; Orland, Henri

    2016-07-01

    We present a method aimed at sampling charge density fluctuations in Coulomb systems. The derivation follows from a functional integral representation of the partition function in terms of charge density fluctuations. Starting from the mean-field solution given by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, an original approach is proposed to numerically sample fluctuations around it, through the propagation of a Langevin-like stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE). The diffusion tensor of the SPDE can be chosen so as to avoid the numerical complexity linked to long-range Coulomb interactions, effectively rendering the theory completely local. A finite-volume implementation of the SPDE is described, and the approach is illustrated with preliminary results on the study of a system made of two like-charge ions immersed in a bath of counterions. PMID:27075231

  11. Interatomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance of the study and understanding of atomic collision processes to nuclear power developments and the impact of the particular contributions made by members of the Theoretical Physics Division, Harwell to this work are considered. These contributions fall into two main parts; up to 1970 when interest concentrated on the lighter collision systems involving protons, α-particles and the helium and hydrogen atoms at collision energies in the range 1 keV - 1 MeV, and after 1970 when interest broadened to include the collisions of heavy atoms, such as the O+-Ne collision system which was used as a prototype for the development of scaling laws for inner-shell excitation in any heavy-ion collision. Particular aspects of the work discussed include the Born expansion and beyond, close-coupling expansions, and continuum x-ray emission. (UK)

  12. Pseudospectral Methods of Solution of the Linear and Linearized Boltzmann Equations; Transport and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2011-05-01

    The study of the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation has a very long history arising from the classic work by Chapman and Cowling. For small departures from a Maxwellian, the nonlinear Boltzmann equation can be linearized and the transport coefficients calculated with the Chapman-Enskog approach. This procedure leads to a set of linear integral equations which are generally solved with the expansion of the departure from Maxwellian in Sonine polynomials. The method has been used successfully for many decades to compare experimental transport data in atomic gases with theory generally carried out for realistic atom-atom differential cross sections. There are alternate pseudospectral methods which involve the discretization of the distribution function on a discrete grid. This paper considers a pseudospectral method of solution of the linearized hard sphere Boltzmann equation for the viscosity in a simple gas. The relaxation of a small departure from a Maxwellian is also considered for the linear test particle problem with unit mass ratio which is compared with the relaxation for the linearized one component Boltzmann equation.

  13. Simulation of three-component fluid flows using the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Tang, G. H.; Wang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we extend the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver, which was proposed in [1] for simulating incompressible flows of binary fluids based on two-component Cahn-Hilliard model, to three-component fluid flows. In the present method, the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver is applied to solve for the flow field and the three-component Cahn-Hilliard model is used to predict the evolution of the interfaces. The proposed method is first validated through the classical problem of simulation of partial spreading of a liquid lens between the other two components. Numerical results of interface shapes and contact angles agree well with theoretical solutions. After that, to further demonstrate the capability of the present method, several numerical examples of three-component fluid flows are presented, including a bubble rising across a fluid-fluid interface, single droplet falling through a fluid-fluid interface, the collision-coalescence of two droplets, and the non-contact collision of two droplets. It is shown that the present method can successfully handle complex interactions among three components.

  14. A new scheme for solving inhomogeneous Boltzmann equation for electrons in weakly ionised gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of weakly ionized gases, the numerical treatment of non-hydrodynamic regime involving spatial variation of distribution function due to boundaries (walls, electrodes, electron source, etc hor-ellipsis) by using direct Boltzmann equation always constitute a challenge if the main collisional processes occurring in non thermal plasmas are to be considered (elastic, inelastic and super-elastic collisions, Penning ionisation, Coulomb interactions, etc hor-ellipsis). In the non-thermal discharge modelling, the inhomogeneous electron Boltzmann equation is needed in order to be coupled for example to a fluid model to take into account the electron non-hydrodynamic effects. This is for example the case of filamentary discharge, in which the space charge electric field due to streamer propagation has a very sharp spatial profile thus leading to important space non-hydrodynamic effects. It is also the case of the cathodic zone of glow discharge where electric field has a rapid spatial decrease until the negative glow. In the present work, a new numerical scheme is proposed to solve the inhomogeneous Boltzmann equation for electrons in the framework of two-term approximation (TTA) taking into account elastic and inelastic processes. Such a method has the usual drawbacks associated with the TTA i.e. not an accurate enough at high E/N values or in presence of high inelastic processes. But the accuracy of this method is considered sufficient because in a next step it is destinated to be coupled to fluid model for charged particles and a chemical kinetic model where the accuracy is of the same order of magnitude or worse. However there are numerous advantages of this method concerning time computing, treatment of non-linear collision processes (Coulomb, Penning, etc hor-ellipsis)

  15. An efficient annealing in Boltzmann machine in Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Teoh Yeong; Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Bulot, Norhisam; Ismail, Mohammad Hafiz

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes and implements Boltzmann machine in Hopfield neural network doing logic programming based on the energy minimization system. The temperature scheduling in Boltzmann machine enhancing the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield neural network. The finest temperature is determined by observing the ratio of global solution and final hamming distance using computer simulations. The study shows that Boltzmann Machine model is more stable and competent in term of representing and solving difficult combinatory problems.

  16. Collision Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Servis, D.P.; Zhang, Shengming;

    1999-01-01

    The first section of the present report describes the procedures that are being programmed at DTU for evaluation of the external collision dynamics. Then follows a detailed description of a comprehensive finite element analysis of one collision scenario for MS Dextra carried out at NTUA. The last...

  17. Generalizing the Boltzmann equation in complex phase space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadehgol, Abed

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a generalized form of the BGK-Boltzmann equation is proposed, where the velocity, position, and time can be represented by real or complex variables. The real representation leads to the conventional BGK-Boltzmann equation, which can recover the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the complex representation yields a different set of equations, and it can also recover the conservation and Navier-Stokes equations, at low Mach numbers, provided that the imaginary component of the macroscopic mass can be neglected. We briefly review the Constant Speed Kinetic Model (CSKM), which was introduced in Zadehgol and Ashrafizaadeh [J. Comp. Phys. 274, 803 (2014)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.053] and Zadehgol [Phys. Rev. E 91, 063311 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.063311]. The CSKM is then used as a basis to show that the complex-valued equilibrium distribution function of the present model can be identified with a simple singularity in the complex phase space. The virtual particles, in the present work, are concentrated on virtual "branes" which surround the computational nodes. Employing the Cauchy integral formula, it is shown that certain variations of the "branes," in the complex phase space, do not affect the local kinetic states. This property of the new model, which is referred to as the "apparent jumps" in the present work, is used to construct new models. The theoretical findings have been tested by simulating three benchmark flows. The results of the present simulations are in excellent agreement with the previous results reported by others. PMID:27627421

  18. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  19. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  20. Application of lattice Boltzmann scheme to nanofluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN; Yimin; LI; Qiang; YAO; Zhengping

    2004-01-01

    A nanofluid is a particle suspension that consists of base liquids and nanoparticles. Nanofluid has greater potential for heat transfer enhancement than traditional solid-liquid mixture. By accounting for the external and internal forces acting on the suspended nanoparticles and interactions among the nanoparticles and fluid particles,a lattice Boltzmann model for simulating flow and energy transport processes inside the nanofluids is proposed. The irregular motion of the nanoparticles and inherent dynamic behavior of nanofluids are discussed. The distributions of suspended nanoparticles inside nanofluids are calculated.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamuro, Takaji, E-mail: inamuro@kuaero.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Advanced Research Institute of Fluid Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)

  2. Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)

  3. Scattering theory of the linear Boltzmann operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In time dependent scattering theory we know three important examples: the wave equation around an obstacle, the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation with a scattering potential. In this paper another example from time dependent linear transport theory is added and considered in full detail. First the linear Boltzmann operator in certain Banach spaces is rigorously defined, and then the existence of the Moeller operators is proved by use of the theorem of Cook-Jauch-Kuroda, that is generalized to the case of a Banach space. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivarsson, Jenny; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, $v_2$, was measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|\\leq$ 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum $p_T$, thus reducing the uncertainty in $v_2$ integrated over $p_T$, a $1 \\mu b^{-1}$ data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated $v_2$ is compared to other measurements obtained with higher $p_T$ thresholds. A weak pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow is observed for central collisions, and a small decrease when moving away from mid-rapidity is observed only in peripheral collisions. The integrated $v_2$ transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data.

  5. Thermal equation of state for lattice Boltzmann gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Galilean invaxiance and the induced thermo-hydrodynamics of the lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model axe proposed together with their rigorous theoretical background. From the viewpoint of group invariance,recovering the Galilean invariance for the isothermal lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation (LBGKE) induces a new natural thermal-dynamical system, which is compatible with the elementary statistical thermodynamics.

  6. Thermal equation of state for lattice Boltzmann gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Zheng

    2009-06-01

    The Galilean invariance and the induced thermo-hydrodynamics of the lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model are proposed together with their rigorous theoretical background. From the viewpoint of group invariance, recovering the Galilean invariance for the isothermal lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation (LBGKE) induces a new natural thermal-dynamical system, which is compatible with the elementary statistical thermodynamics.

  7. Reciprocal Symmetric Boltzmann Function and Unified Boson-Fermion Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mushfiq; Talukder, Muhammad O. G.

    2007-01-01

    The differential equation for Boltzmann's function is replaced by the corresponding discrete finite difference equation. The difference equation is, then, symmetrized so that the equation remains invariant when step d is replaced by -d. The solutions of this equation come in Boson-Fermion pairs. Reciprocal symmetric Boltzmann's function, thus, unifies both Bosonic and Fermionic distributions.

  8. A probabilistic view on the general relativistic Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    A new probalistic approach to general relativistic kinetic theory is proposed. The general relativistic Boltzmann equation is linked to a new Markov process in a completely intrinsic way. This treatment is then used to prove the causal character of the relativistic Boltzmann model.

  9. The possible resolution of Boltzmann brains problem in phantom cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Yurov, Artyom V.; Yurov, Valerian V.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the well-known Boltzmann brains problem in frames of simple phantom energy models with little rip and big rip singularity. It is showed that these models (i) satisfy to observational data and (ii) may be free from Boltzmann brains problem. The human observers in phantom models can exist only in during for a certain period $t

  10. Absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections for electron-OCS collisions at intermediate and high energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Ma Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2007-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections for electron scattering by OCS over the incident energy range from 200 to 1000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The calculated results are compared with those obtained by experiment and other theories wherever available, and good agreement is obtained over a wide energy range. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the modified potential is completely suitable for calculating the absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections of electron scattering by molecules such as OCS.

  11. Monte Carlo variance reduction approaches for non-Boltzmann tallies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantities that depend on the collective effects of groups of particles cannot be obtained from the standard Boltzmann transport equation. Monte Carlo estimates of these quantities are called non-Boltzmann tallies and have become increasingly important recently. Standard Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques were designed for tallies based on individual particles rather than groups of particles. Experience with non-Boltzmann tallies and analog Monte Carlo has demonstrated the severe limitations of analog Monte Carlo for many non-Boltzmann tallies. In fact, many calculations absolutely require variance reduction methods to achieve practical computation times. Three different approaches to variance reduction for non-Boltzmann tallies are described and shown to be unbiased. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches are discussed

  12. A generalized Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, G.; Genovese, L.; Andreussi, O.; Marzari, N.; Goedecker, S.

    2016-01-01

    The computational study of chemical reactions in complex, wet environments is critical for applications in many fields. It is often essential to study chemical reactions in the presence of applied electrochemical potentials, taking into account the non-trivial electrostatic screening coming from the solvent and the electrolytes. As a consequence, the electrostatic potential has to be found by solving the generalized Poisson and the Poisson-Boltzmann equations for neutral and ionic solutions, respectively. In the present work, solvers for both problems have been developed. A preconditioned conjugate gradient method has been implemented for the solution of the generalized Poisson equation and the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann, allowing to solve iteratively the minimization problem with some ten iterations of the ordinary Poisson equation solver. In addition, a self-consistent procedure enables us to solve the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann problem. Both solvers exhibit very high accuracy and parallel efficiency and allow for the treatment of periodic, free, and slab boundary conditions. The solver has been integrated into the BigDFT and Quantum-ESPRESSO electronic-structure packages and will be released as an independent program, suitable for integration in other codes.

  13. A generalized Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisicaro, G., E-mail: giuseppe.fisicaro@unibas.ch; Goedecker, S. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Genovese, L. [University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Andreussi, O. [Institute of Computational Science, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6904 Lugano (Switzerland); Theory and Simulations of Materials (THEOS) and National Centre for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Marzari, N. [Theory and Simulations of Materials (THEOS) and National Centre for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-01-07

    The computational study of chemical reactions in complex, wet environments is critical for applications in many fields. It is often essential to study chemical reactions in the presence of applied electrochemical potentials, taking into account the non-trivial electrostatic screening coming from the solvent and the electrolytes. As a consequence, the electrostatic potential has to be found by solving the generalized Poisson and the Poisson-Boltzmann equations for neutral and ionic solutions, respectively. In the present work, solvers for both problems have been developed. A preconditioned conjugate gradient method has been implemented for the solution of the generalized Poisson equation and the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann, allowing to solve iteratively the minimization problem with some ten iterations of the ordinary Poisson equation solver. In addition, a self-consistent procedure enables us to solve the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann problem. Both solvers exhibit very high accuracy and parallel efficiency and allow for the treatment of periodic, free, and slab boundary conditions. The solver has been integrated into the BigDFT and Quantum-ESPRESSO electronic-structure packages and will be released as an independent program, suitable for integration in other codes.

  14. Propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Behery, E. E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, P.O. Box 34517 New Damietta (Egypt); El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, P.O. Box 34517 New Damietta (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    The propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma consisting of cold mobile positive ions, Boltzmann negative ions, Boltzmann electrons, and stationary positive/negative dust particles are studied. The extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equations and the corresponding expressions for the phase shifts after collision between two IA solitary waves. It turns out that the angle of collision, the temperature and density of negative ions, and the dust density of opposite polarity have reasonable effects on the phase shift. Clearly, the numerical results demonstrated that the IA solitary waves are delayed after the oblique collision. The current finding of this work is applicable in many plasma environments having negative ion species, such as D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere and some laboratory plasma experiments.

  15. Influence of asperities on fluid and thermal flow in a fracture: a coupled Lattice Boltzmann study

    CERN Document Server

    Neuville, Amélie; Toussaint, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of the hydro-thermal flow which occurs when a cold fluid is injected into a hot fractured bedrock depend on the morphology of the fracture. We consider a sharp triangular asperity, invariant in one direction, perturbing an otherwise flat fracture. We investigate its influence on the macroscopic hydraulic transmissivity and heat transfer efficiency, at fixed low Reynolds number. In this study, numerical simulations are done with a coupled lattice Boltzmann method that solves both the complete Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion equations in three dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained under lubrication approximations which rely on many hypotheses and neglect the three-dimensional (3D) effects. The lubrication results are obtained by analytically solving the Stokes equation and a two-dimensional (integrated over the thickness) advection-diffusion equation. We use a lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution (for mass and energy transport) on hypercubic and cubic ...

  16. Thermalization of gluons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions by including three-body interactions in a parton cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a new 3+1 dimensional Monte Carlo cascade solving the kinetic on-shell Boltzmann equations for partons including the inelastic ggggg pQCD processes. The back reaction channel is treated---for the first time---fully consistently within this scheme. An extended stochastic method is used to solve the collision integral. The frame dependence and convergency are studied for a fixed tube with thermal initial conditions. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the stochastic method is fully covariant and that convergency is achieved more efficiently than within a standard geometrical formulation of the collision term, especially for high gluon interaction rates. The cascade is then applied to simulate parton evolution and to investigate thermalization of gluons for a central Au+Au collision at RHIC energy. For this study the initial conditions are assumed to be generated by independent minijets with pT>p0=2 GeV. With that choice it is demonstrated that overall kinetic equilibration is driven mainly by the inelastic processes and is achieved on a scale of 1 fm/c. The further evolution of the expanding gluonic matter in the central region then shows almost an ideal hydrodynamical behavior. In addition, full chemical equilibration of the gluons follows on a longer time scale of about 3 fm/c. (Orig.)

  17. Thermalization of gluons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions by including three-body interactions in a parton cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a new 3 + 1 dimensional Monte Carlo cascade solving the kinetic on-shell Boltzmann equations for partons including the inelastic gg↔ggg pQCD processes. The back reaction channel is treated - for the first time - fully consistently within this scheme. An extended stochastic method is used to solve the collision integral. The frame dependence and convergency are studied for a fixed tube with thermal initial conditions. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the stochastic method is fully covariant and that convergency is achieved more efficiently than within a standard geometrical formulation of the collision term, especially for high gluon interaction rates. The cascade is then applied to simulate parton evolution and to investigate thermalization of gluons for a central Au+Au collision at RHIC energy. For this study the initial conditions are assumed to be generated by independent minijets with pT>p0=2 GeV. With that choice it is demonstrated that overall kinetic equilibration is driven mainly by the inelastic processes and is achieved on a scale of 1 fm/c. The further evolution of the expanding gluonic matter in the central region then shows almost an ideal hydrodynamical behavior. In addition, full chemical equilibration of the gluons follows on a longer time scale of about 3 fm/c

  18. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines on Word Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dahl, George E; Larochelle, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    The restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a flexible tool for modeling complex data, however there have been significant computational difficulties in using RBMs to model high-dimensional multinomial observations. In natural language processing applications, words are naturally modeled by K-ary discrete distributions, where K is determined by the vocabulary size and can easily be in the hundred thousands. The conventional approach to training RBMs on word observations is limited because it requires sampling the states of K-way softmax visible units during block Gibbs updates, an operation that takes time linear in K. In this work, we address this issue by employing a more general class of Markov chain Monte Carlo operators on the visible units, yielding updates with computational complexity independent of K. We demonstrate the success of our approach by training RBMs on hundreds of millions of word n-grams using larger vocabularies than previously feasible with RBMs and using the learned features to improve p...

  19. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Tablet Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaolong; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    Using the lattice-Boltzmann method, we developed a 2D model to study the tablet disintegration involving the swelling and wicking mechanisms. The surface area and disintegration profile of each component were obtained by tracking the tablet structure in the simulation. Compared to pure wicking, the total surface area is larger for swelling and wicking, which indicates that the swelling force breaks the neighboring bonds. The disintegration profiles show that the tablet disintegrates faster than pure wicking, and there are more wetted active pharmaceutical ingredient particles distributed on smaller clusters. Our results indicate how the porosity would affect the disintegration process by changing the wetting area of the tablet as well as by changing the swelling force propagation.

  20. Autotagging music with conditional restricted Boltzmann machines

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Michael; Larochelle, Hugo; Bengio, Yoshua

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes two applications of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines (CRBMs) to the task of autotagging music. The first consists of training a CRBM to predict tags that a user would apply to a clip of a song based on tags already applied by other users. By learning the relationships between tags, this model is able to pre-process training data to significantly improve the performance of a support vector machine (SVM) autotagging. The second is the use of a discriminative RBM, a type of CRBM, to autotag music. By simultaneously exploiting the relationships among tags and between tags and audio-based features, this model is able to significantly outperform SVMs, logistic regression, and multi-layer perceptrons. In order to be applied to this problem, the discriminative RBM was generalized to the multi-label setting and four different learning algorithms for it were evaluated, the first such in-depth analysis of which we are aware.

  1. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilseven, E.; Mendoza, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann model for resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mohseni, F; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a lattice Boltzmann model for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even though the model is derived for resistive MHD, it is shown that it is numerically robust even in the high conductivity (ideal MHD) limit. In order to validate the numerical method, test simulations are carried out for both ideal and resistive limits, namely the propagation of Alfv\\'en waves in the ideal MHD and the evolution of current sheets in the resistive regime, where very good agreement is observed comparing to the analytical results. Additionally, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is studied and the effects of different parameters on the reconnection rate are investigated. It is shown that the density ratio has negligible effect on the magnetic reconnection rate, while an increase in shear velocity decreases the reconnection rate. Additionally, it is found that the reconnection rate is proportional to $\\sigma^{-\\frac{1}{2}}$, $\\sigma$ being the conductivity, w...

  4. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M

    2016-02-01

    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems. PMID:26986435

  5. Lattice Boltzmann Model for Numerical Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ilseven, E

    2015-01-01

    In the Bona-Masso formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for Numerical Relativity. Our model is validated with well-established tests, showing good agreement with analytical solutions. Furthermore, we show that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improves. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach a linear scaling law for parallelisation with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  6. Scattering theory for the linearized Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattering theory for a cloud of mutually non-interacting particles that in its passage through R3 undergoes absorption and production in a region D is contained in R3 through interaction with the medium in D is investigated. The motion for such a model is given by the linearized Boltzmann equation. Let n(x,v,t) denote the particle density in phase space at time t. The dynamics is described by a 1-parameter semigroup, W(t), which is in general not isometric. The existence of the wave operators Ω/sub +/ = s - lim W0(-t)W(t) (t →+infinity) and Ω/sub -/ = s - lim W(-t)W0(t) (t →-infinity), where W0(t) is the free dynamics, is examined at length

  7. Thermal lattice Boltzmann method for complex microflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Haruka; Kaneda, Masayuki; Suga, Kazuhiko

    2016-07-01

    A methodology to simulate thermal fields in complex microflow geometries is proposed. For the flow fields, the regularized multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied coupled with the diffusive-bounce-back boundary condition for wall boundaries. For the thermal fields, the regularized lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model is applied. For the thermal wall boundary condition, a newly developed boundary condition, which is a mixture of the diffuse scattering and constant temperature conditions, is applied. The proposed set of schemes is validated by reference data in the Fourier flows and square cylinder flows confined in a microchannel. The obtained results confirm that it is essential to apply the regularization to the thermal LBM for avoiding kinked temperature profiles in complex thermal flows. The proposed wall boundary condition is successful to obtain thermal jumps at the walls with good accuracy.

  8. Electron-ion collision operator in strong electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, Gennadiy; Balakin, Alexey

    2012-10-01

    The pair electron-ion collision operator is found for the kinetic equation describing the one-particle drift distribution in strong electromagnetic fields [1]. The pair collisions are studied under the conditions when the oscillation velocity of an electron driven by an external electromagnetic wave is much larger than the electron drift velocity. The operator is presented in the Boltzmann form and describes collisions with both small and large changes of the particle momentum. In contrast with the Landau collision operator, which describes diffusion in the momentum space, the collision operator that we propose describes a new and very important effect, namely, Coulomb attraction of a wave-driven oscillating electron to an ion due to multiple returns of the electron to the same ion. This effect leads to a large increase of the collision cross-section of electron-ion collisions in strong laser fields, to increased efficiency of the Joule heating in plasma, to the generation of fast electrons through e-i collisions, etc. [4pt] [1] A. A. Balakin and G. M. Fraiman, Electron-ion collision operator in strong electromagnetic fields, EPL 93, 35001 (2011).

  9. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Final-State Particles Produced in Soft Excitation Process in High Energy Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse momentum distributions of final-state particles produced in soft process in proton-proton (pp and nucleus-nucleus (AA collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC energies are studied by using a multisource thermal model. Each source in the model is treated as a relativistic and quantum ideal gas. Because the quantum effect can be neglected in investigation on the transverse momentum distribution in high energy collisions, we consider only the relativistic effect. The concerned distribution is finally described by the Boltzmann or two-component Boltzmann distribution. Our modeling results are in agreement with available experimental data.

  10. Boltzmann-Gaussian transition under specific noise effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is observed that a short time data set of market returns presents almost symmetric Boltzmann distribution whereas a long time data set tends to show a Gaussian distribution. To understand this universal phenomenon, many hypotheses which are spreading in a wide range of interdisciplinary research were proposed. In current work, the effects of background fluctuations on symmetric Boltzmann distribution is investigated. The numerical calculation is performed to show that the Gaussian noise may cause the transition from initial Boltzmann distribution to Gaussian one. The obtained results would reflect non-dynamic nature of the transition under consideration.

  11. Fermion particle production in semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present numerical solutions of the semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov equation for fermion particle-antiparticle production by strong electric fields in boost-invariant coordinates in (1+1) and (3+1) dimensional QED. We compare the Boltzmann-Vlasov results with those of recent quantum field theory calculations and find good agreement. We conclude that extending the Boltzmann-Vlasov approach to the case of QCD should allow us to do a thorough investigation of how backreaction affects recent results on the dependence of the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and antiquarks on a second Casimir invariant of color SU(3).

  12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOLTZMANN HYDRO CODE FOR CORE COLLAPSE IN MASSIVE STARS. I. SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC TREATMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel numerical method for solving multi-dimensional, special relativistic Boltzmann equations for neutrinos coupled with hydrodynamics equations. This method is meant to be applied to simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We handle special relativity in a non-conventional way, taking account of all orders of v/c. Consistent treatment of the advection and collision terms in the Boltzmann equations has been a challenge, which we overcome by employing two different energy grids: Lagrangian remapped and laboratory fixed grids. We conduct a series of basic tests and perform a one-dimensional simulation of core-collapse, bounce, and shock-stall for a 15 M ☉ progenitor model with a minimum but essential set of microphysics. We demonstrate in the latter simulation that our new code is capable of handling all phases in core-collapse supernova. For comparison, a non-relativistic simulation is also conducted with the same code, and we show that they produce qualitatively wrong results in neutrino transfer. Finally, we discuss a possible incorporation of general relativistic effects into our method

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOLTZMANN HYDRO CODE FOR CORE COLLAPSE IN MASSIVE STARS. I. SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC TREATMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    We propose a novel numerical method for solving multi-dimensional, special relativistic Boltzmann equations for neutrinos coupled with hydrodynamics equations. This method is meant to be applied to simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We handle special relativity in a non-conventional way, taking account of all orders of v/c. Consistent treatment of the advection and collision terms in the Boltzmann equations has been a challenge, which we overcome by employing two different energy grids: Lagrangian remapped and laboratory fixed grids. We conduct a series of basic tests and perform a one-dimensional simulation of core-collapse, bounce, and shock-stall for a 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model with a minimum but essential set of microphysics. We demonstrate in the latter simulation that our new code is capable of handling all phases in core-collapse supernova. For comparison, a non-relativistic simulation is also conducted with the same code, and we show that they produce qualitatively wrong results in neutrino transfer. Finally, we discuss a possible incorporation of general relativistic effects into our method.

  14. Novel diagrammatic method for computing transport coefficients - beyond the Boltzmann approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel diagrammatic method for computing transport coefficients in relativistic quantum field theory. Our method is based on a reformulation and extension of the diagrammatic method by Eliashberg given in the imaginary-time formalism to the relativistic quantum field theory in the real-time formalism, in which the cumbersome analytical continuation problem can be avoided. The transport coefficients are obtained from a two-point function via Kubo formula. It is know that naive perturbation theory breaks down owing to a so called pinch singularity, and hence a resummation is required for getting a finite and sensible result. As a novel resummation method, we first decompose the two point function into the singular part and the regular part, and then reconstruct the diagrams. We find that a self-consistent equation for the two-point function has the same structure as the linearized Boltzmann equation. It is known that the two-point function at the leading order is equivalent to the linearized Boltzmann equation. We find the higher order corrections are nicely summarized as a renormalization of the vertex function, spectral function, and collision term. We also discuss the critical behavior of the transport coefficients near a phase transition, applying our method. (author)

  15. Exploiting parallelism in many-core architectures: Lattice Boltzmann models as a test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we address the problem of identifying and exploiting techniques that optimize the performance of large scale scientific codes on many-core processors. We consider as a test-bed a state-of-the-art Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model, that accurately reproduces the thermo-hydrodynamics of a 2D-fluid obeying the equations of state of a perfect gas. The regular structure of Lattice Boltzmann algorithms makes it relatively easy to identify a large degree of available parallelism; the challenge is that of mapping this parallelism onto processors whose architecture is becoming more and more complex, both in terms of an increasing number of independent cores and – within each core – of vector instructions on longer and longer data words. We take as an example the Intel Sandy Bridge micro-architecture, that supports AVX instructions operating on 256-bit vectors; we address the problem of efficiently implementing the key computational kernels of LB codes – streaming and collision – on this family of processors; we introduce several successive optimization steps and quantitatively assess the impact of each of them on performance. Our final result is a production-ready code already in use for large scale simulations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze both raw performance and scaling figures, and compare with GPU-based implementations of similar codes

  16. The electron Boltzmann equation in a plasma generated by fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material show that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux but increases sharply in the presence of a sustainer electric field.

  17. The linear Boltzmann equation in slab geometry - Development and verification of a reliable and efficient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamnes, K.; Lie-Svendsen, O.; Rees, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation can be cast in a form mathematically identical to the radiation-transport equation. A multigroup procedure is used to reduce the energy (or velocity) dependence of the transport equation to a series of one-speed problems. Each of these one-speed problems is equivalent to the monochromatic radiative-transfer problem, and existing software is used to solve this problem in slab geometry. The numerical code conserves particles in elastic collisions. Generic examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of this approach. Although this formalism can, in principle, be applied to a variety of test particle or linearized gas dynamics problems, it is particularly well-suited to study the thermalization of suprathermal particles interacting with a background medium when the thermal motion of the background cannot be ignored. Extensions of the formalism to include external forces and spherical geometry are also feasible.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann model for free-surface flow and its application to filling process in casting

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, I

    2003-01-01

    A generalized lattice Boltzmann model to simulate free-surface is constructed in both two and three dimensions. The proposed model satisfies the interfacial boundary conditions accurately. A distinctive feature of the model is that the collision processes is carried out only on the points occupied partially or fully by the fluid. To maintain a sharp interfacial front, the method includes an anti-diffusion algorithm. The unknown distribution functions at the interfacial region are constructed according to the first-order Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interfacial boundary conditions are satisfied exactly by the coefficients in the Chapman-Enskog expansion. The distribution functions are naturally expressed in the local interfacial coordinates. The macroscopic quantities at the interface are extracted from the least-square solutions of a locally linearized system obtained from the known distribution functions. The proposed method does not require any geometric front construction and is robust for any interfacial ...

  19. A conservative multi-group approach to the Boltzmann equations for reactive gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M.; Rossani, A.; Spiga, G.

    2015-11-01

    Starting from a simple kinetic model for a quaternary mixture of gases undergoing a bimolecular chemical reaction, multi-group integro-differential equations are derived for the particle distribution functions of all species. The procedure takes advantage of a suitable probabilistic formulation, based on the underlying collision frequencies and transition probabilities, of the relevant reactive kinetic equations of Boltzmann type. Owing to an appropriate choice of a sufficiently large number of weight functions, it is shown that the proposed multi-group equations are able to fulfil exactly, at any order of approximation, the correct conservation laws that must be inherited from the original kinetic equations, where speed was a continuous variable. Future developments are also discussed.

  20. Rigorous asymptotic and moment-preserving diffusion approximations for generalized linear Boltzmann transport in d dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    d'Eon, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We derive new diffusion solutions to the monoenergetic generalized linear Boltzmann transport equation (GLBE) for the stationary collision density and scalar flux about an isotropic point source in an infinite $d$-dimensional absorbing medium with isotropic scattering. We consider both classical transport theory with exponentially-distributed free paths in arbitrary dimensions as well as a number of non-classical transport theories (non-exponential random flights) that describe a broader class of transport processes within partially-correlated random media. New rigorous asymptotic diffusion approximations are derived where possible. We also generalize Grosjean's moment-preserving approach of separating the first (or uncollided) distribution from the collided portion and approximating only the latter using diffusion. We find that for any spatial dimension and for many free-path distributions Grosjean's approach produces compact, analytic approximations that are, overall, more accurate for high absorption and f...

  1. Relativistic Causal Hydrodynamics Derived from Boltzmann Equation: a novel reduction theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tsumura, Kyosuke; Kunihiro, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    We derive the second-order hydrodynamic equation and the microscopic formulae of the relaxation times as well as the transport coefficients systematically from the relativistic Boltzmann equation. Our derivation is based on a novel development of the renormalization-group method, a powerful reduction theory of dynamical systems, which has been applied successfully to derive the non-relativistic second-order hydrodynamic equation Our theory nicely gives a compact expression of the deviation of the distribution function in terms of the linearized collision operator, which is different from those used as an ansatz in the conventional fourteen-moment method. It is confirmed that the resultant microscopic expressions of the transport coefficients coincide with those derived in the Chapman-Enskog expansion method. Furthermore, we show that the microscopic expressions of the relaxation times have natural and physically plausible forms. We prove that the propagating velocities of the fluctuations of the hydrodynamica...

  2. Lattice Boltzmann Method Simulation of 3-D Melting Using Double MRT Model with Interfacial Tracking Method

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional melting problems are investigated numerically with Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Regarding algorithm's accuracy and stability, Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) models are employed to simplify the collision term in LBM. Temperature and velocity fields are solved with double distribution functions, respectively. 3-D melting problems are solved with double MRT models for the first time in this article. The key point for the numerical simulation of a melting problem is the methods to obtain the location of the melting front and this article uses interfacial tracking method. The interfacial tracking method combines advantages of both deforming and fixed grid approaches. The location of the melting front was obtained by calculating the energy balance at the solid-liquid interface. Various 3-D conduction controlled melting problems are solved firstly to verify the numerical method. Liquid fraction tendency and temperature distribution obtained from numerical methods agree with the analytical result...

  3. On the search of more stable second-order lattice-Boltzmann schemes in confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbert, D. R.; Blanco, P. J.; Clausse, A.; Feijóo, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The von Neumann linear analysis, restricted by a heuristic selection of wave-number vectors was applied to the search of explicit lattice Boltzmann schemes which exhibit more stability than existing methods. The relative stability of the family members of quasi-incompressible collision kernels, for the Navier-Stokes equations in confined flows, was analyzed. The linear stability analysis was simplified by assuming a uniform velocity level over the whole domain, where only the wave numbers of the first harmonic normal to the flow direction were permitted. A singular equilibrium function that maximizes the critical velocity level was identified, which was afterwards tested in particular cases of confined flows of interest, validating the resulting procedure.

  4. Heavy ion collisions and anisotropic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized hydrodynamical equation system was constructed in which the anisotropy of the momentum distribution is added as a new variable. These equations are derived from the moment equations of the relativistic Boltzmann equation where the closure of the set is achieved by assuming a particular class of initial conditions. The equations are then explicitly solved for two uniform interpenetrating hadron streams. The collision cross-sections are the bare hadron cross-sections; the presence of the other hadrons can be simulated by the use of a density and energy density dependent temperature and mass, taken from self-consistent calculations. The results are compared with other theoretical results. It was found that the isotropization occurs sufficiently rapidly for medium energy head-on collisions to reach local thermal equilibrium. (author)

  5. A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.

  6. Strange hadrons and antiprotons as probes of hot and dense nuclear matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; Seltsame Hadronen und Antiprotonen als Proben heisser und dichter Kernmaterie in relativistischen Schwerionenkollisionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Henry

    2010-09-15

    Strange particles play an important role as probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions where hot and dense matter is studied. The focus of this thesis is on the production of strange particles within a transport model of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type. Current data of the HADES Collaboration concerning K{sup {+-}} and {phi} spectra provide the appropriate experimental framework. Moreover, the double-strange hyperon {xi}{sup -} is analyzed below the free NN production threshold. Hadron multiplicities, transversemomentum and rapidity spectra are compared with recent experimental data. Further important issues are in-medium mass shifts, the nuclear equation of state as well as the mean field of nucleons. Besides the study of AA collisions a comparison with recent ANKE data regarding the {phi} yield in pA collisions is done. Transparency ratios are determined and primarily investigated for absorption of {phi} mesons by means of the BUU transport code. Thereby, secondary {phi} production channels, isospin asymmetry and detector acceptance are important issues. A systematic analysis is presented for different system sizes. The momentum integrated Boltzmann equations describe dense nuclear matter on a hadronic level appearing in the Big Bang as well as in little bangs, in the context of kinetic off-equilibrium dynamics. This theory is applied to antiprotons and numerically calculated under consideration of various expansion models. Here, the evolution of proton- and antiproton densities till freeze-out is analyzed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions within a hadrochemic resonance gas model acting as a possible ansatz for solving the ''antiproton puzzle''. Furthermore, baryonic matter and antimatter is investigated in the early universe and the adiabatic path of cosmic matter is sketched in the QCD phase diagram. (orig.)

  7. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Romarly F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Eliane M. de; Lima, Marco A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, Márcio H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Varella, Márcio T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Jones, Darryl B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, Michael J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 2840 Madrid (Spain); Colmenares, Rafael [Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-03-14

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the N{sub open}-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].

  8. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C6H5OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the Nopen-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)

  9. Computational Aeroacoustics Using the Generalized Lattice Boltzmann Equation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop a generalized lattice Boltzmann (GLB) approach as a potential computational aeroacoustics (CAA) tool for...

  10. Second-order Boltzmann equation: gauge dependence and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the second-order Boltzmann equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of radiation without a specific gauge choice. The essential steps in deriving the Boltzmann equation are revisited and extended given this more general framework: (i) the polarization of light is incorporated in this formalism by using a tensor-valued distribution function; (ii) the importance of a choice of the tetrad field to define the local inertial frame in the description of the distribution function is emphasized; (iii) we perform a separation between temperature and spectral distortion, both for the intensity and polarization for the first time; (iv) the gauge dependence of all perturbed quantities that enter the Boltzmann equation is derived, and this enables us to check the correctness of the perturbed Boltzmann equation by explicitly showing its gauge-invariance for both intensity and polarization. We finally discuss several implications of the gauge dependence for the observed temperature. (paper)

  11. Second order Boltzmann equation : gauge dependence and gauge invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Naruko, Atsushi; Koyama, Kazuya; Sasaki, Misao

    2013-01-01

    In the context of cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the second order Boltzmann equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of radiation without a specific gauge choice. The essential steps in deriving the Boltzmann equation are revisited and extended given this more general framework: i) the polarisation of light is incorporated in this formalism by using a tensor-valued distribution function; ii) the importance of a choice of the tetrad field to define the local inertial frame in the description of the distribution function is emphasized; iii) we perform a separation between temperature and spectral distortion, both for the intensity and for polarisation for the first time; iv) the gauge dependence of all perturbed quantities that enter the Boltzmann equation is derived, and this enables us to check the correctness of the perturbed Boltzmann equation by explicitly showing its gauge-invariance for both intensity and polarization. We finally discuss several implications of the gaug...

  12. Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external

  13. A Boltzmann model for rod alignment and schooling fish

    OpenAIRE

    Carlen, Eric A.; Carvalho, Maria C.; Degond, Pierre; Wennberg, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Boltzmann model introduced by Bertin, Droz and Greegoire as a binary interaction model of the Vicsek alignment interaction. This model considers particles lying on the circle. Pairs of particles interact by trying to reach their mid-point (on the circle) up to some noise. We study the equilibria of this Boltzmann model and we rigorously show the existence of a pitchfork bifurcation when a parameter measuring the inverse of the noise intensity crosses a critical threshold. The an...

  14. Advanced Mean Field Theory of Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haiping; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Learning in restricted Boltzmann machine is typically hard due to the computation of gradients of log-likelihood function. To describe the network state statistics of the restricted Boltzmann machine, we develop an advanced mean field theory based on the Bethe approximation. Our theory provides an efficient message passing based method that evaluates not only the partition function (free energy) but also its gradients without requiring statistical sampling. The results are compared with those...

  15. Linearized Boltzmann Equation and Hydrodynamics for Granular Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Brey, J. Javier; Dufty, James W.; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The linearized Boltzmann equation is considered to describe small spatial perturbations of the homogeneous cooling state. The corresponding macroscopic balance equations for the density, temperature, and flow velocity are derived from it as the basis for a hydrodynamic description. Hydrodynamics is defined in terms of the spectrum of the generator for the dynamics of the linearized Boltzmann equation. The hydrodynamic eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are calculated in the long wavelength limit....

  16. A new lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xing-Wang; Shi Bao-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Most of the existing lattice Boltzmann magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models can be viewed as compressible schemes to simulate incompressible MHD flows. The compressible effect might lead to some undesired errors in numerical simulations. In this paper a new incompressible lattice Boltzmann MHD model without compressible effect is presented for simulating incompressible MHD flows. Numerical simulations of the Hartmann flow are performed. We do numerous tests and make comparison with Dellar's model in detail. The numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical error.

  17. A Linearized Boltzmann transport model for jet propagation in the quark-gluon plasma: Heavy quark evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-01-01

    A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of $D$ meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the LHC and RHIC. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$=5.02 TeV is provided.

  18. Direct numerical simulations of collision efficiency of cohesive sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.; Zhang, Qing-He; Shen, Xiao-Teng

    2016-09-01

    A clear understanding of the collision efficiency of cohesive sediment particles is critical for more accurate simulation of the flocculation processes. It is difficult, if not impossible, to carry out laboratory experiments to determine the collision efficiency for small particles. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is a relatively feasible approach to describe the motion of spherical particles under gravity in calm water, and thus, to study the collision efficiency of these particles. In this study, the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is used to calculate the relative trajectories of two approaching particles with different ratios of sizes and densities. Results show that the inter-molecular forces (i.e., van der Waals attractive force, electrostatic repulsive/attractive force, and displacement force), which are usually neglected in previous studies, would affect the trajectories, and thus, lead to an overestimation of the collision efficiency. It is found that to increase the particle size ratio from 0.1 to 0.8 only slightly increases the collision efficiency, since the force caused by fluid-solid interaction between these two particles is reduced. To increase the submerged particle density ratio from 1 to 22, however, would significantly decrease the collision efficiency. Earlier analytical formulations of collision efficiency, which only consider the effects of particle size ratio, have significantly overestimated the collision efficiency (change from 0.01 to 0.6) when the particle size ratio is around 0.5.

  19. High energy ion range and deposited energy calculation using the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck splitting of the Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the splitting of the straight-ahead Boltzmann transport equation in the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, decomposing the differential cross-section into a singular part, corresponding to small energy transfer events, and in a regular one, which corresponds to large energy transfer. The convergence of implantation profile, nuclear and electronic energy depositions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, to the respective exact distributions, calculated from Monte-Carlo method, was exanimate in a large-energy interval for various values of splitting parameter and for different ion-target mass relations. It is shown that for the universal potential there exists an optimal value of splitting parameter, for which range and deposited energy distributions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, accurately approximate the exact distributions and which minimizes the computational expenses

  20. Analysis of Jeans instability from Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of self-gravitating fluids is analyzed within the framework of a collisionless Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields and Poisson equation. The equilibrium distribution function takes into account the expansion of the Universe and a pressureless fluid in the matter dominated Universe. Without invoking Jeans "swindle" a dispersion relation is obtained by considering small perturbations of the equilibrium values of the distribution function and gravitational potential. The collapse criterion -- which happens in an unstable region where the solution grows exponentially with time -- is determined from the dispersion relation. The collapse criterion in a static Universe occurs when the wavenumber $k$ is smaller than the Jeans wavenumber $k_J$, which was the solution found by Jeans. For an expanding Universe it is shown that this criterion is $k\\leq\\sqrt{7/6}\\,k_J$. As a consequence the ratio of the mass contained in a sphere of diameter equal to the wavelength $\\lambda=2\\pi/k$ to t...

  1. Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for continuum multicomponent flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I; Hollis, A P; Care, C M

    2007-08-01

    We present a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation for continuum fluid mechanics, paying particular attention to the component segregation part of the underlying algorithm. In the principal result of this paper, the dynamics of a component index, or phase field, is obtained for a segregation method after U. D'Ortona [Phys. Rev. E 51, 3718 (1995)], due to Latva-Kokko and Rothman [Phys. Rev. E 71 056702 (2005)]. The said dynamics accord with a simulation designed to address multicomponent flow in the continuum approximation and underwrite improved simulation performance in two main ways: (i) by reducing the interfacial microcurrent activity considerably and (ii) by facilitating simulational access to regimes of flow with a low capillary number and drop Reynolds number [I. Halliday, R. Law, C. M. Care, and A. Hollis, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056708 (2006)]. The component segregation method studied, used in conjunction with Lishchuk's method [S. V. Lishchuk, C. M. Care, and I. Halliday, Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)], produces an interface, which is distributed in terms of its component index; however, the hydrodynamic boundary conditions which emerge are shown to support the notion of a sharp, unstructured, continuum interface. PMID:17930175

  2. Lattice Boltzmann model for resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, F; Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a lattice Boltzmann model for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even though the model is derived for resistive MHD, it is shown that it is numerically robust even in the high conductivity (ideal MHD) limit. In order to validate the numerical method, test simulations are carried out for both ideal and resistive limits, namely the propagation of Alfvén waves in the ideal MHD and the evolution of current sheets in the resistive regime, where very good agreement is observed comparing to the analytical results. Additionally, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is studied and the effects of different parameters on the reconnection rate are investigated. It is shown that the density ratio has a negligible effect on the magnetic reconnection rate, while an increase in shear velocity decreases the reconnection rate. Additionally, it is found that the reconnection rate is proportional to σ-1/2, σ being the conductivity, which is in agreement with the scaling law of the Sweet-Parker model. Finally, the numerical model is used to study the magnetic reconnection in a stellar flare. Three-dimensional simulation suggests that the reconnection between the background and flux rope magnetic lines in a stellar flare can take place as a result of a shear velocity in the photosphere. PMID:26382548

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Overview of the lattice Boltzmann method for nano- and microscale fluid dynamics in materials science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, D.

    2004-11-01

    The article gives an overview of the lattice Boltzmann method as a powerful technique for the simulation of single and multi-phase flows in complex geometries. Owing to its excellent numerical stability and constitutive versatility it can play an essential role as a simulation tool for understanding advanced materials and processes. Unlike conventional Navier-Stokes solvers, lattice Boltzmann methods consider flows to be composed of a collection of pseudo-particles that are represented by a velocity distribution function. These fluid portions reside and interact on the nodes of a grid. System dynamics and complexity emerge by the repeated application of local rules for the motion, collision and redistribution of these coarse-grained droplets. The lattice Boltzmann method, therefore, is an ideal approach for mesoscale and scale-bridging simulations. It is capable to tackling particularly those problems which are ubiquitous characteristics of flows in the world of materials science and engineering, namely, flows under complicated geometrical boundary conditions, multi-scale flow phenomena, phase transformation in flows, complex solid-liquid interfaces, surface reactions in fluids, liquid-solid flows of colloidal suspensions and turbulence. Since the basic structure of the method is that of a synchronous automaton it is also an ideal platform for realizing combinations with related simulation techniques such as cellular automata or Potts models for crystal growth in a fluid or gas environment. This overview consists of two parts. The first one reviews the philosophy and the formal concepts behind the lattice Boltzmann approach and presents also related pseudo-particle approaches. The second one gives concrete examples in the area of computational materials science and process engineering, such as the prediction of lubrication dynamics in metal forming, dendritic crystal growth under the influence of fluid convection, simulation of metal foam processing, flow

  4. Theory of slow atomic collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, E. E.; Umanskii, S. Ia.

    The theory presented in this book is self-contained. It can be applied to the interpretation of various processes occurring in atomic collisions over a relatively wide energy range, from thermal energies to hundreds of eV. The general formulation of the scattering problem under quasi-classical conditions is discussed, taking into account scattering amplitudes and cross sections, scattering equations, collisions of two many-electron atoms, and integral cross sections for isotropic collisions. Other topics explored are related to diatomic electronic states, approximate calculations of the electronic states of diatoms, elastic scattering, approximate calculations of a multichannel quasi-classical scattering matrix, the two-state scattering problem, the linear two-state Landau-Zener model, nonlinear two-state models of nonadiabatic coupling, multistate models of nonadiabatic coupling, and a case study involving intramultiplet mixing and depolarization of alkalis in collisions with noble gases.

  5. Ocneanu Cells and Boltzmann Weights for the SU(3) ADE Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, David E

    2009-01-01

    We determine the cells, whose existence has been announced by Ocneanu, on all the candidate nimrep graphs except $\\mathcal{E}_4^{(12)}$ proposed by di Francesco and Zuber for the SU(3) modular invariants classified by Gannon. This enables the Boltzmann weights to be computed for the corresponding integrable statistical mechanical models and provide the framework for studying corresponding braided subfactors to realise all the SU(3) modular invariants as well as a framework for a new SU(3) planar algebra theory.

  6. Fragmentation of positronium in collision with xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-sections are presented, both integrated and differential with respect to the longitudinal energy of the ejected positrons, for the fragmentation of Ps in collisions with Xe at 18 and 30 eV impact energy and compared with available theory. The shapes of the positron spectra are also compared with those measured in collisions with He at the same impact energy

  7. 46 CFR 179.210 - Collision bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkhead. 179.210 Section 179.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage Stability Requirements § 179.210 Collision bulkhead. (a) A vessel...

  8. Effect of electron-neutral collisions on the satellites of the Thompson scattering spectrum in arc plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of electron-neutral collisions on the high frequency electron satellites of the Thompson-scattered electromagnetic radiation in an hydrogen arc plasma is investigated. As the general evaluation procedure of experimental scattering data uses only normalized intensities, one is particlulary interested in the change of position and halfwidth of the electron satellites whereas the effect of collisions on their size is of minor importance. The calculations are carried out along Gorog's theory solving the linearized Boltzmann equation. (Auth.)

  9. Evolution of Temperature Fluctuation in a Thermal bath and, its implications in Hadronic and Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Trambak; Sahoo, Raghunath; Samantray, Prasant

    2016-01-01

    The evolution equation for inhomogeneous and anisotropic temperature fluctuations inside a medium is derived within the ambit of Boltzmann Transport Equation. Also, taking some existing realistic inputs we have analyzed the Fourier space variation of temperature fluctuation for the medium created after heavy-ion collisions. The effect of viscosity on the variation of fluctuations is investigated. Further, possible implications in hadronic and heavy-ion collisions are explored.

  10. Adaptive Formation Control and Collision Avoidance Using a Priority Strategy for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Yanyan Dai; Kyung Sik Choi; Suk Gyu Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents four novel collision avoidance processes for nonholonomic mobile robots to generate effective collision‐free trajectories when forming and maintaining a formation. A collision priority strategy integrates the static and dynamic collision priorities to avoid a collision efficiently and effectively. In addition, it minimizes the turning angle of the follower robot and decreases system computation time. When avoiding collisions between robots, a novel collision avoidance algo...

  11. Equations of motion of test particles for solving the spin-dependent Boltzmann-Vlasov equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An; Shen, Wen-Qing

    2016-08-01

    A consistent derivation of the equations of motion (EOMs) of test particles for solving the spin-dependent Boltzmann-Vlasov equation is presented. The resulting EOMs in phase space are similar to the canonical equations in Hamiltonian dynamics, and the EOM of spin is the same as that in the Heisenburg picture of quantum mechanics. Considering further the quantum nature of spin and choosing the direction of total angular momentum in heavy-ion reactions as a reference of measuring nucleon spin, the EOMs of spin-up and spin-down nucleons are given separately. The key elements affecting the spin dynamics in heavy-ion collisions are identified. The resulting EOMs provide a solid foundation for using the test-particle approach in studying spin dynamics in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Future comparisons of model simulations with experimental data will help to constrain the poorly known in-medium nucleon spin-orbit coupling relevant for understanding properties of rare isotopes and their astrophysical impacts.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann method and its applications in engineering thermophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YaLing; LI Qing; WANG Yong; TANG GuiHua

    2009-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM),a mesoscopic method between the molecular dynamics method and the conventional numerical methods,has been developed into a very efficient numerical alternative in the past two decades.Unlike conventional numerical methods,the kinetic theory based LBM simulates fluid flows by tracking the evolution of the particle distribution function,and then accumulates the distribution to obtain macroscopic averaged properties.In this article we review some work on LBM applications in engineering thermophysics:(1) brief introduction to the development of the LBM; (2)fundamental theory of LBM including the Boltzmann equation,Maxwell distribution function,Boltzmann-BGK equation,and the lattice Boltzmann-BGK equation; (3) lattice Boltzmann models for compressible flows and non-equilibrium gas flows,bounce back-specular-reflection boundary scheme for microscale gaseous flows,the mass modified outlet boundary scheme for fully developed flows,and an implicit-explicit finite-difference-based LBM; and (4) applications of the LBM to oscillating flow,compressible flow,porous media flow,non-equilibrium flow,and gas resonant oscillating flow.

  13. The intellectual quadrangle: Mach-Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These four men were influential in the transition from classical to modern physics. They interacted as scientists, often antagonistically. Thus Boltzmann was the greatest champion of the atom, while Mach remained unconvinced all his life. As a aphysicist, Einstein was greatly influenced by both Mach and Boltzmann, although Mach in the end rejected relativity as well. Because of his work on statistical mechanics, fluctuations, and quantum theory, Einstein has been called the natural successor to Boltzmann. Planck also was influenced by Mach at first. Hence he and Boltzmann were adversaries antil Planck converted to atomistics in 1900 and used the statistical interpretation of entropy to establish his radiation law. Planck accepted relativity early, but in quantum theory he was for a long time partly opposed to Einstein, and vice versa - Einstein considered Planck's derivation of his radiation law as unsound, while Planck could not accept the light quantum. In the case of all four physicists, science was interwoven with philosophy. Boltzmann consistently fought Mach's positivism, while Planck and Einstein moved from positivism to realism. All were also, though in very different ways, actively interested in public affairs. (orig.)

  14. Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and its quartic potential. Then, using this model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. We gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations. (orig.)

  15. Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon [Ewha Womans University, Basic Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Institute for the Early Universe, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bum-Hoon [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wonwoo [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jongmann [Ewha Womans University, Basic Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Institute for the Early Universe, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and its quartic potential. Then, using this model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. We gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations. (orig.)

  16. Podolsky electromagnetism and a modification in Stefan-Boltzmann law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Carlos Alberto; Bufalo, Rodrigo Santos; Escobar, Bruto Max Pimentel; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text. As it is well-known, gauge fields that emerge from the gauge principle are massless vector fields. Considering the photon as a Proca particle, experience sets an upper limit on its mass. This limit is m{sub Proca} < 6X10{sup -17}eV (PDG 2006). However, a mass term, regardless how small, breaks the gauge symmetry. Nevertheless, there exists a theory in which is possible to introduce a mass term preserving all symmetries of Maxwell electromagnetism, including the gauge one: such theory is known as Podolsky Electromagnetism. Podolsky theory is a second- order-derivative theory and has some remarkable properties, despite those already mentioned: the theory has two sectors, a massive one and massless one, it depends on a free parameter (which happens to be the mass of the massive sector) that, like all other elementary particles's masses of the Standard Model, must be fixed through experiences, and the fact that the electrostatic potential is finite everywhere, including over a punctual charge. Just like Maxwell electromagnetism, Podolsky's is a constrained theory and, since it is of second order in the derivatives, it consists in a much richer theoretical structure. Therefore, from both, theoretical and experimental points of view, Podolsky electromagnetism is a very attractive theory. In this work we study a gas of Podolsky photons at finite temperature through path integration. We show that the massless sector leads to the famous Planck's law for black-body radiation and, therefore, to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We also show that the massive sector of the Podolsky theory induces a modification in both these laws. It is possible to set limits on the Podolsky parameter through comparison of our results with data from cosmic microwave background radiation. (author)

  17. Podolsky electromagnetism and a modification in Stefan-Boltzmann law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. As it is well-known, gauge fields that emerge from the gauge principle are massless vector fields. Considering the photon as a Proca particle, experience sets an upper limit on its mass. This limit is mProca -17eV (PDG 2006). However, a mass term, regardless how small, breaks the gauge symmetry. Nevertheless, there exists a theory in which is possible to introduce a mass term preserving all symmetries of Maxwell electromagnetism, including the gauge one: such theory is known as Podolsky Electromagnetism. Podolsky theory is a second- order-derivative theory and has some remarkable properties, despite those already mentioned: the theory has two sectors, a massive one and massless one, it depends on a free parameter (which happens to be the mass of the massive sector) that, like all other elementary particles's masses of the Standard Model, must be fixed through experiences, and the fact that the electrostatic potential is finite everywhere, including over a punctual charge. Just like Maxwell electromagnetism, Podolsky's is a constrained theory and, since it is of second order in the derivatives, it consists in a much richer theoretical structure. Therefore, from both, theoretical and experimental points of view, Podolsky electromagnetism is a very attractive theory. In this work we study a gas of Podolsky photons at finite temperature through path integration. We show that the massless sector leads to the famous Planck's law for black-body radiation and, therefore, to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We also show that the massive sector of the Podolsky theory induces a modification in both these laws. It is possible to set limits on the Podolsky parameter through comparison of our results with data from cosmic microwave background radiation. (author)

  18. Collisions involving positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress on the scattering of an ortho-positronium beam is reviewed. Similarities are noted amongst the total cross-sections for positronium scattering from various targets. The integrated Ps fragmentation cross-sections, determined by detecting each of the ejected particles, are presented for collisions with He and Xe atoms. In the case of He, a good agreement is found with theory, whilst preliminary results for Xe suggests that significant target ionisation occurs for this target at 30 eV Ps impact energy

  19. Evolution of a double-front Rayleigh-Taylor system using a GPU-based high resolution thermal Lattice-Boltzmann model

    CERN Document Server

    Ripesi, P; Schifano, S F; Tripiccione, R

    2014-01-01

    We study the turbulent evolution originated from a system subjected to a Rayleigh-Taylor instability with a double density at high resolution in a 2 dimensional geometry using a highly optimized thermal Lattice Boltzmann code for GPUs. The novelty of our investigation stems from the initial condition, given by the superposition of three layers with three different densities, leading to the development of two Rayleigh-Taylor fronts that expand upward and downward and collide in the middle of the cell. By using high resolution numerical data we highlight the effects induced by the collision of the two turbulent fronts in the long time asymptotic regime. We also provide details on the optimized Lattice-Boltzmann code that we have run on a cluster of GPUs

  20. Collisions of relativistic clusters and the formation of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform numerical simulations of head-on collisions of relativistic clusters. The cluster particles interact only gravitationally, and so satisfy the collisionless Boltzmann equation in general relativity. We construct and follow the evolution of three classes of initial configurations: spheres of particles at rest; spheres of particles boosted towards each other; and spheres of particles in circular orbits about their respective centers. In the first two cases, the spheres implode towards their centers and may form black holes before colliding. These scenarios thus can be used to study the head-on collision of two black holes. In the third case the clusters are initially in equilibrium and cannot implode. In this case collision from rest leads either to coalescence and virialization, or collapse to a black hole. This scenario is the collisionless analog of colliding neutron stars in relativistic hydrodynamics

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Fluid on a Square Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Hai

    2000-01-01

    A two-level four-direction lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a square lattice to simulate compressible flows with a high Mach number. The particle velocities are adaptive to the mean velocity and internal energy. Therefore, the mean flow can have a high Mach number. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the 4th order velocity tensors are not involved in the calculations. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, o special treatment is need for the homogeneity of 4th order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were derived by the Chapman-Enskog method from the BGK Boltzmann equation. The model can be easily extended to three-dimensional cubic lattices. Two-dimensional shock-wave propagation was simulated

  2. Systematic Study of the Boundary Composition in Poisson Boltzmann Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, P; Hansmann, U H E; Hoefinger, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe a three-stage procedure to analyze the dependence of Poisson Boltzmann calculations on the shape, size and geometry of the boundary between solute and solvent. Our study is carried out within the boundary element formalism, but our results are also of interest to finite difference techniques of Poisson Boltzmann calculations. At first, we identify the critical size of the geometrical elements for discretizing the boundary, and thus the necessary resolution required to establish numerical convergence. In the following two steps we perform reference calculations on a set of dipeptides in different conformations using the Polarizable Continuum Model and a high-level Density Functional as well as a high-quality basis set. Afterwards, we propose a mechanism for defining appropriate boundary geometries. Finally, we compare the classic Poisson Boltzmann description with the Quantum Chemical description, and aim at finding appropriate fitting parameters to get a close match to the reference data. Surprisi...

  3. On a Boltzmann-type price formation model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2013-06-26

    In this paper, we present a Boltzmann-type price formation model, which is motivated by a parabolic free boundary model for the evolution of price presented by Lasry and Lions in 2007. We discuss the mathematical analysis of the Boltzmann-type model and show that its solutions converge to solutions of the model by Lasry and Lions as the transaction rate tends to infinity. Furthermore, we analyse the behaviour of the initial layer on the fast time scale and illustrate the price dynamics with various numerical experiments. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Axisymmetric multiphase Lattice Boltzmann method for generic equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Reijers, Sten A; Toschi, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We present an axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann model based on the Kupershtokh et al. multiphase model that is capable of solving liquid-gas density ratios up to $10^3$. Appropriate source terms are added to the lattice Boltzmann evolution equation to fully recover the axisymmetric multiphase conservation equations. We validate the model by showing that a stationary droplet obeys the Young-Laplace law, comparing the second oscillation mode of a droplet with respect to an analytical solution and showing correct mass conservation of a propagating density wave.

  5. Multiphase lattice Boltzmann simulations for porous media applications -- a review

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Haihu; Leonardi, Christopher R; Jones, Bruce D; Schmieschek, Sebastian; Narváez, Ariel; Williams, John R; Valocchi, Albert J; Harting, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, lattice Boltzmann methods have become an increasingly popular tool to compute the flow in complex geometries such as porous media. In addition to single phase simulations allowing, for example, a precise quantification of the permeability of a porous sample, a number of extensions to the lattice Boltzmann method are available which allow to study multiphase and multicomponent flows on a pore scale level. In this article we give an extensive overview on a number of these diffuse interface models and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we shortly report on multiphase flows containing solid particles, as well as implementation details and optimization issues.

  6. Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport Model

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Tan; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A Linear Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of jet propagation inside a quark-gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are transported according to the Boltzmann equations to account for jet-induced medium excitations. In this talk, we present our study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate elastic energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile.

  7. Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2000-01-01

    Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.

  8. Boltzmann learning of parameters in cellular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    1992-01-01

    The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified ...... unsupervised adaptation of an image segmentation cellular network. The learning rule is applied to adaptive segmentation of satellite imagery......The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified by...

  9. Progress in lattice Boltzmann methods for magnetohydrodynamic flows relevant to fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is presented. The dynamics of the flow are simulated using a so-called multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), in which a source term is included for the Lorentz force. The evolution of the magnetic induction is represented by introducing a vector distribution function and then solving an appropriate lattice kinetic equation for this function. The solution of both distribution functions are obtained through a simple, explicit, and computationally efficient stream-and-collide procedure. The use of the MRT collision term enhances the numerical stability over that of a single relaxation time approach. To apply the methodology to solving practical problems, a new extrapolation-based method for imposing magnetic boundary conditions is introduced and a technique for simulating steady-state flows with low magnetic Prandtl number is developed. In order to resolve thin layers near the walls arising in the presence of high magnetic fields, a non-uniform gridding strategy is introduced through an interpolated-streaming step applied to both distribution functions. These advances are particularly important for applications in fusion engineering where liquid metal flows with low magnetic Prandtl numbers and high Hartmann numbers are introduced. A number of MHD benchmark problems, under various physical and geometrical conditions are presented, including 3-D MHD lid driven cavity flow, high Hartmann number flows and turbulent MHD flows, with good agreement with prior data. Due to the local nature of the method, the LBM also demonstrated excellent performance on parallel machines, with almost linear scaling up to 128 processors for a MHD flow problem

  10. Formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics and its applications in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, Amaresh

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic fluid dynamics finds application in astrophysics, cosmology and the physics of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, we present our work on the formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics within the framework of relativistic kinetic theory. We employ the second law of thermodynamics as well as the relativistic Boltzmann equation to obtain the dissipative evolution equations. We present a new derivation of the dissipative hydrodynamic equations using the second law of thermodynamics wherein all the second-order transport coefficients get determined uniquely within a single theoretical framework. An alternate derivation of the dissipative equations which does not make use of the two major approximations/assumptions namely, Grad's 14-moment approximation and second moment of Boltzmann equation, inherent in the Israel-Stewart theory, is also presented. Moreover, by solving the Boltzmann equation iteratively in a Chapman-Enskog like expansion, we have derived the form of second-...

  11. Dual Lattice Boltzmann method for electrokinetic coupling : behavior at high and low salinities in rough channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Jouniaux, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    We study the coupling between hydraulic and electric flows in a porous medium at small scale using the Lattice Boltzmann method. This method is a computational fluid dynamics technique that is used for advection and diffusion modeling. We implement a coupled Lattice Boltzmann algorithm that solves both the mass transport and the electric field arising from charges displacements. The streaming potential and electroosmosis phenomena occur in a variety of situations and derive from this coupling. We focus on the streaming potential which is described using the ratio between the created potential difference and the applied pressure gradient. The streaming potential is assumed to be a linear function of the fluid conductivity, but experimental results highlight anomalous behaviors at low and high salinity. We try to account for them by setting extreme conditions that are likely to generate non-linearities. Several pore radii are tested so as to determine what is the effect of a radius that is comparable to the Debye length, the screening length of the electric potential, due to the ions in the electrolyte. The volumetric integral of the electrical current is calculated for comparison with the 2D simulations. High values of zeta potential are tested to verify if the discrepancy regarding the theoretical result is concentration-dependent. We try to include a surface conductivity term in the coefficient formulation. Some tests including a rugosity on the channel walls are performed. All of these attempts show a normal behaviour of the streaming potential at high salinity. We observe a decrease of the ratio at low conductivity, showing that this ratio is modified when the pore radius becomes negligible compared with the Debye length, which is physically meaningful in little pores at low concentrations. References : S. Pride. Governing equations for the coupled electromagnetics and acoustics of porous media. Physical Review B, 50 : 15678-15696, 1994. D. A. Wolf

  12. Deviation from Boltzmann distribution in excited energy levels of singly-ionized iron in an argon glow discharge plasma for atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2012-01-15

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron ionic lines having excitation energies of 4.7-9.1 eV was investigated in an argon glow discharge plasma when the discharge parameters, such as the voltage/current and the gas pressure, were varied. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed in a DC voltage range of 400-800 V at argon pressures of 400-930 Pa. The plot did not follow a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but it yielded a normal Boltzmann distribution in the range of 4.7-5.8 eV and a large overpopulation in higher-lying excitation levels of iron ion. A probable reason for this phenomenon is that excitations for higher excited energy levels of iron ion would be predominantly caused by non-thermal collisions with argon species, the internal energy of which is received by iron atoms for the ionization. Particular intense ionic lines, which gave a maximum peak of the Boltzmann plot, were observed at an excitation energy of ca. 7.7 eV. They were the Fe II 257.297-nm and the Fe II 258.111-nm lines, derived from the 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels. The 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels can be highly populated through a resonance charge transfer from the ground state of argon ion, because of good matching in the excitation energy as well as the conservation of the total spin before and after the collision. An enhancement factor of the emission intensity for various Fe II lines could be obtained from a deviation from the normal Boltzmann plot, which comprised the emission lines of 4.7-5.8 eV. It would roughly correspond to a contribution of the charge transfer excitation to the excited levels of iron ion, suggesting that the charge-transfer collision could elevate the number density of the corresponding excited levels by a factor of ca.10{sup 4}. The Boltzmann plots give important information on the reason why a variety of iron ionic lines can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas.

  13. Deviation from Boltzmann distribution in excited energy levels of singly-ionized iron in an argon glow discharge plasma for atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron ionic lines having excitation energies of 4.7–9.1 eV was investigated in an argon glow discharge plasma when the discharge parameters, such as the voltage/current and the gas pressure, were varied. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed in a DC voltage range of 400–800 V at argon pressures of 400–930 Pa. The plot did not follow a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but it yielded a normal Boltzmann distribution in the range of 4.7–5.8 eV and a large overpopulation in higher-lying excitation levels of iron ion. A probable reason for this phenomenon is that excitations for higher excited energy levels of iron ion would be predominantly caused by non-thermal collisions with argon species, the internal energy of which is received by iron atoms for the ionization. Particular intense ionic lines, which gave a maximum peak of the Boltzmann plot, were observed at an excitation energy of ca. 7.7 eV. They were the Fe II 257.297-nm and the Fe II 258.111-nm lines, derived from the 3d54s4p 6P excited levels. The 3d54s4p 6P excited levels can be highly populated through a resonance charge transfer from the ground state of argon ion, because of good matching in the excitation energy as well as the conservation of the total spin before and after the collision. An enhancement factor of the emission intensity for various Fe II lines could be obtained from a deviation from the normal Boltzmann plot, which comprised the emission lines of 4.7–5.8 eV. It would roughly correspond to a contribution of the charge transfer excitation to the excited levels of iron ion, suggesting that the charge-transfer collision could elevate the number density of the corresponding excited levels by a factor of ca.104. The Boltzmann plots give important information on the reason why a variety of iron ionic lines can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas.

  14. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  15. Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the Maxwell-Boltzman

  16. The Boltzmann-Hamel Equations for Optimal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Maruskin, Jared M.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2007-01-01

    We extend the Boltzmann-Hamel equations to the optimal control setting, producing a set of equations for both kinematic and dynamic nonholonomic optimal control problems. In particular, we will show the dynamic optimal control problem can be written as a minimal set of 4n-2m first order differential equations of motion.

  17. Metamaterial characterization using Boltzmann's kinetic equation for electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Novitsky, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Statistical properties of electrons in metals are taken into consideration to describe the microscopic motion of electrons. Assuming degenerate electron gas in metal, we introduce the Boltzmann kinetic equation to supplement Maxwell's equations. The solution of these equations clearly shows the...

  18. Thermal creep problems by the discrete Boltzmann equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Preziosi

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an initial-boundary value problem for the discrete Boltzmann equation confined between two moving walls at different temperature. A model suitable for the quantitative analysis of the initial boundary value problem and the relative existence theorem are given.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of attenuation-driven acoustic streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that lattice Boltzmann simulations can be used to model the attenuation-driven acoustic streaming produced by a travelling wave. Comparisons are made to analytical results and to the streaming pattern produced by an imposed body force approximating the Reynolds stresses. We predict the streaming patterns around a porous material in an attenuating acoustic field

  20. On the linearized relativistic Boltzmann equation. II. Existence of hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions are analyzed of the linearized relativistic Boltzmann equation for initial data from L2(r, p) in long-time and/or small-mean-free-path limits. In both limits solutions of this equation converge to approximate ones constructed with solutions of the set of differential equations called the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics

  1. Existence of the scattering operator for the linear Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existence theorems are proven in a study of the scattering problem for the linear Boltzmann equation (transport equation), describing the motion of a cloud of nonself-interacting particles (neutrons) in phase space. Also Simon's weak coupling result is discussed, and a meaningful wave operator in the presence of trapped particles is defined and its existence proven. 7 references

  2. Measuring Boltzmann's Constant with Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present two experiments to measure Boltzmann's constant--one of the fundamental constants of modern-day physics, which lies at the base of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The experiments use very basic theory, simple equipment and cheap and safe materials yet provide very precise results. They are very easy and…

  3. Poisson-Boltzmann thermodynamics of counterions confined by curved hard walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamaj, Ladislav; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We consider a set of identical mobile pointlike charges (counterions) confined to a domain with curved hard walls carrying a uniform fixed surface charge density, the system as a whole being electroneutral. Three domain geometries are considered: a pair of parallel plates, the cylinder, and the sphere. The particle system in thermal equilibrium is assumed to be described by the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. While the effectively one-dimensional plates and the two-dimensional cylinder have already been solved, the three-dimensional sphere problem is not integrable. It is shown that the contact density of particles at the charged surface is determined by a first-order Abel differential equation of the second kind which is a counterpart of Enig's equation in the critical theory of gravitation and combustion or explosion. This equation enables us to construct the exact series solutions of the contact density in the regions of small and large surface charge densities. The formalism provides, within the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann framework, the complete thermodynamics of counterions inside a charged sphere (salt-free system). PMID:26871116

  4. Poisson-Boltzmann thermodynamics of counterions confined by curved hard walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamaj, Ladislav; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We consider a set of identical mobile pointlike charges (counterions) confined to a domain with curved hard walls carrying a uniform fixed surface charge density, the system as a whole being electroneutral. Three domain geometries are considered: a pair of parallel plates, the cylinder, and the sphere. The particle system in thermal equilibrium is assumed to be described by the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. While the effectively one-dimensional plates and the two-dimensional cylinder have already been solved, the three-dimensional sphere problem is not integrable. It is shown that the contact density of particles at the charged surface is determined by a first-order Abel differential equation of the second kind which is a counterpart of Enig's equation in the critical theory of gravitation and combustion or explosion. This equation enables us to construct the exact series solutions of the contact density in the regions of small and large surface charge densities. The formalism provides, within the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann framework, the complete thermodynamics of counterions inside a charged sphere (salt-free system).

  5. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of various aspects of heavy-ion collisions were carried out in the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin Model (BLM). In a previous work, by projection the BLM onto a collective space, a memory-dependent collective transport model was reduced. This model was applied to thermal fission to investigate the influence of the memory effects on the fission dynamics. Some results of the calculations are presented. In addition a reduction of the relativistic BLM to a two-fluid model was carried out, and transport coefficients associated with fluid dynamical variables was carried out. Then this model was applied to investigate equilabration and fluctuation properties in a counter-streaming nuclear fluid

  6. Application of the Non-extensive Statistical Approach to High Energy Particle Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bíró, Gábor; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Ürmössy, Károly

    2016-01-01

    In high-energy collisions the number of the created particles is far less than the thermodynamic limit, especially in small colliding systems (e.g. proton-proton). Therefore final-state effects and fluctuations in the one-particle energy distribution are appreciable. As a consequence the characterization of identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann\\,--\\,Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insufficient. Instead particle spectra measured in high-energy collisions can be described very well with Tsallis\\,--\\,Pareto distributions, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics. Using the Tsallis q-entropy formula, a generalization of the Boltzmann\\,--\\,Gibbs entropy, we interpret the microscopical physics by analysing the Tsallis $q$ and $T$ parameters. In this paper we give a quick overview on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center of mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on this energy and on the particle species. Our f...

  7. Solution of the one-dimensional linear Boltzmann equation for charged Maxwellian particles in an external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one-dimensional linear homogeneous Boltzmann equation is solved for a binary mixture of quasi-Maxwellian particles in the presence of a time-dependent external field. It is assumed that the charged particles move in a bath of neutral scatterers. The neutral scatterers are in thermal equilibrium and the concentration of the charged particles is low enough to neglect collisions between them. Two cases are considered in detail, the constant and the periodic external field. The quantities calculated are the equilibrium and the stationary distribution function, respectively, from which any desired property can be derived. The solution of the Boltzmann equation for Maxwellian particles can be reduced to the solution of the so-called cold gas equation by employing the one-dimensional variant of a convolution theorem due to Wannier. The two limiting cases, the Lorentz gas (m/sub A/ → 0) and the Rayleigh gas (m/sub a/ → ∞) are treated explicitly. Furthermore, by computing the central moments, the deviations from the Gaussian approximation are discussed, and in particular the large-velocity tails are evaluated

  8. Measurement of the integrated and differential t-tbar production cross sections for high-pt top quarks in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-04-30

    The cross section for pair production of top quarks (t-tbar) with high transverse momenta is measured in pp collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with sqrt(s) = 8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse-femtobarns. The measurement is performed using lepton+jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark pt and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be sigma[t-tbar] = 0.499 +/- 0.035 (stat+syst) +/- 0.095 (theory) +/- 0.013 (lumi) pb for top quark pt > 400 GeV. The parton-level measurement is sigma[t-tbar] = 1.44 +/- 0.10 (stat+syst) +/- 0.29 (theory) +/- 0.04 (lumi) pb. The integrated and differential cross section results are compared to predictions from several event generators.

  9. Numerical Predictions of Effective Thermal Conductivities for Three-dimensional Four-directional Braided Composites Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Wen-Zhen; Zhang, Hu; Chen, Li; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model with an off-diagonal collision matrix was adopted to predict the effective thermal conductivities of the anisotropic heterogeneous materials whose components are also anisotropic. The half lattice division scheme was adopted to deal with the internal boundaries to guarantee the heat flux continuity at the interfaces. Accuracy of the model was confirmed by comparisons with benchmark results and existing simulation data. The present method was then adopted to numerically predict the transverse and longitudinal effective thermal conductivities of three-dimensional (3D) four-directional braided composites. Some corresponding experiments based on the Hot Disk method were conducted to measure their transverse and longitudinal effective thermal conductivities. The predicted data fit the experiment data well. Influences of fiber volume fractions and interior braiding angles on the effective thermal conductivities of 3D four-directional braided composit...

  10. Global well-posedness for the Fokker-Planck-Boltzmann equation in Besov-Chemin-Lerner type spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengrong; Tang, Hao

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, motivated by [16], we use the Littlewood-Paley theory to establish some estimates on the nonlinear collision term, which enable us to investigate the Cauchy problem of the Fokker-Planck-Boltzmann equation. When the initial data is a small perturbation of the Maxwellian equilibrium state, under the Grad's angular cutoff assumption, the unique global solution for the hard potential case is obtained in the Besov-Chemin-Lerner type spaces C ([ 0 , ∞) ; L˜>ξ 2 (B2,rs)) with 1 ≤ r ≤ 2 and s > 3 / 2 or s = 3 / 2 and r = 1. Besides, we also obtain the uniform stability of the dependence on the initial data.

  11. Soliton collisions and integrable aspects of the fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equation for shallow water with surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Shan, Wen-Rui; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Pan; Tian, Bo

    2015-02-01

    The fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation works as a model for the shallow water waves with surface tension. Through symbolic computation, binary Bell-polynomial approach and auxiliary independent variable, the bilinear forms, N-soliton solutions, two different Bell-polynomial-type Bäcklund transformations, Lax pair and infinite conservation laws are obtained. Characteristic-line method is applied to discuss the effects of linear wave speed c as well as length scales τ and γ on the soliton amplitudes and velocities. Increase of τ, c and γ can lead to the increase of the soliton velocity. Soliton amplitude increases with the increase of τ. The larger-amplitude soliton is seen to move faster and then to overtake the smaller one. After the collision, the solitons keep their original shapes and velocities invariant except for the phase shift. Graphic analysis on the two and three-soliton solutions indicates that the overtaking collisions between/among the solitons are all elastic.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of pressure-driven flows in microchannels using Navier–Maxwell slip boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We present lattice Boltzmann simulations of rarefied flows driven by pressure drops along two-dimensional microchannels. Rarefied effects lead to non-zero cross-channel velocities, nonlinear variations in the pressure along the channel. Both effects are absent in flows driven by uniform body forces. We obtain second-order accuracy for the two components of velocity the pressure relative to asymptotic solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions. Since the common lattice Boltzmann formulations cannot capture Knudsen boundary layers, we replace the usual discrete analogs of the specular diffuse reflection conditions from continuous kinetic theory with a moment-based implementation of the first-order Navier-Maxwell slip boundary conditions that relate the tangential velocity to the strain rate at the boundary. We use these conditions to solve for the unknown distribution functions that propagate into the domain across the boundary. We achieve second-order accuracy by reformulating these conditions for the second set of distribution functions that arise in the derivation of the lattice Boltzmann method by an integration along characteristics. Our moment formalism is also valuable for analysing the existing boundary conditions. It reveals the origin of numerical slip in the bounce-back other common boundary conditions that impose conditions on the higher moments, not on the local tangential velocity itself. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics and its applications in heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Amaresh

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic fluid dynamics finds application in astrophysics, cosmology and the physics of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, we present our work on the formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics within the framework of relativistic kinetic theory. We employ the second law of thermodynamics as well as the relativistic Boltzmann equation to obtain the dissipative evolution equations. We present a new derivation of the dissipative hydrodynamic equations using the sec...

  14. Collision effects on the saturated electrostatic potential along a magnetic field line

    OpenAIRE

    Katanuma, I.; Tatematsu, Y; Ishii, K.; Saito, T.; Yatsu, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Coulomb collision effects on a saturated electrostatic potential (plug potential) formation in the end-mirror cell of a tandem mirror were investigated by a Monte Carlo simulation of ion orbits. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function, which leads to a modified Boltzmann law, is assumed to obtain the electrostatic potential. An ion velocity distribution is determined by the Monte Carlo simulation of ions. It was found that a saturated electrostatic potential is formed in a wide ra...

  15. Collision Risk and Damage after Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a new and complete procedure for calculation of ship-ship collision rates on specific routes and the hull damage caused by such collisions.The procedure is applied to analysis of collision risks for Ro-Ro pasenger vessels. Given a collision the spatial probability distribution of...... are presented for threee different Ro-Ro passenger vessels of length 98 m 150 m and 180 m, respectively operating at three different routes. These routes are the Danish Great Belt route, a Finland-Sweden route and the Dover-Calais route....

  16. Search for direct top squark pair production in the fully hadronic final state in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 12.9/fb

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for direct production of top squark pairs in events with jets and large transverse momentum imbalance is presented. The data were collected in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 12.9/fb. Two analyses are performed, a ``low $\\Delta m$" analysis that targets scenarios with a very small difference in mass between the top squark and the neutralino, and a ``high $\\Delta m$" analysis that targets topologies typical for larger mass splittings. No significant excess of events above the expected background from standard model processes is observed. Exclusion limits are set in the context of simplified models of top squark pair production under various decay hypotheses, ranging up to 860 GeV in the case of the high $\\Delta m$ analysis and up to 450 GeV in the case of the low $\\Delta m$ analysis.

  17. Entanglement generation by collisions of quantum solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Malomed, Boris A.

    2009-01-01

    We present analytic expressions describing generation of the entanglement in collisions of initially uncorrelated quantum solitons. The results, obtained by means of the Born's approximation (for fast solitons), are valid for both integrable and non-integrable quasi-one-dimensional systems supporting soliton states.

  18. Elliptic Flow and Jet Quenching of a Parton System after Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Ghi R

    2007-01-01

    We obtain the initial phase space distribution after relativistic heavy ion collision by the CGC shattering method incorporating the uncertainty principle and solve the semi-classical Boltzmann equation which includes the gluon radiation processes. We present as a function of time the attenuation rate of high $p_T$ partons, which have transverse momenta over 6 $GeV/c$, in the medium which is formed after relativistic heavy ion collision. We calculate the elliptic flow as a function of an impact parameter, time and transverse momentum and also present the polar anisotropy, which gives the initial condition for color filamentation.

  19. Investigation of an entropic stabilizer for the lattice-Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Keijo K; Hegele, Luiz A; Philippi, Paulo C

    2015-06-01

    The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method is commonly used for the simulation of fluid flows at the hydrodynamic level of description. Due to its kinetic theory origins, the standard LB schemes carry more degrees of freedom than strictly needed, e.g., for the approximation of solutions to the Navier-stokes equation. In particular, there is freedom in the details of the so-called collision operator. This aspect was recently utilized when an entropic stabilizer, based on the principle of maximizing local entropy, was proposed for the LB method [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014)]. The proposed stabilizer can be considered as an add-on or extension to basic LB schemes. Here the entropic stabilizer is investigated numerically using the perturbed double periodic shear layer flow as a benchmark case. The investigation is carried out by comparing numerical results obtained with six distinct LB schemes. The main observation is that the unbounded, and not explicitly controllable, relaxation time for the higher-order moments will directly influence the leading-order error terms. As a consequence, the order of accuracy and, in general, the numerical behavior of LB schemes are substantially altered. Hence, in addition to systematic numerical validation, more detailed theoretical analysis of the entropic stabilizer is still required in order to properly understand its properties. PMID:26172795

  20. Derivation of relativistic hydrodynamic equations consistent with relativistic Boltzmann equation by renormalization-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review our work on the application of the renormalization-group method to obtain first- and second-order relativistic hydrodynamics from the relativistic Boltzmann equation (RBE) as a dynamical system, with some corrections and new unpublished results. For the first-order equation, we explicitly obtain the distribution function in the asymptotic regime as the invariant manifold of the dynamical system, which turns out to be nothing but the matching condition defining the energy frame, i.e., the Landau-Lifshitz one. It is argued that the frame on which the flow of the relativistic hydrodynamic equation is defined must be the energy frame, if the dynamics should be consistent with the underlying RBE. A sketch is also given for derivation of the second-order hydrodynamic equation, i.e., extended thermodynamics, which is accomplished by extending the invariant manifold so that it is spanned by excited modes as well as the zero modes (hydrodynamic modes) of the linearized collision operator. On the basis of thus constructed resummed distribution function, we propose a novel ansatz for the functional form to be used in Grad moment method; it is shown that our theory gives the same expressions for the transport coefficients as those given in the Chapman-Enskog theory as well as the novel expressions for the relaxation times and lengths allowing natural interpretation. (orig.)

  1. Lattice Boltzmann model for free-surface flow and its application to filling process in casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized lattice Boltzmann model to simulate free-surface is constructed in both two and three dimensions. The proposed model satisfies the interfacial boundary conditions accurately. A distinctive feature of the model is that the collision processes is carried out only on the points occupied partially or fully by the fluid. To maintain a sharp interfacial front, the method includes an anti-diffusion algorithm. The unknown distribution functions at the interfacial region are constructed according to the first-order Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interfacial boundary conditions are satisfied exactly by the coefficients in the Chapman-Enskog expansion. The distribution functions are naturally expressed in the local interfacial coordinates. The macroscopic quantities at the interface are extracted from the least-square solutions of a locally linearized system obtained from the known distribution functions. The proposed method does not require any geometric front construction and is robust for any interfacial topology. Simulation results of realistic filling process are presented: rectangular cavity in two dimensions and Hammer box, Campbell box, Sheffield box, and Motorblock in three dimensions. To enhance the stability at high Reynolds numbers, various upwind-type schemes are developed. Free-slip and no-slip boundary conditions are also discussed

  2. An efficient three-dimensional multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Hong; Chai, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is developed for the simulation of multiphase flows. This model is an extension of our previous two-dimensional model (H. Liang, B. C. Shi, Z. L. Guo, and Z. H. Chai, Phys. Rev. E. 89, 053320 (2014)) to the three dimensions using the D3Q7 (seven discrete velocities in three dimensions) lattice for the Chan-Hilliard equation (CHE) and the D3Q15 lattice for the Navier-Stokes equations (NSEs). Due to the smaller lattice-velocity numbers used, the computional efficiency can be significantly improved in simulating real three-dimensional flows, and simultaneously the present model can recover to the CHE and NSEs correctly through the chapman-Enskog procedure. We compare the present MRT model with the single-relaxation-time model and the previous three-dimensional LB model using two benchmark interface-tracking problems, and numerical results show that the present MRT model can achieve a ...

  3. Derivation of relativistic hydrodynamic equations consistent with relativistic Boltzmann equation by renoramalization-group method

    CERN Document Server

    Tsumura, Kyosuke

    2012-01-01

    We apply the renormalization-group method to obtain the first-order relativistic hydrodynamics of the relativistic Boltzmann equation (RBE) as a dynamical system: We explicitly obtain the distribution function in the asymptotic regime as the invariant manifold of the dynamical system, which turns out to be nothing but the matching condition defining the energy frame. It is argued that the frame on which the flow of relativistic hydrodynamic equation is defined must be the energy frame, i.e., the Landau-Lifshitz one, if the dynamics should be consistent with the underlying RBE. A sketch is also given for derivation of the second-order hydrodynamic equation, i.e., extended thermodynamics, which is accomplished by extending the invariant manifold so that it is spanned by excited modes as well as the zero modes (hydrodynamic modes) of the linearized collision operator. On the basis of thus constructed resummed distribution function, we propose a novel ansatz for the functional form to be used in Grad moment metho...

  4. Derivation of relativistic hydrodynamic equations consistent with relativistic Boltzmann equation by renormalization-group method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, Kyosuke [Fujifilm Corporation, Analysis Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Kunihiro, Teiji [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    We review our work on the application of the renormalization-group method to obtain first- and second-order relativistic hydrodynamics from the relativistic Boltzmann equation (RBE) as a dynamical system, with some corrections and new unpublished results. For the first-order equation, we explicitly obtain the distribution function in the asymptotic regime as the invariant manifold of the dynamical system, which turns out to be nothing but the matching condition defining the energy frame, i.e., the Landau-Lifshitz one. It is argued that the frame on which the flow of the relativistic hydrodynamic equation is defined must be the energy frame, if the dynamics should be consistent with the underlying RBE. A sketch is also given for derivation of the second-order hydrodynamic equation, i.e., extended thermodynamics, which is accomplished by extending the invariant manifold so that it is spanned by excited modes as well as the zero modes (hydrodynamic modes) of the linearized collision operator. On the basis of thus constructed resummed distribution function, we propose a novel ansatz for the functional form to be used in Grad moment method; it is shown that our theory gives the same expressions for the transport coefficients as those given in the Chapman-Enskog theory as well as the novel expressions for the relaxation times and lengths allowing natural interpretation. (orig.)

  5. The scattering kernel of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation and its expansion into spherical harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of polynomial approximation i.e. the expansion of the particle density into spherical harmonics, well-known in the linear transport theory, has been generalized by F. Schuerrer 1984 to the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. For practical purposes, a truncation of the series expansion after a few terms requires a good convergence of the scattering kernel expansion into Legendre polynomials. In the present work a few simple examples are used to investigate the convergence. In the most simple case, the elastic collision on a fixed target, the PN-approximations of the scattering kernel in the linear theory serves as a standard of reference for the nonlinear case. A parameter study shows the different approximations as compared to the exact function. Then a more realistic model, a Maxwell gas of target particles, of different temperatures is investigated. The results of this parameter study are represented by three-dimensional computer graphics. In the last chapter the results are applied to the system of moment equations where a considerable simplification is justified for nearly isotropic velocity distributions. It is concluded that nonlinear transport not-too-far from equilibrium can be well described by a Pn approximation. 8 refs., 35 figs. (qui)

  6. Relativistic causal hydrodynamics derived from Boltzmann equation: A novel reduction theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Kyosuke; Kikuchi, Yuta; Kunihiro, Teiji

    2015-10-01

    We derive the second-order hydrodynamic equation and the microscopic formulas of the relaxation times as well as the transport coefficients systematically from the relativistic Boltzmann equation. Our derivation is based on a novel development of the renormalization-group method, a powerful reduction theory of dynamical systems, which has been applied successfully to derive the nonrelativistic second-order hydrodynamic equation. Our theory nicely gives a compact expression of the deviation of the distribution function in terms of the linearized collision operator, which is different from those used as an ansatz in the conventional fourteen-moment method. It is confirmed that the resultant microscopic expressions of the transport coefficients coincide with those derived in the Chapman-Enskog expansion method. Furthermore, we show that the microscopic expressions of the relaxation times have natural and physically plausible forms. We prove that the propagating velocities of the fluctuations of the hydrodynamical variables do not exceed the light velocity, and hence our second-order equation ensures the desired causality. It is also confirmed that the equilibrium state is stable for any perturbation described by our equation.

  7. Boltzmann-equation simulations of radio-frequency-driven, low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation (BE) describing plasma electrons. We apply the method to a capacitively-coupled, radio-frequency-driven He discharge in parallel-plate (quasi-1D) geometry which contains time scales for physical processes spanning six orders of magnitude. Our BE solution procedure uses the method of characteristics for the Vlasov operator with interpolation in phase space at early time, allowing storage of the distribution function on a fixed phase-space grid. By alternating this BE method with a fluid description of the electrons, or with a novel time-cycle-average equation method, we compute the periodic steady state of a He plasma by time evolution from startup conditions. We find that the results compare favorably with measured current-voltage, plasma density, and ''cited state densities in the ''GEC'' Reference Cell. Our atomic He model includes five levels (some are summed composites), 15 electronic transitions, radiation trapping, and metastable-metastable collisions

  8. Solving the Homogeneous Boltzmann Equation with Arbitrary Scattering Kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Hohenegger, A

    2008-01-01

    With applications in astroparticle physics in mind, we generalize a method for the solution of the nonlinear, space homogeneous Boltzmann equation with isotropic distribution function to arbitrary matrix elements. The method is based on the expansion of the matrix element in terms of two cosines of the "scattering angles". The scattering functions used by previous authors in particle physics for matrix elements in Fermi-approximation are retrieved as lowest order results in this expansion. The method is designed for the unified treatment of reactive mixtures of particles obeying different scattering laws, including the quantum statistical terms for blocking or stimulated emission, in possibly large networks of Boltzmann equations. Although our notation is the relativistic one, as it is used in astroparticle physics, the results can also be applied in the classical case.

  9. Solving the homogeneous Boltzmann equation with arbitrary scattering kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With applications in astroparticle physics in mind, we generalize a method for the solution of the nonlinear, space-homogeneous Boltzmann equation with an isotropic distribution function to arbitrary matrix elements. The method is based on the expansion of the scattering kernel in terms of two cosines of the 'scattering angles'. The scattering functions used by previous authors in particle physics for matrix elements in the Fermi approximation are retrieved as lowest order results in this expansion. The method is designed for the unified treatment of reactive mixtures of particles obeying different scattering laws, including the quantum statistical terms for blocking or stimulated emission, in possibly large networks of Boltzmann equations. Although our notation is the relativistic one, as it is used in astroparticle physics, the results can also be applied in the classical case.

  10. Boltzmann Samplers, P\\'olya Theory, and Cycle Pointing

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel; Kang, Mihyun; Vigerske, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a general method to count unlabeled combinatorial structures and to efficiently generate them at random. The approach is based on pointing unlabeled structures in an "unbiased" way that a structure of size n gives rise to n pointed structures. We extend Polya theory to the corresponding pointing operator, and present a random sampling framework based on both the principles of Boltzmann sampling and on P\\'olya operators. All previously known unlabeled construction principles for Boltzmann samplers are special cases of our new results. Our method is illustrated on several examples: in each case, we provide enumerative results and efficient random samplers. The approach applies to unlabeled families of plane and nonplane unrooted trees, and tree-like structures in general, but also to families of graphs (such as cacti graphs and outerplanar graphs) and families of planar maps.

  11. Quadrature-based Lattice Boltzmann Model for Relativistic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Blaga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A quadrature-based finite-difference lattice Boltzmann model is developed that is suitable for simulating relativistic flows of massless particles. We briefly review the relativistc Boltzmann equation and present our model. The quadrature is constructed such that the stress-energy tensor is obtained as a second order moment of the distribution function. The results obtained with our model are presented for a particular instance of the Riemann problem (the Sod shock tube). We show that the model is able to accurately capture the behavior across the whole domain of relaxation times, from the hydrodynamic to the ballistic regime. The property of the model of being extendable to arbitrarily high orders is shown to be paramount for the recovery of the analytical result in the ballistic regime.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative Kac's chaos on the Boltzmann's sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Carrapatoso, Kleber

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the construction of chaotic probability measures on the Boltzmann's sphere, which is the state space of the stochastic process of a many-particle system undergoing a dynamics preserving energy and momentum. Firstly, based on a version of the local Central Limit Theorem (or Berry-Essenn theorem), we construct a sequence of probabilities that is Kac chaotic and we prove a quantitative rate of convergence. Then, we investigate a stronger notion of chaos, namely entropic chaos introduced in \\cite{CCLLV}, and we prove, with quantitative rate, that this same sequence is also entropically chaotic. Furthermore, we investigate more general class of probability measures on the Boltzmann's sphere. Using the HWI inequality we prove that a Kac chaotic probability with bounded Fisher's information is entropically chaotic and we give a quantitative rate. We also link different notions of chaos, proving that Fisher's information chaos, introduced in \\cite{HaurayMischler}, is stronger than entropic chaos, which...

  13. Simulation of ship airwakes using a lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first step in analysing the fully-coupled helicopter/ship-airwake environment is to study the airwake of a frigate or frigate-like shape in isolation. This will give an understanding of the flow field that a helicopter pilot will encounter when operating from a maritime platform. The flow around a simplified frigate shape is simulated using a lattice Boltzmann algorithm and the results compared to experimentally obtained surface data. The mean flow field of the unsteady simulations captures all the flow features of the three ship yaw angles studied. The strength of these features as predicted by the numerical simulations decreases slightly in accuracy as the approaching wind angle is increased. The results presented demonstrate the ability of the lattice Boltzmann method to predict accurately the mean airwake of a frigate-like geometry. (author)

  14. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modif...

  15. Modified Lattice Boltzmann method for compressible fluid simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified lattice Boltzmann algorithm is shown to have much better stability to growing temperature perturbations, when compared with the standard lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The damping rates of long-wavelength waves, which determine stability, are derived using a collisional equilibrium distribution function which has the property that the Euler equations are obtained exactly in the limit of zero time step. Using this equilibrium distribution function, we show that our algorithm has inherent positive hyperviscosity and hyperdiffusivity, for very small values of viscosity and thermal diffusivity, which are lacking in the standard algorithm. Short-wavelength modes are shown to be stable for temperatures greater than a lower limit. Results from a computer code are used to compare these algorithms, and to confirm the damping rate predictions made analytically. Finite amplitude sound waves in the simulated fluid steepen, as expected from gas dynamic theory

  16. Modified lattice Boltzmann method for compressible fluid simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, F L; Rosenbluth, M N; Wong, S K; Lin-Liu, Y R; Miller, R L

    2001-06-01

    A modified lattice Boltzmann algorithm is shown to have much better stability to growing temperature perturbations, when compared with the standard lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The damping rates of long-wavelength waves, which determine stability, are derived using a collisional equilibrium distribution function which has the property that the Euler equations are obtained exactly in the limit of zero time step. Using this equilibrium distribution function, we show that our algorithm has inherent positive hyperviscosity and hyperdiffusivity, for very small values of viscosity and thermal diffusivity, which are lacking in the standard algorithm. Short-wavelength modes are shown to be stable for temperatures greater than a lower limit. Results from a computer code are used to compare these algorithms, and to confirm the damping rate predictions made analytically. Finite amplitude sound waves in the simulated fluid steepen, as expected from gas dynamic theory. PMID:11415085

  17. Pointwise Description for the Linearized Fokker-Planck-Boltzmann Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kung-Chien

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the pointwise (in the space variable) behavior of the linearized Fokker-Planck-Boltzmann model for nonsmooth initial perturbations. The result reveals both the fluid and kinetic aspects of this model. The fluid-like waves are constructed as the long-wave expansion in the spectrum of the Fourier modes for the space variable, and it has polynomial time decay rate. We design a Picard-type iteration for constructing the increasingly regular kinetic-like waves, which are carried by the transport equations and have exponential time decay rate. The Mixture Lemma plays an important role in constructing the kinetic-like waves, this lemma was originally introduced by Liu-Yu (Commun Pure Appl Math 57:1543-1608, 2004) for Boltzmann equation, but the Fokker-Planck term in this paper creates some technical difficulties.

  18. Higher-order Boltzmann machines and entropy bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolloni, Bruno; Battistini, Egidio; de Falco, Diego

    1999-07-01

    We examine some aspects of the interface area between mathematical statistics and statistical physics relevant to the study of Boltzmann machines. The Boltzmann machine learning algorithm is based on a variational principle (Gibbs' lemma for relative entropy). This fact suggests the possibility of a scheme of successive approximations: here we consider successive approximations parametrized by the order of many-body interactions among individual units. We prove bounds on the gain in relative entropy in the crucial step of adding, and estimating by Hebb's rule, a new parameter. We address the problem of providing, on the basis of local observations, upper and lower bounds on the entropy. While upper bounds are easily obtained by subadditivity, lower bounds involve localization of Hirschman bounds on a dual quantum system.

  19. Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis verifies classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, S Q; Parikh, A; Daid, K; Bertulani, C

    2014-01-01

    We provide the most stringent constraint to date on possible deviations from the usually-assumed Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) velocity distribution for nuclei in the Big-Bang plasma. The impact of non-extensive Tsallis statistics on thermonuclear reaction rates involved in standard models of Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) has been investigated. We find that the non-extensive parameter $q$ may deviate by, at most, $|\\delta q|$=6$\\times$10$^{-4}$ from unity for BBN predictions to be consistent with observed primordial abundances; $q$=1 represents the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. This constraint arises primarily from the {\\em super}sensitivity of endothermic rates on the value of $q$, which is found for the first time. As such, the implications of non-extensive statistics in other astrophysical environments should be explored. This may offer new insight into the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements.

  20. Structural Image of Arc-Arc Collision in Central Hokkaido, Japan, Revealed from Integrated Analysis for Controlled Source Seismic Data of the 1998-2000 Hokkaido Transect Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Tanio; Kurashimo, Eiji; Tsumura, Noriko; Abe, Susumu; Noda, Katsuya; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    The Hidaka region in the central part of Hokkaido Island, Japan is known as an arc-arc collision zone where the Kuril Arc (southern part of eastern Hokkaido) has been collided against the NE Japan Arc (western Hokkaido) since the middle Miocene. This collision is a controlling factor for the formation of the Hidaka Mountains, the westward obduction of the middle/upper part of lower crustal rocks of the Kuril Arc (the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt) and the development of the foreland fold-and-thrust belt. The Hokkaido Transect Project from 1998 to 2000 was a multidisciplinary effort intended to clarify the structural deformation process associated with the arc-arc collision. The element of the active source experiment in this project was composed of a 227-km seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile running southern part of Hokkaido and three seismic reflection lines from the hinterland to the foreland crossing the Hidaka Mountains. The previous study for these data sets, mainly based on the forward modelling by the ray-tracing technique, revealed the collision structure in the upper and middle crustal levels beneath the Hidaka Mountains, and a thick sedimentary package developed beneath the fold-and-thrust belt (Iwasaki et al., 2004). The data sets collected through this project are of high quality, which enables us to apply more advanced interpretation techniques. Because refraction/wide-angle reflection method and near-vertical reflection profiling are complimentary to each other, simultaneous evaluation for these two kinds of data set is expected to yield significant improvement for structural modelling and its geophysical/geological interpretation. In the present analysis, seismic tomography analysis was applied to a combined set of a large amount of near vertical reflection data and the refraction data. This analysis was mainly undertaken to confirm the validity of the upper 20-km crustal structure deduced from the previous result (Iwasaki et al. 2004) and

  1. Solving the Homogeneous Boltzmann Equation with Arbitrary Scattering Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenegger, A.

    2008-01-01

    With applications in astroparticle physics in mind, we generalize a method for the solution of the nonlinear, space homogeneous Boltzmann equation with isotropic distribution function to arbitrary matrix elements. The method is based on the expansion of the matrix element in terms of two cosines of the "scattering angles". The scattering functions used by previous authors in particle physics for matrix elements in Fermi-approximation are retrieved as lowest order results in this expansion. Th...

  2. Topological interactions in a Boltzmann-type framework

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Adrien; Degond, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We consider a finite number of particles characterised by their positions and velocities. At random times a randomly chosen particle, the follower, adopts the velocity of another particle, the leader. The follower chooses its leader according to the proximity rank of the latter with respect to the former. We study the limit of a system size going to infinity and, under the assumption of propagation of chaos, show that the limit equation is akin to the Boltzmann equation. However , it exhibits...

  3. Coupling Lattice Boltzmann and Molecular Dynamics models for dense fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, A.; Kotsalis, E. M.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a hybrid model, coupling Lattice Boltzmann and Molecular Dynamics models, for the simulation of dense fluids. Time and length scales are decoupled by using an iterative Schwarz domain decomposition algorithm. The MD and LB formulations communicate via the exchange of velocities and velocity gradients at the interface. We validate the present LB-MD model in simulations of flows of liquid argon past and through a carbon nanotube. Comparisons with existing hybrid algorithms and with r...

  4. Discrete Boltzmann model of shallow water equations with polynomial equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Jianping; Emerson, David R; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    A hierarchy of discrete Boltzmann model is proposed for simulating shallow water flows. By using the Hermite expansion and Gauss-Hermite quadrature, the conservation laws are automatically satisfied without extra effort. Moreover, the expansion order and quadrature can be chosen flexibly according to the problem for striking the balance of accuracy and efficiency. The models are then tested using the classical one-dimensional dam-breaking problem, and successes are found for both supercritical and subcritical flows.

  5. Volume-Based Fabric Tensors through Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Smedby, Örjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology to compute fabric tensors from computational fluid dynamics simulations performed through the lattice-Boltzmann method. Trabecular bone is modeled as a pipeline where a synthetic viscous fluid can flow from a single source located at the center of a spherical region of interest toward its boundaries. Two fabric tensors are computed from local velocities at the steady state estimated from the simulations, a tortuosity and a normalized tortuosity tensor.T...

  6. Multi-component lattice-Boltzmann model with interparticle interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Xiaowen; Doolen, Gary

    1995-01-01

    A previously proposed [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 47}, 1815, (1993)] lattice Boltzmann model for simulating fluids with multiple components and interparticle forces is described in detail. Macroscopic equations governing the motion of each component are derived by using Chapman-Enskog method. The mutual diffusivity in a binary mixture is calculated analytically and confirmed by numerical simulation. The diffusivity is generally a function of the concentrations of the two component...

  7. A Lattice Boltzmann model for diffusion of binary gas mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for a binary gas mixture. Specifically, channel flow driven by a density gradient with diffusion slip occurring at the wall is studied in depth. The first part of this thesis sets the foundation for the multi-component model used in the subsequent chapters. Commonly used single component LB methods use a non-physical equation of state, in which the relationship between pressure and density varies according to the sca...

  8. Lattice Boltzmann Method for mixtures at variable Schmidt number

    OpenAIRE

    Monteferrante, Michele; Melchionna, Simone; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo

    2015-01-01

    When simulating multicomponent mixtures via the Lattice Boltzmann Method, it is desirable to control the mutual diffusivity between species while maintaining the viscosity of the solution fixed. This goal is herein achieved by a modification of the multicomponent Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) evolution equations by introducing two different timescales for mass and momentum diffusion. Diffusivity is thus controlled by an effective drag force acting between species. Numerical simulations confirm ...

  9. Average Contrastive Divergence for Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Xuesi Ma; Xiaojie Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies contrastive divergence (CD) learning algorithm and proposes a new algorithm for training restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). We derive that CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient method and make an analysis of the bias. Meanwhile, we propose a new learning algorithm called average contrastive divergence (ACD) for training RBMs. It is an improved CD algorithm, and it is different from the traditional CD algorithm. Finally, we obtain some experimental resul...

  10. Learning Feature Hierarchies with Centered Deep Boltzmann Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Montavon, Grégoire; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2012-01-01

    Deep Boltzmann machines are in principle powerful models for extracting the hierarchical structure of data. Unfortunately, attempts to train layers jointly (without greedy layer-wise pretraining) have been largely unsuccessful. We propose a modification of the learning algorithm that initially recenters the output of the activation functions to zero. This modification leads to a better conditioned Hessian and thus makes learning easier. We test the algorithm on real data and demonstrate that ...

  11. Simulation of particle saltation using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolanský, Jindřich; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel; Kysela, Bohuš

    Delft : Delft University of Technology, 2015. ISBN 978-83-927084-8-3. ISSN 0867-7964. [17th International Conference on Transport and Sedimentation of Solid Particles. Delft (NL), 22.09.2015-25.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18870S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : lattice Boltzmann method * entropic LBM * particle-laden turbulent flow * particle-fluid interaction * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. Simulation of particle saltation using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolanský, Jindřich; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel; Kysela, Bohuš

    Delft : Delft University of Technology, 2015, s. 53-60. ISBN 978-83-927084-8-3. ISSN 0867-7964. [17th International Conference on Transport and Sedimentation of Solid Particles. Delft (NL), 22.09.2015-25.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-18870S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : lattice Boltzmann method * entropic LBM * particle-laden turbulent flow * particle-fluid interaction * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  13. Acoustic levitation and the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterman, S.; Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle of adiabatic invariance relates the acoustic potential acting on a sample positioned in a single-mode cavity to the shift in resonant frequency caused by the presence of this sample. This general and simple relation applies to samples and cavities of arbitrary shape, dimension, and compressibility. Positioning forces and torques can, therefore, be determined from straightforward measurements of frequency shifts. Applications to the Rayleigh disk phenomenon and levitated cylinders are presented.

  14. Measurement of differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for Higgs boson production in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kothekar, K.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Pozniak, K.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão da Cruz E Silva, C.; di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; de La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro de Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras de Saa, J. R.; de Castro Manzano, P.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; D'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; de Gruttola, M.; de Guio, F.; de Roeck, A.; de Visscher, S.; di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, R.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. F.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlí, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; de Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeldnebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-04-01

    Integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the H → 4 ℓ decays ( ℓ = e, μ) are measured in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb-1 at 7TeV, and 19.7 fb-1 at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are measured using the 8 TeV data, and are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the Z → 4 ℓ cross section, and its ratio to the H → 4 ℓ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated H → 4 ℓ fiducial cross section is measured to be 0. 56 - 0.44 + 0.67 (stat) - 0.06 + 0.21 (syst) fb at 7 TeV, and 1. 11 - 0.35 + 0.41 (stat) - 0.10 + 0.14 (syst) fb at 8 TeV. The measurements are found to be compatible with theoretical calculations based on the standard model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Measurement of differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for Higgs boson production in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell$ decays ($\\ell = \\mathrm{e}$, $\\mu$) are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb$^{-1}$ at 7 TeV, and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the $ \\mathrm{Z} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section, and its ratio to the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ fiducial cr...

  16. Measurement of the integrated and differential $\\mathrm{t \\bar{t}}$ production cross sections for high-$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ top quarks in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The cross section for pair production of top quarks ($\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$) with high transverse momenta is measured in $\\mathrm{ p } \\mathrm{ p }$ collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed using lepton+jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }} =$ 0.499 $\\pm$ 0.035 (stat+syst) $\\pm$ 0.095 (theory) $\\pm$ 0.013 (lumi) pb for top quark...

  17. On half-space problems for the discrete Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study typical half-space problems of rarefied gas dynamics, including the problems of Milne and Kramer, for the discrete Boltzmann equation (a general discrete velocity model, DVM, with an arbitrary finite number of velocities). Then the discrete Boltzmann equation reduces to a system of Odes. The data for the outgoing particles at the boundary are assigned, possibly linearly depending on the data for the incoming particles. A classification of well-posed half-space problems for the homogeneous, as well as the inhomogeneous, linearized discrete Boltzmann equation is made. In the non-linear case the solutions are assumed to tend to an assigned Maxwellian at infinity. The conditions on the data at the boundary needed for the existence of a unique (in a neighborhood of the assigned Maxwellian) solution of the problem are investigated. In the non-degenerate case (corresponding, in the continuous case, to the case when the Mach number at the Maxwellian at infinity is different of (1, 0 and 1) implicit conditions are found. Furthermore, under certain assumptions explicit conditions are found, both in the non-degenerate and degenerate cases. An application to axially symmetric models is also studied.

  18. Multiple pass application of the Boltzmann transport equation to ion implantation calculation in multilayer targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved solution of the Boltzmann transport equation was developed for calculating the results of ion implantation into a multilayer target. A multiple pass scheme is used to integrate the coupled, linearized transport equations describing the momentum distributions of the implanted ion and the recoil particles. The multiple-pass approach correctly treats the case of ions scattered by more than 900, whereas in previous calculations these ions were assumed to be stopped at the scattering point. The accurate treatment of these ions is essential for calculations involving light ions and/or low ion energies, and also an essential prerequisite for two-dimensional calculations. The nuclear cross section used is improved over previous TE calculations by removing the small-angle approximation in the LSS formation of nuclear scattering. Implanted and recoil ion range and damage distributions can be calculated directly for multilayer targets, including stoichiometric disturbances in compounds and recoil yields between target layers

  19. Residue temperatures in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an improved Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model, we have investigated the reaction dynamics leading to the thermal freeezout for 40Ar+124Sn collisions. Several criteria are assessed for defining the proper thermal freezout time which separates preequilibrium processes from equilbrium processes. One of these criteria, the time dependence of the thermal excitation energy, provides consistent results for defining the thermal freezeout. The other two criteria, the emission rate of nucleons and the quadrupole moment of the momentum distributions, do not consistently provide accurate freezeout times due to the existence of long time scale collective vibrations. The predicted values for the excitation energies and temperatures, obtained assuming Fermi gas level densities, are quite sensitive to the equation of state and the impact parameter. Surprisingly, both the thermal excitation energies and the residue temperatures, in the limit of a large ensemble of parallel collisions, show little sensitivity to the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section

  20. Effective N-particle collisions in a hadronic transport approach

    CERN Document Server

    Oliinychenko, Dmytro

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic transport approaches based on an effective solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation are widely applied for the dynamical description of heavy ion reactions at low beam energies. At high densities, the assumption of binary interactions often used in hadronic transport approaches may not be applicable anymore. Therefore, we introduce a way to include N-particle collisions effectively in a transport approach. This framework provides the opportunity to interpolate in a dynamical way between two different limits of kinetic theory: the dilute gas approximation and the ideal fluid case. This approach will be important for studies of the dynamical evolution of heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies as experimentally investigated at the beam energy scan program at RHIC, and in the future at FAIR and NICA. On the other hand, this new way of modelling hot and dense strongly-interacting matter might be relevant for small systems at high energies (LHC and RHIC) as well.

  1. Stochastic approach in the dynamics of nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of fluctuations on various phenomena linked to heavy ion collisions a Langevin equation has been derived from a microscopic model. Parameters entering this equation are completely determined from microscopic quantities characterizing nuclear matter. This equation has been applied to various physical phenomena at intermediate energies. A first part is devoted to small amplitude collective motions, especially giant resonances. Memory effects in the collision term of Boltzmann equation have been studied. A formal approach to the influence of the fluctuations on several coupled modes is proposed. A second part is devoted to large amplitude collective motions, where a detailed study of thermal fission is done. Fission rate is calculated and compared to experimental results. Finally, some preliminary work on multifragmentation is also proposed. (author). 77 refs., 19 figs

  2. On ring and bubble formations in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is devoted to the implementation of the hydrodynamic laws to the head-on heavy ion collisions within the energy range 50-100 MeV/A. The hydrodynamic mechanisms of the bubble and ring structures formation are investigated. It is shown that there is a possible hydrodynamic explanation of the different structures being formed in the case of soft (K=200 MeV) and stiff (K=400 MeV) equations of state. Within the suggested approach the final geometry of the system is defined in the initial stage of the collision and is very dependent on the sound velocity in the nuclear matter. The obtained results are in a good correspondence with the Boltzmann-like transport theory calculations and the experimental data for the selected energy range. (authors)

  3. Cauchy Annealing Schedule: An Annealing Schedule for Boltzmann Selection Scheme in Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Dukkipati, Ambedkar; Murty, Narasimha M; Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2004-01-01

    Boltzmann selection is an important selection mechanism in evolutionary algorithms as it has theoretical properties which help in theoretical analysis. However, Boltzmann selection is not used in practice because a good annealing schedule for the `inverse temperature' parameter is lacking. In this paper we propose a Cauchy annealing schedule for Boltzmann selection scheme based on a hypothesis that selection-strength should increase as evolutionary process goes on and distance between two sel...

  4. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions of...

  5. Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J. G.; Haygarth, P. M.; Withers, P. J. A.; Macleod, C. J. A.; Falloon, P. D.; Beven, K. J.; Ockenden, M. C.; Forber, K. J.; Hollaway, M. J.; Evans, R.; Collins, A. L.; Hiscock, K. M.; Wearing, C.; Kahana, R.; Villamizar Velez, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β , the fractional order α , and the single relaxation time τ , the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering.

  6. Influence of asperities on fluid and thermal flow in a fracture: A coupled lattice Boltzmann study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, A.; Flekkøy, E. G.; Toussaint, R.

    2013-07-01

    The characteristics of the hydro-thermal flow which occurs when a cold fluid is injected into a hot fractured bedrock depend on the morphology of the fracture. We consider a sharp triangular asperity, invariant in one direction, perturbing an otherwise flat fracture. We investigate its influence on the macroscopic hydraulic transmissivity and heat transfer efficiency, at fixed low Reynolds number. In this study, numerical simulations are done with a coupled lattice Boltzmann method that solves both the complete Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion equations in three dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained under lubrication approximations which rely on many hypotheses and neglect the three-dimensional (3-D) effects. The lubrication results are obtained by analytically solving the Stokes equation and a two-dimensional (integrated over the thickness) advection-diffusion equation. We use a lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution (for mass and energy transport) on hypercubic and cubic lattices. Beyond some critical slope for the boundaries, the velocity profile is observed to be far from a quadratic profile in the vicinity of the sharp asperity: the fluid within the triangular asperity is quasi-static. We find that taking account of both the 3-D effects and the cooling of the rock, are important for the thermal exchange. Neglecting these effects with lubrication approximations results in overestimating the heat exchange efficiency. The evolution of the temperature over time, toward steady state, also shows complex behavior: some sites alternately reheat and cool down several times, making it difficult to forecast the extracted heat.

  7. Appendix: Chapman-Enskog Expansion in the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Chapman-Enskog expansion was used in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to derive a Navier-Stokes-like equation and a formula was obtained to correlate the LBM model parameters to the kinematic viscosity implicitly implemented in LBM simulations. The obtained correlation formula usually works as long as the model parameters are carefully selected to make the Mach number and Knudsen number small although the validity of Chapman-Enskog expansion that has a formal definition of time derivative without tangible mathematical sense is not recognized by many mathematicians.

  8. El suicidio de Ludwig Boltzmann: el misterio persiste

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Cuartas, Carlos Eduardo de Jesus

    1994-01-01

    En este año de 1994 se cumple 150 años del nacimiento del muy ilustre, y malogrado según veremos, físico austriaco Ludwig Boltzmann. Tal circunstancia ha motivado la publicación de escritos diversos acerca de su vida y obra, máxime si se tiene en cuenta su indiscutible aporte al inicio del esclarecimiento del misterio de la fecha del tiempo, merced a su trabajo sobre entropía, una medida del cambio que siempre aumenta con el tiempo en un sistema termodinámico aislado, en tanto se alcanza el ...

  9. LATTICE BOLTZMANN EQUATION MODEL IN THE CORIOLIS FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG SHI-DE; MAO JIANG-YU; ZHANG QIONG

    2001-01-01

    In a large-scale field of rotational fluid, various unintelligible and surprising dynamic phenomena are produced due to the effect of the Coriolis force. The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model in the Coriolis field is developed based on previous works.[1-4] Geophysical fluid dynamics equations are derived from the model. Numerical simulations have been made on an ideal atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere by using the model and they reproduce the Rossby wave motion well. Hence the applicability of the model is verified in both theory and experiment.

  10. Hydrodynamic limit with geometric correction of stationary Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    We consider the hydrodynamic limit of a stationary Boltzmann equation in a unit plate with in-flow boundary. The classical theory claims that the solution can be approximated by the sum of interior solution which satisfies steady incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system, and boundary layer derived from Milne problem. In this paper, we construct counterexamples to disprove such formulation in L∞ both for its proof and result. Also, we show the hydrodynamic limit with a different boundary layer expansion with geometric correction.

  11. Entropy inequality and hydrodynamic limits for the Boltzmann equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Raymond, Laure

    2013-12-28

    Boltzmann brought a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the notion of entropy, by giving a microscopic formulation of the second principle of thermodynamics. His ingenious idea, motivated by the works of his contemporaries on the atomic nature of matter, consists of describing gases as huge systems of identical and indistinguishable elementary particles. The state of a gas can therefore be described in a statistical way. The evolution, which introduces couplings, loses part of the information, which is expressed by the decay of the so-called mathematical entropy (the opposite of physical entropy!). PMID:24249776

  12. Boltzmann Machines and Denoising Autoencoders for Image Denoising

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Image denoising based on a probabilistic model of local image patches has been employed by various researchers, and recently a deep (denoising) autoencoder has been proposed by Burger et al. [2012] and Xie et al. [2012] as a good model for this. In this paper, we propose that another popular family of models in the field of deep learning, called Boltzmann machines, can perform image denoising as well as, or in certain cases of high level of noise, better than denoising autoencoders. We empiri...

  13. An alternative method for simulating particle suspensions using lattice Boltzmann

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Luís Orlando Emerich dos

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we propose an alternative way to simulate particle suspensions using the lattice Boltzmann method. The main idea is to impose the non-slip boundary condition in the lattice sites located on the particle boundaries. The focus on the lattice sites, instead of the links between them, as done in the more used methods, represents a great simplification in the algorithm. A fully description of the method will be presented, in addition to simulations comparing the proposed method with other methods and, also, with experimental results.

  14. Multi-component lattice-Boltzmann model with interparticle interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, X; Shan, Xiaowen; Doolen, Gary

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: A previously proposed [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 47}, 1815, (1993)] lattice Boltzmann model for simulating fluids with multiple components and interparticle forces is described in detail. Macroscopic equations governing the motion of each component are derived by using Chapman-Enskog method. The mutual diffusivity in a binary mixture is calculated analytically and confirmed by numerical simulation. The diffusivity is generally a function of the concentrations of the two components but independent of the fluid velocity so that the diffusion is Galilean invariant. The analytically calculated shear kinematic viscosity of this model is also confirmed numerically.

  15. Existence of the scattering matrix for the linearized Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Hejtmanek, we consider neutrons in infinite space obeying a linearized Boltzmann equation describing their interaction with matter in some compact set D. We prove existence of the S-matrix and subcriticality of the dynamics in the (weak-coupling) case where the mean free path is larger than the diameter of D uniform in the velocity. We prove existence of the S-matrix also for the case where D is convex and filled with uniformly absorbent material. In an appendix, we present an explicit example where the dynamics is not invertible on L+1, the cone of positive elements in L1. (orig.)

  16. Pointwise Behavior of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation on Torus

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Kung-Chien

    2013-01-01

    We study the pointwise behavior of the linearized Boltzmann equation on torus for non-smooth initial perturbation. The result reveals both the fluid and kinetic aspects of this model. The fluid-like waves are constructed as part of the long-wave expansion in the spectrum of the Fourier mode for the space variable, the time decay rate of the fluid-like waves depends on the size of the domain. We design a Picard-type iteration for constructing the increasingly regular kinetic-like waves, which ...

  17. Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of parton propagation inside quark–gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are tracked in order to include the effect of jet-induced medium excitation. In this talk, we present a study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons and jet-induced medium excitations are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile

  18. Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Tan; He, Yayun [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division, Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of parton propagation inside quark–gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are tracked in order to include the effect of jet-induced medium excitation. In this talk, we present a study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons and jet-induced medium excitations are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile.

  19. Lattice-Boltzmann Method for Geophysical Plastic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Mendoza, Miller; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    We explore possible applications of the Lattice-Boltzmann Method for the simulation of geophysical flows. This fluid solver, while successful in other fields, is still rarely used for geotechnical applications. We show how the standard method can be modified to represent free-surface realization of mudflows, debris flows, and in general any plastic flow, through the implementation of a Bingham constitutive model. The chapter is completed by an example of a full-scale simulation of a plastic fluid flowing down an inclined channel and depositing on a flat surface. An application is given, where the fluid interacts with a vertical obstacle in the channel.

  20. An implicit Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann method for the compressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guangwu; Dong, Yinfeng; Liu, Yanhong

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for simulating the compressible flows. The new scheme simulates fluid flows based on the displacement distribution functions. The compressible flows, such as shock waves and contact discontinuities are modelled by using Lagrangian LBM. In this model, we select the element in the Lagrangian coordinate to satisfy the basic fluid laws. This model is a simpler version than the corresponding Eulerian coordinates, because the convection term of the Euler equations disappears. The numerical simulations conform to classical results.

  1. Relativistic Rotating Boltzmann Gas Using the Tetrad Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrus Victor E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider an application of the tetrad formalism introduced by Cardall et al. [Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013 023011] to the problem of a rigidly rotating relativistic gas in thermal equilibrium and discuss the possible applications of this formalism to rel- ativistic lattice Boltzmann simulations. We present in detail the transformation to the comoving frame, the choice of tetrad, as well as the explicit calculation and analysis of the components of the equilibrium particle ow four-vector and of the equilibrium stress-energy tensor.

  2. Boltzmann-Fourier transformed transport equation in half space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using eigenfunctions of the stationary transport equation and analytical expressions of semigroups generated by linear collision transport operator, an analytical solution of the transport equation in a compact form is being derived for semi-infinite medium. (author)

  3. Normal and adjoint integral and integrodifferential neutron transport equations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the simplifying hypotheses of the integrodifferential Boltzmann equations of neutron transport, given in JEN 334 report, several integral equations, and theirs adjoint ones, are obtained. Relations between the different normal and adjoint eigenfunctions are established and, in particular, proceeding from the integrodifferential Boltzmann equation it's found out the relation between the solutions of the adjoint equation of its integral one, and the solutions of the integral equation of its adjoint one (author)

  4. A New Aloha Anti-Collision Algorithm Based on CDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Enjian; Feng, Zhu

    The tags' collision is a common problem in RFID (radio frequency identification) system. The problem has affected the integrity of the data transmission during the process of communication in the RFID system. Based on analysis of the existing anti-collision algorithm, a novel anti-collision algorithm is presented. The new algorithm combines the group dynamic frame slotted Aloha algorithm with code division multiple access technology. The algorithm can effectively reduce the collision probability between tags. Under the same number of tags, the algorithm is effective in reducing the reader recognition time and improve overall system throughput rate.

  5. Solution of the Boltzmann and Rate Equations for the Electron Distribution Function and State Populations in Non-Equilibrium MHD Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many calculations of the electrical conductivity of non-equilibrium MHD plasmas have been based on a simple two-temperature theory. This theory assumes that (a) the electron number density has the equilibrium (Saha) value corresponding to the electron temperature Te , and (b) the free electron energy distribution function f(u) is Maxwellian. The validity of assumption (a) has been studied by several authors who, however, used assumption (b) in their analyses. Assumption (b) has been less thoroughly studied. Because both excitation and ionization rates are sensitive to f(u) and bound states may be out of equilibrium due to radiative transitions, it is unrealistic to treat these two assumptions separately. This paper reports preliminary results of an investigation undertaken to establish the range of validity of the two-temperature theory for MHD plasmas by solving the Boltzmann equation for f(u) and the steady-state rate equations for the bound electronic states. The problem was attacked in three stages. First, f(u) was calculated from a Boltzmann equation including only the electric field and the elastic collision terms. The results showed that for typical MHD systems (e.g., Ar + K at 1 atm) .electron-electron collisions drive f(u) to Maxwellian. Second, the solution of the rate equations for a Maxwellian f(u), using a five-level caesium atomic model, demonstrated the importance of radiative transitions in determining the bound-state populations and magnitudes of the inelastic collision terms. The model atom consisted of four discrete states (6S; 6P,P'; 5D, D'; 7S) and a lumped state, to which were assigned various binding energies and degeneracies. Criteria for selecting the latter were based on the maximum stable orbit radius that would be likely for the plasmas of interest. Both the classical Bohr-Thomson and Gryzinski cross-sections were used to calculate the rate coefficients and collision terms for excitation, de-excitation, ionization, and three-body capture

  6. Analysis of transport coefficients for electrons in weakly ionized gases by Boltzmann equation (N2 or O2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental process for determining the electric discharge phenomena of gas which take various forms depending on the kinds of gas, gas pressure, relative position of electrodes and applied voltage, is the mutual collision of electrons, atoms, molecular ions and neutral atoms and molecules. The initial stage before the establishment of electric discharge seems to be in Townsend discharge region where the collision of electrons with neutral molecules and atoms mainly occurs, being the weakly ionized condition at low gas temperature. Recently, the breakdown phenomena of N2-O2 gas mixture is being examined for the purpose of clarifying the impulse break mechanism in low pressure air, and the energy distribution of electrons and the transport coefficients in N2, O2 and N2-O2 mixed gases are required to investigate closely the results. Here, the energy distribution and the transport coefficients of electrons in steady Townsend discharge region in N2 and O2 gases respectively were analyzed by using Boltzmann equation, as a preparatory stage. The analyzed results and the discussions on them are reported in each paragraph of the energy distribution and the mean energy of electrons, ionization coefficients and adhesion coefficients, electron drift speed and diffusion coefficients, and excitation frequencies for various electron levels. It was confirmed that each collision process for electrons and the cross-section used for the analysis were properly selected. The excitation frequencies of electrons for N2 and O2 gases concerning the band spectra emitted from discharge channels and the electron energy distribution at 200 V/cm-Torr or below of E/P0 were newly calculated, where E is electric field, and P0 is gas pressure at 0 deg C. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow around a confined circular cyclinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two dimensional lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) based on a single time relaxation BGK model has been developed. Several benchmark problems including the Poiseuille flow, the lid driven cavity flow and the flow around a circular cylinder have been performed employing a d2q9 lattice. The laminar flow around a circular cylinder within a channel has been extensively investigated using the present lattice Boltzmann model. Both symmetric and asymmetric placement configurations of the circular cylinder within the channel have been considered. A new treatment for the outlet velocity and pressure (density) boundary conditions has been proposed and validated. The present LBM results are in excellent agreement with those of the other existing CFD results. Careful examination of the LBM results and an appropriate calculation of the lift coefficient based on the rectangular lattice representation of the circular cylinder reveals that the periodic oscillation of the lift coefficient has a second harmonic when the cylinder is placed asymmetrically within the channel. The second harmonic could be associated with an asymmetrical shedding pattern of the vortices behind the cylinder from the upper and lower sides of the cylinder. (author)

  8. Reciprocal relations based on the non-stationary Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, Felix

    2012-03-01

    The reciprocal relations for open gaseous systems are obtained on the basis of main properties of the non-stationary Boltzmann equation and gas-surface interaction law. It is shown that the main principles to derive the kinetic coefficients satisfying the reciprocal relations remain the same as those used for time-independent gaseous systems [F. Sharipov, Onsager-Casimir reciprocal relations based on the Boltzmann equation and gas-surface interaction law single gas, Phys. Rev. 73 (2006) 026110]. First, the kinetic coefficients are obtained from the entropy production expression; then it is proved that the coefficient matrix calculated for time reversed source functions is symmetric. The proof is based on the reversibility of the gas-gas and gas-surface interactions. Three examples of applications of the present theory are given. None of these examples can be treated in the frame of the classical Onsager-Casimir reciprocal relations, which are valid only in a particular case, when the kinetic coefficients are odd or even with respect to the time reversion. The approach is generalized for gaseous mixtures.

  9. Fault diagnosis via neural networks: The Boltzmann machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boltzmann machine is a general-purpose artificial neural network that can be used as an associative memory as well as a mapping tool. The usual information entropy is introduced, and a network energy function is suitably defined. The network's training procedure is based on the simulated annealing during which a combination of energy minimization and entropy maximization is achieved. An application in the nuclear reactor field is presented in which the Boltzmann input-output machine is used to detect and diagnose a pipe break in a simulated auxiliary feedwater system feeding two coupled steam generators. The break may occur on either the hot or the cold leg of any of the two steam generators. The binary input data to the network encode only the trends of the thermohydraulic signals so that the network is actually a polarity device. The results indicate that the trained neural network is actually capable of performing its task. The method appears to be robust enough so that it may also be applied with success in the presence of substantial amounts of noise that cause the network to be fed with wrong signals

  10. Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Ion Distributions from a Poisson-Boltzmann Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiyun; Denton, Alan R.; Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew B.

    2014-03-01

    Recent experiments have shown that polystyrene-polyacrylic-acid-polystyrene (PS-PAA-PS) triblock copolymers in a solvent mixture of water and toluene can self-assemble into spherical microcapsules. Suspended in water, the microcapsules have a toluene core surrounded by an elastomer triblock shell. The longer, hydrophilic PAA blocks remain near the outer surface of the shell, becoming charged through dissociation of OH functional groups in water, while the shorter, hydrophobic PS blocks form a networked (glass or gel) structure. Within a mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we model these polyelectrolyte microcapsules as spherical charged shells, assuming different dielectric constants inside and outside the capsule. By numerically solving the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we calculate the radial distribution of anions and cations and the osmotic pressure within the shell as a function of salt concentration. Our predictions, which can be tested by comparison with experiments, may guide the design of microcapsules for practical applications, such as drug delivery. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  11. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horvat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB. It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a dimensionless model parameter c, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural c=1 line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the latter case, the bound on c is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on c obtained from various observational tests.

  12. Wall Orientation and Shear Stress in the Lattice Boltzmann Model

    CERN Document Server

    Matyka, Maciej; Mirosław, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The wall shear stress is a quantity of profound importance for clinical diagnosis of artery diseases. The lattice Boltzmann is an easily parallelizable numerical method of solving the flow problems, but it suffers from errors of the velocity field near the boundaries which leads to errors in the wall shear stress and normal vectors computed from the velocity. In this work we present a simple formula to calculate the wall shear stress in the lattice Boltzmann model and propose to compute wall normals, which are necessary to compute the wall shear stress, by taking the weighted mean over boundary facets lying in a vicinity of a wall element. We carry out several tests and observe an increase of accuracy of computed normal vectors over other methods in two and three dimensions. Using the scheme we compute the wall shear stress in an inclined and bent channel fluid flow and show a minor influence of the normal on the numerical error, implying that that the main error arises due to a corrupted velocity field near ...

  13. Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.

  14. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R

    2015-01-01

    In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a parameter $c$, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural $c = 1$ line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the later case, the bound on $c$ is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on $c$ obtained from various observational tests.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation for Complex Flow in a Solar Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rou; Shao Jiu-Gu; ZHENG You-Qu; YU Hui-Dan; XU You-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this letter,we present a lattice Boltzmann simulation for complex flow in a solar wall system which includes porous media flow and heat transfer,specifically for solar energy utilization through an unglazed transpired solar air collector (UTC).Besides the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for time evolution of particle distribution function for fluid field,we introduce an analogy,LBE for time evolution of distribution function for temperature.Both temperature fields of fluid (air) and solid (porous media) are modeled.We study the effects of fan velocity,solar radiation intensity,porosity,etc.on the thermal performance of the UTC.In general,our simulation results are in good agreement with what in literature.With the current system setting,both fan velocity and solar radiation intensity have significant effect on the thermal performance of the UTC.However,it is shown that the porosity has negligible effect on the heat collector indicating the current system setting might not be realistic.Further examinations of thermal performance in different UTC systems are ongoing.The results are expected to present in near future.

  16. Chemical Potentials of Quarks Extracted from Particle Transverse Momentum Distributions in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Zhao; Fu-Hu Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (A-A) and deuteron-nucleus (d-A) collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) energies are investigated by a two-component revised Boltzmann distribution. The calculated results are in agreement with the PHENIX experimental data. It is found that the source temperature increases obviously with increase of the particle mass and incident energy, but it ...

  17. L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

  18. Boltzmann-Gibbs Entropy Versus Tsallis Entropy: Recent Contributions to Resolving the Argument of Einstein Concerning "Neither Herr Boltzmann nor Herr Planck has given a definition of W"?

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, H J; Saxena, R K

    2004-01-01

    Classical statistical mechanics of macroscopic systems in equilibrium is based on Boltzmann's principle. Tsallis has proposed a generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Its relation to dynamics and nonextensivity of statistical systems are matters of intense investigation and debate. This essay review has been prepared at the occasion of awarding the 'Mexico Prize for Science and Technology 2003'to Professor Constantino Tsallis from the Brazilian Center for Research in Physics.

  19. Boltzmann and Einstein: Statistics and dynamics –An unsolved problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E G D Cohen

    2005-05-01

    The struggle of Boltzmann with the proper description of the behavior of classical macroscopic bodies in equilibrium in terms of the properties of the particles out of which they consist will be sketched. He used both a dynamical and a statistical method. However, Einstein strongly disagreed with Boltzmann's statistical method, arguing that a statistical description of a system should be based on the dynamics of the system. This opened the way, especially for complex systems, for other than Boltzmann statistics. The first non-Boltzmann statistics, not based on dynamics though, was proposed by Tsallis. A generalization of Tsallis' statistics as a special case of a new class of superstatistics, based on Einstein's criticism of Boltzmann, is discussed. It seems that perhaps a combination of dynamics and statistics is necessary to describe systems with complicated dynamics.

  20. Electron-molecule collision cross sections needed for breakdown electric field calculations of hot dissociated SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, M.; Robin-Jouan, P.; Kanzari, Z.

    2008-05-01

    The critical electric fields of hot SF6 are calculated for large temperature and pressure ranges (300 K to 3000 K from 1 bar to several bars). Calculations are based on a multi-term electron Boltzmann equation solution which needs the knowledge of electron-gas collision cross sections for ten SF6 dissociation products. The collision cross sections are fitted using an electron-swarm unfolding technique. These critical fields are then used to predict the circuit breaker behaviours during the SF6 recovery phase.

  1. Collision and Grounding, Committee V.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, J.K.; Amdahl, J.; Barltrop, N.;

    2003-01-01

    Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collisions and grounding, taking into account the probabilistic and physical nature of such accidents. Consideration shall be given to the effectiveness of structural ...

  2. Lattice-Boltzmann scheme for computer simulation of two-phase flows; Gitter-Boltzmann-Verfahren zur Simulation von Zweiphasenstroemungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelke, J.

    2001-07-01

    The first part of this work is concerned with the development of methodological foundations for the computer simulation of two-phase flows like gas-liquid-mixtures in complex, three-dimensional structures. The basic numerical approach is the Lattice-Boltzmann scheme which is very suitable for this class of problems. After the approach is verified using standard test cases, the method is applied to complex engineering problems. The most important application is the simulation of the two-phase flow (air/water) in a laboratory-scale biofilm reactor for wastewater treatment. The second part of the work deals with the development of efficient numerical methods for the stationary discrete Boltzmann equations. They are discretized by finite differences on uniform and non-uniform grids and fast solvers are applied to the resulting algebraic system of equations. Also a multigrid approach is developed and examined. For typical problems like boundary-layer and driven cavity flow a considerable gain in computing time is achieved. (orig.)

  3. Poisson-Boltzmann model for protein-surface electrostatic interactions and grid-convergence study using the PyGBe code

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between surfaces and proteins occur in many vital processes and are crucial in biotechnology: the ability to control specific interactions is essential in fields like biomaterials, biomedical implants and biosensors. In the latter case, biosensor sensitivity hinges on ligand proteins adsorbing on bioactive surfaces with a favorable orientation, exposing reaction sites to target molecules. Protein adsorption, being a free-energy-driven process, is difficult to study experimentally. This paper develops and evaluates a computational model to study electrostatic interactions of proteins and charged nanosurfaces, via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. We extended the implicit-solvent model used in the open-source code PyGBe to include surfaces of imposed charge or potential. This code solves the boundary integral formulation of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, discretized with surface elements. PyGBe has at its core a treecode-accelerated Krylov iterative solver, resulting in O(N log N) scaling, with furt...

  4. Finite-volume method with lattice Boltzmann flux scheme for incompressible porous media flow at the representative-elementary-volume scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Li, Decai; Shu, Shi; Niu, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Based on the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer equation, a finite-volume computational model with lattice Boltzmann flux scheme is proposed for incompressible porous media flow in this paper. The fluxes across the cell interface are calculated by reconstructing the local solution of the generalized lattice Boltzmann equation for porous media flow. The time-scaled midpoint integration rule is adopted to discretize the governing equation, which makes the time step become limited by the Courant-Friedricks-Lewy condition. The force term which evaluates the effect of the porous medium is added to the discretized governing equation directly. The numerical simulations of the steady Poiseuille flow, the unsteady Womersley flow, the circular Couette flow, and the lid-driven flow are carried out to verify the present computational model. The obtained results show good agreement with the analytical, finite-difference, and/or previously published solutions. PMID:26986440

  5. Relaxation rates in the Maxwellian collision model and its variable hard sphere surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The variable hard sphere and related models have proven to be accurate and computationally convenient replacements for the inverse power law model of classical kinetic theory in direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. We attempt to provide theoretical support for this remarkable success by comparing the relaxation rates in the linearized Boltzmann equation for the Maxwellian collision model with those of its variable hard sphere surrogate. The comparison demonstrates that the linearized collision operator with variable hard sphere interactions can accurately approximate the linearized collision operator with Maxwellian inverse power law interactions under well-defined and broadly applicable conditions. Extensions of the analysis to the general inverse power law model and to more realistic intermolecular potentials are briefly discussed.

  6. Jet quenching and γ-jet correlation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Medium modification of γ-tagged jets in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is investigated within a linearized Boltzmann transport model which includes both elastic parton scattering and induced gluon emission. In Pb + Pb collisions at √(s)=2.76 TeV, a γ-tagged jet is seen to lose 15% of its energy at 0–10% central collisions. Simulations also point to a sizable azimuthal angle broadening of γ-tagged jets at the tail of a distribution which should be measurable when experimental errors are significantly reduced. An enhancement at large z{sub jet}=p{sub L}/E{sub jet} in jet fragmentation function at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be attributed to the dominance of leading particles in the reconstructed jet. A γ-tagged jet fragmentation function is shown to be more sensitive to jet quenching, therefore a better probe of the jet transport parameter.

  7. Electron Collision Cross Sections for the Cl2 Molecule from Electron Transport Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Do Anh; Jeon, Byung-Hoon

    2011-08-01

    The measured electron transport coefficients (electron drift velocity, Townsend first ionization coefficient, electron attachment coefficient, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient) in pure Cl2 have been analyzed to derive the currently best available electron collision cross section set of the elastic and inelastic electron collision cross sections for the Cl2 molecule using an electron swarm study and a two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation for energy. The electron transport coefficients calculated using the derived cross sections are consistent with the experimental data over a wide range of E/N values (ratio of the electric field E to the neutral number density N). The present electron collision cross section set for the Cl2 molecule is the best available so far for quantitative numerical modeling plasma discharges for processing procedures with materials containing Cl2 molecules.

  8. Head on collision of multi-solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The head-on collision and overtaking collision of four solitons in a plasma comprising superthermal electrons, cold ions, and Boltzmann distributed positrons are investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) together with Hirota's method. PLK method yields two separate Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations where solitons obtained from any KdV equation move along a direction opposite to that of solitons obtained from the other KdV equation, While Hirota's method gives multi-soliton solution for each KdV equation all of which move along the same direction where the fastest moving soliton eventually overtakes the other ones. We have considered here two soliton solutions obtained from Hirota's method. Phase shifts acquired by each soliton due to both head-on collision and overtaking collision are calculated analytically

  9. Calculation of Ground State Rotational Populations for Kinetic Gas Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules including Electron-Impact Excitation and Wall Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David R. Farley

    2010-08-19

    A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N≥3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N=0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.

  10. Head on collision of multi-solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikbolpur@rediffmail.com [Beluti M. K. M. High School, P.O. Beluti, Birbhum, West Bengal 731301 (India); Chatterjee, Prasanta, E-mail: prasantachatterjee1@rediffmail.com; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana Visva Bharati, Santiniketan 731235 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The head-on collision and overtaking collision of four solitons in a plasma comprising superthermal electrons, cold ions, and Boltzmann distributed positrons are investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) together with Hirota's method. PLK method yields two separate Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations where solitons obtained from any KdV equation move along a direction opposite to that of solitons obtained from the other KdV equation, While Hirota's method gives multi-soliton solution for each KdV equation all of which move along the same direction where the fastest moving soliton eventually overtakes the other ones. We have considered here two soliton solutions obtained from Hirota's method. Phase shifts acquired by each soliton due to both head-on collision and overtaking collision are calculated analytically.

  11. Calculation of Ground State Rotational Populations for Kinetic Gas Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules including Electron-Impact Excitation and Wall Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N (ge) 3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N = 0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.

  12. Multi-scale lattice Boltzmann and mode-coupling theory calculations of the flow of a glass-forming liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenkort, S.; Voigtmann, Th.

    2015-11-01

    We present a hybrid-lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for calculating the flow of glass-forming fluids that are governed by integral constitutive equations with pronounced nonlinear, non-Markovian dependence of the stresses on the flow history. The LB simulation for the macroscopic flow fields is combined with the mode-coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition as a microscopic theory, in the framework of the integration-through transients formalism. Using the combined LB-MCT algorithm, pressure-driven planar channel flow is studied for a schematic MCT model neglecting spatial correlations in the microscopic dynamics. The cessation dynamics after removal of the driving pressure gradient shows strong signatures of oscillatory flow both in the macroscopic fields and the microscopic correlation functions.

  13. Approximate Message Passing with Restricted Boltzmann Machine Priors

    CERN Document Server

    Tramel, Eric W; Krzakala, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Message Passing (AMP) has been shown to be an excellent statistical approach to signal inference and compressed sensing problem. The AMP framework provides modularity in the choice of signal prior; here we propose a hierarchical form of the Gauss-Bernouilli prior which utilizes a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) trained on the signal support to push reconstruction performance beyond that of simple iid priors for signals whose support can be well represented by a trained binary RBM. We present and analyze two methods of RBM factorization and demonstrate how these affect signal reconstruction performance within our proposed algorithm. Finally, using the MNIST handwritten digit dataset, we show experimentally that using an RBM allows AMP to approach oracle-support performance.

  14. Gauss Quadratures - the Keystone of Lattice Boltzmann Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaud, Benjamin; Blanco, Stéphane; Fournier, Richard; Ambruş, Victor Eugen; Sofonea, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we compare two families of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models derived by means of Gauss quadratures in the momentum space. The first one is the HLB(N;Qx,Qy,Qz) family, derived by using the Cartesian coordinate system and the Gauss-Hermite quadrature. The second one is the SLB(N;K,L,M) family, derived by using the spherical coordinate system and the Gauss-Laguerre, as well as the Gauss-Legendre quadratures. These models order themselves according to the maximum order N of the moments of the equilibrium distribution function that are exactly recovered. Microfluidics effects (slip velocity, temperature jump, as well as the longitudinal heat flux that is not driven by a temperature gradient) are accurately captured during the simulation of Couette flow for Knudsen number (kn) up to 0.25.

  15. Simulation of a Microfluidic Gradient Generator using Lattice Boltzmann Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Tanaka

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidics provides a powerful and versatile technology to accurately control spatial and temporal conditions for cell culturing and can therefore be used to study cellular responses to gradients. Here we use Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) to solve both the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) for the fluid and the coupled convection-diffusion equation (CDE) for the compounds that form the diffusion-based gradient. The design of a microfluidic chamber for diffusion-based gradients must avoid flow through the cell chamber. This can be achieved by alternately opening the source and the sink channels. The fast toggling of microfluidic valves requires switching between different boundary conditions. We demonstrate that the LBM is a powerful method for handling complex geometries, high Peclet number conditions, discontinuities in the boundary conditions, and multiphysics coupling.

  16. Lattice-Boltzmann hydrodynamics of anisotropic active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Joost; Menke, Henri; Mathijssen, Arnold J. T. M.; Fabritius, Marc; Holm, Christian; Shendruk, Tyler N.

    2016-04-01

    A plethora of active matter models exist that describe the behavior of self-propelled particles (or swimmers), both with and without hydrodynamics. However, there are few studies that consider shape-anisotropic swimmers and include hydrodynamic interactions. Here, we introduce a simple method to simulate self-propelled colloids interacting hydrodynamically in a viscous medium using the lattice-Boltzmann technique. Our model is based on raspberry-type viscous coupling and a force/counter-force formalism, which ensures that the system is force free. We consider several anisotropic shapes and characterize their hydrodynamic multipolar flow field. We demonstrate that shape-anisotropy can lead to the presence of a strong quadrupole and octupole moments, in addition to the principle dipole moment. The ability to simulate and characterize these higher-order moments will prove crucial for understanding the behavior of model swimmers in confining geometries.

  17. Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...

  18. Free Surface Lattice Boltzmann with Enhanced Bubble Model

    CERN Document Server

    Anderl, Daniela; Rauh, Cornelia; Rüde, Ulrich; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an enhancement to the free surface lattice Boltzmann method (FSLBM) for the simulation of bubbly flows including rupture and breakup of bubbles. The FSLBM uses a volume of fluid approach to reduce the problem of a liquid-gas two-phase flow to a single-phase free surface simulation. In bubbly flows compression effects leading to an increase or decrease of pressure in the suspended bubbles cannot be neglected. Therefore, the free surface simulation is augmented by a bubble model that supplies the missing information by tracking the topological changes of the free surface in the flow. The new model presented here is capable of handling the effects of bubble breakup and coalesce without causing a significant computational overhead. Thus, the enhanced bubble model extends the applicability of the FSLBM to a new range of practically relevant problems, like bubble formation and development in chemical reactors or foaming processes.

  19. Comparison of different Propagation Steps for the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Markus; Hager, Georg; Wellein, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Several possibilities exist to implement the propagation step of the lattice Boltzmann method. This paper describes common implementations which are compared according to the number of memory transfer operations they require per lattice node update. A memory bandwidth based performance model is then used to obtain an estimation of the maximal reachable performance on different machines. A subset of the discussed implementations of the propagation step were benchmarked on different Intel and AMD-based compute nodes using the framework of an existing flow solver which is specially adapted to simulate flow in porous media. Finally the estimated performance is compared to the measured one. As expected, the number of memory transfers has a significant impact on performance. Advanced approaches for the propagation step like "AA pattern" or "Esoteric Twist" require more implementation effort but sustain significantly better performance than non-naive straight forward implementations.

  20. Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin

    The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum of...... an objective function for which the gradient is not available. The algorithm samples function values from a search distribution and adapts the parameters of the distribution during the optimization process. In the thesis, new update schemes for the covariance matrix used by the CMA-ES are...... second part of the thesis is concerned with RBMs that are fitted to a dataset using maximum log-likelihood. As the computation of the distribution's normalization constant is intractable, Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods are required to estimate and follow the log-likelihood gradient. The thesis...

  1. Electric Conductivity from the solution of the Relativistic Boltzmann Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, A; Greco, V

    2014-01-01

    We present numerical results of electric conductivity $\\sigma_{el}$ of a fluid obtained solving the Relativistic Transport Boltzmann equation in a box with periodic boundary conditions. We compute $\\sigma_{el}$ using two methods: the definition itself, i.e. applying an external electric field, and the evaluation of the Green-Kubo relation based on the time evolution of the current-current correlator. We find a very good agreement between the two methods. We also compare numerical results with analytic formulas in Relaxation Time Approximation (RTA) where the relaxation time for $\\sigma_{el}$ is determined by the transport cross section $\\sigma_{tr}$, i.e. the differential cross section weighted with the collisional momentum transfer. We investigate the electric conductivity dependence on the microscopic details of the 2-body scatterings: isotropic and anisotropic cross-section, and massless and massive particles. We find that the RTA underestimates considerably $\\sigma_{el}$; for example at screening masses $...

  2. Modeling of urban traffic networks with lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jian-ping; Qian, Yue-hong; Dai, Shi-qiang

    2008-02-01

    It is of great importance to uncover the characteristics of traffic networks. However, there have been few researches concerning kinetics models for urban traffic networks. In this work, a lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) for urban traffic networks is proposed by incorporating the ideas of the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model into the LBM for road traffic. In the present model, situations at intersections with the red and green traffic signals are treated as a kind of boundary conditions varying with time. Thus, the urban traffic network could be described in the mesoscopic level. By performing numerical simulations under the periodic boundary conditions, the behavior of average velocity is investigated in detail. The numerical results agree quite well with those given by the Chowdhury-Schadschneider (ChSch) model (Chowdhury D. and Schadschneider A., Phys. Rev. E, 59 (1999) R1311). Furthermore, the statistical noise is reduced in this discrete kinetics model, thus, the present model has considerably high computational efficiency.

  3. Boltzmann Equation Solver Adapted to Emergent Chemical Non-equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Birrell, Jeremiah

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method to solve the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic Boltzmann equation. We employ a basis set of orthogonal polynomials dynamically adapted to allow emergence of chemical non-equilibrium. Two time dependent parameters characterize the set of orthogonal polynomials, the effective temperature $T(t)$ and phase space occupation factor $\\Upsilon(t)$. In this first paper we address (effectively) massless fermions and derive dynamical equations for $T(t)$ and $\\Upsilon(t)$ such that the zeroth order term of the basis alone captures the number density and energy density of each particle distribution. We validate our method and illustrate the reduced computational cost and the ability to represent final state chemical non-equilibrium by studying a model problem that is motivated by the physics of the neutrino freeze-out processes in the early Universe, where the essential physical characteristics include reheating from another disappearing particle component ($e^\\pm$-annihilation).

  4. Determination of the Boltzmann Constant Using the Differential - Cylindrical Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, X J; Lin, H; Gillis, K A; Moldover, M R

    2015-01-01

    We report in this paper the progresses on the determination of the Boltzmann constant using the acoustic gas thermometer (AGT) of fixed-length cylindrical cavities. First, we present the comparison of the molar masses of pure argon gases through comparing speeds of sound of gases. The procedure is independent from the methodology by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results show good agreement between both methods. The comparison offers an independent inspection of the analytical results by GC-MS. Second, we present the principle of the novel differential-cylindrical procedure based on the AGT of two fixed-length cavities. The deletion mechanism for some major perturbations is analyzed for the new procedure. The experimental results of the differential-cylindrical procedure demonstrate some major improvements on the first, second acoustic and third virial coefficients, and the excess half-widths. The three acoustic virial coefficients agree well with the stated-of-the-art experime...

  5. Lattice Boltzmann method for mixtures at variable Schmidt number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteferrante, Michele; Melchionna, Simone; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo

    2014-07-01

    When simulating multicomponent mixtures via the Lattice Boltzmann Method, it is desirable to control the mutual diffusivity between species while maintaining the viscosity of the solution fixed. This goal is herein achieved by a modification of the multicomponent Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook evolution equations by introducing two different timescales for mass and momentum diffusion. Diffusivity is thus controlled by an effective drag force acting between species. Numerical simulations confirm the accuracy of the method for neutral binary and charged ternary mixtures in bulk conditions. The simulation of a charged mixture in a charged slit channel show that the conductivity and electro-osmotic mobility exhibit a departure from the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski prediction at high diffusivity.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann Equation On a 2D Rectangular Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, MHamed; DHumieres, Dominique; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We construct a multi-relaxation lattice Boltzmann model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The model is partly inspired by a previous work of Koelman to construct a lattice BGK model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The linearized dispersion equation is analyzed to obtain the constraints on the isotropy of the transport coefficients and Galilean invariance for various wave propagations in the model. The linear stability of the model is also studied. The model is numerically tested for three cases: (a) a vortex moving with a constant velocity on a mesh periodic boundary conditions; (b) Poiseuille flow with an arbitrasy inclined angle with respect to the lattice orientation: and (c) a cylinder &symmetrically placed in a channel. The numerical results of these tests are compared with either analytic solutions or the results obtained by other methods. Satisfactory results are obtained for the numerical simulations.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann model for melting with natural convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Christian [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California - Berkeley, 307 McCone Hall 4767, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States)], E-mail: chuber@seismo.berkeley.edu; Parmigiani, Andrea [Computer Science Department, University of Geneva, 24, Rue du General Dufour, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: andrea.parmigiani@terre.unige.ch; Chopard, Bastien [Computer Science Department, University of Geneva, 24, Rue du General Dufour, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Bastien.Chopard@cui.unige.ch; Manga, Michael [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California - Berkeley, 177 McCone Hall 4767, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States)], E-mail: manga@seismo.berkeley.edu; Bachmann, Olivier [Department of Earth and Space Science, University of Washington, Johnson Hall 070, Seattle WA 98195-1310 (United States)], E-mail: bachmano@u.washington.edu

    2008-10-15

    We develop a lattice Boltzmann method to couple thermal convection and pure-substance melting. The transition from conduction-dominated heat transfer to fully-developed convection is analyzed and scaling laws and previous numerical results are reproduced by our numerical method. We also investigate the limit in which thermal inertia (high Stefan number) cannot be neglected. We use our results to extend the scaling relations obtained at low Stefan number and establish the correlation between the melting front propagation and the Stefan number for fully-developed convection. We conclude by showing that the model presented here is particularly well-suited to study convection melting in geometrically complex media with many applications in geosciences.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics on the electronic Boltzmann equilibrium distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J L; Echenique, P [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Castro, A; Polo, V [Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, Mariano Esquillor s/n, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Rubio, A [Nano-Bio Spectroscopy group and ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Centro de Fisica de Materiales, CSIC-UPV/EHU-MPC and DIPC, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Zueco, D, E-mail: dzueco@unizar.e [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    We prove that for a combined system of classical and quantum particles, it is possible to describe a dynamics for the classical particles that incorporates in a natural way the Boltzmann equilibrium population for the quantum subsystem. In addition, these molecular dynamics (MD) do not need to assume that the electrons immediately follow the nuclear motion (in contrast to any adiabatic approach) and do not present problems in the presence of crossing points between different potential energy surfaces (conical intersections or spin-crossings). A practical application of this MD to the study of the effect of temperature on molecular systems presenting (nearly) degenerate states-such as the avoided crossing in the ring-closure process of ozone-is presented.

  9. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials

  10. Full Eulerian lattice Boltzmann model for conjugate heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Li, Decai; Shu, Shi; Niu, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a full Eulerian lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for conjugate heat transfer. A unified governing equation with a source term for the temperature field is derived. By introducing the source term, we prove that the continuity of temperature and its normal flux at the interface is satisfied automatically. The curved interface is assumed to be zigzag lines. All physical quantities are recorded and updated on a Cartesian grid. As a result, any complicated treatment near the interface is avoided, which makes the proposed model suitable to simulate the conjugate heat transfer with complex interfaces efficiently. The present conjugate interface treatment is validated by several steady and unsteady numerical tests, including pure heat conduction, forced convection, and natural convection problems. Both flat and curved interfaces are also involved. The obtained results show good agreement with the analytical and/or finite volume results. PMID:26764851

  11. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    CERN Document Server

    Budd, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight sequences.

  12. Thermal Correction to the Molar Polarizability of a Boltzmann Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D; Mohr, P J

    2013-01-01

    Metrology in atomic physics has been crucial for a number of advanced determinations of fundamental constants. In addition to very precise frequency measurements, the molar polarizability of an atomic gas has recently also been measured very accurately. Part of the motivation for the measurements is due to ongoing efforts to redefine the International System of Units (SI) for which an accurate value of the Boltzmann constant is needed. Here, we calculate the dominant shift of the molar polarizability in an atomic gas due to thermal effects. It is given by the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction, which emerges when the probing electric field is Lorenz transformed into the rest frame of the atoms that undergo thermal motion. While this effect is small when compared to currently available experimental accuracy, the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction is much larger than the thermal shift of the polarizability induced by blackbody radiation.

  13. Thermal correction to the molar polarizability of a Boltzmann gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschura, U. D.; Puchalski, M.; Mohr, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Metrology in atomic physics has been crucial for a number of advanced determinations of fundamental constants. In addition to very precise frequency measurements, the molar polarizability of an atomic gas has recently also been measured very accurately. Part of the motivation for the measurements is due to ongoing efforts to redefine the International System of Units (SI), for which an accurate value of the Boltzmann constant is needed. Here we calculate the dominant shift of the molar polarizability in an atomic gas due to thermal effects. It is given by the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction, which emerges when the probing electric field is Lorentz transformed into the rest frame of the atoms that undergo thermal motion. While this effect is small when compared to currently available experimental accuracy, the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction is much larger than the thermal shift of the polarizability induced by blackbody radiation.

  14. Sedimentation analysis of small ice crystals by Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Giovacchini, Juan P

    2016-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to simulate and analyze the sedimentation of small ($16-80 \\,\\mu m$) ice particles in the atmosphere. We are specially interested in evaluating the terminal falling velocity for two ice particle shapes: columnar ice crystals and six bullet-rosettes ice policrystal. The main objective in this paper is to investigate the LBM suitability to solve ice crystal sedimentation problems, as well as to evaluate these numerical methods as a powerful numerical tool to solve these problems for arbitrary ice crystal shapes and sizes. LBM results are presented in comparison with laboratory experimental results and theoretical proposals well known in the literature. The numerical results show good agreement with experimental and theoretical results for both geometrical configurations.

  15. Moving Charged Particles in Lattice Boltzmann-Based Electrokinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuron, Michael; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions, which are needed to simulate moving colloids, into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such moving boundaries, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure LB solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute spec...

  16. Fluid moments of the Landau collision operator

    CERN Document Server

    Hirvijoki, Eero; Pfefferlé, David; Comisso, Luca; Candy, Jeff; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    One important problem in plasma physics is the lack of an accurate and complete description of Coulomb collisions in associated fluid models. To shed light on the problem, this Letter introduces an integral identity involving the multi-dimensional Hermite tensor polynomials and presents a method for computing exact expressions for the fluid moments of the nonlinear Landau collision operator. The proposed methodology provides a systematic and rigorous means of extending the validity of fluid models that have an underlying inverse-square force particle dynamics to weakly collisional and strong flow regimes.

  17. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano

    2014-01-01

    Computational results for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. Exa Corporation's lattice Boltzmann PowerFLOW(trademark) solver was used to perform time-dependent simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. The simulations were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg (landing configuration). We focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at the flap tips and main landing gear for the two baseline configurations, namely, landing flap setting without and with gear deployed. Capitalizing on the inherently transient nature of the lattice Boltzmann formulation, the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap were resolved very accurately and efficiently. To properly simulate the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips. Extensive comparison of the computed time-averaged and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed excellent agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard and outboard tips and the main landing gear. In particular, the computed fluctuating surface pressure field for the flap agreed well with the measurements in both amplitude and frequency content, indicating that the prominent airframe noise sources at the tips were captured successfully. Gear-flap interaction effects were remarkably well predicted and were shown to affect only the inboard flap tip, altering the steady and unsteady pressure fields in that region. The simulated farfield noise spectra for both baseline configurations, obtained using a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach, were shown to be in close agreement with measured values.

  18. Polarizable atomic multipole solutes in a Poisson-Boltzmann continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnieders, Michael J.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ren, Pengyu; Ponder, Jay W.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling the change in the electrostatics of organic molecules upon moving from vacuum into solvent, due to polarization, has long been an interesting problem. In vacuum, experimental values for the dipole moments and polarizabilities of small, rigid molecules are known to high accuracy; however, it has generally been difficult to determine these quantities for a polar molecule in water. A theoretical approach introduced by Onsager [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486 (1936)] used vacuum properties of small molecules, including polarizability, dipole moment, and size, to predict experimentally known permittivities of neat liquids via the Poisson equation. Since this important advance in understanding the condensed phase, a large number of computational methods have been developed to study solutes embedded in a continuum via numerical solutions to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Only recently have the classical force fields used for studying biomolecules begun to include explicit polarization in their functional forms. Here the authors describe the theory underlying a newly developed polarizable multipole Poisson-Boltzmann (PMPB) continuum electrostatics model, which builds on the atomic multipole optimized energetics for biomolecular applications (AMOEBA) force field. As an application of the PMPB methodology, results are presented for several small folded proteins studied by molecular dynamics in explicit water as well as embedded in the PMPB continuum. The dipole moment of each protein increased on average by a factor of 1.27 in explicit AMOEBA water and 1.26 in continuum solvent. The essentially identical electrostatic response in both models suggests that PMPB electrostatics offers an efficient alternative to sampling explicit solvent molecules for a variety of interesting applications, including binding energies, conformational analysis, and pKa prediction. Introduction of 150mM salt lowered the electrostatic solvation energy between 2 and 13kcal /mole, depending on

  19. Kapitza conductance, temperature gradients, and solutions to the Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the belief that the study of heat transport requires the study of the transport equation, we present an approach to the problem of the Kapitza conductance h/subK/ between two materials which involves the solutions of the Boltzmann equation. One of our purposes is to investigate the origin of the apparent temperature discontinuity ΔT that is associated with this phenomenon. The hydrodynamic solutions of the Boltzmann equation, which (by definition) are describable in terms of local thermohydrodynamic variables, can transfer heat but are not at all responsible for ΔT; whereas the nonhydrodynamic solutions are completely responsible for ΔT but do not transfer heat. An effective temperature T tilde is defined which approaches the thermodynamic temperature T far from the interface, and which is assumed to be continuous across the interface. With this assumption, formal expressions for ΔT and h/subK/ are derived. In the limit as the properties of the two materials become identical, R/subK/ (=h/subK//sup -1/) approaches zero, as should be the case. Further, this approach has a natural generalization to finite frequencies and includes lifetime effects. It is pointed out that thermometers do not measure T tilde but rather T/subR/ which reflects, in a complicated fashion, the presence of the nonhydrodynamic modes, whose amplitudes fall off exponentially as one moves from the interface. In He II, determination of the exponential damping lengths (as a function of temperature and pressure) would provide information about phonon dispersion and phonon interactions which is at least as detailed as could be obtained by other means

  20. Boltzmann electron PIC simulation of the E-sail effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, P.

    2015-12-01

    The solar wind electric sail (E-sail) is a planned in-space propulsion device that uses the natural solar wind momentum flux for spacecraft propulsion with the help of long, charged, centrifugally stretched tethers. The problem of accurately predicting the E-sail thrust is still somewhat open, however, due to a possible electron population trapped by the tether. Here we develop a new type of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation for predicting E-sail thrust. In the new simulation, electrons are modelled as a fluid, hence resembling hybrid simulation, but in contrast to normal hybrid simulation, the Poisson equation is used as in normal PIC to calculate the self-consistent electrostatic field. For electron-repulsive parts of the potential, the Boltzmann relation is used. For electron-attractive parts of the potential we employ a power law which contains a parameter that can be used to control the number of trapped electrons. We perform a set of runs varying the parameter and select the one with the smallest number of trapped electrons which still behaves in a physically meaningful way in the sense of producing not more than one solar wind ion deflection shock upstream of the tether. By this prescription we obtain thrust per tether length values that are in line with earlier estimates, although somewhat smaller. We conclude that the Boltzmann PIC simulation is a new tool for simulating the E-sail thrust. This tool enables us to calculate solutions rapidly and allows to easily study different scenarios for trapped electrons.

  1. Improved Multiple-Coarsening Methods for Sn Discretizations of the Boltzmann Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B

    2008-12-01

    In a recent series of articles, the author presented a multiple-coarsening multigrid method for solving S{sub n} discretizations of the Boltzmann transport equation. This algorithm is applied to an integral equation for the scalar flux or moments. Although this algorithm is very efficient over parameter regimes that describe realistic neutron/photon transport applications, improved methods that can reduce the computational cost are presented in this paper. These improved methods are derived through a careful examination of the frequencies, particularly the near-nullspace, of the integral equation. In the earlier articles, the near-nullspace components were shown to be smooth in angle in the sense that the angular fluxes generated by these components are smooth in angle. In this paper, we present a spatial description of these near-nullspace components. Using the angular description of the earlier papers together with the spatial description reveals the intrinsic space-angle dependence of the integral equation's frequencies. This space-angle dependence is used to determine the appropriate space-angle grids to represent and efficiently attenuate the near-nullspace error components on. It will be shown that these components can have multiple spatial scales. By using only the appropriate space-angle grids that can represent these spatial scales in the original multiple-coarsening algorithm, an improved algorithm is obtained. Moreover, particularly for anisotropic scattering, recognizing the strong angle dependence of the angular fluxes generated by the high frequencies of the integral equation, another improved multiple-coarsening scheme is derived. Restricting this scheme to the appropriate space-angle grids produces a very efficient method.

  2. A simple lattice Boltzmann scheme for low Mach number reactive flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Sheng; LIU; Zhaohui; ZHANG; Chao; HE; Zhu; TIAN; Zhiwei; SHI; Baochang

    2006-01-01

    For simulating low Mach number reactive flows, a simple and coupled lattice Boltzmann (CLB) scheme is proposed, by which the fluid density can bear significant changes. Different from the existing hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) scheme and non-coupled lattice Boltzmann (NCLB) scheme, this scheme is strictly lattice Boltzmann style and the fluid density couples directly with the temperature. Because it has got rid of the constraint of traditional thought in lattice Boltzmann scheme,on the basis of the equality among the particle speed c, the time step △t and the lattice grid spacing △x held, both c and △t can be adjusted in this scheme according to a "characteristic temperature" instead of the local temperature. The whole algorithm becomes more stable and efficient besides inheriting the intrinsically outstanding strong points of conventional lattice Boltzmann scheme. In this scheme, we also take into account different molecular weights of species, so it is more suitable for simulating actual low Mach number reactive flows than previous work. In this paper, we simulated a so-called "counter-flow" premixed propane-air flame, and the results got by our scheme are much better than that obtained by NCLB. And the more important thing is that the exploration in this work has offered a kind of brand-new train of thought for building other novel lattice Boltzmann scheme in the future.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Stark Broadening Dominated by Strong Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of electron temperature in the broadening of spectral lines dominated by strong collisions has been studied. Computer simulation allows us to study the effects of strong and weak collisions separately. Results shown here are focused on some Sr+ and Ba+ resonance lines as examples of lines broadened dominantly by strong collisions. The exact numerical integration of the perturbation process due to the collision with a single particle permits the evaluation of Weisskopf radius. This parameter is usually defined as rw ∼ 1/v ∼ 1/√T, obtained from Bora approximation that is correct for high temperatures. However, at low temperatures the full integration of the collision process permits to test the relationship rw ∼ 1/T1/6. This calculation has allowed us to study the influence of temperature on the broadening of the lines dominated by strong collisions. This study has been done in two ways : through a plasma simulation and analyzing the calculated Weisskopf radius for an individual collision. The obtained results show that at low temperatures the width of the line increases for increasing temperature as a consequence of an increase of the number of collisions not compensated by the decrease of Weisskopf radius

  4. A Rgularized Boltzmann Scattering Operator for Highly Forward Peaked Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil K. Prinja

    2005-04-13

    Extremely short collision mean free paths and near-singular elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) make analog Monte Carlo and deterministic computational approaches impractical for charged particle transport. The widely used alternative, the condensed history method, while efficient, also suffers from several limitations arising from the use of precomputed infinite medium distributions for sampling particle directions and energies.

  5. Neutrino Quantum Kinetic Equations: The Collision Term

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    We derive the collision term relevant for neutrino quantum kinetic equations in the early universe and compact astrophysical objects, displaying its full matrix structure in both flavor and spin degrees of freedom. We include in our analysis neutrino-neutrino processes, scattering and annihilation with electrons and positrons, and neutrino scattering off nucleons (the latter in the low-density limit). After presenting the general structure of the collision terms, we take two instructive limiting cases. The one-flavor limit highlights the structure in helicity space and allows for a straightforward interpretation of the off-diagonal entries in terms of the product of scattering amplitudes of the two helicity states. The isotropic limit is relevant for studies of the early universe: in this case the terms involving spin coherence vanish and the collision term can be expressed in terms of two-dimensional integrals, suitable for computational implementation.

  6. Recent advances in the application of Boltzmann equation and fluid equation methods to charged particle transport in non-equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic theory of charged particles in gases has come a long way in the last 60 years or so, but many of the advances have yet to find their way into contemporary studies of low-temperature plasmas. This review explores the way in which this gap might be bridged, and focuses in particular on the analytic framework and numerical techniques for the solution of Boltzmann's equation for both electrons and ions, as well as on the development of fluid models and semi-empirical formulae. Both hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic regimes are considered and transport properties are calculated in various configurations of dc and ac electric and magnetic fields. We discuss in particular the duality in transport coefficients arising from non-conservative collisions (attachment, ionization). (review article)

  7. Measurement of the Boltzmann constant by the Doppler broadening technique at a 3,8x10-5 accuracy level

    CERN Document Server

    Djerroud, Khelifa; Gauguet, Alexandre; Daussy, Christophe; Briaudeau, Stephan; Darquié, Benoît; Lopez, Olivier; Amy-Klein, Anne; Chardonnet, Christian; Bordé, Christian J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an experiment performed at the Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers and dedicated to an optical measurement of the Boltzmann constant. With the proposed innovative technique, determining comes down to an ordinary frequency measurement. The method consists in measuring as accurately as possible the Doppler absorption profile of a rovibrational line of ammonia in thermal equilibrium. This profile is related to the Maxwell-Boltzmann molecular velocity distribution along the laser beam. A fit of the absorption line shape leads to a determination of the Doppler width proportional to sqrt(kT) and thus to a determination of the Boltzmann constant. The laser source is an ultra-stable CO2 laser with a wavelength . The absorption cell is placed in a thermostat keeping the temperature at 273.15 K within 1.4 mK. We were able to measure with a relative uncertainty as small as 3.8x10-5, which represents an improvement of an order of magnitude for an integration time comparable to our previous measu...

  8. Reversible Simulations of Elastic Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.

    2013-01-01

    Consider a system of N identical hard spherical particles moving in a d-dimensional box and undergoing elastic, possibly multi-particle, collisions. We develop a new algorithm that recovers the pre-collision state from the post-collision state of the system, across a series of consecutive collisions, with essentially no memory overhead. The challenge in achieving reversibility for an n-particle collision (where, n

  9. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton......The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first......-principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough to...

  10. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  11. Optimal discontinuous finite element methods for the Boltzmann transport equation with arbitrary discretisation in angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of two optimal discontinuous finite element (FE) Riemann methods and their application to the one-speed Boltzmann transport equation in the steady-state. The proposed methods optimise the amount of dissipation applied in the streamline direction. This dissipation is applied within an element using a novel Riemann FE method, which is based on an analogy between control volume discretisation methods and finite element methods when integration by parts is applied to the transport terms. In one-dimension the optimal finite element solutions match the analytical solution exactly at each outlet node. Both schemes couple elements in space via a Riemann approach. The first of the two schemes is a Petrov-Galerkin (PG) method which introduces dissipation via the equation residual. The second scheme uses a streamline diffusion stabilisation term in the discretisation. These two methods provide a discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) scheme that can stabilise an element across the full range of radiation regimes, obtaining robust solutions with suppressed oscillation. Three basis functions in angle of particle travel have been implemented in an optimal DPG Riemann solver, which include the PN (spherical harmonic), SN (discrete ordinate) and LWN (linear octahedral wavelet) angular expansions. These methods are applied to a series of demanding two-dimensional radiation transport problems

  12. Cold heteromolecular dipolar collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Brian C.; Stuhl, Benjamin K.; Yeo, Mark; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Hummon, Matthew T.; Xia, Yong; Klos, Jacek; Patterson, David; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We present the first experimental observation of cold collisions between two different species of neutral polar molecules, each prepared in a single internal quantum state. Combining for the first time the techniques of Stark deceleration, magnetic trapping, and cryogenic buffer gas cooling allows the enhancement of molecular interaction time by 10$^5$. This has enabled an absolute measurement of the total trap loss cross sections between OH and ND$_3$ at a mean collision energy of 3.6 cm$^{-...

  13. PHOTON-PHOTON COLLISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic eγ scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by γγ collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function Fγ2(x,Q2) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  14. Preheating in Bubble Collision

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    In a landscape with metastable minima, the bubbles will inevitably nucleate. We show that when the bubbles collide, due to the dramatically oscillating of the field at the collision region, the energy deposited in the bubble walls can be efficiently released by the explosive production of the particles. In this sense, the collision of bubbles is actually high inelastic. The cosmological implications of this result are discussed.

  15. On the quantum Landau collision operator and electron collisions in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligault, Jérôme

    2016-03-01

    The quantum Landau collision operator, which extends the widely used Landau/Fokker-Planck collision operator to include quantum statistical effects, is discussed. The quantum extension can serve as a reference model for including electron collisions in non-equilibrium dense plasmas, in which the quantum nature of electrons cannot be neglected. In this paper, the properties of the Landau collision operator that have been useful in traditional plasma kinetic theory and plasma transport theory are extended to the quantum case. We outline basic properties in connection with the conservation laws, the H-theorem, and the global and local equilibrium distributions. We discuss the Fokker-Planck form of the operator in terms of three potentials that extend the usual two Rosenbluth potentials. We establish practical closed-form expressions for these potentials under local thermal equilibrium conditions in terms of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals. We study the properties of linearized quantum Landau operator, and extend two popular approximations used in plasma physics to include collisions in kinetic simulations. We apply the quantum Landau operator to the classic test-particle problem to illustrate the physical effects embodied in the quantum extension. We present useful closed-form expressions for the electron-ion momentum and energy transfer rates. Throughout the paper, similarities and differences between the quantum and classical Landau collision operators are emphasized.

  16. Kaon and Lambda productions in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Jajati K; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-01-01

    A microscopic approach has been employed to study the kaon and $\\Lambda$ productions in heavy ion collisions. The productions of $K^+$ and $\\Lambda$ have been studied within the framework of Boltzmann transport equation for various beam energies. We find a non-monotonic horn like structure for $K^+/\\pi^+$ and $\\Lambda/\\pi$ when plotted against centre of mass energies ($\\sqrt s_{\\mathrm NN}$) with the assumption of initial partonic phase for $\\sqrt s_{\\mathrm NN}$ beyond a certain threshold. However, the ratio $K^+/\\pi^+$ shows a monotonic nature when a hadronic initial state is considered for all $\\sqrt s_{\\mathrm NN}$. Experimental values of $K^-/\\pi^-$ for different $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm NN}}$ are also reproduced within the ambit of the same formalism.

  17. Fragment Formation in Central Heavy Ion Collisions at Relativistic Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Santini, E; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the fragmentation path of excited nuclear matter in central heavy ion collisions at the intermediate energy of $0.4 AGeV$. The theoretical calculations are based on a Relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck ($RBUU$) transport equation including stochastic effects. A Relativistic Mean Field ($RMF$) approach is used, based on a non-linear Lagrangian, with coupling constants tuned to reproduce the high density results of calculations with correlations. At variance with the case at Fermi energies, a new fast clusterization mechanism is revealed in the early compression stage of the reaction dynamics. Fragments appear directly produced from phase-space fluctuations due to two-body correlations. In-medium effects of the elastic nucleon-nucleon cross sections on the fragmentation dynamics are particularly discussed. The subsequent evolution of the primordial clusters is treated using a simple phenomenological phase space coalescence algorithm. The reliability of the approach, format...

  18. A Stability Notion for the viscous Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Banda, Mapundi K

    2015-01-01

    The stability of Lattice Boltzmann Equations modelling Shallow Water Equations in the special case of reduced gravity is investigated theoretically. A stability notion is defined as applied in incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in Banda, M. K., Yong, W.- A. and Klar, A: A stability notion for lattice Boltzmann equations. SIAM J. Sci. Comput. {\\bf 27(6)}, 2098-2111 (2006). It is found that to maintain stability a careful choice of the value of the reduced gravity must be made. The stability notion is employed to investigate different shallow water lattice Boltzmann Equations. The effect of the reduced gravity on the mechanism of instability is investigated. Results are tested using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for various values of the governing parameters of the flow. It is observed that even for the discrete model the reduced gravity has a significant effect on the stability.

  19. Corrected Stefan—Boltzmann Law and Lifespan of Schwarzschild-de-sitter Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Tang-Mei, He; Jing-Yi, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we correct the Stefan—Boltzmann law by considering the generalized uncertainty principle, and with this corrected Stefan—Boltzmann law, the lifespan of the Schwarzschild-de-sitter black holes is calculated. We find that the corrected Stefan—Boltzmann law contains two terms, the T4 term and the T6 term. Due to the modifications, at the end of the black hole radiation, it will arise a limited highest temperature and leave a residue. It is interesting to note that the mass of the residue and the Planck mass is in the same order of magnitude. The modified Stefan—Boltzmann law also gives a correction to the lifespan of the black hole, although it is very small. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11273009 and 11303006

  20. An Entropy Stable Discontinuous Galerkin Finite-Element Moment Method for the Boltzmann Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelmalik, M R A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical approximation technique for the Boltzmann equation based on a moment system approximation in velocity dependence and a discontinuous Galerkin finite-element approximation in position dependence. The closure relation for the moment systems derives from minimization of a suitable {\\phi}-divergence. This divergence-based closure yields a hierarchy of tractable symmetric hyperbolic moment systems that retain the fundamental structural properties of the Boltzmann equation. The resulting combined discontinuous Galerkin moment method corresponds to a Galerkin approximation of the Boltzmann equation in renormalized form. We present a new class of numerical flux functions, based on the underlying renormalized Boltzmann equation, that ensure entropy dissipation of the approximation scheme. Numerical results are presented for a one-dimensional test case.

  1. Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with high relaxation time ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tao Jiang; Qiwei Gong; Ruofan Qiu; Anlin Wang

    2014-10-01

    An immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model is developed for fluids with high relaxation time ratios, which is based on the model proposed by Shan and Chen (SC). In the SC model, an interaction potential between particles is incorporated into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation through the equilibrium velocity. Compared to the SC model, external forces in our model are discretized directly into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, as proposed by Guo et al. We develop it into a new multicomponent lattice Boltzmann (LB) model which has the ability to simulate immiscible multicomponent fluids with relaxation time ratio as large as 29.0 and to reduce `spurious velocity’. In this work, the improved model is validated and studied using the central bubble case and the rising bubble case. It finds good applications in both static and dynamic cases for multicomponent simulations with different relaxation time ratios.

  2. Multiple-relaxation-time color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yan; Liu, Haihu; Li, Qing; Kang, Qinjun; Sun, Jinju

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we propose a color-gradient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio and high Reynolds number. The model applies a multirelaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to enhance the stability of the simulation. A source term, which is derived by the Chapman-Enskog analysis, is added into the MRT LB equation so that the Navier-Stokes equations can be exactly recovered. Also, a form of the equilibrium density distribution function is used to simplify the source term. To validate the proposed model, steady flows of a static droplet and the layered channel flow are first simulated with density ratios up to 1000. Small values of spurious velocities and interfacial tension errors are found in the static droplet test, and improved profiles of velocity are obtained by the present model in simulating channel flows. Then, two cases of unsteady flows, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and droplet splashing on a thin film, are simulated. In the former case, the density ratio of 3 and Reynolds numbers of 256 and 2048 are considered. The interface shapes and spike and bubble positions are in good agreement with the results of previous studies. In the latter case, the droplet spreading radius is found to obey the power law proposed in previous studies for the density ratio of 100 and Reynolds number up to 500.

  3. Uniqueness in the weakly inelastic regime of the equilibrium state of the inelastic Boltzmann equation driven by a particle bath

    CERN Document Server

    Bisi, Marzia; Lods, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We consider the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation for inelastic hard-spheres (with constant restitution coefficient $\\alpha \\in (0,1)$) under the thermalization induced by a host medium with a fixed Maxwellian distribution. We prove uniqueness of the stationary solution (with given mass) in the weakly inelastic regime; i.e., for any inelasticity parameter $\\alpha \\in (\\alpha_0,1)$, with some constructive $\\alpha_0 \\in [0, 1)$. Our analysis is based on a perturbative argument which uses the knowledge of the stationary solution in the elastic limit and quantitative estimates of the convergence of stationary solutions as the inelasticity parameter goes to 1. In order to achieve this we give an accurate spectral analysis of the associated linearized collision operator in the elastic limit. Several qualitative properties of this unique steady state $F_\\alpha$ are also derived; in particular, we prove that $F_\\alpha$ is bounded from above and from below by two explicit universal (i.e. independent of $\\alpha$...

  4. A generalized linear Boltzmann equation for non-classical particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a derivation and initial study of a new generalized linear Boltzmann equation (GLBE), which describes particle transport for random statistically homogeneous systems in which the distribution function for chord lengths between scattering centers is non-exponential. Such problems have recently been proposed for the description of photon transport in atmospheric clouds; this paper is a first attempt to develop a Boltzmann-like equation for these and other related applications.

  5. On kinetic Boltzmann equations and related hydrodynamic flows with dry viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai N. Bogoliubov (Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-component particle model of Boltzmann-Vlasov type kinetic equations in the form of special nonlinear integro-differential hydrodynamic systems on an infinite-dimensional functional manifold is discussed. We show that such systems are naturally connected with the nonlinear kinetic Boltzmann-Vlasov equations for some one-dimensional particle flows with pointwise interaction potential between particles. A new type of hydrodynamic two-component Benney equations is constructed and their Hamiltonian structure is analyzed.

  6. Numerical approximation of the Euler-Poisson-Boltzmann model in the quasineutral limit

    OpenAIRE

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Hailiang; Savelief, Dominique; Vignal, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper analyzes various schemes for the Euler-Poisson-Boltzmann (EPB) model of plasma physics. This model consists of the pressureless gas dynamics equations coupled with the Poisson equation and where the Boltzmann relation relates the potential to the electron density. If the quasi-neutral assumption is made, the Poisson equation is replaced by the constraint of zero local charge and the model reduces to the Isothermal Compressible Euler (ICE) model. We compare...

  7. From the Boltzmann Equation to the Euler Equations in the Presence of Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Golse, François

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamic limit of the Boltzmann equation leading to the Euler equations for an incompressible fluid with constant density in the presence of material boundaries shares some important features with the better known inviscid limit of the Navier-Stokes equations. The present paper slightly extends recent results from [C. Bardos, F. Golse, L. Paillard, Comm. Math. Sci., 10 (2012), 159--190] to the case of boundary conditions for the Boltzmann equation more general than Maxwell's accomodation condition.

  8. Global stability of the rarefaction wave of the Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann system

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Renjun; Liu, Shuangqian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the nonlinear stability of the rarefaction waves of the Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann system with slab symmetry in the case where the electron background density satisfies an analogue of the Boltzmann relation. We allows that the electric potential may take distinct constant states at both far-fields. The rarefaction wave whose strength is not necessarily small is constructed through the quasineutral Euler equations coming from the zero-order fluid dynamic app...

  9. Anwendung des Lattice-Boltzmann-Verfahrens zur Berechnung strömungsakustischer Probleme

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The Lattice-Boltzmann-model is analyzed with regard to application to numerical solution of flow acoustic problems. In the first part of this study the description of sound wave propagation by common variants of the Lattice-Boltzmann-model is examined by calculation of phase velocity and effective viscosity for sound waves. Schemes with nine velocities in two dimensions and nineteen velocities in three dimensions are considered. For each of these a single relaxation time model (LBGK-model) an...

  10. From the Boltzmann Equation to the Euler Equations in the Presence of Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Golse, François

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamic limit of the Boltzmann equation leading to the Euler equations for an incompressible fluid with constant density in the presence of material boundaries shares some important features with the better known inviscid limit of the Navier-Stokes equations. The present paper slightly extends recent results from [C. Bardos, F. Golse, L. Paillard, Comm. Math. Sci., 10 (2012), 159--190] to the case of boundary conditions for the Boltzmann equation more general than Maxwell's accomoda...

  11. Corrections to the Boltzmann mean free path in disordered systems with finite size scatterers

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, S

    2001-01-01

    The mean free path is an essential characteristic length in disordered systems. In microscopic calculations, it is usually approximated by the classical value of the elastic mean free path. It corresponds to the Boltzmann mean free path when only isotropic scattering is considered, but it is different for anisotropic scattering. In this paper, we work out the corrections to the so called Boltzmann mean free path due to multiple scattering effects on finite size scatterers, in the s-wave appro...

  12. MULTI-FLUX FORMULATION OF THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION FOR CARRIER TRANSPORT IN SEMICONDUCTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Banoo, Kausar; Lundstrom, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This report describes how the Boltzmann Transport Equation for carrier transport in s~~miconductocrasn be formulated in a manner suit able for numerical simulation. It arose from an effort to generalise earlier work which used pre-computed scattering matrices to solve the Boltzmann Transport Equation. It also generalises the formulation used to treat neutron transport so that energy band-structure, scattering in semiconductors and electric fields can be treated. We present two different, but ...

  13. Boltzmann-Gibbs thermal equilibrium distribution for classical systems and Newton law: A computational discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Baldovin, Fulvio; Moyano, Luis G.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    We implement a general numerical calculation that allows for a direct comparison between nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics and the Boltzmann-Gibbs canonical distribution in Gibbs $\\Gamma$-space. Using paradigmatic first-neighbor models, namely, the inertial XY ferromagnet and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam $\\beta$-model, we show that at intermediate energies the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium distribution is a consequence of Newton second law (${\\mathbf F}=m{\\mathbf a}$). At higher energies we discuss partia...

  14. Effect of quark gluon plasma on charm quark produced in relativistic heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charm quarks are produced mainly in the pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collision and serve as excellent probes entering the thermalized medium. They come out with altogether different momenta and energies and fragments into D-mesons and decay into non-photonic electrons which are observed experimentally. Here we present the effect of QGP on charm quark production using two different models: first one based on Wang-Huang-Sarcevic model of multiple scattering of partons and the second one is based on Parton Cascade Model with Boltzmann transport equation used for charm quark evolution in QGP

  15. Simulation of a Natural Convection by the Hybrid Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seungyeob; Kang, Hanok; Seo, Jaekwang; Yun, Juhyeon; Zee, Sung-Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for a pressure, and (3) an ease with multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. In spite of its success in solving various challenging problems involving athermal fluids, the LBM has not been able to handle realistic thermal fluids with a satisfaction. The difficulty encountered in the thermal LBM seems to be the numerical instabilities. The existing thermal lattice Boltzmann models may be classified into three categories based on their approach in solving the Boltzmann equation, namely, the multispeed, the passive scalar and the thermal energy distribution approach. For more details see Ref. In the present work, the hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann scheme proposed by Lallemand and Luo is used for simulating a natural convection in a square cavity. They proposed a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann equation(HTLBE) in which the mass and momentum conservation equations are solved by using the multiple-relaxation-time(MRT) model, whereas the diffusion-advection equations for the temperature are solved separately by using finite-difference technique. The main objective of the present work is to establish the lattice Boltzmann method as a viable tool for the simulation of temperature fields at high Rayleigh numbers.

  16. Mechanistic slumber vs. statistical insomnia: the early history of Boltzmann's H-theorem (1868-1877)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badino, M.

    2011-11-01

    An intricate, long, and occasionally heated debate surrounds Boltzmann's H-theorem (1872) and his combinatorial interpretation of the second law (1877). After almost a century of devoted and knowledgeable scholarship, there is still no agreement as to whether Boltzmann changed his view of the second law after Loschmidt's 1876 reversibility argument or whether he had already been holding a probabilistic conception for some years at that point. In this paper, I argue that there was no abrupt statistical turn. In the first part, I discuss the development of Boltzmann's research from 1868 to the formulation of the H-theorem. This reconstruction shows that Boltzmann adopted a pluralistic strategy based on the interplay between a kinetic and a combinatorial approach. Moreover, it shows that the extensive use of asymptotic conditions allowed Boltzmann to bracket the problem of exceptions. In the second part I suggest that both Loschmidt's challenge and Boltzmann's response to it did not concern the H-theorem. The close relation between the theorem and the reversibility argument is a consequence of later investigations on the subject.

  17. A numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation for use in calculating pumping rates in a CO2 discharge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, David Alan

    1989-12-01

    The collisional Boltzmann equation was solved numerically to obtain excitation rates for use in a CO2 laser design program. The program was written in Microsoft QuickBasic for use on the IBM Personal Computer or equivalent. Program validation involved comparisons of computed transport coefficients with experimental data and previous theoretical work. Four different numerical algorithms were evaluated in terms of accuracy and efficiency. L-U decomposition was identified as the preferred approach. The calculated transport coefficients were found to agree with empirical data within one to five percent. The program was integrated into a CO2 laser design program. Studies were then performed to evaluate the effects on predicted laser output power and energy density as parameters affecting electron kinetics were changed. Plotting routines were written for both programs.

  18. Entransy analysis and optimization of performance of nano-scale irreversible Otto cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar

    2016-08-01

    This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.

  19. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-Bing; JIN Li; QIU Bing

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear flow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow.

  20. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear Bow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))