An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersen, Hannah
2009-04-22
In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The full (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. Three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent v{sub 2} values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160 A GeV. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source
Convolution Inequalities for the Boltzmann Collision Operator
Alonso, Ricardo J.; Carneiro, Emanuel; Gamba, Irene M.
2010-09-01
We study integrability properties of a general version of the Boltzmann collision operator for hard and soft potentials in n-dimensions. A reformulation of the collisional integrals allows us to write the weak form of the collision operator as a weighted convolution, where the weight is given by an operator invariant under rotations. Using a symmetrization technique in L p we prove a Young’s inequality for hard potentials, which is sharp for Maxwell molecules in the L 2 case. Further, we find a new Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev type of inequality for Boltzmann collision integrals with soft potentials. The same method extends to radially symmetric, non-increasing potentials that lie in some {Ls_{weak}} or L s . The method we use resembles a Brascamp, Lieb and Luttinger approach for multilinear weighted convolution inequalities and follows a weak formulation setting. Consequently, it is closely connected to the classical analysis of Young and Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequalities. In all cases, the inequality constants are explicitly given by formulas depending on integrability conditions of the angular cross section (in the spirit of Grad cut-off). As an additional application of the technique we also obtain estimates with exponential weights for hard potentials in both conservative and dissipative interactions.
Ender, I A; Flegontova, E Yu; Gerasimenko, A B
2016-01-01
An algorithm for sequential calculation of non-isotropic matrix elements of the collision integral which are necessary for the solution of the non-linear Boltzmann equation by moment method is proposed. Isotropic matrix elements that we believe are known, are starting ones. The procedure is valid for any interaction law and any mass ratio of the colliding particles.
Droplet collision simulation by multi-speed lattice Boltzmann method
Lycett-Brown, D.; Karlin, I.V.; Luo, K. H.
2011-01-01
Realization of the Shan-Chen multiphase flow lattice Boltzmann model is considered in the framework of the higher-order Galilean invariant lattices. The present multiphase lattice Boltzmann model is used in two dimensional simulation of droplet collisions at high Weber numbers. Results are found to be in a good agreement with experimental findings.
CORRECTIONS TO THE COLLISION TERM IN THE BGK BOLTZMANN EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG SHI-DE; REN RONG-CAI; CUI XIAO-PENG; JI ZHONG-ZHEN
2001-01-01
With the discrete method of the hexagonal cell and three different velocities of particle population in each cell,a two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model is developed in this paper.[1,2] The collision operator in the Boltzmann equation is expanded to fourth order using the Taylor expansion.[3,4] With this model, good results have been obtained from the numerical simulation of the reflection phenomenon of the shock wave on the surface of an obstacle, and the numerical stability is also good. Thus the applicability of the D2Q19 model is verified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoenescu, M.L.
1977-06-01
The terms in Boltzmann kinetic equation corresponding to elastic short range collisions, inelastic excitational collisions, coulomb interactions and electric field acceleration are evaluated numerically for a standard distribution function minimizing the computational volume by expressing the terms as linear combinations with recalculable coefficients, of the distribution function and its derivatives. The present forms are suitable for spatial distribution calculations.
Multiple anisotropic collisions for advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes
Ginzburg, Irina
2013-01-01
This paper develops a symmetrized framework for the analysis of the anisotropic advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes. Two main approaches build the anisotropic diffusion coefficients either from the anisotropic anti-symmetric collision matrix or from the anisotropic symmetric equilibrium distribution. We combine and extend existing approaches for all commonly used velocity sets, prescribe most general equilibrium and build the diffusion and numerical-diffusion forms, then derive and compare solvability conditions, examine available anisotropy and stable velocity magnitudes in the presence of advection. Besides the deterioration of accuracy, the numerical diffusion dictates the stable velocity range. Three techniques are proposed for its elimination: (i) velocity-dependent relaxation entries; (ii) their combination with the coordinate-link equilibrium correction; and (iii) equilibrium correction for all links. Two first techniques are also available for the minimal (coordinate) velocity sets. Even then, the two-relaxation-times model with the isotropic rates often gains in effective stability and accuracy. The key point is that the symmetric collision mode does not modify the modeled diffusion tensor but it controls the effective accuracy and stability, via eigenvalue combinations of the opposite parity eigenmodes. We propose to reduce the eigenvalue spectrum by properly combining different anisotropic collision elements. The stability role of the symmetric, multiple-relaxation-times component, is further investigated with the exact von Neumann stability analysis developed in diffusion-dominant limit.
Transition flow ion transport via integral Boltzmann equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new approach is developed to solve the Integral Boltzmann Equation for the evolving velocity distribution of a source of ions, undergoing electrostatic acceleration through a neutral gas target. The theory is applicable to arbitrarily strong electric fields, any ion/neutral mass ratio greater than unity, and is not limited to spatially isotropic gas targets. A hard sphere collision model is used, with a provision for inelasticity. Both axial and radial velocity distributions are calculated for applications where precollision radial velocities are negligible, as is the case for ion beam extractions from high pressure sources. Theoretical predictions are tested through an experiment in which an atmospheric pressure ion source is coupled to a high vacuum energy analyser. Excellent agreement results for configurations in which the radial velocity remains small. Velocity distributions are applied to predicting the efficiency of coupling an atmospheric pressure ion source to a quadrupole mass spectrometer and results clearly indicate the most desirable extracting configuration. A method is devised to calculate ion-molecule hard sphere collision cross sections for easily fragmented organic ions
Sharp anisotropic estimates for the Boltzmann collision operator and its entropy production
Gressman, Philip T
2010-01-01
This article provides sharp constructive upper and lower bound estimates for the non-linear Boltzmann collision operator with the full range of physical non cut-off collision kernels ($\\gamma > -n$ and $s\\in (0,1)$) in the trilinear $L^2(\\R^n)$ energy $\\langle \\mathcal{Q}(g,f),f\\rangle$. These new estimates prove that, for a very general class of $g(v)$, the global diffusive behavior (on $f$) in the energy space is that of the geometric fractional derivative semi-norm identified in the linearized context in our earlier works [2009 arXiv:0912.0888v1, 2010, 2010 arXiv:1002.3639v1]. We further prove new global entropy production estimates with the same anisotropic semi-norm. This resolves the longstanding, widespread heuristic conjecture about the sharp diffusive nature of the non cut-off Boltzmann collision operator in the energy space $L^2(\\R^n)$.
Binary droplet collision simulations by a multiphase cascaded lattice Boltzmann method
Lycett-Brown, D.; Luo, K. H.; Liu, R.; Lv, P.
2014-01-01
Three-dimensional binary droplet collisions are studied using a multiphase cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). With this model it is possible to simulate collisions with a Weber number of up to 100 and a Reynolds number of up to 1000, at a liquid to gas density ratio of over 100. This is made possible by improvements to the collision operator of the LBM. The cascaded LBM in three dimensions is introduced, in which additional relaxation rates for higher order moments, defined in a co-movi...
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Collision between 2D Circular Particles Suspension in Couette Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Zhong Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Collision between 2D circular particles suspension in Couette flow is simulated by using multiple-relaxation-time based lattice Boltzmann and direct forcing/fictitious domain method in this paper. The patterns of particle collisions are simulated and analyzed in detail by changing the velocity of top and bottom walls in the Couette flow. It can be seen from the simulation results that, while the velocity is large enough, the number of collisions between particles will change little as this velocity varies.
Mahakrishnan, Sathiya; Chakraborty, Subrata; Vijay, Amrendra
2016-09-15
Diffusion, an emergent nonequilibrium transport phenomenon, is a nontrivial manifestation of the correlation between the microscopic dynamics of individual molecules and their statistical behavior observed in experiments. We present a thorough investigation of this viewpoint using the mathematical tools of quantum scattering, within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In particular, we ask: (a) How and when does a normal diffusive transport become anomalous? (b) What physical attribute of the system is conceptually useful to faithfully rationalize large variations in the coefficient of normal diffusion, observed particularly within the dynamical environment of biological cells? To characterize the diffusive transport, we introduce, analogous to continuous phase transitions, the curvature of the mean square displacement as an order parameter and use the notion of quantum scattering length, which measures the effective interactions between the diffusing molecules and the surrounding, to define a tuning variable, η. We show that the curvature signature conveniently differentiates the normal diffusion regime from the superdiffusion and subdiffusion regimes and the critical point, η = ηc, unambiguously determines the coefficient of normal diffusion. To solve the Boltzmann equation analytically, we use a quantum mechanical expression for the scattering amplitude in the Boltzmann collision term and obtain a general expression for the effective linear collision operator, useful for a variety of transport studies. We also demonstrate that the scattering length is a useful dynamical characteristic to rationalize experimental observations on diffusive transport in complex systems. We assess the numerical accuracy of the present work with representative experimental results on diffusion processes in biological systems. Furthermore, we advance the idea of temperature-dependent effective voltage (of the order of 1 μV or less in a biological environment, for example
Mahakrishnan, Sathiya; Chakraborty, Subrata; Vijay, Amrendra
2016-09-15
Diffusion, an emergent nonequilibrium transport phenomenon, is a nontrivial manifestation of the correlation between the microscopic dynamics of individual molecules and their statistical behavior observed in experiments. We present a thorough investigation of this viewpoint using the mathematical tools of quantum scattering, within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In particular, we ask: (a) How and when does a normal diffusive transport become anomalous? (b) What physical attribute of the system is conceptually useful to faithfully rationalize large variations in the coefficient of normal diffusion, observed particularly within the dynamical environment of biological cells? To characterize the diffusive transport, we introduce, analogous to continuous phase transitions, the curvature of the mean square displacement as an order parameter and use the notion of quantum scattering length, which measures the effective interactions between the diffusing molecules and the surrounding, to define a tuning variable, η. We show that the curvature signature conveniently differentiates the normal diffusion regime from the superdiffusion and subdiffusion regimes and the critical point, η = ηc, unambiguously determines the coefficient of normal diffusion. To solve the Boltzmann equation analytically, we use a quantum mechanical expression for the scattering amplitude in the Boltzmann collision term and obtain a general expression for the effective linear collision operator, useful for a variety of transport studies. We also demonstrate that the scattering length is a useful dynamical characteristic to rationalize experimental observations on diffusive transport in complex systems. We assess the numerical accuracy of the present work with representative experimental results on diffusion processes in biological systems. Furthermore, we advance the idea of temperature-dependent effective voltage (of the order of 1 μV or less in a biological environment, for example
An integrable 3D lattice model with positive Boltzmann weights
Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Sergeev, Sergey M
2013-01-01
In this paper we construct a three-dimensional (3D) solvable lattice model with non-negative Boltzmann weights. The spin variables in the model are assigned to edges of the 3D cubic lattice and run over an infinite number of discrete states. The Boltzmann weights satisfy the tetrahedron equation, which is a 3D generalisation of the Yang-Baxter equation. The weights depend on a free parameter 0Boltzmann weights.
Geneva, Nicholas; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
In the past 25 years, the mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has become an increasingly popular approach to simulate incompressible flows including turbulent flows. While LBM solves more solution variables compared to the conventional CFD approach based on the macroscopic Navier-Stokes equation, it also offers opportunities for more efficient parallelization. In this talk we will describe several different algorithms that have been developed over the past 10 plus years, which can be used to represent the two core steps of LBM, collision and streaming, more effectively than standard approaches. The application of these algorithms spans LBM simulations ranging from basic channel to particle laden flows. We will cover the essential detail on the implementation of each algorithm for simple 2D flows, to the challenges one faces when using a given algorithm for more complex simulations. The key is to explore the best use of data structure and cache memory. Two basic data structures will be discussed and the importance of effective data storage to maximize a CPU's cache will be addressed. The performance of a 3D turbulent channel flow simulation using these different algorithms and data structures will be compared along with important hardware related issues.
Global Solutions of the Boltzmann Equation Over {{R}^D} Near Global Maxwellians with Small Mass
Bardos, Claude; Gamba, Irene M.; Golse, François; Levermore, C. David
2016-09-01
We study the dynamics defined by the Boltzmann equation set in the Euclidean space {{R}^D} in the vicinity of global Maxwellians with finite mass. A global Maxwellian is a special solution of the Boltzmann equation for which the collision integral vanishes identically. In this setting, the dispersion due to the advection operator quenches the dissipative effect of the Boltzmann collision integral. As a result, the large time limit of solutions of the Boltzmann equation in this regime is given by noninteracting, freely transported states and can be described with the tools of scattering theory.
THREE WAY DECOMPOSITION FOR THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ilgis Ibragimov; Sergej Rjasanow
2009-01-01
The initial value problem for the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation is considered. A deterministic numerical scheme for this problem is developed by the use of the three way decomposition of the unknown function as well as of the collision integral. On this way, almost linear complexity of the algorithm is achieved. Some numerical examples are presented.
Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation
Filbet, Francis
2011-04-01
The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.
A GPU-accelerated Direct-sum Boundary Integral Poisson-Boltzmann Solver
Geng, Weihua
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a GPU-accelerated direct-sum boundary integral method to solve the linear Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. In our method, a well-posed boundary integral formulation is used to ensure the fast convergence of Krylov subspace based linear algebraic solver such as the GMRES. The molecular surfaces are discretized with flat triangles and centroid collocation. To speed up our method, we take advantage of the parallel nature of the boundary integral formulation and parallelize the schemes within CUDA shared memory architecture on GPU. The schemes use only $11N+6N_c$ size-of-double device memory for a biomolecule with $N$ triangular surface elements and $N_c$ partial charges. Numerical tests of these schemes show well-maintained accuracy and fast convergence. The GPU implementation using one GPU card (Nvidia Tesla M2070) achieves 120-150X speed-up to the implementation using one CPU (Intel L5640 2.27GHz). With our approach, solving PB equations on well-discretized molecular surfaces with up ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zabadal, Jorge; Borges, Volnei; Van der Laan, Flavio T., E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br, E-mail: ftvdl@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Pesquisas Radiologicas; Ribeiro, Vinicius G., E-mail: vinicius_ribeiro@uniritter.edu.br [Centro Universitario Ritter dos Reis (UNIRITTER), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Marcio G., E-mail: phd.marcio@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Tramandai, RS (Brazil). Departamento Interdisciplinar do Campus Litoral Norte
2015-07-01
This work presents a new analytical method for solving the Boltzmann equation. In this formulation, a linear differential operator is applied over the Boltzmann model, in order to produce a partial differential equation in which the scattering term is absent. This auxiliary equation is solved via reduction of order. The exact solution obtained is employed to define a precursor for the buildup factor. (author)
INTEGRAL COLLISION KERNEL FOR THE GROWTH OF AEROSOL PARTICLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongyong Xie
2005-01-01
Integral collision kernel is elucidated using experimental results for titania, silica and alumina nanoparticles synthesized by FCVD process, and titania submicron particles synthesized in a tube furnace reactor. The integral collision kernel was obtained from a particle number balance equation by the integration of collision rates from the kinetic theory of dilute gases for the free-molecule regime, from the Smoluchowski theory for the continuum regime, and by a semi-empirical interpolation for the transition regime between the two limiting regimes. Comparisons have been made on particle size and the integral collision kernel, showing that the predicted integral collision kernel agreed well with the experimental results in Knudsen number range from about 1.5 to 20.
Eu, Byung Chan
2010-01-01
In the kinetic theory of dense fluids the many-particle collision bracket integral is given in terms of a classical collision operator defined in the phase space. To find an algorithm to compute the collision bracket integrals, we revisit the eigenvalue problem of the Liouville operator and re-examine the method previously reported[Chem. Phys. 20, 93(1977)]. Then we apply the notion and concept of the eigenfunctions of the Liouville operator and knowledge acquired in the study of the eigenfun...
Wilson, Alan
2008-08-01
It is shown that Boltzmann's methods from statistical physics can be applied to a much wider range of systems, and in a variety of disciplines, than has been commonly recognized. A similar argument can be applied to the ecological models of Lotka and Volterra. Furthermore, it is shown that the two methodologies can be applied in combination to generate the Boltzmann, Lotka and Volterra (BLV) models. These techniques enable both spatial interaction and spatial structural evolution to be modelled, and it is argued that they potentially provide a much richer modelling methodology than that currently used in the analysis of 'scale-free' networks.
Shock-wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations.
Segal, B. M.; Ferziger, J. H.
1972-01-01
The structure of strong plane shock waves in a perfect monatomic gas was studied using four nonlinear models of the Boltzmann equation. The models involved the use of a simplified collision operator with velocity-independent collision frequency, in place of the complicated Boltzmann collision operator. The models employed were the BGK and ellipsoidal models developed by earlier authors, and the polynomial and trimodal gain function models developed during the work. An exact set of moment equations was derived for the density, velocity, temperature, viscous stress, and heat flux within the shock. This set was reduced to a pair of coupled nonlinear integral equations and solved using specially adapted numerical techniques. A new and simple Gauss-Seidel iteration was developed during the work and found to be as efficient as the best earlier iteration methods.
Accurate deterministic solutions for the classic Boltzmann shock profile
Yue, Yubei
The Boltzmann equation or Boltzmann transport equation is a classical kinetic equation devised by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872. It is regarded as a fundamental law in rarefied gas dynamics. Rather than using macroscopic quantities such as density, temperature, and pressure to describe the underlying physics, the Boltzmann equation uses a distribution function in phase space to describe the physical system, and all the macroscopic quantities are weighted averages of the distribution function. The information contained in the Boltzmann equation is surprisingly rich, and the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics can be derived from it using series expansions. Moreover, the Boltzmann equation can reach regimes far from the capabilities of fluid dynamical equations, such as the realm of rarefied gases---the topic of this thesis. Although the Boltzmann equation is very powerful, it is extremely difficult to solve in most situations. Thus the only hope is to solve it numerically. But soon one finds that even a numerical simulation of the equation is extremely difficult, due to both the complex and high-dimensional integral in the collision operator, and the hyperbolic phase-space advection terms. For this reason, until few years ago most numerical simulations had to rely on Monte Carlo techniques. In this thesis I will present a new and robust numerical scheme to compute direct deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation, and I will use it to explore some classical gas-dynamical problems. In particular, I will study in detail one of the most famous and intrinsically nonlinear problems in rarefied gas dynamics, namely the accurate determination of the Boltzmann shock profile for a gas of hard spheres.
Cultural Collision and Integration Reflected in The Wedding Banquet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao; Lingzhi
2014-01-01
Through the exploration of the typical plots in The Wedding Banquet,this paper mainly discusses the cultural collision and integration between Chinese culture and American culture.It aims at making an effort which will contribute to broaden the field of intercultural communication research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations
Illg, Christian; Haag, Michael; Teeny, Nicolas; Wirth, Jens; Fähnle, Manfred
2016-03-01
Scatterings of electrons at quasiparticles or photons are very important for many topics in solid-state physics, e.g., spintronics, magnonics or photonics, and therefore a correct numerical treatment of these scatterings is very important. For a quantum-mechanical description of these scatterings, Fermi's golden rule is used to calculate the transition rate from an initial state to a final state in a first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. One can calculate the total transition rate from all initial states to all final states with Boltzmann rate equations involving Brillouin zone integrations. The numerical treatment of these integrations on a finite grid is often done via a replacement of the Dirac delta distribution by a Gaussian. The Dirac delta distribution appears in Fermi's golden rule where it describes the energy conservation among the interacting particles. Since the Dirac delta distribution is a not a function it is not clear from a mathematical point of view that this procedure is justified. We show with physical and mathematical arguments that this numerical procedure is in general correct, and we comment on critical points.
The Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Boltzmann Equation with Soft Potential
Liu, Shuangqian; Yang, Xiongfeng
2016-08-01
Boundary effects are central to the dynamics of the dilute particles governed by the Boltzmann equation. In this paper, we study both the diffuse reflection and the specular reflection boundary value problems for the Boltzmann equation with a soft potential, in which the collision kernel is ruled by the inverse power law. For the diffuse reflection boundary condition, based on an L 2 argument and its interplay with intricate {L^∞} analysis for the linearized Boltzmann equation, we first establish the global existence and then obtain the exponential decay in {L^∞} space for the nonlinear Boltzmann equation in general classes of bounded domain. It turns out that the zero lower bound of the collision frequency and the singularity of the collision kernel lead to some new difficulties for achieving the a priori {L^∞} estimates and time decay rates of the solution. In the course of the proof, we capture some new properties of the probability integrals along the stochastic cycles and improve the {L^2-L^∞} theory to give a more direct approach to overcome those difficulties. As to the specular reflection condition, our key contribution is to develop a new time-velocity weighted {L^∞} theory so that we could deal with the greater difficulties stemming from the complicated velocity relations among the specular cycles and the zero lower bound of the collision frequency. From this new point, we are also able to prove that the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation tend to equilibrium exponentially in {L^∞} space with the aid of the L 2 theory and a bootstrap argument. These methods, in the latter case, can be applied to the Boltzmann equation with soft potential for all other types of boundary condition.
From Newton's law to the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off
Ayi, Nathalie
2016-01-01
We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cutoff starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combin...
Nonequilibrium phenomena in QCD and BEC. Boltzmann and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stockamp, T.
2006-12-22
In chapter 2 we chose the real time formalism to discuss some basic principles in quantum field theory at finite temperature. This enables us to derive the quantum Boltzmann equation from the Schwinger-Dyson series. We then shortly introduce the basic concepts of QCD which are needed to understand the physics of QGP formation. After a detailed account on the bottom-up scenario we show the consistency of this approach by a diagramatical analysis of the relevant Boltzmann collision integrals. Chapter 3 deals with BEC dynamics out of equilibrium. After an introduction to the fundamental theoretical tool - namely the Gross-Pitaevskii equation - we focus on a generalization to finite temperature developed by Zaremba, Nikuni and Griffin (ZNG). These authors use a Boltzmann equation to describe the interactions between condensed and excited atoms and manage in this way to describe condensate growth. We then turn to a discussion on the 2PI effective action and derive equations of motion for a relativistic scalar field theory. In the nonrelativistic limit these equations are shown to coincide with the ZNG theory when a quasiparticle approximation is applied. Finally, we perform a numerical analysis of the full 2PI equations. These remain valid even at strong coupling and far from equilibrium, and thus go far beyond Boltzmann's approach. For simplicity, we limit ourselves to a homogeneous system and present the first 3+1 dimensional study of condensate melting. (orig.)
Philippi, P C; Surmas, R; Philippi, Paulo Cesar; Santos, Luis Orlando Emerich dos; Surmas, Rodrigo
2005-01-01
The particles model, the collision model, the polynomial development used for the equilibrium distribution, the time discretization and the velocity discretization are factors that let the lattice Boltzmann framework (LBM) far away from its conceptual support: the continuous Boltzmann equation (BE). Most collision models are based on the BGK, single parameter, relaxation-term leading to constant Prandtl numbers. The polynomial expansion used for the equilibrium distribution introduces an upper-bound in the local macroscopic speed. Most widely used time discretization procedures give an explicit numerical scheme with second-order time step errors. In thermal problems, quadrature did not succeed in giving discrete velocity sets able to generate multi-speed regular lattices. All these problems, greatly, difficult the numerical simulation of LBM based algorithms. In present work, the systematic derivation of lattice-Boltzmann models from the continuous Boltzmann equation is discussed. The collision term in the li...
The Einstein-Boltzmann system and positivity
Lee, Ho
2012-01-01
The Einstein-Boltzmann system is studied, with particular attention to the non-negativity of the solution of the Boltzmann equation. A new parametrization of post-collisional momenta in general relativity is introduced and then used to simplify the conditions on the collision cross-section given by Bancel and Choquet-Bruhat. The non-negativity of solutions of the Boltzmann equation on a given curved spacetime has been studied by Bichteler and by Tadmon. By examining to what extent the results of these authors apply in the framework of Bancel and Choquet-Bruhat, the non-negativity problem for the Einstein-Boltzmann system is resolved for a certain class of scattering kernels. It is emphasized that it is a challenge to extend the existing theory of the Cauchy problem for the Einstein-Boltzmann system so as to include scattering kernels which are physically well-motivated.
Non-linear effects in the Boltzmann equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Boltzmann equation is studied by defining an integral transformation of the energy distribution function for an isotropic and homogeneous gas. This transformation may be interpreted as a linear superposition of equilibrium states with variable temperatures. It is shown that the temporal evolution features of the distribution function are determined by the singularities of said transformation. This method is applied to Maxwell and Very Hard Particle interaction models. For the latter, the solution of the Boltzmann equation with the solution of its linearized version is compared, finding out many basic discrepancies and non-linear effects. This gives a hint to propose a new rational approximation method with a clear physical meaning. Applying this technique, the relaxation features of the BKW (Bobylev, Krook anf Wu) mode is analyzed, finding a conclusive counter-example for the Krook and Wu conjecture. The anisotropic Boltzmann equation for Maxwell models is solved as an expansion in terms of the eigenfunctions of the corresponding linearized collision operator, finding interesting transient overpopulation and underpopulation effects at thermal energies as well as a new preferential spreading effect. By analyzing the initial collision, a criterion is established to deduce the general features of the final approach to equilibrium. Finally, it is shown how to improve the convergence of the eigenfunction expansion for high energy underpopulated distribution functions. As an application of this theory, the linear cascade model for sputtering is analyzed, thus finding out that many differences experimentally observed are due to non-linear effects. (M.E.L.)
High order numerical methods for the space non-homogeneous Boltzmann equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we present accurate methods for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation of rarefied gas. The methods are based on a time splitting technique. The transport is solved by a third order accurate (in space) positive and flux conservative (PFC) method. The collision step is treated by a Fourier approximation of the collision integral, which guarantees spectral accuracy in velocity, coupled with several high order integrators in time. Strang splitting is used to achieve second order accuracy in space and time. Several numerical tests illustrate the properties of the methods
Matrix-valued Quantum Lattice Boltzmann Method
Mendl, Christian B
2013-01-01
We develop a numerical framework for the quantum analogue of the "classical" lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), with the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution replaced by the Fermi-Dirac function. To accommodate the spin density matrix, the distribution functions become 2x2-matrix valued. We show that the efficient, commonly used BGK approximation of the collision operator is valid in the present setting. The framework could leverage the principles of LBM for simulating complex spin systems, with applications to spintronics.
Multiphase cascaded lattice Boltzmann method
Lycett-Brown, D.; Luo, K. H.
2014-01-01
To improve the stability of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) at high Reynolds number the cascaded LBM has recently been introduced. As in the multiple relaxation time (MRT) method the cascaded LBM introduces additional relaxation times into the collision operator, but does so in a co-moving reference frame. This has been shown to significantly increase stability at low viscosity in the single phase case. Here the cascaded LBM is further developed to include multiphase flow. For this the for...
Volume integral of particle-particle collision probability in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Average volume integrals per nucleon of particle-particle collision probability in nuclear matter are evaluated using the preequilibrium exciton model. The results obtained are in quite reasonable accord with the volume integrals of optical model absorptive potentials
Relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis gives a self-contained treatment of the relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma. Here plasma means any mixture containing electrically charged particles. The relativistic Boltzmann equation is linearized for the case of a plasma. The Chapman-Enskog method is elaborated further for transport phenomena. Linear laws for viscous phenomena are derived. Then the collision term in the Boltzmann theory is dealt with. Using the transport equation, a kinetic theory of wave phenomena is developed and the dissipation of hydromagnetic waves in a relativistic plasma is investigated. In the final chapter, it is demonstrated how the relativistic Boltzmann theory can be applied in cosmology. In doing so, expressions are derived for the electric conductivity of the cosmological plasma in the lepton era, the plasma era and the annihilation era. (Auth.)
Nuclear Flow in Consistent Boltzmann Algorithm Models
Kortemeyer, G.; Daffin, F.; Bauer, W.
1995-01-01
We investigate the stochastic Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) for numerically solving the collision-term in heavy-ion transport theories of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type. The first major modification we consider is changes in the collision rates due to excluded volume and shadowing/screening effects (Enskog theory). The second effect studied by us is the inclusion of an additional advection term. These modifications ensure a non-vanishing second virial and change the ...
Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C System for Smart Air Vehicles Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and demonstrate a low cost, lightweight, miniaturized Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C...
Integrated Azimuthal Correlations in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at CERN SPS
Grebieszkow, Katarzyna; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2011-01-01
Azimuthal correlations of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS are discussed. The correlations quantified by the integral measure Phi are shown to be dominated by effects of collective flow.
Asinari, P.
2011-03-01
Boltzmann equation is one the most powerful paradigms for explaining transport phenomena in fluids. Since early fifties, it received a lot of attention due to aerodynamic requirements for high altitude vehicles, vacuum technology requirements and nowadays, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMs). Because of the intrinsic mathematical complexity of the problem, Boltzmann himself started his work by considering first the case when the distribution function does not depend on space (homogeneous case), but only on time and the magnitude of the molecular velocity (isotropic collisional integral). The interest with regards to the homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation goes beyond simple dilute gases. In the so-called econophysics, a Boltzmann type model is sometimes introduced for studying the distribution of wealth in a simple market. Another recent application of the homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation is given by opinion formation modeling in quantitative sociology, also called socio-dynamics or sociophysics. The present work [1] aims to improve the deterministic method for solving homogenous isotropic Boltzmann equation proposed by Aristov [2] by two ideas: (a) the homogeneous isotropic problem is reformulated first in terms of particle kinetic energy (this allows one to ensure exact particle number and energy conservation during microscopic collisions) and (b) a DVM-like correction (where DVM stands for Discrete Velocity Model) is adopted for improving the relaxation rates (this allows one to satisfy exactly the conservation laws at macroscopic level, which is particularly important for describing the late dynamics in the relaxation towards the equilibrium).
Boltzmann's Concept of Reality
Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Videira, Antonio A. P.
2007-01-01
In this article we describe and analyze the concept of reality developed by the Austrian theoretical physicist Ludwig Boltzmann. It is our thesis that Boltzmann was fully aware that reality could, and actually was, described by different points of view. In spite of this, Boltzmann did not renounce the idea that reality is real. We also discuss his main motivations to be strongly involved with philosophy of science, as well as further developments made by Boltzmann himself of his main philosop...
Evaluation of the Finite Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for Binary Fluid Flows
Matin, Rastin; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim
2016-01-01
In contrast to the commonly used lattice Boltzmann method, off-lattice Boltzmann methods decouple the velocity discretization from the underlying spatial grid, thus allowing for more efficient geometric representations of complex boundaries. The current work combines characteristic-based integration of the streaming step with the free-energy based multiphase model by Lee et. al. [Journal of Computational Physics, 206 (1), 2005 ]. This allows for simulation time steps more than an order of magnitude larger than the relaxation time. Unlike previous work by Wardle et. al. [Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 65 (2), 2013 ] that integrated intermolecular forcing terms in the advection term, the current scheme applies collision and forcing terms locally for a simpler finite element formulation. A series of thorough benchmark studies reveal that this does not compromise stability and that the scheme is able to accurately simulate flows at large density and viscosity contrasts.
Lattice Boltzmann approaches to magnetohydrodynamics and electromagnetism
Dellar, Paul
2010-03-01
J u B E g We present a lattice Boltzmann approach for magnetohydrodynamics and electromagnetism that expresses the magnetic field using a discrete set of vector distribution functions i. The i were first postulated to evolve according to a vector Boltzmann equation of the form ti+ ξi.∇i= - 1τ ( i- i^(0) ), where the ξi are a discrete set of velocities. The right hand side relaxes the i towards some specified functions i^(0) of the fluid velocity , and of the macroscopic magnetic field given by = ∑ii. Slowly varying solutions obey the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. This lattice Boltzmann formulation has been used in large-scale (up to 1800^3 resolution) simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. However, this is only the simplest form of Ohm's law. We may simulate more realistic extended forms of Ohm's law using more complex collision operators. A current-dependent relaxation time yields a current-dependent resistivity η(|∇x|), as used to model ``anomalous'' resistivity created by small-scale plasma processes. Using a hydrodynamic matrix collision operator that depends upon the magnetic field , we may simulate Braginskii's magnetohydrodynamics, in which the viscosity for strains parallel to the magnetic field lines is much larger than the viscosity for strains in perpendicular directions. Changing the collision operator again, from the above vector Boltzmann equation we may derive the full set of Maxwell's equations, including the displacement current, and Ohm's law, - 1c^2 tE+ ∇x= μo,= σ( E + x). The original lattice Boltzmann scheme was designed to reproduce resistive magnetohydrodynamics in the non-relativistic limit. However, the kinetic formulation requires a system of first order partial differential equations with collision terms. This system coincides with the full set of Maxwell's equations and Ohm's law, so we capture a much wider range of electromagnetic phenomena, including electromagnetic waves.
Behaviour of ion velocity distributions for a simple collision model
St-Maurice, J.-P.; Schunk, R. W.
1974-01-01
Calculation of the ion velocity distributions for a weakly ionized plasma subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. An exact solution to Boltzmann's equation has been obtained by replacing the Boltzmann collision integral with a simple relaxation model. At altitudes above about 150 km, where the ion collision frequency is much less than the ion cyclotron frequency, the ion distribution takes the shape of a torus in velocity space for electric fields greater than 40 mV/m. This shape persists for one to two hours after application of the electric field. At altitudes where the ion collision and cyclotron frequencies are approximately equal (about 120 km), the ion velocity distribution is shaped like a bean for large electric field strengths. This bean-shaped distribution persists throughout the lifetime of ionospheric electric fields. These highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions may have an appreciable affect on the interpretation of ion temperature measurements.
Sman, van der R.G.M.
2006-01-01
In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the Maxwell-Bolt
Relativistic Entropy and Related Boltzmann Kinetics
Kaniadakis, G
2009-01-01
It is well known that the particular form of the two-particle correlation function, in the collisional integral of the classical Boltzmman equation, fix univocally the entropy of the system, which turn out to be the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. In the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation, some standard generalizations, with respect its classical version, imposed by the special relativity, are customarily performed. The only ingredient of the equation, which tacitely remains in its original classical form, is the two-particle correlation function, and this fact imposes that also the relativistic kinetics is governed by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. Indeed the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation admits as stationary stable distribution, the exponential Juttner distribution. Here, we show that the special relativity laws and the maximum entropy principle, suggest a relativistic generalization also of the two-particle correlation function and then of the entropy. The so obtained, fully relativ...
The Boltzmann equation in the difference formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szoke, Abraham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brooks III, Eugene D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-05-06
First we recall the assumptions that are needed for the validity of the Boltzmann equation and for the validity of the compressible Euler equations. We then present the difference formulation of these equations and make a connection with the time-honored Chapman - Enskog expansion. We discuss the hydrodynamic limit and calculate the thermal conductivity of a monatomic gas, using a simplified approximation for the collision term. Our formulation is more consistent and simpler than the traditional derivation.
Numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the shock wave in a gas mixture
Raines, A A
2014-01-01
We study the structure of a shock wave for a two-, three- and four-component gas mixture on the basis of numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the model of hard sphere molecules. For the evaluation of collision integrals we use the Conservative Projection Method developed by F.G. Tscheremissine which we extended to gas mixtures in cylindrical coordinates. The transition from the upstream to downstream uniform state is presented by macroscopic values and distribution functions. The obtained results were compared with numerical and experimental results of other authors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical methods and computer programs are given to evaluate, for an arbitrary intermolecular potential, the classical transport collision integrals which appear in the kinetic theory of dilute gases. The method of Gaussian quadrature was employed to integrate the triple integral. A detailed discussion is given of the mathematics necessary to determine the boundaries of the individual integrations as well as a detailed analysis of errors introduced by the numerical procedures. Results for a recently published helium potential, the HFDHE2, are given. 5 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a scheme for numerical simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems which directly integrates the Vlasov-Poisson equations in six-dimensional phase space. Using the results from a suite of large-scale numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the present scheme can simulate collisionless self-gravitating systems properly. The integration scheme is based on the positive flux conservation method recently developed in plasma physics. We test the accuracy of our code by performing several test calculations, including the stability of King spheres, the gravitational instability, and the Landau damping. We show that the mass and the energy are accurately conserved for all the test cases we study. The results are in good agreement with linear theory predictions and/or analytic solutions. The distribution function keeps the property of positivity and remains non-oscillatory. The largest simulations are run on 646 grids. The computation speed scales well with the number of processors, and thus our code performs efficiently on massively parallel supercomputers.
Ludwig Boltzmann: Atomic genius
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
On the centenary of the death of Ludwig Boltzmann, Carlo Cercignani examines the immense contributions of the man who pioneered our understanding of the atomic nature of matter. The man who first gave a convincing explanation of the irreversibility of the macroscopic world and the symmetry of the laws of physics was the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who tragically committed suicide 100 years ago this month. One of the key figures in the development of the atomic theory of matter, Boltzmann's fame will be forever linked to two fundamental contributions to science. The first was his interpretation of 'entropy' as a mathematically well-defined measure of the disorder of atoms. The second was his derivation of what is now known as the Boltzmann equation, which describes the statistical properties of a gas as made up of molecules. The equation, which described for the first time how a probability can evolve with time, allowed Boltzmann to explain why macroscopic phenomena are irreversible. The key point is that while microscopic objects like atoms can behave reversibly, we never see broken coffee cups reforming because it would involve a long series of highly improbable interactions - and not because it is forbidden by the laws of physics. (U.K.)
Differential and integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarma, Gautam; Saha, Ashim Kumar; Meulen, J. J. ter; Parker, David H., E-mail: parker@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Marinakis, Sarantos, E-mail: s.marinakis@qmul.ac.uk [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Joseph Priestley Building, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2015-01-21
Differential cross sections (DCSs) for inelastic collisions of OH(X) with Xe have been measured at a collision energy of 483 cm{sup −1}. The hydroxyl (OH) radicals were initially prepared in the X{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v = 0, j = 1.5, f) level using the hexapole electric field selection method. Products were detected state-selectively by [2 + 1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of OH, combined with velocity-map imaging. Integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe at a collision energy of 490 cm{sup −1} were also measured by laser-induced fluorescence. The results are compared with exact close-coupling quantum mechanical scattering calculations on the only available ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is generally very satisfactory. This highlights the ability of such measurements to test the available PES for such a benchmark open-shell system. The agreement between experiment and theory for DCSs is less satisfactory at low scattering angles, and possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. Finally, theoretical calculations of OH(X) + He DCSs have been obtained at various collision energies and are compared with those of OH(X) + Xe. The role of the reduced mass in the DCSs and partial cross sections is also examined.
Differential and integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe collisions.
Sarma, Gautam; Saha, Ashim Kumar; ter Meulen, J J; Parker, David H; Marinakis, Sarantos
2015-01-21
Differential cross sections (DCSs) for inelastic collisions of OH(X) with Xe have been measured at a collision energy of 483 cm(-1). The hydroxyl (OH) radicals were initially prepared in the X(2)Π3/2 (v = 0, j = 1.5, f) level using the hexapole electric field selection method. Products were detected state-selectively by [2 + 1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of OH, combined with velocity-map imaging. Integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe at a collision energy of 490 cm(-1) were also measured by laser-induced fluorescence. The results are compared with exact close-coupling quantum mechanical scattering calculations on the only available ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is generally very satisfactory. This highlights the ability of such measurements to test the available PES for such a benchmark open-shell system. The agreement between experiment and theory for DCSs is less satisfactory at low scattering angles, and possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. Finally, theoretical calculations of OH(X) + He DCSs have been obtained at various collision energies and are compared with those of OH(X) + Xe. The role of the reduced mass in the DCSs and partial cross sections is also examined. PMID:25612711
Stochastic particle approximations for generalized Boltzmann models and convergence estimates
Graham, Carl; Méléard, Sylvie
1997-01-01
We specify the Markov process corresponding to a generalized mollified Boltzmann equation with general motion between collisions and nonlinear bounded jump (collision) operator, and give the nonlinear martingale problem it solves. We consider various linear interacting particle systems in order to approximate this nonlinear process. We prove propagation of chaos, in variation norm on path space with a precise rate of convergence, using coupling and interaction graph techniqu...
Celebrating Cercignani's conjecture for the Boltzmann equation
Villani, Cédric
2011-01-01
Cercignani\\'s conjecture assumes a linear inequality between the entropy and entropy production functionals for Boltzmann\\'s nonlinear integral operator in rarefied gas dynamics. Related to the field of logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and spectral gap inequalities, this issue has been at the core of the renewal of the mathematical theory of convergence to thermodynamical equilibrium for rarefied gases over the past decade. In this review paper, we survey the various positive and negative results which were obtained since the conjecture was proposed in the 1980s. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
An exactly solvable non-linear Boltzmann equation
Ernst, M.H.; Hendriks, E.M.
1979-01-01
The initial value problem for a model Boltzmann equation of a two dimensional gas with a continuous or discrete energy distribution function and a transition probability δ(ε - ε') is solved exactly; ε and ε' are the total energies before and after collision.
Li, Zhihui; Wu, Junlin; Ma, Qiang; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-12-01
Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body.
Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischer, Asja
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...
Thermalization, evolution and LHC observables in integrated hydrokinetic model of A+A collisions
Naboka, V Yu; Sinyukov, Yu M
2015-01-01
A further development of the evolutionary picture of A+A collisions, which we call the integrated HydroKinetic Model (iHKM), is proposed. The model comprises generator of the initial state GLISSANDO, pre-thermal dynamics of A+A collisions leading to thermalization, subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon and hadron medium (vHLLE), its particlization and subsequent hadronic cascade UrQMD. We calculate all charged particle multiplicities, pion, kaon and antiproton spectra, elliptic flows and interferometry radii for Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energy $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV at different centralities. It is found that the combination of initial conditions, which are strongly anisotropic over momentum and formed at very small initial time 0.1 fm/c, small mean relaxation time of the thermalization process and minimal value of shear viscosity ($\\eta/s = \\frac{1}{4\\pi}$) gives the best description of the experimental data. At the same time it is observed that the isotropic initial conditi...
Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture
Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua
2016-02-01
An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations.
Dyatko, Nikolay; Donkó, Zoltán
2015-08-01
At low reduced electric fields the electron energy distribution function in heavy noble gases can take two distinct shapes. This ‘bistability effect’—in which electron-electron (Coulomb) collisions play an essential role—is analyzed here for Xe with a Boltzmann equation approach and with a first principles particle simulation method. The solution of the Boltzmann equation adopts the usual approximations of (i) searching for the distribution function in the form of two terms (‘two-term approximation’), (ii) neglecting the Coulomb part of the collision integral for the anisotropic part of the distribution function, (iii) treating Coulomb collisions as binary events, and (iv) truncating the range of the electron-electron interaction beyond a characteristic distance. The particle-based simulation method avoids these approximations: the many-body interactions within the electron gas with a true (un-truncated) Coulomb potential are described by a molecular dynamics algorithm, while the collisions between electrons and the background gas atoms are treated with Monte Carlo simulation. We find a good general agreement between the results of the two techniques, which confirms, to a certain extent, the approximations used in the solution of the Boltzmann equation. The differences observed between the results are believed to originate from these approximations and from the presence of statistical noise in the particle simulations.
Fast low-rank approximations of multidimensional integrals in ion-atomic collisions modelling
Litsarev, M S
2015-01-01
An efficient technique based on low-rank separated approximations is proposed for computation of three-dimensional integrals arising in the energy deposition model that describes ion-atomic collisions. Direct tensor-product quadrature requires grids of size $4000^3$ which is unacceptable. Moreover, several of such integrals have to be computed simultaneously for different values of parameters. To reduce the complexity, we use the structure of the integrand and apply numerical linear algebra techniques for the construction of low-rank approximation. The resulting algorithm is $10^3$ faster than spectral quadratures in spherical coordinates used in the original DEPOSIT code. The approach can be generalized to other multidimensional problems in physics.
Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, E.
1992-01-01
The corrections to the transport cross-sections and collision integrals for Coulomb interactions arising from the application of realistic interaction energies of the ions of nitrogen and oxygen are investigated. Accurate potential-energy curves from an ab initio electronic-structure calculation and a semiclassical description of the scattering are used to determine the difference between the cross-sections for the real interaction forces and a Coulomb force for large values of the Debye shielding parameter. Graphs of the correction to the diffusion and viscosity-collision integrals are presented for temperatures from about 10,000 K to 150,000 K. This correction can be combined with tabulations of the collision integrals for shielded Coulomb potentials to determine the contribution of N(+)-N(+), N(+)-O(+), and O(+)-O(+) interactions to the transport properties of high-temperature air. Analytical forms are fitted to the calculated results to assist this application.
On Boltzmann's genius and thermodynamics
Gyftopoulos, Elias P
2007-01-01
A recent essay [1] reminds us of how richly Boltzmann deserves to be admiringly commemorated for the originality of his ideas on the occasion of his 150th birthday. Without any doubt, the scientific community owes Boltzmann a great debt of gratitude for his ingenious and pathfinding contributions. However, the essay chooses to illustrate this important memorial by statements and inferences that perhaps are questionable today even to Boltzmann himself. I will comment only on three issues.
Lattice Boltzmann Large Eddy Simulation Model of MHD
Flint, Christopher
2016-01-01
The work of Ansumali \\textit{et al.}\\cite{Ansumali} is extended to Two Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in which energy is cascaded to small spatial scales and thus requires subgrid modeling. Applying large eddy simulation (LES) modeling of the macroscopic fluid equations results in the need to apply ad-hoc closure schemes. LES is applied to a suitable mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann representation from which one can recover the MHD equations in the long wavelength, long time scale Chapman-Enskog limit (i.e., the Knudsen limit). Thus on first performing filter width expansions on the lattice Boltzmann equations followed by the standard small Knudsen expansion on the filtered lattice Boltzmann system results in a closed set of MHD turbulence equations provided we enforce the physical constraint that the subgrid effects first enter the dynamics at the transport time scales. In particular, a multi-time relaxation collision operator is considered for the density distribution function and a single rel...
Scheinberg, Anne; Nesić, Jelena; Savain, Rachel; Luppi, Pietro; Sinnott, Portia; Petean, Flaviu; Pop, Flaviu
2016-09-01
The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems.This review focuses on the period from 2004 through the first half of 2016. The 78 sources on European (and neighbouring) informal recycling and re-use are contextualised with global sources and experience. The articles focus on informal recovery in and at the borders of the European Union, document the conflicts and collisions, and elaborate some constructive approaches towards legalisation, integration, and reconciliation. The overarching recommendation, to locate the issue of informal recovery and integration in the framework of the European circular economy package, is supported by four specific pillars of an integration strategy: Documentation, legalisation, occupational and enterprise recognition, and preparation for structural integration. PMID:27449318
Langevin theory of fluctuations in the discrete Boltzmann equation
Gross, M; Varnik, F; Adhikari, R
2010-01-01
The discrete Boltzmann equation for both the ideal and a non-ideal fluid is extended by adding Langevin noise terms in order to incorporate the effects of thermal fluctuations. After casting the fluctuating discrete Boltzmann equation in a form appropriate to the Onsager-Machlup theory of linear fluctuations, the statistical properties of the noise are determined by invoking a fluctuation-dissipation theorem at the kinetic level. By integrating the fluctuating discrete Boltzmann equation, the fluctuating lattice Boltzmann equation is obtained, which provides an efficient way to solve the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics for ideal and non-ideal fluids. Application of the framework to a generic force-based non-ideal fluid model leads to ideal gas-type thermal noise. Simulation results indicate proper thermalization of all degrees of freedom.
Punshon-Smith, Samuel; Smith, Scott
2016-01-01
This article studies the Cauchy problem for the Boltzmann equation with stochastic kinetic transport. Under a cut-off assumption on the collision kernel and a coloring hypothesis for the noise coefficients, we prove the global existence of renormalized (in the sense of DiPerna/Lions) martingale solutions to the Boltzmann equation for large initial data with finite mass, energy, and entropy. Our analysis includes a detailed study of weak martingale solutions to a class of linear stochastic kin...
The Nonclassical Diffusion Approximation to the Nonclassical Linear Boltzmann Equation
Vasques, Richard
2015-01-01
We show that, by correctly selecting the probability distribution function $p(s)$ for a particle's distance-to-collision, the nonclassical diffusion equation can be represented exactly by the nonclassical linear Boltzmann equation for an infinite homogeneous medium. This choice of $p(s)$ preserves the $true$ mean-squared free path of the system, which sheds new light on the results obtained in previous work.
Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation
Molnar, E.; Niemi, H.; Rischke, D. H.
2016-01-01
Fluid-dynamical equations of motion can be derived from the Boltzmann equation in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which is in local thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., isotropic in momentum space in the rest frame of a fluid element. However, in situations where the single-particle distribution function is highly anisotropic in momentum space, such as the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies, such an expansion is bound to break dow...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG JiangFeng; ZHANG Qian; ZHANG ZhiQ; YAN XueDong
2016-01-01
In this paper,the structured trajectory planning of lane change in collision-free road environment is studied and validated using the vehicle-driver integration data,and a new trajectory planning model for lane change is proposed based on linear offset and sine function to balance driver comfort and vehicle dynamics.The trajectory curvature of the proposed model is continuous without mutation,and the zero-based curvature at the starting and end points during lane change assures the motion direction of end points in parallel with the lane line.The field experiment are designed to collect the vehicle-driver integration data,such as steering angle,brake pedal angel and accelerator pedal angel.The correction Correlation analysis of lane-changing maneuver and influencing variables is conducted to obtain the significant variables that can be used to calibrate and test the proposed model.The results demonstrate that vehicle velocity and Y-axis acceleration have significant effects on the lane-changing maneuver,so that the model recalibrated by the samples of different velocity ranges and Y-axis accelerations has better fitted performance compared with the model calibrated by the sample trajectory.In addition,the proposed model presents a decreasing tendency of the lane change trajectory fitted MAE with the increase of time span of calibrating samples at the starting stage.
Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.
2016-07-01
Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe2+ and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 + in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe2+ + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe+ and N2 + product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å2 to about 40 Å2 with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe2+ - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies.
Hause, Michael L; Prince, Benjamin D; Bemish, Raymond J
2016-07-28
Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe(2+) and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 (+) in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe(2+) + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe(+) and N2 (+) product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å(2) to about 40 Å(2) with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe(2+) - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies. PMID:27475363
Albedo of low-energy light ions: case of anisotropic approximation of the collision integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For diffusion and slowing-down of low-energy light ions, the linear transport equation in the path length form was rederived taking into account a common anisotropic approximation of the collision integral. Assuming that the transport cross section depends only on the ion initial energy, the equation was Laplace-transformed over the relative path length and half-space albedo problem was considered by using the ordinary DPN technique. The Laplace-transformed reflection function was found in the lowest order of DPN flux approximation, and then was inverted analytically leading to the distribution of backscattered particles in the relative path-length. For the general power potential V(R)∞R-1/m the particle reflection coefficient was obtained as a series, while for the special case of the inverse square potential (m=1/2) this coefficient was determined in a compact form. The present approach was compared with the TRIM simulations of helium ion reflection, as well as with the Tilinin - Betz fitting formula and the MARLOWE simulations of proton reflection. (author)
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method.
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-06-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.
Celebrating Cercignani's conjecture for the Boltzmann equation
Desvillettes, Laurent; Villani, Cédric
2010-01-01
Cercignani's conjecture assumes a linear inequality between the entropy and entropy production functionals for Boltzmann's nonlinear integral operator in rarefied gas dynamics. Related to the field of logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and spectral gap inequalities, this issue has been at the core of the renewal of the mathematical theory of convergence to thermodynamical equilibrium for rarefied gases over the past decade. In this review paper, we survey the various positive and negative results which were obtained since the conjecture was proposed in the 1980s.
Hauptfleisch, Morgan L; Avenant, Nico L
2015-11-01
Understanding ecosystems within and around airports can help to determine the causes and possible mitigation measures for collisions between aircraft and wildlife. Small mammal communities are an important component of the semi-arid savanna ecosystems of Namibia, its productivity and its ecosystem integrity. They are also a major direct attractant for raptors at airports. The present study compared the abundance and diversity of small mammals between Namibia's 2 main airport properties (Hosea Kutako International Airport and Eros Airport), and among areas of land used for various purposes surrounding the airports. A total of 2150 small mammals (3 orders, 11 species) were captured over 4 trapping seasons. Small mammal abundance was significantly higher at the end of the growing season than during the non-growing season. The grass mowing regimen in current management plans at the airports resulted in a significant reduction of small mammal abundance at Hosea Kutako during the non-growing season only, thus indicating that annual mowing is effective but insufficient to reduce the overall abundance of mammal prey species for raptors. Small mammal numbers were significantly higher at Hosea Kutako Airport compared to the cattle and game farming land surrounding the airport, while no differences in small mammal densities or diversity were found for areas with different land uses at and surrounding Eros. The study suggests that the fence around Hosea Kutako provides a refuge for small mammals, resulting in higher densities. It also indicates that different surrounding land use practices result in altered ecosystem function and productivity, an important consideration when identifying wildlife attractants at airports. PMID:26331534
Hauptfleisch, Morgan L; Avenant, Nico L
2015-11-01
Understanding ecosystems within and around airports can help to determine the causes and possible mitigation measures for collisions between aircraft and wildlife. Small mammal communities are an important component of the semi-arid savanna ecosystems of Namibia, its productivity and its ecosystem integrity. They are also a major direct attractant for raptors at airports. The present study compared the abundance and diversity of small mammals between Namibia's 2 main airport properties (Hosea Kutako International Airport and Eros Airport), and among areas of land used for various purposes surrounding the airports. A total of 2150 small mammals (3 orders, 11 species) were captured over 4 trapping seasons. Small mammal abundance was significantly higher at the end of the growing season than during the non-growing season. The grass mowing regimen in current management plans at the airports resulted in a significant reduction of small mammal abundance at Hosea Kutako during the non-growing season only, thus indicating that annual mowing is effective but insufficient to reduce the overall abundance of mammal prey species for raptors. Small mammal numbers were significantly higher at Hosea Kutako Airport compared to the cattle and game farming land surrounding the airport, while no differences in small mammal densities or diversity were found for areas with different land uses at and surrounding Eros. The study suggests that the fence around Hosea Kutako provides a refuge for small mammals, resulting in higher densities. It also indicates that different surrounding land use practices result in altered ecosystem function and productivity, an important consideration when identifying wildlife attractants at airports.
Lattice Boltzmann method with the cell-population equilibrium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Xiao-Yang; Cheng Bing; Shi Bao-Chang
2008-01-01
The central problem of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is to construct a discrete equilibrium.In this paper,a multi-speed 1D cell-model of Boltzmann equation is proposed,in which the cell-population equilibrium,a direct nonnegative approximation to the continuous Maxwellian distribution,plays an important part.By applying the explicit one-order Chapman-Enskog distribution,the model reduces the transportation and collision,two basic evolution steps in LBM,to the transportation of the non-equilibrium distribution.Furthermore,1D dam-break problem is performed and the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions.
Spinor Boltzmann Equation with Two Momenta at the Fermi Level
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王正川
2012-01-01
Based on the formalism of Keldysh's nonequilibrium Green function, we establish a two momenta spinor Boltzmann equation for longitudinal scalar distribution function and transverse vector distribution function. The lon- gitudinal charge currents, transverse spin currents and the continuity equations satisfied by them are then studied, it indicates that both the charge currents and spin currents decay oscillately along with position, which is due to the momenta integral over the Fermi surface. We also compare our charge currents and spin currents with the corresponding results of one momentum spinor Boltzmann equation, the differences are obvious.
Chebyshev collocation spectral lattice Boltzmann method for simulation of low-speed flows.
Hejranfar, Kazem; Hajihassanpour, Mahya
2015-01-01
In this study, the Chebyshev collocation spectral lattice Boltzmann method (CCSLBM) is developed and assessed for the computation of low-speed flows. Both steady and unsteady flows are considered here. The discrete Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation based on the pressure distribution function is considered and the space discretization is performed by the Chebyshev collocation spectral method to achieve a highly accurate flow solver. To provide accurate unsteady solutions, the time integration of the temporal term in the lattice Boltzmann equation is made by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. To achieve numerical stability and accuracy, physical boundary conditions based on the spectral solution of the governing equations implemented on the boundaries are used. An iterative procedure is applied to provide consistent initial conditions for the distribution function and the pressure field for the simulation of unsteady flows. The main advantage of using the CCSLBM over other high-order accurate lattice Boltzmann method (LBM)-based flow solvers is the decay of the error at exponential rather than at polynomial rates. Note also that the CCSLBM applied does not need any numerical dissipation or filtering for the solution to be stable, leading to highly accurate solutions. Three two-dimensional (2D) test cases are simulated herein that are a regularized cavity, the Taylor vortex problem, and doubly periodic shear layers. The results obtained for these test cases are thoroughly compared with the analytical and available numerical results and show excellent agreement. The computational efficiency of the proposed solution methodology based on the CCSLBM is also examined by comparison with those of the standard streaming-collision (classical) LBM and two finite-difference LBM solvers. The study indicates that the CCSLBM provides more accurate and efficient solutions than these LBM solvers in terms of CPU and memory usage and an exponential
Collision Rates in Charged Granular Gases
Scheffler, T. (Thomas); Wolf, D. E.
2002-01-01
The dissipation rate due to inelastic collisions between equally charged, insulating particles in a granular gas is calculated. It is equal to the known dissipation rate for uncharged granular media multiplied by a Boltzmann-like factor, that originates from Coulomb repulsion. Particle correlations lead to an effective potential that replaces the bare Coulomb potential in the Boltzmann factor. Collisional cooling in a granular gas proceeds with the known t^-2 -law, until the kinetic energy of...
Joint Training of Deep Boltzmann Machines
Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua
2012-01-01
We introduce a new method for training deep Boltzmann machines jointly. Prior methods require an initial learning pass that trains the deep Boltzmann machine greedily, one layer at a time, or do not perform well on classifi- cation tasks.
Dyatko, Nikolay; Donko, Zoltan
2015-01-01
At low reduced electric fields the electron energy distribution function in heavy noble gases can take two distinct shapes. This "bistability effect" - in which electron-electron (Coulomb) collisions play an essential role - is analyzed here for Xe with a Boltzmann equation approach and with a first principles particle simulation method. The solution of the Boltzmann equation adopts the usual approximations of (i) searching for the distribution function in the form of two terms ("two-term app...
Tracy, C. A.; Widom, H.
1997-01-01
Using exact results from the theory of completely integrable systems of the Painleve/Toda type, we examine the consequences for the theory of polyelectrolytes in the (nonlinear) Poisson-Boltzmann approximation.
Ludwig Boltzmann A Pioneer of Modern Physics
Flamm, D
1997-01-01
In two respects Ludwig Boltzmann was a pioneer of quantum mechanics. First because in his statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics he introduced the theory of probability into a fundamental law of physics and thus broke with the classical prejudice, that fundamental laws have to be strictly deterministic. Even Max Planck had not been ready to accept Boltzmann's statistical methods until 1900. With Boltzmann's pioneering work the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics had already a precedent. In fact in a paper in 1897 Boltzmann had already suggested to Planck to use his statistical methods for the treatment of black body radiation. The second pioneering step towards quantum mechanics was Boltzmann's introduction of discrete energy levels. Boltzmann used this method already in his 1872 paper on the H-theorem. One may ask whether Boltzmann considered this procedure only as a mathematical device or whether he attributed physical significance to it. In this connection Ostwald repo...
Fokker-Planck Equation for Boltzmann-type and Active Particles transfer probability approach
Trigger, S A
2002-01-01
Fokker-Planck equation with the velocity-dependent coefficients is considered for various isotropic systems on the basis of probability transition (PT) approach. This method provides the self-consistent and universal description of friction and diffusion for Brownian particles. Renormalization of the friction coefficient is shown to occur for two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) cases, due to the tensorial character of diffusion. The specific forms of PT are calculated for the Boltzmann-type of collisions and for the absorption-type of collisions (the later are typical for dusty plasmas and some other systems). Validity of the Einstein's relation for the Boltzmann-type collisions is proved for the velocity-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients. For non-Boltzmann collisions, such as, e.g., absorption collisions, the Einstein relation is violated, although some other relations (determined by the structure of PT) can exist. The collecting part of the ion drag force in a dusty plasma, arising...
Lattice Boltzmann method for bosons and fermions and the fourth order Hermite polynomial expansion
Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Doria, M M; Pereira, R M; Aibe, Valter Yoshihiko
2013-01-01
The Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator is considered for the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions. We show that the expansion of the microscopic velocity in terms of Hermite polynomials must be carried until the fourth order to correctly describe the energy equation. The viscosity and thermal coefficients, previously obtained by J.Y. Yang et al through the Uehling-Uhlenbeck approach, are also derived here. Thus the construction of a lattice Boltzmann method for the quantum fluid is possible provided that the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions are expanded until fourth order in the Hermite polynomials.
Numerical scheme for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation
Lu, Jianfeng
2014-01-01
We develop an efficient algorithm for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation derived from the Hubbard model. The distribution functions are 2 x 2 matrix-valued to accommodate the spin degree of freedom, and the scalar quantum Boltzmann equation is recovered as special case when all matrices are proportional to the identity. We use Fourier discretization and fast Fourier transform to efficiently evaluate the collision kernel with spectral accuracy, and numerically investigate periodic, Dirichlet and Maxwell boundary conditions. Model simulations quantify the convergence to local and global thermal equilibrium.
Numerical scheme for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation
Lu, Jianfeng; Mendl, Christian B.
2015-06-01
We develop an efficient algorithm for a spatially inhomogeneous matrix-valued quantum Boltzmann equation derived from the Hubbard model. The distribution functions are 2 × 2 matrix-valued to accommodate the spin degree of freedom, and the scalar quantum Boltzmann equation is recovered as a special case when all matrices are proportional to the identity. We use Fourier discretization and fast Fourier transform to efficiently evaluate the collision kernel with spectral accuracy, and numerically investigate periodic, Dirichlet and Maxwell boundary conditions. Model simulations quantify the convergence to local and global thermal equilibrium.
Quantum corrections for Boltzmann equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M.; Levy; PETER
2008-01-01
We present the lowest order quantum correction to the semiclassical Boltzmann distribution function,and the equation satisfied by this correction is given. Our equation for the quantum correction is obtained from the conventional quantum Boltzmann equation by explicitly expressing the Planck constant in the gradient approximation,and the quantum Wigner distribution function is expanded in pow-ers of Planck constant,too. The negative quantum correlation in the Wigner dis-tribution function which is just the quantum correction terms is naturally singled out,thus obviating the need for the Husimi’s coarse grain averaging that is usually done to remove the negative quantum part of the Wigner distribution function. We also discuss the classical limit of quantum thermodynamic entropy in the above framework.
Heavy Flavor Suppression: Boltzmann vs Langevin
Das, Santosh K; Plumari, Salvatore; Greco, Vincenzo
2013-01-01
The propagation of heavy flavor through the quark gluon plasma has been treated commonly within the framework of Langevin dynamics, i.e. assuming the heavy flavor momentum transfer is much smaller than the light one. On the other hand a similar suppression factor $R_{AA}$ has been observed experimentally for light and heavy flavors. We present a thorough study of the approximations involved by Langevin equation by mean of a direct comparison with the full collisional integral within the framework of Boltzmann transport equation. We have compared the results obtained in both approaches which can differ substantially for charm quark leading to quite different values extracted for the heavy quark diffusion coefficient. In the case of bottom quark the approximation appears to be quite reasonable.
Student understanding of the Boltzmann factor
Smith, Trevor I; Thompson, John R
2015-01-01
We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable, nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us to develop a guided-inquiry tutorial activity, centered around the derivation of the Boltzmann factor, for use in undergraduate statistical mechanics courses. We report on the development process of our tutorial, including data from teaching interviews and classroom observations on student discussions about the Boltzmann f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerma-area product meters (KAP meters) are frequently used in diagnostic radiology to measure the integral of air-collision kerma over an area A(∫A Kc,air dA) perpendicular to the x-ray beam. In this work, a precise method for calibrating a KAP meter to measure ∫A Kc,air dA is described and calibration factors determined for a broad range of tube potentials (40-200kV). The integral is determined using a large number of TL dosimeters spread over and outside the nominal field area defined as the area within 50% of maximum Kc,air. The method is compared to a simplified calibration method which approximates the integral by multiplying the kerma in the centre of the field by the nominal field area Anom. While the calibration factor using the precise method is independent of field area and distance from the source, that using the simplified method depends on both. This can be accounted for by field inhomogeneities caused by the heel effect, extrafocal radiation and scattered radiation from the KAP meter. The deviations between the calibration factors were as large as ±15% for collimator apertures of 5-100cm2 and distances from the source of 50 - 160 cm. The uncertainty in the calibration factor using the precise method was carefully evaluated and the expanded relative uncertainty estimated to be ±3% with a confidence level of 95%. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zang Hua-Ping; Li Wen-Feng; Linghu Rong-Feng; Cheng Xin-Lu; Yang Xiang-Dong
2011-01-01
This paper applies the multiple ellipsoid model to the 16Ne (20Ne, 28Ne, 34Ne)-Na2 collision systems, and calculates integral cross sections for rotational excitation at the incident energy of 190 meV. It can be seen that the accuracy of the integral cross sections can be improved by increasing the number of equipotential ellipsoid surfaces. Moreover, by analysing the differences of these integral cross sections, it obtains the change rules of the integral cross sections with the increase of rotational angular quantum number J', and with the change of the mass of isotope substitution neon atom. Finally, the contribution of different regions of the potential to inelastic cross sections for 20Ne-Na2 collision system is investigated at relative incident energy of 190 meV.
SIMPLE LATTICE BOLTZMANN MODEL FOR TRAFFIC FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan Guangwu; Hu Shouxin
2000-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann model with 5-bit lattice for traffic flows is proposed.Using the Chapman-Enskog expansion and multi-scale technique,we obtain the higher-order moments of equilibrium distribution function.A simple traffic light problem is simulated by using the present lattice Boltzmann model,and the result agrees well with analytical solution.
Lattice Boltzmann scheme for relativistic fluids
Mendoza, M.; B. Boghosian; Herrmann, H. J.; Succi, S.
2009-01-01
A Lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically verified through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shock-wave propagation in viscous quark-gluon plasmas. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the main advantages of Lattice Boltzmann methods to the relativistic context, which seems particularly useful for the simulation of relativistic fluids in complicated geometries.
Pore-scale lattice Boltzmann simulation of laminar and turbulent flow through a sphere pack
Fattahia, Ehsan; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Rüde, Ulrich; Manhart, Michael; Helmig, Rainer
2015-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann method can be used to simulate flow through porous media with full geometrical resolution. With such a direct numerical simulation, it becomes possible to study fundamental effects which are difficult to assess either by developing macroscopic mathematical models or experiments. We first evaluate the lattice Boltzmann method with various boundary handling of the solid-wall and various collision operators to assess their suitability for large scale direct numerical simulation of porous media flow. A periodic pressure drop boundary condition is used to mimic the pressure driven flow through the simple sphere pack in a periodic domain. The evaluation of the method is done in the Darcy regime and the results are compared to a semi-analytic solution. Taking into account computational cost and accuracy, we choose the most efficient combination of the solid boundary condition and collision operator. We apply this method to perform simulations for a wide range of Reynolds numbers from Stokes flo...
Inhomogeneous relativistic Boltzmann equation near vacuum in the Robertson-Walker space-time
Takou, Etienne
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider the Cauchy problem for the relativistic Boltzmann equation with near vacuum initial data where the distribution function depends on the time, the position and the impulsion. The collision kernel considered here is for the hard potentials case and the background space-time in which the study is done is the Robertson-Walker space-time. Unique global (in time) mild solution is obtained in a suitable weighted space.
Three-Dimensional Multi-Relaxation Time (MRT) Lattice-Boltzmann Models for Multiphase Flow
Premnath, Kannan N.; Abraham, John
2006-01-01
In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice-Boltzmann (LB) models for multiphase flow are presented. In contrast to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model, a widely employed kinetic model, in MRT models the rates of relaxation processes owing to collisions of particle populations may be independently adjusted. As a result, the MRT models offer a significant improvement in numerical stability of the LB method for simulating fluids with lower viscosities. We show th...
Dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shallow water flows with the Peano framework
Neumann, Philipp
2015-09-01
© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. We present a dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann (LB) implementation for solving the shallow water equations (SWEs). Our implementation extends an existing LB component of the Peano framework. We revise the modular design with respect to the incorporation of new simulation aspects and LB models. The basic SWE-LB implementation is validated in different breaking dam scenarios. We further provide a numerical study on stability of the MRT collision operator used in our simulations.
Thermal cascaded lattice Boltzmann method
Fei, Linlin
2016-01-01
In this paper, a thermal cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (TCLBM) is developed in combination with the double-distribution-function (DDF) approach. A density distribution function relaxed by the cascaded scheme is employed to solve the flow field, and a total energy distribution function relaxed by the BGK scheme is used to solve temperature field, where two distribution functions are coupled naturally. The forcing terms are incorporated by means of central moments, which is consistent with the previous force scheme [Premnath \\emph{et al.}, Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{80}, 036702 (2009)] but the derivation is more intelligible and the evolution process is simpler. In the method, the viscous heat dissipation and compression work are taken into account, the Prandtl number and specific-heat ratio are adjustable, the external force is considered directly without the Boussinesq assumption, and the low-Mach number compressible flows can also be simulated. The forcing scheme is tested by simulating a steady Taylor-Green f...
Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.
Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T
2003-07-01
A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.
Multiphase lattice Boltzmann methods theory and application
Huang, Haibo; Lu, Xiyun
2015-01-01
Theory and Application of Multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Methods presents a comprehensive review of all popular multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Methods developed thus far and is aimed at researchers and practitioners within relevant Earth Science disciplines as well as Petroleum, Chemical, Mechanical and Geological Engineering. Clearly structured throughout, this book will be an invaluable reference on the current state of all popular multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Methods (LBMs). The advantages and disadvantages of each model are presented in an accessible manner to enable the reader to choose the
Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation
Molnár, Etele; Niemi, Harri; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-06-01
Fluid-dynamical equations of motion can be derived from the Boltzmann equation in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which is in local thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., isotropic in momentum space in the rest frame of a fluid element. However, in situations where the single-particle distribution function is highly anisotropic in momentum space, such as the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies, such an expansion is bound to break down. Nevertheless, one can still derive a fluid-dynamical theory, called anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics, in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function, f^0 k, which incorporates (at least parts of) the momentum anisotropy via a suitable parametrization. We construct such an expansion in terms of polynomials in energy and momentum in the direction of the anisotropy and of irreducible tensors in the two-dimensional momentum subspace orthogonal to both the fluid velocity and the direction of the anisotropy. From the Boltzmann equation we then derive the set of equations of motion for the irreducible moments of the deviation of the single-particle distribution function from f^0 k. Truncating this set via the 14-moment approximation, we obtain the equations of motion of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics.
Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for electrodynamics.
Mendoza, M; Muñoz, J D
2010-11-01
In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the Maxwell equations in materials. In order to build conservation equations with antisymmetric tensors, like the Faraday law, the model assigns four auxiliary vectors to each velocity vector. These auxiliary vectors, when combined with the distribution functions, give the electromagnetic fields. The evolution is driven by the usual Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision rule, but with a different form for the equilibrium distribution functions. This lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model allows us to consider for both dielectrics and conductors with realistic parameters, and therefore it is adequate to simulate the most diverse electromagnetic problems, like the propagation of electromagnetic waves (both in dielectric media and in waveguides), the skin effect, the radiation pattern of a small dipole antenna and the natural frequencies of a resonant cavity, all with 2% accuracy. Actually, it shows to be one order of magnitude faster than the original Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation by Yee to reach the same accuracy. It is, therefore, a valuable alternative to simulate electromagnetic fields and opens lattice Boltzmann for a broad spectrum of new applications in electrodynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
EL Safadi, M
2007-03-15
We study the regularity of kinetic equations of Boltzmann type.We use essentially Littlewood-Paley method from harmonic analysis, consisting mainly in working with dyadics annulus. We shall mainly concern with the homogeneous case, where the solution f(t,x,v) depends only on the time t and on the velocities v, while working with realistic and singular cross-sections (non cutoff). In the first part, we study the particular case of Maxwellian molecules. Under this hypothesis, the structure of the Boltzmann operator and his Fourier transform write in a simple form. We show a global C{sup {infinity}} regularity. Then, we deal with the case of general cross-sections with 'hard potential'. We are interested in the Landau equation which is limit equation to the Boltzmann equation, taking in account grazing collisions. We prove that any weak solution belongs to Schwartz space S. We demonstrate also a similar regularity for the case of Boltzmann equation. Let us note that our method applies directly for all dimensions, and proofs are often simpler compared to other previous ones. Finally, we finish with Boltzmann-Dirac equation. In particular, we adapt the result of regularity obtained in Alexandre, Desvillettes, Wennberg and Villani work, using the dissipation rate connected with Boltzmann-Dirac equation. (author)
Exact results for the Boltzmann equation and Smoluchowski's coagulation equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almost no analytical solutions have been found for realistic intermolecular forces, largely due to the complicated structure of the collision term which calls for the construction of simplified models, in which as many physical properties are maintained as possible. In the first three chapters of this thesis such model Boltzmann equations are studied. Only spatially homogeneous gases with isotropic distribution functions are considered. Chapter I considers transition kernels, chapter II persistent scattering models and chapter III very hard particles. The second part of this dissertation deals with Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for the size distribution function in a coagulating system, with chapters devoted to the following topics: kinetics of gelation and universality, coagulation equations with gelation and exactly soluble models of nucleation. (Auth./C.F.)
Nonaligned shocks for discrete velocity models of the Boltzmann equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Greenberg
1991-05-01
Full Text Available At the conclusion of I. Bonzani's presentation on the existence of structured shock solutions to the six-velocity, planar, discrete Boltzmann equation (with binary and triple collisions, Greenberg asked whether such solutions were possible in directions e(α=(cosα ,sinα when α was not one of the particle flow directions. This question generated a spirited discussion but the question was still open at the conclusion of the conference. In this note the author will provide a partial resolution to the question raised above. Using formal perturbation arguments he will produce approximate solutions to the equation considered by Bonzani which represent traveling waves propagating in any direction e(α=(cosα ,sinα.
Relativistic collision rate calculations for electron-air interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The most recent data available on differential cross sections for electron-air interactions are used to calculate the avalanche, momentum transfer, and energy loss rates that enter into the fluid equations. Data for the important elastic, inelastic, and ionizing processes are generally available out to electron energies of 1--10 kev. Prescriptions for extending these cross sections to the relativistic regime are presented. The angular dependence of the cross sections is included where data is available as is the doubly differential cross section for ionizing collisions. The collision rates are computed by taking moments of the Boltzmann collision integrals with the assumption that the electron momentum distribution function is given by the Juettner distribution function which satisfies the relativistic H- theorem and which reduces to the familiar Maxwellian velocity distribution in the nonrelativistic regime. The distribution function is parameterized in terms of the electron density, mean momentum, and thermal energy and the rates are therefore computed on a two-dimensional grid as a function of mean kinetic energy and thermal energy
Ergodicity, ensembles, irreversibility in Boltzmann and beyond
Gallavotti, G
1994-01-01
The implications of the original misunderstanding of the etymology of the word "ergodic" are discussed, and the contents of a not too well known paper by Boltzmann are critically examined. The connection with the modern theory of Ruelle is attempted
Ergodicity, ensembles, irreversibility in Boltzmann and beyond
Gallavotti, Giovanni
1995-03-01
The contents of a not too well-known paper by Boltzmann are critically examined. The etymology of the word ergodic and its implications are discussed. A connection with the modern theory of Ruelle is attempted.
An introduction to the theory of the Boltzmann equation
Harris, Stewart
2011-01-01
Boltzmann's equation (or Boltzmann-like equations) appears extensively in such disparate fields as laser scattering, solid-state physics, nuclear transport, and beyond the conventional boundaries of physics and engineering, in the fields of cellular proliferation and automobile traffic flow. This introductory graduate-level course for students of physics and engineering offers detailed presentations of the basic modern theory of Boltzmann's equation, including representative applications using both Boltzmann's equation and the model Boltzmann equations developed within the text. It emphasizes
Near-integrability and confinement for high-energy hadron-hadron collisions
Orland, Peter
2008-01-01
We investigate an effective Hamiltonian for QCD at large s, in which longitudinal gauge degrees of freedom are suppressed, but not eliminated. In an axial gauge the effective field theory is a set of coupled (1+1)-dimensional principal-chiral models, which are completely integrable. The confinement problem is solvable in this context, and we find the longitudinal and transverse string tensions with techniques already used for a similar Hamiltonian in (2+1)-dimensions. We find some a posteriori justification for the effective Hamiltonian as an eikonal approximation. Hadrons in this approximation consist of partons, which are quarks and soliton-like excitations of the sigma models. Diffractive hadron-hadron scattering appears primarily due to exchange of longitudinal flux between partons.
Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Cheng-Hai
2000-01-01
We formulate a new thermal lattice Boltzmann model to simulate compressible flows with a high Mach number.The main difference from the standard lattice Boltzmann models is that the particle velocities are no longer a constant, varying with the mean velocity and internal energy. The proper heat conduction term in the energy equation is recovered by modification of the fluctuating kinetic energy transported by particles. The simulation of Couette flow is in good agreement with the analytical solutions.
A Viscosity Adaptive Lattice Boltzmann Method
Conrad, Daniel
2015-01-01
The present thesis describes the development and validation of a viscosity adaption method for the numerical simulation of non-Newtonian fluids on the basis of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), as well as the development and verification of the related software bundle SAM-Lattice. By now, Lattice Boltzmann Methods are established as an alternative approach to classical computational fluid dynamics methods. The LBM has been shown to be an accurate and efficient tool for the numerical...
Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.
Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S
2015-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion. PMID:26565365
Student understanding of the Boltzmann factor
Smith, Trevor I.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.
2015-12-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us to develop a guided-inquiry tutorial activity, centered around the derivation of the Boltzmann factor, for use in undergraduate statistical mechanics courses. We report on the development process of our tutorial, including data from teaching interviews and classroom observations of student discussions about the Boltzmann factor and its derivation during the tutorial development process. This additional information informed modifications that improved students' abilities to complete the tutorial during the allowed class time without sacrificing the effectiveness as we have measured it. These data also show an increase in students' appreciation of the origin and significance of the Boltzmann factor during the student discussions. Our findings provide evidence that working in groups to better understand the physical origins of the canonical probability distribution helps students gain a better understanding of when the Boltzmann factor is applicable and how to use it appropriately in answering relevant questions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Merebashvili, Z.V.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2009-05-15
We consider the production of heavy-quark pairs in the collisions of polarized and unpolarized on-shell photons and present, in analytic form, the fully integrated total cross sections for total photon spins J{sub z}=0,{+-}2 at next-to-leading-order in QCD. Phenomenological applications include b anti b production, which represents an irreducible background to standard-model intermediate-mass Higgs-boson production, as well as t anti t production. (orig.)
Gelis, F.; Jeon, S.; Venugopalan, R.
2007-01-01
We develop the formalism discussed previously in hep-ph/0601209 and hep-ph/0605246 to construct a kinetic theory that provides insight into the earliest ``Glasma'' stage of a high energy heavy ion collision. Particles produced from the decay of classical fields in the Glasma obey a Boltzmann equation whose novel features include an inhomogeneous source term and new contributions to the collision term. We discuss the power counting associated with the different terms in the Boltzmann equation ...
Diffusive Boltzmann equation, its fluid dynamics, Couette flow and Knudsen layers
Abramov, Rafail V
2016-01-01
In the current work we propose a diffusive modification of the Boltzmann equation. This naturally leads to the corresponding diffusive fluid dynamics equations, which we numerically investigate in a simple Couette flow setting. This diffusive modification is based on the assumption of the "imperfect" model collision term, which is unable to track all collisions in the corresponding real gas particle system. The effect of missed collisions is then modeled by an appropriately scaled long-term homogenization process of the particle dynamics. The corresponding diffusive fluid dynamics equations are produced in a standard way by closing the hierarchy of the moment equations using either the Euler or the Grad closure. In the numerical experiments with the Couette flow, we discover that the diffusive Euler equations behave similarly to the conventional Navier-Stokes equations, while the diffusive Grad equations additionally exhibit Knudsen-like velocity boundary layers. We compare the simulations with the correspond...
On the Stability of the Finite Difference based Lattice Boltzmann Method
El-Amin, M.F.
2013-06-01
This paper is devoted to determining the stability conditions for the finite difference based lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In the current scheme, the 9-bit two-dimensional (D2Q9) model is used and the collision term of the Bhatnagar- Gross-Krook (BGK) is treated implicitly. The implicitness of the numerical scheme is removed by introducing a new distribution function different from that being used. Therefore, a new explicit finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method is obtained. Stability analysis of the resulted explicit scheme is done using Fourier expansion. Then, stability conditions in terms of time and spatial steps, relaxation time and explicitly-implicitly parameter are determined by calculating the eigenvalues of the given difference system. The determined conditions give the ranges of the parameters that have stable solutions.
Asinari, Pietro
2010-01-01
The homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation (HIBE) is a fundamental dynamic model for many applications in thermodynamics, econophysics and sociodynamics. Despite recent hardware improvements, the solution of the Boltzmann equation remains extremely challenging from the computational point of view, in particular by deterministic methods (free of stochastic noise). This work aims to improve a deterministic direct method recently proposed [V.V. Aristov, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001] for solving the HIBE with a generic collisional kernel and, in particular, for taking care of the late dynamics of the relaxation towards the equilibrium. Essentially (a) the original problem is reformulated in terms of particle kinetic energy (exact particle number and energy conservation during microscopic collisions) and (b) the computation of the relaxation rates is improved by the DVM-like correction, where DVM stands for Discrete Velocity Model (ensuring that the macroscopic conservation laws are exactly satisfied). Both ...
Asymptotic analysis of the lattice Boltzmann method for generalized Newtonian fluid flows
Yang, Zai-Bao
2013-01-01
In this article, we present a detailed asymptotic analysis of the lattice Boltzmann method with two different collision mechanisms of BGK-type on the D2Q9-lattice for generalized Newtonian fluids. Unlike that based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion leading to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, our analysis gives the incompressible ones directly and exposes certain important features of the lattice Boltzmann solutions. Moreover, our analysis provides a theoretical basis for using the iteration to compute the rate-of-strain tensor, which makes sense specially for generalized Newtonian fluids. As a by-product, a seemingly new structural condition on the generalized Newtonian fluids is singled out. This condition reads as "the magnitude of the stress tensor increases with increasing the shear rate". We verify this condition for all the existing constitutive relations which are known to us. In addition, it it straightforward to extend our analysis to MRT models or to three-dimensional lattices.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulations in the Slip and Transition Flow Regime with the Peano Framework
Neumann, Philipp
2012-01-01
We present simulation results of flows in the finite Knudsen range, which is in the slip and transition flow regime. Our implementations are based on the Lattice Boltzmann method and are accomplished within the Peano framework. We validate our code by solving two- and three-dimensional channel flow problems and compare our results with respective experiments from other research groups. We further apply our Lattice Boltzmann solver to the geometrical setup of a microreactor consisting of differently sized channels and a reactor chamber. Here, we apply static adaptive grids to fur-ther reduce computational costs. We further investigate the influence of using a simple BGK collision kernel in coarse grid regions which are further away from the slip boundaries. Our results are in good agreement with theory and non-adaptive simulations, demonstrating the validity and the capabilities of our adaptive simulation software for flow problems at finite Knudsen numbers.
Liu, Qing
2016-01-01
As a numerically accurate and computationally efficient mesoscopic numerical method, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has achieved great success in simulating microscale rarefied gas flows. In this paper, an LB method based on the cascaded collision operator is presented to simulate microchannel gas flows in the transition flow regime. The Bosanquet-type effective viscosity is incorporated into the cascaded lattice Boltzmann (CLB) method to account for the rarefaction effects. In order to gain accurate simulations and match the Bosanquet-type effective viscosity, the combined bounce-back/specular-reflection scheme with a modified second-order slip boundary condition is employed in the CLB method. The present method is applied to study gas flow in a microchannel with periodic boundary condition and gas flow in a long microchannel with pressure boundary condition over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. The predicted results, including the velocity profile, the mass flow rate, and the non-linear pressure deviatio...
Stability of Global Solution to Boltzmann-Enskog Equation with External Force
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG ZHENG-LU; MA LI-JUN; YAO ZHENG-AN
2012-01-01
In the presence of external forces depending only on the time and space variables,the Boltzmann-Enskog equation formally conserves only the mass of the system,and its entropy functional is also nonincreasing.Corresponding to this type of equation,we first give some hypotheses of its bicharacteristic equations and then get some results about the stablity of its global solution with the help of two new Lyapunov functionals:one is to describe interactions between particles with different velocities and the other is to measure the L1 distance between two mild solutions.The former Lyapunov functional yields the time-asymptotic convergence of global classical solutions to the collision free motion while the latter is applied into the verification of the L1 stability of global mild solutions to the Boltzmann-Enskog equation for a moderately or highly dense gas in the influence of external forces.
Phantom cosmology and Boltzmann brains problem
Astashenok, Artyom V; Yurov, Valerian V
2013-01-01
We consider the well-known Boltzmann brains problem in frames of simple phantom energy models with little rip, big rip and big freeze singularity. It is showed that these models (i) satisfy to observational data and (ii) may be free from Boltzmann brains problem. The human observers in phantom models can exist only in during for a certain period $t
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp
2011-11-15
A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3-6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3-4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Boltzmann plot for many iron atomic lines having excitation energies of 3.3–6.9 eV was investigated in glow discharge plasmas when argon or neon was employed as the plasma gas. The plot did not show a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but showed that the emission lines having higher excitation energies largely deviated from a normal Boltzmann distribution whereas those having low excitation energies (3.3–4.3 eV) well followed it. This result would be derived from an overpopulation among the corresponding energy levels. A probable reason for this is that excitations for the high-lying excited levels would be caused predominantly through a Penning-type collision with the metastable atom of argon or neon, followed by recombination with an electron and then stepwise de-excitations which can populate the excited energy levels just below the ionization limit of iron atom. The non-thermal excitation occurred more actively in the argon plasma rather than the neon plasma, because of a difference in the number density between the argon and the neon metastables. The Boltzmann plots yields important information on the reason why lots of Fe I lines assigned to high-lying excited levels can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas. - Highlights: ► This paper shows the excitation mechanism of Fe I lines from a glow discharge plasma. ► A Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron lines of various excitation levels. ► We find an overpopulation of the high-lying energy levels from the normal distribution. ► It is caused through Penning-type collision of iron atom with argon metastable atom.
Fast lattice Boltzmann solver for relativistic hydrodynamics.
Mendoza, M; Boghosian, B M; Herrmann, H J; Succi, S
2010-07-01
A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows.
Kinetic Boltzmann, Vlasov and Related Equations
Sinitsyn, Alexander; Vedenyapin, Victor
2011-01-01
Boltzmann and Vlasov equations played a great role in the past and still play an important role in modern natural sciences, technique and even philosophy of science. Classical Boltzmann equation derived in 1872 became a cornerstone for the molecular-kinetic theory, the second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) and derivation of the basic hydrodynamic equations. After modifications, the fields and numbers of its applications have increased to include diluted gas, radiation, neutral particles transportation, atmosphere optics and nuclear reactor modelling. Vlasov equation was obtained in
Grid refinement for entropic lattice Boltzmann models
Dorschner, B; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V
2016-01-01
We propose a novel multi-domain grid refinement technique with extensions to entropic incompressible, thermal and compressible lattice Boltzmann models. Its validity and accuracy are accessed by comparison to available direct numerical simulation and experiment for the simulation of isothermal, thermal and viscous supersonic flow. In particular, we investigate the advantages of grid refinement for the set-ups of turbulent channel flow, flow past a sphere, Rayleigh-Benard convection as well as the supersonic flow around an airfoil. Special attention is payed to analyzing the adaptive features of entropic lattice Boltzmann models for multi-grid simulations.
Fast lattice Boltzmann solver for relativistic hydrodynamics.
Mendoza, M; Boghosian, B M; Herrmann, H J; Succi, S
2010-07-01
A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows. PMID:20867451
Test of Information Theory on the Boltzmann Equation
Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Hayakawa, Hisao
2002-01-01
We examine information theory using the steady-state Boltzmann equation. In a nonequilibrium steady-state system under steady heat conduction, the thermodynamic quantities from information theory are calculated and compared with those from the steady-state Boltzmann equation. We have found that information theory is inconsistent with the steady-state Boltzmann equation.
Test of Information Theory on the Boltzmann Equation
Kim, Hyeon-Deuk; Hayakawa, Hisao
2003-01-01
We examine information theory using the steady-state Boltzmann equation. In a nonequilibrium steady-state system under steady heat conduction, the thermodynamic quantities from information theory are calculated and compared with those from the steady-state Boltzmann equation. We have found that information theory is inconsistent with the steady-state Boltzmann equation.
A Fluctuating Lattice Boltzmann Method for the Diffusion Equation
Wagner, Alexander J
2016-01-01
We derive a fluctuating lattice Boltzmann method for the diffusion equation. The derivation removes several shortcomings of previous derivations for fluctuating lattice Boltzmann methods for hydrodynamic systems. The comparative simplicity of this diffusive system highlights the basic features of this first exact derivation of a fluctuating lattice Boltzmann method.
Multispeed models in off-lattice Boltzmann simulations
Bardow, A.; Karlin, I.V.; Gusev, A.A.
2008-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann method is a highly promising approach to the simulation of complex flows. Here, we realize recently proposed multispeed lattice Boltzmann models [S. Chikatamarla et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 190601 (2006)] by exploiting the flexibility offered by off-lattice Boltzmann methods. T
46 CFR 179.310 - Collision bulkheads.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkheads. 179.310 Section 179.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Watertight Integrity Requirements § 179.310 Collision bulkheads. (a) Each collision...
Stefan-Boltzmann Law for Massive Photons
Moreira, E. S.; Ribeiro, T. G.
2016-08-01
This paper generalizes the Stefan-Boltzmann law to include massive photons. A crucial ingredient to obtain the correct formula for the radiance is to realize that a massive photon does not travel at the speed of (massless) light. It follows that, contrary to what could be expected, the radiance is not proportional to the energy density times the speed of light.
Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.
1996-01-01
We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linea...... and thus the proper weight is pruned at each pruning step. In all our experiments in small problems, pruning reduces the generalization error; in most cases the pruned networks facilitate interpretation as well......We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...
Lattice Boltzmann Models for Complex Fluids
Flekkoy, E. G.; Herrmann, H. J.
1993-01-01
We present various Lattice Boltzmann Models which reproduce the effects of rough walls, shear thinning and granular flow. We examine the boundary layers generated by the roughness of the walls. Shear thinning produces plug flow with a sharp density contrast at the boundaries. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.
Wind-Driven, Double-Gyre, Ocean Circulation in a Reduced-Gravity, 2.5-Layer, Lattice Boltzmann Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A coupled lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with second-order accuracy is applied to the reduced-gravity,shallow water, 2.5-layer model for wind-driven double-gyre ocean circulation. By introducing the secondorder integral approximation for the collision operator, the model becomes fully explicit. The Coriolis force and other external forces are included in the model with second-order accuracy, which is consistent with the discretization accuracy of the LB equation. The feature of the multiple equilibria solutions is found in the numerical experiments under different Reynolds numbers based on this LB scheme. With the Reynolds number increasing from 3000 to 4000, the solution of this model is destabilized from the anti-symmetric double-gyre solution to the subtropic gyre solution and then to the subpolar gyre solution. The transitions between these equilibria states are also found in some parameter ranges. The time-dependent variability of the circulation based on this LB simulation is also discussed for varying viscosity regimes. The flow of this model exhibits oscillations with different timescales varying from subannual to interannual. The corresponding statistical oscillation modes are obtained by spectral analysis. By analyzing the spatiotemporal structures of these modes, it is found that the subannual oscillation with a 9-month period originates from the barotropic Rossby basin mode, and the interannual oscillations with periods ranging from 1.5 years to 4.6 years originate from the recirculation gyre modes, which include the barotropic and the baroclinic recirculation gyre modes.
On measure solutions of the Boltzmann equation, part I: Moment production and stability estimates
Lu, Xuguang; Mouhot, Clément
The spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation with hard potentials is considered for measure valued initial data having finite mass and energy. We prove the existence of weak measure solutions, with and without angular cutoff on the collision kernel; the proof in particular makes use of an approximation argument based on the Mehler transform. Moment production estimates in the usual form and in the exponential form are obtained for these solutions. Finally for the Grad angular cutoff, we also establish uniqueness and strong stability estimate on these solutions.
Riaud, Antoine; Zhao, Shufang; Wang, Kai; Cheng, Yi; Luo, Guangsheng
2014-05-01
Despite the popularity of the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) in simulating multiphase flows, a general approach for modeling dilute species in multiphase systems is still missing. In this report we propose to modify the collision operator of the solute by introducing a modified redistribution scheme. This operator is based on local fluid variables and keeps the parallelism inherent to LBM. After deriving macroscopic transport equations, an analytical equation of state of the solute is exhibited and the method is proven constituting a unified framework to simulate arbitrary solute distribution between phases, including single-phase soluble compounds, amphiphilic species with a partition coefficient, and surface-adsorbed compounds. PMID:25353915
Prandtl number effects in MRT lattice Boltzmann models for shocked and unshocked compressible fluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
This paper constructs a new multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann model which is not only for the shocked compressible fluids,but also for the unshocked compressible fluids.To make the model work for unshocked compressible fluids,a key step is to modify the collision operators of energy flux so that the viscous coefficient in momentum equation is consistent with that in energy equation even in the unshocked system.The unnecessity of the modification for systems under strong shock is analyzed.The model ...
A Study of Parton Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC using Transport Theory
Nara, Y.; Vance, S. E.; Csizmadia, P.
2001-01-01
Parton energy loss in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies is studied by numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation for the partons including $2 \\leftrightarrow 2$ and $2 \\to 2 + final state radiation$ collision processes. Final particle spectra are obtained using two hadronization models; the Lund string fragmentation and independent fragmentation models. Recent, preliminary $\\pi^0$ transverse momentum distributions from central Au+Au collisions at RHIC are reproduced using gluon-g...
A unified gas-kinetic scheme for continuum and rarefied flows IV: Full Boltzmann and model equations
Liu, Chang; Xu, Kun; Sun, Quanhua; Cai, Qingdong
2016-06-01
Fluid dynamic equations are valid in their respective modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. With a variation of the modeling scales, theoretically there should have a continuous spectrum of fluid dynamic equations. Even though the Boltzmann equation is claimed to be valid in all scales, many Boltzmann solvers, including direct simulation Monte Carlo method, require the cell resolution to the order of particle mean free path scale. Therefore, they are still single scale methods. In order to study multiscale flow evolution efficiently, the dynamics in the computational fluid has to be changed with the scales. A direct modeling of flow physics with a changeable scale may become an appropriate approach. The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is a direct modeling method in the mesh size scale, and its underlying flow physics depends on the resolution of the cell size relative to the particle mean free path. The cell size of UGKS is not limited by the particle mean free path. With the variation of the ratio between the numerical cell size and local particle mean free path, the UGKS recovers the flow dynamics from the particle transport and collision in the kinetic scale to the wave propagation in the hydrodynamic scale. The previous UGKS is mostly constructed from the evolution solution of kinetic model equations. Even though the UGKS is very accurate and effective in the low transition and continuum flow regimes with the time step being much larger than the particle mean free time, it still has space to develop more accurate flow solver in the region, where the time step is comparable with the local particle mean free time. In such a scale, there is dynamic difference from the full Boltzmann collision term and the model equations. This work is about the further development of the UGKS with the implementation of the full Boltzmann collision term in the region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The inverse problem of parameterizing intermolecular potentials given macroscopic transport and thermodynamic data is addressed. Procedures are developed to create arbitrary-precision algorithms for transport collision integrals, using the Lennard-Jones (12–6) potential as an example. Interpolation formulas are produced that compute these collision integrals to four-digit accuracy over the reduced-temperature range 0.3≤T⁎≤400, allowing very fast computation. Lennard-Jones parameters for neon, argon, and krypton are determined by simultaneously fitting the observed temperature dependences of their viscosities and second virial coefficients—one of the first times that a thermodynamic and a dynamic property have been used simultaneously for Lennard-Jones parameterization. In addition to matching viscosities and second virial coefficients within the bounds of experimental error, the determined Lennard-Jones parameters are also found to predict the thermal conductivity and self-diffusion coefficient accurately, supporting the value of the Lennard-Jones (12–6) potential for noble-gas transport-property correlation
Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demetrius, Lloyd A., E-mail: ldemetr@oeb.harvard.edu
2013-09-01
Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and
Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory
Demetrius, Lloyd A.
2013-09-01
Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and
Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows
Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei
2016-08-01
In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified.
Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation
Molnar, E; Rischke, D H
2016-01-01
Fluid-dynamical equations of motion can be derived from the Boltzmann equation in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which is in local thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., isotropic in momentum space in the rest frame of a fluid element. To zeroth order this expansion yields ideal fluid dynamics, to first order Navier-Stokes theory, and to second order transient theories of dissipative fluid dynamics. However, in situations where the single-particle distribution function is highly anisotropic in momentum space, such as the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies, such an expansion is bound to break down. Nevertheless, one can still derive a fluid-dynamical theory, so-called anisotropic fluid dynamics, in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which incorporates (at least parts of) the momentum anisotropy via a suitable parametrization. In this paper we derive, up to terms of second order in this expansion, the equations of mo...
Multiblock approach for the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method
Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying
2014-04-01
A multiblock approach for the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method (TLBM) with multiple-relaxation-time collision scheme is proposed based on the Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interaction between blocks is executed in the moment space directly and an external force term is considered. Theoretical analysis shows that all the nonequilibrium parts of the nonconserved moments should be rescaled, while the nonequilibrium parts of the conserved moments can be calculated directly. Moreover, a local scheme based on the pseudoparticles for computing heat flux is proposed with no need to calculate temperature gradient based on the finite-difference scheme. In order to validate the multiblock approach and local scheme for computing heat flux, thermal Couette flow with wall injection is simulated and good results are obtained, which show that the adoption of the multiblock approach does not deteriorate the convergence rate of TLBM and the local scheme for computing heat flux has second-order convergence rate. Further application of the present approach is the simulation of natural convection in a square cavity with the Rayleigh number up to 109.
Macroscopic model and truncation error of discrete Boltzmann method
Hwang, Yao-Hsin
2016-10-01
A derivation procedure to secure the macroscopically equivalent equation and its truncation error for discrete Boltzmann method is proffered in this paper. Essential presumptions of two time scales and a small parameter in the Chapman-Enskog expansion are disposed of in the present formulation. Equilibrium particle distribution function instead of its original non-equilibrium form is chosen as key variable in the derivation route. Taylor series expansion encompassing fundamental algebraic manipulations is adequate to realize the macroscopically differential counterpart. A self-contained and comprehensive practice for the linear one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation is illustrated in details. Numerical validations on the incurred truncation error in one- and two-dimensional cases with various distribution functions are conducted to verify present formulation. As shown in the computational results, excellent agreement between numerical result and theoretical prediction are found in the test problems. Straightforward extensions to more complicated systems including convection-diffusion-reaction, multi-relaxation times in collision operator as well as multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are also exposed in the Appendix to point out its expediency in solving complicated flow problems.
Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of droplet evaporation
Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo
2014-09-04
© the Partner Organisations 2014. We study the utility and validity of lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations to explore droplet evaporation driven by a concentration gradient. Using a binary-fluid lattice-Boltzmann algorithm based on Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, we study the evaporation of planar films and 3D sessile droplets from smooth solid surfaces. Our results show that LB simulations accurately reproduce the classical regime of quasi-static dynamics. Beyond this limit, we show that the algorithm can be used to explore regimes where the evaporative and diffusive timescales are not widely separated, and to include the effect of boundaries of prescribed driving concentration. We illustrate the method by considering the evaporation of a droplet from a solid surface that is chemically patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. This journal is
Radtke, Gregg A; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G
2009-05-01
We present an efficient variance-reduced particle simulation technique for solving the linearized Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation used for phonon, electron, and radiative transport, as well as for kinetic gas flows. The variance reduction is achieved by simulating only the deviation from equilibrium. We show that in the limit of small deviation from equilibrium of interest here, the proposed formulation achieves low relative statistical uncertainty that is also independent of the magnitude of the deviation from equilibrium, in stark contrast to standard particle simulation methods. Our results demonstrate that a space-dependent equilibrium distribution improves the variance reduction achieved, especially in the collision-dominated regime where local equilibrium conditions prevail. We also show that by exploiting the physics of relaxation to equilibrium inherent in the relaxation-time approximation, a very simple collision algorithm with a clear physical interpretation can be formulated. PMID:19518597
Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine
Yu Li; Yuan Zhang; Yue Ji
2014-01-01
With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provi...
Geometry of the restricted Boltzmann machine
Cueto, Maria Angelica; Morton, Jason; Sturmfels, Bernd
2009-01-01
The restricted Boltzmann machine is a graphical model for binary random variables. Based on a complete bipartite graph separating hidden and observed variables, it is the binary analog to the factor analysis model. We study this graphical model from the perspectives of algebraic statistics and tropical geometry, starting with the observation that its Zariski closure is a Hadamard power of the first secant variety of the Segre variety of projective lines. We derive a dimension formula for the ...
Lattice Boltzmann Model and Geophysical Hydrodynamic Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯士德; 杨京龙; 郜宪林; 季仲贞
2002-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann equation model in a rotating system is developed by introducing the Coriolis force effect.The geophysical hydrodynamic equation can be derived from this model. Numerical computations are performed to simulate the cylindrical annulus experiment and Benard convection. The numerical results have shown the flow behaviour of large-scale geostrophic current and Benard convection cells, which verifies the applicability of this model to both theory and experiment.
Naboka, V. Yu.; Karpenko, Iu. A.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.
2016-02-01
A further development of the evolutionary picture of A +A collisions, which we call the integrated hydrokinetic model (iHKM), is proposed. The model comprises a generator of the initial state GLISSANDO, prethermal dynamics of A +A collisions leading to thermalization, subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon and hadron medium (vHLLE), its particlization, and finally the hadronic cascade ultrarelativistic QMD. We calculate midrapidity charged-particle multiplicities, pion, kaon, and antiproton spectra, charged-particle elliptic flows, and pion interferometry radii for Pb + Pb collisions at the energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, √{s }=2.76 TeV, at different centralities. We find that the best description of the experimental data is reached when the initial states are attributed to the very small initial time 0.1 fm/c , the prethermal stage (thermalization process) lasts at least until 1 fm/c , and the shear viscosity at the hydrodynamic stage of the matter evolution has its minimal value, η /s =1/4 π . At the same time it is observed that the various momentum anisotropies of the initial states, different initial and relaxation times, as well as even a treatment of the prethermal stage within just viscous or ideal hydrodynamic approach, lead sometimes to worse but nevertheless similar results if the normalization of maximal initial energy density in most central events is adjusted to reproduce the final hadron multiplicity in each scenario. This can explain a good enough data description in numerous variants of hybrid models without a prethermal stage when the initial energy densities are defined up to a common factor.
Beyond Poisson-Boltzmann: Numerical Sampling of Charge Density Fluctuations.
Poitevin, Frédéric; Delarue, Marc; Orland, Henri
2016-07-01
We present a method aimed at sampling charge density fluctuations in Coulomb systems. The derivation follows from a functional integral representation of the partition function in terms of charge density fluctuations. Starting from the mean-field solution given by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, an original approach is proposed to numerically sample fluctuations around it, through the propagation of a Langevin-like stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE). The diffusion tensor of the SPDE can be chosen so as to avoid the numerical complexity linked to long-range Coulomb interactions, effectively rendering the theory completely local. A finite-volume implementation of the SPDE is described, and the approach is illustrated with preliminary results on the study of a system made of two like-charge ions immersed in a bath of counterions. PMID:27075231
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The relevance of the study and understanding of atomic collision processes to nuclear power developments and the impact of the particular contributions made by members of the Theoretical Physics Division, Harwell to this work are considered. These contributions fall into two main parts; up to 1970 when interest concentrated on the lighter collision systems involving protons, α-particles and the helium and hydrogen atoms at collision energies in the range 1 keV - 1 MeV, and after 1970 when interest broadened to include the collisions of heavy atoms, such as the O+-Ne collision system which was used as a prototype for the development of scaling laws for inner-shell excitation in any heavy-ion collision. Particular aspects of the work discussed include the Born expansion and beyond, close-coupling expansions, and continuum x-ray emission. (UK)
Simulation of three-component fluid flows using the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver
Shi, Y.; Tang, G. H.; Wang, Y.
2016-06-01
In this work, we extend the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver, which was proposed in [1] for simulating incompressible flows of binary fluids based on two-component Cahn-Hilliard model, to three-component fluid flows. In the present method, the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver is applied to solve for the flow field and the three-component Cahn-Hilliard model is used to predict the evolution of the interfaces. The proposed method is first validated through the classical problem of simulation of partial spreading of a liquid lens between the other two components. Numerical results of interface shapes and contact angles agree well with theoretical solutions. After that, to further demonstrate the capability of the present method, several numerical examples of three-component fluid flows are presented, including a bubble rising across a fluid-fluid interface, single droplet falling through a fluid-fluid interface, the collision-coalescence of two droplets, and the non-contact collision of two droplets. It is shown that the present method can successfully handle complex interactions among three components.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbaspour, Mohsen [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mabbaspoor@wali.um.ac.ir; Goharshadi, Elaheh K. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emampour, Jalal S. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-08-01
The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O{sub 2} and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O{sub 2} -O{sub 2} potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Servis, D.P.; Zhang, Shengming;
1999-01-01
The first section of the present report describes the procedures that are being programmed at DTU for evaluation of the external collision dynamics. Then follows a detailed description of a comprehensive finite element analysis of one collision scenario for MS Dextra carried out at NTUA. The last...
Discrete Velocity Models for Mixtures Without Nonphysical Collision Invariants
Bernhoff, Niclas; Vinerean, Mirela
2016-09-01
An important aspect of constructing discrete velocity models (DVMs) for the Boltzmann equation is to obtain the right number of collision invariants. It is a well-known fact that DVMs can also have extra collision invariants, so called spurious collision invariants, in plus to the physical ones. A DVM with only physical collision invariants, and so without spurious ones, is called normal. For binary mixtures also the concept of supernormal DVMs was introduced, meaning that in addition to the DVM being normal, the restriction of the DVM to any single species also is normal. Here we introduce generalizations of this concept to DVMs for multicomponent mixtures. We also present some general algorithms for constructing such models and give some concrete examples of such constructions. One of our main results is that for any given number of species, and any given rational mass ratios we can construct a supernormal DVM. The DVMs are constructed in such a way that for half-space problems, as the Milne and Kramers problems, but also nonlinear ones, we obtain similar structures as for the classical discrete Boltzmann equation for one species, and therefore we can apply obtained results for the classical Boltzmann equation.
Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.
Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.
Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue
2014-01-01
With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139
Application of lattice Boltzmann scheme to nanofluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUAN Yimin; LI Qiang; YAO Zhengping
2004-01-01
A nanofluid is a particle suspension that consists of base liquids and nanoparticles. Nanofluid has greater potential for heat transfer enhancement than traditional solid-liquid mixture. By accounting for the external and internal forces acting on the suspended nanoparticles and interactions among the nanoparticles and fluid particles,a lattice Boltzmann model for simulating flow and energy transport processes inside the nanofluids is proposed. The irregular motion of the nanoparticles and inherent dynamic behavior of nanofluids are discussed. The distributions of suspended nanoparticles inside nanofluids are calculated.
Lattice-Boltzmann-based Simulations of Diffusiophoresis
Castigliego, Joshua; Kreft Pearce, Jennifer
We present results from a lattice-Boltzmann-base Brownian Dynamics simulation on diffusiophoresis and the separation of particles within the system. A gradient in viscosity that simulates a concentration gradient in a dissolved polymer allows us to separate various types of particles by their deformability. As seen in previous experiments, simulated particles that have a higher deformability react differently to the polymer matrix than those with a lower deformability. Therefore, the particles can be separated from each other. This simulation, in particular, was intended to model an oceanic system where the particles of interest were zooplankton, phytoplankton and microplastics. The separation of plankton from the microplastics was achieved.
Generalizing the Boltzmann equation in complex phase space.
Zadehgol, Abed
2016-08-01
In this work, a generalized form of the BGK-Boltzmann equation is proposed, where the velocity, position, and time can be represented by real or complex variables. The real representation leads to the conventional BGK-Boltzmann equation, which can recover the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the complex representation yields a different set of equations, and it can also recover the conservation and Navier-Stokes equations, at low Mach numbers, provided that the imaginary component of the macroscopic mass can be neglected. We briefly review the Constant Speed Kinetic Model (CSKM), which was introduced in Zadehgol and Ashrafizaadeh [J. Comp. Phys. 274, 803 (2014)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.053] and Zadehgol [Phys. Rev. E 91, 063311 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.063311]. The CSKM is then used as a basis to show that the complex-valued equilibrium distribution function of the present model can be identified with a simple singularity in the complex phase space. The virtual particles, in the present work, are concentrated on virtual "branes" which surround the computational nodes. Employing the Cauchy integral formula, it is shown that certain variations of the "branes," in the complex phase space, do not affect the local kinetic states. This property of the new model, which is referred to as the "apparent jumps" in the present work, is used to construct new models. The theoretical findings have been tested by simulating three benchmark flows. The results of the present simulations are in excellent agreement with the previous results reported by others. PMID:27627421
Thermal equation of state for lattice Boltzmann gases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ran Zheng
2009-01-01
The Galilean invaxiance and the induced thermo-hydrodynamics of the lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model axe proposed together with their rigorous theoretical background. From the viewpoint of group invariance,recovering the Galilean invariance for the isothermal lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation (LBGKE) induces a new natural thermal-dynamical system, which is compatible with the elementary statistical thermodynamics.
Thermal equation of state for lattice Boltzmann gases
Ran, Zheng
2009-06-01
The Galilean invariance and the induced thermo-hydrodynamics of the lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model are proposed together with their rigorous theoretical background. From the viewpoint of group invariance, recovering the Galilean invariance for the isothermal lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation (LBGKE) induces a new natural thermal-dynamical system, which is compatible with the elementary statistical thermodynamics.
Reciprocal Symmetric Boltzmann Function and Unified Boson-Fermion Statistics
Ahmad, Mushfiq; Talukder, Muhammad O. G.
2007-01-01
The differential equation for Boltzmann's function is replaced by the corresponding discrete finite difference equation. The difference equation is, then, symmetrized so that the equation remains invariant when step d is replaced by -d. The solutions of this equation come in Boson-Fermion pairs. Reciprocal symmetric Boltzmann's function, thus, unifies both Bosonic and Fermionic distributions.
A probabilistic view on the general relativistic Boltzmann equation
Bailleul, Ismael
2011-01-01
A new probalistic approach to general relativistic kinetic theory is proposed. The general relativistic Boltzmann equation is linked to a new Markov process in a completely intrinsic way. This treatment is then used to prove the causal character of the relativistic Boltzmann model.
Monte Carlo variance reduction approaches for non-Boltzmann tallies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantities that depend on the collective effects of groups of particles cannot be obtained from the standard Boltzmann transport equation. Monte Carlo estimates of these quantities are called non-Boltzmann tallies and have become increasingly important recently. Standard Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques were designed for tallies based on individual particles rather than groups of particles. Experience with non-Boltzmann tallies and analog Monte Carlo has demonstrated the severe limitations of analog Monte Carlo for many non-Boltzmann tallies. In fact, many calculations absolutely require variance reduction methods to achieve practical computation times. Three different approaches to variance reduction for non-Boltzmann tallies are described and shown to be unbiased. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches are discussed
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; 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Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivarsson, Jenny; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2014-01-01
The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, $v_2$, was measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|\\leq$ 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum $p_T$, thus reducing the uncertainty in $v_2$ integrated over $p_T$, a $1 \\mu b^{-1}$ data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated $v_2$ is compared to other measurements obtained with higher $p_T$ thresholds. A weak pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow is observed for central collisions, and a small decrease when moving away from mid-rapidity is observed only in peripheral collisions. The integrated $v_2$ transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data.
A generalized Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatic environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisicaro, G., E-mail: giuseppe.fisicaro@unibas.ch; Goedecker, S. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Genovese, L. [University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Andreussi, O. [Institute of Computational Science, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6904 Lugano (Switzerland); Theory and Simulations of Materials (THEOS) and National Centre for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Marzari, N. [Theory and Simulations of Materials (THEOS) and National Centre for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2016-01-07
The computational study of chemical reactions in complex, wet environments is critical for applications in many fields. It is often essential to study chemical reactions in the presence of applied electrochemical potentials, taking into account the non-trivial electrostatic screening coming from the solvent and the electrolytes. As a consequence, the electrostatic potential has to be found by solving the generalized Poisson and the Poisson-Boltzmann equations for neutral and ionic solutions, respectively. In the present work, solvers for both problems have been developed. A preconditioned conjugate gradient method has been implemented for the solution of the generalized Poisson equation and the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann, allowing to solve iteratively the minimization problem with some ten iterations of the ordinary Poisson equation solver. In addition, a self-consistent procedure enables us to solve the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann problem. Both solvers exhibit very high accuracy and parallel efficiency and allow for the treatment of periodic, free, and slab boundary conditions. The solver has been integrated into the BigDFT and Quantum-ESPRESSO electronic-structure packages and will be released as an independent program, suitable for integration in other codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Labany, S. K.; Behery, E. E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, P.O. Box 34517 New Damietta (Egypt); El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, P.O. Box 34517 New Damietta (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia)
2013-12-15
The propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma consisting of cold mobile positive ions, Boltzmann negative ions, Boltzmann electrons, and stationary positive/negative dust particles are studied. The extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equations and the corresponding expressions for the phase shifts after collision between two IA solitary waves. It turns out that the angle of collision, the temperature and density of negative ions, and the dust density of opposite polarity have reasonable effects on the phase shift. Clearly, the numerical results demonstrated that the IA solitary waves are delayed after the oblique collision. The current finding of this work is applicable in many plasma environments having negative ion species, such as D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere and some laboratory plasma experiments.
Influence of asperities on fluid and thermal flow in a fracture: a coupled Lattice Boltzmann study
Neuville, Amélie; Toussaint, Renaud
2013-01-01
The characteristics of the hydro-thermal flow which occurs when a cold fluid is injected into a hot fractured bedrock depend on the morphology of the fracture. We consider a sharp triangular asperity, invariant in one direction, perturbing an otherwise flat fracture. We investigate its influence on the macroscopic hydraulic transmissivity and heat transfer efficiency, at fixed low Reynolds number. In this study, numerical simulations are done with a coupled lattice Boltzmann method that solves both the complete Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion equations in three dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained under lubrication approximations which rely on many hypotheses and neglect the three-dimensional (3D) effects. The lubrication results are obtained by analytically solving the Stokes equation and a two-dimensional (integrated over the thickness) advection-diffusion equation. We use a lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution (for mass and energy transport) on hypercubic and cubic ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Ma Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong
2007-01-01
A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections for electron scattering by OCS over the incident energy range from 200 to 1000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The calculated results are compared with those obtained by experiment and other theories wherever available, and good agreement is obtained over a wide energy range. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the modified potential is completely suitable for calculating the absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections of electron scattering by molecules such as OCS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a new 3+1 dimensional Monte Carlo cascade solving the kinetic on-shell Boltzmann equations for partons including the inelastic ggggg pQCD processes. The back reaction channel is treated---for the first time---fully consistently within this scheme. An extended stochastic method is used to solve the collision integral. The frame dependence and convergency are studied for a fixed tube with thermal initial conditions. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the stochastic method is fully covariant and that convergency is achieved more efficiently than within a standard geometrical formulation of the collision term, especially for high gluon interaction rates. The cascade is then applied to simulate parton evolution and to investigate thermalization of gluons for a central Au+Au collision at RHIC energy. For this study the initial conditions are assumed to be generated by independent minijets with pT>p0=2 GeV. With that choice it is demonstrated that overall kinetic equilibration is driven mainly by the inelastic processes and is achieved on a scale of 1 fm/c. The further evolution of the expanding gluonic matter in the central region then shows almost an ideal hydrodynamical behavior. In addition, full chemical equilibration of the gluons follows on a longer time scale of about 3 fm/c. (Orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a new 3 + 1 dimensional Monte Carlo cascade solving the kinetic on-shell Boltzmann equations for partons including the inelastic gg↔ggg pQCD processes. The back reaction channel is treated - for the first time - fully consistently within this scheme. An extended stochastic method is used to solve the collision integral. The frame dependence and convergency are studied for a fixed tube with thermal initial conditions. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the stochastic method is fully covariant and that convergency is achieved more efficiently than within a standard geometrical formulation of the collision term, especially for high gluon interaction rates. The cascade is then applied to simulate parton evolution and to investigate thermalization of gluons for a central Au+Au collision at RHIC energy. For this study the initial conditions are assumed to be generated by independent minijets with pT>p0=2 GeV. With that choice it is demonstrated that overall kinetic equilibration is driven mainly by the inelastic processes and is achieved on a scale of 1 fm/c. The further evolution of the expanding gluonic matter in the central region then shows almost an ideal hydrodynamical behavior. In addition, full chemical equilibration of the gluons follows on a longer time scale of about 3 fm/c
Xu, Z; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten
2004-01-01
We develop a new 3+1 dimensional Monte Carlo cascade solving the kinetic on-shell Boltzmann equations for partons including the inelastic gg ggg pQCD processes. The back reaction channel is treated -- for the first time -- fully consistently within this scheme. An extended stochastic method is used to solve the collision integral. The frame dependence and convergency are studied for a fixed tube with thermal initial conditions. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the stochastic method is fully covariant and that convergency is achieved more efficiently than within a standard geometrical formulation of the collision term, especially for high gluon interaction rates. The cascade is then applied to simulate parton evolution and to investigate thermalization of gluons for a central Au+Au collision at RHIC energy. For this study the initial conditions are assumed to be generated by independent minijets with p_T > p_0=2 GeV. With that choice it is demonstrated that overall kinetic equilibration is driven ma...
Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Tablet Disintegration
Jiang, Jiaolong; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip
Using the lattice-Boltzmann method, we developed a 2D model to study the tablet disintegration involving the swelling and wicking mechanisms. The surface area and disintegration profile of each component were obtained by tracking the tablet structure in the simulation. Compared to pure wicking, the total surface area is larger for swelling and wicking, which indicates that the swelling force breaks the neighboring bonds. The disintegration profiles show that the tablet disintegrates faster than pure wicking, and there are more wetted active pharmaceutical ingredient particles distributed on smaller clusters. Our results indicate how the porosity would affect the disintegration process by changing the wetting area of the tablet as well as by changing the swelling force propagation.
Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.
Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M
2016-02-01
In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems. PMID:26986435
Thermal lattice Boltzmann method for complex microflows
Yasuoka, Haruka; Kaneda, Masayuki; Suga, Kazuhiko
2016-07-01
A methodology to simulate thermal fields in complex microflow geometries is proposed. For the flow fields, the regularized multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied coupled with the diffusive-bounce-back boundary condition for wall boundaries. For the thermal fields, the regularized lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model is applied. For the thermal wall boundary condition, a newly developed boundary condition, which is a mixture of the diffuse scattering and constant temperature conditions, is applied. The proposed set of schemes is validated by reference data in the Fourier flows and square cylinder flows confined in a microchannel. The obtained results confirm that it is essential to apply the regularization to the thermal LBM for avoiding kinked temperature profiles in complex thermal flows. The proposed wall boundary condition is successful to obtain thermal jumps at the walls with good accuracy.
Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng
2007-12-20
After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.
Lattice Boltzmann model for resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Mohseni, F; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2015-01-01
In this paper, we develop a lattice Boltzmann model for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even though the model is derived for resistive MHD, it is shown that it is numerically robust even in the high conductivity (ideal MHD) limit. In order to validate the numerical method, test simulations are carried out for both ideal and resistive limits, namely the propagation of Alfv\\'en waves in the ideal MHD and the evolution of current sheets in the resistive regime, where very good agreement is observed comparing to the analytical results. Additionally, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is studied and the effects of different parameters on the reconnection rate are investigated. It is shown that the density ratio has negligible effect on the magnetic reconnection rate, while an increase in shear velocity decreases the reconnection rate. Additionally, it is found that the reconnection rate is proportional to $\\sigma^{-\\frac{1}{2}}$, $\\sigma$ being the conductivity, w...
Autotagging music with conditional restricted Boltzmann machines
Mandel, Michael; Larochelle, Hugo; Bengio, Yoshua
2011-01-01
This paper describes two applications of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines (CRBMs) to the task of autotagging music. The first consists of training a CRBM to predict tags that a user would apply to a clip of a song based on tags already applied by other users. By learning the relationships between tags, this model is able to pre-process training data to significantly improve the performance of a support vector machine (SVM) autotagging. The second is the use of a discriminative RBM, a type of CRBM, to autotag music. By simultaneously exploiting the relationships among tags and between tags and audio-based features, this model is able to significantly outperform SVMs, logistic regression, and multi-layer perceptrons. In order to be applied to this problem, the discriminative RBM was generalized to the multi-label setting and four different learning algorithms for it were evaluated, the first such in-depth analysis of which we are aware.
Lattice Boltzmann modelling of intrinsic permeability
Li, Jun; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Yonghao
2016-01-01
Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been applied to predict flow properties of porous media including intrinsic permeability, where it is implicitly assumed that the LBM is equivalent to the incompressible (or near incompressible) Navier-Stokes equation. However, in LBM simulations, high-order moments, which are completely neglected in the Navier-Stokes equation, are still available through particle distribution functions. To ensure that the LBM simulation is correctly working at the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic level, the high-order moments have to be negligible. This requires that the Knudsen number (Kn) is small so that rarefaction effect can be ignored. In this technical note, we elaborate this issue in LBM modelling of porous media flows, which is particularly important for gas flows in ultra-tight media.
Flux Limiter Lattice Boltzmann for Compressible Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈峰; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏
2011-01-01
In this paper, a new flux limiter scheme with the splitting technique is successfully incorporated into a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann （LB） model for shacked compressible flows. The proposed flux limiter scheme is efficient in decreasing the artificial oscillations and numerical diffusion around the interface. Due to the kinetic nature, some interface problems being difficult to handle at the macroscopic level can be modeled more naturally through the LB method. Numerical simulations for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability show that with the new model the computed interfaces are smoother and more consistent with physical analysis. The growth rates of bubble and spike present a satisfying agreement with the theoretical predictions and other numerical simulations.
Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.
Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M
2016-02-01
In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.
A Discussion on Whether 15-20C Are All Skin Nuclei via Isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Langevin Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yu; ZHANG Feng-Shou; SU Jun
2009-01-01
A new attempt of calculation for the total reaction cross sections (σR) has been carried out within the isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Langevin equation in the intermediate energy heavy-ion collision of isotopes of G. The σR of both stable and exotic nuclei are reproduced rather well. The incident energy and isospin dependencies of σR have been investigated. It is found that the isospin effect is comparatively remarkable at intermediate energy. It is also found that ~(15-18)C are neutron skin nuclei but for ~(19)C and ~(20)C we cannot draw a conclusion whether they have halo structures.
Electron-ion collision operator in strong electromagnetic fields
Fraiman, Gennadiy; Balakin, Alexey
2012-10-01
The pair electron-ion collision operator is found for the kinetic equation describing the one-particle drift distribution in strong electromagnetic fields [1]. The pair collisions are studied under the conditions when the oscillation velocity of an electron driven by an external electromagnetic wave is much larger than the electron drift velocity. The operator is presented in the Boltzmann form and describes collisions with both small and large changes of the particle momentum. In contrast with the Landau collision operator, which describes diffusion in the momentum space, the collision operator that we propose describes a new and very important effect, namely, Coulomb attraction of a wave-driven oscillating electron to an ion due to multiple returns of the electron to the same ion. This effect leads to a large increase of the collision cross-section of electron-ion collisions in strong laser fields, to increased efficiency of the Joule heating in plasma, to the generation of fast electrons through e-i collisions, etc. [4pt] [1] A. A. Balakin and G. M. Fraiman, Electron-ion collision operator in strong electromagnetic fields, EPL 93, 35001 (2011).
中西文化的冲突与交融%The Collision and Integration of the West-East Culture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄爱琼; 罗雨青
2011-01-01
全球化趋势不断加快,国家和地区间不同文化之间的频繁交流。毋庸置疑,东西方文化交流不可避免地会产生碰撞与融合。此外,东西方文化应该互相交流,并融合在一起,以促进不同的文化间进行有效地沟通,推动不同文化之间的相互发展。跨文化交际这个术语就应时而生了。%The trend of globalization has been increasingly accelerating frequent cultural exchange among countries in the world.Undoubtedly,the East cultures would have inevitable collision and integration with the West cultures;in addition,the West exchange their cultures with the East so as to promote effective communication and development.The term of Intercultural communication is therefore born.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu-Hu Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Transverse momentum distributions of final-state particles produced in soft process in proton-proton (pp and nucleus-nucleus (AA collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC energies are studied by using a multisource thermal model. Each source in the model is treated as a relativistic and quantum ideal gas. Because the quantum effect can be neglected in investigation on the transverse momentum distribution in high energy collisions, we consider only the relativistic effect. The concerned distribution is finally described by the Boltzmann or two-component Boltzmann distribution. Our modeling results are in agreement with available experimental data.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Viscous Flow past Elliptical Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.Arumuga Perumal
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This work is concerned with the vortex structures of two-dimensional elliptical cylinder by lattice Boltzmann method. It is known that, the nature of the flow past cylindrical obstacles is very complex. Therefore, in the present work a kinetic based approach, namely, lattice Boltzmann method is used to compute both for steady and unsteady flows. A two dimensional nine-velocity square lattice (D2Q9 model is used in the present simulation. Effects of blockage ratio, Reynolds number and channel length are studied in detail. Here we conclude that lattice Boltzmann method can be effectively used to capture vortex shedding and other features.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a novel numerical method for solving multi-dimensional, special relativistic Boltzmann equations for neutrinos coupled with hydrodynamics equations. This method is meant to be applied to simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We handle special relativity in a non-conventional way, taking account of all orders of v/c. Consistent treatment of the advection and collision terms in the Boltzmann equations has been a challenge, which we overcome by employing two different energy grids: Lagrangian remapped and laboratory fixed grids. We conduct a series of basic tests and perform a one-dimensional simulation of core-collapse, bounce, and shock-stall for a 15 M ☉ progenitor model with a minimum but essential set of microphysics. We demonstrate in the latter simulation that our new code is capable of handling all phases in core-collapse supernova. For comparison, a non-relativistic simulation is also conducted with the same code, and we show that they produce qualitatively wrong results in neutrino transfer. Finally, we discuss a possible incorporation of general relativistic effects into our method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2014-10-01
We propose a novel numerical method for solving multi-dimensional, special relativistic Boltzmann equations for neutrinos coupled with hydrodynamics equations. This method is meant to be applied to simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We handle special relativity in a non-conventional way, taking account of all orders of v/c. Consistent treatment of the advection and collision terms in the Boltzmann equations has been a challenge, which we overcome by employing two different energy grids: Lagrangian remapped and laboratory fixed grids. We conduct a series of basic tests and perform a one-dimensional simulation of core-collapse, bounce, and shock-stall for a 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model with a minimum but essential set of microphysics. We demonstrate in the latter simulation that our new code is capable of handling all phases in core-collapse supernova. For comparison, a non-relativistic simulation is also conducted with the same code, and we show that they produce qualitatively wrong results in neutrino transfer. Finally, we discuss a possible incorporation of general relativistic effects into our method.
Lattice Boltzmann model for free-surface flow and its application to filling process in casting
Ginzburg, I
2003-01-01
A generalized lattice Boltzmann model to simulate free-surface is constructed in both two and three dimensions. The proposed model satisfies the interfacial boundary conditions accurately. A distinctive feature of the model is that the collision processes is carried out only on the points occupied partially or fully by the fluid. To maintain a sharp interfacial front, the method includes an anti-diffusion algorithm. The unknown distribution functions at the interfacial region are constructed according to the first-order Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interfacial boundary conditions are satisfied exactly by the coefficients in the Chapman-Enskog expansion. The distribution functions are naturally expressed in the local interfacial coordinates. The macroscopic quantities at the interface are extracted from the least-square solutions of a locally linearized system obtained from the known distribution functions. The proposed method does not require any geometric front construction and is robust for any interfacial ...
Stamnes, K.; Lie-Svendsen, O.; Rees, M. H.
1991-01-01
The linear Boltzmann equation can be cast in a form mathematically identical to the radiation-transport equation. A multigroup procedure is used to reduce the energy (or velocity) dependence of the transport equation to a series of one-speed problems. Each of these one-speed problems is equivalent to the monochromatic radiative-transfer problem, and existing software is used to solve this problem in slab geometry. The numerical code conserves particles in elastic collisions. Generic examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of this approach. Although this formalism can, in principle, be applied to a variety of test particle or linearized gas dynamics problems, it is particularly well-suited to study the thermalization of suprathermal particles interacting with a background medium when the thermal motion of the background cannot be ignored. Extensions of the formalism to include external forces and spherical geometry are also feasible.
Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional melting problems are investigated numerically with Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Regarding algorithm's accuracy and stability, Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) models are employed to simplify the collision term in LBM. Temperature and velocity fields are solved with double distribution functions, respectively. 3-D melting problems are solved with double MRT models for the first time in this article. The key point for the numerical simulation of a melting problem is the methods to obtain the location of the melting front and this article uses interfacial tracking method. The interfacial tracking method combines advantages of both deforming and fixed grid approaches. The location of the melting front was obtained by calculating the energy balance at the solid-liquid interface. Various 3-D conduction controlled melting problems are solved firstly to verify the numerical method. Liquid fraction tendency and temperature distribution obtained from numerical methods agree with the analytical result...
On the search of more stable second-order lattice-Boltzmann schemes in confined flows
Golbert, D. R.; Blanco, P. J.; Clausse, A.; Feijóo, R. A.
2015-08-01
The von Neumann linear analysis, restricted by a heuristic selection of wave-number vectors was applied to the search of explicit lattice Boltzmann schemes which exhibit more stability than existing methods. The relative stability of the family members of quasi-incompressible collision kernels, for the Navier-Stokes equations in confined flows, was analyzed. The linear stability analysis was simplified by assuming a uniform velocity level over the whole domain, where only the wave numbers of the first harmonic normal to the flow direction were permitted. A singular equilibrium function that maximizes the critical velocity level was identified, which was afterwards tested in particular cases of confined flows of interest, validating the resulting procedure.
Modeling flue pipes: Subsonic flow, lattice Boltzmann, and parallel distributed computers
Skordos, Panayotis A.
1995-01-01
The problem of simulating the hydrodynamics and the acoustic waves inside wind musical instruments such as the recorder the organ, and the flute is considered. The problem is attacked by developing suitable local-interaction algorithms and a parallel simulation system on a cluster of non-dedicated workstations. Physical measurements of the acoustic signal of various flue pipes show good agreement with the simulations. Previous attempts at this problem have been frustrated because the modeling of acoustic waves requires small integration time steps which make the simulation very compute-intensive. In addition, the simulation of subsonic viscous compressible flow at high Reynolds numbers is susceptible to slow-growing numerical instabilities which are triggered by high-frequency acoustic modes. The numerical instabilities are mitigated by employing suitable explicit algorithms: lattice Boltzmann method, compressible finite differences, and fourth-order artificial-viscosity filter. Further, a technique for accurate initial and boundary conditions for the lattice Boltzmann method is developed, and the second-order accuracy of the lattice Boltzmann method is demonstrated. The compute-intensive requirements are handled by developing a parallel simulation system on a cluster of non-dedicated workstations. The system achieves 80 percent parallel efficiency (speedup/processors) using 20 HP-Apollo workstations. The system is built on UNIX and TCP/IP communication routines, and includes automatic process migration from busy hosts to free hosts.
A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice
Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.
Computational Aeroacoustics Using the Generalized Lattice Boltzmann Equation Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop a generalized lattice Boltzmann (GLB) approach as a potential computational aeroacoustics (CAA) tool for...
Permit Allocation in Emissions Trading using the Boltzmann Distribution
Park, Ji-Won; Isard, Walter
2011-01-01
In emissions trading, the initial permit allocation is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods such as auctioning and grandfathering have been debated. Here we describe a new model for permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. The Boltzmann distribution is introduced to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. A price determination mechanism for emission permits is then developed in relation to the {\\beta} value in the Boltzmann distribution. Finally, it is demonstrated how emissions permits can be practically allocated among participating countries in empirical results. The new allocation model using the Boltzmann distribution describes a most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Based on its simplicity and versati...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schade, Henry
2010-09-15
Strange particles play an important role as probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions where hot and dense matter is studied. The focus of this thesis is on the production of strange particles within a transport model of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) type. Current data of the HADES Collaboration concerning K{sup {+-}} and {phi} spectra provide the appropriate experimental framework. Moreover, the double-strange hyperon {xi}{sup -} is analyzed below the free NN production threshold. Hadron multiplicities, transversemomentum and rapidity spectra are compared with recent experimental data. Further important issues are in-medium mass shifts, the nuclear equation of state as well as the mean field of nucleons. Besides the study of AA collisions a comparison with recent ANKE data regarding the {phi} yield in pA collisions is done. Transparency ratios are determined and primarily investigated for absorption of {phi} mesons by means of the BUU transport code. Thereby, secondary {phi} production channels, isospin asymmetry and detector acceptance are important issues. A systematic analysis is presented for different system sizes. The momentum integrated Boltzmann equations describe dense nuclear matter on a hadronic level appearing in the Big Bang as well as in little bangs, in the context of kinetic off-equilibrium dynamics. This theory is applied to antiprotons and numerically calculated under consideration of various expansion models. Here, the evolution of proton- and antiproton densities till freeze-out is analyzed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions within a hadrochemic resonance gas model acting as a possible ansatz for solving the ''antiproton puzzle''. Furthermore, baryonic matter and antimatter is investigated in the early universe and the adiabatic path of cosmic matter is sketched in the QCD phase diagram. (orig.)
A new lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Xing-Wang; Shi Bao-Chang
2005-01-01
Most of the existing lattice Boltzmann magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models can be viewed as compressible schemes to simulate incompressible MHD flows. The compressible effect might lead to some undesired errors in numerical simulations. In this paper a new incompressible lattice Boltzmann MHD model without compressible effect is presented for simulating incompressible MHD flows. Numerical simulations of the Hartmann flow are performed. We do numerous tests and make comparison with Dellar's model in detail. The numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical error.
A Boltzmann model for rod alignment and schooling fish
Carlen, Eric A.; Carvalho, Maria C.; Degond, Pierre; Wennberg, Bernt
2014-01-01
We consider a Boltzmann model introduced by Bertin, Droz and Greegoire as a binary interaction model of the Vicsek alignment interaction. This model considers particles lying on the circle. Pairs of particles interact by trying to reach their mid-point (on the circle) up to some noise. We study the equilibria of this Boltzmann model and we rigorously show the existence of a pitchfork bifurcation when a parameter measuring the inverse of the noise intensity crosses a critical threshold. The an...
Advanced Mean Field Theory of Restricted Boltzmann Machine
Huang, Haiping; Toyoizumi, Taro
2015-01-01
Learning in restricted Boltzmann machine is typically hard due to the computation of gradients of log-likelihood function. To describe the network state statistics of the restricted Boltzmann machine, we develop an advanced mean field theory based on the Bethe approximation. Our theory provides an efficient message passing based method that evaluates not only the partition function (free energy) but also its gradients without requiring statistical sampling. The results are compared with those...
Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian
2016-01-01
A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of $D$ meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the LHC and RHIC. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$=5.02 TeV is provided.
Dyatko, Nikolay
2015-01-01
At low reduced electric fields the electron energy distribution function in heavy noble gases can take two distinct shapes. This bistability effect - in which electron-electron (Coulomb) collisions play an essential role - is analyzed here with a Boltzmann equation approach and with a first principles particle simulation method. The latter is based on a combination of a molecular dynamics technique that accounts for the many-body interaction within the electron gas and a Monte Carlo treatment of the collisions between electrons and the background gas atoms. The good agreement found between the results of the two techniques confirms the existence of the two different stable solutions for the EEDF under swarm conditions at low electric fields.
Direct numerical simulations of collision efficiency of cohesive sediments
Zhang, Jin-Feng; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.; Zhang, Qing-He; Shen, Xiao-Teng
2016-09-01
A clear understanding of the collision efficiency of cohesive sediment particles is critical for more accurate simulation of the flocculation processes. It is difficult, if not impossible, to carry out laboratory experiments to determine the collision efficiency for small particles. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is a relatively feasible approach to describe the motion of spherical particles under gravity in calm water, and thus, to study the collision efficiency of these particles. In this study, the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is used to calculate the relative trajectories of two approaching particles with different ratios of sizes and densities. Results show that the inter-molecular forces (i.e., van der Waals attractive force, electrostatic repulsive/attractive force, and displacement force), which are usually neglected in previous studies, would affect the trajectories, and thus, lead to an overestimation of the collision efficiency. It is found that to increase the particle size ratio from 0.1 to 0.8 only slightly increases the collision efficiency, since the force caused by fluid-solid interaction between these two particles is reduced. To increase the submerged particle density ratio from 1 to 22, however, would significantly decrease the collision efficiency. Earlier analytical formulations of collision efficiency, which only consider the effects of particle size ratio, have significantly overestimated the collision efficiency (change from 0.01 to 0.6) when the particle size ratio is around 0.5.
Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for continuum multicomponent flow.
Halliday, I; Hollis, A P; Care, C M
2007-08-01
We present a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation for continuum fluid mechanics, paying particular attention to the component segregation part of the underlying algorithm. In the principal result of this paper, the dynamics of a component index, or phase field, is obtained for a segregation method after U. D'Ortona [Phys. Rev. E 51, 3718 (1995)], due to Latva-Kokko and Rothman [Phys. Rev. E 71 056702 (2005)]. The said dynamics accord with a simulation designed to address multicomponent flow in the continuum approximation and underwrite improved simulation performance in two main ways: (i) by reducing the interfacial microcurrent activity considerably and (ii) by facilitating simulational access to regimes of flow with a low capillary number and drop Reynolds number [I. Halliday, R. Law, C. M. Care, and A. Hollis, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056708 (2006)]. The component segregation method studied, used in conjunction with Lishchuk's method [S. V. Lishchuk, C. M. Care, and I. Halliday, Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)], produces an interface, which is distributed in terms of its component index; however, the hydrodynamic boundary conditions which emerge are shown to support the notion of a sharp, unstructured, continuum interface. PMID:17930175
Analysis of Jeans instability from Boltzmann equation
Kremer, Gilberto M
2015-01-01
The dynamics of self-gravitating fluids is analyzed within the framework of a collisionless Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields and Poisson equation. The equilibrium distribution function takes into account the expansion of the Universe and a pressureless fluid in the matter dominated Universe. Without invoking Jeans "swindle" a dispersion relation is obtained by considering small perturbations of the equilibrium values of the distribution function and gravitational potential. The collapse criterion -- which happens in an unstable region where the solution grows exponentially with time -- is determined from the dispersion relation. The collapse criterion in a static Universe occurs when the wavenumber $k$ is smaller than the Jeans wavenumber $k_J$, which was the solution found by Jeans. For an expanding Universe it is shown that this criterion is $k\\leq\\sqrt{7/6}\\,k_J$. As a consequence the ratio of the mass contained in a sphere of diameter equal to the wavelength $\\lambda=2\\pi/k$ to t...
Modeling adsorption with lattice Boltzmann equation.
Guo, Long; Xiao, Lizhi; Shan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaoling
2016-01-01
The research of adsorption theory has recently gained renewed attention due to its critical relevance to a number of trending industrial applications, hydrogen storage and shale gas exploration for instance. The existing theoretical foundation, laid mostly in the early twentieth century, was largely based on simple heuristic molecular interaction models and static interaction potential which, although being insightful in illuminating the fundamental mechanisms, are insufficient for computations with realistic adsorbent structure and adsorbate hydrodynamics, both critical for real-life applications. Here we present and validate a novel lattice Boltzmann model incorporating both adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbent interactions with hydrodynamics which, for the first time, allows adsorption to be computed with real-life details. Connection with the classic Ono-Kondo lattice theory is established and various adsorption isotherms, both within and beyond the IUPAC classification are observed as a pseudo-potential is varied. This new approach not only enables an important physical to be simulated for real-life applications, but also provides an enabling theoretical framework within which the fundamentals of adsorption can be studied. PMID:27256325
Lattice Boltzmann model for resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics.
Mohseni, F; Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2015-08-01
In this paper, we develop a lattice Boltzmann model for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even though the model is derived for resistive MHD, it is shown that it is numerically robust even in the high conductivity (ideal MHD) limit. In order to validate the numerical method, test simulations are carried out for both ideal and resistive limits, namely the propagation of Alfvén waves in the ideal MHD and the evolution of current sheets in the resistive regime, where very good agreement is observed comparing to the analytical results. Additionally, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is studied and the effects of different parameters on the reconnection rate are investigated. It is shown that the density ratio has a negligible effect on the magnetic reconnection rate, while an increase in shear velocity decreases the reconnection rate. Additionally, it is found that the reconnection rate is proportional to σ-1/2, σ being the conductivity, which is in agreement with the scaling law of the Sweet-Parker model. Finally, the numerical model is used to study the magnetic reconnection in a stellar flare. Three-dimensional simulation suggests that the reconnection between the background and flux rope magnetic lines in a stellar flare can take place as a result of a shear velocity in the photosphere. PMID:26382548
Modeling adsorption with lattice Boltzmann equation
Guo, Long; Xiao, Lizhi; Shan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaoling
2016-01-01
The research of adsorption theory has recently gained renewed attention due to its critical relevance to a number of trending industrial applications, hydrogen storage and shale gas exploration for instance. The existing theoretical foundation, laid mostly in the early twentieth century, was largely based on simple heuristic molecular interaction models and static interaction potential which, although being insightful in illuminating the fundamental mechanisms, are insufficient for computations with realistic adsorbent structure and adsorbate hydrodynamics, both critical for real-life applications. Here we present and validate a novel lattice Boltzmann model incorporating both adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbent interactions with hydrodynamics which, for the first time, allows adsorption to be computed with real-life details. Connection with the classic Ono-Kondo lattice theory is established and various adsorption isotherms, both within and beyond the IUPAC classification are observed as a pseudo-potential is varied. This new approach not only enables an important physical to be simulated for real-life applications, but also provides an enabling theoretical framework within which the fundamentals of adsorption can be studied. PMID:27256325
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Romarly F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Eliane M. de; Lima, Marco A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, Márcio H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Varella, Márcio T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Jones, Darryl B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, Michael J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 2840 Madrid (Spain); Colmenares, Rafael [Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid (Spain); and others
2015-03-14
We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the N{sub open}-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].
Fragmentation of positronium in collision with xenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cross-sections are presented, both integrated and differential with respect to the longitudinal energy of the ejected positrons, for the fragmentation of Ps in collisions with Xe at 18 and 30 eV impact energy and compared with available theory. The shapes of the positron spectra are also compared with those measured in collisions with He at the same impact energy
46 CFR 179.210 - Collision bulkhead.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkhead. 179.210 Section 179.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage Stability Requirements § 179.210 Collision bulkhead. (a) A vessel...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molitoris, J.; Bonasera, A.; Adorno, A.
1993-04-01
The authors study pion production at subthreshold energies in nucleus-collisions using the extended Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov (BNV) model. The extreme sensitivity of the pion yield to the initial momentum space Fermi distribution is demonstrated. The effect of the three body collision term is also shown to be substantial. However, the nuclear equation of state has no significant effect at these energies. Details and implications of the nuclear kinetic equation simulation are discussed.
Bhattacharya, Trambak; Sahoo, Raghunath; Samantray, Prasant
2016-01-01
The evolution equation for inhomogeneous and anisotropic temperature fluctuations inside a medium is derived within the ambit of Boltzmann Transport Equation. Also, taking some existing realistic inputs we have analyzed the Fourier space variation of temperature fluctuation for the medium created after heavy-ion collisions. The effect of viscosity on the variation of fluctuations is investigated. Further, possible implications in hadronic and heavy-ion collisions are explored.
Evaluation of the unstructured lattice Boltzmann method in porous flow simulations
Misztal, Marek; Matin, Rastin; Hernandez, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim
2015-11-01
Flows in porous media are among the most challenging to simulate using the computational fluid dynamics methods, primarily due to the complex boundaries, often characterized by a very broad distribution of pore sizes. The standard (regular grid based) lattice Boltzmann method with the multi-relaxation time (MRT) collision operator is often used to simulate such flows. However, due to the lack of coupling between the positions of the computational grid nodes and the solid boundaries, the properties of the simulated flow might unnaturally vary with the fluid's viscosity, depending on the parameters of the MRT operator. This is, for instance, the case with the otherwise popular, single-relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision operator. Our focus has been on the unstructured grid based, finite element variant of the LBM. By using such approach, we can place the computational grid nodes precisely at the solid boundary. Since there is no prior work on the accuracy of this method in simulating porous flows, we perform a thorough permeability study using both BGK and MRT operators at a wide range of viscosities. We benchmark these models on artificial samples with known solutions, and further, we demonstrate the findings of our studies in the porous networks of real rocks. Predicting Petrophysical Parameters: A Project Sponsored by HTF and Maersk Oil and Gas.
Equations of motion of test particles for solving the spin-dependent Boltzmann-Vlasov equation
Xia, Yin; Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An; Shen, Wen-Qing
2016-08-01
A consistent derivation of the equations of motion (EOMs) of test particles for solving the spin-dependent Boltzmann-Vlasov equation is presented. The resulting EOMs in phase space are similar to the canonical equations in Hamiltonian dynamics, and the EOM of spin is the same as that in the Heisenburg picture of quantum mechanics. Considering further the quantum nature of spin and choosing the direction of total angular momentum in heavy-ion reactions as a reference of measuring nucleon spin, the EOMs of spin-up and spin-down nucleons are given separately. The key elements affecting the spin dynamics in heavy-ion collisions are identified. The resulting EOMs provide a solid foundation for using the test-particle approach in studying spin dynamics in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Future comparisons of model simulations with experimental data will help to constrain the poorly known in-medium nucleon spin-orbit coupling relevant for understanding properties of rare isotopes and their astrophysical impacts.
Lattice Boltzmann method and its applications in engineering thermophysics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE YaLing; LI Qing; WANG Yong; TANG GuiHua
2009-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM),a mesoscopic method between the molecular dynamics method and the conventional numerical methods,has been developed into a very efficient numerical alternative in the past two decades.Unlike conventional numerical methods,the kinetic theory based LBM simulates fluid flows by tracking the evolution of the particle distribution function,and then accumulates the distribution to obtain macroscopic averaged properties.In this article we review some work on LBM applications in engineering thermophysics:(1) brief introduction to the development of the LBM; (2)fundamental theory of LBM including the Boltzmann equation,Maxwell distribution function,Boltzmann-BGK equation,and the lattice Boltzmann-BGK equation; (3) lattice Boltzmann models for compressible flows and non-equilibrium gas flows,bounce back-specular-reflection boundary scheme for microscale gaseous flows,the mass modified outlet boundary scheme for fully developed flows,and an implicit-explicit finite-difference-based LBM; and (4) applications of the LBM to oscillating flow,compressible flow,porous media flow,non-equilibrium flow,and gas resonant oscillating flow.
The intellectual quadrangle: Mach-Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These four men were influential in the transition from classical to modern physics. They interacted as scientists, often antagonistically. Thus Boltzmann was the greatest champion of the atom, while Mach remained unconvinced all his life. As a aphysicist, Einstein was greatly influenced by both Mach and Boltzmann, although Mach in the end rejected relativity as well. Because of his work on statistical mechanics, fluctuations, and quantum theory, Einstein has been called the natural successor to Boltzmann. Planck also was influenced by Mach at first. Hence he and Boltzmann were adversaries antil Planck converted to atomistics in 1900 and used the statistical interpretation of entropy to establish his radiation law. Planck accepted relativity early, but in quantum theory he was for a long time partly opposed to Einstein, and vice versa - Einstein considered Planck's derivation of his radiation law as unsound, while Planck could not accept the light quantum. In the case of all four physicists, science was interwoven with philosophy. Boltzmann consistently fought Mach's positivism, while Planck and Einstein moved from positivism to realism. All were also, though in very different ways, actively interested in public affairs. (orig.)
Podolsky electromagnetism and a modification in Stefan-Boltzmann law
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonin, Carlos Alberto; Bufalo, Rodrigo Santos; Escobar, Bruto Max Pimentel; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2009-07-01
Full text. As it is well-known, gauge fields that emerge from the gauge principle are massless vector fields. Considering the photon as a Proca particle, experience sets an upper limit on its mass. This limit is m{sub Proca} < 6X10{sup -17}eV (PDG 2006). However, a mass term, regardless how small, breaks the gauge symmetry. Nevertheless, there exists a theory in which is possible to introduce a mass term preserving all symmetries of Maxwell electromagnetism, including the gauge one: such theory is known as Podolsky Electromagnetism. Podolsky theory is a second- order-derivative theory and has some remarkable properties, despite those already mentioned: the theory has two sectors, a massive one and massless one, it depends on a free parameter (which happens to be the mass of the massive sector) that, like all other elementary particles's masses of the Standard Model, must be fixed through experiences, and the fact that the electrostatic potential is finite everywhere, including over a punctual charge. Just like Maxwell electromagnetism, Podolsky's is a constrained theory and, since it is of second order in the derivatives, it consists in a much richer theoretical structure. Therefore, from both, theoretical and experimental points of view, Podolsky electromagnetism is a very attractive theory. In this work we study a gas of Podolsky photons at finite temperature through path integration. We show that the massless sector leads to the famous Planck's law for black-body radiation and, therefore, to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We also show that the massive sector of the Podolsky theory induces a modification in both these laws. It is possible to set limits on the Podolsky parameter through comparison of our results with data from cosmic microwave background radiation. (author)
Podolsky electromagnetism and a modification in Stefan-Boltzmann law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text. As it is well-known, gauge fields that emerge from the gauge principle are massless vector fields. Considering the photon as a Proca particle, experience sets an upper limit on its mass. This limit is mProca -17eV (PDG 2006). However, a mass term, regardless how small, breaks the gauge symmetry. Nevertheless, there exists a theory in which is possible to introduce a mass term preserving all symmetries of Maxwell electromagnetism, including the gauge one: such theory is known as Podolsky Electromagnetism. Podolsky theory is a second- order-derivative theory and has some remarkable properties, despite those already mentioned: the theory has two sectors, a massive one and massless one, it depends on a free parameter (which happens to be the mass of the massive sector) that, like all other elementary particles's masses of the Standard Model, must be fixed through experiences, and the fact that the electrostatic potential is finite everywhere, including over a punctual charge. Just like Maxwell electromagnetism, Podolsky's is a constrained theory and, since it is of second order in the derivatives, it consists in a much richer theoretical structure. Therefore, from both, theoretical and experimental points of view, Podolsky electromagnetism is a very attractive theory. In this work we study a gas of Podolsky photons at finite temperature through path integration. We show that the massless sector leads to the famous Planck's law for black-body radiation and, therefore, to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We also show that the massive sector of the Podolsky theory induces a modification in both these laws. It is possible to set limits on the Podolsky parameter through comparison of our results with data from cosmic microwave background radiation. (author)
Ripesi, P; Schifano, S F; Tripiccione, R
2014-01-01
We study the turbulent evolution originated from a system subjected to a Rayleigh-Taylor instability with a double density at high resolution in a 2 dimensional geometry using a highly optimized thermal Lattice Boltzmann code for GPUs. The novelty of our investigation stems from the initial condition, given by the superposition of three layers with three different densities, leading to the development of two Rayleigh-Taylor fronts that expand upward and downward and collide in the middle of the cell. By using high resolution numerical data we highlight the effects induced by the collision of the two turbulent fronts in the long time asymptotic regime. We also provide details on the optimized Lattice-Boltzmann code that we have run on a cluster of GPUs
Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and its quartic potential. Then, using this model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. We gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations. (orig.)
Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong-Hoon [Ewha Womans University, Basic Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Institute for the Early Universe, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bum-Hoon [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wonwoo [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jongmann [Ewha Womans University, Basic Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Institute for the Early Universe, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China)
2015-03-01
Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and its quartic potential. Then, using this model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. We gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations. (orig.)
Systematic Study of the Boundary Composition in Poisson Boltzmann Calculations
Kar, P; Hansmann, U H E; Hoefinger, S
2007-01-01
We describe a three-stage procedure to analyze the dependence of Poisson Boltzmann calculations on the shape, size and geometry of the boundary between solute and solvent. Our study is carried out within the boundary element formalism, but our results are also of interest to finite difference techniques of Poisson Boltzmann calculations. At first, we identify the critical size of the geometrical elements for discretizing the boundary, and thus the necessary resolution required to establish numerical convergence. In the following two steps we perform reference calculations on a set of dipeptides in different conformations using the Polarizable Continuum Model and a high-level Density Functional as well as a high-quality basis set. Afterwards, we propose a mechanism for defining appropriate boundary geometries. Finally, we compare the classic Poisson Boltzmann description with the Quantum Chemical description, and aim at finding appropriate fitting parameters to get a close match to the reference data. Surprisi...
Navier-Stokes Dynamics by a Discrete Boltzmann Model
Rubinstein, Robet
2010-01-01
This work investigates the possibility of particle-based algorithms for the Navier-Stokes equations and higher order continuum approximations of the Boltzmann equation; such algorithms would generalize the well-known Pullin scheme for the Euler equations. One such method is proposed in the context of a discrete velocity model of the Boltzmann equation. Preliminary results on shock structure are consistent with the expectation that the shock should be much broader than the near discontinuity predicted by the Pullin scheme, yet narrower than the prediction of the Boltzmann equation. We discuss the extension of this essentially deterministic method to a stochastic particle method that, like DSMC, samples the distribution function rather than resolving it completely.
Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Fluid on a Square Lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Cheng-Hai
2000-01-01
A two-level four-direction lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a square lattice to simulate compressible flows with a high Mach number. The particle velocities are adaptive to the mean velocity and internal energy. Therefore, the mean flow can have a high Mach number. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the 4th order velocity tensors are not involved in the calculations. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, o special treatment is need for the homogeneity of 4th order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were derived by the Chapman-Enskog method from the BGK Boltzmann equation. The model can be easily extended to three-dimensional cubic lattices. Two-dimensional shock-wave propagation was simulated
Accounting for adsorption and desorption in Lattice Boltzmann simulations
Levesque, Maximilien; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Frenkel, Daan; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2013-01-01
We report a Lattice-Boltzmann scheme that accounts for adsorption and desorption in the calculation of mesoscale dynamical properties of tracers in media of arbitrary complexity. Lattice Boltzmann simulations made it possible to solve numerically the coupled Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Nernst-Planck equations of electrokinetics in complex, heterogeneous media. Associated to the moment propagation scheme, it became possible to extract the effective diffusion and dispersion coefficients of tracers, or solutes, of any charge, e.g. in porous media. Nevertheless, the dynamical properties of tracers depend on the tracer-surface affinity, which is not purely electrostatic, but also includes a species-specific contribution. In order to capture this important feature, we introduce specific adsorption and desorption processes in a Lattice-Boltzmann scheme through a modified moment propagation algorithm, in which tracers may adsorb and desorb from surfaces through kinetic reaction rates. The method is ...
Collisions of relativistic clusters and the formation of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform numerical simulations of head-on collisions of relativistic clusters. The cluster particles interact only gravitationally, and so satisfy the collisionless Boltzmann equation in general relativity. We construct and follow the evolution of three classes of initial configurations: spheres of particles at rest; spheres of particles boosted towards each other; and spheres of particles in circular orbits about their respective centers. In the first two cases, the spheres implode towards their centers and may form black holes before colliding. These scenarios thus can be used to study the head-on collision of two black holes. In the third case the clusters are initially in equilibrium and cannot implode. In this case collision from rest leads either to coalescence and virialization, or collapse to a black hole. This scenario is the collisionless analog of colliding neutron stars in relativistic hydrodynamics
Kinetic description of collision avoidance in pedestrian crowds by sidestepping
Festa, Adriano; Wolfram, Marie-Therese
2016-01-01
In this paper we study a kinetic model for pedestrians, who are assumed to adapt their motion towards a desired direction while avoiding collisions with others by stepping aside. These minimal microscopic interaction rules lead to complex emergent macroscopic phenomena, such as velocity alignment in unidirectional flows and lane or stripe formation in bidirectional flows. We start by discussing collision avoidance mechanisms at the microscopic scale, then we study the corresponding Boltzmann-type kinetic description and its hydrodynamic mean-field approximation in the grazing collision limit. In the spatially homogeneous case we prove directional alignment under specific conditions on the sidestepping rules for both the collisional and the mean-field model. In the spatially inhomogeneous case we illustrate, by means of various numerical experiments, the rich dynamics that the proposed model is able to reproduce.
Collisions involving positronium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent progress on the scattering of an ortho-positronium beam is reviewed. Similarities are noted amongst the total cross-sections for positronium scattering from various targets. The integrated Ps fragmentation cross-sections, determined by detecting each of the ejected particles, are presented for collisions with He and Xe atoms. In the case of He, a good agreement is found with theory, whilst preliminary results for Xe suggests that significant target ionisation occurs for this target at 30 eV Ps impact energy
Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction
Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
2000-01-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.
Boltzmann learning of parameters in cellular neural networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai
1992-01-01
The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified ...... by unsupervised adaptation of an image segmentation cellular network. The learning rule is applied to adaptive segmentation of satellite imagery......The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified...
On a Boltzmann-type price formation model
Burger, Martin
2013-06-26
In this paper, we present a Boltzmann-type price formation model, which is motivated by a parabolic free boundary model for the evolution of price presented by Lasry and Lions in 2007. We discuss the mathematical analysis of the Boltzmann-type model and show that its solutions converge to solutions of the model by Lasry and Lions as the transaction rate tends to infinity. Furthermore, we analyse the behaviour of the initial layer on the fast time scale and illustrate the price dynamics with various numerical experiments. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Multiphase lattice Boltzmann simulations for porous media applications -- a review
Liu, Haihu; Leonardi, Christopher R; Jones, Bruce D; Schmieschek, Sebastian; Narváez, Ariel; Williams, John R; Valocchi, Albert J; Harting, Jens
2014-01-01
Over the last two decades, lattice Boltzmann methods have become an increasingly popular tool to compute the flow in complex geometries such as porous media. In addition to single phase simulations allowing, for example, a precise quantification of the permeability of a porous sample, a number of extensions to the lattice Boltzmann method are available which allow to study multiphase and multicomponent flows on a pore scale level. In this article we give an extensive overview on a number of these diffuse interface models and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we shortly report on multiphase flows containing solid particles, as well as implementation details and optimization issues.
Learning Feature Hierarchies with Centered Deep Boltzmann Machines
Montavon, Grégoire
2012-01-01
Deep Boltzmann machines are in principle powerful models for extracting the hierarchical structure of data. Unfortunately, attempts to train layers jointly (without greedy layer-wise pretraining) have been largely unsuccessful. We propose a modification of the learning algorithm that initially recenters the output of the activation functions to zero. This modification leads to a better conditioned Hessian and thus makes learning easier. We test the algorithm on real data and demonstrate that our suggestion, the centered deep Boltzmann machine, learns a hierarchy of increasingly abstract representations and a better generative model of data.
CMS Collaboration
2016-01-01
A search is conducted for dark matter pair-production and for graviton production predicted by the ADD large extra dimensions model in a final state with a photon and missing transverse energy in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$. Data taken by the CMS experiment in 2016 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $12.9~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ is analyzed. A Poisson counting technique is used to assess a potential excess of events with respect to background, estimated through simulation and data-driven methods. No such excess is observed. The results of the searches are interpreted as exclusion limits in the model parameter spaces.
Progress in lattice Boltzmann methods for magnetohydrodynamic flows relevant to fusion applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pattison, M.J. [MetaHeuristics LLC, 3944 State St., Ste. 350, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 (United States)], E-mail: martin@metah.com; Premnath, K.N. [MetaHeuristics LLC, 3944 State St., Ste. 350, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 (United States); UCSB, Chemical Engineering Department, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A. [UCLA, MAE Department, 44-114 Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Pza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)
2008-05-15
In this paper, an approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is presented. The dynamics of the flow are simulated using a so-called multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), in which a source term is included for the Lorentz force. The evolution of the magnetic induction is represented by introducing a vector distribution function and then solving an appropriate lattice kinetic equation for this function. The solution of both distribution functions are obtained through a simple, explicit, and computationally efficient stream-and-collide procedure. The use of the MRT collision term enhances the numerical stability over that of a single relaxation time approach. To apply the methodology to solving practical problems, a new extrapolation-based method for imposing magnetic boundary conditions is introduced and a technique for simulating steady-state flows with low magnetic Prandtl number is developed. In order to resolve thin layers near the walls arising in the presence of high magnetic fields, a non-uniform gridding strategy is introduced through an interpolated-streaming step applied to both distribution functions. These advances are particularly important for applications in fusion engineering where liquid metal flows with low magnetic Prandtl numbers and high Hartmann numbers are introduced. A number of MHD benchmark problems, under various physical and geometrical conditions are presented, including 3-D MHD lid driven cavity flow, high Hartmann number flows and turbulent MHD flows, with good agreement with prior data. Due to the local nature of the method, the LBM also demonstrated excellent performance on parallel machines, with almost linear scaling up to 128 processors for a MHD flow problem.
Formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics and its applications in heavy-ion collisions
Jaiswal, Amaresh
2014-01-01
Relativistic fluid dynamics finds application in astrophysics, cosmology and the physics of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, we present our work on the formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics within the framework of relativistic kinetic theory. We employ the second law of thermodynamics as well as the relativistic Boltzmann equation to obtain the dissipative evolution equations. We present a new derivation of the dissipative hydrodynamic equations using the second law of thermodynamics wherein all the second-order transport coefficients get determined uniquely within a single theoretical framework. An alternate derivation of the dissipative equations which does not make use of the two major approximations/assumptions namely, Grad's 14-moment approximation and second moment of Boltzmann equation, inherent in the Israel-Stewart theory, is also presented. Moreover, by solving the Boltzmann equation iteratively in a Chapman-Enskog like expansion, we have derived the form of second-...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp
2012-01-15
A Boltzmann plot for many iron ionic lines having excitation energies of 4.7-9.1 eV was investigated in an argon glow discharge plasma when the discharge parameters, such as the voltage/current and the gas pressure, were varied. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed in a DC voltage range of 400-800 V at argon pressures of 400-930 Pa. The plot did not follow a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but it yielded a normal Boltzmann distribution in the range of 4.7-5.8 eV and a large overpopulation in higher-lying excitation levels of iron ion. A probable reason for this phenomenon is that excitations for higher excited energy levels of iron ion would be predominantly caused by non-thermal collisions with argon species, the internal energy of which is received by iron atoms for the ionization. Particular intense ionic lines, which gave a maximum peak of the Boltzmann plot, were observed at an excitation energy of ca. 7.7 eV. They were the Fe II 257.297-nm and the Fe II 258.111-nm lines, derived from the 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels. The 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels can be highly populated through a resonance charge transfer from the ground state of argon ion, because of good matching in the excitation energy as well as the conservation of the total spin before and after the collision. An enhancement factor of the emission intensity for various Fe II lines could be obtained from a deviation from the normal Boltzmann plot, which comprised the emission lines of 4.7-5.8 eV. It would roughly correspond to a contribution of the charge transfer excitation to the excited levels of iron ion, suggesting that the charge-transfer collision could elevate the number density of the corresponding excited levels by a factor of ca.10{sup 4}. The Boltzmann plots give important information on the reason why a variety of iron ionic lines can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Boltzmann plot for many iron ionic lines having excitation energies of 4.7–9.1 eV was investigated in an argon glow discharge plasma when the discharge parameters, such as the voltage/current and the gas pressure, were varied. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed in a DC voltage range of 400–800 V at argon pressures of 400–930 Pa. The plot did not follow a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but it yielded a normal Boltzmann distribution in the range of 4.7–5.8 eV and a large overpopulation in higher-lying excitation levels of iron ion. A probable reason for this phenomenon is that excitations for higher excited energy levels of iron ion would be predominantly caused by non-thermal collisions with argon species, the internal energy of which is received by iron atoms for the ionization. Particular intense ionic lines, which gave a maximum peak of the Boltzmann plot, were observed at an excitation energy of ca. 7.7 eV. They were the Fe II 257.297-nm and the Fe II 258.111-nm lines, derived from the 3d54s4p 6P excited levels. The 3d54s4p 6P excited levels can be highly populated through a resonance charge transfer from the ground state of argon ion, because of good matching in the excitation energy as well as the conservation of the total spin before and after the collision. An enhancement factor of the emission intensity for various Fe II lines could be obtained from a deviation from the normal Boltzmann plot, which comprised the emission lines of 4.7–5.8 eV. It would roughly correspond to a contribution of the charge transfer excitation to the excited levels of iron ion, suggesting that the charge-transfer collision could elevate the number density of the corresponding excited levels by a factor of ca.104. The Boltzmann plots give important information on the reason why a variety of iron ionic lines can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas.
Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Jouniaux, Laurence
2014-05-01
We study the coupling between hydraulic and electric flows in a porous medium at small scale using the Lattice Boltzmann method. This method is a computational fluid dynamics technique that is used for advection and diffusion modeling. We implement a coupled Lattice Boltzmann algorithm that solves both the mass transport and the electric field arising from charges displacements. The streaming potential and electroosmosis phenomena occur in a variety of situations and derive from this coupling. We focus on the streaming potential which is described using the ratio between the created potential difference and the applied pressure gradient. The streaming potential is assumed to be a linear function of the fluid conductivity, but experimental results highlight anomalous behaviors at low and high salinity. We try to account for them by setting extreme conditions that are likely to generate non-linearities. Several pore radii are tested so as to determine what is the effect of a radius that is comparable to the Debye length, the screening length of the electric potential, due to the ions in the electrolyte. The volumetric integral of the electrical current is calculated for comparison with the 2D simulations. High values of zeta potential are tested to verify if the discrepancy regarding the theoretical result is concentration-dependent. We try to include a surface conductivity term in the coefficient formulation. Some tests including a rugosity on the channel walls are performed. All of these attempts show a normal behaviour of the streaming potential at high salinity. We observe a decrease of the ratio at low conductivity, showing that this ratio is modified when the pore radius becomes negligible compared with the Debye length, which is physically meaningful in little pores at low concentrations. References : S. Pride. Governing equations for the coupled electromagnetics and acoustics of porous media. Physical Review B, 50 : 15678-15696, 1994. D. A. Wolf
Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krause, Oswin
The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum...
A Parallel Lattice Boltzmann Model of a Carotid Artery
Boyd, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Buick, J. M.
2008-11-01
A parallel implementation of the lattice Boltzmann model is considered for a three dimensional model of the carotid artery. The computational method and its parallel implementation are described. The performance of the parallel implementation on a Beowulf cluster is presented, as are preliminary hemodynamic results.
Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices
Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.
2000-01-01
In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the Maxwell-Boltzman
Metamaterial characterization using Boltzmann's kinetic equation for electrons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Novitsky, D.;
2013-01-01
Statistical properties of electrons in metals are taken into consideration to describe the microscopic motion of electrons. Assuming degenerate electron gas in metal, we introduce the Boltzmann kinetic equation to supplement Maxwell's equations. The solution of these equations clearly shows the...
Measuring Boltzmann's Constant with Carbon Dioxide
Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan
2013-01-01
In this paper we present two experiments to measure Boltzmann's constant--one of the fundamental constants of modern-day physics, which lies at the base of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The experiments use very basic theory, simple equipment and cheap and safe materials yet provide very precise results. They are very easy and…
Boundary conditions for surface reactions in lattice Boltzmann simulations
Gillissen, J.J.J.; Looije, N.
2014-01-01
A surface reaction boundary condition in multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulations is developed. The method is applied to a test case with nonlinear reaction rates and nonlinear density profiles. The results are compared to the corresponding analytical solution, which shows that the error of the
Thermal creep problems by the discrete Boltzmann equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Preziosi
1991-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with an initial-boundary value problem for the discrete Boltzmann equation confined between two moving walls at different temperature. A model suitable for the quantitative analysis of the initial boundary value problem and the relative existence theorem are given.
Perturbative and non-perturbative aspects non-Abelian Boltzmann-Langevin equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boedeker, Dietrich. E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de
2002-12-30
We study the Boltzmann-Langevin equation which describes the dynamics of hot Yang-Mills fields with typical momenta of order of the magnetic screening scale g{sup 2}T. It is transformed into a path integral and Feynman rules are obtained. We find that the leading log Langevin equation can be systematically improved in a well behaved expansion in log(1/g){sup -1}. The result by Arnold and Yaffe that the leading log Langevin equation is still valid at next-to-leading-log order is confirmed. We also confirm their result for the next-to-leading-log damping coefficient, or color conductivity, which is shown to be gauge fixing independent for a certain class of gauges. The frequency scale g{sup 2}T does not contribute to this result, but it does contribute, by power counting, to the transverse gauge field propagator. Going beyond a perturbative expansion we find 1-loop ultraviolet divergences which cannot be removed by renormalizing the parameters in the Boltzmann-Langevin equation.
Poisson-Boltzmann thermodynamics of counterions confined by curved hard walls.
Šamaj, Ladislav; Trizac, Emmanuel
2016-01-01
We consider a set of identical mobile pointlike charges (counterions) confined to a domain with curved hard walls carrying a uniform fixed surface charge density, the system as a whole being electroneutral. Three domain geometries are considered: a pair of parallel plates, the cylinder, and the sphere. The particle system in thermal equilibrium is assumed to be described by the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. While the effectively one-dimensional plates and the two-dimensional cylinder have already been solved, the three-dimensional sphere problem is not integrable. It is shown that the contact density of particles at the charged surface is determined by a first-order Abel differential equation of the second kind which is a counterpart of Enig's equation in the critical theory of gravitation and combustion or explosion. This equation enables us to construct the exact series solutions of the contact density in the regions of small and large surface charge densities. The formalism provides, within the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann framework, the complete thermodynamics of counterions inside a charged sphere (salt-free system). PMID:26871116
Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Investigations of various aspects of heavy-ion collisions were carried out in the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin Model (BLM). In a previous work, by projection the BLM onto a collective space, a memory-dependent collective transport model was reduced. This model was applied to thermal fission to investigate the influence of the memory effects on the fission dynamics. Some results of the calculations are presented. In addition a reduction of the relativistic BLM to a two-fluid model was carried out, and transport coefficients associated with fluid dynamical variables was carried out. Then this model was applied to investigate equilabration and fluctuation properties in a counter-streaming nuclear fluid
Application of the Non-extensive Statistical Approach to High Energy Particle Collisions
Bíró, Gábor; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Ürmössy, Károly
2016-01-01
In high-energy collisions the number of the created particles is far less than the thermodynamic limit, especially in small colliding systems (e.g. proton-proton). Therefore final-state effects and fluctuations in the one-particle energy distribution are appreciable. As a consequence the characterization of identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann\\,--\\,Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insufficient. Instead particle spectra measured in high-energy collisions can be described very well with Tsallis\\,--\\,Pareto distributions, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics. Using the Tsallis q-entropy formula, a generalization of the Boltzmann\\,--\\,Gibbs entropy, we interpret the microscopical physics by analysing the Tsallis $q$ and $T$ parameters. In this paper we give a quick overview on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center of mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on this energy and on the particle species. Our f...
Nagakura, Hiroki; Yamada, Shoichi
2014-01-01
We propose a novel numerical method for solving multi-dimensional, special relativistic Boltzmann equations for neutrinos coupled to hydrodynamics equations. It is meant to be applied to simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We handle special relativity in a non-conventional way, taking account of all orders of v/c. Consistent treatment of advection and collision terms in the Boltzmann equations is the source of difficulties, which we overcome by employing two different energy grids: Lagrangian remapped and laboratory fixed grids. We conduct a series of basic tests and perform a one-dimensional simulation of core-collapse, bounce and shock-stall for a 15M_{sun} progenitor model with a minimum but essential set of microphysics. We demonstrate in the latter simulation that our new code is capable of handling all phases in core-collapse supernova. For comparison, a non-relativistic simulation is also conducted with the same code, and we show that they produce qualitatively wrong results in neutrino transfer. ...
Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying
2015-08-01
In this paper, phase interface effects, including the differences in thermophysical properties between solid and liquid phases and the numerical diffusion across phase interface, are investigated for the recently developed total enthalpy-based lattice Boltzmann model for solid-liquid phase change, which has high computational efficiency by avoiding iteration procedure and linear equation system solving. For the differences in thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat) between solid and liquid phases, a novel reference specific heat is introduced to improve the total enthalpy-based lattice Boltzmann model, which makes the thermal conductivity and specific heat decoupled. Therefore, the differences in thermal conductivity and specific heat can be handled by the dimensionless relaxation time and equilibrium distribution function, respectively. As for the numerical diffusion across phase interface, it is revealed for the first time and found to be induced by solid-liquid phase change. To reduce such numerical diffusion, multiple-relaxation-time collision scheme is exploited, and a special value (one fourth) for the so-called "magic" parameter, a combination of two relaxation parameters, is found. Numerical tests show that the differences in thermophysical properties can be correctly handled and the numerical diffusion across phase interface can be dramatically reduced. Finally, theoretical analyses are carried out to offer insights into the roles of the reference specific heat and "magic" parameter in the treatments of phase interface effects.
Fang, Wen-Zhen; Zhang, Hu; Chen, Li; Tao, Wen-Quan
2015-01-01
In this paper, a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model with an off-diagonal collision matrix was adopted to predict the effective thermal conductivities of the anisotropic heterogeneous materials whose components are also anisotropic. The half lattice division scheme was adopted to deal with the internal boundaries to guarantee the heat flux continuity at the interfaces. Accuracy of the model was confirmed by comparisons with benchmark results and existing simulation data. The present method was then adopted to numerically predict the transverse and longitudinal effective thermal conductivities of three-dimensional (3D) four-directional braided composites. Some corresponding experiments based on the Hot Disk method were conducted to measure their transverse and longitudinal effective thermal conductivities. The predicted data fit the experiment data well. Influences of fiber volume fractions and interior braiding angles on the effective thermal conductivities of 3D four-directional braided composit...
Reis, Tim
2012-01-01
We present lattice Boltzmann simulations of rarefied flows driven by pressure drops along two-dimensional microchannels. Rarefied effects lead to non-zero cross-channel velocities, nonlinear variations in the pressure along the channel. Both effects are absent in flows driven by uniform body forces. We obtain second-order accuracy for the two components of velocity the pressure relative to asymptotic solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions. Since the common lattice Boltzmann formulations cannot capture Knudsen boundary layers, we replace the usual discrete analogs of the specular diffuse reflection conditions from continuous kinetic theory with a moment-based implementation of the first-order Navier-Maxwell slip boundary conditions that relate the tangential velocity to the strain rate at the boundary. We use these conditions to solve for the unknown distribution functions that propagate into the domain across the boundary. We achieve second-order accuracy by reformulating these conditions for the second set of distribution functions that arise in the derivation of the lattice Boltzmann method by an integration along characteristics. Our moment formalism is also valuable for analysing the existing boundary conditions. It reveals the origin of numerical slip in the bounce-back other common boundary conditions that impose conditions on the higher moments, not on the local tangential velocity itself. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics and its applications in heavy-ion collisions
Jaiswal, Amaresh
2014-01-01
Relativistic fluid dynamics finds application in astrophysics, cosmology and the physics of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, we present our work on the formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics within the framework of relativistic kinetic theory. We employ the second law of thermodynamics as well as the relativistic Boltzmann equation to obtain the dissipative evolution equations. We present a new derivation of the dissipative hydrodynamic equations using the sec...
Collision effects on the saturated electrostatic potential along a magnetic field line
Katanuma, I.; Tatematsu, Y; Ishii, K.; Saito, T.; Yatsu, K.
2003-01-01
The Coulomb collision effects on a saturated electrostatic potential (plug potential) formation in the end-mirror cell of a tandem mirror were investigated by a Monte Carlo simulation of ion orbits. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function, which leads to a modified Boltzmann law, is assumed to obtain the electrostatic potential. An ion velocity distribution is determined by the Monte Carlo simulation of ions. It was found that a saturated electrostatic potential is formed in a wide ra...
Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics
2016-04-14
The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and
Collision Risk and Damage after Collision
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter
1996-01-01
The paper presents a new and complete procedure for calculation of ship-ship collision rates on specific routes and the hull damage caused by such collisions.The procedure is applied to analysis of collision risks for Ro-Ro pasenger vessels. Given a collision the spatial probability distribution...... are presented for threee different Ro-Ro passenger vessels of length 98 m 150 m and 180 m, respectively operating at three different routes. These routes are the Danish Great Belt route, a Finland-Sweden route and the Dover-Calais route....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emerek, Ruth
2004-01-01
Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.
2016-04-30
The cross section for pair production of top quarks (t-tbar) with high transverse momenta is measured in pp collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with sqrt(s) = 8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse-femtobarns. The measurement is performed using lepton+jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark pt and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be sigma[t-tbar] = 0.499 +/- 0.035 (stat+syst) +/- 0.095 (theory) +/- 0.013 (lumi) pb for top quark pt > 400 GeV. The parton-level measurement is sigma[t-tbar] = 1.44 +/- 0.10 (stat+syst) +/- 0.29 (theory) +/- 0.04 (lumi) pb. The integrated and differential cross section results are compared to predictions from several event generators.
Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. 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J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. F.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Jain, Sa.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fantinel, S.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Traczyk, P.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Korenkov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskii, E.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Korneeva, N.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Benhabib, L.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. 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M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lewis, J.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration
2016-10-01
The cross section for pair production of top quarks (t t ¯ ) with high transverse momenta is measured in p p collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with √{s }=8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 . The measurement is performed using lepton +jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark pT and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be σt t ¯=0.499 ±0.035 (stat +syst )±0.095 (theo ) ±0.013 (lumi ) pb for top quark pT>400 GeV . The parton-level measurement is σt t ¯=1.44 ±0.10 (stat +syst )±0.29 (theo ) ±0.04 (lumi ) pb . The integrated and differential cross section results are compared to predictions from several event generators.
Elliptic Flow and Jet Quenching of a Parton System after Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision
Shin, Ghi R
2007-01-01
We obtain the initial phase space distribution after relativistic heavy ion collision by the CGC shattering method incorporating the uncertainty principle and solve the semi-classical Boltzmann equation which includes the gluon radiation processes. We present as a function of time the attenuation rate of high $p_T$ partons, which have transverse momenta over 6 $GeV/c$, in the medium which is formed after relativistic heavy ion collision. We calculate the elliptic flow as a function of an impact parameter, time and transverse momentum and also present the polar anisotropy, which gives the initial condition for color filamentation.
Lattice Boltzmann model for free-surface flow and its application to filling process in casting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalized lattice Boltzmann model to simulate free-surface is constructed in both two and three dimensions. The proposed model satisfies the interfacial boundary conditions accurately. A distinctive feature of the model is that the collision processes is carried out only on the points occupied partially or fully by the fluid. To maintain a sharp interfacial front, the method includes an anti-diffusion algorithm. The unknown distribution functions at the interfacial region are constructed according to the first-order Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interfacial boundary conditions are satisfied exactly by the coefficients in the Chapman-Enskog expansion. The distribution functions are naturally expressed in the local interfacial coordinates. The macroscopic quantities at the interface are extracted from the least-square solutions of a locally linearized system obtained from the known distribution functions. The proposed method does not require any geometric front construction and is robust for any interfacial topology. Simulation results of realistic filling process are presented: rectangular cavity in two dimensions and Hammer box, Campbell box, Sheffield box, and Motorblock in three dimensions. To enhance the stability at high Reynolds numbers, various upwind-type schemes are developed. Free-slip and no-slip boundary conditions are also discussed
An efficient three-dimensional multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows
Liang, Hong; Chai, Zhenhua
2015-01-01
In this paper, an efficient three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is developed for the simulation of multiphase flows. This model is an extension of our previous two-dimensional model (H. Liang, B. C. Shi, Z. L. Guo, and Z. H. Chai, Phys. Rev. E. 89, 053320 (2014)) to the three dimensions using the D3Q7 (seven discrete velocities in three dimensions) lattice for the Chan-Hilliard equation (CHE) and the D3Q15 lattice for the Navier-Stokes equations (NSEs). Due to the smaller lattice-velocity numbers used, the computional efficiency can be significantly improved in simulating real three-dimensional flows, and simultaneously the present model can recover to the CHE and NSEs correctly through the chapman-Enskog procedure. We compare the present MRT model with the single-relaxation-time model and the previous three-dimensional LB model using two benchmark interface-tracking problems, and numerical results show that the present MRT model can achieve a ...
Investigation of an entropic stabilizer for the lattice-Boltzmann method.
Mattila, Keijo K; Hegele, Luiz A; Philippi, Paulo C
2015-06-01
The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method is commonly used for the simulation of fluid flows at the hydrodynamic level of description. Due to its kinetic theory origins, the standard LB schemes carry more degrees of freedom than strictly needed, e.g., for the approximation of solutions to the Navier-stokes equation. In particular, there is freedom in the details of the so-called collision operator. This aspect was recently utilized when an entropic stabilizer, based on the principle of maximizing local entropy, was proposed for the LB method [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014)]. The proposed stabilizer can be considered as an add-on or extension to basic LB schemes. Here the entropic stabilizer is investigated numerically using the perturbed double periodic shear layer flow as a benchmark case. The investigation is carried out by comparing numerical results obtained with six distinct LB schemes. The main observation is that the unbounded, and not explicitly controllable, relaxation time for the higher-order moments will directly influence the leading-order error terms. As a consequence, the order of accuracy and, in general, the numerical behavior of LB schemes are substantially altered. Hence, in addition to systematic numerical validation, more detailed theoretical analysis of the entropic stabilizer is still required in order to properly understand its properties. PMID:26172795
Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis verifies classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
Hou, S Q; Parikh, A; Daid, K; Bertulani, C
2014-01-01
We provide the most stringent constraint to date on possible deviations from the usually-assumed Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) velocity distribution for nuclei in the Big-Bang plasma. The impact of non-extensive Tsallis statistics on thermonuclear reaction rates involved in standard models of Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) has been investigated. We find that the non-extensive parameter $q$ may deviate by, at most, $|\\delta q|$=6$\\times$10$^{-4}$ from unity for BBN predictions to be consistent with observed primordial abundances; $q$=1 represents the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. This constraint arises primarily from the {\\em super}sensitivity of endothermic rates on the value of $q$, which is found for the first time. As such, the implications of non-extensive statistics in other astrophysical environments should be explored. This may offer new insight into the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements.
Accelerate Monte Carlo Simulations with Restricted Boltzmann Machines
Huang, Li
2016-01-01
Despite their exceptional flexibility and popularity, the Monte Carlo methods often suffer from slow mixing times for challenging statistical physics problems. We present a general strategy to overcome this difficulty by adopting ideas and techniques from the machine learning community. We fit the unnormalized probability of the physical model to a feedforward neural network and reinterpret the architecture as a restricted Boltzmann machine. Then, exploiting its feature detection ability, we utilize the restricted Boltzmann machine for efficient Monte Carlo updates and to speed up the simulation of the original physical system. We implement these ideas for the Falicov-Kimball model and demonstrate improved acceptance ratio and autocorrelation time near the phase transition point.
Quadrature-based Lattice Boltzmann Model for Relativistic Flows
Blaga, Robert
2016-01-01
A quadrature-based finite-difference lattice Boltzmann model is developed that is suitable for simulating relativistic flows of massless particles. We briefly review the relativistc Boltzmann equation and present our model. The quadrature is constructed such that the stress-energy tensor is obtained as a second order moment of the distribution function. The results obtained with our model are presented for a particular instance of the Riemann problem (the Sod shock tube). We show that the model is able to accurately capture the behavior across the whole domain of relaxation times, from the hydrodynamic to the ballistic regime. The property of the model of being extendable to arbitrarily high orders is shown to be paramount for the recovery of the analytical result in the ballistic regime.
Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting
Li, Q; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q
2014-01-01
In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modif...
Conjugate heat transfer with the entropic lattice Boltzmann method.
Pareschi, G; Frapolli, N; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V
2016-07-01
A conjugate heat-transfer model is presented based on the two-population entropic lattice Boltzmann method. The present approach relies on the extension of Grad's boundary conditions to the two-population model for thermal flows, as well as on the appropriate exact conjugate heat-transfer condition imposed at the fluid-solid interface. The simplicity and efficiency of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and in particular of the entropic multirelaxation LBM, are retained in the present approach, thus enabling simulations of turbulent high Reynolds number flows and complex wall boundaries. The model is validated by means of two-dimensional parametric studies of various setups, including pure solid conduction, conjugate heat transfer with a backward-facing step flow, and conjugate heat transfer with the flow past a circular heated cylinder. Further validations are performed in three dimensions for the case of a turbulent flow around a heated mounted cube.
Quantitative and qualitative Kac's chaos on the Boltzmann's sphere
Carrapatoso, Kleber
2012-01-01
We investigate the construction of chaotic probability measures on the Boltzmann's sphere, which is the state space of the stochastic process of a many-particle system undergoing a dynamics preserving energy and momentum. Firstly, based on a version of the local Central Limit Theorem (or Berry-Essenn theorem), we construct a sequence of probabilities that is Kac chaotic and we prove a quantitative rate of convergence. Then, we investigate a stronger notion of chaos, namely entropic chaos introduced in \\cite{CCLLV}, and we prove, with quantitative rate, that this same sequence is also entropically chaotic. Furthermore, we investigate more general class of probability measures on the Boltzmann's sphere. Using the HWI inequality we prove that a Kac chaotic probability with bounded Fisher's information is entropically chaotic and we give a quantitative rate. We also link different notions of chaos, proving that Fisher's information chaos, introduced in \\cite{HaurayMischler}, is stronger than entropic chaos, which...
Sun, Wen-Rong; Shan, Wen-Rui; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Pan; Tian, Bo
2015-02-01
The fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation works as a model for the shallow water waves with surface tension. Through symbolic computation, binary Bell-polynomial approach and auxiliary independent variable, the bilinear forms, N-soliton solutions, two different Bell-polynomial-type Bäcklund transformations, Lax pair and infinite conservation laws are obtained. Characteristic-line method is applied to discuss the effects of linear wave speed c as well as length scales τ and γ on the soliton amplitudes and velocities. Increase of τ, c and γ can lead to the increase of the soliton velocity. Soliton amplitude increases with the increase of τ. The larger-amplitude soliton is seen to move faster and then to overtake the smaller one. After the collision, the solitons keep their original shapes and velocities invariant except for the phase shift. Graphic analysis on the two and three-soliton solutions indicates that the overtaking collisions between/among the solitons are all elastic.
Learning Feature Hierarchies with Centered Deep Boltzmann Machines
Montavon, Grégoire; Müller, Klaus-Robert
2012-01-01
Deep Boltzmann machines are in principle powerful models for extracting the hierarchical structure of data. Unfortunately, attempts to train layers jointly (without greedy layer-wise pretraining) have been largely unsuccessful. We propose a modification of the learning algorithm that initially recenters the output of the activation functions to zero. This modification leads to a better conditioned Hessian and thus makes learning easier. We test the algorithm on real data and demonstrate that ...
Multi-reflection boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models
d´Humiéres, D.; Ginzburg, I
2002-01-01
We present a unified approach of several boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models. Its general framework is a generalization of previously introduced schemes such as the bounce-back rule, linear or quadratic interpolations, etc. The objectives are two fold: first to give theoretical tools to study the existing boundary conditions and their corresponding accuracy; secondly to design formally third- order accurate boundary conditions for general flows. Using these boundary conditions, C...
Volume-Based Fabric Tensors through Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations
Moreno, Rodrigo; Smedby, Örjan
2014-01-01
This paper introduces a new methodology to compute fabric tensors from computational fluid dynamics simulations performed through the lattice-Boltzmann method. Trabecular bone is modeled as a pipeline where a synthetic viscous fluid can flow from a single source located at the center of a spherical region of interest toward its boundaries. Two fabric tensors are computed from local velocities at the steady state estimated from the simulations, a tortuosity and a normalized tortuosity tensor.T...
Multi-component lattice-Boltzmann model with interparticle interaction
Shan, Xiaowen; Doolen, Gary
1995-01-01
A previously proposed [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 47}, 1815, (1993)] lattice Boltzmann model for simulating fluids with multiple components and interparticle forces is described in detail. Macroscopic equations governing the motion of each component are derived by using Chapman-Enskog method. The mutual diffusivity in a binary mixture is calculated analytically and confirmed by numerical simulation. The diffusivity is generally a function of the concentrations of the two component...
A Lattice Boltzmann model for diffusion of binary gas mixtures
Bennett, Sam
2010-01-01
This thesis describes the development of a Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for a binary gas mixture. Specifically, channel flow driven by a density gradient with diffusion slip occurring at the wall is studied in depth. The first part of this thesis sets the foundation for the multi-component model used in the subsequent chapters. Commonly used single component LB methods use a non-physical equation of state, in which the relationship between pressure and density varies according to the sca...
Lattice Boltzmann Method for mixtures at variable Schmidt number
Monteferrante, Michele; Melchionna, Simone; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo
2015-01-01
When simulating multicomponent mixtures via the Lattice Boltzmann Method, it is desirable to control the mutual diffusivity between species while maintaining the viscosity of the solution fixed. This goal is herein achieved by a modification of the multicomponent Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) evolution equations by introducing two different timescales for mass and momentum diffusion. Diffusivity is thus controlled by an effective drag force acting between species. Numerical simulations confirm ...
Acoustic levitation and the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle
Putterman, S.; Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.
1989-01-01
The Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle of adiabatic invariance relates the acoustic potential acting on a sample positioned in a single-mode cavity to the shift in resonant frequency caused by the presence of this sample. This general and simple relation applies to samples and cavities of arbitrary shape, dimension, and compressibility. Positioning forces and torques can, therefore, be determined from straightforward measurements of frequency shifts. Applications to the Rayleigh disk phenomenon and levitated cylinders are presented.
On the Spectral Problems for the Discrete Boltzmann Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Aq Kwang-Hua Chu; J. FANG Jing
2000-01-01
The discrete Boltzmann models are used to study the spectral problems related to the one-dimensional plane wave propaogation in monatomic gases which are fundamental in the nonequilibrium tatistical thermodynamics. The results show that the 8-velocity model can only describe the propagation of the diffusion mode (entropy wave) in the intermediate Knudsen number regime. The 4- and 6-velocity models, instead, can describe the propagation of sound modes quite well, after comparison with the continuum-mechanical results.
Topological interactions in a Boltzmann-type framework
Blanchet, Adrien; Degond, Pierre
2015-01-01
We consider a finite number of particles characterised by their positions and velocities. At random times a randomly chosen particle, the follower, adopts the velocity of another particle, the leader. The follower chooses its leader according to the proximity rank of the latter with respect to the former. We study the limit of a system size going to infinity and, under the assumption of propagation of chaos, show that the limit equation is akin to the Boltzmann equation. However , it exhibits...
Average Contrastive Divergence for Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines
Xuesi Ma; Xiaojie Wang
2016-01-01
This paper studies contrastive divergence (CD) learning algorithm and proposes a new algorithm for training restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). We derive that CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient method and make an analysis of the bias. Meanwhile, we propose a new learning algorithm called average contrastive divergence (ACD) for training RBMs. It is an improved CD algorithm, and it is different from the traditional CD algorithm. Finally, we obtain some experimental resul...
Discrete Boltzmann model of shallow water equations with polynomial equilibria
Meng, Jianping; Emerson, David R; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Jianmin
2016-01-01
A hierarchy of discrete Boltzmann model is proposed for simulating shallow water flows. By using the Hermite expansion and Gauss-Hermite quadrature, the conservation laws are automatically satisfied without extra effort. Moreover, the expansion order and quadrature can be chosen flexibly according to the problem for striking the balance of accuracy and efficiency. The models are then tested using the classical one-dimensional dam-breaking problem, and successes are found for both supercritical and subcritical flows.
High-order hydrodynamics via lattice Boltzmann methods.
Colosqui, Carlos E
2010-02-01
In this work, closure of the Boltzmann-Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (Boltzmann-BGK) moment hierarchy is accomplished via projection of the distribution function f onto a space H(N) spanned by N-order Hermite polynomials. While successive order approximations retain an increasing number of leading-order moments of f , the presented procedure produces a hierarchy of (single) N-order partial-differential equations providing exact analytical description of the hydrodynamics rendered by ( N-order) lattice Boltzmann-BGK (LBBGK) simulation. Numerical analysis is performed with LBBGK models and direct simulation Monte Carlo for the case of a sinusoidal shear wave (Kolmogorov flow) in a wide range of Weissenberg number Wi=taunuk(2) (i.e., Knudsen number Kn=lambdak=square root Wi); k is the wave number, [corrected] tau is the relaxation time of the system, and lambda approximately tauc(s) is the mean-free path, where c(s) is the speed of sound. The present results elucidate the applicability of LBBGK simulation under general nonequilibrium conditions.
Entanglement generation by collisions of quantum solitons
Lewenstein, Maciej; Malomed, Boris A.
2009-01-01
We present analytic expressions describing generation of the entanglement in collisions of initially uncorrelated quantum solitons. The results, obtained by means of the Born's approximation (for fast solitons), are valid for both integrable and non-integrable quasi-one-dimensional systems supporting soliton states.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU You-Sheng; LIU Yang; HUANG Guo-Xiang
2004-01-01
@@ Digital images (DI) and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) are used to characterize the threshold dynamic parameters of porous media. Two-dimensional representations of the porous structure are reconstructed from segmentation of digital images obtained from a series of tiny samples. The threshold pressure gradients and threshold Péclet numbers are researched on seven test samples by using LBM. Numerical results are in agreement with that obtained by integrating Darcy's law. The results also indicate that fluids can flow through porous media only if the fluid force is large enough to overcome threshold pressure gradient in porous media. One synthetic case is used to further illustrate the applicability of the proposed technique. In addition, the dynamical rules in our model are local, therefore it can be run on parallel computers with well computational efficiency.
CMS Collaboration
2016-01-01
A search for direct production of top squark pairs in events with jets and large transverse momentum imbalance is presented. The data were collected in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 12.9/fb. Two analyses are performed, a ``low $\\Delta m$" analysis that targets scenarios with a very small difference in mass between the top squark and the neutralino, and a ``high $\\Delta m$" analysis that targets topologies typical for larger mass splittings. No significant excess of events above the expected background from standard model processes is observed. Exclusion limits are set in the context of simplified models of top squark pair production under various decay hypotheses, ranging up to 860 GeV in the case of the high $\\Delta m$ analysis and up to 450 GeV in the case of the low $\\Delta m$ analysis.
Residue temperatures in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With an improved Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model, we have investigated the reaction dynamics leading to the thermal freeezout for 40Ar+124Sn collisions. Several criteria are assessed for defining the proper thermal freezout time which separates preequilibrium processes from equilbrium processes. One of these criteria, the time dependence of the thermal excitation energy, provides consistent results for defining the thermal freezeout. The other two criteria, the emission rate of nucleons and the quadrupole moment of the momentum distributions, do not consistently provide accurate freezeout times due to the existence of long time scale collective vibrations. The predicted values for the excitation energies and temperatures, obtained assuming Fermi gas level densities, are quite sensitive to the equation of state and the impact parameter. Surprisingly, both the thermal excitation energies and the residue temperatures, in the limit of a large ensemble of parallel collisions, show little sensitivity to the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section
Effective N-particle collisions in a hadronic transport approach
Oliinychenko, Dmytro
2016-01-01
Hadronic transport approaches based on an effective solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation are widely applied for the dynamical description of heavy ion reactions at low beam energies. At high densities, the assumption of binary interactions often used in hadronic transport approaches may not be applicable anymore. Therefore, we introduce a way to include N-particle collisions effectively in a transport approach. This framework provides the opportunity to interpolate in a dynamical way between two different limits of kinetic theory: the dilute gas approximation and the ideal fluid case. This approach will be important for studies of the dynamical evolution of heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies as experimentally investigated at the beam energy scan program at RHIC, and in the future at FAIR and NICA. On the other hand, this new way of modelling hot and dense strongly-interacting matter might be relevant for small systems at high energies (LHC and RHIC) as well.
Wall Crossing from Boltzmann Black Hole Halos
Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke
2010-01-01
A key question in the study of N=2 supersymmetric string or field theories is to understand the decay of BPS bound states across walls of marginal stability in the space of parameters or vacua. By representing the potentially unstable bound states as multi-centered black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, we provide two fully general and explicit formulae for the change in the (refined) index across the wall. The first, "Higgs branch" formula relies on Reineke's results for invariants of quivers without oriented loops, specialized to the Abelian case. The second, "Coulomb branch" formula results from evaluating an integral over the classical phase space of multi-centered solutions by localization. We provide extensive evidence that these new formulae agree with each other and with the mathematical results of Kontsevich and Soibelman (KS) and Joyce and Song (JS). The main physical insight behind our results is that the Bose-Fermi statistics of individual black holes participating in the bound state can be tra...
Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fantinel, Sergio; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Rusinov, Vladimir; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Benhabib, Lamia; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; 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Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; 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Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lewis, Jonathan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; 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Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel
2016-01-01
The cross section for pair production of top quarks ($\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$) with high transverse momenta is measured in $\\mathrm{ p } \\mathrm{ p }$ collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed using lepton+jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }} =$ 0.499 $\\pm$ 0.035 (stat+syst) $\\pm$ 0.095 (theory) $\\pm$ 0.013 (lumi) pb for top quark...
Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel
2016-01-01
Differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell$ decays ($\\ell = \\mathrm{e}$, $\\mu$) are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb$^{-1}$ at 7 TeV, and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the $ \\mathrm{Z} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section, and its ratio to the $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated $ \\mathrm{H} \\rightarrow 4\\ell $ fiducial cr...
Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.
2016-04-01
Integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the H → 4 ℓ decays ( ℓ = e, μ) are measured in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb-1 at 7TeV, and 19.7 fb-1 at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are measured using the 8 TeV data, and are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the Z → 4 ℓ cross section, and its ratio to the H → 4 ℓ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated H → 4 ℓ fiducial cross section is measured to be 0. 56 - 0.44 + 0.67 (stat) - 0.06 + 0.21 (syst) fb at 7 TeV, and 1. 11 - 0.35 + 0.41 (stat) - 0.10 + 0.14 (syst) fb at 8 TeV. The measurements are found to be compatible with theoretical calculations based on the standard model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Mendes, Albert C R; Abreu, Everton M C; Neto, Jorge Ananias
2016-01-01
In this work we have obtained a higher-derivative Lagrangian for a charged fluid coupled with the electromagnetic fluid and the Dirac's constraints analysis was discussed. A set of first-class constraints fixed by noncovariant gauge condition was obtained. The path integral formalism was used to obtain the partition function for the corresponding higher-derivative Hamiltonian and the Faddeev-Popov ansatz was used to construct an effective Lagrangian. Through the partition function, a Stefan-Boltzmann type law was obtained.
Dukkipati, Ambedkar; Murty, Narasimha M; Bhatnagar, Shalabh
2004-01-01
Boltzmann selection is an important selection mechanism in evolutionary algorithms as it has theoretical properties which help in theoretical analysis. However, Boltzmann selection is not used in practice because a good annealing schedule for the `inverse temperature' parameter is lacking. In this paper we propose a Cauchy annealing schedule for Boltzmann selection scheme based on a hypothesis that selection-strength should increase as evolutionary process goes on and distance between two sel...
Probability of satellite collision
Mccarter, J. W.
1972-01-01
A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.
Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying
2016-06-01
A total enthalpy-based lattice Boltzmann (LB) method with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is developed in this paper to efficiently simulate solid-liquid phase change problem where variables vary significantly near the phase interface and thus finer grid is required. For the total enthalpy-based LB method, the velocity field is solved by an incompressible LB model with multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision scheme, and the temperature field is solved by a total enthalpy-based MRT LB model with the phase interface effects considered and the deviation term eliminated. With a kinetic assumption that the density distribution function for solid phase is at equilibrium state, a volumetric LB scheme is proposed to accurately realize the nonslip velocity condition on the diffusive phase interface and in the solid phase. As compared with the previous schemes, this scheme can avoid nonphysical flow in the solid phase. As for the AMR approach, it is developed based on multiblock grids. An indicator function is introduced to control the adaptive generation of multiblock grids, which can guarantee the existence of overlap area between adjacent blocks for information exchange. Since MRT collision schemes are used, the information exchange is directly carried out in the moment space. Numerical tests are firstly performed to validate the strict satisfaction of the nonslip velocity condition, and then melting problems in a square cavity with different Prandtl numbers and Rayleigh numbers are simulated, which demonstrate that the present method can handle solid-liquid phase change problem with high efficiency and accuracy.
Coarse-grained transport of a turbulent flow via moments of the Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation
Abramov, Rafail V
2015-01-01
Here we introduce new coarse-grained variables for a turbulent flow in the form of moments of its Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation. With the exception of the collision moments, the transport equations for the new variables are identical to the usual moment equations, and thus naturally lend themselves to the variety of already existing closure methods. Under the anelastic turbulence approximation, we derive equations for the Reynolds-averaged turbulent fluctuations around the coarse-grained state. We show that the global relative entropy of the coarse-grained state is bounded from above by the Reynolds average of the fine-grained global relative entropy, and thus obeys the time decay bound of Desvillettes and Villani. This is similar to what is observed in the rarefied gas dynamics, which makes the Grad moment closure a good candidate for truncating the hierarchy of the coarse-grained moment equations. We also show that, under additional assumptions on the form of the coarse-grained collision terms, one a...
Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation.
Zhou, J G; Haygarth, P M; Withers, P J A; Macleod, C J A; Falloon, P D; Beven, K J; Ockenden, M C; Forber, K J; Hollaway, M J; Evans, R; Collins, A L; Hiscock, K M; Wearing, C; Kahana, R; Villamizar Velez, M L
2016-04-01
Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β, the fractional order α, and the single relaxation time τ, the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering.
Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation
Zhou, J. G.; Haygarth, P. M.; Withers, P. J. A.; Macleod, C. J. A.; Falloon, P. D.; Beven, K. J.; Ockenden, M. C.; Forber, K. J.; Hollaway, M. J.; Evans, R.; Collins, A. L.; Hiscock, K. M.; Wearing, C.; Kahana, R.; Villamizar Velez, M. L.
2016-04-01
Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β , the fractional order α , and the single relaxation time τ , the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering.
Appendix: Chapman-Enskog Expansion in the Lattice Boltzmann Method
Li, Jun
2015-01-01
The Chapman-Enskog expansion was used in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to derive a Navier-Stokes-like equation and a formula was obtained to correlate the LBM model parameters to the kinematic viscosity implicitly implemented in LBM simulations. The obtained correlation formula usually works as long as the model parameters are carefully selected to make the Mach number and Knudsen number small although the validity of Chapman-Enskog expansion that has a formal definition of time derivative without tangible mathematical sense is not recognized by many mathematicians.
Lattice-Boltzmann Method for Geophysical Plastic Flows
Leonardi, Alessandro; Mendoza, Miller; Herrmann, Hans J
2015-01-01
We explore possible applications of the Lattice-Boltzmann Method for the simulation of geophysical flows. This fluid solver, while successful in other fields, is still rarely used for geotechnical applications. We show how the standard method can be modified to represent free-surface realization of mudflows, debris flows, and in general any plastic flow, through the implementation of a Bingham constitutive model. The chapter is completed by an example of a full-scale simulation of a plastic fluid flowing down an inclined channel and depositing on a flat surface. An application is given, where the fluid interacts with a vertical obstacle in the channel.
LATTICE BOLTZMANN EQUATION MODEL IN THE CORIOLIS FIELD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG SHI-DE; MAO JIANG-YU; ZHANG QIONG
2001-01-01
In a large-scale field of rotational fluid, various unintelligible and surprising dynamic phenomena are produced due to the effect of the Coriolis force. The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model in the Coriolis field is developed based on previous works.[1-4] Geophysical fluid dynamics equations are derived from the model. Numerical simulations have been made on an ideal atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere by using the model and they reproduce the Rossby wave motion well. Hence the applicability of the model is verified in both theory and experiment.
Entropy inequality and hydrodynamic limits for the Boltzmann equation.
Saint-Raymond, Laure
2013-12-28
Boltzmann brought a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the notion of entropy, by giving a microscopic formulation of the second principle of thermodynamics. His ingenious idea, motivated by the works of his contemporaries on the atomic nature of matter, consists of describing gases as huge systems of identical and indistinguishable elementary particles. The state of a gas can therefore be described in a statistical way. The evolution, which introduces couplings, loses part of the information, which is expressed by the decay of the so-called mathematical entropy (the opposite of physical entropy!). PMID:24249776
On the Krook-Wu model of the Boltzmann equation
Cornille, H.
1980-08-01
The distribution function of the Krook-Wu model of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation (elastic differential cross sections inversely proportional to the relative speed of the colliding particles) is obtained as a generalized Laguerre polynomial expansion where the only time dependence is provided by the coefficients. In a recent paper M. Barnsley and the present author have shown that these coefficients are recursively determined from the resolution of a nonlinear differential system. Here we explicitly show how to construct the solutions of the Krook-Wu model and study the properties of the corresponding Krook-Wu distribution functions.
An alternative method for simulating particle suspensions using lattice Boltzmann
Santos, Luís Orlando Emerich dos
2011-01-01
In this study, we propose an alternative way to simulate particle suspensions using the lattice Boltzmann method. The main idea is to impose the non-slip boundary condition in the lattice sites located on the particle boundaries. The focus on the lattice sites, instead of the links between them, as done in the more used methods, represents a great simplification in the algorithm. A fully description of the method will be presented, in addition to simulations comparing the proposed method with other methods and, also, with experimental results.
Multi-component lattice-Boltzmann model with interparticle interaction
Shan, X; Shan, Xiaowen; Doolen, Gary
1995-01-01
Abstract: A previously proposed [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 47}, 1815, (1993)] lattice Boltzmann model for simulating fluids with multiple components and interparticle forces is described in detail. Macroscopic equations governing the motion of each component are derived by using Chapman-Enskog method. The mutual diffusivity in a binary mixture is calculated analytically and confirmed by numerical simulation. The diffusivity is generally a function of the concentrations of the two components but independent of the fluid velocity so that the diffusion is Galilean invariant. The analytically calculated shear kinematic viscosity of this model is also confirmed numerically.
Boltzmann Machines and Denoising Autoencoders for Image Denoising
Cho, Kyunghyun
2013-01-01
Image denoising based on a probabilistic model of local image patches has been employed by various researchers, and recently a deep (denoising) autoencoder has been proposed by Burger et al. [2012] and Xie et al. [2012] as a good model for this. In this paper, we propose that another popular family of models in the field of deep learning, called Boltzmann machines, can perform image denoising as well as, or in certain cases of high level of noise, better than denoising autoencoders. We empiri...
A lattice Boltzmann method for dilute polymer solutions.
Singh, Shiwani; Subramanian, Ganesh; Ansumali, Santosh
2011-06-13
We present a lattice Boltzmann approach for the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids. The method is illustrated for the specific case of dilute polymer solutions. With the appropriate local equilibrium distribution, phase-space dynamics on a lattice, driven by a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) relaxation term, leads to a solution of the Fokker-Planck equation governing the probability density of polymer configurations. Results for the bulk rheological characteristics for steady and start-up shear flow are presented, and compare favourably with those obtained using Brownian dynamics simulations. The new method is less expensive than stochastic simulation techniques, particularly in the range of small to moderate Weissenberg numbers (Wi).
Relativistic Rotating Boltzmann Gas Using the Tetrad Formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ambrus Victor E.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We consider an application of the tetrad formalism introduced by Cardall et al. [Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013 023011] to the problem of a rigidly rotating relativistic gas in thermal equilibrium and discuss the possible applications of this formalism to rel- ativistic lattice Boltzmann simulations. We present in detail the transformation to the comoving frame, the choice of tetrad, as well as the explicit calculation and analysis of the components of the equilibrium particle ow four-vector and of the equilibrium stress-energy tensor.
Numerical Poisson-Boltzmann Model for Continuum Membrane Systems.
Botello-Smith, Wesley M; Liu, Xingping; Cai, Qin; Li, Zhilin; Zhao, Hongkai; Luo, Ray
2013-01-01
Membrane protein systems are important computational research topics due to their roles in rational drug design. In this study, we developed a continuum membrane model utilizing a level set formulation under the numerical Poisson-Boltzmann framework within the AMBER molecular mechanics suite for applications such as protein-ligand binding affinity and docking pose predictions. Two numerical solvers were adapted for periodic systems to alleviate possible edge effects. Validation on systems ranging from organic molecules to membrane proteins up to 200 residues, demonstrated good numerical properties. This lays foundations for sophisticated models with variable dielectric treatments and second-order accurate modeling of solvation interactions.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation for the Spiral Wave Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We investigated the dynamics of the simple spiral waves of the Selkov reaction-diffusion system with the Lattice Boltzmann method. The results of computer simulation lead to the conclusion that the trajectory of the spiral tip is a small circle, the wavelength and the period decay exponentially when the value of parameter b increases; and the relation between the wavelength and the period is A oc T1 , which is qualitatively the same as that obtained by Ou-Yang Qi from Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fundamental process for determining the electric discharge phenomena of gas which take various forms depending on the kinds of gas, gas pressure, relative position of electrodes and applied voltage, is the mutual collision of electrons, atoms, molecular ions and neutral atoms and molecules. The initial stage before the establishment of electric discharge seems to be in Townsend discharge region where the collision of electrons with neutral molecules and atoms mainly occurs, being the weakly ionized condition at low gas temperature. Recently, the breakdown phenomena of N2-O2 gas mixture is being examined for the purpose of clarifying the impulse break mechanism in low pressure air, and the energy distribution of electrons and the transport coefficients in N2, O2 and N2-O2 mixed gases are required to investigate closely the results. Here, the energy distribution and the transport coefficients of electrons in steady Townsend discharge region in N2 and O2 gases respectively were analyzed by using Boltzmann equation, as a preparatory stage. The analyzed results and the discussions on them are reported in each paragraph of the energy distribution and the mean energy of electrons, ionization coefficients and adhesion coefficients, electron drift speed and diffusion coefficients, and excitation frequencies for various electron levels. It was confirmed that each collision process for electrons and the cross-section used for the analysis were properly selected. The excitation frequencies of electrons for N2 and O2 gases concerning the band spectra emitted from discharge channels and the electron energy distribution at 200 V/cm-Torr or below of E/P0 were newly calculated, where E is electric field, and P0 is gas pressure at 0 deg C. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Hong Zhao; Fu-Hu Liu
2014-01-01
In the framework of a multisource thermal model, the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (A-A) and deuteron-nucleus (d-A) collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) energies are investigated by a two-component revised Boltzmann distribution. The calculated results are in agreement with the PHENIX experimental data. It is found that the source temperature increases obviously with increase of the particle mass and incident energy, but it ...
Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Ion Distributions from a Poisson-Boltzmann Model
Tang, Qiyun; Denton, Alan R.; Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew B.
2014-03-01
Recent experiments have shown that polystyrene-polyacrylic-acid-polystyrene (PS-PAA-PS) triblock copolymers in a solvent mixture of water and toluene can self-assemble into spherical microcapsules. Suspended in water, the microcapsules have a toluene core surrounded by an elastomer triblock shell. The longer, hydrophilic PAA blocks remain near the outer surface of the shell, becoming charged through dissociation of OH functional groups in water, while the shorter, hydrophobic PS blocks form a networked (glass or gel) structure. Within a mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we model these polyelectrolyte microcapsules as spherical charged shells, assuming different dielectric constants inside and outside the capsule. By numerically solving the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we calculate the radial distribution of anions and cations and the osmotic pressure within the shell as a function of salt concentration. Our predictions, which can be tested by comparison with experiments, may guide the design of microcapsules for practical applications, such as drug delivery. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation for Complex Flow in a Solar Wall
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Rou; Shao Jiu-Gu; ZHENG You-Qu; YU Hui-Dan; XU You-Sheng
2013-01-01
In this letter,we present a lattice Boltzmann simulation for complex flow in a solar wall system which includes porous media flow and heat transfer,specifically for solar energy utilization through an unglazed transpired solar air collector (UTC).Besides the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for time evolution of particle distribution function for fluid field,we introduce an analogy,LBE for time evolution of distribution function for temperature.Both temperature fields of fluid (air) and solid (porous media) are modeled.We study the effects of fan velocity,solar radiation intensity,porosity,etc.on the thermal performance of the UTC.In general,our simulation results are in good agreement with what in literature.With the current system setting,both fan velocity and solar radiation intensity have significant effect on the thermal performance of the UTC.However,it is shown that the porosity has negligible effect on the heat collector indicating the current system setting might not be realistic.Further examinations of thermal performance in different UTC systems are ongoing.The results are expected to present in near future.
Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Horvat
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB. It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a dimensionless model parameter c, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural c=1 line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the latter case, the bound on c is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on c obtained from various observational tests.
Fault diagnosis via neural networks: The Boltzmann machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Boltzmann machine is a general-purpose artificial neural network that can be used as an associative memory as well as a mapping tool. The usual information entropy is introduced, and a network energy function is suitably defined. The network's training procedure is based on the simulated annealing during which a combination of energy minimization and entropy maximization is achieved. An application in the nuclear reactor field is presented in which the Boltzmann input-output machine is used to detect and diagnose a pipe break in a simulated auxiliary feedwater system feeding two coupled steam generators. The break may occur on either the hot or the cold leg of any of the two steam generators. The binary input data to the network encode only the trends of the thermohydraulic signals so that the network is actually a polarity device. The results indicate that the trained neural network is actually capable of performing its task. The method appears to be robust enough so that it may also be applied with success in the presence of substantial amounts of noise that cause the network to be fed with wrong signals
Wall Orientation and Shear Stress in the Lattice Boltzmann Model
Matyka, Maciej; Mirosław, Łukasz
2013-01-01
The wall shear stress is a quantity of profound importance for clinical diagnosis of artery diseases. The lattice Boltzmann is an easily parallelizable numerical method of solving the flow problems, but it suffers from errors of the velocity field near the boundaries which leads to errors in the wall shear stress and normal vectors computed from the velocity. In this work we present a simple formula to calculate the wall shear stress in the lattice Boltzmann model and propose to compute wall normals, which are necessary to compute the wall shear stress, by taking the weighted mean over boundary facets lying in a vicinity of a wall element. We carry out several tests and observe an increase of accuracy of computed normal vectors over other methods in two and three dimensions. Using the scheme we compute the wall shear stress in an inclined and bent channel fluid flow and show a minor influence of the normal on the numerical error, implying that that the main error arises due to a corrupted velocity field near ...
Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models
Horvat, R.
2015-11-01
In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a dimensionless model parameter c, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural c = 1 line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the latter case, the bound on c is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on c obtained from various observational tests.
Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models
Horvat, R
2015-01-01
In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a parameter $c$, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural $c = 1$ line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the later case, the bound on $c$ is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on $c$ obtained from various observational tests.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pingen, Georg; Evgrafov, Anton; Maute, Kurt
2009-01-01
We present an adjoint parameter sensitivity analysis formulation and solution strategy for the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The focus is on design optimization applications, in particular topology optimization. The lattice Boltzmann method is briefly described with an in-depth discussion...
L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions
Haubold, H J; Saxena, R K
2004-01-01
Classical statistical mechanics of macroscopic systems in equilibrium is based on Boltzmann's principle. Tsallis has proposed a generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Its relation to dynamics and nonextensivity of statistical systems are matters of intense investigation and debate. This essay review has been prepared at the occasion of awarding the 'Mexico Prize for Science and Technology 2003'to Professor Constantino Tsallis from the Brazilian Center for Research in Physics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olwig, Karen Fog
2011-01-01
, while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions of...
Normal and adjoint integral and integrodifferential neutron transport equations. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the simplifying hypotheses of the integrodifferential Boltzmann equations of neutron transport, given in JEN 334 report, several integral equations, and theirs adjoint ones, are obtained. Relations between the different normal and adjoint eigenfunctions are established and, in particular, proceeding from the integrodifferential Boltzmann equation it's found out the relation between the solutions of the adjoint equation of its integral one, and the solutions of the integral equation of its adjoint one (author)
Boltzmann and Einstein: Statistics and dynamics –An unsolved problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E G D Cohen
2005-05-01
The struggle of Boltzmann with the proper description of the behavior of classical macroscopic bodies in equilibrium in terms of the properties of the particles out of which they consist will be sketched. He used both a dynamical and a statistical method. However, Einstein strongly disagreed with Boltzmann's statistical method, arguing that a statistical description of a system should be based on the dynamics of the system. This opened the way, especially for complex systems, for other than Boltzmann statistics. The first non-Boltzmann statistics, not based on dynamics though, was proposed by Tsallis. A generalization of Tsallis' statistics as a special case of a new class of superstatistics, based on Einstein's criticism of Boltzmann, is discussed. It seems that perhaps a combination of dynamics and statistics is necessary to describe systems with complicated dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toelke, J.
2001-07-01
The first part of this work is concerned with the development of methodological foundations for the computer simulation of two-phase flows like gas-liquid-mixtures in complex, three-dimensional structures. The basic numerical approach is the Lattice-Boltzmann scheme which is very suitable for this class of problems. After the approach is verified using standard test cases, the method is applied to complex engineering problems. The most important application is the simulation of the two-phase flow (air/water) in a laboratory-scale biofilm reactor for wastewater treatment. The second part of the work deals with the development of efficient numerical methods for the stationary discrete Boltzmann equations. They are discretized by finite differences on uniform and non-uniform grids and fast solvers are applied to the resulting algebraic system of equations. Also a multigrid approach is developed and examined. For typical problems like boundary-layer and driven cavity flow a considerable gain in computing time is achieved. (orig.)
Cooper, Christopher D
2015-01-01
Interactions between surfaces and proteins occur in many vital processes and are crucial in biotechnology: the ability to control specific interactions is essential in fields like biomaterials, biomedical implants and biosensors. In the latter case, biosensor sensitivity hinges on ligand proteins adsorbing on bioactive surfaces with a favorable orientation, exposing reaction sites to target molecules. Protein adsorption, being a free-energy-driven process, is difficult to study experimentally. This paper develops and evaluates a computational model to study electrostatic interactions of proteins and charged nanosurfaces, via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. We extended the implicit-solvent model used in the open-source code PyGBe to include surfaces of imposed charge or potential. This code solves the boundary integral formulation of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, discretized with surface elements. PyGBe has at its core a treecode-accelerated Krylov iterative solver, resulting in O(N log N) scaling, with furt...
Hu, Yang; Li, Decai; Shu, Shi; Niu, Xiaodong
2016-02-01
Based on the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer equation, a finite-volume computational model with lattice Boltzmann flux scheme is proposed for incompressible porous media flow in this paper. The fluxes across the cell interface are calculated by reconstructing the local solution of the generalized lattice Boltzmann equation for porous media flow. The time-scaled midpoint integration rule is adopted to discretize the governing equation, which makes the time step become limited by the Courant-Friedricks-Lewy condition. The force term which evaluates the effect of the porous medium is added to the discretized governing equation directly. The numerical simulations of the steady Poiseuille flow, the unsteady Womersley flow, the circular Couette flow, and the lid-driven flow are carried out to verify the present computational model. The obtained results show good agreement with the analytical, finite-difference, and/or previously published solutions. PMID:26986440
Electron Collision Cross Sections for the Cl2 Molecule from Electron Transport Coefficients
Tuan, Do Anh; Jeon, Byung-Hoon
2011-08-01
The measured electron transport coefficients (electron drift velocity, Townsend first ionization coefficient, electron attachment coefficient, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient) in pure Cl2 have been analyzed to derive the currently best available electron collision cross section set of the elastic and inelastic electron collision cross sections for the Cl2 molecule using an electron swarm study and a two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation for energy. The electron transport coefficients calculated using the derived cross sections are consistent with the experimental data over a wide range of E/N values (ratio of the electric field E to the neutral number density N). The present electron collision cross section set for the Cl2 molecule is the best available so far for quantitative numerical modeling plasma discharges for processing procedures with materials containing Cl2 molecules.
Collision and Grounding, Committee V.3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paik, J.K.; Amdahl, J.; Barltrop, N.;
2003-01-01
Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collisions and grounding, taking into account the probabilistic and physical nature of such accidents. Consideration shall be given to the effectiveness of structural ...
Head on collision of multi-solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The head-on collision and overtaking collision of four solitons in a plasma comprising superthermal electrons, cold ions, and Boltzmann distributed positrons are investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) together with Hirota's method. PLK method yields two separate Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations where solitons obtained from any KdV equation move along a direction opposite to that of solitons obtained from the other KdV equation, While Hirota's method gives multi-soliton solution for each KdV equation all of which move along the same direction where the fastest moving soliton eventually overtakes the other ones. We have considered here two soliton solutions obtained from Hirota's method. Phase shifts acquired by each soliton due to both head-on collision and overtaking collision are calculated analytically
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David R. Farley
2010-08-19
A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N≥3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N=0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.
Cross, R.
2015-01-01
Experiments are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The experiments are designed to extend a student's understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna
2014-01-01
to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...
Bubble collision with gravitation
Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study vacuum bubble collisions with various potentials including gravitation, assuming spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry. We use numerical calculations from double-null formalism. Spherical symmetry can mimic the formation of a black hole via multiple bubble collisions. Planar and especially hyperbolic symmetry describes two bubble collisions. We study both cases, when two true vacuum regions have the same field value or different field values, by varying tensions. For the latter case, we also test symmetric and asymmetric bubble collisions, and see details of causal structures. If the colliding energy is sufficient, then the vacuum can be destabilized, and it is also demonstrated. This double-null formalism can be a complementary approach in the context of bubble collisions.
Determination of the Boltzmann Constant Using the Differential - Cylindrical Procedure
Feng, X J; Lin, H; Gillis, K A; Moldover, M R
2015-01-01
We report in this paper the progresses on the determination of the Boltzmann constant using the acoustic gas thermometer (AGT) of fixed-length cylindrical cavities. First, we present the comparison of the molar masses of pure argon gases through comparing speeds of sound of gases. The procedure is independent from the methodology by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results show good agreement between both methods. The comparison offers an independent inspection of the analytical results by GC-MS. Second, we present the principle of the novel differential-cylindrical procedure based on the AGT of two fixed-length cavities. The deletion mechanism for some major perturbations is analyzed for the new procedure. The experimental results of the differential-cylindrical procedure demonstrate some major improvements on the first, second acoustic and third virial coefficients, and the excess half-widths. The three acoustic virial coefficients agree well with the stated-of-the-art experime...
Spreading Dynamics of Nanodrops: A Lattice Boltzmann Study
Gross, Markus
2014-01-01
Spreading of nano-droplets is an interesting and technologically relevant phenomenon where thermal fluctuations lead to unexpected deviations from well-known deterministic laws. Here, we apply the newly developed fluctuating non-ideal lattice Boltzmann method [Gross et al., J. Stat. Mech., P03030 (2011)] for the study of this issue. Confirming the predictions of Davidovich and coworkers [PRL 95, 244905 (2005)], we provide the first independent evidence for the existence of an asymptotic, self-similar noise-driven spreading regime in both two- and three-dimensional geometry. The cross over from the deterministic Tanner's law, where the drop's base radius $b$ grows (in 3D) with time as $b \\sim t^{1/10}$ and the noise dominated regime where $b \\sim t^{1/6}$ is also observed by tuning the strength of thermal noise.
Boltzmann Equation Solver Adapted to Emergent Chemical Non-equilibrium
Birrell, Jeremiah
2014-01-01
We present a novel method to solve the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic Boltzmann equation. We employ a basis set of orthogonal polynomials dynamically adapted to allow emergence of chemical non-equilibrium. Two time dependent parameters characterize the set of orthogonal polynomials, the effective temperature $T(t)$ and phase space occupation factor $\\Upsilon(t)$. In this first paper we address (effectively) massless fermions and derive dynamical equations for $T(t)$ and $\\Upsilon(t)$ such that the zeroth order term of the basis alone captures the number density and energy density of each particle distribution. We validate our method and illustrate the reduced computational cost and the ability to represent final state chemical non-equilibrium by studying a model problem that is motivated by the physics of the neutrino freeze-out processes in the early Universe, where the essential physical characteristics include reheating from another disappearing particle component ($e^\\pm$-annihilation).
Simulation of a Microfluidic Gradient Generator using Lattice Boltzmann Methods
Simon, Tanaka
2013-01-01
Microfluidics provides a powerful and versatile technology to accurately control spatial and temporal conditions for cell culturing and can therefore be used to study cellular responses to gradients. Here we use Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) to solve both the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) for the fluid and the coupled convection-diffusion equation (CDE) for the compounds that form the diffusion-based gradient. The design of a microfluidic chamber for diffusion-based gradients must avoid flow through the cell chamber. This can be achieved by alternately opening the source and the sink channels. The fast toggling of microfluidic valves requires switching between different boundary conditions. We demonstrate that the LBM is a powerful method for handling complex geometries, high Peclet number conditions, discontinuities in the boundary conditions, and multiphysics coupling.
Approximate Message Passing with Restricted Boltzmann Machine Priors
Tramel, Eric W; Krzakala, Florent
2015-01-01
Approximate Message Passing (AMP) has been shown to be an excellent statistical approach to signal inference and compressed sensing problem. The AMP framework provides modularity in the choice of signal prior; here we propose a hierarchical form of the Gauss-Bernouilli prior which utilizes a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) trained on the signal support to push reconstruction performance beyond that of simple iid priors for signals whose support can be well represented by a trained binary RBM. We present and analyze two methods of RBM factorization and demonstrate how these affect signal reconstruction performance within our proposed algorithm. Finally, using the MNIST handwritten digit dataset, we show experimentally that using an RBM allows AMP to approach oracle-support performance.
Approximate message passing with restricted Boltzmann machine priors
Tramel, Eric W.; Drémeau, Angélique; Krzakala, Florent
2016-07-01
Approximate message passing (AMP) has been shown to be an excellent statistical approach to signal inference and compressed sensing problems. The AMP framework provides modularity in the choice of signal prior; here we propose a hierarchical form of the Gauss-Bernoulli prior which utilizes a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) trained on the signal support to push reconstruction performance beyond that of simple i.i.d. priors for signals whose support can be well represented by a trained binary RBM. We present and analyze two methods of RBM factorization and demonstrate how these affect signal reconstruction performance within our proposed algorithm. Finally, using the MNIST handwritten digit dataset, we show experimentally that using an RBM allows AMP to approach oracle-support performance.
Lattice Boltzmann model for melting with natural convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huber, Christian [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California - Berkeley, 307 McCone Hall 4767, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States)], E-mail: chuber@seismo.berkeley.edu; Parmigiani, Andrea [Computer Science Department, University of Geneva, 24, Rue du General Dufour, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: andrea.parmigiani@terre.unige.ch; Chopard, Bastien [Computer Science Department, University of Geneva, 24, Rue du General Dufour, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Bastien.Chopard@cui.unige.ch; Manga, Michael [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California - Berkeley, 177 McCone Hall 4767, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States)], E-mail: manga@seismo.berkeley.edu; Bachmann, Olivier [Department of Earth and Space Science, University of Washington, Johnson Hall 070, Seattle WA 98195-1310 (United States)], E-mail: bachmano@u.washington.edu
2008-10-15
We develop a lattice Boltzmann method to couple thermal convection and pure-substance melting. The transition from conduction-dominated heat transfer to fully-developed convection is analyzed and scaling laws and previous numerical results are reproduced by our numerical method. We also investigate the limit in which thermal inertia (high Stefan number) cannot be neglected. We use our results to extend the scaling relations obtained at low Stefan number and establish the correlation between the melting front propagation and the Stefan number for fully-developed convection. We conclude by showing that the model presented here is particularly well-suited to study convection melting in geometrically complex media with many applications in geosciences.
The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps
Budd, Timothy
2015-01-01
We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight sequences.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Multiple Bubbles Motion under Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deming Nie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The motion of multiple bubbles under gravity in two dimensions is numerically studied through the lattice Boltzmann method for the Eotvos number ranging from 1 to 12. Two kinds of initial arrangement are taken into account: vertical and horizontal arrangement. In both cases the effects of Eotvos number on the bubble coalescence and rising velocity are investigated. For the vertical arrangement, it has been found that the coalescence pattern is similar. The first coalescence always takes place between the two uppermost bubbles. And the last coalescence always takes place between the coalesced bubble and the bottommost bubble. For four bubbles in a horizontal arrangement, the outermost bubbles travel into the wake of the middle bubbles in all cases, which allows the bubbles to coalesce. The coalescence pattern is more complex for the case of eight bubbles, which strongly depends on the Eotvos number.
Lattice Boltzmann method for shape optimization of fluid distributor
Wang, Limin; Luo, Lingai
2013-01-01
This paper presents the shape optimization of a flat-type arborescent fluid distributor for the purpose of process intensification. A shape optimization algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed with the objective of decreasing the flow resistance of such distributor at the constraint of constant fluid volume. Prototypes of the initial distributor as well as the optimized one are designed. Fluid distribution and hydraulic characteristics of these distributors are investigated numerically. Results show that the pressure drop of the optimized distributor is between 15.9% and 25.1% lower than that of the initial reference while keeping a uniform flow distribution, demonstrating the process intensification in fluid distributor, and suggesting the interests of the proposed optimization algorithm in engineering optimal design.
Comparison of different Propagation Steps for the Lattice Boltzmann Method
Wittmann, Markus; Hager, Georg; Wellein, Gerhard
2011-01-01
Several possibilities exist to implement the propagation step of the lattice Boltzmann method. This paper describes common implementations which are compared according to the number of memory transfer operations they require per lattice node update. A memory bandwidth based performance model is then used to obtain an estimation of the maximal reachable performance on different machines. A subset of the discussed implementations of the propagation step were benchmarked on different Intel and AMD-based compute nodes using the framework of an existing flow solver which is specially adapted to simulate flow in porous media. Finally the estimated performance is compared to the measured one. As expected, the number of memory transfers has a significant impact on performance. Advanced approaches for the propagation step like "AA pattern" or "Esoteric Twist" require more implementation effort but sustain significantly better performance than non-naive straight forward implementations.
Two Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method for Cavity Flow Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panjit MUSIK
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of incompressible viscous flow within a two-dimensional square cavity. The objective is to develop a method originated from Lattice Gas (cellular Automata (LGA, which utilises discrete lattice as well as discrete time and can be parallelised easily. Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM, known as discrete Lattice kinetics which provide an alternative for solving the Navier–Stokes equations and are generally used for fluid simulation, is chosen for the study. A specific two-dimensional nine-velocity square Lattice model (D2Q9 Model is used in the simulation with the velocity at the top of the cavity kept fixed. LBM is an efficient method for reproducing the dynamics of cavity flow and the results which are comparable to those of previous work.
Lattice Boltzmann modeling of water-like fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sauro eSucci
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We review recent advances on the mesoscopic modeling of water-like fluids,based on the lattice Boltzmann (LB methodology.The main idea is to enrich the basic LB (hydro-dynamics with angular degrees of freedom responding to suitable directional potentials between water-like molecules.The model is shown to reproduce some microscopic features of liquid water, such as an average number of hydrogen bonds per molecules (HBs between $3$ and $4$, as well as a qualitatively correctstatistics of the hydrogen bond angle as a function of the temperature.Future developments, based on the coupling the present water-like LB model with the dynamics of suspended bodies,such as biopolymers, may open new angles of attack to the simulation of complex biofluidic problems, such as protein folding and aggregation, and the motion of large biomolecules in complex cellular environments.
Modeling Image Structure with Factorized Phase-Coupled Boltzmann Machines
Cadieu, Charles F
2010-01-01
We describe a model for capturing the statistical structure of local amplitude and local spatial phase in natural images. The model is based on a recently developed, factorized third-order Boltzmann machine that was shown to be effective at capturing higher-order structure in images by modeling dependencies among squared filter outputs (Ranzato and Hinton, 2010). Here, we extend this model to $L_p$-spherically symmetric subspaces. In order to model local amplitude and phase structure in images, we focus on the case of two dimensional subspaces, and the $L_2$-norm. When trained on natural images the model learns subspaces resembling quadrature-pair Gabor filters. We then introduce an additional set of hidden units that model the dependencies among subspace phases. These hidden units form a combinatorial mixture of phase coupling distributions, concentrated in the sum and difference of phase pairs. When adapted to natural images, these distributions capture local spatial phase structure in natural images.
Chemical-potential-based Lattice Boltzmann Method for Nonideal Fluids
Wen, Binghai; He, Bing; Zhang, Chaoying; Fang, Haiping
2016-01-01
Chemical potential is an effective way to drive phase transition or express wettability. In this letter, we present a chemical-potential-based lattice Boltzmann model to simulate multiphase flows. The nonideal force is directly evaluated by a chemical potential. The model theoretically satisfies thermodynamics and Galilean invariance. The computational efficiency is improved owing to avoiding the calculation of pressure tensor. We have derived several chemical potentials of the popular equations of state from the free-energy density function. An effective chemical-potential boundary condition is implemented to investigate the wettability of a solid surface. Remarkably, the numerical results show that the contact angle can be linearly tuned by the surface chemical potential.
Lattice Boltzmann method for mixtures at variable Schmidt number
Monteferrante, Michele; Melchionna, Simone; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo
2014-07-01
When simulating multicomponent mixtures via the Lattice Boltzmann Method, it is desirable to control the mutual diffusivity between species while maintaining the viscosity of the solution fixed. This goal is herein achieved by a modification of the multicomponent Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook evolution equations by introducing two different timescales for mass and momentum diffusion. Diffusivity is thus controlled by an effective drag force acting between species. Numerical simulations confirm the accuracy of the method for neutral binary and charged ternary mixtures in bulk conditions. The simulation of a charged mixture in a charged slit channel show that the conductivity and electro-osmotic mobility exhibit a departure from the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski prediction at high diffusivity.
Lattice-Boltzmann hydrodynamics of anisotropic active matter.
de Graaf, Joost; Menke, Henri; Mathijssen, Arnold J T M; Fabritius, Marc; Holm, Christian; Shendruk, Tyler N
2016-04-01
A plethora of active matter models exist that describe the behavior of self-propelled particles (or swimmers), both with and without hydrodynamics. However, there are few studies that consider shape-anisotropic swimmers and include hydrodynamic interactions. Here, we introduce a simple method to simulate self-propelled colloids interacting hydrodynamically in a viscous medium using the lattice-Boltzmann technique. Our model is based on raspberry-type viscous coupling and a force/counter-force formalism, which ensures that the system is force free. We consider several anisotropic shapes and characterize their hydrodynamic multipolar flow field. We demonstrate that shape-anisotropy can lead to the presence of a strong quadrupole and octupole moments, in addition to the principle dipole moment. The ability to simulate and characterize these higher-order moments will prove crucial for understanding the behavior of model swimmers in confining geometries. PMID:27059561
Sedimentation analysis of small ice crystals by Lattice Boltzmann Method
Giovacchini, Juan P
2016-01-01
Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to simulate and analyze the sedimentation of small ($16-80 \\,\\mu m$) ice particles in the atmosphere. We are specially interested in evaluating the terminal falling velocity for two ice particle shapes: columnar ice crystals and six bullet-rosettes ice policrystal. The main objective in this paper is to investigate the LBM suitability to solve ice crystal sedimentation problems, as well as to evaluate these numerical methods as a powerful numerical tool to solve these problems for arbitrary ice crystal shapes and sizes. LBM results are presented in comparison with laboratory experimental results and theoretical proposals well known in the literature. The numerical results show good agreement with experimental and theoretical results for both geometrical configurations.
Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations
Riotto, Antonio
1998-01-01
The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...
Full Eulerian lattice Boltzmann model for conjugate heat transfer.
Hu, Yang; Li, Decai; Shu, Shi; Niu, Xiaodong
2015-12-01
In this paper a full Eulerian lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for conjugate heat transfer. A unified governing equation with a source term for the temperature field is derived. By introducing the source term, we prove that the continuity of temperature and its normal flux at the interface is satisfied automatically. The curved interface is assumed to be zigzag lines. All physical quantities are recorded and updated on a Cartesian grid. As a result, any complicated treatment near the interface is avoided, which makes the proposed model suitable to simulate the conjugate heat transfer with complex interfaces efficiently. The present conjugate interface treatment is validated by several steady and unsteady numerical tests, including pure heat conduction, forced convection, and natural convection problems. Both flat and curved interfaces are also involved. The obtained results show good agreement with the analytical and/or finite volume results. PMID:26764851
Moving Charged Particles in Lattice Boltzmann-Based Electrokinetics
Kuron, Michael; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost
2016-01-01
The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions, which are needed to simulate moving colloids, into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such moving boundaries, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure LB solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute spec...
Lattice Boltzmann implementation for Fluids Flow Simulation in Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinming Zhang
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the lattice-Boltzmann method is developed to investigate the behavior of isothermal two-phase fluid flow in porous media. The method is based on the Shan–Chen multiphase model of nonideal fluids that allow coexistence of two phases of a single substance. We reproduce some different idealized situations (phase separation, surface tension, contact angle, pipe flow, and fluid droplet motion, et al in which the results are already known from theory or laboratory measurements and show the validity of the implementation for the physical two-phase flow in porous media. Application of the method to fluid intrusion in porous media is discussed and shows the effect of wettability on the fluid flow. The capability of reproducing critical flooding phenomena under strong wettability conditions is also proved.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of turbulent natural convection in tall enclosures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajjadi Hasan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper Lattice Boltzmann simulation of turbulent natural convection with large-eddy simulations (LES in tall enclosures which is filled by air with Pr=0.71 has been studied. Calculations were performed for high Rayleigh numbers (Ra=107-109 and aspect ratios change between 0.5 to 2 (0.5
Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J. [Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2016-01-04
Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials.
Modeling of urban traffic networks with lattice Boltzmann model
Meng, Jian-ping; Qian, Yue-hong; Dai, Shi-qiang
2008-02-01
It is of great importance to uncover the characteristics of traffic networks. However, there have been few researches concerning kinetics models for urban traffic networks. In this work, a lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) for urban traffic networks is proposed by incorporating the ideas of the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model into the LBM for road traffic. In the present model, situations at intersections with the red and green traffic signals are treated as a kind of boundary conditions varying with time. Thus, the urban traffic network could be described in the mesoscopic level. By performing numerical simulations under the periodic boundary conditions, the behavior of average velocity is investigated in detail. The numerical results agree quite well with those given by the Chowdhury-Schadschneider (ChSch) model (Chowdhury D. and Schadschneider A., Phys. Rev. E, 59 (1999) R1311). Furthermore, the statistical noise is reduced in this discrete kinetics model, thus, the present model has considerably high computational efficiency.
Free Surface Lattice Boltzmann with Enhanced Bubble Model
Anderl, Daniela; Rauh, Cornelia; Rüde, Ulrich; Delgado, Antonio
2016-01-01
This paper presents an enhancement to the free surface lattice Boltzmann method (FSLBM) for the simulation of bubbly flows including rupture and breakup of bubbles. The FSLBM uses a volume of fluid approach to reduce the problem of a liquid-gas two-phase flow to a single-phase free surface simulation. In bubbly flows compression effects leading to an increase or decrease of pressure in the suspended bubbles cannot be neglected. Therefore, the free surface simulation is augmented by a bubble model that supplies the missing information by tracking the topological changes of the free surface in the flow. The new model presented here is capable of handling the effects of bubble breakup and coalesce without causing a significant computational overhead. Thus, the enhanced bubble model extends the applicability of the FSLBM to a new range of practically relevant problems, like bubble formation and development in chemical reactors or foaming processes.
A Lattice Boltzmann Model for Oscillating Reaction-Diffusion
Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi; Ibañez-Orozco, Oscar; Sosa-Herrera, Antonio
2016-07-01
A computational algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed to model reaction-diffusion systems. In this paper, we focus on how nonlinear chemical oscillators like Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) and the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid (CIMA) reactions can be modeled by LBM and provide with new insight into the nature and applications of oscillating reactions. We use Gaussian pulse initial concentrations of sulfuric acid in different places of a bidimensional reactor and nondiffusive boundary walls. We clearly show how these systems evolve to a chaotic attractor and produce specific pattern images that are portrayed in the reactions trajectory to the corresponding chaotic attractor and can be used in robotic control.
Boltzmann electron PIC simulation of the E-sail effect
Janhunen, P.
2015-12-01
The solar wind electric sail (E-sail) is a planned in-space propulsion device that uses the natural solar wind momentum flux for spacecraft propulsion with the help of long, charged, centrifugally stretched tethers. The problem of accurately predicting the E-sail thrust is still somewhat open, however, due to a possible electron population trapped by the tether. Here we develop a new type of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation for predicting E-sail thrust. In the new simulation, electrons are modelled as a fluid, hence resembling hybrid simulation, but in contrast to normal hybrid simulation, the Poisson equation is used as in normal PIC to calculate the self-consistent electrostatic field. For electron-repulsive parts of the potential, the Boltzmann relation is used. For electron-attractive parts of the potential we employ a power law which contains a parameter that can be used to control the number of trapped electrons. We perform a set of runs varying the parameter and select the one with the smallest number of trapped electrons which still behaves in a physically meaningful way in the sense of producing not more than one solar wind ion deflection shock upstream of the tether. By this prescription we obtain thrust per tether length values that are in line with earlier estimates, although somewhat smaller. We conclude that the Boltzmann PIC simulation is a new tool for simulating the E-sail thrust. This tool enables us to calculate solutions rapidly and allows to easily study different scenarios for trapped electrons.
A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines
Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.
1989-01-01
In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved
A simple lattice Boltzmann scheme for low Mach number reactive flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN; Sheng; LIU; Zhaohui; ZHANG; Chao; HE; Zhu; TIAN; Zhiwei; SHI; Baochang
2006-01-01
For simulating low Mach number reactive flows, a simple and coupled lattice Boltzmann (CLB) scheme is proposed, by which the fluid density can bear significant changes. Different from the existing hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) scheme and non-coupled lattice Boltzmann (NCLB) scheme, this scheme is strictly lattice Boltzmann style and the fluid density couples directly with the temperature. Because it has got rid of the constraint of traditional thought in lattice Boltzmann scheme，on the basis of the equality among the particle speed c, the time step △t and the lattice grid spacing △x held, both c and △t can be adjusted in this scheme according to a "characteristic temperature" instead of the local temperature. The whole algorithm becomes more stable and efficient besides inheriting the intrinsically outstanding strong points of conventional lattice Boltzmann scheme. In this scheme, we also take into account different molecular weights of species, so it is more suitable for simulating actual low Mach number reactive flows than previous work. In this paper, we simulated a so-called "counter-flow" premixed propane-air flame, and the results got by our scheme are much better than that obtained by NCLB. And the more important thing is that the exploration in this work has offered a kind of brand-new train of thought for building other novel lattice Boltzmann scheme in the future.
Improved Multiple-Coarsening Methods for Sn Discretizations of the Boltzmann Equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, B
2008-12-01
In a recent series of articles, the author presented a multiple-coarsening multigrid method for solving S{sub n} discretizations of the Boltzmann transport equation. This algorithm is applied to an integral equation for the scalar flux or moments. Although this algorithm is very efficient over parameter regimes that describe realistic neutron/photon transport applications, improved methods that can reduce the computational cost are presented in this paper. These improved methods are derived through a careful examination of the frequencies, particularly the near-nullspace, of the integral equation. In the earlier articles, the near-nullspace components were shown to be smooth in angle in the sense that the angular fluxes generated by these components are smooth in angle. In this paper, we present a spatial description of these near-nullspace components. Using the angular description of the earlier papers together with the spatial description reveals the intrinsic space-angle dependence of the integral equation's frequencies. This space-angle dependence is used to determine the appropriate space-angle grids to represent and efficiently attenuate the near-nullspace error components on. It will be shown that these components can have multiple spatial scales. By using only the appropriate space-angle grids that can represent these spatial scales in the original multiple-coarsening algorithm, an improved algorithm is obtained. Moreover, particularly for anisotropic scattering, recognizing the strong angle dependence of the angular fluxes generated by the high frequencies of the integral equation, another improved multiple-coarsening scheme is derived. Restricting this scheme to the appropriate space-angle grids produces a very efficient method.
Fluid moments of the Landau collision operator
Hirvijoki, Eero; Pfefferlé, David; Comisso, Luca; Candy, Jeff; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2016-01-01
One important problem in plasma physics is the lack of an accurate and complete description of Coulomb collisions in associated fluid models. To shed light on the problem, this Letter introduces an integral identity involving the multi-dimensional Hermite tensor polynomials and presents a method for computing exact expressions for the fluid moments of the nonlinear Landau collision operator. The proposed methodology provides a systematic and rigorous means of extending the validity of fluid models that have an underlying inverse-square force particle dynamics to weakly collisional and strong flow regimes.
GRACAT, Software for grounding and collision analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis-Hansen, Peter; Simonsen, Bo Cerup
2002-01-01
From 1998 to 2001 an integrated software package for grounding and collision analysis was developed at the Technical University of Denmark within the ISESO project at the cost of six man years (0.75M US$). The software provides a toolbox for a multitude of analyses related to collision...... route where the result is the probability density functions for the cost of oil outflow in a given area per year for the two vessels. In this paper we describe the basic modelling principles and the capabilities of the software package. The software package can be downloaded for research purposes from...
A Rgularized Boltzmann Scattering Operator for Highly Forward Peaked Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anil K. Prinja
2005-04-13
Extremely short collision mean free paths and near-singular elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) make analog Monte Carlo and deterministic computational approaches impractical for charged particle transport. The widely used alternative, the condensed history method, while efficient, also suffers from several limitations arising from the use of precomputed infinite medium distributions for sampling particle directions and energies.
Qin, Feng; Zhao, Hua; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu
2016-06-01
Noncontact monitoring temperature is very important in modern medicine, science, and technologies. The fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique based on the Boltzmann distribution law exhibits excellent application potential, but the observed FIR deviates from the Boltzmann distribution law in the low temperature range. We propose a fluorescence intensity ratio relation FIR* = ηFIR by introducing a quantity η representing thermal population degree, which can be obtained from measured fluorescence decay curves of the upper emitting level. Using Eu3+ as an example, the method is confirmed that the deviated FIR is able to be corrected and return to follow the Boltzmann law.
THE NON-CUTOFF BOLTZMANN EQUATION WITH POTENTIAL FORCE IN THE WHOLE SPACE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuanjie LEI
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the non-cutoff Boltzmann equation for full-range interactions with potential force in the whole space. We establish the global existence and optimal temporal convergence rates of classical solutions to the Cauchy problem when initial data is a small perturbation of the stationary solution. The analysis is based on the time-weighted energy method building also upon the recent studies of the non-cutoff Boltzmann equation in [1-3, 15] and the non-cutoff Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann system [6].
Temperature Dependence of Stark Broadening Dominated by Strong Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The influence of electron temperature in the broadening of spectral lines dominated by strong collisions has been studied. Computer simulation allows us to study the effects of strong and weak collisions separately. Results shown here are focused on some Sr+ and Ba+ resonance lines as examples of lines broadened dominantly by strong collisions. The exact numerical integration of the perturbation process due to the collision with a single particle permits the evaluation of Weisskopf radius. This parameter is usually defined as rw ∼ 1/v ∼ 1/√T, obtained from Bora approximation that is correct for high temperatures. However, at low temperatures the full integration of the collision process permits to test the relationship rw ∼ 1/T1/6. This calculation has allowed us to study the influence of temperature on the broadening of the lines dominated by strong collisions. This study has been done in two ways : through a plasma simulation and analyzing the calculated Weisskopf radius for an individual collision. The obtained results show that at low temperatures the width of the line increases for increasing temperature as a consequence of an increase of the number of collisions not compensated by the decrease of Weisskopf radius
Djerroud, Khelifa; Gauguet, Alexandre; Daussy, Christophe; Briaudeau, Stephan; Darquié, Benoît; Lopez, Olivier; Amy-Klein, Anne; Chardonnet, Christian; Bordé, Christian J
2009-01-01
In this paper, we describe an experiment performed at the Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers and dedicated to an optical measurement of the Boltzmann constant. With the proposed innovative technique, determining comes down to an ordinary frequency measurement. The method consists in measuring as accurately as possible the Doppler absorption profile of a rovibrational line of ammonia in thermal equilibrium. This profile is related to the Maxwell-Boltzmann molecular velocity distribution along the laser beam. A fit of the absorption line shape leads to a determination of the Doppler width proportional to sqrt(kT) and thus to a determination of the Boltzmann constant. The laser source is an ultra-stable CO2 laser with a wavelength . The absorption cell is placed in a thermostat keeping the temperature at 273.15 K within 1.4 mK. We were able to measure with a relative uncertainty as small as 3.8x10-5, which represents an improvement of an order of magnitude for an integration time comparable to our previous measu...
Neutrino quantum kinetic equations: The collision term
Blaschke, Daniel N.; Cirigliano, Vincenzo
2016-08-01
We derive the collision term relevant for neutrino quantum kinetic equations in the early universe and compact astrophysical objects, displaying its full matrix structure in both flavor and spin degrees of freedom. We include in our analysis neutrino-neutrino processes, scattering and annihilation with electrons and positrons, and neutrino scattering off nucleons (the latter in the low-density limit). After presenting the general structure of the collision terms, we take two instructive limiting cases. The one-flavor limit highlights the structure in helicity space and allows for a straightforward interpretation of the off-diagonal entries in terms of the product of scattering amplitudes of the two helicity states. The isotropic limit is relevant for studies of the early universe: in this case the terms involving spin coherence vanish and the collision term can be expressed in terms of two-dimensional integrals, suitable for computational implementation.
Neutrino Quantum Kinetic Equations: The Collision Term
Blaschke, Daniel N
2016-01-01
We derive the collision term relevant for neutrino quantum kinetic equations in the early universe and compact astrophysical objects, displaying its full matrix structure in both flavor and spin degrees of freedom. We include in our analysis neutrino-neutrino processes, scattering and annihilation with electrons and positrons, and neutrino scattering off nucleons (the latter in the low-density limit). After presenting the general structure of the collision terms, we take two instructive limiting cases. The one-flavor limit highlights the structure in helicity space and allows for a straightforward interpretation of the off-diagonal entries in terms of the product of scattering amplitudes of the two helicity states. The isotropic limit is relevant for studies of the early universe: in this case the terms involving spin coherence vanish and the collision term can be expressed in terms of two-dimensional integrals, suitable for computational implementation.
Lu, Benzhuo; Cheng, Xiaolin; Huang, Jingfang; McCammon, J. Andrew
2013-11-01
A Fortran program package is introduced for rapid evaluation of the electrostatic potentials and forces in biomolecular systems modeled by the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The numerical solver utilizes a well-conditioned boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation, a node-patch discretization scheme, a Krylov subspace iterative solver package with reverse communication protocols, and an adaptive new version of the fast multipole method in which the exponential expansions are used to diagonalize the multipole-to-local translations. The program and its full description, as well as several closely related libraries and utility tools are available at http://lsec.cc.ac.cn/~lubz/afmpb.html and a mirror site at http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/. This paper is a brief summary of the program: the algorithms, the implementation and the usage. Restrictions: Only three or six significant digits options are provided in this version. Unusual features: Most of the codes are in Fortran77 style. Memory allocation functions from Fortran90 and above are used in a few subroutines. Additional comments: The current version of the codes is designed and written for single core/processor desktop machines. Check http://lsec.cc.ac.cn/lubz/afmpb.html for updates and changes. Running time: The running time varies with the number of discretized elements (N) in the system and their distributions. In most cases, it scales linearly as a function of N.
Reversible Simulations of Elastic Collisions
Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.
2013-01-01
Consider a system of N identical hard spherical particles moving in a d-dimensional box and undergoing elastic, possibly multi-particle, collisions. We develop a new algorithm that recovers the pre-collision state from the post-collision state of the system, across a series of consecutive collisions, with essentially no memory overhead. The challenge in achieving reversibility for an n-particle collision (where, n
Takayanagi, Kazuo
1984-01-01
Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...
Equivalence Between Forward and Backward Boltzmann Equations in Multi-Component Medium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张竹林
2002-01-01
The author generalized the propagator function theory introduced first by Sigmund, and gave a explicitly proof of a equivalence between forward and backward Boltzmann equations in a multi-component medium by using the generalized propagator function theory.
Gevrey Regularity for the Noncutoff Nonlinear Homogeneous Boltzmann Equation with Strong Singularity
Shi-you Lin
2014-01-01
The Cauchy problem of the nonlinear spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation without angular cutoff is studied. By using analytic techniques, one proves the Gevrey regularity of the ${C}^{\\infty }$ solutions in non-Maxwellian and strong singularity cases.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of transverse wave travelling in Maxwell viscoelastic fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Hua-Bing; Fang Hai-Ping
2004-01-01
A nine-velocity lattice Boltzmann method for Maxwell viscoelastic fluid is proposed. Travelling of transverse wave in Maxwell viscoelastic fluid is simulated. The instantaneous oscillating velocity, transverse shear speed and decay rate agree with theoretical results very well.
Corrected Stefan—Boltzmann Law and Lifespan of Schwarzschild-de-sitter Black Hole
Shi, Yan; Tang-Mei, He; Jing-Yi, Zhang
2016-06-01
In this paper, we correct the Stefan—Boltzmann law by considering the generalized uncertainty principle, and with this corrected Stefan—Boltzmann law, the lifespan of the Schwarzschild-de-sitter black holes is calculated. We find that the corrected Stefan—Boltzmann law contains two terms, the T4 term and the T6 term. Due to the modifications, at the end of the black hole radiation, it will arise a limited highest temperature and leave a residue. It is interesting to note that the mass of the residue and the Planck mass is in the same order of magnitude. The modified Stefan—Boltzmann law also gives a correction to the lifespan of the black hole, although it is very small. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11273009 and 11303006
Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with high relaxation time ratio
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tao Jiang; Qiwei Gong; Ruofan Qiu; Anlin Wang
2014-10-01
An immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model is developed for fluids with high relaxation time ratios, which is based on the model proposed by Shan and Chen (SC). In the SC model, an interaction potential between particles is incorporated into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation through the equilibrium velocity. Compared to the SC model, external forces in our model are discretized directly into the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, as proposed by Guo et al. We develop it into a new multicomponent lattice Boltzmann (LB) model which has the ability to simulate immiscible multicomponent fluids with relaxation time ratio as large as 29.0 and to reduce `spurious velocity’. In this work, the improved model is validated and studied using the central bubble case and the rising bubble case. It finds good applications in both static and dynamic cases for multicomponent simulations with different relaxation time ratios.
Cold heteromolecular dipolar collisions
Sawyer, Brian C.; Stuhl, Benjamin K.; Yeo, Mark; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Hummon, Matthew T.; Xia, Yong; Klos, Jacek; Patterson, David; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun
2010-01-01
We present the first experimental observation of cold collisions between two different species of neutral polar molecules, each prepared in a single internal quantum state. Combining for the first time the techniques of Stark deceleration, magnetic trapping, and cryogenic buffer gas cooling allows the enhancement of molecular interaction time by 10$^5$. This has enabled an absolute measurement of the total trap loss cross sections between OH and ND$_3$ at a mean collision energy of 3.6 cm$^{-...
Asteroidal collision probabilities
Bottke, William F., Jr.; Greenberg, Richard
1993-01-01
Several past calculations of collision probabilities between pairs of bodies on independent orbits have yielded inconsistent results. We review the methodologies and identify their various problems. Greenberg's (1982) collision probability formalism (now with a corrected symmetry assumption) is equivalent to Wetherill's (1967) approach, except that it includes a way to avoid singularities near apsides. That method shows that the procedure by Namiki and Binzel (1991) was accurate for those cases where singularities did not arise.
Preheating in Bubble Collision
Zhang, Jun
2010-01-01
In a landscape with metastable minima, the bubbles will inevitably nucleate. We show that when the bubbles collide, due to the dramatically oscillating of the field at the collision region, the energy deposited in the bubble walls can be efficiently released by the explosive production of the particles. In this sense, the collision of bubbles is actually high inelastic. The cosmological implications of this result are discussed.
Ba, Yan; Liu, Haihu; Li, Qing; Kang, Qinjun; Sun, Jinju
2016-08-01
In this paper we propose a color-gradient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio and high Reynolds number. The model applies a multirelaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to enhance the stability of the simulation. A source term, which is derived by the Chapman-Enskog analysis, is added into the MRT LB equation so that the Navier-Stokes equations can be exactly recovered. Also, a form of the equilibrium density distribution function is used to simplify the source term. To validate the proposed model, steady flows of a static droplet and the layered channel flow are first simulated with density ratios up to 1000. Small values of spurious velocities and interfacial tension errors are found in the static droplet test, and improved profiles of velocity are obtained by the present model in simulating channel flows. Then, two cases of unsteady flows, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and droplet splashing on a thin film, are simulated. In the former case, the density ratio of 3 and Reynolds numbers of 256 and 2048 are considered. The interface shapes and spike and bubble positions are in good agreement with the results of previous studies. In the latter case, the droplet spreading radius is found to obey the power law proposed in previous studies for the density ratio of 100 and Reynolds number up to 500.
Lattice Boltzmann model for the perfect gas flows with near-vacuum region
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GuangwuYAN; LiYUAN
2000-01-01
It is known that the standard lattice Boltzmann method has near-vacuum limit,i. e., when the density is near zero, this method is invalid. In this letter, we propose a simple lattice Boltzmann model for one-dimensional flows. It possesses the ability of simulating nearvacuum area by setting a limitation of the relaxation factor. Thus, the model overcomes the disadvantage of non-physical pressure and the density. The numerical examples show these results are satisfactory.
A Lattice Boltzmann Model and Simulation of KdV-Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGChao-Ying; TANHui-Li; LIUMu-Ren; KONGLing-Jiang
2004-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann model of KdV-Burgers equation is derived by using the single-relaxation form of the lattice Boltzmann equation. With the present model, we simulate the traveling-wave solutions, the solitary-wave solutions, and the sock-wave solutions of KdV-Burgers equation, and calculate the decay factor and the wavelength of the sock-wave solution, which has exponential decay. The numerical results agree with the analytical solutions quite well.
Note on Invariance of One-Dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RAN Zheng
2007-01-01
Invariance of the one-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model is proposed together with its rigorous theoretical background.It is demonstrated that the symmetry inherent in Navier-Stokes equations is not really recovered in the one-dimensional lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE),especially for shock calculation.Symmetry breaking may be the inherent cause for the non-physical oscillations in the vicinity of the shock for LBE calculation.
A generalized linear Boltzmann equation for non-classical particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a derivation and initial study of a new generalized linear Boltzmann equation (GLBE), which describes particle transport for random statistically homogeneous systems in which the distribution function for chord lengths between scattering centers is non-exponential. Such problems have recently been proposed for the description of photon transport in atmospheric clouds; this paper is a first attempt to develop a Boltzmann-like equation for these and other related applications.
Numerical approximation of the Euler-Poisson-Boltzmann model in the quasineutral limit
Degond, Pierre; Liu, Hailiang; Savelief, Dominique; Vignal, Marie-Hélène
2012-01-01
International audience This paper analyzes various schemes for the Euler-Poisson-Boltzmann (EPB) model of plasma physics. This model consists of the pressureless gas dynamics equations coupled with the Poisson equation and where the Boltzmann relation relates the potential to the electron density. If the quasi-neutral assumption is made, the Poisson equation is replaced by the constraint of zero local charge and the model reduces to the Isothermal Compressible Euler (ICE) model. We compare...
Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.
1999-01-01
This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.
On the quantum Landau collision operator and electron collisions in dense plasmas
Daligault, Jérôme
2016-03-01
The quantum Landau collision operator, which extends the widely used Landau/Fokker-Planck collision operator to include quantum statistical effects, is discussed. The quantum extension can serve as a reference model for including electron collisions in non-equilibrium dense plasmas, in which the quantum nature of electrons cannot be neglected. In this paper, the properties of the Landau collision operator that have been useful in traditional plasma kinetic theory and plasma transport theory are extended to the quantum case. We outline basic properties in connection with the conservation laws, the H-theorem, and the global and local equilibrium distributions. We discuss the Fokker-Planck form of the operator in terms of three potentials that extend the usual two Rosenbluth potentials. We establish practical closed-form expressions for these potentials under local thermal equilibrium conditions in terms of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals. We study the properties of linearized quantum Landau operator, and extend two popular approximations used in plasma physics to include collisions in kinetic simulations. We apply the quantum Landau operator to the classic test-particle problem to illustrate the physical effects embodied in the quantum extension. We present useful closed-form expressions for the electron-ion momentum and energy transfer rates. Throughout the paper, similarities and differences between the quantum and classical Landau collision operators are emphasized.
Effect of quark gluon plasma on charm quark produced in relativistic heavy ion collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charm quarks are produced mainly in the pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collision and serve as excellent probes entering the thermalized medium. They come out with altogether different momenta and energies and fragments into D-mesons and decay into non-photonic electrons which are observed experimentally. Here we present the effect of QGP on charm quark production using two different models: first one based on Wang-Huang-Sarcevic model of multiple scattering of partons and the second one is based on Parton Cascade Model with Boltzmann transport equation used for charm quark evolution in QGP
Mechanistic slumber vs. statistical insomnia: the early history of Boltzmann's H-theorem (1868-1877)
Badino, M.
2011-11-01
An intricate, long, and occasionally heated debate surrounds Boltzmann's H-theorem (1872) and his combinatorial interpretation of the second law (1877). After almost a century of devoted and knowledgeable scholarship, there is still no agreement as to whether Boltzmann changed his view of the second law after Loschmidt's 1876 reversibility argument or whether he had already been holding a probabilistic conception for some years at that point. In this paper, I argue that there was no abrupt statistical turn. In the first part, I discuss the development of Boltzmann's research from 1868 to the formulation of the H-theorem. This reconstruction shows that Boltzmann adopted a pluralistic strategy based on the interplay between a kinetic and a combinatorial approach. Moreover, it shows that the extensive use of asymptotic conditions allowed Boltzmann to bracket the problem of exceptions. In the second part I suggest that both Loschmidt's challenge and Boltzmann's response to it did not concern the H-theorem. The close relation between the theorem and the reversibility argument is a consequence of later investigations on the subject.
Simulation of a Natural Convection by the Hybrid Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Seungyeob; Kang, Hanok; Seo, Jaekwang; Yun, Juhyeon; Zee, Sung-Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-01
Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for a pressure, and (3) an ease with multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. In spite of its success in solving various challenging problems involving athermal fluids, the LBM has not been able to handle realistic thermal fluids with a satisfaction. The difficulty encountered in the thermal LBM seems to be the numerical instabilities. The existing thermal lattice Boltzmann models may be classified into three categories based on their approach in solving the Boltzmann equation, namely, the multispeed, the passive scalar and the thermal energy distribution approach. For more details see Ref. In the present work, the hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann scheme proposed by Lallemand and Luo is used for simulating a natural convection in a square cavity. They proposed a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann equation(HTLBE) in which the mass and momentum conservation equations are solved by using the multiple-relaxation-time(MRT) model, whereas the diffusion-advection equations for the temperature are solved separately by using finite-difference technique. The main objective of the present work is to establish the lattice Boltzmann method as a viable tool for the simulation of temperature fields at high Rayleigh numbers.
Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar
2016-08-01
This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hua-Bing; JIN Li; QIU Bing
2008-01-01
To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear flow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.
2006-09-06
The thermal Gaussian approximation (TGA) recently developed by Mandelshtam et al has been demonstrated to be a practical way for approximating the Boltzmann operator exp(-{beta}H) for multidimensional systems. In this paper the TGA is combined with semiclassical (SC) initial value representations (IVRs) for thermal time correlation functions. Specifically, it is used with the linearized SC-IVR (LSC-IVR, equivalent to the classical Wigner model), and the 'forward-backward semiclassical dynamics' (FBSD) approximation developed by Makri et al. Use of the TGA with both of these approximate SC-IVRs allows the oscillatory part of the IVR to be integrated out explicitly, providing an extremely simple result that is readily applicable to large molecular systems. Calculation of the force-force autocorrelation for a strongly anharmonic oscillator demonstrates its accuracy, and of the velocity autocorrelation function (and thus the diffusion coefficient) of liquid neon demonstrates its applicability.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation Optimization on Leading Multicore Platforms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Samuel; Carter, Jonathan; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Yelick, Katherine
2008-02-01
We present an auto-tuning approach to optimize application performance on emerging multicore architectures. The methodology extends the idea of search-based performance optimizations, popular in linear algebra and FFT libraries, to application-specific computational kernels. Our work applies this strategy to a lattice Boltzmann application (LBMHD) that historically has made poor use of scalar microprocessors due to its complex data structures and memory access patterns. We explore one of the broadest sets of multicore architectures in the HPC literature, including the Intel Clovertown, AMD Opteron X2, Sun Niagara2, STI Cell, as well as the single core Intel Itanium2. Rather than hand-tuning LBMHD for each system, we develop a code generator that allows us identify a highly optimized version for each platform, while amortizing the human programming effort. Results show that our auto-tuned LBMHD application achieves up to a 14x improvement compared with the original code. Additionally, we present detailed analysis of each optimization, which reveal surprising hardware bottlenecks and software challenges for future multicore systems and applications.
A Lattice-Boltzmann Method for Partially Saturated Computational Cells
Noble, D. R.; Torczynski, J. R.
The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method is applied to complex, moving geometries in which computational cells are partially filled with fluid. The LB algorithm is modified to include a term that depends on the percentage of the cell saturated with fluid. The method is useful for modeling suspended obstacles that do not conform to the grid. Another application is to simulations of flow through reconstructed media that are not easily segmented into solid and liquid regions. A detailed comparison is made with FIDAP simulation results for the flow about a periodic line of cylinders in a channel at a non-zero Reynolds number. Two cases are examined. In the first simulation, the cylinders are given a constant velocity along the axis of the channel, and the steady solution is acquired. The transient behavior of the system is then studied by giving the cylinders an oscillatory velocity. For both steady and oscillatory flows, the method provides excellent agreement with FIDAP simulation results, even at locations close to the surface of a cylinder. In contrast to step-like solutions produced using the "bounce-back" condition, the proposed condition gives close agreement with the smooth FIDAP predictions. Computed drag forces with the proposed condition exhibit apparent quadratic convergence with grid refinement rather than the linear convergence exhibited by other LB boundary conditions.
Treatment of moving boundaries in lattice-Boltzmann simulations.
Indireshkumar, K.; Pal, A.; Brasseur, J. G.
2000-11-01
We consider the treatment of moving boundaries with the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) technique, where the treatment of the boundary often does not precisely conserve mass and spurious fluctuations in density/pressure result from boundary motion through fixed grids. First, we applied the extrapolation method proposed by Chen et. al.(S. Y. Chen, D. Martinez, and R Mei, Phys. Fluids) 8, 2527 (1996) to incompressible flow induced by the movement of a piston in a 2D ``cylinder'' with mass flow out of or into the cylinder. In these simulations, the velocity of the boundary nodes is set equal to the (known) velocity of the boundary (piston) in the equilibrium distribution function (Method I). In a second set of simulations, the boundary node velocities are obtained by interpolating between interior nodes and the boundary, thus including the effect of boundary position more precisely (Method II). Comparison of LB predictions with simulations using FIDAP show pressure agreement to witnin 2 %. The total mass is conserved to within 0.1% with Method I and improves to within 0.02 % using method II. Spurious fluctuations in density/pressure due to boundary movement is about 0.9% with Method I, which improves significantly to about 0.3% with Method II. The application of these simple techniques to more complex geometries and wall (and fluid) motions in a stomach during gastric emptying will be presented.
One-dimensional transient radiative transfer by lattice Boltzmann method.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping
2013-10-21
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional slab containing scattering media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. By using a fully implicit backward differencing scheme to discretize the transient term in the radiative transfer equation, a new type of lattice structure is devised. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are examined firstly. Afterwards, effects of the medium properties such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo and the anisotropy factor, and the shapes of laser pulse on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Results of the present method are found to compare very well with the data from the literature. For an oblique incidence, the LBM results in this paper are compared with those by Monte Carlo method generated by ourselves. In addition, transient radiative transfer in a two-Layer inhomogeneous media subjected to a short square pulse irradiation is investigated. At last, the LBM is further extended to study the transient radiative transfer in homogeneous medium with a refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. Several trends on the time-resolved signals different from those for refractive index of 1 (i.e. refractive-index-matched boundary) are observed and analysed. PMID:24150298
Lattice Boltzmann modeling of three-phase incompressible flows.
Liang, H; Shi, B C; Chai, Z H
2016-01-01
In this paper, based on multicomponent phase-field theory we intend to develop an efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating three-phase incompressible flows. In this model, two LB equations are used to capture the interfaces among three different fluids, and another LB equation is adopted to solve the flow field, where a new distribution function for the forcing term is delicately designed. Different from previous multiphase LB models, the interfacial force is not used in the computation of fluid velocity, which is more reasonable from the perspective of the multiscale analysis. As a result, the computation of fluid velocity can be much simpler. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that the present model can recover exactly the physical formulations for the three-phase system. Numerical simulations of extensive examples including two circular interfaces, ternary spinodal decomposition, spreading of a liquid lens, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are conducted to test the model. It is found that the present model can capture accurate interfaces among three different fluids, which is attributed to its algebraical and dynamical consistency properties with the two-component model. Furthermore, the numerical results of three-phase flows agree well with the theoretical results or some available data, which demonstrates that the present LB model is a reliable and efficient method for simulating three-phase flow problems. PMID:26871191
Boltzmann electron PIC simulation of the E-sail effect
Janhunen, Pekka
2015-01-01
The solar wind electric sail (E-sail) is a planned in-space propulsion device that uses the natural solar wind momentum flux for spacecraft propulsion with the help of long, charged, centrifugally stretched tethers. The problem of accurately predicting the E-sail thrust is still somewhat open, however, due to a possible electron population trapped by the tether. Here we develop a new type of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation for predicting E-sail thrust. In the new simulation, electrons are modelled as a fluid, hence resembling hydrid simulation, but in contrast to normal hybrid simulation, the Poisson equation is used as in normal PIC to calculate the self-consistent electrostatic field. For electron-repulsive parts of the potential, the Boltzmann relation is used. For electron-attractive parts of the potential we employ a power law which contains a parameter that can be used to control the number of trapped electrons. We perform a set of runs varying the parameter and select the one with the smallest number...
Lattice Boltzmann simulations of settling behaviors of irregularly shaped particles
Zhang, Pei; Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Tang, Hongwu; Jin, Guangqiu; Scheuermann, A.; Li, Ling
2016-06-01
We investigated the settling dynamics of irregularly shaped particles in a still fluid under a wide range of conditions with Reynolds numbers Re varying between 1 and 2000, sphericity ϕ and circularity c both greater than 0.5, and Corey shape factor (CSF) less than 1. To simulate the particle settling process, a modified lattice Boltzmann model combined with a turbulence module was adopted. This model was first validated using experimental data for particles of spherical and cubic shapes. For irregularly shaped particles, two different types of settling behaviors were observed prior to particles reaching a steady state: accelerating and accelerating-decelerating, which could be distinguished by a critical CSF value of approximately 0.7. The settling dynamics were analyzed with a focus on the projected areas and angular velocities of particles. It was found that a minor change in the starting projected area, an indicator of the initial particle orientation, would not strongly affect the settling velocity for low Re. Periodic oscillations developed for all simulated particles when Re>100 . The amplitude of these oscillations increased with Re. However, the periods were not sensitive to Re. The critical Re that defined the transition between the steady and periodically oscillating behaviors depended on the inertia tensor. In particular, the maximum eigenvalue of the inertia tensor played a major role in signaling this transition in comparison to the intermediate and minimum eigenvalues.
Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Microswimmer-Tracer Interactions
de Graaf, Joost
2016-01-01
Hydrodynamic interactions in systems comprised of self-propelled particles, such as swimming microorganisms, and passive tracers have a significant impact on the tracer dynamics compared to the equivalent "dry" sample. However, such interactions are often difficult to take into account in simulations due to their computational cost. Here, we perform a systematic investigation of swimmer-tracer interaction using an efficient force/counter-force based lattice-Boltzmann (LB) algorithm [J. de Graaf~\\textit{et al.}, J. Chem. Phys.~\\textbf{144}, 134106 (2016)], in order to validate its applicability to study large-scale microswimmer suspensions. We show that the LB algorithm reproduces far-field theoretical results well, both in a system with periodic boundary conditions and in a spherical cavity with no-slip walls, for which we derive expressions here. The LB algorithm has an inherent near-field renormalization of the flow field, due to the force interpolation between the swimmers and the lattice. This strongly pe...
New Boundary Treatment Methods for Lattice Boltzmann Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Yong-guang; Suo Li-sheng
2003-01-01
In practical fluid dynamic simulations, the boundary condition should be treated carefully because it always has crucial influence on the numerical accuracy, stability and efficiency. Two types of boundary treatment methods for lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) are proposed. One is for the treatment of boundaries situated at lattice nodes, and the other is for the approximation of boundaries that are not located at the regular lattice nodes. The first type of boundary treatment method can deal with various dynamic boundaries on complex geometries by using a general set of formulas, which can maintain second-order accuracy. Based on the fact that the fluid flows simulated by LBM are not far from equilibrium, the unknown distributions at a boundary node are expressed as the analogous forms of their corresponding equilibrium distributions. Therefore, the number of unknowns can be reduced and an always-closed set of equations can be obtained for the solutions to pressure, velocity and special boundary conditions on various geometries. The second type of boundary treatment is a complete interpolation scheme to treat curved boundaries. It comes from careful analysis of the relations between distribution functions at boundary nodes and their neighboring lattice nodes. It is stable for all situations and of second-order accuracy. Basic ideas, implementation procedures and verifications with typical examples for the both treatments are presented. Numerical simulations and analyses show that they are accurate, stable, general and efficient for practical simulations.
Application of Lattice Boltzmann Method to Flows in Microgeometries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anoop K. Dass
2010-07-01
Full Text Available In the present investigation, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM is used to simulate rarefied gaseous microflows in three microgeometries. These are micro-couette, micro lid-driven cavity and micro-poiseuille flows. The Knudsen number is used to measure the degree of rarefaction in the microflows. First, micro-couette flow is computed with the effects of varying Knudsen number in the slip and threshold of the transition regime and the results compare well with existing results. After having thus established the credibility of the code and the method including boundary conditions, LBM is then used to investigate the micro lid-driven cavity flow with various aspect ratios. Simulation of microflow not only requires an appropriate method, it also requires suitable boundary conditions to provide a well-posed problem and unique solution. In this work, LBM and three slip boundary conditions, namely, diffuse scattering boundary condition, specular reflection and a combination of bounce-back and specular reflection is used to predict the micro lid-driven cavity flow fields. Then the LBM simulation is extended to micro-poiseuille flow. The results are substantiated through comparison with existing results and it is felt that the present methodology is reasonable to be employed in analyzing the flow in micro-systems.
Lattice Boltzmann models for the grain growth in polycrystalline systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonggang Zheng
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In the present work, lattice Boltzmann models are proposed for the computer simulation of normal grain growth in two-dimensional systems with/without immobile dispersed second-phase particles and involving the temperature gradient effect. These models are demonstrated theoretically to be equivalent to the phase field models based on the multiscale expansion. Simulation results of several representative examples show that the proposed models can effectively and accurately simulate the grain growth in various single- and two-phase systems. It is found that the grain growth in single-phase polycrystalline materials follows the power-law kinetics and the immobile second-phase particles can inhibit the grain growth in two-phase systems. It is further demonstrated that the grain growth can be tuned by the second-phase particles and the introduction of temperature gradient is also an effective way for the fabrication of polycrystalline materials with grained gradient microstructures. The proposed models are useful for the numerical design of the microstructure of materials and provide effective tools to guide the experiments. Moreover, these models can be easily extended to simulate two- and three-dimensional grain growth with considering the mobile second-phase particles, transient heat transfer, melt convection, etc.
Lattice Boltzmann method for one-dimensional vector radiative transfer.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping
2016-02-01
A one-dimensional vector radiative transfer (VRT) model based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) that considers polarization using four Stokes parameters is developed. The angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach, and the spatial discretization is conducted by LBM. LBM has such attractive properties as simple calculation procedure, straightforward and efficient handing of boundary conditions, and capability of stable and accurate simulation. To validate the performance of LBM for vector radiative transfer, four various test problems are examined. The first case investigates the non-scattering thermal-emitting atmosphere with no external collimated solar. For the other three cases, the external collimated solar and three different scattering types are considered. Particularly, the LBM is extended to solve VRT in the atmospheric aerosol system where the scattering function contains singularities and the hemisphere space distributions for the Stokes vector are presented and discussed. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are discussed. Numerical results show that the LBM is accurate, flexible and effective to solve one-dimensional polarized radiative transfer problems. PMID:26906779
Lattice Boltzmann modeling of three-phase incompressible flows
Liang, H.; Shi, B. C.; Chai, Z. H.
2016-01-01
In this paper, based on multicomponent phase-field theory we intend to develop an efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating three-phase incompressible flows. In this model, two LB equations are used to capture the interfaces among three different fluids, and another LB equation is adopted to solve the flow field, where a new distribution function for the forcing term is delicately designed. Different from previous multiphase LB models, the interfacial force is not used in the computation of fluid velocity, which is more reasonable from the perspective of the multiscale analysis. As a result, the computation of fluid velocity can be much simpler. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that the present model can recover exactly the physical formulations for the three-phase system. Numerical simulations of extensive examples including two circular interfaces, ternary spinodal decomposition, spreading of a liquid lens, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are conducted to test the model. It is found that the present model can capture accurate interfaces among three different fluids, which is attributed to its algebraical and dynamical consistency properties with the two-component model. Furthermore, the numerical results of three-phase flows agree well with the theoretical results or some available data, which demonstrates that the present LB model is a reliable and efficient method for simulating three-phase flow problems.
Lattice Boltzmann models for the grain growth in polycrystalline systems
Zheng, Yonggang; Chen, Cen; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Hongwu
2016-08-01
In the present work, lattice Boltzmann models are proposed for the computer simulation of normal grain growth in two-dimensional systems with/without immobile dispersed second-phase particles and involving the temperature gradient effect. These models are demonstrated theoretically to be equivalent to the phase field models based on the multiscale expansion. Simulation results of several representative examples show that the proposed models can effectively and accurately simulate the grain growth in various single- and two-phase systems. It is found that the grain growth in single-phase polycrystalline materials follows the power-law kinetics and the immobile second-phase particles can inhibit the grain growth in two-phase systems. It is further demonstrated that the grain growth can be tuned by the second-phase particles and the introduction of temperature gradient is also an effective way for the fabrication of polycrystalline materials with grained gradient microstructures. The proposed models are useful for the numerical design of the microstructure of materials and provide effective tools to guide the experiments. Moreover, these models can be easily extended to simulate two- and three-dimensional grain growth with considering the mobile second-phase particles, transient heat transfer, melt convection, etc.
Elaasar, M.; Madey, R; Zhang, W. M.; Schambach, J.; Keane, D.; Anderson, B. D.; Baldwin, A. R.; Watson, J. W.; G.D. Westfall; Krebs, G.; Wieman, H.; Gale, C.; Haglin, K.
1993-01-01
We measured the first azimuthal distributions of triple--differential cross sections of neutrons emitted in heavy-ion collisions, and compared their maximum azimuthal anisotropy ratios with Boltzmann--Uehling--Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations with a momentum-dependent interaction. The BUU calculations agree with the triple- and double-differential cross sections for positive rapidity neutrons emitted at polar angles from 7 to 27 degrees; however, the maximum azimuthal anisotropy ratio for these f...
Santini, E; Bleicher, M
2009-01-01
Yields and transverse mass distributions of the $\\phi$-mesons reconstructed in the $\\phi\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ channel in In+In collisions at $E_{\\rm lab}$=158$A$ GeV are calculated within an integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics hybrid approach based on the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model with an intermediate hydrodynamic stage. The analysis is performed for various centralities and a comparison with the corresponding NA60 data in the muon channel is presented. We find that the hybrid model, that embeds an intermediate locally equilibrated phase subsequently mapped into the transport dynamics according to thermal phase-space distributions, gives a good description of the experimental data, both in yield and slope. On the contrary, the pure transport model calculations tend to fail in catching the general properties of the $\\phi$ meson production: not only the yield, but also the slope of the $m_T$ spectra, very poorly compare with the experimental observations.
Kalugina, Yulia N.; Lokshtanov, Sergei E.; Cherepanov, Victor N.; Vigasin, Andrey A.
2016-02-01
We present new three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surfaces (DMSs) for the CH4-Ar van der Waals system. Ab initio calculations of the PES and DMS were carried out using the closed-shell single- and double-excitation coupled cluster approach with non-iterative perturbative treatment of triple excitations. The augmented correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D,T,Q) basis sets were employed, and the energies obtained were then extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The dipole moment surface was obtained using aug-cc-pVTZ basis set augmented with mid-bond functions for better description of exchange interactions. The second mixed virial coefficient was calculated and compared to available experimental data. The equilibrium constant for true dimer formation was calculated using classical partition function based on the knowledge of ab initio PES. Temperature variations of the zeroth spectral moment of the rototranslational collision-induced band as well as its true dimer constituent were traced with the use of the Boltzmann-weighted squared induced dipole properly integrated over respective phase space domains. Height profiles for N2-N2, N2-H2, CH4-N2, (CH4)2, and CH4-Ar true bound dimers in Titan's atmosphere were calculated with the use of reliable ab initio PESs.
Simulating Collisions for Hydrokinetic Turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Rakowski, Cynthia L.
2013-10-01
Evaluations of blade-strike on an axial-flow Marine Hydrokinetic turbine were conducted using a conventional methodology as well as an alternative modeling approach proposed in the present document. The proposed methodology integrates the following components into a Computa- tional Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulations, (ii) ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The sensitivity of blade-strike prob- ability to the following conditions was also evaluated: (i) to the turbulent environment, (ii) to fish size and (iii) to mean stream flow velocity. The proposed methodology provided fraction of collisions and offered the capability of analyzing the causal relationships between the flow envi- ronment and resulting strikes on rotating blades. Overall, the conventional methodology largely overestimates the probability of strike, and lacks the ability to produce potential fish and aquatic biota trajectories as they interact with the rotating turbine. By using a set of experimental corre- lations of exposure-response of living fish colliding on moving blades, the occurrence, frequency and intensity of the particle collisions was next used to calculate the survival rate of fish crossing the MHK turbine. This step indicated survival rates always greater than 98%. Although the proposed CFD framework is computationally more expensive, it provides the advantage of evaluating multiple mechanisms of stress and injury of hydrokinetic turbine devices on fish.
Theoretical atomic collision physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lane, N.F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA) Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Quantum Inst.)
1990-01-01
The theoretical atomic physics at Rice University focuses on obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that control inelastic collisions between excited atoms and atoms, molecules and ions. Particular attention is given to systems and processes that are of potential importance to advanced energy technologies. In the current year, significant progress has been made in quantitative studies of: quenching of low-Rydberg Na atoms in thermal energy collisions with He, Ne and Ar atoms; selective excitation resulting from charge transfer in collisions of highly stripped ions of He, Li, C, and with Li, Na and He atoms and H{sub 2} molecules at keV energies; differential elastic and single, and double electron transfer in He{sup ++} collisions with He at keV energies; inelastic electron-transfer in ultra-low-energy-energy (T=8 to 80K) collisions between {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He and {sup 4}He{sup +} and {sup 3}He; a formalism for ionization by electron impact of ions in dense, high temperature plasmas.
High energy density in multisoliton collisions
Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.
2015-09-01
Solitons are very effective in transporting energy over great distances and collisions between them can produce high energy density spots of relevance to phase transformations, energy localization and defect formation among others. It is then important to study how energy density accumulation scales in multisoliton collisions. In this study, we demonstrate that the maximal energy density that can be achieved in collision of N slowly moving kinks and antikinks in the integrable sine-Gordon field, remarkably, is proportional to N2, while the total energy of the system is proportional to N . This maximal energy density can be achieved only if the difference between the number of colliding kinks and antikinks is minimal, i.e., is equal to 0 for even N and 1 for odd N and if the pattern involves an alternating array of kinks and antikinks. Interestingly, for odd (even) N the maximal energy density appears in the form of potential (kinetic) energy, while kinetic (potential) energy is equal to zero. The results of the present study rely on the analysis of the exact multisoliton solutions for N =1 ,2 , and 3 and on the numerical simulation results for N =4 ,5 ,6 , and 7. The effect of weak Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian perturbations on the maximal energy density in multikink collisions is also discussed as well as that of the collision relative phase. Based on these results one can speculate that the soliton collisions in the sine-Gordon field can, in principle, controllably produce very high energy density. This can have important consequences for many physical phenomena described by the Klein-Gordon equations.
Multi-particle collision dynamics modeling of viscoelastic fluids
Tao, Yu-Guo; Goetze, Ingo O.; Gompper, Gerhard
2008-01-01
In order to investigate the rheological properties of viscoelastic fluids by mesoscopic hydrodynamics methods, we develop a multi-particle collision dynamics (MPC) model for a fluid of harmonic dumbbells. The algorithm consists of alternating streaming and collision steps. The advantage of the harmonic interactions is that the integration of the equations of motion in the streaming step can be performed analytically. Therefore, the algorithm is computationally as efficient as the original MPC...
Hu, Kainan; Zhang, Hongwu; Geng, Shaojuan
2016-01-01
A new lattice Boltzmann scheme associated with flexible specific heat ratio is proposed. The new free degree is introduced via the internal energy associated with the internal structure. The evolution equation of the distribution function is reduced to two evolution equations. One is connected to the density and velocity, the other is of the energy. A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model and a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model are derived via the Hermite expansion. The two lattice ...
Microscope collision protection apparatus
DeNure, Charles R.
2001-10-23
A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.
Fakhari, Abbas; Geier, Martin; Lee, Taehun
2016-06-01
A mass-conserving lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for multiphase flows is presented in this paper. The proposed LBM improves a previous model (Lee and Liu, 2010 [21]) in terms of mass conservation, speed-up, and efficiency, and also extends its capabilities for implementation on non-uniform grids. The presented model consists of a phase-field lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for tracking the interface between different fluids and a pressure-evolution LBM for recovering the hydrodynamic properties. In addition to the mass conservation property and the simplicity of the algorithm, the advantages of the current phase-field LBE are that it is an order of magnitude faster than the previous interface tracking LBE proposed by Lee and Liu (2010) [21] and it requires less memory resources for data storage. Meanwhile, the pressure-evolution LBM is equipped with a multi-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to facilitate attainability of small relaxation rates thereby allowing simulation of multiphase flows at higher Reynolds numbers. Additionally, we reformulate the presented MRT-LBM on nonuniform grids within an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework. Various benchmark studies such as a rising bubble and a falling drop under buoyancy, droplet splashing on a wet surface, and droplet coalescence onto a fluid interface are conducted to examine the accuracy and versatility of the proposed AMR-LBM. The proposed model is further validated by comparing the results with other LB models on uniform grids. A factor of about 20 in savings of computational resources is achieved by using the proposed AMR-LBM. As a more demanding application, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) of a shear-layer flow is investigated for both density-matched and density-stratified binary fluids. The KHI results of the density-matched fluids are shown to be in good agreement with the benchmark AMR results based on the sharp-interface approach. When a density contrast between the two fluids exists, a
Hu, Kainan; Geng, Shaojuan
2016-01-01
A new lattice Boltzmann scheme associated with flexible specific heat ratio is proposed. The new free degree is introduced via the internal energy associated with the internal structure. The evolution equation of the distribution function is reduced to two evolution equations. One is connected to the density and velocity, the other is of the energy. A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model and a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model are derived via the Hermite expansion. The two lattice Boltzmann models are applied to simulating the shock tube of one dimension. Good agreement between the numerical results and the analytical solutions are obtained.
Peristaltic particle transport using the Lattice Boltzmann method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Connington, Kevin William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Viswanathan, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel-fattah, Amr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Shiyi [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.
2009-01-01
Peristaltic transport refers to a class of internal fluid flows where the periodic deformation of flexible containing walls elicits a non-negligible fluid motion. It is a mechanism used to transport fluid and immersed solid particles in a tube or channel when it is ineffective or impossible to impose a favorable pressure gradient or desirous to avoid contact between the transported mixture and mechanical moving parts. Peristaltic transport occurs in many physiological situations and has myriad industrial applications. We focus our study on the peristaltic transport of a macroscopic particle in a two-dimensional channel using the lattice Boltzmann method. We systematically investigate the effect of variation of the relevant dimensionless parameters of the system on the particle transport. We find, among other results, a case where an increase in Reynolds number can actually lead to a slight increase in particle transport, and a case where, as the wall deformation increases, the motion of the particle becomes non-negative only. We examine the particle behavior when the system exhibits the peculiar phenomenon of fluid trapping. Under these circumstances, the particle may itself become trapped where it is subsequently transported at the wave speed, which is the maximum possible transport in the absence of a favorable pressure gradient. Finally, we analyze how the particle presence affects stress, pressure, and dissipation in the fluid in hopes of determining preferred working conditions for peristaltic transport of shear-sensitive particles. We find that the levels of shear stress are most hazardous near the throat of the channel. We advise that shear-sensitive particles should be transported under conditions where trapping occurs as the particle is typically situated in a region of innocuous shear stress levels.
Polar-coordinate lattice Boltzmann modeling of compressible flows
Lin, Chuandong; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Succi, Sauro
2014-01-01
We present a polar coordinate lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for compressible flows. A method to recover the continuum distribution function from the discrete distribution function is indicated. Within the model, a hybrid scheme being similar to, but different from, the operator splitting is proposed. The temporal evolution is calculated analytically, and the convection term is solved via a modified Warming-Beam (MWB) scheme. Within the MWB scheme a suitable switch function is introduced. The current model works not only for subsonic flows but also for supersonic flows. It is validated and verified via the following well-known benchmark tests: (i) the rotational flow, (ii) the stable shock tube problem, (iii) the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, and (iv) the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. As an original application, we studied the nonequilibrium characteristics of the system around three kinds of interfaces, the shock wave, the rarefaction wave, and the material interface, for two specific cases. In one of the two cases, the material interface is initially perturbed, and consequently the RM instability occurs. It is found that the macroscopic effects due to deviating from thermodynamic equilibrium around the material interface differ significantly from those around the mechanical interfaces. The initial perturbation at the material interface enhances the coupling of molecular motions in different degrees of freedom. The amplitude of deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium around the shock wave is much higher than those around the rarefaction wave and material interface. By comparing each component of the high-order moments and its value in equilibrium, we can draw qualitatively the main behavior of the actual distribution function. These results deepen our understanding of the mechanical and material interfaces from a more fundamental level, which is indicative for constructing macroscopic models and other kinds of kinetic models.
Expected energy-based restricted Boltzmann machine for classification.
Elfwing, S; Uchibe, E; Doya, K
2015-04-01
In classification tasks, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) have predominantly been used in the first stage, either as feature extractors or to provide initialization of neural networks. In this study, we propose a discriminative learning approach to provide a self-contained RBM method for classification, inspired by free-energy based function approximation (FE-RBM), originally proposed for reinforcement learning. For classification, the FE-RBM method computes the output for an input vector and a class vector by the negative free energy of an RBM. Learning is achieved by stochastic gradient-descent using a mean-squared error training objective. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that the performance and the robustness of FE-RBM function approximation can be improved by scaling the free energy by a constant that is related to the size of network. In this study, we propose that the learning performance of RBM function approximation can be further improved by computing the output by the negative expected energy (EE-RBM), instead of the negative free energy. To create a deep learning architecture, we stack several RBMs on top of each other. We also connect the class nodes to all hidden layers to try to improve the performance even further. We validate the classification performance of EE-RBM using the MNIST data set and the NORB data set, achieving competitive performance compared with other classifiers such as standard neural networks, deep belief networks, classification RBMs, and support vector machines. The purpose of using the NORB data set is to demonstrate that EE-RBM with binary input nodes can achieve high performance in the continuous input domain. PMID:25318375
Implementing the lattice Boltzmann model on commodity graphics hardware
Kaufman, Arie; Fan, Zhe; Petkov, Kaloian
2009-06-01
Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) can perform general-purpose computations in addition to the native specialized graphics operations. Due to the highly parallel nature of graphics processing, the GPU has evolved into a many-core coprocessor that supports high data parallelism. Its performance has been growing at a rate of squared Moore's law, and its peak floating point performance exceeds that of the CPU by an order of magnitude. Therefore, it is a viable platform for time-sensitive and computationally intensive applications. The lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) computations are carried out via linear operations at discrete lattice sites, which can be implemented efficiently using a GPU-based architecture. Our simulations produce results comparable to the CPU version while improving performance by an order of magnitude. We have demonstrated that the GPU is well suited for interactive simulations in many applications, including simulating fire, smoke, lightweight objects in wind, jellyfish swimming in water, and heat shimmering and mirage (using the hybrid thermal LBM). We further advocate the use of a GPU cluster for large scale LBM simulations and for high performance computing. The Stony Brook Visual Computing Cluster has been the platform for several applications, including simulations of real-time plume dispersion in complex urban environments and thermal fluid dynamics in a pressurized water reactor. Major GPU vendors have been targeting the high performance computing market with GPU hardware implementations. Software toolkits such as NVIDIA CUDA provide a convenient development platform that abstracts the GPU and allows access to its underlying stream computing architecture. However, software programming for a GPU cluster remains a challenging task. We have therefore developed the Zippy framework to simplify GPU cluster programming. Zippy is based on global arrays combined with the stream programming model and it hides the low-level details of the
Implementing the lattice Boltzmann model on commodity graphics hardware
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) can perform general-purpose computations in addition to the native specialized graphics operations. Due to the highly parallel nature of graphics processing, the GPU has evolved into a many-core coprocessor that supports high data parallelism. Its performance has been growing at a rate of squared Moore's law, and its peak floating point performance exceeds that of the CPU by an order of magnitude. Therefore, it is a viable platform for time-sensitive and computationally intensive applications. The lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) computations are carried out via linear operations at discrete lattice sites, which can be implemented efficiently using a GPU-based architecture. Our simulations produce results comparable to the CPU version while improving performance by an order of magnitude. We have demonstrated that the GPU is well suited for interactive simulations in many applications, including simulating fire, smoke, lightweight objects in wind, jellyfish swimming in water, and heat shimmering and mirage (using the hybrid thermal LBM). We further advocate the use of a GPU cluster for large scale LBM simulations and for high performance computing. The Stony Brook Visual Computing Cluster has been the platform for several applications, including simulations of real-time plume dispersion in complex urban environments and thermal fluid dynamics in a pressurized water reactor. Major GPU vendors have been targeting the high performance computing market with GPU hardware implementations. Software toolkits such as NVIDIA CUDA provide a convenient development platform that abstracts the GPU and allows access to its underlying stream computing architecture. However, software programming for a GPU cluster remains a challenging task. We have therefore developed the Zippy framework to simplify GPU cluster programming. Zippy is based on global arrays combined with the stream programming model and it hides the low-level details of the
Gyrokinetic linearized Landau collision operator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens
2013-01-01
The full gyrokinetic electrostatic linearized Landau collision operator is calculated including the equilibrium operator, which represents the effect of collisions between gyrokinetic Maxwellian particles. First, the equilibrium operator describes energy exchange between different plasma species...
Medium Modification of \\gamma-jets in High-energy Heavy-ion Collisions
Wang, Xin-Nian
2013-01-01
Medium modification of \\gamma-tagged jets in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is investigated within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport model for jet propagation that includes both elastic parton scattering and induced gluon emission. Inclusion of recoiled medium partons in the reconstruction of partonic jets is found to significantly reduce the net jet energy loss. Experimental data on \\gamma-jet asymmetry and survival rate in Pb + Pb collisions at \\sqrt{s}=2.76 TeV can be reproduced. Medium modifications of reconstructed jet fragmentation function, transverse profile and energy flow outside the jet-cone are found to be sizable especially for \\gamma-tagged jets with small values of x=p_T^{jet}/p_T^\\gamma.
A Simple Method for Modeling Collision Processes in Plasmas with a Kappa Energy Distribution
Hahn, Michael
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that a nonthermal distribution of particles described by a kappa distribution can be accurately approximated by a weighted sum of Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions. We apply this method to modeling collision processes in kappa-distribution plasmas, with a particular focus on atomic processes important for solar physics. The relevant collision process rate coefficients are generated by summing appropriately weighted Maxwellian rate coefficients. This method reproduces the rate coefficients for a kappa distribution to an estimated accuracy of better than 5%. This is equal to or better than the accuracy of rate coefficients generated using "reverse engineering" methods, which attempt to extract the needed cross sections from the published Maxwellian rate coefficient data and then reconvolve the extracted cross sections with the desired kappa distribution. Our approach of summing Maxwellian rate coefficients is easy to implement using existing spectral analysis software. Moreover, the weights in the ...
Coupling of replica exchange simulations to a non-Boltzmann structure reservoir.
Roitberg, Adrian E; Okur, Asim; Simmerling, Carlos
2007-03-15
Computing converged ensemble properties remains challenging for large biomolecules. Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) can significantly increase the efficiency of conformational sampling by using high temperatures to escape kinetic traps. Several groups, including ours, introduced the idea of coupling replica exchange to a pre-converged, Boltzmann-populated reservoir, usually at a temperature higher than that of the highest temperature replica. This procedure reduces computational cost because the long simulation times needed for extensive sampling are only carried out for a single temperature. However, a weakness of the approach is that the Boltzmann-weighted reservoir can still be difficult to generate. We now present the idea of employing a non-Boltzmann reservoir, whose structures can be generated through more efficient conformational sampling methods. We demonstrate that the approach is rigorous and derive a correct statistical mechanical exchange criterion between the reservoir and the replicas that drives Boltzmann-weighted probabilities for the replicas. We test this approach on the trpzip2 peptide and demonstrate that the resulting thermal stability profile is essentially indistinguishable from that obtained using very long (>100 ns) standard REMD simulations. The convergence of this reservoir-aided REMD is significantly faster than for regular REMD. Furthermore, we demonstrate that modification of the exchange criterion is essential; REMD simulations using a standard exchange function with the non-Boltzmann reservoir produced incorrect results.
1995-01-01
This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.
1995-01-01
This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma.
Geocoding police collision report data from California: a comprehensive approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Shin
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision geocoding is the process of assigning geographic descriptors, usually latitude and longitude coordinates, to a traffic collision record. On California police reports, relative collision location is recorded using a highway postmile marker or a street intersection. The objective of this study was to create a geocoded database of all police-reported, fatal and severe injury collisions in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS for years 1997-2006 for use by public agencies. Results Geocoding was completed with a multi-step process. First, pre-processing was performed using a scripting language to clean and standardize street name information. A state highway network with postmile values was then created using a custom tool written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA in ArcGIS software. Custom VBA functionality was also used to incorporate the offset direction and distance. Intersection and address geocoding was performed using ArcGIS, StreetMap Pro 2003 digital street network, and Google Earth Pro. A total of 142,007 fatal and severe injury collisions were identified in SWITRS. The geocoding match rate was 99.8% for postmile-coded collisions and 86% for intersection-coded collisions. The overall match rate was 91%. Conclusions The availability of geocoded collision data will be beneficial to clinicians, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the fields of traffic safety and public health. Potential uses of the data include studies of collision clustering on the highway system, examinations of the associations between collision occurrence and a variety of variables on environmental and social characteristics, including housing and personal demographics, alcohol outlets, schools, and parks. The ability to build maps may be useful in research planning and conduct and in the delivery of information to both technical and non-technical audiences.
LHC Report: LHC smashes collision records
Sarah Charley
2016-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider is now producing more than a billion proton-proton collisions per second. The LHC is colliding protons at a faster rate than ever before: approximately 1 billion times per second. Since April 2016, the LHC has delivered more than 30 inverse femtobarns (fb-1) to both ATLAS and CMS. This means that around 2.4 quadrillion (2.4 million billion) collisions have been seen by each of the experiments this year. The inverse femtobarn is the unit of measurement for integrated luminosity, indicating the cumulative number of potential collisions. This compares with the total of 33.2 fb-1 produced between 2010 and 2015. The unprecedented performance this year is the result of both the incremental increases in collision rate and the sheer amount of time the LHC has been up and running. This comes after a slow start-up in 2015, when scientists and engineers still needed to learn how to operate the machine at a much higher energy. “With more energy, the machine is much more sen...
A very special moment. On 23rd November, 19:40 we recorded our first collisions with 450GeV beams well centred in CMS. If you have any comments / suggestions please contact Karl Aaron GILL (Editor)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, S.J.
1988-07-01
Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Bull; Dörge, Henrik C.; Thomsen, Franz Ib
1999-01-01
An equation to describe the velocity of the soccer ball after the collision with a foot was derived. On the basis of experimental results it was possible to exclude certain factors and only describe the angular momentum of the system, consisting of the shank, the foot and the ball, leading...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.
2015-01-01
When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model of t...
Lattice Boltzmann flow simulations with applications of reduced order modeling techniques
Brown, Donald
2014-01-01
With the recent interest in shale gas, an understanding of the flow mechanisms at the pore scale and beyond is necessary, which has attracted a lot of interest from both industry and academia. One of the suggested algorithms to help understand flow in such reservoirs is the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The primary advantage of LBM is its ability to approximate complicated geometries with simple algorithmic modificatoins. In this work, we use LBM to simulate the flow in a porous medium. More specifically, we use LBM to simulate a Brinkman type flow. The Brinkman law allows us to integrate fast free-flow and slow-flow porous regions. However, due to the many scales involved and complex heterogeneities of the rock microstructure, the simulation times can be long, even with the speed advantage of using an explicit time stepping method. The problem is two-fold, the computational grid must be able to resolve all scales and the calculation requires a steady state solution implying a large number of timesteps. To help reduce the computational complexity and total simulation times, we use model reduction techniques to reduce the dimension of the system. In this approach, we are able to describe the dynamics of the flow by using a lower dimensional subspace. In this work, we utilize the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique, to compute the dominant modes of the flow and project the solution onto them (a lower dimensional subspace) to arrive at an approximation of the full system at a lowered computational cost. We present a few proof-of-concept examples of the flow field and the corresponding reduced model flow field.
Open heavy flavor and other hard probes in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis hard probes are studied in the partonic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to MultiParton Scatterings). Employing Monte Carlo techniques, this model describes the 3+1 dimensional evolution of the quark gluon plasma phase in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions by propagating all particles in space and time and carrying out their collisions according to the Boltzmann equation. Since hard probes are produced in hard processes with a large momentum transfer, the value of the running coupling is small and their interactions should be describable within perturbative QCD (pQCD). This work focuses on open heavy flavor, but also addresses the suppression of light parton jets, in particular to highlight differences due to the mass. For light partons, radiative processes are the dominant contribution to their energy loss. For heavy quarks, we show that also binary interactions with a running coupling and an improved Debye screening matched to hard-thermal-loop calculations play an important role. Furthermore, the impact of the mass in radiative interactions, prominently named the dead cone effect, and the interplay with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect are studied in great detail. Since the transport model BAMPS has access to all medium properties and the space time information of heavy quarks, it is the ideal tool to study the dissociation and regeneration of J/ψ mesons, which is also investigated in this thesis.
Development of a coarse-grained water forcefield via multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion
Moore, Timothy C; McCabe, Clare
2015-01-01
A coarse-grained water model is developed using multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion. Following previous work, the k-means algorithm is used to dynamically map multiple water molecules to a single coarse-grained bead, allowing the use of structure-based coarse-graining methods. The model is derived to match the bulk and interfacial properties of liquid water and improves upon previous work that used single state iterative Boltzmann inversion. The model accurately reproduces the density and structural correlations of water at 305 K and 1.0 atm, stability of a liquid droplet at 305 K, and shows little tendency to crystallize at physiological conditions. This work also illustrates several advantages of using multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion for deriving generally applicable coarse-grained forcefields.
Comment on ‘A low-uncertainty measurement of the Boltzmann constant’
Macnaughton, Donald B.
2016-02-01
The International Committee for Weights and Measures has projected a major revision of the International System of Units in which all the base units will be defined by fixing the values of certain fundamental constants of nature. To assist, de Podesta et al recently experimentally obtained a precise new estimate of the Boltzmann constant. This estimate is proposed as a basis for the redefinition of the unit of temperature, the kelvin. The present paper reports a reanalysis of de Podesta et al’s data that reveals systematic non-random patterns in the residuals of the key fitted model equation. These patterns violate the assumptions underlying the analysis and thus they raise questions about the validity of de Podesta et al’s estimate of the Boltzmann constant. An approach is discussed to address these issues, which should lead to an accurate estimate of the Boltzmann constant with a lower uncertainty.
The standard map: From Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics to Tsallis statistics.
Tirnakli, Ugur; Borges, Ernesto P
2016-03-23
As well known, Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is the correct way of thermostatistically approaching ergodic systems. On the other hand, nontrivial ergodicity breakdown and strong correlations typically drag the system into out-of-equilibrium states where Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics fails. For a wide class of such systems, it has been shown in recent years that the correct approach is to use Tsallis statistics instead. Here we show how the dynamics of the paradigmatic conservative (area-preserving) stan-dard map exhibits, in an exceptionally clear manner, the crossing from one statistics to the other. Our results unambiguously illustrate the domains of validity of both Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis statistical distributions. Since various important physical systems from particle confinement in magnetic traps to autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, through particle dynamics in accelerators and comet dynamics, can be reduced to the standard map, our results are expected to enlighten and enable an improved interpretation of diverse experimental and observational results.
Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck calculations using standard discrete-ordinates codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) equation can be used to describe both neutral and charged-particle transport. Over the past several years, the author and several collaborators have developed methods for representing Fokker-Planck operators with standard multigroup-Legendre cross-section data. When these data are input to a standard S/sub n/ code such as ONETRAN, the code actually solves the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation rather than the Boltzmann equation. This is achieved wihout any modification to the S/sub n/ codes. Because BFP calculations can be more demanding from a numerical viewpoint than standard neutronics calculations, we have found it useful to implement new quadrature methods ad convergence acceleration methods in the standard discrete-ordinates code, ONETRAN. We discuss our BFP cross-section representation techniques, our improved quadrature and acceleration techniques, and present results from BFP coupled electron-photon transport calculations performed with ONETRAN. 19 refs., 7 figs
Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Method for Moving and Deforming Geometries in Three Dimensions
Dorschner, B; Karlin, I V
2016-01-01
Entropic lattice Boltzmann methods have been developed to alleviate intrinsic stability issues of lattice Boltzmann models for under-resolved simulations. Its reliability in combination with moving objects was established for various laminar benchmark flows in two dimensions in our previous work Dorschner et al. [11] as well as for three dimensional one-way coupled simulations of engine-type geometries in Dorschner et al. [12] for flat moving walls. The present contribution aims to fully exploit the advantages of entropic lattice Boltzmann models in terms of stability and accuracy and extends the methodology to three-dimensional cases including two-way coupling between fluid and structure, turbulence and deformable meshes. To cover this wide range of applications, the classical benchmark of a sedimenting sphere is chosen first to validate the general two-way coupling algorithm. Increasing the complexity, we subsequently consider the simulation of a plunging SD7003 airfoil at a Reynolds number of Re = 40000 an...
Measuring the usefulness of hidden units in Boltzmann machines with mutual information.
Berglund, Mathias; Raiko, Tapani; Cho, Kyunghyun
2015-04-01
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs) are important models in deep learning, but it is often difficult to measure their performance in general, or measure the importance of individual hidden units in specific. We propose to use mutual information to measure the usefulness of individual hidden units in Boltzmann machines. The measure is fast to compute, and serves as an upper bound for the information the neuron can pass on, enabling detection of a particular kind of poor training results. We confirm experimentally that the proposed measure indicates how much the performance of the model drops when some of the units of an RBM are pruned away. We demonstrate the usefulness of the measure for early detection of poor training in DBMs.
Bazow, D; Heinz, U; Martinez, M; Noronha, J
2016-01-01
The dissipative dynamics of an expanding massless gas with constant cross section in a spatially flat Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe is studied. The mathematical problem of solving the full nonlinear relativistic Boltzmann equation is recast into an infinite set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the moments of the one-particle distribution function. Momentum-space resolution is determined by the number of non-hydrodynamic modes included in the moment hierarchy, i.e., by the truncation order. We show that in the FLRW spacetime the non-hydrodynamic modes decouple completely from the hydrodynamic degrees of freedom. This results in the system flowing as an ideal fluid while at the same time producing entropy. The solutions to the nonlinear Boltzmann equation exhibit transient tails of the distribution function with nontrivial momentum dependence. The evolution of this tail is not correctly captured by the relaxation time approximation nor by the linearized Boltzmann equation...
Simulation of Magnetorheological Fluids Based on Lattice Boltzmann Method with Double Meshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinhua Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In order to study the rheological characteristics of magnetorheological fluids, a novel approach based on the two-component Lattice Boltzmann method with double meshes was proposed, and the micro-scale structures of magnetorheological fluids in different strength magnetic fields were simulated. The framework composed of three steps for the simulation of magnetorheological fluids was addressed, and the double meshes method was elaborated. Moreover, the various internal and external forces acting on the magnetic particles were analyzed and calculated. The two-component Lattice Boltzmann model was set up, and the flowchart for the simulation of magnetorheological fluids based on the two-component Lattice Boltzmann method with double meshes was designed. Finally, a physics experiment was carried out, and the simulation examples were provided. The comparison results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible, efficient, and outperforming others.
The nature of mutations induced by replication–transcription collisions.
Sankar, T Sabari; Wastuwidyaningtyas, Brigitta D; Dong, Yuexin; Lewis, Sarah A; Wang, Jue D
2016-07-01
The DNA replication and transcription machineries share a common DNA template and thus can collide with each other co-directionally or head-on. Replication–transcription collisions can cause replication fork arrest, premature transcription termination, DNA breaks, and recombination intermediates threatening genome integrity. Collisions may also trigger mutations, which are major contributors to genetic disease and evolution. However, the nature and mechanisms of collision-induced mutagenesis remain poorly understood. Here we reveal the genetic consequences of replication–transcription collisions in actively dividing bacteria to be two classes of mutations: duplications/deletions and base substitutions in promoters. Both signatures are highly deleterious but are distinct from the previously well-characterized base substitutions in the coding sequence. Duplications/deletions are probably caused by replication stalling events that are triggered by collisions; their distribution patterns are consistent with where the fork first encounters a transcription complex upon entering a transcription unit. Promoter substitutions result mostly from head-on collisions and frequently occur at a nucleotide that is conserved in promoters recognized by the major σ factor in bacteria. This substitution is generated via adenine deamination on the template strand in the promoter open complex, as a consequence of head-on replication perturbing transcription initiation. We conclude that replication–transcription collisions induce distinct mutation signatures by antagonizing replication and transcription, not only in coding sequences but also in gene regulatory elements.
A Characteristic Non-Reflecting Boundary Treatment in Lattice Boltzmann Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KIM Dehee; KIM Hyung Min; JHON Myung S.; VINAY Ⅲ Stephen J.; BUCHANAN John
2008-01-01
In lattice Boltzmann methods, disturbances develop at the initial stages of the simulation, the decay characteristics depend mainly on boundary treatment methods; open boundary conditions such as equilibrium and bounce-back schemes potentially generate uncontrollable disturbances. Excessive disturbances originate from non-physical reflecting waves at boundaries. Characteristic boundary conditions utilizing the signs of waves at boundaries which suppress these reflecting waves, as well as their implementation in the lattice Boltzmann method, are introduced herein. The performance of our novel boundary treatment method to effectively suppress excessive disturbances is verified by three different numerical experiments.
Lattice Boltzmann Model for The Volume-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
Zhang, Jingfeng; Ouyang, Jie
2014-01-01
A numerical method, based on discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, is presented for solving the volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. With a modified equilibrium distribution and an additional forcing term, the volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered from the lattice Boltzmann equation in the limit of small Mach number by the Chapman-Enskog analysis and Taylor expansion. Due to its advantages such as explicit solver and inherent parallelism, the method appears to be more competitive with traditional numerical techniques. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model can accurately reproduce both the linear and nonlinear drag effects of porosity in the fluid flow through porous media.
Lattice Boltzmann equation calculation of internal, pressure-driven turbulent flow
Hammond, L A; Care, C M; Stevens, A
2002-01-01
We describe a mixing-length extension of the lattice Boltzmann approach to the simulation of an incompressible liquid in turbulent flow. The method uses a simple, adaptable, closure algorithm to bound the lattice Boltzmann fluid incorporating a law-of-the-wall. The test application, of an internal, pressure-driven and smooth duct flow, recovers correct velocity profiles for Reynolds number to 1.25 x 10 sup 5. In addition, the Reynolds number dependence of the friction factor in the smooth-wall branch of the Moody chart is correctly recovered. The method promises a straightforward extension to other curves of the Moody chart and to cylindrical pipe flow.
Simulation of Blood Flow at Vessel Bifurcation by Lattice Boltzmann Method
Kang, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Da-He; Zhou, Jing; Jin, Yong-Juan
2005-11-01
The application of the lattice Boltzmann method to the large vessel bifurcation blood flow is investigated in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The velocity, shear stress and pressure distributions at the bifurcation are presented in detail. The flow separation zones revealed with increase of Reynolds number are located in the areas of the daughter branches distal to the outer corners of the bifurcation where some deposition of particular blood components might occur to form arteriosclerosis. The results also demonstrate that the lattice Boltzmann method is adaptive to simulating the flow in larger vessels under a high Reynolds number.
A Lattice Boltzmann Model for Fluid-Solid Coupling Heat Transfer in Fractal Porous Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Jun; HUAI Xiu-Lan
2009-01-01
We report a lattice Boltzmann model that can be used to simulate fluid-solid coupling heat transfer in fractal porous media.A numerical simulation is conducted to investigate the temperature evolution under different ratios of thermal conductivity of solid matrix of porous media to that of fluid.The accordance of our simulation results with the solutions from the conventional CFD method indicates the feasibility and the reliability for the developed lattice Boltzmann model to reveal the phenomena and rules of fluid-solid coupling heat transfer in complex porous structures.
An H Theorem for Boltzmann's Equation for the Yard-Sale Model of Asset Exchange
Boghosian, Bruce M.; Johnson, Merek; Marcq, Jeremy A.
2015-12-01
In recent work (Boghosian, Phys Rev E 89:042804-042825, 2014; Boghosian, Int J Mod Phys 25:1441008-1441015, 2014), Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations were derived for the "Yard-Sale Model" of asset exchange. For the version of the model without redistribution, it was conjectured, based on numerical evidence, that the time-asymptotic state of the model was oligarchy—complete concentration of wealth by a single individual. In this work, we prove that conjecture by demonstrating that the Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality commonly used by economists, is an H function of both the Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations for the model.
Liang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; Zhu, Qiao
2014-02-01
In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole. (authors)
Lattice Boltzmann model for Coulomb-driven flows in dielectric liquids.
Luo, Kang; Wu, Jian; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping
2016-02-01
In this paper, we developed a unified lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) to simulate electroconvection in a dielectric liquid induced by unipolar charge injection. Instead of solving the complex set of coupled Navier-Stokes equations, the charge conservation equation, and the Poisson equation of electric potential, three consistent lattice Boltzmann equations are formulated. Numerical results are presented for both strong and weak injection regimes, and different scenarios for the onset and evolution of instability, bifurcation, and chaos are tracked. All LBM results are found to be highly consistent with the analytical solutions and other numerical work.
Lattice Boltzmann model for Coulomb-driven flows in dielectric liquids
Luo, Kang; Wu, Jian; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping
2016-02-01
In this paper, we developed a unified lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) to simulate electroconvection in a dielectric liquid induced by unipolar charge injection. Instead of solving the complex set of coupled Navier-Stokes equations, the charge conservation equation, and the Poisson equation of electric potential, three consistent lattice Boltzmann equations are formulated. Numerical results are presented for both strong and weak injection regimes, and different scenarios for the onset and evolution of instability, bifurcation, and chaos are tracked. All LBM results are found to be highly consistent with the analytical solutions and other numerical work.
Numerical approximation of the Euler-Poisson-Boltzmann model in the quasineutral limit
Degond, Pierre; Savelief, Dominique; Vignal, Marie-Hélène
2010-01-01
This paper analyzes various schemes for the Euler-Poisson-Boltzmann (EPB) model of plasma physics. This model consists of the pressureless gas dynamics equations coupled with the Poisson equation and where the Boltzmann relation relates the potential to the electron density. If the quasi-neutral assumption is made, the Poisson equation is replaced by the constraint of zero local charge and the model reduces to the Isothermal Compressible Euler (ICE) model. We compare a numerical strategy based on the EPB model to a strategy using a reformulation (called REPB formulation). The REPB scheme captures the quasi-neutral limit more accurately.
Well-Posedness of the Cauchy Problem for a Space-Dependent Anyon Boltzmann Equation
Arkeryd, Leif; Nouri, Anne
2015-01-01
A fully non-linear kinetic Boltzmann equation for anyons is studied in a periodic 1d setting with large initial data. Strong L 1 solutions are obtained for the Cauchy problem. The main results concern global existence, uniqueness and stabililty. We use the Bony functional, the two-dimensional velocity frame specific for anyons, and an initial layer analysis that moves the solution away from a critical value. 1 Anyons and the Boltzmann equation. Let us first recall the definition of anyon. Con...
A Fokker-Planck model of the Boltzmann equation with correct Prandtl number
Mathiaud, J
2015-01-01
We propose an extension of the Fokker-Planck model of the Boltzmann equation to get a correct Prandtl number in the Compressible Navier-Stokes asymptotics. This is obtained by replacing the diffusion coefficient (which is the equilibrium temperature) by a non diagonal temperature tensor, like the Ellipsoidal-Statistical model (ES) is obtained from the Bathnagar-Gross-Krook model (BGK) of the Boltzmann equation. Our model is proved to satisfy the properties of conservation and a H-theorem. A Chapman-Enskog analysis and two numerical tests show that a correct Prandtl number of 2/3 can be obtained.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svec, Oldrich; Skoček, Jan
2013-01-01
The ability of the Lattice Boltzmann method, as the fluid dynamics solver, to properly simulate macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary condition is investigated. An approximate equation relating the Lattice Boltzmann variable slip boundary condition with the macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary conditi...
On local and global equilibrium in heavy ion collisions
Sollfrank, J
1999-01-01
The thermal model is commonly used in two different ways for the description of hadron production in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision. One is the application of the thermal model to 4pi integrated data and the other is the thermal description of central dN/dy ratios. While the first method implicitly assumes global equilibrium the other scenario assumes Bjorken scaling within the investigated rapidity range. Both assumptions are only approximations for real physical collision systems. We study the impact of both approximations for the extraction of thermal parameters on the exemplary case of S+S collisions at SPS energies. The particle distributions are modeled by a hydrodynamical description of the relevant collision system.
Collision probability at low altitudes resulting from elliptical orbits
Kessler, Donald J.
1990-01-01
The probability of collision between a spacecraft and another object is calculated for various altitude and orbit conditions, and factors affecting the probability are discussed. It is shown that a collision can only occur when the spacecraft is located at an altitude which is between the perigee and apogee altitudes of the object and that the probability per unit time is largest when the orbit of the object is nearly circular. However, at low altitudes, the atmospheric drag causes changes with time of the perigee and the apogee, such that circular orbits have a much shorter lifetime than many of the elliptical orbits. Thus, when the collision probability is integrated over the lifetime of the orbiting object, some elliptical orbits are found to have much higher total collision probability than circular orbits. Rocket bodies used to boost payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit are an example of objects in these elliptical orbits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fidler, Christian
2011-12-16
Polarisation and Nongaussianity are expected to play a central role in future studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Polarisation can be split into a divergence-like E-mode and a curl-like B-mode, of which the later can only be induced by primordial gravitational waves (tensor fluctuations of the metric) at leading order. Nongaussianity is not generated at first order and is directly proportional to the primordial Nongaussianity of inflation. Thus B-mode polarisation and Nongaussianity constrain inflation models directly. While E-mode polarisation has already been detected and is being observed with increasing precision, B-mode polarisation and Nongaussianity remains elusive. The absence of B-mode polarisation when the primordial fluctuations are purely scalar holds, however, only in linear perturbation theory. B-mode polarisation is also generated from scalar sources in second order, which may constitute an important background to the search for primordial gravitational waves. While such an effect would naturally be expected to be relevant at tensor-to-scalar ratios of order 10{sup -5}, which is the size of perturbations in the microwave background, only a full second order calculation can tell whether there are no enhancements. For Nongaussianity the situation is analogous: At second order intrinsic Nongaussianities are induced to the spectrum, which may be an important background to the primordial Nongaussianity. After the full second-order Boltzmann equations for the cosmological evolution of the polarised radiation distribution have become available, I focused on the novel sources to B-mode polarisation that appear in the second-order collision term, which have not been calculated before. In my PHD thesis I developed a numerical code, which solves the second order Boltzmann hierarchy and calculates the C{sub l}{sup BB}-spectrum.
Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli
2015-10-01
A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002), 10.1098/rsta.2001.0942]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.
Industrial Robot Collision Handling in Harsh Environments
Kaldestad, Knut Berg
2014-01-01
The focus in this thesis is on robot collision handling systems, mainly collision detection and collision avoidance for industrial robots operating in harsh environments (e.g. potentially explosive atmospheres found in the oil and gas sector). Collision detection should prevent the robot from colliding and therefore avoid a potential accident. Collision avoidance builds on the concept of collision detection and aims at enabling the robot to find a collision free path circumvent...
Electron-excited hydrogen and helium collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Multichannel Eikonal Treatment (MET) is modified so as to facilitate highly accurate description of various asymptotic long range dipole couplings important in electron excited atom collisions. MET is applied to excitation in e-H(2s), e-H(2p), e-He(2 /sup 1,3/S) and e-He(2 /sup 1,3/P) collisions at intermediate energies. Integral and differential cross sections together with various coherence and alignment parameters for the radiative decay of the n=2 and 3 collisionally-excited P and D states of H and He are determined from MET with 10 channels associated with n = 1, 2, and 3 sublevels. Comparison is made with various recent measurements
Galaxy Collisions - Dawn of a New Era
Struck, C
2005-01-01
The study of colliding galaxies has progressed rapidly in the last few years, driven by observations with powerful new ground and space-based instruments. These instruments have used for detailed studies of specific nearby systems, statistical studies of large samples of relatively nearby systems, and increasingly large samples of high redshift systems. Following a brief summary of the historical context, this review attempts to integrate these studies to address the following key issues. What role do collisions play in galaxy evolution, and how can recently discovered processes like downsizing resolve some apparently contradictory results of high redshift studies? What is the role of environment in galaxy collisions? How is star formation and nuclear activity orchestrated by the large scale dynamics, before and during merger? Are novel modes of star formation involved? What are we to make of the association of ultraluminous X-ray sources with colliding galaxies? To what do degree do mergers and feedback trig...
Electron collisions with coherently prepared atomic targets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.S. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia). Electronics Structure of Materials Centre; Csanak, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1998-02-01
The subject of electron scattering by laser-excited atoms is briefly reviewed. To demonstrate some aspects of these electron collision processes, the authors describe the procedures and the results of a joint experimental and theoretical study concerning elastic scattering by coherently excited {sup 138}Ba (...6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1}) atoms. Examples of experimental and theoretical collision parameters and magnetic sublevel differential cross sections for elastic scattering are given and compared. The convergent close coupling calculations (with the neglect of spin-orbit interaction) are in good agreement with experiment at 20 eV impact energy and 10, 15 and 20{degree} scattering angles and can be expected to yield reliable integral magnetic sublevel and alignment creation cross sections. The role of these quantities in plasma polarization spectroscopy is pointed out.
Collision Probability Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter Friis; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup
1998-01-01
It is the purpose of this report to apply a rational model for prediction of ship-ship collision probabilities as function of the ship and the crew characteristics and the navigational environment for MS Dextra sailing on a route between Cadiz and the Canary Islands.The most important ship and crew...... characteristics are: ship speed, ship manoeuvrability, the layout of the navigational bridge, the radar system, the number and the training of navigators, the presence of a look out etc. The main parameters affecting the navigational environment are ship traffic density, probability distributions of wind speeds...... probability, i.e. a study of the navigator's role in resolving critical situations, a causation factor is derived as a second step.The report documents the first step in a probabilistic collision damage analysis. Future work will inlcude calculation of energy released for crushing of structures giving...
Di Grezia, E.
2011-01-01
A theoretical model describing neutron-proton scattering developed by Majorana as early as in 1932, is discussed in detail with the experiments that motivated it. Majorana using collisions' theory, obtained the explicit expression of solutions of wave equation of the neutron-proton system. In this work two different models, the unpublished one of Majorana and the contemporary work of Massey, are studied and compared.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The status of research into collisions of nuclei at high energy is reviewed. Reactions and products are classified, and spectator matter is discussed. Then the thermalization of participant matter is considered at some length. Finally, disintegration of the hot matter is addressed. A = 20 and 40 projectiles of 250 to 1050 MeV/A are employed to illustrate the major points. 44 references, 10 figures
Polar pattern formation in driven filament systems requires non-binary particle collisions
Suzuki, Ryo; Weber, Christoph A.; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R.
2015-10-01
From the self-organization of the cytoskeleton to the synchronous motion of bird flocks, living matter has the extraordinary ability to behave in a concerted manner. The Boltzmann equation for self-propelled particles is frequently used in silico to link a system’s meso- or macroscopic behaviour to the microscopic dynamics of its constituents. But so far such studies have relied on an assumption of simplified binary collisions owing to a lack of experimental data suggesting otherwise. We report here experimentally determined binary-collision statistics by studying a recently introduced molecular system, the high-density actomyosin motility assay. We demonstrate that the alignment induced by binary collisions is too weak to account for the observed ordering transition. The transition density for polar pattern formation decreases quadratically with filament length, indicating that multi-filament collisions drive the observed ordering phenomenon and that a gas-like picture cannot explain the transition of the system to polar order. Our findings demonstrate that the unique properties of biological active-matter systems require a description that goes well beyond that developed in the framework of kinetic theories.
On inelastic reactive collisions in kinetic theory of chemically reacting gas mixtures
Kremer, Gilberto M.; Silva, Adriano W.; Alves, Giselle M.
2010-07-01
A kinetic theory for a simple reversible reaction-characterized by a binary mixture of ideal gases whose constituents denoted by A and B undergo a reaction of the type A+A⇌B+B-is developed by considering the reactive collisions as inelastic ones. The geometry of the collision is taken into account in the line-of-centers differential cross section by allowing that a chemical reaction may occur only when the energy of the relative velocity in the direction of the line which joins the centers of the molecules at collision is larger than the activation energy. It is shown that the restitution coefficients: (i) depend explicitly on the reaction heat and on the relative translational energy in the direction of the line which joins the centers of the molecules during an inelastic collision; (ii) vanish when the reaction heat is zero; (iii) are larger or smaller than one depending on the direction of the reaction and on the sign of the reaction heat. First approximations to the distribution functions are determined from the system of Boltzmann equations for the last stage of a chemical reaction. It is shown that the deviations from the Maxwellian distribution functions and the production terms of the particle number densities: (i) vanish when the reaction heat is zero provided that the affinity is close to zero and (ii) are negative or positive depending on the sign of the reaction heat and on the direction of the reaction.