WorldWideScience

Sample records for bolometers

  1. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  2. An Ideal Integrating Bolometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel detector to enable a new class of far-IR spectroscopic surveys.  The detector, the Ideal Integrating Bolometer (IIB) is able to...

  3. Neutronic analysis for bolometers in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, A., E-mail: alejandro.suarez@iter.org [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Reichle, R.; Loughlin, M.; Polunovskiy, E.; Walsh, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115, St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Radiation damage calculations for the bolometers in ITER. ► Redesign of the bolometric diagnostic in EPP01. ► New bolometer radiation damage values in EPP01 in the safe zone. -- Abstract: Neutronic considerations in ITER have such importance that they drive the design of many diagnostics and components of the machine, and bolometers are not an exception. Bolometer cameras will be installed on the vacuum vessel, viewing the plasma through the gaps between blanket modules, divertor, equatorial and upper port plugs. The ITER reference bolometer sensors are of a resistive type. For this study it is assumed that they are composed of a thin silicon nitride carrier film and platinum resistors disposed in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. Their assumed radiation hardness is 0.1 dpa. Neutronic calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo program MCNP5, the FENDL 2.1 nuclear data library and the latest B-lite ITER neutronic model with the appropriate modifications using the CAD to MCNP converter MCAM. A complete characterization of the neutron fluxes in all the bolometer locations and the calculation of neutron damage were performed. Values above the failure threshold damage were obtained for some of the bolometers, leading to a complete redesign of some parts of the bolometric system in order to extend its lifetime.

  4. Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, A. E.; Mcbride, S. E.; Richards, P. L.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Ion implantation and sputter metallization are used to produce ohmic electrical contacts to Ge:Ga chips. The method is shown to give a high yield of small monolithic bolometers with very little low-frequency noise. It is noted that when one of the chips is used as the thermometric element of a composite bolometer it must be bonded to a dielectric substrate. The thermal resistance of the conventional epoxy bond is measured and found to be undesirably large. A procedure for soldering the chip to a metallized portion of the substrate in such a way as to reduce this resistance is outlined. An evaluation is made of the contribution of the metal film absorber to the heat capacity of a composite bolometer. It is found that the heat capacity of a NiCr absorber at 1.3 K can dominate the bolometer performance. A Bi absorber possesses significantly lower heat capacity. A low-temperature blackbody calibrator is built to measure the optical responsivity of bolometers. A composite bolometer system with a throughput of approximately 0.1 sr sq cm is constructed using the new techniques. The noise in this bolometer is white above 2.5 Hz and is slightly below the value predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium theory.

  5. High Temperature Superconductor Bolometers for Planetary Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work is a design study of an instrument optimized for JPL's novel high temperature superconductor bolometers. The work involves designing an imaging...

  6. Radiation Hardened Bolometer Linear Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has developed space-based thermal instrument spectrometers based on thermopile detectors linear arrays that are intrinsically radiation hard. Micro-bolometers...

  7. A novel carbon coating technique for foil bolometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, U A; Duval, B P; Labit, B; Nespoli, F

    2016-11-01

    Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma. Preliminary results showed 13%-15% more incident power was measured by the coated bolometers and this is expected to be much higher in future TCV detached divertor experiments.

  8. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  9. Antenna-Coupled TES Bolometer Arrays for CMB Polarimetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and test transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer arrays for precision polarimetry of cosmic microwave background (CMB). Verify that critical antenna...

  10. Integrated NIS electron-tunnelling refrigerator/superconducting bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverberg, R.F. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Experimental Cosmology, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: robert.silverberg@nasa.gov; Benford, D.J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Experimental Cosmology, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chen, T.C. [Global Science and Technology, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Experimental Cosmology, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [SSAI, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Moseley, S.H. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Experimental Cosmology, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Duncan, W.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Miller, N.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Schmidt, D.R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Ullom, J.N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We describe progress in the development of a close-packed array of bolometers designed for use in photometric applications at millimeter wavelengths from ground-based telescopes. Each bolometer in the array will use a proximity-effect Transition Edge Sensor (TES) sensing element and each will have integrated Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) refrigerators to cool the bolometer below the thermal reservoir temperature. The NIS refrigerators and acoustic-phonon-mode-isolated bolometers are fabricated on silicon. The radiation absorbing element is mechanically suspended by four legs, whose dimensions are used to control and optimize the thermal conductance of the bolometer. Using the technology developed at NIST, we fabricate NIS refrigerators at the base of each of the suspension legs. The NIS refrigerators remove hot electrons by quantum-mechanical tunneling and are expected to cool the biased (10pW) bolometers to <170mK while the bolometers are inside a pumped {sup 3}He-cooled cryostat operating at {approx}280mK. This significantly lower temperature at the bolometer allows the detectors to approach background-limited performance despite the simple cryogenic system.

  11. Bolometer's development for the detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, D.

    2000-06-01

    The author reviews his contributions to the use of bolometers (cryogenic detectors) for the detection of wimps (weakly interactive massive particles). Wimps are detected through their elastic scattering on the nuclei of the detector, a heat signal, luminescence or ionization can be simultaneously detected (at least 2 signals are necessary to discard photon interactions). Bolometers operate at low temperatures (< 50 mK) so they allow very low detection threshold and resolution (< keV) with a full energy conversion for recoiling nuclei. In Saclay the technology of bolometers based on simultaneous detection of heat and ionisation has been developed and improvements have been studied (NbSi thin films bolometers). The first results obtained in the framework of the Edelweiss collaboration are presented. Other developments based on infra-red bolometry (Planck surveyor and Archeops projects) are briefly described. In an appendix the operating principle of a bolometer is presented. (A.C.)

  12. Bolometer Data Reduction with BoA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    The main challenge when processing ground-based observations at submillimetre wavelengths is to isolate the weak source signal from the much stronger and fastly varying sky signal. The BoA package has been developed for the APEX bolometer cameras. It offers a number of tools to visualise the signal and to remove the contribution from the sky, e.g. by subtracting the correlated noise computed using median estimates. In my talk, I will also highlight the challenges in determining the atmospheric opacity and the calibration.

  13. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E.E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-02-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm - 2 . After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures ( 0 exp(δ/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

  14. Antenna-coupled bolometer arrays using transition-edgesensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael J.; Ade, Peter; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel,William; Lee,Adrian T.; O' Brient, Roger; Richards, Paul L.; Smith, Andy; Spieler, Helmuth; Tran, Huan

    2004-06-08

    We describe the development of an antenna-coupled bolometer array for use in a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. Prototype single pixels using double-slot dipole antennas and integrated microstrip band defining filters have been built and tested. Preliminary results of optical testing and simulations are presented. A bolometer array design based on this pixel will also be shown and future plans for application of the technology will be discussed.

  15. Construction and calibration of a fast superconducting bolometer for molecular beams detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallinaro, G.; Varone, R.

    1975-01-01

    A tin bolometer evaporated on an anodized aluminum block is described. The noise equivalent power of the bolometer is of 10 -13 watt Hzsup(-1/2) and the time constant is 3μ sec. The bolometer is a suitable fast molecular beam detector

  16. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, M. L., E-mail: reinkeml@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Han, M.; Liu, G. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M. [Technobis, Pyrietstraat 2, 1812 SC Alkmaar (Netherlands); Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry–Pérot cavity when broadband light, λ{sub o} ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m{sup 2} when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m{sup 2} in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m{sup 2} or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  17. BGO scintillating bolometer: Its application in dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coron, N; Gironnet, J; Leblanc, J; Marcillac, P de; Martinez, M; Redon, T; Torres, L; Cuesta, C; Garcia, E; Ortigoza, Y; Ortiz de Solorzano, A; Pobes, C; Puimedon, J; Rolon, T; Salinas, A; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A

    2010-01-01

    In the frame of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD) collaboration, we have tested at surface level (Orsay) and underground (Canfranc) properties at low temperature of a BGO scintillating bolometer developed as a prototype for dark matter searches. The response of the detector to different particles, both in heat and light, using internal and external radioactive sources is reported. We have focused on its sensitivity as dark matter target and as γ-ray spectrometer to monitor external background. An algorithm implemented to analyze high energy events, which produce saturated pulses in low energy experiments (like dark matter searches), is also discussed.

  18. BGO scintillating bolometer: Its application in dark matter experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coron, N; Gironnet, J; Leblanc, J; Marcillac, P de; Martinez, M; Redon, T; Torres, L [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Cuesta, C; Garcia, E; Ortigoza, Y; Ortiz de Solorzano, A; Pobes, C; Puimedon, J; Rolon, T; Salinas, A; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A, E-mail: ortigoza@unizar.e [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    In the frame of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD) collaboration, we have tested at surface level (Orsay) and underground (Canfranc) properties at low temperature of a BGO scintillating bolometer developed as a prototype for dark matter searches. The response of the detector to different particles, both in heat and light, using internal and external radioactive sources is reported. We have focused on its sensitivity as dark matter target and as {gamma}-ray spectrometer to monitor external background. An algorithm implemented to analyze high energy events, which produce saturated pulses in low energy experiments (like dark matter searches), is also discussed.

  19. Engineering Physics of Superconducting Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.; Semenov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting hot-electron bolometers are presently the best performing mixing devices for the frequency range beyond 1.2 THz, where good-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor devices do not exist. Their physical appearance is very simple: an antenna consisting of a normal metal,

  20. Technological development of multispectral filter assemblies for micro bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Roland; Tanguy, François; Fuss, Philippe; Etcheto, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Since 2007 Sodern has successfully developed visible and near infrared multispectral filter assemblies for Earth remote sensing imagers. Filter assembly is manufactured by assembling several sliced filter elements (so-called strips), each corresponding to one spectral band. These strips are cut from wafers using a two dimensional accuracy precision process. In the frame of a 2011 R&T preparatory initiative undertaken by the French agency CNES, the filter assembly concept was adapted by Sodern to the long wave infrared spectral band taken into account the germanium substrate, the multilayer bandpass filters and the F-number of the optics. Indeed the current trend in space instrumentation toward more compact uncooled infrared radiometer leads to replace the filter wheel with a multispectral filter assembly mounted directly above the micro bolometer window. The filter assembly was customized to fit the bolometer size. For this development activity we consider a ULIS VGA LWIR micro bolometer with 640 by 480 pixels and 25 microns pixel pitch. The feasibility of the concept and the ability to withstand space environment were investigated and demonstrated by bread boarding activities. The presentation will contain a detailed description of the bolometer and filter assembly design, the stray light modeling analysis assessing the crosstalk between adjacent spectral bands and the results of the manufacturing and environmental tests (damp heat and thermal vacuum cycling).

  1. Bolometers for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Important scientific goals of far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy include measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation, deep imaging surveys for detection of high-red-shift galaxies, and imaging and spectroscopy of star formation regions and the interstellar medium in the milky way and nearby galaxies. Use of sensitive bolometer arrays leads to very large improvements in observing speed. Recent progress in the development of bolometric detector systems for ground-based and space-borne far-infrared and submillimetre astronomical observations is reviewed, including spider-web NTD bolometers, transition-edge superconducting sensors, and micromachined planar arrays of ion-implanted silicon bolometers. Future arrays may be based on planar absorbers without feedhorns, which offer potential advantages including more efficient use of space in the focal plane and improved instantaneous sampling of the telescope point spread function, but present challenges in suppression of stray light and RF interference. FIRST and Planck Surveyor are planned satellite missions involving passively cooled (∼70 K) telescopes, and bolometer array developments for these missions are described

  2. A bolometer array for the spectral energy distribution (SPEED) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverberg, R.F. E-mail: Robert.F.Silverberg@nasa.gov; Ali, S.; Bier, A.; Campano, B.; Chen, T.C.; Cheng, E.S.; Cottingham, D.A.; Crawford, T.M.; Downes, T.; Finkbeiner, F.M.; Fixsen, D.J.; Logan, D.; Meyer, S.S.; O' Dell, C.; Perera, T.; Sharp, E.H.; Timbie, P.T.; Wilson, G.W

    2004-03-11

    The Spectral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera is being developed to study the spectral energy distributions of high redshift galaxies. Its initial use will be on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope and eventually on the Large Millimeter Telescope. SPEED requires a small cryogenic detector array of 2x2 pixels with each pixel having four frequency bands in the 150-375 GHz range. Here we describe the development of the detector array of these high-efficiency Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSB). The FSB design provides the multi-pixel, multi-spectral band capability required for SPEED in a compact stackable array. The SPEED bolometers will use proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensors as their temperature-sensing element, allowing for higher levels of electronic multiplexing in future applications.

  3. Development of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.

    1983-08-01

    The behavior of lattice defects generated as a result of the neutron-transmutation-doping of germanium was studied as a function of annealing conditions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and mobility measurements. DLTS and variable temperature Hall effect were also used to measure the activation of dopant impurities formed during the transmutation process. In additioon, a semi-automated method of attaching wires on to small chips of germanium ( 3 ) for the fabrication of infrared detecting bolometers was developed. Finally, several different types of junction field effect transistors were tested for noise at room and low temperature (approx. 80 K) in order to find the optimum device available for first stage electronics in the bolometer signal amplification circuit

  4. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, Jeremy S., E-mail: jeremy.cushman@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dally, Adam [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Davis, Christopher J. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lim, Kyungeun E. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Heeger, Karsten M., E-mail: karsten.heeger@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Maruyama, Reina H. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nucciotti, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wise, Thomas [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  5. Infrared detection with high-[Tc] bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, S.

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature [Tc] make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus][delta

  6. Integrated Electron-tunneling Refrigerator and TES Bolometer for Millimeter Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Benford, D. J.; Chen, T. C.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Moseley, S. H.; Duncan, W.; Miller, N.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe progress in the development of a close-packed array of bolometers intended for use in photometric applications at millimeter wavelengths from ground- based telescopes. Each bolometer in the may uses a proximity-effect Transition Edge Sensor (TES) sensing element and each will have integrated Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) refrigerators to cool the bolometer below the ambient bath temperature. The NIS refrigerators and acoustic-phonon-mode-isolated bolometers are fabricated on silicon. The radiation-absorbing element is mechanically suspended by four legs, whose dimensions are used to control and optimize the thermal conductance of the bolometer. Using the technology developed at NIST, we fabricate NIS refrigerators at the base of each of the suspension legs. The NIS refrigerators remove hot electrons by quantum-mechanical tunneling and are expected to cool the biased (approx.10 pW) bolometers to <170 mK while the bolometers are inside a pumped 3He-cooled cryostat operating at approx.280 mK. This significantly lower temperature at the bolometer allows the detectors to approach background-limited performance despite the simple cryogenic system.

  7. Ruthenium oxide resistors as sensitive elements of composite bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassai, M.; Gallinaro, G.; Gatti, F.; Siri, S.; Vitale, S.

    1988-01-01

    Bolometers for particle detection made with Ruthenium oxide thermistors could be produced by means of a simple technique on a variety of different materials as substrata. Preliminary results on alpha particle detection with devices realized using commercial RuO 2 thick film resistor (Tfr) are considered positive for devices operating between. 3 and .1 k and determined us to pursue further the idea. Ruthenium oxide resistors on sapphire at the moment are being prepared. The behaviour of these devices st temperatures lower than .1 k has to be investigated in more detail

  8. Sea level characterization of a 1100 g sapphire bolometer

    CERN Document Server

    Pécourt, S; Bobin, C; Coron, N; Jesus, M D; Hadjout, J P; Leblanc, J W; Marcillac, P D

    1999-01-01

    A first characterization of a 1100 g sapphire bolometer, performed at sea level and at a working temperature of 40 mK, is presented. Despite perturbations coming from the high-radioactive background and cosmic rays, calibration spectra could be achieved with an internal alpha source and a sup 5 sup 7 Co gamma-ray source: the experimental threshold is 25 keV, while the FWHM resolution is 17.4 keV for the 122 keV peak. Possible heat release effects are discussed, and a new limit of 9x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 W/g is obtained for sapphire.

  9. A new method for background rejection with surface sensitive bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nones, C.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Pedretti, M.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report the performance of three prototype TeO 2 macrobolometers, able to identify events due to energy deposited at the detector surface. This capability is obtained by thermally coupling thin active layers to the main absorber of the bolometer, and is proved by irradiating the detectors with alpha particles. This technique can be very useful in view of background study and reduction for the CUORE experiment, a next generation Double Beta Decay search based on TeO 2 macrobolometers and to be installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

  10. Multiplexed TES Bolometers on FIBRE, SPIFI, and SAFIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Shafer, R. A.; Stacey, G. J.

    2001-12-01

    We have produced a variety of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers using superconducting bilayers (MoAu and MoCu) with transitions between 300-500 mK. These have produced NEPs as low as 3x 10-17 W Hz-1/2. SQUID based time division multiplexers allow efficient readout with little noise cost. The multiplexed TESes were used in their first astronomical application in a recent observation with the FIBRE (Fabry Perot Interferometer Research Experiment) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We present lab results of improved performance devices and discuss designs for applications in large arrays (8x32 and larger) in the upcoming SPIFI and SAFIRE instruments.

  11. An implanted $^{228}$Ra source for response characterization of bolometers

    CERN Multimedia

    TeO$_{2}$ crystals are used as bolometers in experiments searching for Double $\\beta$ Decay without emission of neutrinos. One of the most important issues in this extremely delicate kind of experiments is the discrimination of the background from the real signal. A deep knowledge of the bolometric response to $\\alpha$-particles is therefore needed to recognize and discard them, since it has been proven that $\\alpha$ surface contamination could be a major contribution in our background budget. We would like to use ISOLDE’s capability of implanting $^{228}$Ra to make a long-lived source feeding several monochromatic $\\alpha$- and recoiling nuclei, with little or no $\\alpha$-peak broadening due to the source itself, for tests of our detectors in Milano and Gran Sasso INFN National Lab.

  12. A 100 micro Kelvin bolometer system for SIRTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Timbie, P. T.; Richards, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    Progress toward a prototype of 100 mK bolometric detection system for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is described. Two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR's) were constructed and used to investigate the capabilities necessary for orbital operation. The first, a laboratory ADR, demonstrated a hold time at 0.1 K of over 12 hours, with temperature stability approx. 3 micro-K RMS achieved by controlling the magnetic field. A durable salt pill and an efficient support system have been demonstrated. A second ADR, the SIRTF flight prototype, has been built and will be flown on a balloon. Techniques for magnetic shielding, low heat leak current leads, and a mechanical heat switch are being developed in this ADR. Plans for construction of 100 mK bolometers are discussed. Three important cosmological investigations which will be carried out by these longest wavelength SIRTF detectors are described.

  13. Monolayer Graphene Bolometer as a Sensitive Far-IR Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McKitterick, Christopher B.; Prober, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a detailed analysis of the expected sensitivity and operating conditions in the power detection mode of a hot-electron bolometer (HEB) made from a few micro m(sup 2) of monolayer graphene (MLG) flake which can be embedded into either a planar antenna or waveguide circuit via NbN (or NbTiN) superconducting contacts with critical temperature approx. 14 K. Recent data on the strength of the electron-phonon coupling are used in the present analysis and the contribution of the readout noise to the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) is explicitly computed. The readout scheme utilizes Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) allowing for Frequency-Domain Multiplexing (FDM) using narrowband filter coupling of the HEBs. In general, the filter bandwidth and the summing amplifier noise have a significant effect on the overall system sensitivity.

  14. A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingyuan; Ning, Jiamin; Ye, Fan; Meng, Shijian; Xu, Rongkun; Yang, Jianlun; Chu, Yanyun; Qin, Yi; Fu, Yuecheng; Chen, Faxin; Xu, Zeping

    2016-10-01

    A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence in z-pinch experiments is developed. For the first time, we present the determination of its sensitivity by different methods. The results showed great consistency for the different methods, which confirms the validity of the sensitivity and provides confidence for its application in z-pinch experiments. It should be highlighted that the sensitivity of a free-standing foil bolometer could be calibrated directly using Joule heating without any corrections that will be necessary for a foil bolometer with substrate because of heat loss. The difference of the waveforms between the free-standing foil bolometer and that with substrate is obvious. It reveals that the heat loss to the substrate should be considered for the latter in despite of the short x-ray pulse when the peak value is used to deduce the total deposited energy. The quantitative influence is analyzed through a detailed simulation.

  15. Automated measurement of bolometer line of sight alignment and characteristics for application in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Florian Olivier

    2015-07-01

    The line of sight (LOS) alignment and characteristic of a bolometer camera used in a fusion experiment is a crucial parameter for the measurement accuracy of the diagnostic. A robot based LOS measurement device has been developed which allows the fully automatic measurement of the two dimensional transmission function of a bolometer camera. It has been used to optimize camera prototypes for ITER and has been successfully operated in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade in order to measure the LOS alignment.

  16. Bolometer array development at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Ernst; Gemuend, Hans-Peter; Gromke, J.; Haslam, C. G.; Reichertz, L.; Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, V.; Sievers, A.; Zylka, R.

    1998-07-01

    Continuum radiometers based on bolometers have a long tradition at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany. Arrays of bolometers have been under development since the early 90s. A small 7-element system, operating at 300 mK, saw first light in 1992 at the IRAM 30 m- telescope and has been used successfully by numerous observers at that facility since then. While this array had a conventional 'composite' design, it was obvious that larger arrays, especially for higher frequencies, could take advantage of microfabrication technology. The recent MPIfR bolometer arrays employ a hybrid approach. They combine a single-mode horn array with a planar bolometer array on a single crystal Silicon wafer with Silicon-Nitride membranes. With efficient absorbing structures, the bolometers couple to the single mode of the radiation field collected by the horns, without needing integrating cavities. Readout is provided by NTD-Germanium thermistors that are attached to the absorbers. This paper covers the history of this development, the general aspects of the bolometer arrays, including the coupling to the telescope, and the status of work in progress.

  17. Bolometer array development at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, E.; Gemünd, H.-P.; Gromke, J.; Haslam, C. G. T.; Reichertz, L.; Haller, E. E.; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, V.; Sievers, A.; Zylka, R.

    1999-06-01

    Continuum radiometers based on bolometers have a long tradition at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany. Arrays of bolometers have been under development since the early 1990s. A small seven-element system, operating at 300 mK, saw first light in 1992 at the IRAM 30-m telescope and has been used successfully by numerous observers at that facility since then. While this array had a conventional `composite' design, it was obvious that larger arrays, especially for higher frequencies, could take advantage of microfabrication technology. The recent MPIfR bolometer arrays employ a hybrid approach. They combine a single-mode horn array with a planar bolometer array on a single crystal Silicon wafer with Silicon-Nitride membranes. With efficient absorbing structures, the bolometers couple to the single mode of the radiation field collected by the horns, without needing integrating cavities. Readout is provided by NTD-Germanium thermistors that are attached to the absorbers. This paper covers the history of this development, the design aspects of the bolometer arrays, including the coupling to the telescope, and the status of work in progress.

  18. Design and fabrication of two-dimensional semiconducting bolometer arrays for HAWC and SHARC-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rennick, Timothy; Shirron, Peter J.; Smith, W. W.; Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2003-02-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC "Pop-Up" Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 × 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 × 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  19. Frequency selective bolometer development at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datesman, Aaron; Pearson, John; Wang, Gensheng; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Divan, Ralu; Downes, Thomas; Chang, Clarence; McMahon, Jeff; Meyer, Stephan; Carlstrom, John; Logan, Daniel; Perera, Thushara; Wilson, Grant; Novosad, Valentyn

    2008-07-01

    We discuss the development, at Argonne National Laboratory, of a four-pixel camera suitable for photometry of distant dusty galaxies located by Spitzer and SCUBA, and for study of other millimeter-wave sources such as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect in clusters, and galactic dust. Utilizing Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSBs) with superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs), each of the camera's four pixels is sensitive to four colors, with frequency bands centered approximately at 150, 220, 270, and 360 GHz. The current generation of these devices utilizes proximity effect superconducting bilayers of Mo/Au or Ti/Au for TESs, along with frequency selective circuitry on membranes of silicon nitride 1 cm across and 1 micron thick. The operational properties of these devices are determined by this circuitry, along with thermal control structures etched into the membranes. These etched structures do not perforate the membrane, so that the device is both comparatively robust mechanically and carefully tailored in terms of its thermal transport properties. In this paper, we report on development of the superconducting bilayer TES technology and characterization of the FSB stacks. This includes the use of new materials, the design and testing of thermal control structures, the introduction of desirable thermal properties using buried layers of crystalline silicon underneath the membrane, detector stability control, and optical and thermal test results. The scientific motivation, FSB design, FSB fabrication, and measurement results are discussed.

  20. Upgraded bolometer system on JET for improved radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: A.Huber@fz-juelich.de; McCormick, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Andrew, P.; Beaumont, P.; Dalley, S. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fink, J.; Fuchs, J.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fullard, K.; Fundamenski, W. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ingesson, L.C. [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Mast, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jachmich, S. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Matthews, G.F. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Mertens, Ph.; Philipps, V. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sanders, S. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zeidner, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Two new main-vessel bolometric cameras (KB5) with horizontal and vertical views of the plasma cross-section have been installed on JET, providing a substantial upgrade in capabilities: more viewing chords (24 chords for each camera), higher energy range (up to 8 keV), higher sensitivity ({approx}6.2 V/W), lower noise and therefore, lower detectable signals ({approx}2 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} at a bandwidth of 200 Hz), higher temporal resolution ({approx}2 ms). In addition, three new dedicated divertor bolometer cameras (KB3) with 12 lines-of-sight in total, optimised views and technical improvements have replaced the old ones. The combination of KB3 and KB5 systems provides measurements with significantly improved spatial resolution, allowing the divertor and main chamber radiation fractions to be clearly resolved. The sensitivity measured with an in situ electrical method matches very well with that obtained using a light source calibration. The deviation between the two methods is less than 7% and is in the range of the measurement accuracy. The experimentally measured geometric functions closely match those computed using the design values of geometry. Tomographic reconstructions of high density divertor plasmas with ITER-like configuration are presented which clearly demonstrate the capability of the new diagnostic.

  1. NTD germanium: a novel material for low-temperature bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.; Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Hansen, W.L.; Kreysa, E.

    1982-06-01

    Six samples of ultra-pure (absolute value N/sub A/ - N/sub D/ absolute value less than or equal to 10 11 cm -3 ), single-crystal germanium have been neutron transmutation doped with neutron doses between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm -2 . After thermal annealing at 400 0 C for six hours in a pure argon atmosphere, the samples have been characterized with Hall effect and resistivity measurements between 300 and 0.3 K. Our results show that the resistivity in the low temperature, hopping conduction regime can be approximated with rho = rho 0 exp(Δ/T). The three more heavily doped samples show values for rho 0 and Δ ranging from 430 to 3.3 Ω cm and from 4.9 to 2.8 K, respectively. The excellent reproducibility of neutron transmutation doping and the values of rho 0 and Δ make NTD Ge a prime candidate for the fabrication of low temperature, low noise bolometers. The large variation in the tabulated values of the thermal neutron cross sections for the different germanium isotopes makes it clear that accurate measurements of these cross-sections for well defined neutron energy spectra would be highly desirable

  2. Infrared detection with high-Tc bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verghese, S.

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature T c make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thermometers on sapphire substrates which have higher sensitivity than competing thermal detectors which operate at temperatures above 77 K. A 1 x 1 mm bolometer with gold black serving as the radiation absorber has useful sensitivity for wavelengths 20--100 μm. A 3 x 3 mm bolometer with a bismuth film as the absorber operates from 20--100 μm. High-T c bolometers which are fabricated with micromachining techniques on membranes of Si or Si 3 N 4 have potential application to large-format arrays which are used for infrared imaging. A nonisothermal high-T c bolometer can be fabricated on a membrane of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is in thermal contact with the heat sink along the perimeter of the membrane. A thermal analysis indicates that the YSZ membrane bolometer can have improved sensitivity compared to the sapphire bolometer for spectrometer applications. The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction is highly nonlinear in the applied voltage. The authors have made the first measurement of the linear response of the quasiparticle current in a Nb/AlO x /Nb junction over a broad bandwidth from 75--200 GHz. Nonlinear measurements made with these pulses may provide information about the quasiparticle lifetime. Preliminary data from such measurements are presented

  3. Recent achievements on the development of the HERSCHEL/PACS bolometer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billot, N.; Agnese, P.; Boulade, O.; Cigna, C.; Doumayrou, E.; Horeau, B.; Lepennec, J.; Martignac, J.; Pornin, J.-L.; Reveret, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Sauvage, M.; Simoens, F.; Vigroux, L.

    2006-01-01

    A new type of bolometer arrays sensitive in the far Infrared and Submillimeter range has been developed and manufactured by CEA/LETI/SLIR since 1997. These arrays will be integrated in the PACS instrument (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory (launch date 2007). The main innovations of CEA bolometers are their collective manufacturing technique (production of 3-side buttable 16x16 arrays) and their high mapping efficiency (large format detector and instantaneous Nyquist sampling). The measured NEP is 2.10 -16 W/Hz and the thermometric passband about 4-5Hz. In this article we describe CEA bolometers and present the results obtained during the last test campaign

  4. A millisecond-risetime sub-millimeter light source for lab and in flight bolometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbon, Ph.; Delbart, A.; Fesquet, M.; Magneville, C.; Mazeau, B.; Pansart, J.-P.; Yvon, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Marnieros, S.; Camus, Ph.; Durand, T.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2007-06-01

    The Olimpo balloon project will use a 120 bolometer camera to observe the sky at four frequencies (143, 217, 385 and 600 GHz) with a resolution of 3 to 2 arc-minute. This paper presents the sub-millimeter calibration "lamp" developed for ground testing and in-flight secondary calibration of bolometric detectors. By design, main features of the device are reproducibility and stability of light flux and millisecond rise time. The radiative device will be placed inside the bolometer camera and will illuminate the bolometer array through a hole in the last 2 K mirror. Operation, readout, and monitoring of the device is ensured by warm electronics. Light output flux and duration is programmable, triggered and monitored from a simple computer RS232 interface. It was tested to be reliable in ballooning temperature conditions from -80 to 50C. Design and test's results are explained.

  5. Development of a Bolometer Detector System for the NIST High Accuracy Infrared Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Y.; Datla, R. U.

    1998-01-01

    A bolometer detector system was developed for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to provide maximum sensitivity, spatial uniformity, and linearity of response covering the entire infrared spectral range. The spatial response variation was measured to be within 0.1 %. The linearity of the detector output was measured over three decades of input power. After applying a simple correction procedure, the detector output was found to deviate less than 0.2 % from linear behavior over this range. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of the bolometer system was 6 × 10−12 W/Hz at the frequency of 80 Hz. The detector output 3 dB roll-off frequency was 200 Hz. The detector output was stable to within ± 0.05 % over a 15 min period. These results demonstrate that the bolometer detector system will serve as an excellent detector for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer. PMID:28009364

  6. Operation of a tangential bolometer on the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Fonck, R.J.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1987-04-01

    A compact 15-channel bolometer array that views plasma emission tangentially across the midplane has been installed on the PBX tokamak to supplement a 19-channel poloidal array which views the plasma perpendicular to the toroidal direction. By comparing measurements from these arrays, poloidal asymmetries in the emission profile can be assessed. The detector array consists of 15 discrete 2-mm x 2-mm Thinistors, a mixed semiconductor material whose temperature coefficient of resistance is relatively high. The accumulated heat incident on a detector gives rise to a change in the resistance in each active element. Operated in tandem with an identical blind detector, the resistance in each pair is compared in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The variation in voltage resulting from the change in resistance is amplified, stored on a CAMAC transient recorder during the plasma discharge, and transferred to a VAX data acquisition computer. The instantaneous power is obtained by digitally smoothing and differentiating the signals in time, with suitable compensation for the cooling of the detector over the course of a plasma discharge. The detectors are ''free standing,'' i.e., they are supported only by their electrical leads. Having no substrate in contact with the detector reduces the response time and increases the time it takes for the detector to dissipate its accumulated heat, reducing the compensation for cooling required in the data analysis. The detectors were absolutely calibrated with a tungsten-halogen filament lamp and were found to vary by +-3%. The irradiance profiles are inverted to reveal the radially resolved emitted power density from the plasma, which is typically in the 0.1 to 0.5 W/cm 3 range

  7. Low noise high-Tc superconducting bolometers on silicon nitride membranes for far-infrared detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Nivelle, M.J.; Bruijn, M.P.; de Vries, R.; Wijnbergen, J.J.; de Korte, P.A.; Sanchez, S.; Elwenspoek, M.; Heidenblut, T.; Schwierzi, B.; Michalke, W.; Steinbeiss, E.

    1997-01-01

    High-T c GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductor bolometers with operation temperatures near 89 K, large receiving areas of 0.95mm 2 and very high detectivity have been made. The bolometers are supported by 0.62 μm thick silicon nitride membranes. A specially developed silicon-on-nitride layer was used to enable the epitaxial growth of the high-T c superconductor. Using a gold black absorption layer an absorption efficiency for wavelengths between 70 and 200 μm of about 83% has been established. The noise of the best devices is fully dominated by the intrinsic phonon noise of the thermal conductance G, and not by the 1/f noise of the superconducting film. The temperature dependence of the noise and the resulting optimum bias temperature have been investigated. In the analysis the often neglected effect of electrothermal feedback has been taken into account. The minimum electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) of a bolometer with a time constant τ of 95 ms is 2.9pW/Hz 1/2 which corresponds with an electrical detectivity D * of 3.4x10 10 cmHz 1/2 /W. Similar bolometers with τ=27ms and NEP=3.8pW/Hz 1/2 were also made. No degradation of the bolometers could be observed after vibration tests, thermal cycling and half a year storage. Measurements of the noise of a Pr doped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ film with T c =40K show that with such films the performance of air bridge type high-T c bolometers could be improved. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Detection of fast neutrons with LiF and Al2O3 scintillating bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coron, N; Gironnet, J; Leblanc, J; Marcillac, P de; Redon, T; Torres, L; Cuesta, C; Domange, J; Garcia, E; Martinez, M; Ortigoza, Y; Ortiz de Solorzano, A; Pobes, C; Puimedon, J; Rolon, T; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A

    2010-01-01

    Scintillating bolometers of LiF and Al 2 O 3 can monitor the fast neutrons flux in WIMPs searches. With both materials we merge the traditional fast neutron detection methods of induced reactions and scattering. The ROSEBUD collaboration devoted an underground run in the old Canfranc laboratory to study the response of LiF and Al 2 O 3 to fast neutrons from 252 Cf. Both bolometers were used simultaneously in a common experimental set-up resembling those of current WIMPs searches, which could give valuable insights into future WIMPs searches with cryogenic detectors as EURECA.

  9. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  10. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Giuliani, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.; Tenconi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers) consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% - 35%) and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  11. Influence of the direct response on the heterodyne sensitivity of hot electron bolometer mixers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Reker, S.F.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental study of the direct detection effect in a small volume (0.15??m×1??m×3.5?nm) quasioptical NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometer mixer at 673?GHz. We find that the small signal noise temperature, relevant for an astronomical observation, is 20% lower than the

  12. A high-Tc superconductor bolometer for remote sensing of atmospheric OH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nivelle, M.J.M.E.; De Nivelle, M.J.M.E.; Bruijn, M.P.; de Vries, R.; Wijnbergen, J.J.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Sanchez, Stefan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Heidenblut, T.; Schwierzi, B.; Michalke, W.; Steinbeiss, E.; Frericks, M.

    The technological feasibility is being investigated of a high-Tc superconductor transition edge bolometer for far-infrared detection, which can meet the requirements of a Fabry-Perot based satellite instrument designed for remote sensing of atmospheric OH. These include a time constant τ<0.3 s, an

  13. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% – 35% and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  14. Performance measurements of bolometers for the Planck high-frequency instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Warren; Bock, James J.; Ganga, Ken; Hristov, Viktor; Hustead, Leonard; Koch, Timothy; Lange, Andrew E.; Paine, Chris; Yun, Minhee

    2003-02-01

    We report on the characterization of bolometers fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) of the joint ESA/NASA Herschel/Planck mission to be launched in 2007. The HFI is a multicolor focal plane which consists of 48 bolometers operated at 100mK. Each bolometer is mounted to a feedhorn-filter assembly which defines one of six frequency bands centered between 100-857GHz. Four detectors in each of six bands are coupled to both linear polarizations and thus measure the total intensity. In addition, eight detectors in each of 3 bands (143, 217, and 353GHz)couple only to a single linear polarization and thus provide measurements of the Stokes parameters, Q and U, as well the total intensity. The detectors are required to achieve a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) at or below the background limit ~10-17 W/√Hz for the telescope and time constants of a few ms, short enough to resolve point sources as the 5 to 9 arc-minute beams move across the sky in great circles at 1 rpm. The bolometers are tested at 100mK in a commercial dilution refrigerator with a custom built thermal control system to regulate the heat sink with precision Hz. The 100mK tests include dark electrical characterization of the load curves, optical and electrical measurement of the thermal time constants and measurement of the noise spectral density from 0.01 to 10Hz for up to 24 bolometers simultaneously.

  15. An alternative geometry for bolometer sensors for use at high operating temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H., E-mail: meister@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Langer, H. [KRP-Mechatec Engineering GbR, Lichtenbergstr. 8, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Schmitt, S. [Fraunhofer ICT-IMM, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Alternative design for bolometer sensors based on flexure hinges is proposed. • FE analysis confirms mechanical stability at high temperatures. • First prototypes successfully pass thermal cycling tests. • Expected bolometer calibration constants are estimated. • Tests using fully functional prototypes have to confirm applicability of design. - Abstract: Bolometer sensors are a key component to determine the total radiation and the radiation profile in fusion devices. For future devices like ITER the need arose to develop new sensors in order to adapt to loads, in particular neutron irradiation and enhanced thermal loads. The method proposed here to deal effectively with the stresses in the absorber and its supporting membrane is to support the absorber by flexure hinges, thus allowing deformations in all dimensions and reducing stresses. First, a design for the flexure hinges is proposed. Then finite-element analyses (FEA) have been carried out to investigate expected deformations due to residual stresses from the manufacturing process as well as due to additional thermal loads at 450 °C. The results showed stress levels below the expected tensile strength of Si. In addition, calculations show that the proposed design is expected to provide acceptable cooling time constants. Thus, prototypes based on the proposed design have been manufactured. Measurements of their deformation at room temperature are in agreement with predictions from FEA. Also, all prototypes were successfully subjected to thermal cycling up to 450 °C without any failures, thus demonstrating a successful development. However, for future application as bolometer sensor, a change in calibration parameters is expected: a factor of five for the heat capacity and a factor of two for the cooling time constant. Further prototypes including meanders and electrical contacts need to be developed and tested to finally validate if flexure hinges are a viable means for bolometer

  16. Infrared detection with high-Tc bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Simon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature Tc make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa2Cu3O7-δ thermometers on sapphire substrates which have higher sensitivity than competing thermal detectors which operate at temperatures above 77 K. A 1 x 1 mm bolometer with gold black serving as the radiation absorber has useful sensitivity for wavelengths 20--100 μm. A 3 x 3 mm bolometer with a bismuth film as the absorber operates from 20--100 μm. High-Tc bolometers which are fabricated with micromachining techniques on membranes of Si or Si3N4 have potential application to large-format arrays which are used for infrared imaging. A nonisothermal high-Tc bolometer can be fabricated on a membrane of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is in thermal contact with the heat sink along the perimeter of the membrane. A thermal analysis indicates that the YSZ membrane bolometer can have improved sensitivity compared to the sapphire bolometer for spectrometer applications. The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction is highly nonlinear in the applied voltage. The authors have made the first measurement of the linear response of the quasiparticle current in a Nb/AlOx/Nb junction over a broad bandwidth from 75--200 GHz. Nonlinear measurements made with these pulses may provide information about the quasiparticle lifetime. Preliminary data from such measurements are presented.

  17. Noise and specific detectivity measurements on high-temperature superconducting transition-edge bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.D.; Mogro-campero, A.; Turner, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of thermal fluctuation noise in thermal detectors can be lessened by reducing heat capacity and thermal conductance. An attempt to accomplish this with the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) bolometer by making YBCO resistors on thermally isolated membranes is reported. The spectral power of the electrical noise of YBCO films on SrTiO3, bulk silicon with a buffer layer, and in thin dielectric membranes is measured. It is found that 1/f noise predominates in polycrystalline YBCO films on silicon-based substrates. Films on SrTiO3 with good electrical properties are dominated by thermal fluctuation noise, just as in the case of low-temperature superconductors. The implications of these findings for bolometer are addressed. The specific detectivity of a bolometric pixel made on bulk SrTiO3 is reported. 14 refs

  18. Low temperature composite bolometers using RuO2 films as a thermistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapellier, M.; Rasmussen, F.B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from a massive composite bolometer made of a sapphire crystal and ruthenium oxide films are presented. The properties of such RuO 2 films, in the temperature range [50 mK, 200 mK] have been studied. Individual particle detections, using an 241 Am source, have been used to calibrate the system in this temperature interval. Improvements in the performances of such detectors lead to consider them as realistic candidates for the detection of Dark Matter

  19. Calibration of a novel type of bolometer arrays for the Herschel space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billot, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The Herschel mission is a major project at the core of the European Space Agency (ESA) scientific program. The space telescope will perform observations of the universes in the far-infrared regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, which still remains little-known today. Among the many research institutes involved in the development and exploitation of this challenging observatory, the CEA designed a novel type of bolometric detectors to equip the photometer of the PACS instrument on-board the Herschel satellite. During my thesis, my task was twofold, I developed a characterisation procedure that takes advantage of unique features of CEA filled bolometer arrays and I applied it to calibrate the PACS photometer and optimize its performances in the various observing modes open to the scientific community. In this manuscript, I present the basics of infrared astronomy from its very beginning in 1800 to the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory. Then, I describe past and present developments in cryogenic bolometers, emphasising new concepts introduced by CEA. I follow with an explanation of the working principles of CEA bolometer arrays, a prerequisite to grasp the strategy of the characterisation procedure that we developed. Then I expose and analyse thoroughly the results that we obtained during the calibration campaign of the PACS photometer. Finally, I express detector performances in terms of 'observational' performances that future PACS users can comprehend. (author) [fr

  20. Progress on Background-Limited Membrane-Isolated TES Bolometers for Far-IR/Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M.; Day, P. K.; Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Leduc, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the lowest attainable phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) for membrane-isolation bolometers, we fabricated and measured the thermal conductance of suspended Si3N4 beams with different geometries via a noise thermometry technique. We measured beam cross-sectional areas ranging from 0.35 x 0.5 (micro)m(sup 2) to 135 x 1.0 (micro)m(sup 2) and beam lengths ranging from (micro)m to 8300 (micro)m. The measurements directly imply that membrane-isolation bolometers are capable of reaching a phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4 x 10(sup -20)W/Hz(sup 1)/O . This NEP adequate for the Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) proposed for the Japanese SPICA observatory, and adequate for NASA's SAFIR observatory, a 10-meter, 4 K telescope to be deployed at L2. Further, we measured the heat capacity of a suspended Si3N4 membrane and show how this result implies that one can make membrane-isolation bolometers with a response time which is fast enough for BLISS.

  1. Characterization of a ZnSe scintillating bolometer prototype for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenconi M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As proposed in the LUCIFER project, ZnSe crystals are attractive materials to realize scintillating bolometers aiming at the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of the promising isotope 82Se. However, the optimization of the ZnSe-based detectors is rather complex and requires a wide-range investigation of the crystal features: optical properties, crystalline quality, scintillation yields and bolometric behaviour. Samples tested up to now show problems in the reproducibility of crucial aspects of the detector performance. In this work, we present the results obtained with a scintillating bolometer operated aboveground at about 25 mK. The detector energy absorber was a single 1 cm3 ZnSe crystal. The good energy resolution of the heat channel (about 14 keV at 1460 keV and the excellent alpha/beta discrimination capability are very encouraging for a successful realization of the LUCIFER program. The bolometric measurements were completed by optical tests on the crystal (optical transmission and luminescence measurements down to 10 K and investigation of the crystalline structure. The work here described provides a set of parameters and procedures useful for a complete pre-characterization of ZnSe crystals in view of the realization of highly performing scintillating bolometers.

  2. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Detector with High Efficiency, Broad Bandwidth, and Highly Symmetric Coupling to Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T.; Benford, D.; Bennett, C.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Denis, K.; Hsieh, W.; Kogut, A.; Moseley, S.; Panek, J.; Schneider, G.; Travers, D.; U-Yen, K.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E.

    2008-04-01

    We describe a prototype detector system designed for precise measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization. The design combines a quasi-optical polarization modulator, a metal feedhorn, a superconducting planar microwave circuit, and a pair of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers operating at <100 mK. The circular feedhorn produces highly symmetric beams with very low cross-polarization. The planar circuit preserves symmetry in coupling to bolometers measuring orthogonal polarizations. We implement the circuit with superconducting niobium transmission lines. Three-dimensional interfaces between the planar circuit and waveguides leading to feedhorn and backshort have been carefully designed with electromagnetic simulations. Power is thermalized in resistors and conducted to bolometers via normal electrons. Our system is designed for a 29 43 GHz signal band. We have tested individual circuit elements in this frequency range. Fabrication of a full single-pixel system is underway.

  3. Bolometer's development for the detection of dark matter; Instrumentation autour de bolometres pour la recherche de matiere sombre WIMPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvon, D

    2000-06-01

    The author reviews his contributions to the use of bolometers (cryogenic detectors) for the detection of wimps (weakly interactive massive particles). Wimps are detected through their elastic scattering on the nuclei of the detector, a heat signal, luminescence or ionization can be simultaneously detected (at least 2 signals are necessary to discard photon interactions). Bolometers operate at low temperatures (< 50 mK) so they allow very low detection threshold and resolution (< keV) with a full energy conversion for recoiling nuclei. In Saclay the technology of bolometers based on simultaneous detection of heat and ionisation has been developed and improvements have been studied (NbSi thin films bolometers). The first results obtained in the framework of the Edelweiss collaboration are presented. Other developments based on infra-red bolometry (Planck surveyor and Archeops projects) are briefly described. In an appendix the operating principle of a bolometer is presented. (A.C.)

  4. A comparative study of 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance in multiwall and single-wall carbon nanotube bolometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rongtao; Kamal, Rayyan; Wu, Judy Z

    2011-07-01

    The 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are investigated in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film bolometers since both affect the bolometer detectivity directly. A comparison is made between the MWCNT film bolometers and their single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) counterparts. The intrinsic noise level in the former has been found at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in the latter, which outweighs the moderately lower TCR absolute values in the former and results in higher bolometer detectivity in MWCNT bolometers. Interestingly, reduced noise and enhanced TCR can be obtained by improving the inter-tube coupling using thermal annealing in both SWCNT and MWCNT films, suggesting much higher detectivity may be achieved via engineering the inter-tube coupling.

  5. Top-Level Simulation of a Smart-Bolometer Using VHDL Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu DENOUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An event-driven modeling technique in standard VHDL is presented in this paper for the high level simulation of a resistive bolometer operating in closed-loop mode and implementing smart functions. The closed-loop mode operation is achieved by the capacitively coupled electrical substitution technique. The event-driven VHDL modeling technique is successfully applied to behavioral modeling and simulation of such a multi-physics system involving optical, thermal and electronics mechanisms. The modeling technique allows the high level simulations for the development and validation of the smart functions algorithms of the future integrated smart-device.

  6. Feedhorn-Coupled Transition-Edge Superconducting Bolometer Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubmayr, J.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Cho, H.-M.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Grace, E.; Halverson, N.; Henderson, S. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NIST produces large-format, dual-polarization-sensitive detector arrays for a broad range of frequencies (30-1400 GHz). Such arrays enable a host of astrophysical measurements. Detectors optimized for cosmic microwave background observations are monolithic, polarization-sensitive arrays based on feedhorn and planar Nb antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting (TES) bolometers. Recent designs achieve multiband, polarimetric sensing within each spatial pixel. In this proceeding, we describe our multichroic, feedhorn-coupled design; demonstrate performance at 70-380 GHz; and comment on current developments for implementation of these detector arrays in the advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope receiver

  7. Hot-Electron Gallium Nitride Two Dimensional Electron Gas Nano-bolometers For Advanced THz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Rahul

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in semiconductor heterostructures was identified as a promising medium for hot-electron bolometers (HEB) in the early 90s. Up until now all research based on 2DEG HEBs is done using high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. These systems have demonstrated very good performance, but only in the sub terahertz (THz) range. However, above ˜0.5 THz the performance of AlGaAs/GaAs detectors drastically deteriorates. It is currently understood, that detectors fabricated from standard AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures do not allow for reasonable coupling to THz radiation while maintaining high conversion efficiency. In this work we have developed 2DEG HEBs based on disordered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor, that operate at frequencies beyond 1THz at room temperature. We observe strong free carrier absorption at THz frequencies in our disordered 2DEG film due to Drude absorption. We show the design and fabrication procedures of novel micro-bolometers having ultra-low heat capacities. In this work the mechanism of 2DEG response to THz radiation is clearly identified as bolometric effect through our direct detection measurements. With optimal doping and detector geometry, impedances of 10--100 O have been achieved, which allow integration of these devices with standard THz antennas. We also demonstrate performance of the antennas used in this work in effectively coupling THz radiation to the micro-bolometers through polarization dependence and far field measurements. Finally heterodyne mixing due to hot electrons in the 2DEG micro-bolometer has been performed at sub terahertz frequencies and a mixing bandwidth greater than 3GHz has been achieved. This indicates that the characteristic cooling time in our detectors is fast, less than 50ps. Due to the ultra-low heat capacity; these detectors can be used in a heterodyne system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a local oscillator (LO) which typically provides output powers in the micro

  8. Investigation of CeO2 Buffer Layer Effects on the Voltage Response of YBCO Transition-Edge Bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Nazifi, Rana; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the thermal parameters of superconducting transition-edge bolometers produced on a single crystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrate with and without a CeO2 buffer layer was investigated. Metal-organic deposition was used to deposit the 20-nm CeO2 buffer layer, whereas RF magnetron sputtering...... responses, and the results were compared with that of simulations conducted by applying a one-dimensional thermophysical model. It was observed that adding the buffer layer to the structure of the bolometer results in an increased response at higher modulation frequencies. Results from simulations made...

  9. Detection of fast neutrons with LiF and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scintillating bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coron, N; Gironnet, J; Leblanc, J; Marcillac, P de; Redon, T; Torres, L [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay, Paris (France); Cuesta, C; Domange, J; Garcia, E; Martinez, M; Ortigoza, Y; Ortiz de Solorzano, A; Pobes, C; Puimedon, J; Rolon, T; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A, E-mail: puimedon@unizar.e [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    Scintillating bolometers of LiF and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can monitor the fast neutrons flux in WIMPs searches. With both materials we merge the traditional fast neutron detection methods of induced reactions and scattering. The ROSEBUD collaboration devoted an underground run in the old Canfranc laboratory to study the response of LiF and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to fast neutrons from {sup 252}Cf. Both bolometers were used simultaneously in a common experimental set-up resembling those of current WIMPs searches, which could give valuable insights into future WIMPs searches with cryogenic detectors as EURECA.

  10. Improved limits for natural {alpha} radioactivity of tungsten with a CaWO{sub 4} scintillating bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Marcillac, P. de; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A

    2003-03-13

    An experiment has been carried out at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory with a 54 g CaWO{sub 4} scintillating bolometer in the frame of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD) Collaboration. This detector has been developed in order to achieve a good particle discrimination capability by means of the simultaneous detection of light and heat with the goal of rejecting background in dark matter search. This Letter reports, as a byproduct of such development, improved limits on the lifetime for {alpha} decaying tungsten isotopes.

  11. The SHARC II 350-Micron Bolometer Array: 384 Pixels Read in "Total Power" Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Charles; Allen, Christine A.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Phillips, Thomas G.; Voellmer, George

    SHARC II is a facility 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory expected to come online in 2002. The key component of SHARC II is a 12x32 array of doped silicon "pop-up" bolometers developed at NASA/Goddard and to be completed by March 2002. Each pixel is 1 mm X 1 mm, coated with a 400 ohms/square bismuth film, and located lambda/4 above a reflective backshort to maximize radiation absorption. The pixels cover the focal plane with >95% filling factor. Each doped thermistor occupies nearly the full area of the pixel, which results in a 1/f knee of the detector noise at 0.01 Hz under load at the bath temperature of 0.32K. To take advantage of the low 1/f noise, the bolometers are ACbiased and read in "total power" mode (B. Crill et. al., in preparation, 2002). The readout allows slow modulation of astrophysical signals (nodding or scanning), in principle without the need for fast modulation (chopping). The total power capability makes possible continuous correction for atmospheric transmission. In the best 25% of winter nights on Mauna Kea, SHARC II is expected to have an NEFD at 350 microns of 1 Jy s1/2 or better. The new camera should be 4 times faster at detecting known point sources and 30 times faster at mapping large areas compared to its predecessor.

  12. The 12x32 Pop-Up Bolometer Array for the SHARC II Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Groseth, Jeffrey E.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.; Voellmer, George M.

    2002-01-01

    SHARC II is a 350 micron facility camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) expected to come on-line in 2002. The key component of SHARC II is a 12x32 array of doped silicon 'pop-up' bolometers developed at NASA/Goddard and delivered to Caltech in March 2002. Each pixel is 1 mm x 1 mm, coated with a 400 Omega/square bismuth film, and located lambda/4 above a reflective backshort to maximize radiation absorption. The pixels cover the focal plane with greater than 95% filling factor. Each doped thermistor occupies nearly the full area of the pixel to minimize 1/f noise. We report some results from the first cold measurements of this array. The bolometers were located inside a dark cover, and 4x32 pixels were read simultaneously. In the best 25% of winter nights on Mauna Kea, SHARC II is expected to have an NEFD at 350 microns of 1 Jy s(sup 1/2) or better.

  13. Measurements of the Optical Performance of Prototype TES Bolometers for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.; Ranjan, M.; Gao, J.-R.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Morozov, D.; Doherty, S.; Trappe, N.; Withington, S.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays, coupled with a Fourier transform spectrometer, will provide images of a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the wavelength range 34-210 μm. Each horn-coupled bolometer consists of a transition edge sensor (TES), with a transition temperature close to 100 mK, and a thin-film Ta absorber on a thermally-isolated silicon nitride membrane. SAFARI requires extremely sensitive detectors ( NEP˜2×10-19 W/), with correspondingly low saturation powers (˜5 fW), to take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics. To meet the challenge of testing such sensitive detectors we have constructed an ultra-low background test facility based on a cryogen-free high-capacity dilution refrigerator, paying careful attention to stray-light exclusion, shielding, and vibration isolation. For optical measurements the system contains internal cold (3-30 K) and hot (˜300 K) black-body calibration sources, as well as a light pipe for external illumination. We discuss our measurements of high optical efficiency in prototype SAFARI detectors and describe recent improvements to the test facility that will enable us to test the full SAFARI focal-plane arrays.

  14. The Polarization-Sensitive Bolometers for SPICA and their Potential Use for Ground-Based Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveret, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    CEA is leading the development of Safari-POL, an imaging-polarimeter aboard the SPICA space observatory (ESA M5). SPICA will be able to reach unprecedented sensitivities thanks to its cooled telescope and its ultra-sensitive detectors. The detector assembly of Safari-POL holds three arrays that are cooled down to 50 mK and correspond to three spectral bands : 100, 200 and 350 microns. The detectors (silicon bolometers), benefit from the Herschel/PACS legacy and are also a big step forward in term of sensitivity (improved by two orders of magnitude compared to PACS bolometers) and for polarimetry capabilities. Indeed, each pixel is intrinsically sensitive to two polarization components (Horizontal and Vertical). We will present the Safari-POL concept, the first results of measurements made on the detectors, and future plans for possible ground-based instruments using this technology. We will also present the example of the ArTéMiS camera, installed at APEX, that was developped as a ground-based conterpart of the PACS photometer.

  15. Single SQUID multiplexer for arrays of voltage-biased superconducting bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jongsoo; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, M.J.; Richards, P.L.; Skidmore, J.T.; Spieler, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a frequency domain superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer which monitors a row of low-temperature sensors simultaneously with a single SQUID. Each sensor is ac biased with a unique frequency and all the sensor currents are added in a superconducting summing loop. A single SQUID measures the current in the summing loop, and the individual signals are lock-in detected after the room temperature SQUID electronics. The current in the summing loop is nulled by feedback to eliminate direct crosstalk. In order to avoid the accumulation of Johnson noise in the summing loop, a tuned bandpass filter is inserted in series with each sensor. For a 32-channel multiplexer for Voltage-biased Superconducting Bolometer (VSB) with a time constant(approx)1msec, we estimate that bias frequencies in the range from(approx)500kHz to(approx)600kHz are practical. The major limitation of our multiplexing scheme is in the slew rate of a readout SQUID. We discuss a ''carrier nulling'' technique which could be used to increase the number of sensors in a row or to multiplex faster bolometers by reducing the required slew rate for a readout SQUID

  16. A scintillating bolometer array for double beta decay studies: The LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gironi, L., E-mail: luca.gironi@mib.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The main goal of the LUCIFER experiment is to study the neutrinoless double beta decay, a rare process allowed if neutrinos are Majorana particles. Although aiming at a discovery, in the case of insufficient sensitivity the LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment able to probe the entire inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve this challenging result, high resolution detectors with active background discrimination capability are required. This very interesting possibility can be largely fulfilled by scintillating bolometers thanks to the simultaneous read-out of heat and light emitted by the interactions in the detector or by pulse shape analysis. - Highlights: • The LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment. • Scintillating bolometers allow high energy resolution and background discrimination. • The first choice for the LUCIFER tower are ZnSe crystals. • The LUCIFER setup will consist of an array of 30 individual single module detectors. • An array of ZnMoO4 crystals allowed the bolometric observation of the 2vDBD of {sup 100}Mo.

  17. Twenty-channel bolometer array for studying impurity radiation and transport in the TCS field-reversed configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostora, M. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A.

    2006-10-01

    A bolometer array diagnostic has been developed for the University of Washington Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment (TCS) field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment in order to measure radially resolved total radiated power per unit length of the FRC. This will provide radiation energy loss information, useful in power balance and impurity studies. The 20-element photodiode bolometer will be mounted at the midplane of the TCS cylindrical vacuum chamber to view the rotating magnetic field (RMF) generated FRC plasma. Key features of this new bolometer array are (1) extensive electrical shielding against the RMF, (2) robust electrical isolation, (3) trans-impedance amplifiers using a microcoax interface at the array and a fiber optic interface to the screen room, and (4) a custom glass-on-metal socket for the 20-element photodiode chip to ensure high vacuum compatibility. The bolometer array can be retracted behind a gate valve using a stepper motor to protect it during vacuum chamber bakeout. The slit assembly housing is interchangeable to provide flexibility for the viewing sightlines.

  18. Development of an automated method for in situ measurement of the geometrical properties of the ITER bolometer diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H., E-mail: meister@ipp.mpg.de; Penzel, F.; Giannone, L.; Kannamueller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T.

    2011-10-15

    In order to derive the local emission profile of the plasma radiation in a fusion device using the line-integrated measurements of the bolometer diagnostic, tomographic reconstruction methods have to be applied to the measurements from many lines-of-sight. A successful reconstruction needs to take the finite sizes of detectors and apertures and the resulting non-ideal measurements into account. In ITER a method for in situ measurement of the geometrical properties of the various components of the bolometer diagnostic after installation is required as the viewing cones have to pass through narrow gaps between components. The method proposed to be used for ITER uses the beam of a laser with high intensity to illuminate the bolometer assembly from many different angles {xi} and {theta}. A light-weight robot from Kuka Robotics is used to efficiently position the laser on many points covering the complete viewing cone of each line-of-sight and to direct the beam precisely into the entrance aperture of the bolometer. Measuring the response of the bolometer allows for the calculation of the transmission function t({xi}, {theta}), the angular etendue and finally the geometric function in reconstruction space, which is required for the tomography algorithms. Measuring the transmission function for a laboratory assembly demonstrates the viability of the proposed method. Results for a collimator-type camera from a prototype envisaged for ITER are presented. The implemented procedure is discussed in detail, in particular with respect to the automatisation applied which takes the achievable positioning and alignment accuracies of the robot into account. This discussion is extended towards the definition of requirements for a remote-handling tool for ITER.

  19. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  20. Terahertz Direct Detectors Based on Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers with Microwave Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shou-Lu; Li, Xian-Feng; Su, Run-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Xue-Cou; Kang, Lin; Jin, Biao-Bing; Xu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Pei-Heng

    2017-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) direct detectors based on superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) hot electron bolometers (HEBs) with microwave (MW) biasing are studied. The MW is used to bias the HEB to the optimum point and to readout the impedance changes caused by the incident THz signals. Compared with the thermal biasing method, this method would be more promising in large scale array with simple readout. The used NbN HEB has an excellent performance as heterodyne detector with the double sideband noise temperature (TN) of 403 K working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz. As a result, the noise equivalent power of 1.5 pW/Hz1/2 and the response time of 64 ps are obtained for the direct detectors based on the NbN HEBs and working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz.

  1. Appropriate microwave frequency selection for biasing superconducting hot electron bolometers as terahertz direct detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S. L.; Li, X. F.; Jia, X. Q.; Kang, L.; Jin, B. B.; Xu, W. W.; Chen, J.; Wu, P. H.

    2017-04-01

    Terahertz (THz) direct detectors based on superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) hot electron bolometers (HEBs) and biased by a simple microwave (MW) source have been studied. The frequency and power of the MW are selected by measuring the MW responses of the current-voltage (I-V) curves and resistance-temperature (R-T) curves of the NbN HEBs. The non-uniform absorption theory is used to explain the current jumps in the I-V curves and the resistance jumps in the R-T curves. Compared to the thermal biasing, the MW biasing method can improve the sensitivity, make the readout system much easier and consumes less liquid helium, which is important for long lasting experiments. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of 1.6 pW Hz-1/2 and the response time of 86 ps are obtained for the detectors working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz.

  2. LUCIFER: A Scintillating Bolometer Array for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L

    2012-01-01

    One of the main limitations in the study of 0vDBD is the presence of a radioactive background in the energy region of interest. This limit can be overcome by the technological approach of the LUCIFER project, which is based the double read-out of the heat and scintillation light produced by ZnSe scintillating bolometers. This experiment aims at a background lower than 10 −3 counts/keV/kg/y in the energy region of the 0νDBD of 82 Se. Such a low background level will provide a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of the order of 100 meV. In the following, the results of the recent R and D activity are discussed, the single module for the LUCIFER detector is described, and the process for the production of 82 Se-enriched ZnSe crystals is presented.

  3. 350 Micron Imaging of Ultracompact HII Regions with the CSO Bolometer Array (SHARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. R.; Lis, D. C.; Wang, N.; Phillips, T. G.

    1995-12-01

    We present diffraction-limited 350 mu m images of ultracompact HII regions (UCHIIs) obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory during engineering observations with our new 24-pixel bolometer array camera (SHARC) built in collaboration with the Goddard Space Flight Center. With a beamsize of 10'', our images show that the 350 mu m emission from these sources is generally quite compact. We combine our submillimeter fluxes with IRAS fluxes from a HiRes survey of UCHIIs and estimate the dust temperature, luminosity and mass of these regions. We also present CO J=3->2 maps of molecular outflows emerging from several of these active sources including K3-50, G138.30+1.56, and G240.31+0.07.

  4. YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on nanocrystalline diamond films for HTSC bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, G.; Beetz, C. P., Jr.; Boerstler, R.; Steinbeck, J.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been fabricated. A composite buffer layer system consisting of diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO was explored for this purpose. The as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting with Tc of about 84 K and a relatively narrow transition width of about 8 K. SEM cross sections of the films showed very sharp interfaces between diamond/Si3N4 and between Si3N4/YSZ. The deposited YBCO film had a surface roughness of about 1000 A, which is suitable for high-temperature superconductive (HTSC) bolometer fabrication. It was also found that preannealing of the nanocrystalline diamond thin films at high temperature was very important for obtaining high-quality YBCO films.

  5. YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on nanocrystalline diamond films for HTSC bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, G.; Beetz, C. P., Jr.; Boerstler, R.; Steinbeck, J.

    1993-03-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been fabricated. A composite buffer layer system consisting of diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO was explored for this purpose. The as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting with Tc of about 84 K and a relatively narrow transition width of about 8 K. SEM cross sections of the films showed very sharp interfaces between diamond/Si3N4 and between Si3N4/YSZ. The deposited YBCO film had a surface roughness of about 1000 A, which is suitable for high-temperature superconductive (HTSC) bolometer fabrication. It was also found that preannealing of the nanocrystalline diamond thin films at high temperature was very important for obtaining high-quality YBCO films.

  6. Parameter Comparison for Low-Noise MoAu TES Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.; Allen, C. A.; Chervenak, J. A.; Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a comparative investigation of the parameters of MoAu-bilayer Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers designed for infrared detectors. A set of devices with variations in geometry were fabricated at the NASA/GSFC detector development facility. These detectors have different bilayer aspect ratios (providing differing normal state resistances and current densities), and have varieties of normal metal regions to study the effects of geometry on noise. These normal metal regions are oriented either parallel to or transverse to the direction of current flow, or both. The lowest noise detectors are found to have normal metal regions oriented transversely. For about a dozen different devices, we have measured a large set of parameters by means of a suite of tests. These include complex impedance measurements to derive time constants; IV curves to determine resistance and power; thermal conductance measurements; noise measurements as a function of device resistance; and &rect resistance vs. temperature measurements .

  7. Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eden, G. G.; Reinke, M. L.; Peterson, B. J.; Gray, T. K.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A.; Lore, J.; Mukai, K.; Sano, R.; Pandya, S. N.; Morgan, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm2 Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil's calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. The optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.

  8. CALDER: neutrinoless double-beta decay identification in TeO{sub 2} bolometers with kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, E.S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; De Bernardis, P.; Martinez, M.; Masi, S.; Vignati, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bucci, C.; D' Addabbo, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Calvo, M. [CNRS, Institut Neel, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Cardani, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Princeton University, Physics Department, NJ (United States); Castellano, M.G. [CNR, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Pagnanini, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Next-generation experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay must be sensitive to a Majorana neutrino mass as low as 10 meV. CUORE, an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers being commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, features an expected sensitivity of 50- 130 meV at 90 % C.L. The background is expected to be dominated by α radioactivity, and can be in principle removed by detecting the small amount of Cherenkov light emitted by the β signal. The Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution project aims at developing a small prototype experiment consisting of TeO{sub 2} bolometers coupled to high-sensitivity light detectors based on kinetic inductance detectors. The R and D is focused on the light detectors in view of the implementation in a next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. (orig.)

  9. CALDER: neutrinoless double-beta decay identification in TeO{sub 2} bolometers with kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, E. S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bucci, C. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Calvo, M. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Saint-Martin-d’Héres (France); Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Castellano, M. G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, Rome (Italy); Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; Bernardis, P. de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); D’Addabbo, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Martinez, M.; Masi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Pagnanini, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN Gran Sasso Science Institute, L’Aquila (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Vignati, M., E-mail: marco.vignati@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2015-07-31

    Next-generation experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay must be sensitive to a Majorana neutrino mass as low as 10 meV. CUORE , an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers being commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, features an expected sensitivity of 50–130 meV at 90 % C.L. The background is expected to be dominated by α radioactivity, and can be in principle removed by detecting the small amount of Cherenkov light emitted by the β signal. The Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution project aims at developing a small prototype experiment consisting of TeO{sub 2} bolometers coupled to high-sensitivity light detectors based on kinetic inductance detectors. The R&D is focused on the light detectors in view of the implementation in a next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment.

  10. Quadrupolar interactions in non-cubic crystal and related extra heat capacities. Possible effects on a sapphire bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassou, M. [Tunis Univ. (Tunisia)]|[CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France); Rotter, M. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)]|[CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France); Bernier, M. [CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France); Chapellier, M. [CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France)

    1996-02-11

    It is shown that in a non-cubic crystal, the extra heat capacity due to quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins >1/2 could be much bigger than the phonon heat capacity when the temperature decreases. The possible coupling between quadrupolar and phonon heat reservoir via paramagnetic impurities is stressed. A NMR experiment done on sapphire is presented with an evaluation of the coupling between the two reservoirs and its consequence on the performance of the bolometer. (orig.).

  11. Quadrupolar interactions in non-cubic crystal and related extra heat capacities. Possible effects on a sapphire bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassou, M.; Rotter, M.; Bernier, M.; Chapellier, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that in a non-cubic crystal, the extra heat capacity due to quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins >1/2 could be much bigger than the phonon heat capacity when the temperature decreases. The possible coupling between quadrupolar and phonon heat reservoir via paramagnetic impurities is stressed. A NMR experiment done on sapphire is presented with an evaluation of the coupling between the two reservoirs and its consequence on the performance of the bolometer. (orig.)

  12. Fabrication of Cryogenic Manganite Bolometers to Measure the Total Energy at the LCLS Free Electron X-ray Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, O B; Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Liang, Y; Gardner, C; Ables, E; Fong, K W; Bionta, R M; Friedrich, S

    2008-06-14

    We are developing cryogenic bolometers to measure the total energy of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser that is currently being built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. LCLS will produce ultrashort {approx}200 fs X-ray laser pulses with {approx}10{sup 13} photons at 0.8 keV up to {approx}10{sup 12} photons at 8 keV per pulse at a repeat interval as short as 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. Our bolometer consists of a 375 {micro}m thick Si absorber and a Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} sensor operated at its metal-insulator transition. It will measure the total energy of each pulse with a precision of <1%, and is designed to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude, and readout speed compatible with the LCLS pulse rate. Here we discuss bolometer design and fabrication, and the photoresponse of prototype devices to pulsed optical lasers.

  13. Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Eyal; You, Lixing

    2008-02-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies have great potential for healthcare, plasma diagnostics, and homeland security applications. Terahertz frequencies correspond to energy level transitions of important molecules in biology and astrophysics. Terahertz radiation (T-rays) can penetrate clothing and, to some extent, can also penetrate biological materials. Because of their shorter wavelengths, they offer higher spatial resolution than do microwaves or millimeter waves. We are developing hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer receivers for heterodyne detection at terahertz frequencies. HEB detectors provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at terahertz frequencies. We describe the development of a two-pixel focal plane array (FPA) based on HEB technology. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a fully automated, two-dimensional scanning, passive imaging system based on our HEB technology operating at 0.85 THz. Our high spectral resolution terahertz imager has a total system noise equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) value of better than 0.5 K and a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. HEB technology is becoming the basis for advanced terahertz imaging and spectroscopic technologies for the study of biological and chemical agents over the entire terahertz spectrum.

  14. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; hide

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  15. LUCIFER: a scintillating bolometer array for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the high precision achieved in the field of neutrino oscillations, there are some fundamental questions that can not be addressed by a study of ths phenomenon. We do not know in fact the absolute mass of neutrino and weather it is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The LUCIFER experiment, financed by the ERC-AdG, will play an important role in this field. This project aims to push beyond the actual technological limits the possibility of observation of the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD). The detection of this extremely rare decay would indeed demonstrate that neutrino is a Majorana particle and, at the same time, would allow to set its absolute mass scale. LUCIFER will study the 0νDBD do 82 Se through ZnSe scintillating bolometers. Thanks to the simultaneous red-out of the heat and light produced by an interaction in the crystal, the background rate in the region of interest will be lower than 10 -3 counts/kg/keV/years. In the following, the expected performance of LUCIFER are discussed.

  16. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author)

  17. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Terahertz Emitter for Bolometer Focal Plane Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Brown, Ari; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process is reported for prototype emitters of THz radiation, which operate cryogenically, and should provide a fast, stable blackbody source suitable for characterization of THz devices. The fabrication has been demonstrated and, at the time of this reporting, testing was underway. The emitter is similar to a monolithic silicon bolometer in design, using both a low-noise thermometer and a heater element on a thermally isolated stage. An impedance-matched, high-emissivity coat ing is also integrated to tune the blackbody properties. This emitter is designed to emit a precise amount of power as a blackbody spectrum centered on terahertz frequencies. The emission is a function of the blackbody temperature. An integrated resistive heater and thermometer system can control the temperature of the blackbody with greater precision than previous incarnations of calibration sources that relied on blackbody emission. The emitter is fabricated using a silicon- on-insulator substrate wafer. The buried oxide is chosen to be less than 1 micron thick, and the silicon device thickness is 1-2 microns. Layers of phosphorus compensated with boron are implanted into and diffused throughout the full thickness of the silicon device layer to create the thermometer and heater components. Degenerately doped wiring is implanted to connect the devices to wire-bondable contact pads at the edge of the emitter chip. Then the device is micromachined to remove the thick-handle silicon behind the thermometer and heater components, and to thermally isolate it on a silicon membrane. An impedance- matched emissive coating (ion assisted evaporated Bi) is applied to the back of the membrane to enable high-efficiency emission of the blackbody spectrum.

  18. Deep learning for plasma tomography using the bolometer system at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Francisco A.; Ferreira, Diogo R.; Carvalho, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma tomography is able to reconstruct the plasma profile from radiation measurements along several lines of sight. • The reconstruction can be performed with neural networks, but previous work focused on learning a parametric model. • Deep learning can be used to reconstruct the full 2D plasma profile with the same resolution as existing tomograms. • We introduce a deep neural network to generate an image from 1D projection data based on a series of up-convolutions. • After training on JET data, the network provides accurate reconstructions with an average pixel error as low as 2%. - Abstract: Deep learning is having a profound impact in many fields, especially those that involve some form of image processing. Deep neural networks excel in turning an input image into a set of high-level features. On the other hand, tomography deals with the inverse problem of recreating an image from a number of projections. In plasma diagnostics, tomography aims at reconstructing the cross-section of the plasma from radiation measurements. This reconstruction can be computed with neural networks. However, previous attempts have focused on learning a parametric model of the plasma profile. In this work, we use a deep neural network to produce a full, pixel-by-pixel reconstruction of the plasma profile. For this purpose, we use the overview bolometer system at JET, and we introduce an up-convolutional network that has been trained and tested on a large set of sample tomograms. We show that this network is able to reproduce existing reconstructions with a high level of accuracy, as measured by several metrics.

  19. Deep learning for plasma tomography using the bolometer system at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Francisco A. [Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, Diogo R., E-mail: diogo.ferreira@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), University of Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, Pedro J. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), IST, University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Plasma tomography is able to reconstruct the plasma profile from radiation measurements along several lines of sight. • The reconstruction can be performed with neural networks, but previous work focused on learning a parametric model. • Deep learning can be used to reconstruct the full 2D plasma profile with the same resolution as existing tomograms. • We introduce a deep neural network to generate an image from 1D projection data based on a series of up-convolutions. • After training on JET data, the network provides accurate reconstructions with an average pixel error as low as 2%. - Abstract: Deep learning is having a profound impact in many fields, especially those that involve some form of image processing. Deep neural networks excel in turning an input image into a set of high-level features. On the other hand, tomography deals with the inverse problem of recreating an image from a number of projections. In plasma diagnostics, tomography aims at reconstructing the cross-section of the plasma from radiation measurements. This reconstruction can be computed with neural networks. However, previous attempts have focused on learning a parametric model of the plasma profile. In this work, we use a deep neural network to produce a full, pixel-by-pixel reconstruction of the plasma profile. For this purpose, we use the overview bolometer system at JET, and we introduce an up-convolutional network that has been trained and tested on a large set of sample tomograms. We show that this network is able to reproduce existing reconstructions with a high level of accuracy, as measured by several metrics.

  20. Development of ^{100}Mo-containing scintillating bolometers for a high-sensitivity neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengaud, E.; Augier, C.; Barabash, A. S.; Beeman, J. W.; Bekker, T. B.; Bellini, F.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Bergmann, T.; Billard, J.; Boiko, R. S.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Chernyak, D. M.; de Combarieu, M.; Coron, N.; Danevich, F. A.; Dafinei, I.; Jesus, M. De; Devoyon, L.; Domizio, S. Di; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Enss, C.; Ferroni, F.; Fleischmann, A.; Foerster, N.; Gascon, J.; Gastaldo, L.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Hervé, S.; Humbert, V.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Ivanov, I. M.; Jin, Y.; Juillard, A.; Kleifges, M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Koskas, F.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Laubenstein, M.; Sueur, H. Le; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Nagorny, S.; Navick, X.-F.; Nikolaichuk, M. O.; Nones, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Pagnanini, L.; Pari, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Plantevin, O.; Poda, D. V.; Queguiner, E.; Redon, T.; Rodrigues, M.; Rozov, S.; Rusconi, C.; Sanglard, V.; Schäffner, K.; Scorza, S.; Shlegel, V. N.; Siebenborn, B.; Strazzer, O.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tomei, C.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vagneron, L.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.; Velázquez, M.; Vignati, M.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zolotarova, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology involving ^{100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers, compatible with the goals of CUPID, a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Large mass (˜ 1 kg), high optical quality, radiopure ^{100}Mo-containing zinc and lithium molybdate crystals have been produced and used to develop high performance single detector modules based on 0.2-0.4 kg scintillating bolometers. In particular, the energy resolution of the lithium molybdate detectors near the Q-value of the double-beta transition of ^{100}Mo (3034 keV) is 4-6 keV FWHM. The rejection of the α -induced dominant background above 2.6 MeV is better than 8σ . Less than 10 μ Bq/kg activity of ^{232}Th (^{228}Th) and ^{226}Ra in the crystals is ensured by boule recrystallization. The potential of ^{100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers to perform high sensitivity double-beta decay searches has been demonstrated with only 10 kg× d exposure: the two neutrino double-beta decay half-life of ^{100}Mo has been measured with the up-to-date highest accuracy as T_{1/2} = [6.90 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.37(syst.)] × 10^{18} years. Both crystallization and detector technologies favor lithium molybdate, which has been selected for the ongoing construction of the CUPID-0/Mo demonstrator, containing several kg of ^{100}Mo.

  1. Development of {sup 100}Mo-containing scintillating bolometers for a high-sensitivity neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armengaud, E.; Gros, M.; Herve, S.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X.F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Zolotarova, A.S. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Augier, C.; Billard, J.; Cazes, A.; Charlieux, F.; Jesus, M. de; Gascon, J.; Juillard, A.; Queguiner, E.; Sanglard, V.; Vagneron, L. [Univ Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Umatov, V.I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bekker, T.B. [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bellini, F.; Ferroni, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benoit, A.; Camus, P. [CNRS-Neel, Grenoble (France); Berge, L.; Chapellier, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Humbert, V.; Le Sueur, H.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Plantevin, O. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Bergmann, T.; Kleifges, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Weber, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boiko, R.S.; Danevich, F.A.; Kobychev, V.V.; Nikolaichuk, M.O.; Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Broniatowski, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brudanin, V.; Rozov, S.; Yakushev, E. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capelli, S.; Gironi, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G. [Universita di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Chernyak, D.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); The University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Combarieu, M. de; Pari, P. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRAMIS, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coron, N.; Redon, T. [Universite Paris-Sud, IAS, CNRS, Orsay (France); Devoyon, L.; Koskas, F.; Strazzer, O. [Universite Paris-Saclay, Orphee, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Di Domizio, S. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Eitel, K.; Siebenborn, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Foerster, N.; Kozlov, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Giuliani, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Grigorieva, V.D.; Ivannikova, N.V.; Ivanov, I.M.; Makarov, E.P.; Shlegel, V.N.; Vasiliev, Ya.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Hehn, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jin, Y. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Marcoussis (France); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kudryavtsev, V.A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Laubenstein, M.; Nagorny, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Loidl, M.; Rodrigues, M. [CEA-Saclay, CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mancuso, M. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Pagnanini, L.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN, Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Piperno, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Poda, D.V. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rusconi, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Scorza, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada); Velazquez, M. [Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, CNRS, Pessac (France)

    2017-11-15

    This paper reports on the development of a technology involving {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers, compatible with the goals of CUPID, a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Large mass (∝ 1 kg), high optical quality, radiopure {sup 100}Mo-containing zinc and lithium molybdate crystals have been produced and used to develop high performance single detector modules based on 0.2-0.4 kg scintillating bolometers. In particular, the energy resolution of the lithium molybdate detectors near the Q-value of the double-beta transition of {sup 100}Mo (3034 keV) is 4-6 keV FWHM. The rejection of the α-induced dominant background above 2.6 MeV is better than 8σ. Less than 10 μBq/kg activity of {sup 232}Th({sup 228}Th) and {sup 226}Ra in the crystals is ensured by boule recrystallization. The potential of {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers to perform high sensitivity double-beta decay searches has been demonstrated with only 10 kg x d exposure: the two neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 100}Mo has been measured with the up-to-date highest accuracy as T{sub 1/2} = [6.90 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.37(syst.)] x 10{sup 18} years. Both crystallization and detector technologies favor lithium molybdate, which has been selected for the ongoing construction of the CUPID-0/Mo demonstrator, containing several kg of {sup 100}Mo. (orig.)

  2. In situ calibration of the foil detector for an infrared imaging video bolometer using a carbon evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K; Peterson, B J; Takayama, S; Sano, R

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method. Also, the principle of the in situ calibration system was justified.

  3. In situ calibration of the foil detector for an infrared imaging video bolometer using a carbon evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K.; Peterson, B. J.; Takayama, S.; Sano, R.

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method. Also, the principle of the in situ calibration system was justified.

  4. MgB2 Thin-Film Bolometer for Applications in Far-Infrared Instruments on Future Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 256 fW/square root Hz operating at 30 Hz in the 8.5 - 12.35 micron spectral bandpass. This value corresponds to an electrical specific detectivity of 7.6 x 10(exp 10) cm square root Hz/W. The bolometer shows a measured blackbody (optical) specific detectivity of 8.8 x 10(exp 9) cm square root Hz/W, with a responsivity of 701.5 kV/W and a first-order time constant of 5.2 ms. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that a blackbody specific detectivity of 6.4 x 10(exp 10) cm/square root Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17 - 250 micron spectral wavelength range.

  5. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging for dynamic radiation behavior study using infrared imaging video bolometers in large helical device plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Ryuichi; Iwama, Naofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Teranishi, Masaru [Hiroshima Institute of Technology, 2-1-1, Miyake, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan); Pandya, Shwetang N. [Institute of Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat Village, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-05-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) tomography system using four InfraRed imaging Video Bolometers (IRVBs) has been designed with a helical periodicity assumption for the purpose of plasma radiation measurement in the large helical device. For the spatial inversion of large sized arrays, the system has been numerically and experimentally examined using the Tikhonov regularization with the criterion of minimum generalized cross validation, which is the standard solver of inverse problems. The 3D transport code EMC3-EIRENE for impurity behavior and related radiation has been used to produce phantoms for numerical tests, and the relative calibration of the IRVB images has been carried out with a simple function model of the decaying plasma in a radiation collapse. The tomography system can respond to temporal changes in the plasma profile and identify the 3D dynamic behavior of radiation, such as the radiation enhancement that starts from the inboard side of the torus, during the radiation collapse. The reconstruction results are also consistent with the output signals of a resistive bolometer. These results indicate that the designed 3D tomography system is available for the 3D imaging of radiation. The first 3D direct tomographic measurement of a magnetically confined plasma has been achieved.

  6. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  7. Study and optimization of bolometers designed to measure both ionization and heat in order to detect black matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navick, X.F.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of black matter in the form of wimp (weakly interactive massive particle) requires the identification of the incident particle so that events due to wimp interactions can be set apart from events due to surrounding radioactivity. Bolometers allow to measure both the energy deposited and the ionization made by a particle. The amount of energy is determined by calorimetry. Wimp detection implies bolometers to run at very low temperature. After a presentation of particle interactions with matter, this thesis describes the physical phenomena involved in heat and ionization measurements. The behaviour of semiconductors at low temperature is investigated and qualitative expectations are drawn about the working of metal-semiconductor interface and the pin diode. An experimental setting is presented. The operating voltage needs to be very low in order to be the least disturbing possible. At so low voltage, a decrease of the ionization signal in terms of time appears. It is shown that this phenomenon is linked to the level density in the forbidden band of the semiconductor and to the intensity of infrared radiation reaching the detector. (A.C.)

  8. AC bias characterization of low noise bolometers for SAFARI using an open-loop frequency domain SQUID-based multiplexer operating between 1 and 5 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; Gao, J.R.; Den Hartog, R.; Hijmering, R.; Hoevers, H.; Khosropanah, P.; De Korte, P.; Van der Kuur, J.; Lindeman, M.; Ridder, M.

    2012-01-01

    SRON is developing the Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) read-out and the ultra low NEP TES bolometers array for the infra-red spectrometer SAFARI on board of the Japanese space mission SPICA. The FDM prototype of the instrument requires critical and complex optimizations. For single pixel

  9. Development of a high energy resolution magnetic bolometer for the determination of photon emission intensities by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this research thesis, a first chapter describes the metrological difficulties for the determination of radionuclide photon emission intensities. Then, it discusses the understanding and the required tools for the computing of a magnetic bolometer signal with respect to the different operation parameters and to the sensor geometry. The author describes the implementation of the experimental device and its validation with a first sensor. The new sensor is then optimised for the measurement of photon emission intensities with a good efficiency and a theoretical energy resolution less than 100 eV up to 200 keV. The sensor's detection efficiency and operation have been characterized with a 133 Ba source. The author finally presents the obtained results

  10. Lock-in detection using a cryogenic low noise current preamplifier for the readout of resistive bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, D.; Sushkov, V.; Bernard, R.; Bret, J.L.; Cahan, B.; Cloue, O.; Maillard, O.; Mazeau, B.; Passerieux, J.P.; Paul, B.; Veyssiere, C.

    2002-01-01

    We implemented a low noise current preamplifier for the readout of resistive bolometers. We tested the apparatus on thermometer resistances ranging from 10 to 500 MΩ. The use of current preamplifier overcomes constraints introduced by the readout time constant due to the thermometer resistance and the input capacitance. Using cold JFETs, this preamplifier board is shown to have very low noise: the Johnson noise of the source resistor (1 fA/Hz 1/2 ) dominated in our noise measurements. We also implemented a lock-in chain using this preamplifier. Due to fast risetime, compensation of the phase shift may be unnecessary. If implemented, no tuning is necessary when the sensor impedance changes. Transients are very short, and thus low-passing or sampling of the signal is simplified. In case of spurious noise, the modulation frequency can be chosen in a much wider frequency range, without requiring a new calibration of the apparatus

  11. Design and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Semiconducting Bolometer Arrays for the High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. Darren; Harper, D. Al; Jhabvala, Murzy D.

    2002-01-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC 'Pop-up' Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 x 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar(trademark) suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 x 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  12. All Metal Organic Deposited High-Tc Superconducting Transition Edge Bolometer on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Opata, Yuri Aparecido; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) superconductive transition edge bolometer (TEB) fabricated on a Ce0.9La0.1O2−7 (CLO) buffered single crystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. Metal organic deposition was used for the fabrication of both the YBCO thin film as well as...... (STO). This increase is assumed to be a result of the lower thermal conductivity and lower specific heat capacity of YSZ compared to STO substrate....... of voltage amplitude and phase was analysed and measured through four-probe technique in a liquid nitrogen cooling system. An increase in voltage amplitude response was observed for the fabricated YBCO/CLO/YSZ bolometer compared to previously reported TEBs with similarly deposited YBCO thin film on a SrTiO3...

  13. Complete event-by-event α /γ (β ) separation in a full-size TeO2 CUORE bolometer by Neganov-Luke-magnified light detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, L.; Chapellier, M.; de Combarieu, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gros, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Nones, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Paul, B.; Poda, D. V.; Redon, T.; Siebenborn, B.; Zolotarova, A. S.; Armengaud, E.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Billard, J.; Broniatowski, A.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Charlieux, F.; De Jesus, M.; Eitel, K.; Foerster, N.; Gascon, J.; Jin, Y.; Juillard, A.; Kleifges, M.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le Sueur, H.; Maisonobe, R.; Navick, X.-F.; Pari, P.; Queguiner, E.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Vagneron, L.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, we describe the results obtained with a large (≈133 cm3 ) TeO2 bolometer, with a view to a search for neutrinoless double-β decay (0 ν β β ) of 130Te. We demonstrate an efficient α -particle discrimination (99.9%) with a high acceptance of the 0 ν β β signal (about 96%), expected at ≈2.5 MeV. This unprecedented result was possible thanks to the superior performance (10-eV rms baseline noise) of a Neganov-Luke-assisted germanium bolometer used to detect a tiny (70-eV) light signal from the TeO2 detector, dominated by γ (β )-induced Cherenkov radiation but exhibiting also a clear scintillation component. The obtained results represent a major breakthrough toward the TeO2-based version of the CUORE Upgrade with Particle IDentification (CUPID), a ton-scale cryogenic 0 ν β β experiment proposed as a followup to the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) project with particle identification. The CUORE experiment recently began a search for neutrinoless double-β decay of 130Te with an array of 988 125-cm3TeO2 bolometers. The lack of α discrimination in CUORE makes α decays at the detector surface the dominant background component, at the level of ≈0.01 counts/(keV kg y) in the region of interest. We show here, for the first time with a CUORE-size bolometer and using the same technology as CUORE for the readout of both heat and light signals, that surface α background can be fully rejected.

  14. Lateral terahertz hot-electron bolometer based on an array of Sn nanothreads in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, D. S.; Lavrukhin, D. V.; Yachmenev, A. E.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Semenikhin, I. E.; Vyurkov, V. V.; Ryzhii, M.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the proposal and the theoretical and experimental studies of the terahertz hot-electron bolometer (THz HEB) based on a gated GaAs structure like the field-effect transistor with the array of parallel Sn nanothreads (Sn-NTs). The operation of the HEB is associated with an increase in the density of the delocalized electrons due to their heating by the incoming THz radiation. The quantum and the classical device models were developed, the quantum one was based on the self-consistent solution of the Poisson and Schrödinger equations, the classical model involved the Poisson equation and density of states omitting quantization. We calculated the electron energy distributions in the channels formed around the Sn-NTs for different gate voltages and found the fraction of the delocalized electrons propagating across the energy barriers between the NTs. Since the fraction of the delocalized electrons strongly depends on the average electron energy (effective temperature), the proposed THz HEB can exhibit an elevated responsivity compared with the HEBs based on more standard heterostructures. Due to a substantial anisotropy of the device structure, the THz HEB may demonstrate a noticeable polarization selectivity of the response to the in-plane polarized THz radiation. The features of the THz HEB might be useful in their practical applications in biology, medicine and material science.

  15. Frequency Modulation and Absorption Improvement of THz Micro-bolometer with Micro-bridge Structure by Spiral-Type Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Niu, Qingchen; Liang, Kai; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2018-03-01

    Antenna-coupled micro-bridge structure is proven to be a good solution to extend infrared micro-bolometer technology for THz application. Spiral-type antennas are proposed in 25 μm × 25 μm micro-bridge structure with a single separate linear antenna, two separate linear antennas, or two connected linear antennas on the bridge legs, in addition to traditional spiral-type antenna on the support layer. The effects of structural parameters of each antenna on THz absorption of micro-bridge structure are discussed for optimized absorption of 2.52 THz wave radiated by far infrared CO2 lasers. The design of spiral-type antenna with two separate linear antennas for wide absorption peak and spiral-type antenna with two connected linear antennas for relatively stable absorption are good candidates for high absorption at low absorption frequency with a rotation angle of 360* n ( n = 1.6). Spiral-type antenna with extended legs also provides a highly integrated micro-bridge structure with fast response and a highly compatible, process-simplified way to realize the structure. This research demonstrates the design of several spiral-type antenna-coupled micro-bridge structures and provides preferred schemes for potential device applications in room temperature sensing and real-time imaging.

  16. Frequency Modulation and Absorption Improvement of THz Micro-bolometer with Micro-bridge Structure by Spiral-Type Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Niu, Qingchen; Liang, Kai; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2018-03-05

    Antenna-coupled micro-bridge structure is proven to be a good solution to extend infrared micro-bolometer technology for THz application. Spiral-type antennas are proposed in 25 μm × 25 μm micro-bridge structure with a single separate linear antenna, two separate linear antennas, or two connected linear antennas on the bridge legs, in addition to traditional spiral-type antenna on the support layer. The effects of structural parameters of each antenna on THz absorption of micro-bridge structure are discussed for optimized absorption of 2.52 THz wave radiated by far infrared CO 2 lasers. The design of spiral-type antenna with two separate linear antennas for wide absorption peak and spiral-type antenna with two connected linear antennas for relatively stable absorption are good candidates for high absorption at low absorption frequency with a rotation angle of 360*n (n = 1.6). Spiral-type antenna with extended legs also provides a highly integrated micro-bridge structure with fast response and a highly compatible, process-simplified way to realize the structure. This research demonstrates the design of several spiral-type antenna-coupled micro-bridge structures and provides preferred schemes for potential device applications in room temperature sensing and real-time imaging.

  17. Fast neutron spectrometry by bolometers lithium target for the reduction of background experiences of direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gironnet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fast neutron spectrometry is a common interest for both direct dark matter detection and for nuclear research centres. Fast neutrons are usually detected indirectly. Neutrons are first slowed down by moderating materials for being detected in low energy range. Nevertheless, these detection techniques are and are limited in energy resolution. A new kind of fast neutron spectroscopy has been developed at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) in the aim of having a better knowledge of neutron backgrounds by the association of the bolometric technique with neutron sensitive crystals containing Li. Lithium-6 is indeed an element which has one the highest cross section for neutron capture with the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction. This reaction releases 4,78 MeV tagging energetically each neutron capture. In particular for fast neutrons, the total energy measured by the bolometer would be the sum of this energy reaction and of the incoming fast neutron energy. To validate this principle, a spectrometer for fast neutrons, compact and semi-transportable, was built in IAS. This cryogenic detector, operated at 300 - 400 mK, consists of a 0.5 g LiF 95% 6 Li enriched crystal read out by a NTD-Ge sensor. This PhD thesis was on the study of the spectrometer characteristics, from the first measurements at IAS, to the measurements in the nuclear research centre of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) until the final calibration with the Amande instrument of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). (author)

  18. Enriched Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers to search for 0ν2β decay of {sup 100}Mo with the LUMINEU experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A.S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernyak, D.M.; Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP, Kiev (Ukraine); Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de la Matiere, Orsay (France); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP, Kiev (Ukraine); Giuliani, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de la Matiere, Orsay (France); Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia dell' Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Ivanov, I.M.; Makarov, E.P.; Nasonov, S.G.; Shlegel, V.N.; Vasiliev, Ya.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mancuso, M. [Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de la Matiere, Orsay (France); Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia dell' Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Marnieros, S.; Olivieri, E.; Tenconi, M. [Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de la Matiere, Orsay (France); Nones, C. [CEA-Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pessina, G. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP, Kiev (Ukraine); INFN, Sezione di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Velazquez, M. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, Pessac (France); Zhdankov, V.N. [CML Ltd., Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    The LUMINEU project is a demonstrator experiment that will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope {sup 100}Mo embedded in zinc molybdate (ZnMoO{sub 4}) scintillating bolometers. In this context, a zinc molybdate crystal boule enriched in {sup 100}Mo to 99.5 % with a mass of 171 g was grown for the first time by the low-thermalgradient Czochralski technique. The production cycle provided a high yield (the crystal boule mass was 84 % of the initial charge) and an acceptable level - around 4 % - of irrecoverable losses of the costly enriched material. Two crystals of 59 and 63 g, obtained from the enriched boule, were tested above ground at millikelvin temperatures as scintillating bolometers. They showed a good detection performance, equivalent to that of previously developed natural ZnMoO{sub 4} detectors. These results pave the way to future sensitive searches based on the LUMINEU technology, capable of approaching and exploring the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern. (orig.)

  19. An Ideal Integrating Bolometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Goddard Space Flight Center’s Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program is to support new technology development and to address scientific...

  20. Pyroelectric response mechanism of barium strontium titanate ceramics in dielectric bolometer mode: The underlying essence of the enhancing effect of direct current bias field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chaoliang; Cao, Sheng; Yan, Shiguang; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hu, Xu; Yang, Chunli [Kunming Institute of Physics, Kunming 650223 (China)

    2013-06-17

    Pyroelectric response mechanism of Ba{sub 0.70}Sr{sub 0.30}TiO{sub 3} ceramics under dielectric bolometer (DB) mode was investigated by dielectric and pyroelectric properties measurement. The variations of total, intrinsic, and induced pyroelectric coefficients (p{sub tot}, p{sub int}, p{sub ind}) with temperatures and bias fields were analyzed. p{sub int} plays the dominant role to p{sub tot} through most of the temperature range and p{sub ind} will be slightly higher than p{sub int} above T{sub 0}. The essence of the enhancing effect of DC bias field on pyroelectric coefficient can be attributed to the high value of p{sub int}. This mechanism is useful for the pyroelectric materials (DB mode) applications.

  1. First test of an enriched {sup 116}CdWO{sub 4} scintillating bolometer for neutrinoless double-beta-decay searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Umatov, V.I. [ITEP, National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Danevich, F.A. [MSP, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gimbal-Zofka, Y. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); Linnaeus University, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Kalmar (Sweden); Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); DISAT, Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); Nones, C.; Zolotarova, A.S. [DSM/IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Poda, D.V. [MSP, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tretyak, V.I. [MSP, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    For the first time, a cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator enriched in {sup 116}Cd has been succesfully tested as a scintillating bolometer. The measurement was performed above ground at a temperature of 18 mK. The crystal mass was 34.5 g and the enrichment level ∝ 82 %. Despite a substantial pile-up effect due to above-ground operation, the detector demonstrated high energy resolution (2-7 keV FWHM in 0.2-2.6 MeV γ energy range and 7.5 keV FWHM at the {sup 116}Cd double-beta decay transition energy of 2813 keV), a powerful particle identification capability and a high level of internal radio-purity. These results prove that cadmium tungstate is a promising detector material for a next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay bolometric experiment, like that proposed in the CUPID project (CUORE Upgrade with Particle IDentification). (orig.)

  2. Characterization of high-purity 82Se-enriched ZnSe for double-beta decay bolometer/scintillation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B. C.; de Oliveira, R.; Ribeiro, G. M.; Cury, L. A.; Leal, A. S.; Nagorny, S.; Krambrock, K.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc selenide (ZnSe), when enriched with 82Se isotope, is one of the most promising materials for the construction of a bolometer/scintillation detector to study neutrinoless double beta decay (0νDBD). Because the 0νDBD is a very rare event, a high quantity of high-purity monocrystalline ZnSe is needed, which means high costs. Therefore, the knowledge of the best material parameters, especially the presence of point defects, is essential to make feasible the construction of such a detector. In this work, both the as-grown and thermally annealed ZnSe enriched to 95% with the 82Se isotope grown by the Bridgman technique from high-purity starting materials were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), photo-EPR, neutron activation, photoluminescence, and electrical measurements. It is shown that although thermal annealing increases crystal homogeneity and reduces microcracks, the scintillation efficiency is much better for the as-grown material. The higher scintillation efficiency is due to the presence of donor acceptor pairs in the as-grown material, which are responsible for strong luminescence/scintillation in the red spectral region. By photo-EPR, the donor acceptor pairs are identified as closed VZn - AlZn pairs which are lost during the annealing procedure. Electrical characterization shows that the as-grown material is of good quality as it has high electron mobility at low temperatures. Excellent material parameters for the construction of the bolometer/scintillation detector based on enriched Zn82Se are discussed.

  3. 100Mo-enriched Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometers for 0ν2β decay search: From LUMINEU to CUPID-0/Mo projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    A scintillating bolometer technology based on 100Mo-enriched lithium molybdate (Li2100MoO4) crystals has been developed by LUMINEU to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0ν2β) decay of 100Mo. The results of several low temperature tests at underground environments have proved the reproducibility of high detector performance and crystal radiopurity: in particular ˜5-6 keV FWHM energy resolution and at least 9σ rejection of α's in the vicinity of the 0ν2β decay of 100Mo (3034 keV) and below 10 µBq/kg bulk activity of 228Th and 226Ra. A modest acquired exposure (0.1 kg×yr) is a limiting factor of the LUMINEU experiment sensitivity to the 0ν2β decay half-life of 100Mo (T1/2 ≥ 0.7×1023 yr at 90% C.L.), however the two-neutrino 2β decay has been measured with the best up to-date accuracy, T1/2 = [6.92 ± 0.06(stat.) ± 0.36(syst.)l × 1018 yr. The applicability of the LUMINEU technology for a tonne-scale 0ν2β decay bolometric project CUPID is going to be demonstrated by the CUPID-0/Mo experiment with ˜5 kg of 100Mo embedded in forty 0.2 kg Li2100MoO4 scintillating bolometers. A first phase of the experiment with twenty Li2100MoO4 detectors is in preparation at the Modane underground laboratory (France) to start by the end of 2017. The original version of this article, supplied to AIP Publishing, contained an omission of two footnotes. In addition, the article was missing the following collaborations from the author listing: LUMINEU, EDELWEISS, and CUPID-0/Mo Collaborations. An updated version of this article was corrected and re-published on 25 October 2017.

  4. Development of cooled bolometer at 0.1 K for X ray detection in the range 100 eV - 10 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliane, A.

    2009-02-01

    Astronomy missions of the next generation (IXO for instance) are under study. These missions will be equipped with X ray mirrors of large surface, with a bandwidth extended to high energies and high angular resolution. This requires the use of imaging-spectrometers in the focal plane with performances improved in terms of counting rate, energy bandwidth and spectral resolution, compared with CCDs, which form the basis of existing instruments. The work undertaken in this thesis has been the extrapolation, to the X-ray detection, of IR (Infra Red) bolometer arrays already developed at Cea/LETI laboratory for the space mission Herschel. We have adapted the electrical impedance of the silicon sensor to measure pulse signals caused by X-ray interactions with the detector. We have bound absorber arrays made of tantalum (which has been processed and provided by laboratories in collaboration with the LETI laboratory) to silicon thermistor arrays in a single automatic step. We have validated the indium bump hybridization of absorber arrays on sensor arrays and improved the thermo-mechanical link, provided by this hybridization in terms of thermal capacitance. We succeeded in realizing 8*8 pixels array prototypes using collective technological processes only. These processes are readily usable to realize larger arrays (32*32 pixels). (author)

  5. Optically Immersed Bolometer IR Detectors Based on V2O5 Thin Films with Polyimide Thermal Impedance Control Layer for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumesh, M. A.; Thomas, Beno; Vijesh, T. V.; Mohan Rao, G.; Viswanathan, M.; Karanth, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    Optically immersed bolometer IR detectors were fabricated using electron beam evaporated vanadium oxide as the sensing material. Spin-coated polyimide was used as medium to optically immerse the sensing element to the flat surface of a hemispherical germanium lens. This optical immersion layer also serves as the thermal impedance control layer and decides the performance of the devices in terms of responsivity and noise parameters. The devices were packaged in suitable electro-optical packages and the detector parameters were studied in detail. Thermal time constant varies from 0.57 to 6.0 ms and responsivity from 75 to 757 V W-1 corresponding to polyimide thickness in the range 2 to 70 μm for a detector bias of 9 V in the wavelength region of 14-16 μm. Highest D* obtained was 1.2×108 cmHz1/2 W-1. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 20 mK was achieved for devices with polyimide thickness more than 32 μm. The figure of merit, NETD × τ product which describes trade-off between thermal time constant and sensitivity is also extensively studied for devices having different thickness of thermal impedance layers.

  6. Modeling of Noise and Resistance of Semimetal Hg1-xCdxTe Quantum Well used as a Channel for THz Hot-Electron Bolometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melezhik, E O; Gumenjuk-Sichevska, J V; Sizov, F F

    2016-12-01

    Noise characteristics and resistance of semimetal-type mercury-cadmium-telluride quantum wells (QWs) at the liquid nitrogen temperature are studied numerically, and their dependence on the QW parameters and on the electron concentration is established. The QW band structure calculations are based on the full 8-band k.p Hamiltonian. The electron mobility is simulated by the direct iterative solution of the Boltzmann transport equation, which allows us to include correctly all the principal scattering mechanisms, elastic as well as inelastic.We find that the generation-recombination noise is strongly suppressed due to the very fast recombination processes in semimetal QWs. Hence, the thermal noise should be considered as a main THz sensitivity-limiting mechanism in those structures. Optimization of a semimetal Hg1-xCdxTe QW to make it an efficient THz bolometer channel should include the increase of electron concentration in the well and tuning the molar composition x close to the gapless regime.

  7. Control of the Responsivity and the detectivity of superconductive edge-transition YBa2Cu3O7-x bolometers through substrate properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardmanesh, M; Scoles, K J; Rothwarf, A

    1999-08-01

    The detectivity D* limits of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) bolometers on 0.05-cm-thick crystalline substrates are investigated, and a method to increase D* to greater than 10(9) (cm Hz(1/2))/W at a 20-microm wavelength is proposed. Because the response increases proportionally with the bias current I(b), whereas the noise near T(c) (the transition or critical temperature) of our MgO and SrTiO(3) substrate samples does not, an increase in D* of these samples is obtained by an increase in I(b). Another limiting factor is the dc thermal conductance G(0) of the device, which, although controlled by the substrate-holder thermal boundary resistance for our samples, can be changed by means of thinning the substrate to increase D*. The optimal amount of thinning depends on the substrate's thermal parameters and the radiation modulation frequency. D* in our samples is also found to follow the spectral-radiation absorption of the substrate material.

  8. Calibration of a thin metal foil for infrared imaging video bolometer to estimate the spatial variation of thermal diffusivity using a photo-thermal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shwetang N; Peterson, Byron J; Sano, Ryuichi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Drapiko, Evgeny A; Alekseyev, Andrey G; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Itomi, Muneji; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil. The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5-3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.

  9. Study of new germanium bolometers with interleaved concentric electrodes for non-baryonic cold dark matter direct detection in the Edelweiss-II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domange, J.

    2011-09-01

    EDELWEISS is a direct non-baryonic cold dark matter detection experiment in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (also known as WIMPs), which currently constitute the most popular candidates to account for the missing mass in the Universe. To this purpose, EDELWEISS uses germanium bolometers at cryogenic temperature (20 mK approximately) in the Underground Laboratory of Modane (LSM) at the French-Italian border. Since 2008, a new type of detector is operated, equipped with concentric electrodes to optimize the rejection of surface events (coplanar-grid detectors). This thesis work is divided into several research orientations. First, we carried out measurements concerning charge collection in the crystals. The velocity laws of the carriers (electrons and holes) have been determined in germanium at 20 mK in the orientation, and a complete study of charge sharing has been done, including an evaluation of the transport anisotropy and of the straggling of the carriers. These results lead to a better understanding of the inner properties of the EDELWEISS detectors. Then, studies relating to the improvement of the performances were carried out. In particular, we have optimized the space-charge cancellation procedure in the crystals and improved the passive rejection of surface events (β). The fiducial volume of the detectors has been evaluated using two X-ray lines from cosmically activated radionuclides: 68 Ge and 65 Zn. Finally, an exhaustive study of the low energy spectra has been carried out, which makes it possible to develop a systematic analysis method for the search of low-mass WIMPs in EDELWEISS. (author)

  10. Study and optimization of bolometers designed to measure both ionization and heat in order to detect black matter; Etude et optimisation de bolometres a mesure simultanee de l`ionisation et de la chaleur pour la recherche de matiere noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navick, X.F

    1997-09-25

    The detection of black matter in the form of wimp (weakly interactive massive particle) requires the identification of the incident particle so that events due to wimp interactions can be set apart from events due to surrounding radioactivity. Bolometers allow to measure both the energy deposited and the ionization made by a particle. The amount of energy is determined by calorimetry. Wimp detection implies bolometers to run at very low temperature. After a presentation of particle interactions with matter, this thesis describes the physical phenomena involved in heat and ionization measurements. The behaviour of semiconductors at low temperature is investigated and qualitative expectations are drawn about the working of metal-semiconductor interface and the pin diode. An experimental setting is presented. The operating voltage needs to be very low in order to be the least disturbing possible. At so low voltage, a decrease of the ionization signal in terms of time appears. It is shown that this phenomenon is linked to the level density in the forbidden band of the semiconductor and to the intensity of infrared radiation reaching the detector. (A.C.) 193 refs.

  11. Waveguide Heterodyne Mixers at THz-Frequencies - Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers on 2-micron Si3N4 Membranes for GREAT and CONDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Pedro Pablo

    2007-04-01

    Many interesting astronomical objects, such as galaxies, molecular clouds, star-forming regions, protostars, evolved stars, planets, and comets, have rich submillimeter spectra. In order to avoid line blending and to resolve line shapes, most of this information can only be obtained using high resolution spectroscopy. The incoming signals are very weak and the receiver must be therefore extremely low-noise. High resolution spectroscopy of weak sources is carried out primarily using heterodyne receivers. Direct detection is intrinsically more sensitive than heterodyne but is constrained by the spectrometers which are needed to achieve the required spectral resolution (~107, see chapter 1). In a heterodyne receiver the astronomical signal is downconverted to much lower frequencies and amplified prior to spectral analysis. Therefore, much lower relative spectral resolution is needed to achieve the same absolute spectral resolution (easily in exceed of 107). In the heterodyne receiver the astronomical signal is mixed with a stronger monochromatic source (Local Oscillator, LO) to the difference frequency (Intermediate Frequency, IF). A basic part of the receiver is the mixer, which is a device with a non-linear response to the signal intensity amplitude and downconverts the received signal to the IF (~1-10 GHz), which is then amplified. Since the mixer is the first active component in the receiver, it has the greatest influence on the total receiver noise (see chapter 1). Best mixer performance is currently achieved with Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) junctions, but their highest operation frequency is intrinsically limited by the energy gap of the superconductors used. Above ~1 THz superconducting phonon-cooled Hot Electron Bolometers (HEB) are nowadays the mixer of choice for heterodyne receivers. Superconducting phonon-cooled HEBs consist of an ultrathin (power is coupled into the superconducting film. The power dissipation in the film brings it to its

  12. Rejection of randomly coinciding events in Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers using light detectors based on the Neganov-Luke effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyak, D.M.; Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Dumoulin, L.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Olivieri, E. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); DISAT, Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Nones, C. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); INFN, Rome (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Random coincidences of nuclear events can be one of the main background sources in low-temperature calorimetric experiments looking for neutrinoless double-beta decay, especially in those searches based on scintillating bolometers embedding the promising double-beta candidate {sup 100}Mo, because of the relatively short half-life of the two-neutrino double-beta decay of this nucleus. We show in this work that randomly coinciding events of the two-neutrino double-beta decay of {sup 100}Mo in enriched Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} detectors can be effectively discriminated by pulse-shape analysis in the light channel if the scintillating bolometer is provided with a Neganov-Luke light detector, which can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by a large factor, assumed here at the level of ∝750 on the basis of preliminary experimental results obtained with these devices. The achieved pile-up rejection efficiency results in a very low contribution, of the order of ∝6 x 10{sup -5} counts/(keV.kg.y), to the background counting rate in the region of interest for a large volume (∝90 cm{sup 3}) Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} detector. This background level is very encouraging in view of a possible use of the Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} solution for a bolometric tonne-scale next-generation experiment as that proposed in the CUPID project. (orig.)

  13. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment; Recherche de matiere sombre non-baryonique au moyen d`un bolometre a ionisation dans le cadre de l`experience edelweiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, Ph. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-09-24

    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author) 196 refs.

  14. Prelaunch Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System Morning (EOS-AM1) Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, G. Louis; Thomas, Susan; Thornhill, K. Lee; hide

    1998-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (O.3 - 5.0 micron and total (0.3 to 100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12 microns water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of CERES sensors into orbit, and 30 days later, the sensors initiated operational measurements of the earth radiance fields. In 1998, the Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft will place the second and third sensor sets into orbit. The prelaunch CERES sensors' count conversion coefficients (gains and zero-radiance offsets) were determined in vacuum ground facilities. The gains were tied radiometrically to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The gain determinations included the spectral properties (reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.) of both the sources and sensors as well as the in-field-of-view (FOV) and out-of-FOV sensor responses. The resulting prelaunch coefficients for the TRMM and EOS-AM1 sensors are presented. Inflight calibration systems and on-orbit calibration approaches are described, which are being used to determine the temporal stabilities of the sensors' gains and offsets from prelaunch calibrations through on-orbit measurements. Analyses of the TRMM prelaunch and on-orbit calibration results indicate that the sensors have retained their ties to ITS-90 at accuracy levels better than /- 0.3% between the 1995 prelaunch and 1997 on-orbit calibrations.

  15. A Low G Ideal Integrating Bolometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel detector to enable a new class of far-IR spectroscopic surveys.  Achievable sensitivity for these devices is roughly 2 orders of...

  16. Cooled Bolometer IR Monolithic FPA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space-based observatories imaging in the 4-40 lm spectral regime will be passively cooled. The objective of this research effort is to demonstrate near...

  17. Detection of WIMPs in the Edelweiss experiment. Study of the radioactive background noise and measurements with bolometers; Recherche des wimp's du halo galactique dans l'experience edelweiss: etude du bas bruit radioactif et mesures a l'aide de bolometres a double detection ionisation/chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miramonti, L. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the detection of black matter in the form of WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particle). The characteristics of the interaction of WIMPs with matter are recalled. The very low number of expected events (<1 event/day.Kg) implies a radioactive background noise as weak as possible, furthermore the exponential decrease of the interacting rate with increasing energy calls for detectors with very low thresholds. Bolometers present advantages in WIMPs detection: i) very good resolution and very low thresholds, ii) very broad range of materials that can be used as absorber, the only requirements are: a crystal structure, to be a diamagnetic isolator and to have a convenient Debye temperature, iii) the possibility of detecting ionizing or non-ionizing particles, iv) the possibility of identifying the incident particle by measuring both temperature and another parameter such as ionization or scintillation, and v) the possibility of localizing the interaction inside the absorber by detecting ballistic phonons. The problematic of radioactive background noise is presented and the answers to the different sources (cosmic radiation,natural and artificial radioactivity) generating the background noise are examined. The materials used in the building of the detector and cryostat must be carefully chosen, they should be as little radioactive as possible. The test benches used to select materials for the Edelweiss experiment are described. The first measurements concerning the detectors Ge-4 and Ge-7 are presented. (A.C.)

  18. Topological insulator infrared pseudo-bolometer with polarization sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Peter Anand

    2017-10-25

    Topological insulators can be utilized in a new type of infrared photodetector that is intrinsically sensitive to the polarization of incident light and static magnetic fields. The detector isolates single topological insulator surfaces and allows light collection and exposure to static magnetic fields. The wavelength range of interest is between 750 nm and about 100 microns. This detector eliminates the need for external polarization selective optics. Polarization sensitive infrared photodetectors are useful for optoelectronics applications, such as light detection in environments with low visibility in the visible wavelength regime.

  19. Development of Ultra-Low-Noise TES Bolometer Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Hijmering, R. A.; Gao, J. R.; Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; van der Kuur, J.; Jackson, B. D.

    2016-07-01

    SRON is developing ultra-low-noise transition edge sensors (TESs) based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer on a suspended SiN island with SiN legs for SAFARI aboard SPICA. We have two major concerns about realizing TESs with an ultra-low NEP of 2× 10^{-19} hbox {W}/√{{ {Hz}}}: achieving lower thermal conductance and no excess noise with respect to the phonon noise. To realize TESs with phonon-noise-limited NEPs, we need to make thinner ({mK} and Rn of {˜ }158 hbox {m}{Ω }. These TESs were characterized under AC bias using our frequency-division multiplexing readout (1-3 MHz) system. TESs without the absorber show NEPs as low as 1.1 × 10^{-19} hbox {W}/√{{ {Hz}}} with a reasonable response speed ({<}1 hbox {ms}), which achieved the phonon noise limit. For TESs with the absorber, we confirmed a higher hbox {NEP}_{el} ({˜ }5 × 10^{-19} hbox {W}/√{{ {Hz}}}) than that of TESs without the absorber likely due to stray light. The lowest NEP can make the new version of SAFARI with a grating spectrometer feasible.

  20. Single SQUID frequency-domain multiplexer for large bolometer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jongsoo; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, M.J.; Skidmore, J.T.; Richards, P.L.; Spieler, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development of a frequency-domain superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer which monitors a row of low-temperature sensors simultaneously with a single SQUID. Each sensor is ac biased with a unique frequency and all the sensor currents are added in a superconducting summing loop. A single SQUID measures the current in the summing loop, and the individual signals are lock-in detected after the room temperature SQUID electronics. The current in the summing loop is nulled by feedback to eliminate direct crosstalk. We have built an eight-channel prototype and demonstrated channel separation and signal recovery

  1. Cross Linked Metal Particles for Low Noise Bolometer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    1.5 nm Figure 1: Coulomb energy of oppositely charged NPs as a function of edge-to-edge distance between the particles for different particle sizes ...1.2 nm either during storage or during the ligand exchange reaction. 3.4.2 Au-C6 Due to the poor contrast, the particle- size measurement is less...either the storage or the ligand exchange process, as mentioned above. Currently we are working on the conditions that prevent such size change from

  2. Graphene bolometer with thermoelectric readout and capacitive coupling to an antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoblin, Grigory; Sun, Jie; Yurgens, August

    2018-02-01

    We report on a prototype graphene radiation detector based on the thermoelectric effect. We used a split top gate to create a p-n junction in the graphene, thereby making an effective thermocouple to read out the electronic temperature in the graphene. The electronic temperature is increased due to the AC currents induced in the graphene from the incoming radiation, which is first received by an antenna and then directed to the graphene via the top-gate capacitance. With the exception of the constant DC voltages applied to the gate, the detector does not need any bias and is therefore very simple to use. The measurements showed a clear response to microwaves at 94 GHz with the signal being almost temperature independent in the 4-100 K temperature range. The optical responsivity reached ˜700 V/W.

  3. Background suppression in TeO2 bolometers with Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic detectors based on non-scintillating TeO 2 crystals are used in the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay, presently one of the most important fields of research in neutrino and astroparticle physics. Within this work, the application of Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors for the background suppression in TeO 2 crystals is investigated. Alpha-induced background events can be discriminated from signal-like electron/gamma events via the detection of Cherenkov radiation produced by highly energetic electrons within the TeO 2 crystal. Using Neganov-Luke light detectors, it could be shown for the first time that a highly efficient event-by-event discrimination between alpha and electron/gamma-induced events can be achieved.

  4. Comparative measurements of plasma position using coils, hall probes, and bolometers on CASTOR tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sentkerestiová, Jana; Ďuran, Ivan; Dufková, Edita; Weinzettl, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), s. 138-144 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Hall probes * plasma position * plasma * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  5. Optimization of Advanced ACTPol Transition Edge Sensor Bolometer Operation Using R(T,I) Transition Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino, Maria

    2017-06-01

    In the current submm and mm cosmology experiments the focal planes are populated by kilopixel transition edge sensors (TESes). Varying incoming power load requires frequent rebiasing of the TESes through standard current-voltage (IV) acquisition. The time required to perform IVs on such large arrays and the resulting transient heating of the bath reduces the sky observation time. We explore a bias step method that significantly reduces the time required for the rebiasing process. This exploits the detectors' responses to the injection of a small square wave signal on top of the dc bias current and knowledge of the shape of the detector transition R(T,I). This method has been tested on two detector arrays of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). In this paper, we focus on the first step of the method, the estimate of the TES %Rn.

  6. A front-end electronic system for large arrays of bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Liu, X.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.; Rosenfeld, C.; Zhu, B. X.

    2018-02-01

    CUORE is an array of thermal calorimeters composed of 988 crystals held at about 10 mK, whose absorbed energy is read out with semiconductor thermistors. The composition of the crystal is TeO2, and the aim is the study of the double beta decay of 130Te on very long and stable runs. CUPID-0 is an array of 26 Zn82Se crystals with double thermistor readout to study the double beta decay of 82Se. In the present paper, we present an overview of the entire front-end electronic readout chain, from the preamplifier to the anti-aliasing filter. This overview includes motivations, design strategies, circuit implementation and performance results of the electronic system, including other auxiliary yet important elements like power supplies and the slow control communication system. The stringent requirements of stability on the very long experimental runs that are foreseen during CUORE and CUPID-0 operation, are achieved thanks to novel solutions of the front-end preamplifier and of the detector bias circuit setup.

  7. Molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for microcalorimeters and bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.C.; Bier, A.; DiCamillo, B. [Global Science and Technology Inc., Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 685, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Mo/Au proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors (TESs) are promising candidates for low-temperature thermometry. The transition temperature of the bilayers can be easily tuned between 50 and 600 mK, yielding sensors which can be used in a variety of calorimetric and bolometric applications. With phase transition widths of less than 1 mK, Mo/Au TESs show very high temperature sensitivity (d(logR)/d(logT){approx}2500). Also, Mo/Au TESs show improved thermal and chemical stability compared to most other bilayer configurations. Fabrication issues and detector performance of Mo/Au TESs on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} membranes are discussed. (author)

  8. Molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for microcalorimeters and bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.C.; Bier, A.; DiCamillo, B.; Finkbeiner, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    Mo/Au proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors (TESs) are promising candidates for low-temperature thermometry. The transition temperature of the bilayers can be easily tuned between 50 and 600 mK, yielding sensors which can be used in a variety of calorimetric and bolometric applications. With phase transition widths of less than 1 mK, Mo/Au TESs show very high temperature sensitivity (d(logR)/d(logT)∼2500). Also, Mo/Au TESs show improved thermal and chemical stability compared to most other bilayer configurations. Fabrication issues and detector performance of Mo/Au TESs on Si 3 N 4 membranes are discussed. (author)

  9. Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Hayton, D.J.; Ren, Y.; Kao, T.Y.; Hovenier, J.N.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Hu, Q.; Walker, C.K.; Reno, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a heterodyne receiver designed to observe the astrophysically important neutral atomic oxygen [OI] line at 4.7448?THz. The local oscillator is a third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser operating in continuous wave mode at 4.741?THz. A quasi-optical, superconducting NbN

  10. Submillimeter Polarimetry of the Protostellar Outflow Sources in Serpens with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis; Chrysostomou; Matthews; Jenness; Ray

    2000-02-20

    Submillimeter polarimetric measurements of the 850 µm dust continuum emission associated with the class 0/I protostars in the Serpens dark cloud core are presented. The data are used to infer the magnetic field morphology in the region. Dust grain alignment in accretion flows and/or outflows is also briefly considered. The polarization vectors around the SMM-NW cluster of sources are more ordered than those observed near the SMM-SE cluster. Toward SMM-NW, the vectors are generally orientated north-south; between the intensity peaks in the SMM-SE region, the vectors are approximately east-west. In both regions, we suggest that the polarization pattern may be dictated by a large-scale magnetic field. We consider whether the rough northwest-southeast ridge of submillimeter sources was formed via cloud collapse along field lines that run perpendicular to this ridge. However, our data offer only very tentative support for this hypothesis. We further note that, although overall the polarization pattern in Serpens does not appear to be affected by the many outflows in the region, toward the most luminous source, SMM 1, the source of the Serpens radio jet, the vectors deviate considerably from the general pattern, instead being roughly perpendicular to the flow axis, as one would expect from a B-field oriented parallel with the flow.

  11. Optimization of a sup 6 LiF bolometric neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, C S; Piccirillo, L; Timbie, P T; Zhou, J W

    2002-01-01

    The optimization of a sup 6 LiF bolometer for neutron spectroscopy applications has been accomplished with a series of 12 different detectors. This type of detector is similar to X-ray bolometers, which have been extensively studied, and the absorber has a high neutron capture cross-section. Each bolometer was irradiated with alpha particles to investigate its response to thermal pulses. The best resolution obtained with this series of bolometers was 39 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. One of the bolometers was calibrated with monoenergetic neutrons, and its thermal properties are derived from measurements over a range of temperatures. We discuss the considerations involved in optimizing a sup 6 LiF bolometer for different types of neutron applications.

  12. Radiation detection at very low temperature. DRTBT 1992 -Londe-Les-Maures - Course collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefon, A. de; Serra, Guy; Broniatowski, A.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Bruere Dawson, R.; Waysand, G.; Maneval, J.P.; Jacquier, B.; Leotin, J.; Chapellier, M.; Beaudin, G.; Encrenaz, P.; Gheudin, M.; Lamarre, J.M.; Ravex, A.; Godfrin, H.; Bret, J.L.; Gianese, Chr.; Torre, J.P.; Marcillac, P. de; Benoit, A.; Jegoudez, G.; Pari, P.

    1992-09-01

    The contributions addressed various themes: Cooled sensors, what are they for? (Search for rare events; Astrophysics, X rays and infrared, Spectrometry in nuclear physics); Cooled sensors (Bolometer physics, Bolometers for photometry, Bolometers for particle detection, Superconducting sensors, Other types of bolometers, Low temperature luminescence, Photo-conductors and photovoltaic BIB, Ionisation at very low temperature, Heterodyne detection); Problems related to the signal (Photometry and external measurement noise, Line, amplification and signal processing), Pulse measurement (Line and amplification, Signal processing), Cryogenics (Cryogenic machines, Very low temperature cryogenics, Noise and environment). Nota: contributions are printed in a different order than they are listed in the table of contents

  13. Development of molybdenum-gold proximity bilayers as transition edge sensors for the SPEED camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.C. E-mail: tchen@stars.gsfc.nasa.gov; Bier, A.; Campano, B.A.; Cottingham, D.A.; Finkbeiner, F.M.; O' Dell, C.; Sharp, E.; Silverberg, R.F.; Wilson, G

    2004-03-11

    Bolometers are being developed with thermistor elements using Mo/Au proximity bilayers as superconducting transition edge sensor. These bolometers will be used by the Spectral Energy Distribution camera which is being developed to study the spectral energy distribution of high redshift galaxies. The bolometers are fabricated on 11x11 mm{sup 2} suspended 0.5 {mu}m thick low-stress LPCVD silicon nitride films supported by 475 {mu}m thick silicon frames. To obtain the required thermal conductivity, the films are perforated to form central disks suspended by thin legs. Here we discuss the design, fabrication process, and current test results of these bolometers.

  14. Radiation detection at very low temperature. DRTBT 1999 - Balaruc-les-Bains - Course collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapellier, M.; Ravex, A.; Pari, P.; Bossy, J.; Garoche, P.; Perrin, Nicole; Loidl, M.; Den Hartog, Roland; Navick, Xavier-Francois; Mailly, Dominique; Chardin, Gabriel; Joyez, Philippe; Goyot, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Aprilli, M.; Torre, J.P.; Bouchez, J.; Benoit, Alain

    1992-01-01

    After four contributions (Introduction to cryogenics, Pulsed tube or recent developments in cryo-coolers, Dilution-based cooling, Adiabatic demagnetisation), the contributions addressed various themes: Low temperature physics (Specific and abnormal heats, Thermal conductivity, Anderson insulator, Superconductors); Physics within bolometers (basic principle of a bolometer, Energy conversion and ionisation, electron-phonon interaction, Edge sensor transition); Example of cryogenic sensors (Sub-millimetre / spider-web, Superconducting Tunnel Junction as photon detectors, ionization-heat massive bolometers); Signal processing (SQUID amplifiers, Elementary statistics, Signal processing and data analysis, Measurement electronics for bolometers, Single electron transistor, Preamplifiers)

  15. Radiation detection at very low temperature. DRTBT 1996 Aussois - Course collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchiat, Helene; Chardin, Gabriel; Cribier, Michel; L'Hote, Denis; Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Broniatowski, Alexandre; Feautrier, Philippe; Benoit, A.; Chapellier, Maurice; Torre, Jean-Pierre

    1996-11-01

    This publication gathers several courses which propose or address: Examples of studies of fundamental noises, Electronics of bolometers for the measurement of a radiation power, Digital processing of a signal, Kapitza resistance - thermal resistance between two solids, Ionisation-heat bolometers, Space projects using bolometers at very low temperature, Application of bolometric detection to sub-millimetre astrophysics (the SPM photometer on PRONAOS), The neutrino which came in from the cold, Application of bolometers to the analysis by ion beams, Counting of photons in visible and near infrared light - applications in astronomy

  16. Novel Magnetically-Tuned TES For Imaging X-ray Spectroscopy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) are the state-of-the art technology for microcalorimeter and bolometer applications across the electromagnetic...

  17. A new technique for the identification of surface contamination in low temperature bolometric experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangiorgio, S.; Arnaboldi, C.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Nones, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Salvioni, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the bolometric experiment CUORE, a new and promising technique has been developed in order to control the dangerous contamination coming from the surfaces close to the detector. In fact, by means of a composite bolometer, it is possible to partially overcome the loss of spatial resolution of the bolometer itself and to clearly identify events coming from outside.

  18. Towards measurements of recoils below 4 keV with the 'ROSEBUD' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, C.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Garcia, E.; Goldbach, C.; Gonzalez, D.; Leblanc, J.; Marcillac, P. de; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nollez, G.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment to look for light WIMPs with sapphire bolometers is to be installed in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (at 2450 m.w.e) in the Spanish Pyrenees. In the first stage two small 25g bolometers with NTD-Ge sensors, operating at 25 mK, with an energy threshold of 300eV and FWHM energy resolution of 120eV at 1.5keV will perform a background test experiment. The features of the bolometers, the radioactivity measurements of the components and the set-up and status of the experiment are reported

  19. Non-baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkes, I.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the nature of the dark matter and the possibility of the detection of non-baryonic dark matter in an underground experiment. Among the useful detectors the low temperature bolometers are considered in some detail. (author)

  20. Bolometeric detector arrays for CMB polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. L.; Bock, J. J.; Day, P.; Goldin, A.; Golwala, S.; Holmes, W.; Irwin, K.; Kenyon, M.; Lange, A. E.; LeDuc, H. G.; hide

    2005-01-01

    We describe the development of antenna coupled bolometers for CMB polarization experiments. The necessary components of a bolometric CMB polarimeter - a beam forming element, a band defining filter, and detectors - are all fabricated on a silicon chip with photolithography.

  1. CCD-scale Far-IR Detector Arrays Using Code Domain Multiplexing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large-format far-infrared arrays using, for example, superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, have only achieved 1,000-pixel formats. Lagging behind...

  2. Far Infrared Spectrometry of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    I describe two experiments to measure the cosmic background radiation near 1 mm wavelength. The first was a ground-based search for spectral lines, made with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and an InSb detector. The second is a measurement of the spectrum from 3 to 18 cm{sup -1}, made with a balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a polarizing Michelson interferometer, cooled in liquid helium, and operated with a germanium bolometer. I give the theory of operation, construction details, and experimental results. The first experiment was successfully completed but the second suffered equipment malfunction on its first flight. I describe the theory of Fourier transformations and give a new understanding of convolutional phase correction computations. I discuss for infrared bolometer calibration procedures, and tabulate test results on nine detectors. I describe methods of improving bolometer sensitivity with immersion optics and with conductive film blackening.

  3. Wideband response of a terahertz-millimeter imager based on a 384x288 pixel uncooled bolometric detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terroux, Marc; Marchese, Linda; Bolduc, Martin; Mercier, Luc; Chevalier, Claude; Gagnon, Lucie; Tremblay, Bruno; Généreux, Francis; Paultre, Jacques-Edmond; Provençal, Francis; Beaupré, Patrick; Desroches, Yan; Châteauneuf, François; Bergeron, Alain

    2017-11-01

    In the past, bolometer-based imagers have been used for earth observation. Uncooled-bolometer based imagers are especially well suited for this due to their low power consumption. NIRST (New Infra-Red Sensor Technology), an example of an imager based on uncooled bolometers, monitors high temperature events on the ground related to fires and volcanic events, and will measure their physical parameters and takes measurements of sea surface temperatures mainly off the coast of South America as well as other targeted opportunities. NIRST has one band in the mid-wave infrared centered at 3.8 um with a bandwidth of 0.8 um, and two bands in the thermal infrared, centered respectively at 10.85 and 11.85 um with a bandwidth of 0.9 um.

  4. Fast Resistive Bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-02-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  5. Fast resistive bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.

    1998-06-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. The authors describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high power Z pinches on Sandia`s Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. They describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  6. Radiation detection at very low temperature. DRTBT 2002, Oleron - Course collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekola, J.; Charles, I.; Jin, Yong; Camus, Ph.; Juillard, A.; Chardin, G.; Leblanc, Elvire; Delabrouille, Jacques; Pigot, C.

    2002-01-01

    The contributions of this session addressed several themes: Tools (pumped helium-3 cryostats; dilution based cryostats; principle and application scope of demagnetisation devices; cooling by tunnel evaporation of electrons; very low temperatures without external cryogenic fluid), Very low temperature thermometry - resistive thermometry and its difficulties (temperature control, low temperature electronics), Bolometers (focussing, filtering and absorption; principle of a bolometer with resistive sensor, bolometer matrices, multiplexing; Anderson insulator; superconductors); Signal formation mechanism (high energy phonons, ballistic phonons and final thermalization), Signal acquisition and processing (reduction of noise due to the environment, from the cold pre-amplifier to the hard disk, signal processing and data analysis), and scientific culture (metrology, the microwave cosmological background, other astrophysical applications of cryogenic sensors). Contributions are printed in a different order than they listed in the table of contents

  7. Design of broadband filters and antennas for SAMBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Alexey; Bock, James J.; Hunt, Cynthia L.; Lange, Andrew E.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2003-02-01

    We present a design for multipixel, multiband submillimeter instrument: SAMBA (Superconducting Antenna-coupled, Multi-frequency, Bolometric Array). SAMBA uses antenna coupled bolometers and microstrip filters. The concept allows for a much more compact, multiband imager compared to a comparable feedhorn-coupled bolometric system. SAMBA incorporates an array of slot antennas, superconducting transmission lines, a wide band multiplexer and superconducting transition edge bolometers. The transition-edge film measures the millimeter-wave power deposited in the resistor that terminates the transmission line.

  8. SAMBA: Superconducting antenna-coupled, multi-frequency, bolometric array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Alexey; Bock, James J.; Hunt, Cynthia; Lange, Andrew E.; Leduc, Henry; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2002-02-01

    We present a design for a multipixel, multiband (100 GHz, 200 GHz and 400 GHz) submillimeter instrument: SAMBA (Superconducting Antenna-coupled, Multi-frequency, Bolometric Array). SAMBA uses slot antenna coupled bolometers and microstrip filters. The concept allows for a much more compact, multiband imager compared to a comparable feedhorn-coupled bolometric system. SAMBA incorporates an array of slot antennas, superconducting transmission lines, a wide band multiplexer and superconducting transition edge bolometers. The transition-edge film measures the millimeter-wave power deposited in the resistor that terminates the transmission line. .

  9. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.

    2011-01-01

    ), and 5′ (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same...... as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux...

  10. Cryogenic photodetectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, G

    2000-01-01

    Some of the most significant developments in cryogenic photodetectors are presented. In particular, the main characteristics of microbolometers involving Transition Edge- and NTD-sensors and offering resolutions of a few eV in the keV range, superconducting tunnel junction detectors with resolutions of the order of 10 eV or offering position sensitivity, and infrared bolometers with recent developments towards matrix detectors are discussed. Some of the recent achievements using large mass bolometers for gamma and neutron discriminating detectors, and future prospects of single photon detection in the far infrared using Single Electron Transistor devices are also presented.

  11. The CUORE/CUORICINO project: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 1-t bolometer detector, aiming at the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, cold dark matter, and solar axions with extremely high sensitivity, has been proposed (CUORE project). At the moment, the construction of a 420 kg array of 56 TeO 2 bolometers (CUORICINO project) has been approved and is financed. CUORICINO will be a feasibility test for CUORE, while increasing the present sensitivity on 0νββ half-life of 130 Te (1 x 10 23 yr, 90% C.L.) The scale of the art of CUORICINO, together with the physical motivations and the technical feasibility of the CUORE project are briefly discussed [ru

  12. The CUORE/CUORICINO project: Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 1-t bolometer detector, aiming at the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, cold dark matter, and solar axions with extremely high sensitivity, has been proposed (CUORE project). At the moment, the construction of a 42-kg array of 56 TeO 2 bolometers (CUORICINO project) has been approved and is financed. CUORICINO will be a feasibility test for CUORE, while increasing the present sensitivity on 0νββ half-life of 130 Te (1 x 10 23 yr, 90% C.L.). The state of the art of CUORICINO, together with the physical motivations and the technical feasibility of the CUORE project, is briefly discussed

  13. A 16 channel frequency-domain-modulation readout system with custom superconducting LC filters for the SWIPE instrument of the balloon-borne LSPE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorelli, G.; Baldini, A.M.; Bemporad, C.; Biasotti, M.; Cei, F.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Fontanelli, F.; Galli, L.; Gallucci, G.; Gatti, F.; Incagli, M.; Grassi, M.; Nicolò, D.; Spinella, F.; Vaccaro, D.; Venturini, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and first tests of the superconducting LC filters for the frequency domain readout of spiderweb TES bolometers of the SWIPE experiment on the balloon-borne LSPE mission which aims at measuring the linear polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background at large angular scales to find the imprint of inflation on the B-mode CMB polarization. LC filters are designed, produced and tested at the INFN sections of Pisa and Genoa where thin film deposition and cryogenic test facilities are present, and where also the TES spiderweb bolometers are being produced.

  14. First underground light versus heat discrimination for dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Marcillac, P. de; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A

    2003-06-19

    We report on the results of the first underground dark matter search with light versus heat discrimination. It has been performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in the frame of the Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD (ROSEBUD) Collaboration with a double bolometer consisting of a 54 g scintillating CaWO{sub 4} and a thin Ge (0.26 g) for light detection. Its capability to distinguish nuclear against electron recoils has been proved and applied to derive limits for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates.

  15. Light yield of undoped sapphire at low temperature under particle excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Gomez, H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Leblanc, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we report on the performance of scintillating sapphire bolometers developed in the framework of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects Search with Bolometers UnDerground) Collaboration devoted to dark matter searches. The simultaneous measurement of heat and light allows the discrimination of the type of particle increasing the sensitivity for these searches. A heat versus light negative correlation for gamma events has been observed. Its interpretation, in a simple framework, allows the estimation of the light yield of undoped sapphire at a temperature of about 20 mK under gamma, alpha, and neutron excitation

  16. Status of the ROSEBUD dark matter experiment in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Marcillac, P. de; Garcia, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Peruzzi, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The ROSEBUD (Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD) experiment consists of three small sapphire bolometers with NTD-Ge sensors operating at 20 mK in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in an attempt to directly detect low mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) through their scattering off Al and O nuclei. We report in this paper the results of three runs (about 10 days each) performed along 1999 and the progressive background reduction obtained essentially from modifications in the cryostat. A new run is in progress to complete the first phase of the experiment

  17. Status of the ROSEBUD Dark Matter search experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Garcia, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Marcillac, P. de; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Peruzzi, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD (ROSEBUD) experiment consists of three small sapphire bolometers with NTD-Ge sensors operating at 20 mK and attempts to directly detect low mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) through their scattering off Al and O nuclei. It has been recently installed in an ultralow background environment in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (at 2450 m.w.e.) and the testing period is underway. The status and preliminary results of the experiment are reported in this paper

  18. Measurements of Plasma Power Losses in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Garate, Eusebio; Donin, Alexandr; Kondakov, Alexey; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2013-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment. To analyze the power balance in C-2, two new diagnostic instruments - the pyroelectric (PE) and infrared (IR) bolometers - were developed. The PE bolometer, designed to operate in the incident power density range from 0.1-100 W/cm2, is used to measure the radial power loss, which is dominated by charge-exchange neutrals and radiation. The IR bolometer, which measures power irradiated onto a thin metal foil inserted in the plasma, is designed for the power density range from 0.5-5 kW/cm2. The IR bolometer is used to measure the axial power loss from the plasma near the end divertors. The maximum measurable pulse duration of ~ 10 ms is limited by the heat capacitance of the IR detector. Both detectors have time resolution of about 10-100 μs and were calibrated in absolute units using a high power neutral beam. We present the results of first direct measurements of axial and radial plasma power losses in C-2.

  19. Overview of APEX Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Breuck, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The APEX telescope has a range instruments that are highly complementary to ALMA. The single pixel heterodyne receivers cover virtually all atmospheric windows from 157 GHz to above 1 THz, augmented by 7-pixel heterodyne arrays covering 280 to 950 GHz, while the bolometer arrays cover the 870, 450 and 350µm bands.

  20. Developments of Highly Multiplexed, Multi-chroic Pixels for Balloon-Borne Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, F.; Hanany, S.; Johnson, B. R.; Lee, A.; Suzuki, A.; Westbrook, B.; Young, K.

    2018-02-01

    We present our work to develop and characterize low thermal conductance bolometers that are part of sinuous antenna multi-chroic pixels (SAMP). We use longer, thinner and meandered bolometer legs to achieve 9 pW/K thermal conductance bolometers. We also discuss the development of inductor-capacitor chips operated at 4 K to extend the multiplexing factor of the frequency domain multiplexing to 105, an increase of 60% compared to the factor currently demonstrated for this readout system. This technology development is motivated by EBEX-IDS, a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to characterize the polarization of foregrounds and to detect the primordial gravity waves through their B-mode signature on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. EBEX-IDS will operate 20,562 transition edge sensor bolometers spread over 7 frequency bands between 150 and 360 GHz. Balloon and satellite platforms enable observations at frequencies inaccessible from the ground and with higher instantaneous sensitivity. This development improves the readiness of the SAMP and frequency domain readout technologies for future satellite applications.

  1. Plasma radiation distribution and radiation loads onto the vessel during transient events in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, A.; Pitts, R.A.; Loarte, A.; Philipps, V.; Andrew, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, J. P.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, J. C.; Fundamenski, W.; Jachmich, S.; Matthews, G. F.; McCormick, K.; Mertens, P.; Rapp, J.; Sergienko, G.; Stamp, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The JET bolometer camera system allows greatly improved tomographic reconstruction of the radiation pattern on a timescale of the order of the typical duration of a Type I ELM period (approximate to 0.1-0.4 ms). The ELM-induced radiation is always higher at the inner than at the outer divertor with

  2. The TopHat experiment: A balloon-borne instrument for mapping millimeter and submillimeter emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R.F.; Cheng, E.S.; Aguirre, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    from 175 to 630 GHz. The telescope was a compact, 1 m, on-axis Cassegrain telescope designed to scan the sky at a fixed elevation of 78 degrees. The radiometer used cryogenic bolometers coupled to a single feed horn via a dichroic filter system. The observing strategy was intended to efficiently cover...

  3. Bunch length measurement using coherent Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.; Yang, J.; Ogata, A.; Kondoh, T.; Norizawa, K.; Yoshida, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A new method for bunch diagnostic based on multimode Coherent Cherenkov Radiation (CCR) was proposed. Generation of quasi-monochromatic terahertz (THz) using multimode CCR on the order of 0.1 THz was carried out. The intensity and frequency of CCR were measured directly by a Michelson interferometer and a bolometer. (author)

  4. Creation evidence of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the experimental results of the creation of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave (ph = g ≠ 0) in the negative roton branch (the so-called second sound) of the bulk elementary excitations (BEEs) energy spectra are introduced. Several BEE signals detected by a bolometer situated in the isotopically ...

  5. Planck Early Results: The thermal performance of Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    . The bolometer plate of the High Frequency Instrument reached 93mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the rest of Planck, and operates at a mean temperature of 384 K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope bae operates at 42.3K and the telescope...

  6. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER): Instrument Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph; Bennett, C.; McCullagh, N.; Zeng, L.; Benford, D.; Chuss, D.; Fixsen, D.; Hinderks, J.; Jhabvala, C.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S.; Staguhn, J.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E.; Irwin, K.; Hilton, G.; Halpern, M.; Ade, P.; Tucker, C.; Dotson, J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the PIPER balloon born instrument for observing the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The experiment uses two co-aligned cold optic telescopes with variable-delay polarization modulators as their first optical element. Each telescope has two 32 x 40 arrays of backshort-under-grid(BUG) TES bolometers.

  7. The James clerk maxwell telescope legacy survey of nearby star-forming regions in the gould belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Nutter, D.; Bastien, P.; Basu, S.; Bonnell, I.; Bowey, J.; Brunt, C.; Buckle, J.; Butner, H.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E.; Davis, C. J.; Dent, W. R. F.; van Dishoeck, E.; Edmunds, M. G.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuller, G. A.; Gosling, A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J. S.; Helmich, F.; Hills, R. E.; Holland, W. S.; Houde, M.; Jayawardhana, R.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, H.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Matzner, C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.; Naylor, D.; Padman, R.; Plume, R.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Redman, R. O.; Reid, M.; Richer, J. S.; Shipman, R.; Simpson, R. J.; Spaans, M.; Stamatellos, D.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Whitworth, A. P.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    This paper describes a James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) legacy survey that has been awarded roughly 500 hr of observing time to be carried out from 2007 to 2009. In this survey, we will map with SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) almost all of the well-known low-mass and

  8. Non-baryonic dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkes, I.

    1996-12-31

    This article discusses the nature of the dark matter and the possibility of the detection of non-baryonic dark matter in an underground experiment. Among the useful detectors the low temperature bolometers are considered in some detail. (author). 19 refs.

  9. Radiation detection at very low temperature. DRTBT 2009, Frejus - Course collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, Ph.; Hoffmann, Ch.; Monfardini, A.; Camus, P.; Marcillac, P. de; Broniatowski, A.; Marnieros, S.; Dumoulin, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Rodrigues, Matias; Desert, F.-Xavier; Villegier, J.-C.; Prele, Damien; Sauvageot, J.-L.; Pigot, Claude; Korte, Piet de; Rich, J.; Juillard, A.; Nonez, C.; Jin, Yong; Gascon, J.; Pari, P.; Luchier, N.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.; Chardin, G.

    2009-05-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations. After a general introduction, the following topics have been addressed during the first day: Elementary excitations, Physics of Anderson insulators, Thermal detectors, Silicon technology and Si-doped detectors, Magnetic bolometers, Principle and perspectives of KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors). The second day dealt with FIR and millimetre astronomy: Stakes, Millimetre and sub-millimetre optics, Bolometer matrices for millimetre astrophysics, Superconductivity and cryogenic detection, Hot electron bolometers (HEB) as examples of superconducting junction, Low noise electronics for high impedance sensor, Squids and multiplexing techniques. The topic of the third day was X rays. The contributions dealt with: the IXO mission with micro-calorimeters based on Si detectors for X ray detection, TES detectors for X-rays astrophysics. The fourth day was dedicated to the detection of rare events (dark matter, 2 beta, neutrino, and so on). The authors address the following aspects: Cosmology and dark matter, Direct detection of dark matter, Cryogenic detectors R and D for dark matter, New perspectives in electronics for bolometers, Signal processing, Dilution-based cryostats for instrumentation, Cryogenic techniques below 1 K. The contributions presented on the fifth and last day addressed the following issues: Experiment for the measurement of CMB polarisation, Limitations and perspectives of cryogenic detectors

  10. Scintillation of sapphire under particle excitation at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Beltran, B; Cebrian, S; Coron, N; Dambier, G; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Leblanc, J; Luzon, G; Marcillac, P de; Martinez, M; Morales, J; Ortiz de Solorzano, A; Pobes, C; Puimedon, J; Redon, T; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    The scintillation properties of undoped sapphire at very low temperature have been studied in the framework of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UnDerground) Collaboration devoted to dark matter searches. We present an estimation of its light yield under gamma, alpha and neutron excitation

  11. Page 1 34 C N R Rao meters, high speed samplers and Voltage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    meters, high speed samplers and Voltage standards based on Josephson effects as well as non-Josephson devices such as Superconducting bolometers and SIS mixers are areas where success is likely. Transistor-like devices compatible with oxide superconductors need to be explored vigorously. The new bismuth ...

  12. Scintillation of sapphire under particle excitation at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Coron, N [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay, Paris (France); Dambier, G [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay, Paris (France); GarcIa, E; Gomez, H [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Leblanc, J [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay, Paris (France); Luzon, G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Marcillac, P de [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay, Paris (France); Martinez, M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Redon, T [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay, Paris (France); RodrIguez, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    The scintillation properties of undoped sapphire at very low temperature have been studied in the framework of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UnDerground) Collaboration devoted to dark matter searches. We present an estimation of its light yield under gamma, alpha and neutron excitation.

  13. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several BEE signals detected by a bolometer situated in the isotopically pure liquid helium-II at low temperatures ∼ 100 mK are shown, which give evidence of negative roton creation in the liquid by helium atomic beams striking the liquid surface. The negative roton signals were clearly distinguished by the following ways: ...

  14. Observatory wins GBP 10.6m contract

    CERN Multimedia

    Dalton, A W

    2003-01-01

    Funding has been secured for a revolutionary GBP 10.6 million telescope camera, SCUBA 2, to be built in Edinburgh. The instrument will be able to track much larger areas of sky more quickly and will replace the original Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array camera which was also built in Edinburgh (1/2 page).

  15. Low temperature scintillation in ZnSe crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dafinei, I.; Fasoli, M.; Ferroni, F.; Mihóková, Eva; Orio, F.; Pirro, S.; Vedda, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), 1470-1474 ISSN 0018-9499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : bolometers * double beta decay * scintillation detectors * ZnSe Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2010

  16. Superconductivity applications for infrared and microwave devices II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    Topics discussed include thin-film technology, microwave transmission lines and resonators, microwave devices and circuits, infrared detectors and bolometers, and superconducting junctions. Papers are presented on possible enhancement in bolometric response using free-standing film of YBa2Cu3O(x), aging and surface instability in high-Tc superconductors, epitaxial Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin films on LaAlO3 and their microwave device properties, the performance of stripline resonators using sputtered YBCO films, and a coplanar waveguide microwave filter of YBa2Cu3O7. Attention is also given to the performance characteristics of Y-Ba-Cu-O microwave superconducting detectors, high-Tc bolometer developments for planetary missions, infrared detectors from YBaCuO thin films, high-temperature superconductor junction technology, and submillimeter receiver components using superconducting tunnel junctions. (For individual items see A93-27244 to A93-27248)

  17. Observation of Frequency Locked Coherent Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Roark A; Temkin, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of frequency locked, coherent transition radiation (CTR) were performed at the 17 GHz high-gradient accelerator facility built by Haimson Research Corporation at MIT PSFC. CTR produced from a metallic foil placed in the beam path was extracted through a window, and measured with a variety of detectors, including: diode, Helium cooled Si Bolometer, and double heterodyne receiver system. The angular energy distribution measured by the diode and bolometer are in agreement and consistent with calculations for a 15 MeV 200 mA 110 ns beam of 1 ps bunches. Heterodyne receiver measurements were able to show frequency locking, namely inter-bunch coherence at integer multiples of the accelerator RF frequency of 17.14 GHz. At the locked frequencies the power levels are enhanced by the number of bunches in a single beam pulse. The CTR was measured as a comb of locked frequencies up to 240 GHz, with a bandwidth of 50 MHz.

  18. Study of the neutron background noise generated by muons in the Edelweiss-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, L.

    2004-07-01

    This thesis contributes to the Edelweiss experiment whose aim is to detect interactions between neutralinos and target nuclei. Bolometers used in Edelweiss combine the detection of phonons with the detection of electric charges generated by the energy deposition. This double detection enables us to discard background signals due to electronic interactions and soon detection sensitivity of the experiment will be limited by the neutron background noise due to residual cosmic muons. This work is dedicated to a detailed study of muon inelastic interactions and the consequent production of neutrons. Simulations show that the expected neutron flux is so high that the direct detection of muons is required in order to link it to the neutron signal issued by the bolometer. Results from simulations show that plastic scintillators might be the main components of the muon detector

  19. Recent diagnostic developments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Peterson, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Standard diagnostics for fundamental plasma parameters and for plasma physics are routinely utilized for daily operation and physics study in the large helical device (LHD) with high reliability. Diagnostics for steady state plasma are intensively developed, especially for T e , n e (YAG laser Thomson, CO 2 laser polarimeter), data acquisition in steady state, heat resistant probes. To clarify the plasma property of the helical structure, 2-D or 3-D diagnostics are intensively developed: Tangential cameras (Fast SX TV, Photon counting CCD, H α TV); Tomography (Tangential SX CCD, Bolometer); Imaging (Bolometer, ECE, Reflectometer). Divertor and edge physics are one of important key issues for steady state operation. Diagnostics for neutral flux (H α array, Zeeman spectroscopy) and n e (Fast scanning probe, Li beam probe, Pulsed radar reflectometer). In addition to these, advanced diagnostics are being intensively developed with national and international collaborations in LHD. (author)

  20. Study of the neutron background noise generated by muons in the Edelweiss-2 experiment; Etude du bruit de fond neutron induit par les muons dans l'experience EDELWEISS-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabert, L

    2004-07-01

    This thesis contributes to the Edelweiss experiment whose aim is to detect interactions between neutralinos and target nuclei. Bolometers used in Edelweiss combine the detection of phonons with the detection of electric charges generated by the energy deposition. This double detection enables us to discard background signals due to electronic interactions and soon detection sensitivity of the experiment will be limited by the neutron background noise due to residual cosmic muons. This work is dedicated to a detailed study of muon inelastic interactions and the consequent production of neutrons. Simulations show that the expected neutron flux is so high that the direct detection of muons is required in order to link it to the neutron signal issued by the bolometer. Results from simulations show that plastic scintillators might be the main components of the muon detector.

  1. Evaluation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) shortwave channel's stability using in-flight calibration sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A.; Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers were designed to make absolute measurements of the incoming solar, earth-reflected solar, and earth-emitted fluxes for investigations of the earth's climate system. Thermistor bolometers were the sensors used for the ERBE scanning radiometric package. Each thermistor bolometer package consisted of three narrow field of view broadband radiometric channels measuring shortwave, longwave, and total (0.2 micron to 50 microns) radiation. The in-flight calibration facilities include Mirror Attenuator Mosaics, shortwave internal calibration source, and internal blackbody sources to monitor the long-term responsivity of the radiometers. This paper describes the in-flight calibration facilities, the calibration data reduction techniques, and the results from the in-flight shortwave channel calibrations. The results indicate that the ERBE shortwave detectors were stable to within +/- 1 percent for up to five years of flight operation.

  2. Dust Continuum Imaging with the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, D. C.

    The advent of sensitive bolometer array receivers operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths has allowed large-scale imaging of the distribution of cold dust in star-forming regions. Owing to their high sensitivity and angular resolution, these observations reveal a wealth of structure, including a number of protostellar sources in various evolutionary stages. The Submillimeter High-Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) is one of the facility instruments at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It employs a 20-pixel monolithic silicon bolometer array operating at 300 mK and is used for diffraction limited broad-band continuum imaging at the wavelengths of 350 microns and 450 microns. I present a summary of the results of recent studies of selected Galactic star-forming regions (e.g. Orion A, Orion B, Galactic center, W43), as well as external galaxies (e.g. NGC 891) carried out with SHARC.

  3. Optical Design of the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. R.; Benford, D. J.; Serabyn, E.

    1996-11-01

    The optical and mechanical design and performance of the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) is described. The camera currently operates with a monolithic 24-pixel linear bolometer array in the 350 and 450 micron atmospheric windows at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The design extends the techniques of geometric optics employed in optical and near-infrared cameras to submillimeter wavelengths. Using an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror and cold stops, excellent imaging (Strehl ratio > 0.95) is achieved across a 2' by 2' focal plane field even with secondary throws of up to 4'. The camera's symmetric mechanical assembly provides fixed, machined alignment of the optical elements. We demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the system with 350 micron observations of a point source at the telescope. The optical design can easily accommodate future planned upgrades to two-dimensional bolometer arrays. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  4. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: The Receiver and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, D. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Burger, B.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope was designed to measure small-scale anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background and detect galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The instrument is located on Cerro Taco in the Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 5190 meters. A six-met.er off-axis Gregorian telescope feeds a new type of cryogenic receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The receiver features three WOO-element arrays of transition-edge sensor bolometers for observations at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. Each detector array is fed by free space mm-wave optics. Each frequency band has a field of view of approximately 22' x 26'. The telescope was commissioned in 2007 and has completed its third year of operations. We discuss the major components of the telescope, camera, and related systems, and summarize the instrument performance.

  5. Design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dally, Adam

    2013-04-01

    CUORE, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of ^130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0νββ decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. The detector requires ultra-low background radiation, vacuum compatible materials, and cryogenic temperatures. Individual energy calibration of the bolometers is achieved by placing radioactive sources between detectors inside the cryostat. A source deployment and thermalization system that meets the background and thermal requirements of the CUORE experiment has been developed. This talk will discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of the CUORE detector calibration system.

  6. Exploration of Geometric Noise Suppression in Transition Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Allen, C. A.; Abrahams, J. A.; Miller, T. M.; Talley, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Mosely, S. H.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Brekosky, R. G.

    2004-01-01

    We present noise data on Mo/Au superconducting transition edge sensors featuring the noise suppression geometry using normal metal bars transverse to the bias current. The effectiveness of the bars in far-infrared bolometers and x-ray microcalorimeters is evaluated. We have examined the effect of the resistivity of the superconducting bilayer on excess noise in bolometer devices. We have also studied the effect of bar density on energy resolution in x-ray devices. We address the question of whether the reduction is noise is necessarily coupled to a reduction in the effective transition sharpness. We propose a fabrication technique experiment to examine the dependence of alpha and noise suppression in similar transverse bar densities.

  7. Physical motivations for thermal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, E.

    1993-01-01

    Low temperature bolometers can be complementary and sometimes superior to open-quotes classicalclose quotes ionization detectors in many experiments without accelerators in nuclear, subnuclear and astroparticle physics. After a short review of the open-quotes toolsclose quotes that cryogenics offer for the detection of particles the author first considers a few practical applications of bolometers in the spectroscopy of α, γ and X rays, in the detection of neutrons, and in measurements of weak radioactive contaminations. Searches with this technique on single and double beta decay, of which some are already being carried out, are then considered and discussed. The various properties which make thermal detectors particularly suitable for searches on dark matter are reviewed, stressing the potentiality of this technique. The promising, but still far, potentiality of thermal detectors in solar neutrino experiments is finally discussed

  8. Scalable Background-Limited Polarization-Sensitive Detectors for mm-wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  9. The ROSEBUD experiment at Canfranc : 2001 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Marcillac, P. de; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The ROSEBUD experiment for Direct Dark Matter detection settled in 1999 in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. The first phase of the experiment was dedicated to the understanding and reduction of the radioactive background following successive removals of the radioimpure materials. Sapphire (25g, 50g) and germanium (67g) absorbers were used. Thresholds respectively lower than 1keV and 450 eV were achieved on these detectors. The second phase of the experiment plans to use scintillating bolometers to discriminate between recoiling nuclei and electrons. Prototypes using commercial CaWO 4 (54g ) and BGO (46g) were designed for this purpose. While internal contamination was found and identified in both targets, neutron calibrations revealed their high discrimination power. A 6 keV threshold on the heat channel of the BGO bolometer points out the interest of such a novel material, for Dark Matter research on neutralinos having spin-dependent or spin-independent interactions

  10. UZ Dark Matter Searches at Canfranc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Gomez, H.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    A lasting Dark Matter Search Program is being carried out in the facilities of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory since 1990 with the participation of the University of Zaragoza (UZ) Nuclear and Astroparticle Physics group. A brief summary of the most relevant experiments will be followed by the report on the status of the present experimental efforts at Canfranc: ANAIS and ROSEBUD. ANAIS (Annual modulation with NAI) will look for the annual modulation effect in the WIMP signal with about 100 kg sodium iodide as target. In the framework of the ROSEBUD (Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UnDerground) collaboration, the particle discrimination capability of different scintillating bolometers has been tested. These detectors are showing excellent performances for their application in dark matter searches and enable a multi-target strategy in the search for WIMPs, which is planned to be used in the near future at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory

  11. Fast ion diagnostics for the C-2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Clary, Ryan; Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Murakhtin, Sergey; Polosatkin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    One of the goals of the C-2 experiment is to explore FRC sustainment and current drive from neutral beam injection. Studies of the relaxation and confinement of hot anisotropic ions created by the neutral beams are considered to be key elements of the experimental research program. To realize this approach a set of diagnostics for the measurement of local parameters of fast ions has been developed. In particular, this set includes diagnostics to measure the local energy (neutral particle analyzer, LiNb3-based pyro-bolometers) and the angular distribution function (silicone-based neutral particle bolometers). For numerical studies of fast ion dynamics a Monte Carlo code has been elaborated.

  12. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2008-10-01

    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of Prad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to Prad determined using resistive bolometers.

  13. Radon mitigation during the installation of the CUORE 0νββ decay detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benato, G.; Biare, D.; Bucci, C.; Di Paolo, L.; Drobizhev, A.; Kadel, R. W.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Schreiner, J.; Singh, V.; Sipla, T.; Wallig, J.; Zimmermann, S.

    2018-01-01

    CUORE—the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events—is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of 130Te with an array of 988 TeO2 crystals operated as bolometers at ~10 mK in a large dilution refrigerator. With this detector, we aim for a 130Te 0νββ decay half-life sensitivity of 9×1025 y with 5 y of live time, and a background index of lesssim 10‑2 counts/keV/kg/y. Making an effort to maintain radiopurity by minimizing the bolometers' exposure to radon gas during their installation in the cryostat, we perform all operations inside a dedicated cleanroom environment with a controlled radon-reduced atmosphere. In this paper, we discuss the design and performance of the CUORE Radon Abatement System and cleanroom, as well as a system to monitor the radon level in real time.

  14. Research@ARL. Volume 4, Issue 1, November 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    individual particles or aggregates in the micron and super - micron size range when they are successively drawn through the interrogation volume of a...M.S. Shahriar, “ Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic ensembles in a vapor,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 289–293 (2004). 24. S...physics and fabrication. He conducted research and development on tunable RF capacitor design and characterization, silicon uncooled micro bolometer

  15. Advanced Technologies for Heterodyne Radio Astronomy Instrumentation - Part1 By A. Pavolotsky, and Advanced Technologies for Heterodyne Radio Astronomy Instrumentation - Part2 By V. Desmaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaris, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    We present the advanced micro/nano technological engineering at the atomic level producing state-of-the-art epitaxial NbN thin-films on GaN buffer layers. Furthermore, we report the outstanding performance of the hot electron bolometers fabricated on epitaxial NbN thin films on GaN buffer layers. Finally we present advanced passive devices such as waveguide hybrids, IF hybrids and combiners for the realization of heterodyne THz receivers.

  16. Active 2D materials for on-chip nanophotonics and quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiue, Ren-Jye; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Grosso, Gabriele; Peng, Cheng; Fong, Kin Chung; Englund, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Abstract

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as promising candidates to augment existing optical networks for metrology, sensing, and telecommunication, both in the classical and quantum mechanical regimes. Here, we review the development of several on-chip photonic components ranging from electro-optic modulators, photodetectors, bolometers, and light sources that are essential building blocks for a fully integrated nanophotonic and quantum photonic circuit.

  17. Fast cryogenic detectors for neutrinos and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1990-01-01

    We briefly review some recent developments on cryogenic detectors whose response is not entirely limited in speed by heat or phonon propagation through a macroscopic medium. Two subjects are dealt with: a) the use of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) for nucleus recoil detection (dedicated to low energy neutrinos and WIMP dark matter); b) a possible new generation of devices eventually able to perform particle identification (therefore improving background rejection), through simultaneous measurement of ionization and heat: luminescent bolometer, calorimetric ionization detector

  18. SHARC II: a Caltech submillimeter observatory facility camera with 384 pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Charles D.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, R. Sachidananda; Freund, Minoru M.; Gardner, Matthew; Groseth, Jeff; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Kovacs, Attila; Lis, Dariusz C.; Moseley, Samuel H., Jr.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Silverberg, Robert F.; Voellmer, George M.; Yoshida, Hiroshige

    2003-02-01

    SHARC II is a background-limited 350 μm and 450 μm facility camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory undergoing commissioning in 2002. The key component of SHARC II is a 12 × 32 array of doped silicon 'pop-up' bolometers developed at NASA/Goddard. Each 1 mm × 1 mm pixel is coated with a 400 Ω/square bismuth film and located λ/4 above a reflective backshort to achieve >75% absorption efficiency. The pixels cover the focal plane with >90% filling factor. At 350 μm, the SHARC II pixels are separated by 0.65 λ/D. In contrast to the silicon bolometers in the predecessor of SHARC II, each doped thermistor occupies nearly the full area of the pixel, which lowers the 1/f knee of the detector noise to <0.03 Hz, under load, at the bath temperature of 0.36 K. The bolometers are AC-biased and read in 'total power' mode to take advantage of the improved stability. Each bolometer is biased through a custom ~130 MΩ CrSi load resistor at 7 K and read with a commercial JFET at 120 K. The JFETs and load resistors are integrated with the detectors into a single assembly to minimize microphonic noise. Electrical connection across the 0.36 K to 4 K and 4 K to 120 K temperature interfaces is accomplished with lithographed metal wires on dielectric substrates. In the best 25% of winter nights on Mauna Kea, SHARC II is expected to have an NEFD at 350 μm of 1 Jy Hz-1/2 or better. The new camera should be at least 4 times faster at detecting known point sources and 30 times faster at mapping large areas compared to the prior instrument.

  19. Mesure des anisotropies de polarisation du fond diffus cosmologique avec l'interféromètre bolométrique QUBIC

    OpenAIRE

    Bigot Sazy, Marie Anne

    2013-01-01

    The quest of B-mode polarisation of the cosmic background is one of the scientific priorities of the observational cosmology today. Observing the B-mode would be the most direct way to constrain the period of inflation. The detection of such a weak signal is however a real experimental challenge. In addition to a high statistical sensitivity (huge number of horns and bolometers required), future experiments will need an excellent quality of foreground removal and an unprecedented control of s...

  20. Search for fourth sound propagation in supersolid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Y.; Kojima, H.; Lin, X.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study is carried out to search for fourth sound propagation solid 4 He samples below 500 mK down to 40 mK between 25 and 56 bar using the techniques of heat pulse generator and titanium superconducting transition edge bolometer. If solid 4 He is endowed with superfluidity below 200 mK, as indicated by recent torsional oscillator experiments, theories predict fourth sound propagation in such a supersolid state. If found, fourth sound would provide convincing evidence for superfluidity and a new tool for studying the new phase. The search for a fourth sound-like mode is based on the response of the bolometers to heat pulses traveling through cylindrical samples of solids grown with different crystal qualities. Bolometers with increasing sensitivity are constructed. The heater generator amplitude is reduced to the sensitivity limit to search for any critical velocity effects. The fourth sound velocity is expected to vary as ∞ √ Ρ s /ρ. Searches for a signature in the bolometer response with such a characteristic temperature dependence are made. The measured response signal has not so far revealed any signature of a new propagating mode within a temperature excursion of 5 μK from the background signal shape. Possible reasons for this negative result are discussed. Prior to the fourth sound search, the temperature dependence of heat pulse propagation was studied as it transformed from 'second sound' in the normal solid 4 He to transverse ballistic phonon propagation. Our work extends the studies of [V. Narayanamurti and R. C. Dynes, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1731 (1975)] to higher pressures and to lower temperatures. The measured transverse ballistic phonon propagation velocity is found to remain constant (within the 0.3% scatter of the data) below 100 mK at all pressures and reveals no indication of an onset of supersolidity. The overall dynamic thermal response of solid to heat input is found to depend strongly on the sample preparation procedure

  1. Performance of multiplexed SQUID readout for Cryogenic Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervenak, J.A.; Grossman, E.N.; Irwin, K.D.; Martinis, John M.; Reintsema, C.D.; Allen, C.A.; Bergman, D.I.; Moseley, S.H.; Shafer, R.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the implementation of a multiplexer that uses superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to read out low-impedance cryogenic detectors. Using prototype chips, a circuit was built which interfaces eight input SQUID channels with a close-packed array of eight transition-edge sensor (TES) infrared bolometers. Circuit elements were measured and crosstalk specifications are reported. Digital feedback is employed to flux-lock a single element in the array of SQUIDs

  2. Confinement dynamics in the ZT-40M RFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.; Ingraham, J.C.; Miller, G.; Munson, C.P.; Phillips, J.A.; Pickrell, M.M.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Wurden, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Typically one-third of the input power is accounted for by radiation as measured by bolometers. This radiated power fraction has been varied from 0.15 to 0.95 in impurity injection experiments, with the global β and τ E values maintained to within a factor two. This implies that the non-radiative confinement varied by a factor five or more while the total confinement remained roughly the same

  3. Cryogenic radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.E. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Welsh, D.J. (Physics Dept., Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)); Fausch, T. (Walther Meissner Inst. ZTTF, Garching (Germany)); Drukier, A.K. (Physics Dept., Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)); Kroeger, R.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Inderhees, S.E. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Low temperature detectors promise an order of magnitude improvement over semiconducting devices in energy resolution, spatial resolution and radiation hardness. Within this broad field, bolometers and superconducting tunnel junctions are reviewed and potential applications for accelerator based experiments are examined. Our own experiments using Sn, In, Sn(Sb) and In(Bi) alloy based superconducting grain detectors have demonstrated excellent reproducibility and uniformity. (orig.)

  4. Microwave SQUID multiplexer demonstration for cosmic microwave background imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dober, B.; Becker, D. T.; Bennett, D. A.; Bryan, S. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gard, J. D.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubmayr, J.; Mates, J. A. B.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Key performance characteristics are demonstrated for the microwave superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer (μmux) coupled to transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers that have been optimized for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. In a 64-channel demonstration, we show that the μmux produces a white, input referred current noise level of 29 pA/ √{H z } at a microwave probe tone power of -77 dB, which is well below the expected fundamental detector and photon noise sources for a ground-based CMB-optimized bolometer. Operated with negligible photon loading, we measure 98 pA/ √{H z } in the TES-coupled channels biased at 65% of the sensor normal resistance. This noise level is consistent with that predicted from bolometer thermal fluctuation (i.e., phonon) noise. Furthermore, the power spectral density is white over a range of frequencies down to ˜100 mHz, which enables CMB mapping on large angular scales that constrain the physics of inflation. Additionally, we report cross-talk measurements that indicate a level below 0.3%, which is less than the level of cross-talk from multiplexed readout systems in deployed CMB imagers. These measurements demonstrate the μmux as a viable readout technique for future CMB imaging instruments.

  5. Detection and Characterization of Package Defects and Integrity Failure using Dynamic Scanning Infrared Thermography (DSIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Scott A

    2016-02-01

    A dynamic scanning infrared thermography (DSIRT) system developed at the Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Packaging Lab relies on variation in transient thermal artifacts to indicate defects, and offers the possibility of characterization of many types of materials and structures. These include newer polymer and laminate-based structures for shelf-stable foods that lack a reliable, nondestructive method for inspection, which is a continuing safety issue. Preliminary trials were conducted on a polyester/aluminum foil/polypropylene retort pouch laminate containing artificially-induced failed seal and insulating inclusion defects ranging from 1 to 10 mm wide in the plane of the seal. The samples were placed in relative motion to a laterally positioned infrared laser, inducing heating through the plane of the seal. The emergent thermal artifact on the obverse side was sensed using either a bolometer camera or a thermopile sensor, with thermal anomalies indicating potential defects and the results of each sensors were compared. The bolometer camera detected defects to the limit of its measured optical resolution-approximately 1 mm at 20 cm-although the lower-resolution thermopile sensors were only capable of detecting 5 mm defects even at closer distances of approximately 5 mm. In addition, a supplementary magnification system was fitted to the bolometer camera which increased resolution but reduced field of view and would require a much higher frame rate to be useful. Automatic processing of the image data rapidly detected the model defects and can lead to development of an automated inspection system.  Much higher material throughput speeds are feasible using faster instruments, and the system is scalable. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. CALDER: Cryogenic light detectors for background-free searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma - Italy and Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma - Italy (Italy); Castellano, M. G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma - Italy (Italy); Colantoni, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Genova - Italy and INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova - Italy (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma - Italy (Italy)

    2015-08-17

    The development of background-free detectors is essential for experiments searching for rare events. Bolometers, that are among the most competitive devices for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay (0νDBD) and Dark Matter interactions, suffer from the absence of techniques that allow to identify the nature of the interacting particles. This limit can be overcome by coupling the bolometer to an independent device for the measurement of the light emitted by interactions, as the combined read-out of the bolometric and light signals allows to identify and reject particles different from those of interest. CUORE, the most advanced bolometric experiment for 0νDBD searches, could disentangle the electrons produced by 0νDBD from the dangerous background due to α particles, by measuring the (tiny) Cherenkov light emitted by electrons and not by α’s. LUCIFER, a project based on ZnSe scintillating bolometers for the study of {sup 82}Se 0νDBD, would be competitive also in the search of Dark Matter interactions if equipped with light detectors that allow to distinguish and reject the background due to electrons and γ’s. These advances require cryogenic detectors characterized by noise lower than 20 eV, large active area, wide temperature range of operation, high radio-purity and ease in fabricating hundreds of channels. The CALDER collaboration aims to develop such detectors by exploiting the superb energy resolution and natural multiplexed read-out provided by Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  7. Fabrication of prototype imaging arrays for SCUBA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, G.C.; Beall, J.A.; Doriese, W.B.; Duncan, W.D.; Ferreira, L.S.; Irwin, K.D.; Reintsema, C.D.; Ullom, J.N.; Vale, L.R.; Xu, Y.; Zink, B.L.; Parkes, W.; Bunting, A.S.; Dunare, C.C.; Gundlach, A.M.; Stevenson, J.T.M.; Walton, A.J.; Schulte, E.; Corrales, E.; Sienicki, J.P.; Bintley, Dan; Ade, P.A.R.; Sudiwala, Rashmi V.; Woodcraft, Adam L.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, W.; Audley, M.D.; MacIntosh, M.

    2006-01-01

    Prototype imaging subarrays for SCUBA-2 (the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array) have been fabricated and tested. The pixel count (1280) of these wafer-scale imagers is significantly larger than any other low-temperature detectors produced to date, and represents a major step forward for the low-temperature detector community. These transition-edge-sensor (TES) based imagers utilize several innovations including in-focal-plane superconducting quantum intereference device (SQUID) multiplexers, micromachined Si block absorbers, and superconducting wafer hybridization. In this paper, we review the fabrication processes developed for these imagers and present recent optical data from a prototype imaging subarray

  8. Terahertz holography for imaging amplitude and phase objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Erwin; Zolliker, Peter

    2014-06-30

    A non-monochromatic THz Quantum Cascade Laser and an uncooled micro-bolometer array detector with VGA resolution are used in a beam-splitter free holographic set-up to measure amplitude and phase objects in transmission. Phase maps of the diffraction pattern are retrieved using the Fourier transform carrier fringe method; while a Fresnel-Kirchhoff back propagation algorithm is used to reconstruct the complex object image. A lateral resolution of 280 µm and a relative phase sensitivity of about 0.5 rad are estimated from reconstructed images of a metallic Siemens star and a polypropylene test structure, respectively. Simulations corroborate the experimental results.

  9. THz Pyro-Optical Detector Based on LiNbO3 Whispering Gallery Mode Microdisc Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Alessandro; Cerminara, Matteo; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Pelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the capabilities of a LiNbO3 whispering gallery mode microdisc resonator as a potential bolometer detector in the THz range. The resonator is theoretically characterized in the stationary regime by its thermo-optic and thermal coefficients. Considering a Q-factor of 107, a minimum detectable power of 20 μW was evaluated, three orders of magnitude above its noise equivalent power. This value opens up the feasibility of exploiting LiNbO3 disc resonators as sensitive room-temperature detectors in the THz range. PMID:28134857

  10. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology was held February 14-16, 2001 in San Diego, California, USA. This symposium was jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The symposium featured sixty nine presentations covering a wide variety of technical topics relevant to Terahertz Technology. The presentations can be divided into five broad technology areas: Hot Electron Bolometers, superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) technology, local oscillator (LO) technology, Antennas and Measurements, and Direct Detectors. The symposium provides scientists, engineers, and researchers working in the terahertz technology and science fields to engineers their work and exchange ideas with colleagues.

  11. A Technology Demonstrator for 1.6–2.0 THz Waveguide HEB Receiver with a Novel Mixer Layout

    OpenAIRE

    Dochev, Dimitar; Desmaris, Vincent; Meledin, Denis; Pavolotsky, Alexey; Belitsky, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present our studies on a technology demonstrator for a balanced waveguide hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixer operating in the 1.6–2.0 THz band. The design employs a novel layout for the HEB mixer combining several key technologies: all-metal THz waveguide micromachining, ultra-thin NbN film deposition and a micromachining of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate to manufacture the HEB mixer. In this paper, we present a novel mixer layout that greatly facilitates handling an...

  12. Single Pixel, Single Band Microstrip Antenna for Sub-Millimeter Wavelength Detection Using Transition Edge Superconducting Bolometric Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Cynthia; Bock, Jamie J.; Day, Peter K.; Goldin, Alexey; Lange, Andrew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    We are developing a single pixel antenna coupled bolometric detector as a precursor to the SAMBA (Superconducting Antenna-coupled Multi-frequency Bolometric Array) instrument. Our device consists of a dual slot microstrip antenna coupled to an Al/Ti/Au voltage-biased transition edge superconducting bolometer (TES). The coupling architecture involves propagating the signal along superconducting microstrip lines and terminating the lines at a normal metal resistor on a thermally isolated island. The device, which is inherently polarization sensitive, is optimized to for 100GHz band measurements, ideal for future implementation as an astronomical sub-millimeter instrument. We will present recent tests of these single pixel detectors.

  13. Radiation detection at very low temperature. DRTBT 1991 Aussois - Course collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salce, B.; Godfrin, H.; Dumoulin, L.; Garoche, Pierre; Pannetier, B.; Equer, B.; Hubert, PH.; Urbina, C.; Lamarre, J.M.; Brison, J.P.; Lesueur, D.; Bret, J.L.; Ayela, F.; Coron, N.; Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1991-12-01

    This publication gather several courses which propose or address: Thermal conduction, Kapitza resistance, Metal-insulator transition, Thermal properties and specific heat at low temperature, Thermometry, Low temperature superconductors, Defects due to irradiations in solids, Semiconducting detectors, Techniques of protection of a measurement assembly at low temperatures against perturbations, Noise reduction by impedance matching converter at low temperature, Low noise electronics and measurement, Low radio-activities, SQUID and electrometer, Results and expectations related to bolometers, Infrared and sub-millimetre radiation in astrophysics, Neutrinos, dark matter and heavy ions

  14. Characterizing and Modeling the Noise and Complex Impedance of Feedhorn-Coupled TES Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, J. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Britton, J.; Chang, C. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Cho, H. M.; Crites, A. T.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Everett, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; McMahon, J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Niemack, M. D.; Parker, L. P.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Visnjic, C.; Yoon, K. W.; Zhao, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We present results from modeling the electrothermal performance of feedhorn-coupled transition edge sensor (TES) polarimeters under development for use in cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments. Each polarimeter couples radiation from a corrugated feedhorn through a planar orthomode transducer, which transmits power from orthogonal polarization modes to two TES bolometers. We model our TES with two- and three-block thermal architectures. We fit the complex impedance data at multiple points in the TES transition. From the fits, we predict the noise spectra. We present comparisons of these predictions to the data for two TESes on a prototype polarimeter.

  15. Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic: solar diffuser plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R B; Avis, L M; Gibson, M A; Kopia, L P

    1992-11-01

    The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microm) and total (0.2 to >200-microm) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface cosisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/-2% after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.

  16. Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic - Solar diffuser plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Avis, Lee M.; Gibson, M. A.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microns) and total (0.2 to greater than 200-microns) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface consisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/- 2 percent after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.

  17. Characterizations of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Avis, Lee M.; Halyo, Nesim; Gibson, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Experiment employs the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and the NOAA 9 and 10 spacecraft to obtain absolute measurements of incoming solar radiation, shortwave earth-reflected solar radiation, and longwave earth-emitted radiation, using both scanning and nonscanning radiometers. Each of the three remote-sensing spacecraft carry narrow FOV scanning radiometers whose detection sensors are thermistor bolometers. Attention is presently given to the calibration models and methods employed in characterizing the scanning radiometers' output signals; the design features of the scanners and flight calibration systems are presented.

  18. The Edelweiss experiment: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, D.; Chardin, G.; Prostakov, I.; Goldbach, C.; Nollez, G.

    1995-09-01

    We ran a 1.5 keV threshold, 24 g bolometer, deep underground, in a selected environment for low radioactivity. The experimental setup is quickly described. Preliminary analysis based on 125 hours of effective running time exhibits a 10 fold improvement in the event rate at energy between 10 and 20 keV relative to the previous attempt in 1991. However, the event rate is still two orders of magnitude higher than the best detectors at these energies. We are currently working at it identifying the origin of the radioactive contaminants and developing new detectors. (author)

  19. A Kinematic, Kevlar(registered) Suspension System for an ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their bolometer detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar@ suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists or two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill. The resulting assembly constrains each degree of freedom only once, yielding a kinematic, tensile structure.

  20. The Design and Performance of the 384: Element Submillimeter Detector Array for SHARC II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Samuel H.; Allen, Christine; Benford, Dominic; Silverberg, Robert; Staguhn, Johannes; Dowell, Darren; Phillips, Tom

    2003-01-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12 x 32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera (HAWC) for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 microns.

  1. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. H.; Allen, C. A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J.

    2004-03-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12×32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450μm.

  2. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, S.H. E-mail: moseley@stars.gsfc.nasa.gov; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C.D.; Harper, D.A.; Phillips, T.G.; Silverberg, R.F.; Staguhn, J

    2004-03-11

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12x32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 {mu}m.

  3. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, S.H.; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C.D.; Harper, D.A.; Phillips, T.G.; Silverberg, R.F.; Staguhn, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12x32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 μm

  4. Tunable pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, V B; Razumnaya, A G; Yuzyuk, Yu I

    2017-05-10

    We studied the influence of the induced strain and applied electric field on the ground state of ferroelectric Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 thin films, deposited on the cubic (0 0 1) substrate. The dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient on the applied field is calculated for the different values of the induced strain. We found that tuning of the misfit strain in the film under the dielectric bolometer mode by the proper selection of substrate makes it possible to create the structures with very large values of the pyroelectric coefficient.

  5. A sub-μs thermal time constant electrically driven Pt nanoheater: thermo-dynamic design and frequency characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottonello Briano, Floria, E-mail: floria@kth.se; Sohlström, Hans; Forsberg, Fredrik; Stemme, Göran; Gylfason, Kristinn B. [Micro and Nanosystems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Osquldas väg 10, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Renoux, Pauline; Ingvarsson, Snorri [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavík (Iceland)

    2016-05-09

    Metal nanowires can emit coherent polarized thermal radiation, work as uncooled bolometers, and provide localized heating. In this paper, we engineer the temperature dynamics of electrically driven Pt nanoheaters on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We present three designs and we electrically characterize and model their thermal impedance in the frequency range from 3 Hz to 3 MHz. Finally, we show a temperature modulation of 300 K while consuming less than 5 mW of power, up to a frequency of 1.3 MHz. This result can lead to significant advancements in thermography and absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Measurement of thermal accommodation of spin-polarized hydrogen on a saturated 4He film at 0.18--0.4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helffrich, J.; Maley, M.P.; Krusius, M.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal accommodation of H-gas atoms on a saturated superfluid- 4 He-film-covered surface has been measured in the temperature range 0.18--0.4 K. A straightforward stationary-state measuring technique is employed whereby we determine the heat flux conducted by H-gas atoms from a superfluid- 4 He-film-covered bolometer, biased above ambient temperature. The results agree with recent calculations of the thermal-accommodation properties dominated by sticking-evaporation collisions mediated by ripplon creation

  7. MUSTANG2: a large focal plan array for the 100 meter Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, S. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Egan, D.; Ford, J.; Ford, P.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Mason, B. S.; Marganian, P.; Mello, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Mroczkowski, T.; Romero, C.; Stanchfield, S.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L.; White, S.; Whitehead, M.; Young, A. H.

    2014-07-01

    MUSTANG 2 is a 223 element focal plane that operates between 75 and 105 GHz on the 100 meter Green Bank Telescope. It shares many of the science goals of its predecessor, MUSTANG, but will have fifteen times the sensitivity and five times the field-of-view. Angular scales from 900 to 60 will be recovered with high fidelity providing a unique overlap between high resolution instruments such as ALMA and lower resolution single dish telescopes such as ACT or SPT. Individual TES bolometers are placed behind feedhorns spaced by 1.9λ f and are read out using a microwave SQUID multiplexing system.

  8. MUSTANG 2: A Large Focal Plane Array for the 100 m Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, S. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Egan, D.; Ford, J.; Ford, P.; Hilton, G.; Irwin, K. D.; Mason, B. S.; Marganian, P.; Mello, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Mroczkowski, T.; Rosenman, M.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L.; White, S.; Whitehead, M.; Young, A. H.

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes MUSTANG 2, a 338 element focal plane array that is being built for the Green Bank Telescope. Each element consists of a profiled feedhorn coupled to two transition edge sensor bolometers, one for each polarization. Initial deployment will be with 32 detectors, but once fully populated, MUSTANG 2 will be capable of mapping a area to Jy in 1 h with good image fidelity on angular scales from to . As well as an instrument overview, the choice of bandpass and the design of the feeds, detectors and readout are given.

  9. Solar-bound weakly interacting massive particles a no-frills phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J I

    1999-01-01

    The case for a stable population of solar-bound Earth-crossing Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) is reviewed. A practical general expression for their speed distribution in the laboratory frame is derived under basic assumptions. If such a population exists -even with a conservative phase-space density-, the next generation of large-mass, low-threshold underground bolometers should bring about a sizable enhancement in WIMP sensitivity. Finally, a characteristic yearly modulation in their recoil signal, arising from the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit, is presented.

  10. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moggi N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0 is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  11. Improvements in 130Te double beta decay search with cryogenic TeO2 array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Caspani, P.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-01-01

    Single crystal TeO 2 bolometers have been used since 5 years ago to search for neutrinoless DBD of 130 Te. During the last year, our group has been studying and preparing the first array of 4 crystals, 340 g each, opening this technique to new frontiers in rare events' physics. The results and perspectives of this second generation cryogenic detectors are here reported and discussed, with particular emphasis on the peculiarities which make them feasible for a consistent upgrading of our previous result in DBD search. (orig.)

  12. Detection of the THz waves from the 5m distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczakowski, Michal; Palka, Norbert; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Czerwinski, Adam; Sypek, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    We report on technical aspects connected with detection of the terahertz (THz) waves reflected from a small target which is situated at the distance of 5 meters. Details of experimental setup are presented. An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was used as a THz nanosecond pulses radiation source and a hot-electron bolometer (HEB) was applied for pulse detection. A method of spectrum calculation from experimental data is described. Measured reflectance spectra of few materials are presented with explanation of the origin of water vapor hole burning in the reflectance spectrum.

  13. Low energy neutral particle fluxes in the JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.; Horton, L.D.; Ingesson, L.C.; Jaeckel, H.J.; McCormick, G.K.; Loarte, A.; Simonini, R.; Stamp, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    First measurements are presented of the total power loss through neutral particles and their average energy in the JET divertor. The method used distinguishes between the heat flux and the electromagnetic radiation on bolometers. This is done by comparing measurements from inside the divertor either with opposite lines of sight or with a tomographic reconstruction of the radiation. The typical value of the total power loss in the divertor through neutrals is about 1 MW. The average energy of the neutral particles at the inner divertor leg is 1.5-3 eV when detachment is in progress, which agrees with EDGE2D/NIMBUS modelling. (orig.)

  14. Development of Ge/NbSi detectors for EDELWEISS-II with identification of near-surface events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juillard, A.; Marnieros, S.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Berge, L.; Collin, S.; Fiorucci, S.; Lalu, F.; Dumoulin, L.

    2006-01-01

    The actual limitation of Ge ionization heat cryogenic detectors for direct WIMP detection such as EDELWEISS arises from incomplete charge collection for near-surface events. We present results on Ge/NbSi detectors that are fitted with segmented electrodes and two NbSi Anderson insulator thermometric layers. Three such bolometers were studied in the low-background cryostat of the EDELWEISS collaboration in the LSM: analysis of the athermal signals allows us to identify and reject events occurring in the first millimeter under the electrodes

  15. Review on Non-directional Direct Dark Matter Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, B.

    2012-02-01

    An overview of non-directional direct detection methods is given. The currently leading experiments for spin independent WIMPs interactions are using simultaneous measurement of two quantities for event-by-event background discrimination in cryogenic bolometers and noble gas like xenon. Besides these, several interesting techniques have been developped, each having a specific advantage concerning e.g. energy threshold lowering or strong immunity to ionizing radiations background. Technologies used and most recent results about spin-dependent and spin-independent cases are presented.

  16. An analytical model for pulse shape and electrothermal stability in two-body transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Swetz, D. S.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Hoover, A. S.; Hoteling, N. J.; Rabin, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution superconducting gamma-ray sensors show potential for the more accurate analysis of nuclear material. These devices are part of a larger class of microcalorimeters and bolometers based on transition edge sensors (TESs) that have two distinct thermal bodies. We derive the time domain behavior of the current and temperature for compound TES devices in the small signal limit and demonstrate the utility of these equations for device design and characterization. In particular, we use the model to fit pulses from our gamma-ray microcalorimeters and demonstrate how critical damping and electrothermal stability can be predicted.

  17. Observation of Synchrotron Radiation Using Low Noise Block (LNB) at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Judin, V; Hofmann, A; Huttel, E; Kehrer, B; Klein, M; Marsching, S; Muller, A-S; Smale, N; Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    Generally Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) is emitted for wavelengths longer than or equal the bunch length, so for CSR in the THz-range short bunches are required. There are two types of detectors in this range of the spectrum: slow detectors like a golay cell or pyrometric detectors (used for e.g. imaging, spectroscopy) and fast detectors like superconducting bolometer detector systems and Schottky Barrier diodes (used for e.g. the investigation of dynamic processes in accelerator physics). The hot electron bolometer (HEB) detector system is a member of second group. It is very fast and has broad spectral characteristics, but unfortunately very expensive and have to be cooled using liquid helium. If the broad spectral response is not important, it will be suitably to use a Schottky Barrier diode instead. These detectors are massively cheaper but also slower. As an alternative to a Schottky diode a LNB (Low Noise Block) can be also used. It is usually used in standard TV-SAT-receivers. Due to mass produc...

  18. Optimization of light collection from crystal scintillators for cryogenic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokina, V.M.; Danevich, F.A.; Kobychev, V.V.; Kraus, H.; Mikhailik, V.B.; Nagornaya, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenic scintillation bolometers are a promising technique to search for dark matter and neutrinoless double decay. Improvement of light collection and energy resolution are important requirements in such experiments. Energy resolutions and relative pulse amplitudes of scintillation detectors using ZnWO 4 scintillation crystals of different shapes (cylinder 20x20 mm and hexagonal prism with diagonal 20 mm and height 20 mm), reflector materials and shapes, optical contact and surface properties (polished and diffused) were measured. The crystal scintillator of hexagonal shape shows the better energy resolution and pulse amplitude. The best energy resolution (FWHM = 9.3 % for 662 keV γ quanta of 137 Cs) was obtained with a hexagonal scintillator with all surfaces diffuse, in optical contact with a PMT and surrounded by a reflector (3M) of size 26x25 mm. In the geometry w ithout optical contact r epresenting the conditions of light collection for a cryogenic scintillating bolometer the best energy resolution and relative pulse amplitude was obtained for a hexagonal shape scintillator with diffuse side and polished face surfaces, surrounded by a reflector with a gap between the scintillator and the reflector

  19. Nonlinear vs. bolometric radiation response and phonon thermal conductance in graphene-superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Heli; Nielsen, Bent; Du, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a promising candidate for building fast and ultra-sensitive bolometric detectors due to its weak electron-phonon coupling and low heat capacity. In order to realize a practical graphene-based bolometer, several important issues, including the nature of radiation response, coupling efficiency to the radiation and the thermal conductance need to be carefully studied. Addressing these issues, we present graphene-superconductor junctions as a viable option to achieve efficient and sensitive bolometers, with the superconductor contacts serving as hot electron barriers. For a graphene-superconductor device with highly transparent interfaces, the resistance readout in the presence of radio frequency radiation is dominated by non-linear response. On the other hand, a graphene-superconductor tunnel device shows dominantly bolometric response to radiation. For graphene devices fabricated on SiO 2 substrates, we confirm recent theoretical predictions of T 2 temperature dependence of phonon thermal conductance in the presence of disorder in the graphene channel at low temperatures

  20. Comparison of Thermal Detector Arrays for Off-Axis THz Holography and Real-Time THz Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Erwin; Valzania, Lorenzo; Gäumann, Gregory; Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P.; Zolliker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In terahertz (THz) materials science, imaging by scanning prevails when low power THz sources are used. However, the application of array detectors operating with high power THz sources is increasingly reported. We compare the imaging properties of four different array detectors that are able to record THz radiation directly. Two micro-bolometer arrays are designed for infrared imaging in the 8–14 μm wavelength range, but are based on different absorber materials (i) vanadium oxide; (ii) amorphous silicon; (iii) a micro-bolometer array optimized for recording THz radiation based on silicon nitride; and (iv) a pyroelectric array detector for THz beam profile measurements. THz wavelengths of 96.5 μm, 118.8 μm, and 393.6 μm from a powerful far infrared laser were used to assess the technical performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, detector response and detectivity. The usefulness of the detectors for beam profiling and digital holography is assessed. Finally, the potential and limitation for real-time digital holography are discussed. PMID:26861341

  1. Effect of SiO{sub 2} coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gentils, A. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Giuliani, A., E-mail: andrea.giuliani@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Mancuso, M. [Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pessina, G. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, and INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Plantevin, O. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nuclaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Rusconi, C. [Università dell' Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, 22100 Como, Italy, (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO{sub 2} anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope {sup 82}Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO{sub 2} coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.

  2. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, J.W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.

    2013-01-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO 2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82 Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO 2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials

  3. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J. W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.

    2013-05-01

    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25-35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ˜630 nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.

  4. THE RADIO-2 mm SPECTRAL INDEX OF THE CRAB NEBULA MEASURED WITH GISMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Maher, S. F.; Moseley, S. H.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, T. M.; Kovacs, A.; Mason, B. S.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log (ν b [GHz]) = 2.84 ± 0.29 or ν b = 695 +651 -336 GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the ∼16.''7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime.

  5. High Resolution Cluster Pressure Profile Measurements with MUSTANG and Bolocam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Charles; Mason, Brian S.; Sayers, Jack; Young, Alexander; Dicker, Simon; Mroczkowski, Tony; Reese, Erik D.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Devlin, Mark J.; Korngut, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Accurate high-resolution intracluster medium (ICM) pressure profiles will help further constrain cosmological parameters as well as baryonic physics in the cores of clusters of galaxies. MUSTANG, a 90 GHz bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is among the highest resolution (9' FWHM) instruments at 90 GHz, and is among the best instruments to observe the ICM given its sensitivity. We present results from a sub-sample of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova with Hubble (CLASH) clusters of galaxies observed with both MUSTANG and Bolocam. Bolocam, a 150 GHz bolometer array on the CSO with 58' FWHM, and MUSTANG data probe different, and highly complementary, angular (size) scales. We jointly fit spherical electron pressure profiles to the two datasets and find that the addition of the high resolution MUSTANG data can considerably improve constraints on the pressure profiles. A major asset of our fitting algorithm is the ability to uniquely fit for contaminants such as point sources, and thus allowing us to determine the signal from the underlying ICM. We compare our best fit profiles to X-ray determined pressure profiles (provided by ACCEPT), where we find good agreement. Finally we investigate the implications of our results and describe ongoing work to extend this analysis to the full set of CLASH clusters viewable by the GBT, and to obtain even better results with the MUSTANG-1.5 camera

  6. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giachero A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towards CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.

  7. Mechanical Design of a 4-Stage ADR for the PIPER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan L.; Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.; Jackson, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.

  8. Measurement of thermal conductance of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films deposited on SrTiO3 and MgO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, A.; Guillet, B.; Routoure, J. M.; Fur, C.; Langlois, P.; Méchin, L.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of the thermal conductance of thin-film-on-substrate structures that could serve as thin film uncooled bolometers. Studied samples were 75 nm thick epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films deposited on SrTiO3 (0 0 1) and MgO (0 0 1) substrates patterned in square geometries of areas ranging from 50 μm × 50 μm to 200 μm × 200 μm. The model allows estimating thermal boundary conductance values at the interface between film and substrate of 0.28 ± 0.08 × 106 W K-1 m-2 for LSMO/STO (0 0 1) and 5.8 ± 3.0 × 106 W K-1 m-2 for LSMO/MgO (0 0 1) from measurements performed in the static regime. Analytical expressions of thermal conductance and thermal capacitance versus modulation frequency are compared to measurements of the elevation temperature due to absorbed incoming optical power. The overall good agreement found between measurements and model finally provides the possibility to calculate the bolometric response of thin film bolometers, thus predicting their frequency response for various geometries.

  9. Obtaining absolute spatial flux measurements with a time-resolved pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.; Porter, J.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Fehl, D.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Vargas, M.; Mix, L.P.; Simpson, W.W.; Deeney, C.; Chrien, R.E.; Idzorek, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is described to determine the spatial x-ray flux emitted from a hohlraum wall and subsequently transmitted through a diagnostic hole. This technique uses x-ray diodes, bolometers, and a time-resolved pinhole camera to determine the spatial flux of x rays emitted through a hohlraum close-quote s diagnostic hole. The primary motivation for this analysis was the relatively long duration, nearly 100 ns, of the x-ray drive present in z-pinch driven hohlraums. This radiation causes plasma to ablate from the hohlraum walls surrounding the diagnostic hole and results in a partial obscuration that reduces the effective area over which diagnostics view the radiation. The effective change in area leads to an underestimation of the wall temperature when nonimaging diagnostics such as x-ray diodes and bolometers are used to determine power and later to infer a wall temperature. An analysis similar to the one described below is then necessary to understand the radiation environment present in x-ray driven hohlraums when these diagnostics are used and hole closure is important. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. A wide-band monolithic quasi-optical power meter for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Curtis C.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel monolithic power meter has been developed for submillimeter-wave applications (100 GHz to 10 THz). The detector is a large-area bismuth bolometer integrated on a 1.2-micron-thick dielectric membrane. This approach results in a wide-band, high-responsivity detector. The power meter is simple to fabricate, is inexpensive, and can be easily calibrated using a low-frequency network. Quasi-optical measurements at 90, 140, and 240 GHz show that the bolometer is polarization-independent and could be modeled by a simple transmission line model. Absolute power measurements at 90, 140, and 240 GHz show a + or - 5 percent accuracy and agree well with a calibrated Anritsu power meter at 90 GHz. Potential application areas are power calibration, antenna coupling efficiency measurements, and absolute power measurements from solid-state devices and far-infrared lasers at submillimeter wavelengths. Absolute output power measurements on a 220-280 GHz tripler using the quasi-optical power meter are presented as an application example.

  11. Studies of Impurities in the Pegasus Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Weberski, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    Local Helicity Injection (LHI) is used to initiate ST plasmas without a solenoid. Testing predictive models for the evolution of Ip(t) during LHI requires measurement of the plasma resistivity to quantify the dissipation of helicity. To that end, three diagnostic systems are coupled with an impurity transport model to quantify plasma contaminants. These are: visible bremsstrahlung (VB) spectroscopy; bolometry; and VUV spectroscopy. A spectral survey has been performed to identify line-free regions for VB measurements in the visible. Initial VB measurements are obtained with a single sightline through the plasma, and will be expanded to an imaging array to provide spatial resolution. A SPRED multichannel VUV spectrometer is being upgraded to provide high-speed ( 0.2 ms) spectral surveys for ion species identification, with a high-resolution grating installed for metallic line identification. A 16-channel thinistor bolometer array is planned. Absolutely calibrated VB, bolometer measurements, and qualitative ion species identification from SPRED are used as constraints in an impurity transport code to estimate absolute impurity content. Earlier work using this general approach indicated Zeff < 3 , before the edge current sources were shielded to reduce plasma-injector interactions. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  12. Real-time determination of total radiated power by bolometric cameras with statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschek, M.; Fuchs, J.C.; Mast, K.F.; Mertens, V.; Zohm, H.

    1998-01-01

    A simpler and faster method for determining the total radiated power emitted from a tokamak plasma in real-time has been developed. This quantity is normally calculated after the discharge by a deconvolution of line integrals from a bolometer camera. This time-consuming algorithm assumes constant emissivity on closed flux surfaces and therefore needs the exact magnetic equilibrium information. Thus, it is highly desirable to have a different, simpler way to determine the total radiated power in real-time without additional magnetic equilibrium information. The real-time calculation of the total radiated power is done by a summation over ten or 18 lines of sight selected out of a bolometer camera with 40 channels. The number of channels is restricted by the summation hardware. A new selection scheme, which uses a singular value decomposition, has been developed to select the required subset of line integrals from the camera. With this subset, a linear regression analysis was done against the radiated power calculated by the conventional algorithm. The selected channels are finally used with the regression coefficients as weighting factors to determine an estimation of the radiated power for subsequent discharges. This selection and the corresponding weighting factors can only be applied to discharges with a similar plasma shape, e.g., in our case the typical ASDEX upgrade elliptical divertor plasma. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  13. Comparison of Thermal Detector Arrays for Off-Axis THz Holography and Real-Time THz Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Hack

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In terahertz (THz materials science, imaging by scanning prevails when low power THz sources are used. However, the application of array detectors operating with high power THz sources is increasingly reported. We compare the imaging properties of four different array detectors that are able to record THz radiation directly. Two micro-bolometer arrays are designed for infrared imaging in the 8–14 μm wavelength range, but are based on different absorber materials (i vanadium oxide; (ii amorphous silicon; (iii a micro-bolometer array optimized for recording THz radiation based on silicon nitride; and (iv a pyroelectric array detector for THz beam profile measurements. THz wavelengths of 96.5 μm, 118.8 μm, and 393.6 μm from a powerful far infrared laser were used to assess the technical performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, detector response and detectivity. The usefulness of the detectors for beam profiling and digital holography is assessed. Finally, the potential and limitation for real-time digital holography are discussed.

  14. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Princeton University, Physics Department, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Gironi, L.; Maino, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Dafinei, I.; Orio, F.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie de Masse, Orsay (France); Gotti, C.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Nagorny, S.; Pagnanini, L. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Nones, C. [SPP Centre de Saclay, CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4.10{sup 22}, 1.3.10{sup 22} and 1.0.10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  15. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 94720, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, 08544, Princeton, NJ (United States); Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-13

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4·10{sup 22}, 1.3·10{sup 22} and 1.0·10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  16. Comparison of Thermal Detector Arrays for Off-Axis THz Holography and Real-Time THz Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Erwin; Valzania, Lorenzo; Gäumann, Gregory; Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P; Zolliker, Peter

    2016-02-06

    In terahertz (THz) materials science, imaging by scanning prevails when low power THz sources are used. However, the application of array detectors operating with high power THz sources is increasingly reported. We compare the imaging properties of four different array detectors that are able to record THz radiation directly. Two micro-bolometer arrays are designed for infrared imaging in the 8-14 μm wavelength range, but are based on different absorber materials (i) vanadium oxide; (ii) amorphous silicon; (iii) a micro-bolometer array optimized for recording THz radiation based on silicon nitride; and (iv) a pyroelectric array detector for THz beam profile measurements. THz wavelengths of 96.5 μm, 118.8 μm, and 393.6 μm from a powerful far infrared laser were used to assess the technical performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, detector response and detectivity. The usefulness of the detectors for beam profiling and digital holography is assessed. Finally, the potential and limitation for real-time digital holography are discussed.

  17. Sub-millimeter science with the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Michael

    The Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope on Mt. Graham, Arizona, is a state-of-the-art single-dish radio telescope for observations in the sub-millimeter wavelength range. It is operated by the Sub-Millimeter Telescope Observatory (SMTO), which is a collaboration between the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn. In this talk I give an overview over the telescope and its instrumentation, and show some examples of forefront research performed by astronomers from both the U.S. and Europe using this instrument. The telescope is located on Mt. Graham, Arizona, at an altitude of 3178 m, which ensures sub-mm weather conditions during a significant amount of available observing time. It has a primary reflector of 10 m diameter, mounted on a carbon fiber backup structure, and is equipped with a corotating enclosure. The surface accuracy of the primary reflector is 12 microns rms, what makes the HHT the most accurate radio telescope ever built. For spectral line observations, SIS receivers covering the frequency range from 200 to 500 GHz are available. Furthermore, a Hot-Electron-Bolometer, developed at the CfA, can be used for spectral line observations above 800 GHz. The continuum receivers are a 4-color bolometer, observing at 1300, 870, 450, and 350 microns, and a 19-channel bolometer array, developed at the MPIfR, which is sensitive around 850 microns. In the last few years, the HHT has been used by several groups to perform astronomical research. The most notable result was the measurement of the CO(9--8) line in Orion at 1.037 THz with the Hot-Electron Bolometer -- the first radioastronomical observation above 1 THz from a ground-based telescope. Several galactic molecular line sources have been mapped in the CO(7--6) line at 806 GHz, and in two fine-structure lines of atomic carbon. A continuum map of the galactic center at 850 microns could be produced using the new 19-channel bolometer array. Even external galaxies, where

  18. First Light for World's Largest 'Thermometer Camera'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    LABOCA in Service at APEX The world's largest bolometer camera for submillimetre astronomy is now in service at the 12-m APEX telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Chilean Andes. LABOCA was specifically designed for the study of extremely cold astronomical objects and, with its large field of view and very high sensitivity, will open new vistas in our knowledge of how stars form and how the first galaxies emerged from the Big Bang. ESO PR Photo 35a/07 ESO PR Photo 35a/07 LABOCA on APEX "A large fraction of all the gas in the Universe has extremely cold temperatures of around minus 250 degrees Celsius, a mere 20 degrees above absolute zero," says Karl Menten, director at the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany, that built LABOCA. "Studying these cold clouds requires looking at the light they radiate in the submillimetre range, with very sophisticated detectors." Astronomers use bolometers for this task, which are, in essence, thermometers. They detect incoming radiation by registering the resulting rise in temperature. More specifically, a bolometer detector consists of an extremely thin foil that absorbs the incoming light. Any change of the radiation's intensity results in a slight change in temperature of the foil, which can then be registered by sensitive electronic thermometers. To be able to measure such minute temperature fluctuations requires the bolometers to be cooled down to less than 0.3 degrees above absolute zero, that is below minus 272.85 degrees Celsius. "Cooling to such low temperatures requires using liquid helium, which is no simple feat for an observatory located at 5100m altitude," says Carlos De Breuck, the APEX instrument scientist at ESO. Nor is it simple to measure the weak temperature radiation of astronomical objects. Millimetre and submillimetre radiation opens a window into the enigmatic cold Universe, but the signals from space are heavily absorbed by water vapour in the Earth

  19. Implanted Silicon Resistor Layers for Efficient Terahertz Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Abrahams, J.; Allen, C. A.; Benford, D. J.; Henry, R.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Moseley, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Broadband absorption structures are an essential component of large format bolometer arrays for imaging GHz and THz radiation. We have measured electrical and optical properties of implanted silicon resistor layers designed to be suitable for these absorbers. Implanted resistors offer a low-film-stress, buried absorber that is robust to longterm aging, temperature, and subsequent metals processing. Such an absorber layer is readily integrated with superconducting integrated circuits and standard micromachining as demonstrated by the SCUBA II array built by ROE/NIST (1). We present a complete characterization of these layers, demonstrating frequency regimes in which different recipes will be suitable for absorbers. Single layer thin film coatings have been demonstrated as effective absorbers at certain wavelengths including semimetal (2,3), thin metal (4), and patterned metal films (5,6). Astronomical instrument examples include the SHARC II instrument is imaging the submillimeter band using passivated Bi semimetal films and the HAWC instrument for SOFIA, which employs ultrathin metal films to span 1-3 THz. Patterned metal films on spiderweb bolometers have also been proposed for broadband detection. In each case, the absorber structure matches the impedance of free space for optimal absorption in the detector configuration (typically 157 Ohms per square for high absorption with a single or 377 Ohms per square in a resonant cavity or quarter wave backshort). Resonant structures with -20% bandwidth coupled to bolometers are also under development; stacks of such structures may take advantage of instruments imaging over a wide band. Each technique may enable effective absorbers in imagers. However, thin films tend to age, degrade or change during further processing, can be difficult to reproduce, and often exhibit an intrinsic granularity that creates complicated frequency dependence at THz frequencies. Thick metal films are more robust but the requirement for

  20. Simulations of the muon-induced neutron background of the EDELWEISS-II experiment for Dark Matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    In modern astroparticle physics and cosmology, the nature of Dark Matter is one of the central problems. Particle Dark Matter in form of WIMPs is favoured among many proposed candidates. The EDELWEISS direct Dark Matter search uses Germanium bolometers to detect these particles by nuclear recoils. Here, the use of two signal channels on an event-by-event basis, namely the heat and ionisation signal, enables the detectors to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils. This technique leaves neutrons in the underground laboratory as the main background for the experiment. Besides (α,n) reactions of natural radioactivity, neutrons are produced in electromagnetic and hadronic showers induced by cosmic ray muons in the surrounding rock and shielding material of the Germanium crystals. To reach high sensitivities, the EDELWEISS-II experiment, as well as other direct Dark Matter searches, has to efficiently suppress this neutron background. The present work is devoted to study the muon-induced neutron flux in the underground laboratory LSM and the interaction rate within the Germanium crystals by using the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4. To ensure reliable results, the implemented physics in the toolkit regarding neutron production is tested in a benchmark geometry and results are compared to experimental data and other simulation codes. Also, the specific energy and angular distribution of the muon flux in the underground laboratory as a consequence of the asymmetric mountain overburden is implemented. A good agreement of the simulated muon flux is shown in a comparison to preliminary experimental data obtained with the EDELWEISS-II muon veto system. Furthermore, within a detailed geometry of the experimental setup, the muon-induced background rate of nuclear recoils in the bolometers is simulated. Coincidences of recoil events in the Germanium with an energy deposit of the muoninduced shower in the plastic scintillators of the veto system are studied to

  1. Transition-Edge Hot-Electron Microbolometers for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Stevenson, Thomas; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Barrentine, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The millimeter and the submillimeter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum hold a wealth of information about the evolution of the universe. In particular, cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and its polarization carry the oldest information in the universe, and provide the best test of the inflationary paradigm available to astronomy today. Detecting gravity waves through their imprint on the CMB polarization would have extraordinary repercussions for cosmology and physics. A transition-edge hot-electron micro - bolometer (THM) consists of a superconducting bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) with a thin-film absorber. Unlike traditional monolithic bolometers that make use of micromachined structures, the THM em ploys the decoupling between electrons and phonons at millikelvin temperatures to provide thermal isolation. The devices are fabricated photolithographically and are easily integrated with antennas via microstrip transmission lines, and with SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readouts. The small volume of the absorber and TES produces a short thermal time constant that facilitates rapid sky scanning. The THM consists of a thin-film metal absorber overlapping a superconducting TES. The absorber forms the termination of a superconducting microstripline that carries RF power from an antenna. The purpose of forming a separate absorber and TES is to allow flexibility in the optimization of the two components. In particular, the absorbing film's impedance can be chosen to match the antenna, while the TES impedance can be chosen to match to the readout SQUID amplifier. This scheme combines the advantages of the TES with the advantages of planar millimeter-wave transmission line circuits. Antenna-coupling to the detectors via planar transmission lines allows the detector dimensions to be much smaller than a wavelength, so the technique can be extended across the entire microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelength ranges. The

  2. Simulations of the muon-induced neutron background of the EDELWEISS-II experiment for Dark Matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, O.M.

    2007-12-21

    In modern astroparticle physics and cosmology, the nature of Dark Matter is one of the central problems. Particle Dark Matter in form of WIMPs is favoured among many proposed candidates. The EDELWEISS direct Dark Matter search uses Germanium bolometers to detect these particles by nuclear recoils. Here, the use of two signal channels on an event-by-event basis, namely the heat and ionisation signal, enables the detectors to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils. This technique leaves neutrons in the underground laboratory as the main background for the experiment. Besides ({alpha},n) reactions of natural radioactivity, neutrons are produced in electromagnetic and hadronic showers induced by cosmic ray muons in the surrounding rock and shielding material of the Germanium crystals. To reach high sensitivities, the EDELWEISS-II experiment, as well as other direct Dark Matter searches, has to efficiently suppress this neutron background. The present work is devoted to study the muon-induced neutron flux in the underground laboratory LSM and the interaction rate within the Germanium crystals by using the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4. To ensure reliable results, the implemented physics in the toolkit regarding neutron production is tested in a benchmark geometry and results are compared to experimental data and other simulation codes. Also, the specific energy and angular distribution of the muon flux in the underground laboratory as a consequence of the asymmetric mountain overburden is implemented. A good agreement of the simulated muon flux is shown in a comparison to preliminary experimental data obtained with the EDELWEISS-II muon veto system. Furthermore, within a detailed geometry of the experimental setup, the muon-induced background rate of nuclear recoils in the bolometers is simulated. Coincidences of recoil events in the Germanium with an energy deposit of the muoninduced shower in the plastic scintillators of the veto system are studied

  3. Fabrication of a strain-induced high performance NbN ultrathin film by a Nb5N6 buffer layer on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X. Q.; Kang, L.; Gu, M.; Yang, X. Z.; Chen, C.; Tu, X. C.; Jin, B. B.; Xu, W. W.; Chen, J.; Wu, P. H.

    2014-03-01

    Lattice mismatch between NbN and silicon (Si) reduces the superconducting properties of NbN film on Si substrate, and this in turn affects the performance of devices such as the hot electron bolometer (HEB) and superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD). We have found that the superconducting properties of NbN film on Si will be significantly improved by a Nb5N6 buffer layer. The strain of the NbN film was optimized by varying the thickness of the buffer layer. With 30 nm thick Nb5N6, the zero resistance superconducting transition temperature (TC0) of a 6 nm thick NbN film on Si is up to 13.5 K and the critical current density (JC) of the film is more than 107 A cm-2. All the details of preparation, improvement and characteristics of this film are also presented.

  4. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  5. Observation of microwave radiation using low-cost detectors at the ANKA storage ring*

    CERN Document Server

    Judin, V; Hofmann, A; Huttel, E; Kehrer, B; Klein, M; Marsching, S; Müller, A S; Nasse, M; Smale, N; Caspers, F; Peier, P

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources emit Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) for wavelengths longer than or equal to the bunch length. At most storage rings CSR cannot be observed, because the vacuum chamber cuts off radiation with long wavelengths. There are different approaches for shifting the CSR to shorter wavelengths that can propagate through the beam pipe, e.g.: the accelerator optics can be optimized for a low momentum compaction factor, thus reducing the bunch length. Alternatively, laser slicing can modulate substructures on long bunches [1]. Both techniques extend the CSR spectrum to shorter wavelengths, so that CSR is emitted at wavelengths below the waveguide shielding cut off. Usually fast detectors, like superconducting bolometer detector systems or Schottky barrier diodes, are used for observation of dynamic processes in accelerator physics. In this paper, we present observations of microwave radiation at ANKA using an alternative detector, a LNB (Low Noise Block) system. These devices are usually use...

  6. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, M. E., E-mail: mgriswold@trialphaenergy.com; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  7. Irradiation effects on plasma diagnostic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Takeo; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1998-10-01

    One of the most important issues to develop the diagnostics for the experimental thermonuclear reactor such as ITER is the irradiation effects on the diagnostics components. Typical neutron flux and fluence on the first wall are 1 MW/m 2 and 1 MWa/m 2 , respectively for ITER. In such radiation condition, most of the present diagnostics could not survive so that those will be planed to be installed far from the vacuum vessel. However, some diagnostics sensors such as bolometers and magnetic probes still have to be install inside vessel. And many transmission components for lights, wave and electric signals are inevitable even inside vessel. As a part of this R and D program of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), we carried out the irradiation tests on the basic materials of the transmission components and in-vessel diagnostics sensors in order to identify radiation hardened materials that can be used for diagnostic systems. (J.P.N.)

  8. The initial scientific program at the NSLS infrared beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Unique extraction optics (90 x 90 mrads) at the NSLS U4IR line offer high brightness beams at up to mm wavelengths with a ∼1ns pulse structure. Radiation from this port has now been carefully characterized and agrees well with calculations, making it 100--1000 times brighter than conventional sources in the middle and far infrared regions. Using rapid scan Michelson interferometers with liquid He cooled bolometer detectors we have been able for the first time to measure molecule substrate vibrations in surface science. We have also made the first measurements of the transmission of a film of the high Tc material YBaCuO in the BCS gap region. These initial experiments have demonstrated the advantages of the superior signal to noise available from this infrared beamline. 19 refs., 6 figs

  9. Superconductivity applications for infrared and microwave devices; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 19, 20, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Heinen, Vernon O.

    1990-10-01

    Various papers on superconductivity applications for IR and microwave devices are presented. The individual topics addressed include: pulsed laser deposition of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films, patterning of high-Tc superconducting thin films on Si substrates, IR spectra and the energy gap in thin film YBa2Cu3O(7-delta), high-temperature superconducting thin film microwave circuits, novel filter implementation utilizing HTS materials, high-temperature superconductor antenna investigations, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors from Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films, Y-Ba-Cu0-O thin films as high-speed IR detectors, fabrication of a high-Tc superconducting bolometer, transition-edge microbolometer, photoresponse of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) granular and epitaxial superconducting thin films, fast IR response of YBCO thin films, kinetic inductance effects in high-Tc microstrip circuits at microwave frequencies.

  10. The effect of bismuth on the structure, magnetic and electric properties of Co2MnO4 spinel multiferroic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaya, H.; Smari, M.; Walha, I.; Dhahri, E.; Graça, M. P. F.; Valente, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Mixed Co2Mn1-xBixO4 (x = 0, x = 0.05 and x = 0.1) samples were prepared by the sol-gel method using the citric acid route and characterized by various techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analyses confirmed the formation of inverse spinel cubic structure with Fd 3 ‾ m space group. The introduction of Bismuth (Bi) into Co2MnO4 did not modify the ferrimagnetic character of the parent compound Co2MnO4, whereas the field-cooled magnetizations MFC and the Curie temperature Tc decreased when increasing the Bi content. The electrical properties showed an activation energy (Ea) increase caused by the decrease of the double-exchange interaction following the substitution of Mn3+ by Bi3+. Eventually, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) shows significant values for all samples can be investigated also as good candidates for bolometer applications.

  11. Planck 2013 results. VIII. HFI photometric calibration and mapmaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bertincourt, B; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Filliard, C; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Lellouch, E; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Maurin, L; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Moreno, R; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Techene, S; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the processing applied to the HFI cleaned time-ordered data to produce photometrically calibrated maps. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To get the best accuracy on the calibration on such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have to be used. The 545 and 857 \\GHz\\ data are calibrated using Uranus and Neptune flux density measurements, compared with models of their atmospheric emissions to calibrate the data. The lower frequencies (below 353 GHz) are calibrated using the cosmological microwave background dipole.One of the components of this anisotropy results from the orbital motion of the satellite in the Solar System, and is therefore time-variable. Photometric calibration is thus tightly linked to mapmaking, which also addresses low frequency noise removal. The 2013 released HFI data show some evidence for apparent gain variations of the HFI bolometers' detection chain. These variations were identified by comparing obse...

  12. Applied superconductivity. Handbook on devices and applications. Vol. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Paul (ed.) [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, AG Tieftemperaturphysik

    2015-07-01

    The both volumes contain the following 12 chapters: 1. Fundamentals; 2. Superconducting Materials; 3. Technology, Preparation, and Characterization (bulk materials, thin films, multilayers, wires, tapes; cooling); 4, Superconducting Magnets; 5. Power Applications (superconducting cables, superconducting current leads, fault current limiters, transformers, SMES and flywheels; rotating machines; SmartGrids); 6. Superconductive Passive Devices (superconducting microwave components; cavities for accelerators; superconducting pickup coils; magnetic shields); 7. Applications in Quantum Metrology (superconducting hot electron bolometers; transition edge sensors; SIS Mixers; superconducting photon detectors; applications at Terahertz frequency; detector readout); 8. Superconducting Radiation and Particle Detectors; 9. Superconducting Quantum Interference (SQUIDs); 10. Superconductor Digital Electronics; 11. Other Applications (Josephson arrays as radiation sources. Tunable microwave devices) and 12. Summary and Outlook (of the superconducting devices).

  13. Terahertz Radiation Heterodyne Detector Using Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a GaN Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Crawford, Timothy J.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Mitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution submillimeter/terahertz spectroscopy is important for studying atmospheric and interstellar molecular gaseous species. It typically uses heterodyne receivers where an unknown (weak) signal is mixed with a strong signal from the local oscillator (LO) operating at a slightly different frequency. The non-linear mixer devices for this frequency range are unique and are not off-the-shelf commercial products. Three types of THz mixers are commonly used: Schottky diode, superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB), and superconductor-insulation-superconductor (SIS) junction. A HEB mixer based on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of two slightly dissimilar semiconductors was developed. This mixer can operate at temperatures between 100 and 300 K, and thus can be used with just passive radiative cooling available even on small spacecraft.

  14. THz holography in reflection using a high resolution microbolometer array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolliker, Peter; Hack, Erwin

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate a digital holographic setup for Terahertz imaging of surfaces in reflection. The set-up is based on a high-power continuous wave (CW) THz laser and a high-resolution (640 × 480 pixel) bolometer detector array. Wave propagation to non-parallel planes is used to reconstruct the object surface that is rotated relative to the detector plane. In addition we implement synthetic aperture methods for resolution enhancement and compare Fourier transform phase retrieval to phase stepping methods. A lateral resolution of 200 μm and a relative phase sensitivity of about 0.4 rad corresponding to a depth resolution of 6 μm are estimated from reconstructed images of two specially prepared test targets, respectively. We highlight the use of digital THz holography for surface profilometry as well as its potential for video-rate imaging.

  15. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  16. Shot-to-shot comparison of the first Li-beam-driven hohlraum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzon, M.S.; Rochau, G.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Moats, A.R.; Leeper, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Shot-to-shot comparison of the first Li-beam hohlraum experiments on PBFA II provides an opportunity to measure and determine the factor that affect the on-axis reproducibility of the Li-ion beam. Both inner-shell and thermal x-ray emission are used to estimate the relative beam power on target from shot to shot. The M- and L-shell Au x-ray yield measurements were made with an array of 11 filtered p-i-n detectors, and the thermal emission measurements were made with an array of three filtered bolometers. The analysis shows that the beam intensity on target varied by more than a factor of 10 during the shot series. By correlating the results of the beam on target with other diagnostics and events, we have identified some potential causes for these variations

  17. The Science of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and SNOLAB

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    A description of the science associated with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and its relation to other neutrino measurements will be given, along with a discussion of the new set of experiments that are at various stages of development or operation at SNOLAB. These experiments will perform measurements of neutrino properties and seek direct detection of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPS) as Dark Matter candidates. The experiments include SNO+, in which the central element of the SNO detector will be liquid scintillator with Te dissolved for neutrino-less double beta decay; DEAP, using about 3300 kg of liquid argon for single phase direct Dark Matter detection; SuperCDMS, a solid state bolometer system to start construction at SNOLAB in the near future; PICO, a direct Dark Matter experiment using bubble formation for detection and NEWS, a direct Dark Matter detector using high pressure gasses for low-mass WIMP detection.

  18. Third sound measurements of superfluid 4He films on multiwall carbon nanotubes below 1 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menachekanian, Emin; Abraham, John B S; Chen, Bob; Iaia, Vito; Li, Andrew; Williams, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Third sound is studied for superfluid films of 4He adsorbed on multiwall carbon nanotubes packed into an annular resonator. The third sound is generated with mechanical oscillation of the cell, and detected with carbon bolometers. A filling curve at temperatures near 250 mK shows oscillations in the third sound velocity, with maxima at the completion of the 4th and 5th atomic layers. Sharp changes in the Q factor of the third sound are found at partial layer fillings. Temperature sweeps at a number of fill points show strong broadening effects on the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition, and rapidly increasing dissipation, in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Machta and Guyer. At the 4th layer completion there is a sudden reduction of the transition temperature T KT , and then a recovery back to linear variation with temperature, although the slope is considerably smaller than the KT prediction

  19. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  20. Vibrations on pulse tube based Dry Dilution Refrigerators for low noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, E.; Billard, J.; De Jesus, M.; Juillard, A.; Leder, A.

    2017-06-01

    Dry Dilution Refrigerators (DDR) based on pulse tube cryo-coolers have started to replace Wet Dilution Refrigerators (WDR) due to the ease and low cost of operation. However these advantages come at the cost of increased vibrations, induced by the pulse tube. In this work, we present the vibration measurements performed on three different commercial DDRs. We describe in detail the vibration measurement system we assembled, based on commercial accelerometers, conditioner and DAQ, and examined the effects of the various damping solutions utilized on three different DDRs, both in the low and high frequency regions. Finally, we ran low temperature, pseudo-massive (30 and 250 g) germanium bolometers in the best vibration-performing system under study and report on the results.

  1. Astronomical results from SHARC-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Dowell, C. Darren

    2004-03-01

    The Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC-II) is a facility instrument for far-infrared (350μm) imaging at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). With 384 pixels, SHARC-II uses the world's largest bolometer array for astronomical observations. SHARC-II is most efficiently utilized for observations of extended sources and for deep sky surveys. The low 1/f detector noise allows total power measurements without the need to observe an emission free ``off position''. This is possible because the sky emission can be distinguished from the celestial emission when the array scans over the sky at sufficient speed. Here we present a representative set of SHARC-II observations, which highlight the capabilities of the instrument. The observations show the submillimeter continuum emission from our own Galactic center, the nearby galaxy M51, and the gravitationally lensed high-z Cloverleaf galaxy H1413+1143.

  2. Astronomical results from SHARC-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Dowell, C. Darren

    2004-01-01

    The Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC-II) is a facility instrument for far-infrared (350 μm) imaging at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). With 384 pixels, SHARC-II uses the world's largest bolometer array for astronomical observations. SHARC-II is most efficiently utilized for observations of extended sources and for deep sky surveys. The low 1/f detector noise allows total power measurements without the need to observe an emission free 'off position'. This is possible because the sky emission can be distinguished from the celestial emission when the array scans over the sky at sufficient speed. Here we present a representative set of SHARC-II observations, which highlight the capabilities of the instrument. The observations show the submillimeter continuum emission from our own Galactic center, the nearby galaxy M51, and the gravitationally lensed high-z Cloverleaf galaxy H1413+1143

  3. SHARC II Observations of the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Dowell, C. D.

    2003-05-01

    We present the first images of the Galactic Center region obtained with the new Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facility camera SHARC II. Most of the observations show the 350μ m dust continuum emission from this region. The observing mode we used is similar to fast scanning. This mode does not require on- and off-source observations, since the emission from the sky and detector noise can be derived from the on source observations alone. This is possible because the fast scanning on the sky provides spatial correlations between bolometer pixels due to atmospheric emission and temporal correlations between pixels due to celestial emission. This difference of correlations permits the separation of the atmosphere from the celestial source. The observations therefore do not suffer from possible contamination from emission in an off position used for sky subtraction.

  4. Astronomical results from SHARC-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staguhn, Johannes G. E-mail: staguhn@stars.gsfc.nasa.govjohannes.staguhn@gsfc.nasa.gov; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Dowell, C. Darren

    2004-03-11

    The Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC-II) is a facility instrument for far-infrared (350 {mu}m) imaging at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). With 384 pixels, SHARC-II uses the world's largest bolometer array for astronomical observations. SHARC-II is most efficiently utilized for observations of extended sources and for deep sky surveys. The low 1/f detector noise allows total power measurements without the need to observe an emission free 'off position'. This is possible because the sky emission can be distinguished from the celestial emission when the array scans over the sky at sufficient speed. Here we present a representative set of SHARC-II observations, which highlight the capabilities of the instrument. The observations show the submillimeter continuum emission from our own Galactic center, the nearby galaxy M51, and the gravitationally lensed high-z Cloverleaf galaxy H1413+1143.

  5. Coordinated mm/sub-mm observations of Sagittarius A* in May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunneriath, D; Eckart, A; Bertram, T; Konig, S [University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Vogel, S [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Sjouwerman, L [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Wiesemeyer, H [IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora, 7, Nuecleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Schoedel, R [Instituto de AstrofIsica de AndalucIa, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, 18008 Granada (Spain); Baganoff, F K [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Morris, M; Mauerhan, J; Meyer, L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Dovciak, M; Karas, V [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, BocnI II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Dowries, D [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, Domaine Universitaire, 38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Krichbaum, T; Lu, R-S [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Krips, M [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, SMA project, 60 Garden Street, MS 78 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Markoff, S [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duschl, W J, E-mail: eckart@phl.uni-koeln.de (and others)

    2008-10-15

    At the center of the Milky Way, with a distance of {approx}8 kpc, the compact source Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) can be associated with a super massive black hole of {approx}4x 10{sup 6}M{sub o-dot}. SgrA* shows strong variability from the radio to the X-ray wavelength domains. Here we report on simultaneous NIR/sub-millimeter/X-ray observations from May 2007 that involved the NACO adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), the US mm-array CARMA, the IRAM 30m mm-telescope, and other telescopes. We concentrate on the time series of mm/sub-mm data from CARMA, ATCA, and the MAMBO bolometer at the IRAM 30m telescope.

  6. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  7. 6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wan, Wen-Jian; Tan, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Zhang-Long; Wang, Hai-Xia; Zhou, Tao; Li, Zi-Ping; Wang, Chang; Guo, Xu-Guang; Cao, Jun-Cheng

    2017-06-14

    The fast detection of terahertz radiation is of great importance for various applications such as fast imaging, high speed communications, and spectroscopy. Most commercial products capable of sensitively responding the terahertz radiation are thermal detectors, i.e., pyroelectric sensors and bolometers. This class of terahertz detectors is normally characterized by low modulation frequency (dozens or hundreds of Hz). Here we demonstrate the first fast semiconductor-based terahertz quantum well photodetectors by carefully designing the device structure and microwave transmission line for high frequency signal extraction. Modulation response bandwidth of gigahertz level is obtained. As an example, the 6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light emitted from a Fabry-Pérot terahertz quantum cascade laser is successfully detected using the fast terahertz quantum well photodetector. In addition to the fast terahertz detection, the technique presented in this work can also be used for optically characterizing the frequency stability of terahertz quantum cascade lasers, heterodyne detections and photomixing applications.

  8. Optimization of light collection from crystal scintillators for cryogenic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danevich, F.A., E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kobychev, R.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, 03056 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kraus, H. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mikhailik, V.B. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Mokina, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-04-21

    High light collection efficiency is an important requirement in any application of scintillation detectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility for improving this parameter in cryogenic scintillation bolometers, which can be considered as promising detectors in experiments investigating neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter. Energy resolutions and relative pulse amplitudes of scintillation detectors using ZnWO{sub 4} scintillation crystals of different shapes (cylinder ∅ 20×20 mm and hexagonal prism with diagonal 20 mm and height 20 mm), reflector materials and shapes, optical contact and surface properties (polished and diffused) were measured at room temperature. Propagation of optical photons in these experimental conditions was simulated using Geant4 and ZEMAX codes. The results of the simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other and with direct measurements of the crystals. This could be applied to optimize the geometry of scintillation detectors used in the cryogenic experiments.

  9. High Resolution SZE Measurements Of CLASH Clusters With MUSTANG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Charles; Mason, B.; Mroczkowski, T.; Dicker, S.; Young, A.; Reese, E.; Devlin, M.; Korngut, P.; Sarazin, C.; Sun, M.; Lensing, Cluster; survey with Hubble, Supernova

    2012-05-01

    Recent results from SZE observations of galaxy clusters with MUSTANG show substructure in many of the clusters observed to date. The MUSTANG instrument is a bolometer array on the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) that operates at 90 GHz. MUSTANG’s high angular resolution (9”) allows us to find substructure in the electron pressure of the intracluster medium (ICM) via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE). We report results from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). These clusters already have complementary data from the radio to X-ray. Understanding how substructure, especially in merging clusters, affects scaling relations is essential to a more precise cosmological picture. We also discuss improvements in data reduction, and revisit previously observed clusters.

  10. Development of a Microwave SQUID-Multiplexed TES Array for MUSTANG-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchfield, S. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Dober, B.; Egan, D.; Ford, P.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Marganian, P.; Mason, B. S.; Mates, J. A. B.; McMahon, J.; Mello, M.; Mroczkowski, T.; Romero, C.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L.; White, S.; Whitehead, M.; Young, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    MUSTANG-2 is a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array in the final stages of development for operation on the 100-m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We present the camera design and report the performance during the first season of observation, in which 64 of the available 215 pixels in the focal plane were populated. We highlight the microwave multiplexing readout technology, which is envisioned as a path to read out the next generation of large pixel-count cryogenic focal planes. In this regard, MUSTANG2 is a pathfinder for this multiplexing technology. We present noise spectra which show no detector noise degradation when read out with microwave SQUID multiplexing, and we present first light images of Jupiter and M87, which demonstrate the end-to-end system performance.

  11. High Resolution SZE Imaging of Galaxy Clusters with MUSTANG-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian S.; Romero, Charles; Dicker, Simon; Mroczkowski, Tony; Stanchfield, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole G.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Golwala, Sunil R.; Devlin, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years the 3.3mm MUSTANG bolometer camera on the GBT has been making pioneering, 10" resolution images of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) in galaxy clusters. These measurements, focusing mainly on the CLASH sample, provide a view of the ICM state and dynamics which complements that provided by other common probes (x-ray imaging and spectroscopy and lower resolution SZE imaging). We present results from this survey, including ICM pressure profile measurements obtained by combining MUSTANG and BOLOCAM data, and discuss work that is underway. In early 2015, MUSTANG's next-generation successor (MUSTANG-2) achieved first light in an engineering run on the GBT. In early 2016 the fully populated 215-feedhorn MUSTANG-2 camera will be installed for an early science run. We present an overview of key SZ science that this instrument aims to address.

  12. Capacitively-Coupled SQUID Bias for Time Division Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Martino, J.; Decourcelle, T.; Chapron, C.

    2014-08-01

    The multiplexing scheme presented in this paper is part of the readout chain of the QUBIC instrument devoted to cosmic microwave background polarization observations. It is based on time domain multiplexing using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to read out a large array of superconducting bolometers. The originality of the multiplexer presented here lies in the use of capacitors for the SQUID addressing. Capacitive coupling allows us to bias many SQUIDs in parallel (in a 2D topology), with low crosstalk and low power dissipation of the cryogenic front-end readout. However, capacitors in series with the SQUID require a modification of the addressing strategy. This paper presents a bias reversal technique adopted to sequentially address the SQUIDs through capacitors using a cryogenic SiGe integrated circuit. We further present the different limitations of this technique and how to choose the proper capacitance for a given multiplexing frequency and current source compliance.

  13. Sorption-cooled continuous miniature dilution refrigeration for astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew J.; Calisse, Paolo G.; Coppi, Gabriele; Haynes, Vic; Martinis, Lorenzo; McCulloch, Mark A.; Melhuish, Simon J.; Piccirillo, Lucio

    2016-07-01

    A progress report is provided on the development of a tiltable continuous miniature dilution refrigerator and associated 3He/4He sorption coolers. These systems are currently being developed to provide sub-Kelvin cooling of the bolometer arrays for several ground- and balloon-based experiments which aim to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (QUBIC, LSPE and POLARBEAR-2). The novel tiltable miniaturised system benefits from a lack of external circulation pumps and a mechanically simple design. The condenser of the twin-pumped recirculating diluter is cooled continuously by two 3He/4He sorption coolers. The sorption pumps are operated by convective heat switches. The dilution unit features a thermally separated mixing chamber, still and step heat exchangers. The designs and analyses of both the sorption coolers and the diluter are reported; both systems have been manufactured and are presently under test.

  14. QUBIC: the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piat, M.; Battistelli, E.; Baù, A.; Bennett, D.; Bergé, L.; Bernard, J.-P.; de Bernardis, P.; Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Bordier, G.; Bounab, A.; Bréelle, E.; Bunn, E. F.; Calvo, M.; Charlassier, R.; Collin, S.; Cruciani, A.; Curran, G.; Dumoulin, L.; Gault, A.; Gervasi, M.; Ghribi, A.; Giard, M.; Giordano, C.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gradziel, M.; Guglielmi, L.; Hamilton, J.-C.; Haynes, V.; Kaplan, J.; Korotkov, A.; Landé, J.; Maffei, B.; Maiello, M.; Malu, S.; Marnieros, S.; Martino, J.; Masi, S.; Montier, L.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pajot, F.; Parisel, C.; Passerini, A.; Peterzen, S.; Piacentini, F.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Polenta, G.; Prêle, D.; Romano, D.; Rosset, C.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Sironi, G.; Sordini, R.; Spinelli, S.; Tartari, A.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G.; Vibert, L.; Voisin, F.; Watson, R. A.; Zannoni, M.

    2012-06-01

    The primordial B-mode polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background is the imprints of the gravitational wave background generated by inflation. Observing the B-mode is up to now the most direct way to constrain the physics of the primordial Universe, especially inflation. To detect these B-modes, high sensitivity is required as well as an exquisite control of systematics effects. To comply with these requirements, we propose a new instrument called QUBIC (Q and U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology) based on bolometric interferometry. The control of systematics is obtained with a close-packed interferometer while bolometers cooled to very low temperature allow for high sensitivity. We present the architecture of this new instrument, the status of the project and the self-calibration technique which allows accurate measurement of the instrumental systematic effects.

  15. QUBIC, a bolometric interferometer to measure the B-modes of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J.-C.; Charlassier, R.

    The quest for the B-modes in the CMB polarization is one of the main challenges of modern cosmology as it would allow to give sharp constraints on the inflationary period. One of the main challenges of B modes detection is the treatment of systematic errors. Comparison of observations subject to different systematics is crucial. Interferometers offer such an alternative to imagers. However, to obtain the required sensitivity, a very large number of baselines is needed, which is extremely difficult to achieve with heterodyne interferometry. Bolometric interferometry copes with this problem using a new technique: the interference pattern produced by a few hundred horns is imaged on a bolometer array, and a time modulation of phase shifts insures the separation of visibilities while coherently adding redundant ones. The QUBIC collaboration proposes to build such an instrument.

  16. Electrochemically induced FTIR difference spectroscopy in the mid- to far infrared (200 microm) domain: a new setup for the analysis of metal-ligand interactions in redox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthomieu, Catherine; Marboutin, Laure; Dupeyrat, François; Bouyer, Pierre

    2006-07-01

    We report the setup of an electrochemical cell with chemical-vapor deposition diamond windows and the use of a Bruker 66 SX FTIR spectrometer equipped with DTGS and Si-bolometer detectors and KBr and mylar beam splitters, to record on the same sample, FTIR difference spectra corresponding to the structural changes associated with the change in redox state of active sites in proteins in the whole 1800-50 cm(-1) region. With cytochrome c we show that reliable reduced-minus-oxidized FTIR difference spectra are obtained, which correspond to single molecular vibrations. Redox-sensitive IR modes of the cytochrome c are detected until 140 cm(-1) with a good signal to noise. This new setup is promising to analyze the infrared spectral region where metal-ligand vibrations are expected to contribute and to extend the analysis of vibrational properties to metal sites or redox states not accessible to (resonance) Raman spectroscopy. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Earthcare MSI TIR detector qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Rojas, L.; Chang, M.; Everett, J.; Phillips, T.; Sauer, M.; Kruse, K.-W.; Nelms, N.; Pérez Albiñana, A.; Crastes, A.

    2017-11-01

    The ESA EarthCARE satellite mission objective is the observation of clouds and aerosols from low Earth orbit. The key spatial context providing instrument within the payload suite of 4 instruments is the Multi- Spectral Imager (MSI). This paper discusses the test program developed and implemented at SSTL for the formal qualification of the COTS micro-bolometer detectors for the TIR camera of the MSI. The comprehensive test campaign for the qualification of the detectors covered full electro-optical characterisation, life tests, environmental testing (thermal and mechanical), Particle Impact Noise Detection (PIND) tests, destructive physical analysis (DPA) and radiation tolerance assessment. Testing was undertaken at the specialist detector test facilities at SSTL. External facilities were called on for aspects of the programme. We describe the microbolometer arrays tested, the test benches developed for the program, test facilities, the test procedures and a summary of the test results. The qualification programme was completed in May 2014.

  18. Mechanical Robustness of FPA in a-Si Microbolometer with Fine Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Yeoun Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbolometer array sensors with fine pitch pixel arrays have been implemented using amorphous silicon supported by two contact pads. Simple beam test structures were fabricated and characterized for the purpose of designing a focal plane with geometrical flatness. As the beam length decreased, the effect of beam width on the bending was minimized. Membrane deformation of focal plane in a real pixel showed downward curvature by residual stress of a-Si and Ti layer. The tilting deformation was caused by the misalign effect of contact pad and confirmed by FEA (Finite Element Analysis simulation results. The electro-optical properties of bolometer have been measured to be noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD = 145 mK, temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR = −2 %/K, and thermal time constant = 1.99 ms.

  19. [CII] At 1 Universe with Zeus (1 and 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G.; Benford, D.; staguhn, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the [CII] 158 micron fine structure line from six submillimeter galaxies with redshifts between 1.12 and 1.73. This more than doubles the total number of [CII] 158 micron detections reported from high redshift sources. These observations were made with the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer(ZEUS) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii between December 2006 and March 2009. ZEUS is a background limited submm echelle grating spectrometer (Hailey-Dunsheath 2009). Currently we are constructing ZEUS-2. This new instrument will utilize the same grating but will feature a two dimensional transition-edge sensed bolometer array with SQUID multiplexing readout system enabling simultaneous background limited observations in the 200, 340,450 and 650 micron telluric windows. ZEUS-2 will allow for long slit imaging spectroscopy in nearby galaxies and a [CII] survey from z 0.25 to 2.5.

  20. Vibrations on pulse tube based Dry Dilution Refrigerators for low noise measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, E. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Billard, J.; De Jesus, M.; Juillard, A. [Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN-Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Leder, A. [Massachussets Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Dry Dilution Refrigerators (DDR) based on pulse tube cryo-coolers have started to replace Wet Dilution Refrigerators (WDR) due to the ease and low cost of operation. However these advantages come at the cost of increased vibrations, induced by the pulse tube. In this work, we present the vibration measurements performed on three different commercial DDRs. We describe in detail the vibration measurement system we assembled, based on commercial accelerometers, conditioner and DAQ, and examined the effects of the various damping solutions utilized on three different DDRs, both in the low and high frequency regions. Finally, we ran low temperature, pseudo-massive (30 and 250 g) germanium bolometers in the best vibration-performing system under study and report on the results.

  1. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  2. Diagnostic suite of the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M. C., E-mail: mthompson@trialphaenergy.com; Gota, H.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy studies the evolution of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection. Data on the FRC plasma performance are provided by a comprehensive suite of diagnostics that includes magnetic sensors, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, neutral particle analyzers, and fusion product detectors. While many of these diagnostic systems were inherited from the preceding experiment C-2, C-2U has a variety of new and upgraded diagnostic systems: multi-chord far-infrared polarimetry, multiple fast imaging cameras with selectable atomic line filters, proton detector arrays, and 100 channel bolometer units capable of observing multiple regions of the spectrum simultaneously. In addition, extensive ongoing work focuses on advanced methods of measuring separatrix shape and plasma current profile that will facilitate equilibrium reconstruction and active control of the FRC plasma.

  3. Radiation detection at very low temperature. DRTBT 2012, La-Londe-des-Maures - Course collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, L.; Giuliani, Andrea; Camus, Ph.; Torres, Lidia; Marcillac, Pierre de; Nones, Claudia; Gascon, J.; Prele, Damien; Rodrigues, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Bernardis, Paolo de; Pigot, C.; Sauvageot, Jean-Luc; Jin, Yong; Pari, Patrick; Chapellier, M.; Doyle, S.

    2012-05-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations. A first session proposes an introduction to superconductivity, and presentations of modern cryogenic techniques, and on the use of scintillating bolometers in physics. The second session proposed contributions on the detection of neutrinos and calibration sources for detectors, on the neutrino (history and perspectives, science and technological challenges), and on dark matter (history and perspectives, science and technological challenges). The third session addressed kinematic inductance detectors (principles and technology) and TES detectors (principles and technology). The fourth session addressed magnetic metallic calorimeters (principles and technology), low energy astronomy and high energy astronomy (history and perspectives, science and technological challenges). The last session addressed low frequency cryogenic electronics (JFET, MOSFET, HEMT), and principles and applications of dilution-based cryostats without cryogenic liquids

  4. Heavy Sterile Neutrino in Dark Matter Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi C. Divari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile neutrinos are possible dark matter candidates. We examine here possible detection mechanisms, assuming that the neutrino has a mass of about 50 keV and couples to the ordinary neutrino. Even though this neutrino is quite heavy, it is nonrelativistic with a maximum kinetic energy of 0.1 eV. Thus new experimental techniques are required for its detection. We estimate the expected event rate in the following cases: (i measuring electron recoil in the case of materials with very low electron binding; (ii low temperature crystal bolometers; (iii spin induced atomic excitations at very low temperatures, leading to a characteristic photon spectrum; (iv observation of resonances in antineutrino absorption by a nucleus undergoing electron capture; (v neutrino induced electron events beyond the end point energy of beta decaying systems, for example, in the tritium decay studied by KATRIN.

  5. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  6. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  7. Testing the Standard Model with the Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10A{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  8. Analysis of noise in energy-dispersive spectrometers using time-domain methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goulding, F S

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated time domain approach to the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio in all spectrometer systems that contain a detector that converts incoming quanta of radiation into electrical pulse signals that are amplified and shaped by an electronic pulse shaper. It allows analysis of normal passive pulse shapers as well as time-variant systems where switching of shaping elements occurs in synchronism with the signal. It also deals comfortably with microcalorimeters (sometimes referred to as bolometers), where noise-determining elements, such as the temperature-sensing element's resistance and temperature, change with time in the presence of a signal. As part of the purely time-domain approach, a new method of calculating the Johnson noise in resistors using only the statistics of electron motion is presented. The result is a time-domain analog of the Nyquist formula.

  9. NASA/ESTO investments in remote sensing technologies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sachidananda R.

    2017-02-01

    For more then 18 years NASA Earth Science Technology Office has been investing in remote sensing technologies. During this period ESTO has invested in more then 900 tasks. These tasks are managed under multiple programs like Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), Advanced Component Technology (ACT), Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST), In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technologies (InVEST), Sustainable Land Imaging - Technology (SLI-T) and others. This covers the whole spectrum of technologies from component to full up satellite in space and software. Over the years many of these technologies have been infused into space missions like Aquarius, SMAP, CYGNSS, SWOT, TEMPO and others. Over the years ESTO is actively investing in Infrared sensor technologies for space applications. Recent investments have been for SLI-T and InVEST program. On these tasks technology development is from simple Bolometers to Advanced Photonic waveguide based spectrometers. Some of the details on these missions and technologies will be presented.

  10. Vacuum variable-angle far-infrared ellipsometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friš, Pavel; Dubroka, Adam

    2017-11-01

    We present the design and performance of a vacuum far-infrared (∼50-680 cm-1) ellipsometer with a rotating analyser. The system is based on a Fourier transform spectrometer, an in-house built ellipsometer chamber and a closed-cycle bolometer. The ellipsometer chamber is equipped with a computer controlled θ-2θ goniometer for automated measurements at various angles of incidence. We compare our measurements on SrTiO3 crystal with the results acquired above 300 cm-1 with a commercially available ellipsometer system. After the calibration of the angle of incidence and after taking into account the finite reflectivity of mirrors in the detector part we obtain a very good agreement between the data from the two instruments. The system can be supplemented with a closed-cycle He cryostat for measurements between 5 and 400 K.

  11. Imaging live humans through smoke and flames using far-infrared digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, M; Pugliese, E; Paturzo, M; Bianco, V; Finizio, A; Pelagotti, A; Poggi, P; Miccio, L; Meucci, R; Ferraro, P

    2013-03-11

    The ability to see behind flames is a key challenge for the industrial field and particularly for the safety field. Development of new technologies to detect live people through smoke and flames in fire scenes is an extremely desirable goal since it can save human lives. The latest technologies, including equipment adopted by fire departments, use infrared bolometers for infrared digital cameras that allow users to see through smoke. However, such detectors are blinded by flame-emitted radiation. Here we show a completely different approach that makes use of lensless digital holography technology in the infrared range for successful imaging through smoke and flames. Notably, we demonstrate that digital holography with a cw laser allows the recording of dynamic human-size targets. In this work, easy detection of live, moving people is achieved through both smoke and flames, thus demonstrating the capability of digital holography at 10.6 μm.

  12. Suppression of excess noise in Transition-Edge Sensors using magnetic field and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Doriese, W.B.; Hilton, G.C.; Beall, J.A.; Deiker, S.; Irwin, K.D.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Xu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We report recent progress at NIST on Mo/Cu Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs). While the signal-band noise of our sensors agrees with theory, we observe excess high-frequency noise. We describe this noise and demonstrate that it can be strongly suppressed by a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the sensor. Both the excess noise and α=(T/R)(dR/dT) depend strongly on field so our results show that accurate comparisons between devices are only possible when the field is well known or constant. We also present results showing the noise performance of TES designs incorporating parallel and perpendicular normal metal bars, an array of normal metal islands, and in wedge-shaped devices. We demonstrate significant reduction of high-frequency noise with the perpendicular bar devices at the cost of reduced α. Both the bars and the magnetic field are useful noise reduction techniques for bolometers

  13. Detectors calibration and research of luminescent materials for non baryonic dark matter detection; Calibration de detecteurs et recherche de materiaux luminescents pour la detection de la matiere noire non baryonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messous, M.Y.

    1995-03-01

    This work is dedicated to the characterization of luminescent materials in order to build bolometers for the simultaneous detection of heat an light in the search for WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) candidates for non baryonic dark matter. These double bolometers should enable the identification and measurement of recoil ions after collision between a WIMPs and material nucleus. In our search for highly luminescent materials, we have studied the emission spectra, the time response and the spectra response resulting from laser excitation or ionizing particles bombardment of some crystals such as CaF{sub 2}(Eu), CaF{sub 2}, CeF{sub 3}(Ce) and In{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. These studies were conducted down to liquid Helium temperature (4 K). After showing the good performance of CaF{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator, we have measured the quenching effect resulting from {sup 19}F and Ca ions recoil in CaF{sub 2}(Eu). This was done at the 14 MeV Tandem accelerator of Bruyeres-Le-Chatel with a pulsed neutron beam, simulating the WIMPs. The data obtained allowed the exploitation of the results of the BPRS (Beijing - Rome - Paris - Saclay) experiments carried out at Gran-Sasso. This results showed a gain of up to an order of magnitude in the exclusion graph of axially coupled WIMPs compared to NaI. With the apparatus developed at IPN Lyon (Nuclear Physical Institute of Lyon), we have also measured the ionization induced by Ge ion recoils in Germanium detector, which is one of the most promising crystals for WIMPs detection in the energy range of 2.8 keV-37.8 keV. An ionization efficiency of 24% to 29% was obtained. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  14. Cryogenic scintillators for rare events detection in the Edelweiss and EURECA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.A.

    2010-10-01

    The riddle of the dark matter in astrophysics could be solved by the detection of WIMPs (Weakly Interactive Massive Particles), particles that are predicted by supersymmetry. The direct detection of WIMPs requires a large mass of detectors, able to identify these particles in the background of natural radioactivity and cosmic rays. This thesis takes place within the framework of the EDELWEISS and the future EURECA experiments. These experiments use a technology based on two channel cryogenic detectors (bolometers), working at a few tens of mK. They are composed of crystals in which the energy deposited by particle interactions will produce a temperature increase (phonon signal), and where the ionization of the crystals results in either a charge or photon signal, depending on their nature. In order to broaden the range of targets for scintillating bolometers, we have built a setup to study the scintillation of crystals cooled down to 3 K. It is based on a cryostat with a compact optical geometry allowing enhanced light collection. Thanks to an individual photon counting technique and a statistical treatment of data, it allows us to measure the evolution of the the light yields and the decay time components between room temperature and 3 K. Thus this thesis presents the results obtained at 3 K on two well known room temperature crystals: BGO (Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 ) and BaF 2 . We also study the luminescence properties of titanium sapphire (Ti:Al 2 O 3 ), under VUV excitation cooled down to 8 K. (author)

  15. Superimpose signal processing method for micro-scale thermal imaging of solar salts at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Kato, Yukitaka

    2016-05-01

    The global interest in energy applications activates the advanced study about the molten salts in the usage of fluids in the power cycle, such as for transport and heat storage in solar power facilities. However, the basic properties of molten salts show a general scattering in characterization especially in thermal properties. It is suggested that new studies are required on the measurement of thermal properties of solar salts using recent technologies. In this study, micro-scale heat transfer and phase change in molten salts are presented using our originally developed device: the micro-bolometer Infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPA) measuring system is a portable type instrument, which is re-designed to measure the thermal phenomena in high temperature up to 700 °C or higher. The superimpose system is newly setup adjusted to the signal processing in high temperature to realize the quantitative thermal imaging, simultaneously. The portable type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer has been proposed based on an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in the long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. Combined with the superimpose technique, the micro-scale thermal imaging in high temperature is achieved and the molten flows of the solar salts, sodium nitrate, and potassium nitrate are successfully observed. The solar salt, the mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, shows a different shape of exothermic heat front morphology in the lower phase transition (solidification) temperature than the nitrates on cooling. The proposed measuring technique will be utilized to accelerate the screening step to determine the phase diagram and the eutectics of the multiple mixtures of candidate molten salts, which may be used as heat transport medium from the concentrated solar power to a processing plant for thermal energy

  16. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  17. Mirror Illumination and Spillover Measurements of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Patricio; Dunner, Rolando; Wollack, Ed; Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) simultaneously at 145 GHz, 220GHz and 280GHz, The receiver in ACT, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera, features 1000 TES bolometers in each band, The detector performance depends critically on the total optical loading, requiring the spmover contributions from the optics to be minimal. This inspired the use of a cold Lyot stop to limit the illumination of the primary and the use of guard rings surrounding the primary and secondary reflectors. Here, we present a direct measurement of the illumination aperture for both reflectors and of the attenuation level outside the main optical path. We used a 145 GHz, 1 m W source and a chopper wheel to produce a time-varying signal with a broad heam proflle, We sampled the response of the camera for different locations of the source, placed in front and beside the primary and secondary mirrors. The aperture of the primary was measured to be 5,72 plus or minus 0,17m in diameter (95 plus or minus 3% of its geometrical size), while the aperture of the secondary yielded 2 plus or minus 0.12m in diameter. Both apertures are consistent with the optical design. Comparing to previous measurements of the beam solid angle from planet observations, we estimate an optical efficiency of 72.3 plus or minus 4,8%. We found that the attenuation outside the primary aperture was -16 plus or minus 2dB, which is below the theoretical expectations, and -22 plus or minus 1 dB outside the secondary aperture, which is consistent with simulations. These results motivated the extension of the baffles surrounding the secondary mirror, with the following reduction in detector optical loading from 2,24 pW to 188pW.

  18. Angular and Polarization Response of Multimode Sensors with Resistive-Grid Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Akito; Wollack, Edward J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    High sensitivity receiver systems with near ideal polarization sensitivity are highly desirable for development of millimeter and sub-millimeter radio astronomy. Multimoded bolometers provide a unique solution to achieve such sensitivity, for which hundreds of single-mode sensors would otherwise be required. The primary concern in employing such multimoded sensors for polarimetery is the control of the polarization systematics. In this paper, we examine the angular- and polarization- dependent absorption pattern of a thin resistive grid or membrane, which models an absorber used for a multimoded bolometer. The result shows that a freestanding thin resistive absorber with a surface resistivity of eta/2, where eta is the impedance of free space, attains a beam pattern with equal E- and H-plane responses, leading to zero cross polarization. For a resistive-grid absorber, the condition is met when a pair of grids is positioned orthogonal to each other and both have a resistivity of eta/2. When a reflective backshort termination is employed to improve absorption efficiency, the cross-polar level can be suppressed below -30 dB if acceptance angle of the sensor is limited to < or approx. 60deg. The small cross-polar systematics have even-parity patterns and do not contaminate the measurements of odd-parity polarization patterns, for which many of recent instruments for cosmic microwave background are designed. Underlying symmetry that suppresses these cross-polar systematics is discussed in detail. The estimates and formalism provided in this paper offer key tools in the design consideration of the instruments using the multimoded polarimeters.

  19. a 530-590 GHZ Schottky Heterodyne Receiver for High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy with Lille's Fast-Scan Fully Solid-State DDS Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkina, A.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Maestrini, Alain; Defrance, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy, especially at THz and mm-wave ranges require the advances in instrumentation techniques to provide high resolution of the recorded spectra with precise frequency measurement that facilitates the mathematical treatment. We report the first implementation of a Schottky heterodyne receiver, operating at room temperature and covering the range between 530 and 590 GHz, for molecular laboratory spectroscopy. A 530-590 GHz non-cryogenic Schottky solid-state receiver was designed at LERMA, Observatoire de Paris and fabricated in partnership with LPN- CNRS (Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures), and was initially developed for ESA Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE), intended to observe Jupiter and its icy moon atmospheres. It is based on a sub-harmonic Schottky diode mixer, designed and fabricated at LERMA-LPN, pumped by a Local Oscillator (LO), consisting of a frequency Amplifier/Multiplier chains (AMCs) from RPG (Radiometer Physics GmBh). The performance of the receiver was demonstrated by absorption spectroscopy of CH_3CH_2CN with Lille's fast-scan DDS spectrometer. A series of test measurements showed the receiver's good sensitivity, stability and frequency accuracy comparable to those of 4K QMC bolometers, thus making room-temperature Schottky receiver a competitive alternative to 4K QMC bolometers to laboratory spectroscopy applications. We will present the first results with such a combination of a compact room temperature Schottky heterodyne receiver and a fast-scan DDS spectrometer. J. Treuttel, L. Gatilova, A. Maestrini et al., 2016, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Tech., 6, 148-155. This work was funded by the French ANR under the Contract No. ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS.

  20. BICEP2. II. Experiment and three-year data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Amiri, M.; Davis, G.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Day, P. K.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Fliescher, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of the BICEP2 instrument and on its three-year data set. BICEP2 was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1°-5°(ℓ = 40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvements in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. The BICEP2 telescope observed from the South Pole with a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics. BICEP2 also adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated on a common substrate. The antenna-coupled TES detectors supported scalable fabrication and multiplexed readout that allowed BICEP2 to achieve a high detector count of 500 bolometers at 150 GHz, giving unprecedented sensitivity to B-modes at degree angular scales. After optimization of detector and readout parameters, BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise-equivalent temperature of 15.8 μK√s. The full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.2 nK in square-degree pixels (5.'2 μK) over an effective area of 384 deg 2 within a 1000 deg 2 field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales to date. The power spectrum analysis presented in a companion paper has resulted in a significant detection of B-mode polarization at degree scales.

  1. MAMBO image of the debris disk around ɛ Eridani: robustness of the azimuthal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrade, Jean-François; Thilliez, Elodie

    2015-04-01

    The debris disk closest to Earth is the one around the star ɛ Eridani at a distance of 3.2 pc. It is the prime target for detailed studies of a belt of planetesimals left from the early phase of planet formation other than the Kuiper belt. The non-uniform ring-like structure around ɛ Eridani, originally discovered at λ = 850 μm with the bolometer camera SCUBA, could be the signpost of unseen long-period planets interior to the disk that gravitationally interact with it through mean-motion resonances. However, the reliability of the structure at 850 μm, which has been debated, has not been verified with independent observations until now. We present a high signal-to-noise ratio image of this structure at λ = 1.2 mm made with the bolometer camera MAMBO and compare this with the SCUBA image. We have found that three of the four emission clumps (NE, NW, SW) and the two deep hollows to the east and west are at the same positions in the MAMBO and SCUBA images within astrometric uncertainty. The SE clump is at odds, significantly brighter and more extended in the SCUBA than in the MAMBO images, but it is possible that this mismatch is an artifact. We conclude that this degree of positional coincidence provides tentative evidence that the observed structure is robust. In addition, we present the radial brightness profile of our MAMBO image and show that the width of the planetesimal belt around ɛ Eridani is narrower than 22 AU, a more stringent upper limit than determined from previous observations. The corresponding relative width is 0.1 ≤ ΔR/R ≤ 0.4, which is lower than for the Kuiper belt.

  2. Investigation of electron beam lithography effects on metal–insulator transition behavior of vanadium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, H.; Alaboz, H.; Demirhan, Y.; Ozdemir, M.; Ozyuzer, L.; Aygun, G.

    2017-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows metal–insulator phase transition at nearly 68 °C. This metal–insulator transition (MIT) in VO2 leads to a significant change in near-infrared transmittance and an abrupt change in the resistivity of VO2. Due to these characteristics, VO2 plays an important role on optic and electronic devices, such as thermochromic windows, meta-materials with tunable frequency, uncooled bolometers and switching devices. In this work, VO2 thin films were fabricated by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering in O2/Ar atmosphere on sapphire substrates without any further post annealing processes. The effect of sputtering parameters on optical characteristics and structural properties of grown thin films was investigated by SEM, XRD, Raman and UV/VIS spectrophotometer measurements. Patterning process of VO2 thin films was realized by e-beam lithography technique to monitor the temperature dependent electrical characterization. Electrical properties of VO2 samples were characterized using microprobe station in a vacuum system. MIT with hysteresis behavior was observed for the unpatterned square samples at around 68 °C. By four orders of magnitude of resistivity change was measured for the deposited VO2 thin films at transition temperature. After e-beam lithography process, substantial results in patterned VO2 thin films were observed. In this stage, for patterned VO2 thin films as stripes, the change in resistivity of VO2 was reduced by a factor of 10. As a consequence of electrical resistivity measurements, MIT temperature was shifted from 68 °C to 50 °C. The influence of e-beam process on the properties of VO2 thin films and the mechanism of the effects are discussed. The presented results contribute to the achievement of VO2 based thermochromic windows and bolometer applications.

  3. Uncooled Terahertz real-time imaging 2D arrays developed at LETI: present status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Dussopt, Laurent; Nicolas, Jean-Alain; Monnier, Nicolas; Sicard, Gilles; Siligaris, Alexandre; Hiberty, Bruno

    2017-05-01

    As for other imaging sensor markets, whatever is the technology, the commercial spread of terahertz (THz) cameras has to fulfil simultaneously the criteria of high sensitivity and low cost and SWAP (size, weight and power). Monolithic silicon-based 2D sensors integrated in uncooled THz real-time cameras are good candidates to meet these requirements. Over the past decade, LETI has been studying and developing such arrays with two complimentary technological approaches, i.e. antenna-coupled silicon bolometers and CMOS Field Effect Transistors (FET), both being compatible to standard silicon microelectronics processes. LETI has leveraged its know-how in thermal infrared bolometer sensors in developing a proprietary architecture for THz sensing. High technological maturity has been achieved as illustrated by the demonstration of fast scanning of large field of view and the recent birth of a commercial camera. In the FET-based THz field, recent works have been focused on innovative CMOS read-out-integrated circuit designs. The studied architectures take advantage of the large pixel pitch to enhance the flexibility and the sensitivity: an embedded in-pixel configurable signal processing chain dramatically reduces the noise. Video sequences at 100 frames per second using our 31x31 pixels 2D Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) have been achieved. The authors describe the present status of these developments and perspectives of performance evolutions are discussed. Several experimental imaging tests are also presented in order to illustrate the capabilities of these arrays to address industrial applications such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security or quality control of food.

  4. Multiplexing of Hot-Electron Nanobolometers Using Microwave SQUIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Day, Peter K.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry G.

    2009-12-01

    We have obtained the first data on the multiplexed operation of titanium hot-electron bolometers (HEB). Because of their low thermal conductance and small electron heat capacity nanobolometers are particularly interesting as sensors for far-infrared spectroscopy and mid- and near-IR calorimetry. However, the short time constant of these devices (˜μs at 300-400 mK) makes time domain or audio-frequency domain multiplexing impractical. The Microwave SQUID (MSQUID) approach pursued in this work uses dc SQUIDs coupled to X-band microresonators which are, in turn, coupled to a transmission line. We used a 4-element array of Ti HEBs operated at 415 mK in a He3 dewar with an optical fiber access. The microwave signal exhibited 10-MHz wide resonances at individual MSQUD frequencies between 9 GHz and 10 GHz. The resonance depth is modulated by the current through the bolometer via a change of the SQUID flux state. The transmitted signal was amplified by a cryogenic amplifier and downconverted to baseband using an IQ mixer. A 1-dB per Ω0/2 responsivity was sufficient for keeping the system noise at the level of ˜2 pA/Hz1/2. This is more than an order of magnitude smaller than phonon noise in the HEB. The devices were able to detect single near-IR photons (1550 nm) with a time constant of 3.5 μs. Follow-on work will scale the array to larger size and will address the microwave frequency signal generation and processing using a digital transceiver.

  5. CONSTRAINING DUST AND MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES IN Ly{alpha} BLOBS AT z {approx} 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yujin; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, Helmut; Le Floc' h, Emeric [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Chapman, Scott C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Neri, Roberto [IRAM-Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Borys, Colin [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tapken, Christian [Leibnitz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-01-10

    In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Ly{alpha} nebulae, the so-called Ly{alpha} blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z {approx} 3: an Ly{alpha} blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 {mu}m detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L{sub FIR} = (4.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }, comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 {mu}m measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S{sub 850{mu}m} = 16.8 mJy) at the >4{sigma} level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with {approx}2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to Almost-Equal-To 0.45 mJy beam{sup -1} (3{sigma}). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S{sub {nu}}{Delta}V {approx}< 0.25-1.0 Jy km s{sup -1}, indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H{sub 2}) < (1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12{sigma}), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.

  6. The Green Bank Telescope: Transformational Science for the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al; GBO Staff

    2018-01-01

    The Robert C Byrd Green Bank Telescope has met its design goal of providing high-quality observations at 115 GHz. The accurate small beam of the telescope at high frequencies is leveraged by deployment of multi beam receivers. An overview is presented. Observers now have access to the new, 16-pixel, 3-mm Argus receiver, which is providing high-dynamic range images over wide fields for the multitude of spectral lines between 85 and 115 GHz. The successful performance of Argus, and its modular design, demonstrates that receivers with many more pixels could be built for the GBT. A 12 x 12 array of the Argus design would have mapping speeds about nine times faster than Argus without suffering any degradation in performance for the outer pixels in the array. The Observatory plans to build the next-generation Argus instrument (Argus+) with 144-pixels, a footprint 5'x5', and 7" resolution at 110 GHz. The project will be a collaboration between the Green Bank Observatory and university groups, who will supply key components. The key science drivers for Argus+ are studies of molecular filaments in the Milky Way, studies of molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and the observations of rapidly evolving solar system objects. Observers also have access to MUSTANG-2, a 223-feedhorn bolometer camera which was commissioned on the GBT in spring 2016, and was offered for observations on a shared risk basis, in collaboration with the instrument team, in the 2018A GBO proposal call. Several features distinguish it from its predecessor, MUSTANG: A new, microstrip-coupled detector design yields higher sensitivity and less susceptibility to environmental microphonics. Detectors are feedhorn coupled, with the sum of two linear polarizations measured by a single TES per feed. The instantaneous field of view is 4 arcminutes (vs 42 arcseconds for MUSTANG) The receiver design incorporates a tilted refrigerator and receiver rotator, resulting in much lower dependence of cooling performance on

  7. The E and B EXperiment: Implementation and Analysis of the 2009 Engineering Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Michael Bryce

    The E and B EXperiment (EBEX) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and emission from galactic dust at millimeter wavelengths from 150 to 410 GHz. The primary science objectives of EBEX are to: detect or constrain the primordial B-mode polarization of the CMB predicted by inflationary cosmology; measure the CMB B-mode signal induced by gravitational lensing; and characterize the polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust. EBEX will observe a 420 square degree patch of the sky at high galactic latitude with a telescope and camera that provide an 8 arcminute beam at three observing bands (150, 250, and 410 GHz) and a 6.2 degree diffraction limited field of view to two large-format bolometer array focal planes. Polarimetry is achieved via a continuously rotating half-wave plate (HWP), and the optical system is designed from the ground up for control of sidelobe response and polarization systematic errors. EBEX is intended to execute fly or more Antarctic long duration balloon campaigns. In June 2009 EBEX completed a North American engineering flight launched from NASA's Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility (CSBF) in Ft. Sumner, NM and operated in the stratosphere above 30 km altitude for ˜10 hours. During flight EBEX must be largely autonomous as it conducts pointed, scheduled observations; tunes and operates 1432 TES bolometers via 28 embedded Digital frequency-domain multiplexing (DfMux) computers; logs over 3 GiB/hour of science and housekeeping data to onboard redundant disk storage arrays; manages and dispatches jobs over a fault-tolerant onboard Ethernet network; and feeds a complex real-time data processing infrastructure on the ground via satellite and line-of-sight (LOS) downlinks. In this thesis we review the EBEX instrument, present the optical design and the computational architecture for in-flight control and data handling, and the quick-look software stack. Finally we describe

  8. Concept Doped-Silicon Thermopile Detectors for Future Planetary Thermal Imaging Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Brook; Barrentine, Emily M.; Aslam, Shahid; Brown, Ari D.

    2016-10-01

    Presently, uncooled thermopiles are the detectors of choice for thermal mapping in the 4.6-100 μm spectral range. Although cooled detectors like Ge or Si thermistor bolometers, and MgB2 or YBCO superconducting bolometers, have much higher sensitivity, the required active or passive cooling mechanisms add prohibitive cost and mass for long duration missions. Other uncooled detectors, likepyroelectrics, require a motor mechanism to chop against a known reference temperature, which adds unnecessary mission risk. Uncooled vanadium oxide or amorphous Si microbolometer arrays with integrated CMOS readout circuits, not only have lower sensitivity, but also have not been proven to be radiation hard >100 krad (Si) total ionizing dose, and barring additional materials and readout development, their performance has reached a plateau.Uncooled and radiation hard thermopiles with D* ~1x109 cm√Hz/W and time constant τ ~100 ms have been integrated into thermal imaging instruments on several past missions and have extensive flight heritage (Mariner, Voyager, Cassini, LRO, MRO). Thermopile arrays are also on the MERTIS instrument payload on-board the soon to be launched BepiColombo Mission.To date, thermopiles used for spaceflight instrumentation have consisted of either hand assembled "one-off" single thermopile pixels or COTS thermopile pixel arrays both using Bi-Sb or Bi-Te thermoelectric materials. For future high performance imagers, thermal detector arrays with higher D*, lower τ, and high efficiency delineated absorbers are desirable. Existing COTS and other flight thermopile designs require highly specialized and nonstandard processing techniques to fabricate both the Bi-Sb or Bi-Te thermocouples and the gold or silver black absorbers, which put limitations on further development.Our detector arrays will have a D* ≥ 3x109 cm√Hz/W and a thermal time constant ≤ 30 ms at 170 K. They will be produced using proven, standard semiconductor and MEMS fabrication techniques

  9. Gaussian process tomography for the analysis of line-integrated measurements in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion research, a variety of diagnostics have been devised for the measurements of different physical quantities, such as electromagnetic radiation in different wavelength intervals. The radiation, including the soft X-ray spectral range, H α emission as well as others, can be recorded by specifically designed detectors with different sampling frequencies. Commonly, only the line-integrated observations are possible due to the fact that the detectors have to view the plasma from a position outside of the plasma. Therefore, tomography algorithms have been developed to infer the local information of the targeted physical variable from a number of line-integrated data. This thesis presents a Bayesian Gaussian Process Tomographic (GPT) method applied to both soft X-ray and bolometer systems. For the ill-posed inversion problem of reconstructing a 2D emissivity distribution from a number of noisy line-integrated data, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution about many possible solutions centered at a single most probable solution. The combination of Gaussian Process (GP) prior and multivariate normal (MVN) likelihood enables the posterior probability to be a MVN distribution which provides both the solution and its associated uncertainty. The GP prior enforces the regularization on smoothness by adjusting the length-scale defined in a covariance function. Particularly, a non-stationary GP has been developed to improve the accuracy of reconstruction by using locally adaptive length-scales to take into account the varying smoothness at different positions. The parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through maximizing a joint probability of them based on a Bayesian Occam's razor formalism. In contrast with other tomographic techniques, this method is analytic and non-iterative, thus it can be fast enough for real-time applications under an approximate optimization state. The uncertainty of the

  10. Measurements of Secondary Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies with the South Pole Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueker, Martin

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10m millimeter-wavelength telescope for finding galaxy clusters via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part describes the development of the kilopixel SPT-SZ receiver and the frequency-domain multiplexor (fMUX). The second part describes the first SPT power spectrum measurement and the first detection of the tSZ power spectrum. The SPT-SZ focal plane consists of 960 spiderweb coupled transition-edge sensors. Due to strong electro-thermal feedback, these devices have good sensitivity and linearity, though risk spontaneous oscillations. Adding heat capacity to these devices can ensure stability, so long as the loopgain, L , is less than Gint/G 0, the ratio between the thermal conductances linking the TES to the heat capacity and linking the heat capacity to the bath. I describe as experimental technique for measuring the internal thermal structure of these devices, allowing for rapid sensor evaluation. The fMUX readout system reduces wiring complexity in this receiver by AC-biasing each sensor at a unique frequency and sending signals from multiple bolometers along one pair of wires. The Series SQUID Arrays (SSAs) used to read changes in bolometer current are notably non-linear and extremely sensitive to ambient magnetic fields. The SSAs are housed in compact magnetic shielding modules which reduces their effective area to 80 mphi0/gauss. The SSA are fedback with a flux-locked loop to improve their linearity and dynamic range, and decrease their input reactance. The FLL is bandwidth of 1 MHz with a measured loopgain of 10. In the current implementation, this bandwidth is limited between the SQUID input coil and other reactances, which I study in Chapter 4. In the second part of the thesis I present power spectrum measurements for the first 100 deg2 field observed by the SPT. On angular scales where the primary CMB anisotropy is dominant, ℓ ≲ 3000, the SPT power spectrum is

  11. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  12. Overview of Upgrades to the Lithium Tokamak Experiment, LTX- β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, D. P.; Bell, R. E.; Hughes, P. E.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Zhang, X.; Biewer, T. M.; Canik, J. M.; Elliott, D. B.; Reinke, M. L.; Hansen, C.; Kubota, S.; Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Donovan, D.; Maan, A.

    2017-10-01

    Exploration of the low-recycling regime at higher plasma performance and with key parameters closer to equilibrium motivated extensive upgrades to the Lithium Tokamak Experiment, now LTX- β. The toroidal field, plasma current, and discharge length will approximately double. The addition of a neutral beam will increase plasma heating by a factor of 5 and also provide core fueling, enabling constant density in low-recycling conditions without edge fueling. Between-shot lithium evaporation, Li granule injection during discharges, and improved vacuum systems will allow expanded studies into the effects of surface conditions on recycling and performance. The Thomson scattering system will have increased spatial coverage and resolution. New baffles, polychromators, and an intensified camera will also reduce background and increase sensitivity at low density. Planned diagnostic upgrades also include tangential AXUV diode arrays for recycling and radiated power measurements, an additional resistive bolometer array, high- and low-field side Langmuir probes, and enhancements to VUV spectroscopy and fast camera diagnostics. A description and status of these upgrades and diagnostics, with first plasma planned for October 2017 and neutral beam operations in February 2018, will be presented. US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  13. MERTIS: the thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, T.; Peter, G.; Walter, I.; Kopp, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Helbert, J.; Gebhardt, A.; Weber, I.; Hiesinger, Harry

    2017-11-01

    The MERTIS instrument is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of ESA's cornerstone mission BepiColombo to Mercury. MERTIS has four goals: the study of Mercury's surface composition, identification of rock-forming minerals, mapping of the surface mineralogy, and the study of the surface temperature variations and thermal inertia. MERTIS will provide detailed information about the mineralogical composition of Mercury's surface layer by measuring the spectral emittance in the spectral range from 7-14 μm at high spatial and spectral resolution. Furthermore MERTIS will obtain radiometric measurements in the spectral range from 7-40 μm to study the thermo-physical properties of the surface material. The MERTIS detector is based on an uncooled micro-bolometer array providing spectral separation and spatial resolution according to its 2-dimensional shape. The operation principle is characterized by intermediate scanning of the planet surface and three different calibration targets - free space view and two on-board black body sources. In the current project phase, the MERTIS Qualification Model (QM) is under a rigorous testing program. Besides a general overview of the instrument principles, the papers addresses major aspects of the instrument design, manufacturing and verification.

  14. Flight solar calibrations using the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM): Low scattering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of solar radiances reflected from the mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM) were used to calibrate the shortwave portions of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) thermistor bolometer scanning radiometers. The MAM is basically a low scattering mirror which has been used to attenuate and reflect solar radiation into the fields of view for the broadband shortwave (0.2 to 5 micrometers) and total (0.2 to 50.0+ micrometers) ERBE scanning radiometers. The MAM assembly consists of a tightly packed array of aluminum, 0.3175-cm diameter concave spherical mirrors and field of view limiting baffles. The spherical mirrors are masked by a copper plate, electro-plated with black chrome. Perforations (0.14 centimeter in diameter) in the copper plate serve as apertures for the mirrors. Black anodized aluminum baffles limit the MAM clear field of view to 7.1 degrees. The MAM assemblies are located on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft. The 1984-1985 ERBS and 1985-1986 NOAA-9 solar calibration datasets are presented. Analyses of the calibrations indicate that the MAM exhibited no detectable degradation in its reflectance properties and that the gains of the shortwave scanners did not change. The stability of the shortwave radiometers indicates that the transmission of the Suprasil W1 filters did not degrade detectably when exposed to Earth/atmosphere-reflected solar radiation.

  15. The space instrument SOVAP of the PICARD mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conscience, C.; Meftah, M.; Chevalier, A.; Dewitte, S.; Crommelynck, D.,

    2011-09-01

    PICARD is a Satellite dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the absolute total and spectral solar irradiance, the diameter and solar shape and the Sun's interior probed by helioseismology method. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate. PICARD was launched on June 15, 2010. The Satellite was placed into the heliosynchronous orbit of 735 km with inclination of 98.28 degrees. The payload consists in two absolute radiometers measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) and an imaging telescope to determine the solar diameter, the limb shape and asphericity. SOVAP (SOlar VAriability Picard) is an experiment developed by the Belgian STCE (Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence) with a contribution of the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) composed of an absolute radiometer provided by the RMIB (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) to measure the TSI and a bolometer provided by the ROB (Royal Observatory of Belgium). The continuous observation of the solar irradiance at the highest possible precision and accuracy is an important objective of the Earth climate change. This requires: high quality metrology in the space environment. In this article, we describe the SOVAP instrument, its performances and uncertainties on the measurements of the TSI.

  16. First Results from CUORE: A Search for Lepton Number Violation via 0 ν β β Decay of Te 130

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduino, C.; Alessandria, F.; Alfonso, K.; Andreotti, E.; Arnaboldi, C.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Benato, G.; Bersani, A.; Biare, D.; Biassoni, M.; Bragazzi, F.; Branca, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bryant, A.; Buccheri, A.; Bucci, C.; Bulfon, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Capodiferro, M.; Cappelli, L.; Cardani, L.; Cariello, M.; Carniti, P.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Cereseto, R.; Ceruti, G.; Chiarini, A.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Conventi, D.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Crescentini, C.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D'Addabbo, A.; D'Aguanno, D.; Dafinei, I.; Datskov, V.; Davis, C. J.; Del Corso, F.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; di Paolo, L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gaigher, R.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Guandalini, C.; Guerzoni, M.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E. V.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Iannone, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Amaya, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Nagorny, S. S.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Novati, V.; Nucciotti, A.; Nutini, I.; O'Donnell, T.; Olcese, M.; Olivieri, E.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pedrotta, R.; Pelosi, A.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Reindl, F.; Rimondi, F.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rossi, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sakai, M.; Sala, E.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Schaeffer, D.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Stivanello, F.; Taffarello, L.; Tatananni, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tessaro, M.; Tomei, C.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wallig, J.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J.; Wilson, K.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.; Cuore Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    The CUORE experiment, a ton-scale cryogenic bolometer array, recently began operation at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The array represents a significant advancement in this technology, and in this work we apply it for the first time to a high-sensitivity search for a lepton-number-violating process: Te 130 neutrinoless double-beta decay. Examining a total TeO2 exposure of 86.3 kg yr, characterized by an effective energy resolution of (7.7 ±0.5 ) keV FWHM and a background in the region of interest of (0.014 ±0.002 ) counts /(keV kg yr ) , we find no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Including systematic uncertainties, we place a lower limit on the decay half-life of T1/2 0 ν(Te 130 )>1.3 ×1025 yr (90% C.L.); the median statistical sensitivity of this search is 7.0 ×1024 yr . Combining this result with those of two earlier experiments, Cuoricino and CUORE-0, we find T1/2 0 ν(Te 130 )>1.5 ×1025 yr (90% C.L.), which is the most stringent limit to date on this decay. Interpreting this result as a limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass, we find mβ β<(110 -520 ) meV , where the range reflects the nuclear matrix element estimates employed.

  17. Fundamental Limits on the Imaging and Polarisation Properties of Far-Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher N.; Withington, Stafford; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Far-infrared bolometric detectors are used extensively in ground-based and space-borne astronomy, and thus it is important to understand their optical behaviour precisely. We have studied the intensity and polarisation response of free-space bolometers, and shown that when the size of the absorber is reduced below a wavelength, the response changes from being that of a classical optical detector to that of a few-mode antenna. We have calculated the modal content of the reception patterns, and found that for any volumetric detector having a side length of less than a wavelength, three magnetic and three electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The size of the absorber merely determines the relative strengths of the contributions. The same formalism can be applied to thin-film absorbers, where the induced current is forced to flow in a plane. In this case, one magnetic and two electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The ability to model easily the intensity, polarisation, and straylight characteristics of electrically-small detectors will be of great value when designing high-performance polarimetric imaging arrays.

  18. Innovative metal thermo-compression wafer bonding for microelectronics and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhan, B.; Dragoi, V.

    2017-06-01

    With the continuously increasing level of integration for microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, such as gyroscopes, accelerometers and bolometers, metal wafer bonding becomes progressively more importance. In the present work common metal wafer bonding techniques were categorized, described and compared. While devices produced with metal thermo-compression wafer bonding ensure high bonding quality and a high degree of reliability, the required bonding temperatures are very often close to the maximum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process temperature (400-450°C). Based on a thermodynamic model of increasing the Gibbs free energy prior wafer bonding, in-situ ComBond(R) surface activation was applied to enable low-temperature Au-Au, Al-Al and Cu-Cu wafer bonding. Different aspects, such as bonding quality, dicing yield, bond strength, grain growth and elemental analysis across the initial bonding interface, were investigated. Based on these parameters successful wafer bonding was demonstrated at room temperature for Au-Au and Cu-Cu, and at 100°C for Al-Al wafer bonding.

  19. First Results from BISTRO: A SCUBA-2 Polarimeter Survey of the Gould Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Thompson, Derek; Pattle, Kate; Kirk, Jason M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bastien, Pierre; Coudé, Simon [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Furuya, Ray S. [Tokushima University, Minami Jousanajima-machi 1-1, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Kwon, Woojin; Choi, Minho; Hoang, Thiem [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Berry, David; Friberg, Per; Graves, Sarah F. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Franzmann, Erica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2 (Canada); Greaves, Jane S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Koch, Patrick M., E-mail: dward-thompson@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: kmpattle@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: jmkirk@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: spseyres@uclan.ac.uk [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); and others

    2017-06-10

    We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. We discuss the survey’s aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions that the survey will aim to answer. The most important of these is the role of magnetic fields in the star formation process on the scale of individual filaments and cores in dense regions. We describe the data acquisition and reduction processes for POL-2, demonstrating both repeatability and consistency with previous data. We present a first-look analysis of the first results from the BISTRO survey in the OMC 1 region. We see that the magnetic field lies approximately perpendicular to the famous “integral filament” in the densest regions of that filament. Furthermore, we see an “hourglass” magnetic field morphology extending beyond the densest region of the integral filament into the less-dense surrounding material, and discuss possible causes for this. We also discuss the more complex morphology seen along the Orion Bar region. We examine the morphology of the field along the lower-density northeastern filament. We find consistency with previous theoretical models that predict magnetic fields lying parallel to low-density, non-self-gravitating filaments, and perpendicular to higher-density, self-gravitating filaments.

  20. Grazing incidence EUV study of the Alcator tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of impurity radiation to examine plasma conditions is a well known technique. To gain access, however, to the hot, central portion of the plasma created in the present confinement machines it is necessary to be able to observe radiation from medium and heavy elements such as molybdenum and iron. These impurities radiate primarily in the extreme ultra violet region of the spectrum and can play a role in the power balance of the tokamak. Radiation from highly ionized molybdenum was examined on the Alcator A and C tokamaks using a photometrically calibrated one meter grazing incidence monochromator. On Alcator A, a pseudo-continuum of Mo emissions in the 60 to 100 A ranges were seen to comprise 17% of the radiative losses from the plasma. This value closely matched measurements by a broad band bolometer array. Following these preliminary measurements, the monochromator was transferred to Alcator C for a more thorough examination of EUV emissions. Deviations from predicted scaling laws for energy confinement time vs density were observed on this machine

  1. Growth and characterization of materials for infrared detectors and nonlinear optical switches; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2, 3, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Randolph E.; Baars, Jan W.

    Papers included in these proceedings are grouped under the topics of infrared material growth and characterization, infrared detector physics, and nonlinear optics. Attention is given to interface demarcation in Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth of II-VI compounds, growth of CdTe-CdMnTe heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, and a photoconductivity decay method for determining the minority carrier lifetime of p-type HgCdTe. Consideration is also given to anodic oxides on HgZnTe, the characterization of anodic fluoride films on Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, optical response in high-temperature superconducting thin films, and pyroelectric linear array IR detectors with CCD multiplexer. Other papers are on structural and optical properties of melt-processed calcium aluminate fibers, the preparation and characterization of a new thermistor material for thermistor bolometer, and photoemission from quantum-confined structure of nonlinear optical materials. (For individual items see A93-26893 to A93-26895)

  2. Chromium–niobium co-doped vanadium dioxide films: Large temperature coefficient of resistance and practically no thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Miyazaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr and niobium (Nb co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2 films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V1−x−yCrxNbyO2 films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V0.90Cr0.06Nb0.04O2 film grown on a TiO2-buffered SiO2/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO2-based uncooled bolometers.

  3. Planck 2013 results X. Energetic particle effects: characterization, removal, and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Girard, D; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miniussi, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Mottet, S; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Sanselme, L; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the detection, interpretation and removal of the signal resulting from interactions of high energy particles with the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI). These interactions fall into two categories, heating the 0.1 K bolometer plate and glitches in each detector time stream. Glitch shapes are not simple single pole exponential decays and fall into a three families. The glitch shape for each family has been characterized empirically in flight data and removed from the detector time streams. The spectrum of the count rate/unit energy is computed for each family and a correspondence to where on the detector the particle hit is made. Most of the detected glitches are from galactic protons incident on the Si die frame supporting the micromachined bolometric detectors. At HFI, the particle flux is ~ 5 per square cm and per second and is dominated by protons incident on the spacecraft with an energy >39 MeV, leading to a rate of typically one event per second and per detector. Different categ...

  4. Production of NTD Ge Thermistors for CUORICINO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; McDonald, R. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Jur, J. S.

    2000-04-01

    CUORICINO will be a new cryogenic bolometer experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double beta decays of ^128,130Te. It will be located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. The experimental apparatus will consist of fifty-six 750-gram TeO2 crystals cooled to less than 20 mK. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium thermistors will be attached to the crystals to detect the small temperature changes produced by the double beta decay events. We have begun the production of the thermistors by irradiating ultra-pure germanium wafers at the Univ. of Missouri Research Reactor. Monitor foils were placed in the reactor to determine the thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron fluxes seen by the germanium. Following the irradiations, these foils and germanium wafers were counted at LBNL's Low Background Counting Facility. Results of these measurements and their implications for CUORICINO will be presented. *Supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract number DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  5. BAE Systems' 17μm LWIR camera core for civil, commercial, and military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Christian; Blackwell, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Seventeen (17) µm pixel Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Sensors based on vanadium oxide (VOx) micro-bolometers have been in full rate production at BAE Systems' Night Vision Sensors facility in Lexington, MA for the past five years.[1] We introduce here a commercial camera core product, the Airia-MTM imaging module, in a VGA format that reads out in 30 and 60Hz progressive modes. The camera core is architected to conserve power with all digital interfaces from the readout integrated circuit through video output. The architecture enables a variety of input/output interfaces including Camera Link, USB 2.0, micro-display drivers and optional RS-170 analog output supporting legacy systems. The modular board architecture of the electronics facilitates hardware upgrades allow us to capitalize on the latest high performance low power electronics developed for the mobile phones. Software and firmware is field upgradeable through a USB 2.0 port. The USB port also gives users access to up to 100 digitally stored (lossless) images.

  6. Laser illumination and EO systems for covert surveillance from NIR to SWIR and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinelis, Edgaras; Žukauskas, Tomas; Kaušylas, Mindaugas; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas; Vizbaras, Dominykas

    2016-10-01

    One of the most important factor of success in battlefield is the ability to remain undetected by the opposing forces while also having an ability to detect all possible threats. Illumination and pointing systems working in NIR and SWIR bands are presented. Wavelengths up to 1100 nm can be registered by newest generation image intensifier tubes, CCD and EMCCD sensors. Image intensifier tubes of generation III or older are only limited up to wavelength of 900 nm [1]. Longer wavelengths of 1550 nm and 1625 nm are designed to be used with SWIR electro-optical systems and they cannot be detected by any standard night vision system. Long range SWIR illuminators and pointers have beam divergences down to 1 mrad and optical powers up to 1.5 W. Due to lower atmospheric scattering SWIR illuminators and pointers can be used at extremely long distances up to 10s of km and even further during heavy weather conditions. Longer wavelengths of 2100 nm and 2450 nm are also presented, this spectrum band is of great interest for direct infrared countermeasure (DIRCM) applications. State-of-the-art SWIR and LWIR electro-optical systems are presented. Sensitive InGaAs sensors coupled with "fast" (low F/#) optical lenses can provide complete night vision, detection of all NIR and SWIR laser lines, penetration through smoke, dust and fog. Finally beyond-state-of-the-art uncooled micro-bolometer LWIR systems are presented featuring ultra-high sensor sensitivities of 20 mK.

  7. Research in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, R.W.; Greensite, J.

    1992-01-01

    Task A of this contract supports research in elementary particle physics using cryogenic particle detectors. We have developed superconducting aluminum tunnel-junction detectors sensitive to a variety of particle signals, and with potential application to a number of particle-physics problems. We have extended our range of technologies through a collaboration with Simon Labov, on niobium tri-layer junctions, and Jean-Paul Maneval, on high-T c superconducting bolometers. We have new data on response to low-energy X-rays and to alpha-particle signals from large-volume detectors. The theoretical work under this contract (Task B) is a continued investigation of nonperturbative aspects of quantum gravity. A Monte Carlo calculation is proposed for Euclidian quantum gravity, based on the ''fifth-time action'' stabilization procedure. Results from the last year include a set of seven papers, summarized below, addressing various aspects of nonperturbative quantum gravity and QCD. Among the issues- addressed is the so-called ''problem of time'' in canonical quantum gravity

  8. Dynamical Timescale of Pre-collapse Evolution Inferred from Chemical Distribution in the Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1) Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Bourke, Tyler L. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); II, Neal J. Evans, E-mail: yunhee.choi@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present observations and analyses of the low-mass star-forming region, Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1). CS ( J = 2–1)/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ( J = 1–0) and C{sup 17}O ( J = 2–1)/C{sup 18}O ( J = 2–1) were observed with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory, respectively. In addition, Spitzer infrared data and 1.2 mm continuum data observed with Max-Planck Millimetre Bolometer are used. We also perform chemical modeling to investigate the relative molecular distributions of the TMC-1 filament. Based on Spitzer observations, there is no young stellar object along the TMC-1 filament, while five Class II and one Class I young stellar objects are identified outside the filament. The comparison between column densities calculated from dust continuum and C{sup 17}O 2–1 line emission shows that CO is depleted much more significantly in the ammonia peak than in the cyanopolyyne peak, while the column densities calculated from the dust continuum are similar at the two peaks. N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not depleted much in either peak. According to our chemical calculation, the differential chemical distribution in the two peaks can be explained by different timescales required to reach the same density, i.e., by different dynamical processes.

  9. Instrumentation for Infrared Astronomy in the Collections of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVorkin, David H.

    2017-01-01

    The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution is responsible for preserving the material heritage of modern astronomical history. We place emphasis on American accomplishments, on both airborne and spaceborne instrumentation, and on ground based instrumentation that stimulated and supported spaceborne efforts. At present the astronomical collection includes over 600 objects, of which approximately 40 relate to the history of infrared astronomy. This poster will provide a simple listing of our holdings in infrared and far-infrared astronomy, and will highlight particularly significant early objects, like Cashman and Ektron cells, Leighton and Neugebauer's Caltech 2.2 micron survey telescope, Low's Lear Jet Bolometer, Harwit's first Aerobee IR payload and Fazio's balloon-borne observatory. Elements from more recent missions will also be included, such as instruments from KAO, an IRAS focal plane instrument, FIRAS from COBE, the payload from Boomerang and Woody and Richards' balloonsonde payload. The poster author will invite AAS members to comment on these holdings, provide short stories of their experiences building and using them, and suggest candidates for possible collection.

  10. In and ex-vivo Myocardial Tissue Temperature Monitoring by Combined Infrared and Ultrasonic Thermometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engrand, C.; Laux, D.; Ferrandis, J.-Y.; Sinquet, J.-C.; Demaria, R.; Le Clézio, E.

    The success of cardiac surgery essentially depends on tissue preservation during intervention. Consequently a hypothermic cardio-plegia is applied in order to avoid ischemia. However, myocardial temperature is not monitored during operation. The aim of this study is then to find a relevant and simple method for myocardial global temperature estimation in real time using both ultrasounds and infra-red thermography. In order to quantify the sensitivity of ultrasonic velocity to temperature, a 2.25 MHz ultrasonic probe was used for ex-vivo tests. Pig myocards (n=25) were placed in a thermostatically-controlled water bath and measurements of the ultrasound velocity were realized from 10 to 30 ˚C. The results of this study indicate that the specificity and sensitivity of the ultrasonic echo delay induced by the modification of temperature can be exploited for in-depth thermometry. In parallel, for TIR experiments, a bolometer was used to detect the myocardium surface thermal evolution during in-vivo pig heart experiments. Hypothermic cardioplegic solutions were injected and infra-red surface imaging was performed during one hour. In the near futur, the correlation of the ultrasound and the infrared measurements should allow the real time estimation of the global temperature of the heart. The final objective being to realize in vivo measurements on human hearts, this information may have a very high importance in terms of per-operation inspection as well as decision making process during medical interventions.

  11. Sensitive photo-thermal response of graphene oxide for mid-infrared detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Jun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Jeong, Sooyeon; Moon, Byoung Hee; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Geon-Woong; Hwang, Ha Ryong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Seung Yol; Lim, Seong Chu

    2015-10-14

    This study characterizes the effects of incident infrared (IR) radiation on the electrical conductivity of graphene oxide (GO) and examines its potential for mid-IR detection. Analysis of the mildly reduced GO (m-GO) transport mechanism near room temperature reveals variable range hopping (VRH) for the conduction of electrons. This VRH behavior causes the m-GO resistance to exhibit a strong temperature dependence, with a large negative temperature coefficient of resistance of approximately -2 to -4% K(-1). In addition to this hopping transport, the presence of various oxygen-related functional groups within GO enhances the absorption of IR radiation significantly. These two GO material properties are synergically coupled and provoke a remarkable photothermal effect within this material; specifically, a large resistance drop is exhibited by m-GO in response to the increase in temperature caused by the IR absorption. The m-GO bolometer effect identified in this study is different from that exhibited in vanadium oxides, which require added gold-black films that function as IR absorbers owing to their limited IR absorption capability.

  12. High resolution observations of compact H II regions at 230 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wink, J.E.; Mezger, P.G.; Zylka, R.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the idea that star formation goes on progressively in molecular clouds, a search was conducted for protostars by mapping compact H II regions at a frequency of 250 GHz. The IRAM 30 m radio telescope was used with a (3)He cooled bolometer. Twenty compact H II regions usually obtaining twice the expected free-free flux density, positionally coincident with the H II region, were observed. Even fine structure within the H II regions can be traced in the maps as in the case of G75.84+0.40 near ON-2. The high degree of coincidence between the 250 and 5 GHz map of Harris shows that the excess flux density observed must come from dust mixed with the ionized gas. Part of the dust must however be accumulated in the outer part of the H II region, since in some cases the contours are shifted outwards relative to the radio maps. This is consistent with the fact that in those cases where enough information is available to make a model fit, temperatures were derived of 80 + or - 30 K

  13. Evaluation of Photopolymerization Kinetics by Means of Transmittance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Armellin, E.; Cerroni, L.

    2018-04-01

    Polymeric resins are widely used for dental reconstruction, and most resins use camphorquinone as activator of the polymerization reaction, through the absorption of light at a defined wavelength range (from 400 nm to 460 nm). During the photopolymerization curing, transparency of these resins changes and transmittance variation can be detected by photodiode and bolometer measurements. This change can be used as an index of the reaction rate, and the kinetic parameter k (reaction rate) can be evaluated from transmittance data by means of nonlinear regression. The relation between k and the light intensity impinging on the resin sample can thus be obtained. In the present work, tests were carried out using the resin Enamel Plus HFO GE2. Results reveal the presence of two different polymerization reactions at two different intensity ranges. The obtained k values were used to predict the most suited curing times for different light intensities. The proposed methodology can be applied to different dental reconstruction materials, provided that the material is partially transparent and that its transparency changes during the polymerization reaction.

  14. Low-temperature relative reflectivity measurements of reflective and scintillating foils used in rare event searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenkämper, A.; Ulrich, A.; Defay, X.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Mondragón, E.; Münster, A.; Oppenheimer, C.; Potzel, W.; Roth, S.; Schönert, S.; Steiger, H.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zöller, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we investigate the reflectivity of highly reflective multilayer polymer foils used in the CRESST experiment. The CRESST experiment searches directly for dark matter via operating scintillating CaWO4 crystals as targets for elastic dark matter-nucleon scattering. In order to suppress background events, the experiment employs the so-called phonon-light technique which is based on the simultaneous measurement of the heat signal in the main CaWO4 target crystal and of the emitted scintillation light with a separate cryogenic light detector. Both detectors are surrounded by a highly reflective and scintillating multilayer polymer foil to increase the light collection efficiency and to veto surface backgrounds. While this study is motivated by the CRESST experiment, the results are also relevant for other rare event searches using scintillating cryogenic bolometers in the field of the search of dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ). In this work a dedicated experiment has been set up to determine the relative reflectivity at 300 K and 20 K of three multilayer foils ("VM2000", "VM2002", "Vikuiti") produced by the company 3M. The intensity of a light beam reflected off the foil is measured with a CCD camera. The ratio of the intensities at 300 K and 20 K corresponds to the relative reflectivity change. The measurements performed in this work show no variation of the reflectivity with temperature at a level of ∼1%.

  15. Transition edge sensors for quench localization in SRF cavity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furci, H.; Kovács, Z.; Koettig, T.; Vandoni, G.

    2017-12-01

    Transition Edge Sensors (TES) are bolometers based on the gradual superconducting transition of a thin film alloy. In the frame of improvement of non-contact thermal mapping for quench localisation in SRF cavity tests, TES have been developed in-house at CERN. Based on modern photolithography techniques, a fabrication method has been established and used to produce TES from Au-Sn alloys. The fabricated sensors superconducting transitions were characterised. The sensitive temperature range of the sensors spreads over 100 mK to 200 mK and its centre can be shifted by the bias current applied between 1.5 K and 2.1 K. Maximum sensitivity being in the range of 0.5 mV/mK, it is possible to detect fast temperature variations (in the 50 μs range) below 1 mK. All these characteristics are an asset for the detection of second sound. Second sound was produced by heaters and the TES were able to distinctively detect it. The value of the speed of second sound was determined and corresponds remarkably with literature values. Furthermore, there is a clear correlation between intensity of the signal and distance, opening possibilities for a more precise signal interpretation in quench localisation.

  16. MERTIS: a highly integrated IR imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, I.; Hirsch, H.; Jahn, H.; Knollenberg, J.; Venus, H.

    2006-08-01

    With a background of several instrument developments in the past the German Aerospace Center in Berlin proposed for ESA's deep space mission BepiColombo an imaging spectrometer which meets the challenges of limited technical resources and a very special operational environment. An 80-channel push broom-type spectrometer has been drafted and it s development has been started under the name MERTIS (MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer). The instrument is dedicated to the mineralogy surface science and thermal characteristics studies of the innermost planet. It is based on modern un-cooled micro-bolometer technology and all-reflective optics design. The operation concept principle is characterised by intermediate scanning of the planet, deep space and black bodies as calibration targets. A miniaturised radiometer is included for low level temperature measurements. Altogether the system shall fit into a CD-package sized cube and weigh less than 3 kg. The paper will present the instrument architecture of MERTIS, its design status and will show the results of first components being built.

  17. Sapphire scintillation tests for cryogenic detectors in the Edelweiss dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, M

    2007-07-15

    Identifying the matter in the universe is one of the main challenges of modern cosmology and astrophysics. An important part of this matter seems to be made of non-baryonic particles. Edelweiss is a direct dark matter search using cryogenic germanium bolometers in order to look for particles that interact very weakly with the ordinary matter, generically known as WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). An important challenge for Edelweiss is the radioactive background and one of the ways to identify it is to use a larger variety of target crystals. Sapphire is a light target which can be complementary to the germanium crystals already in use. Spectroscopic characterization studies have been performed using different sapphire samples in order to find the optimum doping concentration for good low temperature scintillation. Ti doped crystals with weak Ti concentrations have been used for systematic X ray excitation tests both at room temperature and down to 30 K. The tests have shown that the best Ti concentration for optimum room temperature scintillation is 100 ppm and 50 ppm at T = 45 K. All concentrations have been checked by optical absorption and fluorescence. After having shown that sapphire had interesting characteristics for building heat-scintillation detectors, we have tested if using a sapphire detector was feasible within a dark matter search. During the first commissioning tests of Edelweiss-II, we have proved the compatibility between a sapphire heat scintillation detector and the experimental setup. (author)

  18. Early science with the Large Millimetre Telescope: fragmentation of molecular clumps in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Gutermuth, R.; Lizano, S.; Gomez-Ruiz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Luna, A.; Serrano Bernal, E. O.; Schloerb, F. P.

    2018-01-01

    Sensitive, imaging observations of the λ1.1 mm dust continuum emission from a 1 deg2 area collected with the AzTEC bolometer camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope are presented. A catalogue of 1545 compact sources is constructed based on a Wiener-optimization filter. These sources are linked to larger clump structures identified in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. Hydrogen column densities are calculated for all sources and mass and mean volume densities are derived for the subset of sources for which kinematic distances can be assigned. The AzTEC sources are localized, high-density peaks within the massive clumps of molecular clouds and comprise 5-15 per cent of the clump mass. We examine the role of the gravitational instability in generating these fragments by comparing the mass of embedded AzTEC sources to the Jeans mass of the parent BGPS object. For sources with distances less than 6 kpc the fragment masses are comparable to the clump Jeans mass, despite having isothermal Mach numbers between 1.6 and 7.2. AzTEC sources linked to ultra compact H II regions have mass surface densities greater than the critical value implied by the mass-size relationship of infrared dark clouds with high-mass star formation, while AzTEC sources associated with Class II methanol masers have mass surface densities greater than 0.7 g cm-2 that approaches the proposed threshold required to form massive stars.

  19. Ultrasensitive and Wide-Bandwidth Thermal Measurements of Graphene at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chung Fong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available At low temperatures, the electron gas of graphene is expected to show both very weak coupling to thermal baths and rapid thermalization, properties which are desirable for use as a sensitive bolometer. We demonstrate an ultrasensitive, wide-bandwidth measurement scheme based on Johnson noise to probe the thermal-transport and thermodynamic properties of the electron gas of graphene, with a resolution of 2  mK/sqrt[Hz] and a bandwidth of 80 MHz. We have measured the electron-phonon coupling directly through energy transport, from 2–30 K and at a charge density of 2×10^{11}  cm^{-2}. We demonstrate bolometric mixing and utilize this effect to sense temperature oscillations with a period of 430 ps and determine the heat capacity of the electron gas to be 2×10^{-21}  J/(K·μm^{2} at 5 K, which is consistent with that of a two-dimensional Dirac electron gas. These measurements suggest that graphene-based devices, together with wide-bandwidth noise thermometry, can generate substantial advances in the areas of ultrasensitive bolometry, calorimetry, microwave and terahertz photo-detection, and bolometric mixing for applications in fields such as observational astronomy and quantum information and measurement.

  20. Theoretical Studies of Starburst Infrared Emission: Luminosity Indicators in Dusty Photoionized Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Mark; LaMothe, Joseph; Momjian, Emmanuel; Verner, Ekaterina; Vinkovic, Dejan; Ferland, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    The luminosity of the central source in ionizing radiation is an essential parameter in a photoionized environment and is one of the most fundamental physical quantities one can measure. We outline a method of determining the luminosity for any emission-line region using only infrared data. In dusty environments, grains compete with hydrogen in absorbing continuum radiation. Grains produce infrared emission, and hydrogen produces recombination lines. We have computed a very large variety of photoionization models, using ranges of abundances, grain mixtures, ionizing continua, densities, and ionization parameters. The conditions were appropriate for such diverse objects as H(II) regions, planetary nebulae, starburst galaxies, and the narrow- and broad-line regions of active nuclei. The ratio of the total thermal grain emission relative to H-Beta (IR/H-Beta) is the primary indicator of whether the cloud behaves as a classical Stroemgren sphere (a hydrogen-bounded nebula) or whether grains absorb most of the incident continuum (a dust-bounded nebula). We find two global limits: when IR/H-Beta > 100, the grains act as a bolometer to measure the luminosity.

  1. Diagnosing the high density FRX-L Field Reversed Configuration plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Renneke, R. M.; Dorf, L. A.; Farrell, M. W.; Gray, T. K.; Hsu, S. C.; Lynn, A. G.; Ruden, E. L.

    2006-10-01

    The FRX-L plasma is a high pressure, high density, field reversed configuration (FRC), at n ˜1x10^16-1x10^17 cm-3, and hundreds of eV electron temperature. In order to study formation, equilibrium, transport, flow, and confinement issues, we have a suite of diagnostics. Standard plasma diagnostics include B-dot probes, magnetic flux loops, single and multi-channel visible spectroscopy, optical light tomography arrays, up to 8 filtered visible fibers (546 nm or 486 nm) and an 8-chord side-on HeNe interferometer. Recent diagnostic additions include AXUV bolometers, VUV spectroscopy using a methly salicylate fluorescer converter and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA), eight simultaneous axial views of visible spectra with a 0.3 meter spectrometer and Princeton Instruments PI-Max camera, two-foil end-on surface barrier diode soft x-ray measurements, a hard x-ray/neutron plastic scintillator/ PMT, and indium activation foils to detect time-integrated absolute DD neutron emission. We also discuss plans for a soft x-ray framing camera, using end-on optical access and consisting of a pinhole/fluorescer geometry coupled to a high resolution DiCam camera.

  2. 3He in extreme conditions: from fundamental physics to applications in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbs, J.

    2007-11-01

    This work is composed of three different parts: in the first part, a long term project on a dark matter detector prototype based on superfluid 3 He (ULTIMA) is continued, and several precious observations for the operation of a future large detector are presented. The importance of covering the bolometer cell surfaces with 4 He, as solid layers of 3 He drastically reduce the sensitivity, is demonstrated. The systematic measurement of the influence of the magnetic field on the energy calibration is presented. Most importantly, a difference of the pulse shape for different incident particles has been observed and studied. This is likely to provide a powerful discrimination criterion for a future dark matter detector. In a second part, the existing setup is used to do measurements on fundamental 3 He physics. First, the heat capacity of adsorbed layers of 3 He is measured at ultra low temperatures and in the presence of magnetic fields. Secondly, the fast transition from the normal to the superfluid phase after a local heating by a neutron capture reaction is studied. The results are interpreted in terms of the Kibble-Zurek vortex creation scenario. In the third part, the influence on the superfluid states of the confinement of 3 He in anisotropic aerogel is studied. Using NMR techniques, predictions of the appearance of a new phase labeled polar phase are tested, and evidence for the observation of a new precessing mode is presented. (author)

  3. Readout of two-kilopixel transition-edge sensor arrays for Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Shawn W.; Stevens, Jason R.; Amiri, Mandana; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Choi, Steve K.; Cothard, Nicholas F.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Duff, Shannon M.; Fitzgerald, Colin P.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; Li, Yaqiong; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael; Reintsema, Carl D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol array. The multichroic detector pixels in each array use separate channels for each polarization and each of the two frequencies, such that four TESes must be read out per pixel. Challenges addressed include doubling the number of detectors per multiplexed readout channel compared to ACTPol and optimizing the Nyquist inductance to minimize detector and SQUID noise aliasing.

  4. Characterization and Performance of a Kilo-TES Sub-Array for ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, E. A.; Beall, J.; Cho, H. M.; Devlin, M. J.; Fox, A.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Klein, J.; Li, D.; Lungu, M.; Newburgh, L. B.; Nibarger, J.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Van Lanen, J.; Wollack, E.

    2014-09-01

    ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive receiver upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) which will make millimeter wavelength measurements of the small-scale polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background to investigate the properties of inflation, dark energy, dark matter, and neutrinos in the early Universe. ACTPol will employ three arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer detectors. The detectors, with a target transition temperature of 150 mK, will be operated at a bath temperature of 100 mK provided by a dilution refrigerator. One array operating at a central frequency of 150 GHz and consisting of 1024 TESes achieved first light at the ACT site in July 2013. We anticipate fielding the remainder of the focal plane, consisting of a second 150 GHz array and a multi-chroic array sensitive to 90 and 150 GHz, at the end of the 2013 observing season. In these proceedings, we present characterization of key detector parameters from measurements performed on the first array both in the lab and during initial field testing. We comment on the design goals, measurements, and uniformity of the detector transition temperatures, saturation powers, and thermal conductivities while detailing measurement methods and results for the detector optical efficiencies and time constants.

  5. Quantum ballistic transistor and low noise HEMT for cryo-electronics lower than 4.2 K; Transistor balistique quantique et HEMT bas-bruit pour la cryoelectronique inferieure a 4.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremion, E

    2008-01-15

    Next generations of cryo-detectors, widely used in physics of particles and physics of universe, will need in the future high-performance cryo-electronics less noisy and closer to the detector. Within this context, this work investigates properties of two dimensional electron gas GaAlAs/GaAs by studying two components, quantum point contact (QPC) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). Thanks to quantized conductance steps in QPC, we have realized a quantum ballistic transistor (voltage gain higher than 1), a new component useful for cryo-electronics thanks to its operating temperature and weak power consumption (about 1 nW). Moreover, the very low capacity of this component leads to promising performances for multiplexing low temperature bolometer dedicated to millimetric astronomy. The second study focused on HEMT with very high quality 2DEG. At 4.2 K, a voltage gain higher than 20 can be obtained with a very low power dissipation of less than 100 {mu}W. Under the above experimental conditions, an equivalent input voltage noise of 1.2 nV/{radical}(Hz) at 1 kHz and 0.12 nV/{radical}(Hz) at 100 kHz has been reached. According to the Hooge formula, these noise performances are get by increasing gate capacity estimated to 60 pF. (author)

  6. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Next decade in infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2017-10-01

    Fundamental and technological issues associated with the development and exploitation of the most advanced infrared technologies is discussed. In these classes of detectors both photon and thermal detectors are considered. Special attention is directed to HgCdTe ternary alloys, type II superlattices (T2SLs), barrier detectors, quantum wells, extrinsic detectors, and uncooled thermal bolometers. The sophisticated physics associated with the antimonide-based bandgap engineering will give a new impact and interest in development of infrared detector structures. Important advantage of T2SLs is the high quality, high uniformity and stable nature of the material. In general, III-V semiconductors are more robust than their II-VI counterparts due to stronger, less ionic chemical bonding. As a result, III-V-based FPAs excel in operability, spatial uniformity, temporal stability, scalability, producibility, and affordability - the so-called "ibility" advantages. In well established uncooled imaging, microbolometer arrays are clearly the most used technology. The microbolometer detectors are now produced in larger volumes than all other IR array technologies together. Present state-of-the-art microbolometers are based on polycrystalline or amorphous materials, typically vanadium oxide (VOx) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), with only modest temperature sensitivity and noise properties. Basic efforts today are mainly focused on pixel reduction and performance enhancement.

  8. Latest improvements in microbolometer thin film packaging: paving the way for low-cost consumer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, J. J.; Dumont, G.; Goudon, V.; Becker, S.; Arnaud, A.; Cortial, S.; Tisse, C. L.

    2014-06-01

    Silicon-based vacuum packaging is a key enabling technology for achieving affordable uncooled Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) required by a promising mass market that shows momentum for some extensive consumer applications, such as automotive driving assistance, smart presence localization and building management. Among the various approaches studied worldwide, CEA, LETI in partnership with ULIS is committed to the development of a unique technology referred to as PLP (Pixel Level Packaging). In this PLP technology, each bolometer pixel is sealed under vacuum using a transparent thin film deposition on wafer. PLP operates as an array of hermetic micro caps above the focal plane, each enclosing a single microbolometer. In continuation of our on-going studies on PLP for regular QVGA IRFPAs, this paper emphasizes on the innate scalability of the technology which was successfully demonstrated through the development of an 80 × 80 pixel IRFPA. The relevance of the technology with regard to the two formats is discussed, considering both performance and cost issues. We show that the suboptimal fill factor inherent to the PLP arrangement is not so critical when considering smaller arrays preferably fitted for consumer applications. The discussion is supported with the electro-optical performance measurements of the PLP-based 80×80 demonstrator.

  9. Planck 2015 results. VII. HFI TOI and beam processing

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This paper describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and map-making are described in a companion paper. The main pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the non-linearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a...

  10. A MULTIWAVELENGTH CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTO-BROWN-DWARF CANDIDATES IN SERPENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, B.; Caselli, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vorobyov, E. [Institute of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna 1180 (Austria); Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); Harsono, D. [Universitt Heidelberg, Zentrum fr Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Tikare, K. [IRAP, BP 44346-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Gonzalez-Martin, O., E-mail: briaz@mpe.mpg.de [Instituto de Radioastronoma y Astrofsica (IRyA), UNAM, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro # 8701, Col. Ex Hacienda San José de la Huerta, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2016-11-10

    We present results from a deep submillimeter survey in the Serpens Main and Serpens/G3–G6 clusters, conducted with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We have combined near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy, Herschel PACS far-infrared photometry, submillimeter continuum, and molecular gas line observations, with the aim of conducting a detailed multiwavelength characterization of “proto-brown-dwarf” (proto-BD) candidates in Serpens. We have performed continuum and line radiative transfer modeling and have considered various classification schemes to understand the structure and the evolutionary stage of the system. We have identified four proto-BD candidates, of which the lowest-luminosity source has an L {sub bol} ∼ 0.05 L {sub ☉}. Two of these candidates show characteristics consistent with Stage 0/I systems, while the other two are Stage I-T/Class Flat systems with tenuous envelopes. Our work has also revealed a ∼20% fraction of misidentified Class 0/I/Flat sources that show characteristics consistent with Class II edge-on disk systems. We have set constraints on the mass of the central object using the measured bolometric luminosities and numerical simulations of stellar evolution. Considering the available gas+dust mass reservoir and the current mass of the central source, three of these candidates are likely to evolve into BDs.

  11. Axial diagnostic package for Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed and fielded an axial diagnostic package for the 20 MA, 100 ns, z-pinch driver Z. The package is used to diagnose dynamic hohlraum experiments which require an axial line of sight. The heart of the package is a reentrant cone originally used to diagnose ion-beam-driven hohlraums on PBFA-H. It has one diagnostic line of sight at 0 degrees, 4 at 6 degrees, and 4 at 9 degrees. In addition it has a number of viewing, alignment, and vacuum feedthrough ports. The front of the package sits approximately 5 feet from the pinch. This allows much closer proximity to the pinch, with inherently better resolution and signal, than is presently possible in viewing the pinch from the side. Debris that is preferentially directed along the axis is mitigated by two apertures for each line of sight, and by fast valves and imaging pinholes or cross slits for each diagnostic. In the initial run with this package they fielded a time resolved pinhole camera, a five-channel pinhole-apertured x-ray diode array, a bolometer, a spatially resolved time-integrated crystal spectrometer, and a spatially and temporally resolved crystal spectrometer. They present data obtained from these diagnostics in the dynamic hohlraum research conducted on Z

  12. The design, implementation, and performance of the Astro-H SXS aperture assembly and blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Arsenovic, Petar; Ayers, Travis; Chiao, Meng P.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Kazeva, John D.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kripps, Kari L.; Lairson, Bruce; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Lopez, Heidi; McCammon, Dan; McGuinness, Daniel S.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Moseley, Samuel J.; Porter, F. S.; Schweiss, Andrea N.; Takei, Yoh; Thorpe, Rosemary S.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yoshida, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The properties that make the SXS array a powerful x-ray spectrometer also make it sensitive to photons from the entire electromagnetic band, and particles as well. If characterized as a bolometer, it would have a noise equivalent power (NEP) of filters, anchored to the nested temperature stages, that block long-wavelength radiation while minimizing x-ray attenuation. The aperture assembly is a system of barriers, baffles, filter carriers, and filter mounts that supports the filters and inhibits their potential contamination. The three outer filters also have been equipped with thermometers and heaters for decontamination. We present the requirements, design, implementation, and performance of the SXS aperture assembly and blocking filters.

  13. Wire array K-shell sources on the SPHINX generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Grunenwald, Julien; Maury, Patrick; Zucchini, Frédéric; Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The SPHINX machine is a LTD based Z-pinch driver operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying K-shell radiation effects. We present the results of experiments carried out with single and nested large diameter aluminium wire array loads driven by a current of ~5 MA in ~800 ns. The dynamic of the implosion is studied with filtered X-UV time-integrated pin-hole cameras. The plasma electron temperature and the characteristics of the sources are estimated with time and spatially dependent spectrographs and PCDs. It is shown that Al K-shell yields (>1 keV) up to 27 kJ are obtained for a total radiation of ~ 230 kJ. These results are compared with simulations performed using the latest implementation of the non-LTE DCA code Spk in the 3D Eulerian MHD framework Gorgon developed at Imperial College. Filtered synthetic bolometers and PCD signals, time-dependent spatially integrated spectra and X-UV images are produced and show a good agreement with the experimental data. The capabilities of a prospective SPHINX II machine (20 MA ~ 800 ns) are also assessed for a wider variety of sources (Ti, Cu and W).

  14. Characterization of Kilopixel TES detector arrays for PIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rahul; Ade, Peter; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles; Chuss, David; Costen, Nicholas; Coughlin, Kevin; Dotson, Jessie; Eimer, Joseph; Fixsen, Dale; Gandilo, Natalie; Halpern, Mark; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Kimball, Mark; Kogut, Al; Lazear, Justin; Lowe, Luke; Manos, George; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Pawlyk, Samuel; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Shirron, Peter; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Sullivan, Dan; Switzer, Eric; Taraschi, Peter; Tucker, Carole; Walts, Alexander; Wollack, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument optimized to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at large angular scales. It will map 85% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to characterize dust foregrounds and constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. The sky is imaged on to 32x40 pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers operating at a bath temperature of 100 mK to achieve background-limited sensitivity. Each kilopixel array is indium-bump-bonded to a 2D superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) time-domain multiplexer (MUX) chip and read out by warm electronics. Each pixel measures total incident power over a frequency band defined by bandpass filters in front of the array, while polarization sensitivity is provided by the upstream Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) and analyzer grids. We present measurements of the detector parameters from the laboratory characterization of the first kilopixel science array for PIPER including transition temperature, saturation power, thermal conductivity, time constant, and noise performance. We also describe the testing of the 2D MUX chips, optimization of the integrated readout parameters, and the overall pixel yield of the array. The first PIPER science flight is planned for June 2018 from Palestine, Texas.

  15. Time domain terahertz electro- and magneto-optic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, G P

    2001-01-01

    sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r = 0 centre dot 19m sub e and m sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l = 0 centre dot 90m sub e. The temperature dependence of the cyclotron resonance was measured over the range 5K to 80 K, and a peak is found at approx 30 K which can be explained in terms of ionised and neutral impurity scattering at temperatures below 30 K and by phonon scattering above 30 K. The measurement of small amplitude ferromagnetic resonance oscillations in the time domain in thin films of permalloy (78), iron and cobalt has been achieved by using the time resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect. A stripline device was fabricated to provide an out of plane broadband magnetic pulse with a peak strength of approx 5 Oe. The observed frequencies are shown to agree well with the established theory. A time domain terahertz spectrometer and a bolometer have been used to study the coherent THz radiation emitted from n- and p-type InAs surfaces illuminated by femtosecond near infrared pulses. The magn...

  16. SERS internship: Fall 1994 abstracts and research papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, B.

    1994-12-01

    This publication is a collection of articles generated as a result of the fall 1994 Science and Engineering Research Semester program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Research titles include: electrochemical cells in the reduction of hexavalent chromium; an automated system for studying the power distribution of electron beams; the mapping of novel genes to human chromosome 19; bolometer analysis comparisons; design and implementation of the LLNL Gigabit Testbed; in vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-Deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA Covalent Complexes; pre-thymic somatic mutation leads to high mutant frequency hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene; characterization of thin film multi-layers with magnetization curves and modeling of low angle X-ray diffraction data; total least squares; determining the water content of the Geysers Graywacke of northern California; a general approach to sharing data between scientific representations; nanomechanical properties of SiC thin films grown from C 60 precursors; advanced information technology, a tool set for building clean database applications; the design of an automated electrolytic enrichment procedure for tritium; fluvial terrace dating using in-situ cosmogenic 21 Ne; computer- aided mapping of stream channels beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA; X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions. Separate entries have been put in the energy data base for articles from this report. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12 o above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them

  18. A new algorithm to determine the total radiated power at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeggler, Stephan; Bernert, Matthias; Eich, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Radiation is an essential part of the power balance in a fusion plasma. In future fusion devices about 90% of the power will have to be dissipated, mainly by radiation. For the development of an appropriate operational scenario, information about the absolute level of plasma radiation (P{sub rad,tot}) is crucial. Bolometers are used to measure the radiated power, however, an algorithm is required to derive the absolute power out of many line-integrated measurements. The currently used algorithm (BPD) was developed for the main chamber radiation. It underestimates the divertor radiation as its basic assumptions are not satisfied in this region. Therefore, a new P{sub rad,tot} algorithm is presented. It applies an Abel inversion on the main chamber and uses empirically based assumptions for poloidal asymmetries and the divertor radiation. To benchmark the new algorithm, synthetic emissivity profiles are used. On average, the new Abel inversion based algorithm deviates by only 10% from the nominal synthetic value while BPD is about 25% too low. With both codes time traces of ASDEX Upgrade discharges are calculated. The analysis of these time traces shows that the underestimation of the divertor radiation can have significant consequences on the accuracy of BPD while the new algorithm is shown to be stable.

  19. Heat capacity measurements of atoms and molecules adsorbed on evaporated metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, T.W.

    1989-05-01

    Investigations of the properties of absorbed monolayers have received great experimental and theoretical attention recently, both because of the importance of surface processes in practical applications such as catalysis, and the importance of such systems to the understanding of the fundamentals of thermodynamics in two dimensions. We have adapted the composite bolometer technology to the construction of microcalorimeters. For these calorimeters, the adsorption substrate is an evaporated film deposited on one surface of an optically polished sapphire wafer. This approach has allowed us to make the first measurements of the heat capacity of submonolayer films of /sup 4/He adsorbed on metallic films. In contrast to measurements of /sup 4/He adsorbed on all other insulating substrates, we have shown that /sup 4/He on silver films occupies a two-dimensional gas phase over a broad range of coverages and temperatures. Our apparatus has been used to study the heat capacity of Indium flakes. CO multilayers, /sup 4/He adsorbed on sapphire and on Ag films and H/sub 2/ adsorbed on Ag films. The results are compared with appropriate theories. 68 refs., 19 figs.

  20. Sensing properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes grown in MW plasma torch: electronic and electrochemical behavior, gas sensing, field emission, IR absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Prášek, Jan; Pekárek, Jan; Svatoš, Vojtěch; Bannov, Alexander G; Jašek, Ondřej; Synek, Petr; Eliáš, Marek; Zajíčková, Lenka; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-26

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 µm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‑modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures.

  1. Ultrafast processes in graphene. From fundamental manybody interactions to device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnerl, Stephan; Schneider, Harald [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Mittendorff, Martin [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Koenig-Otto, Jacob C.; Helm, Manfred [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Winzer, Torben; Knorr, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Malic, Ermin [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2017-11-15

    A joint experiment-theory investigation of the carrier dynamics in graphene, in particular in the energetic vicinity of the Dirac point, is reviewed. Radiation of low photon energy is employed in order to match the intrinsic energy scales of the material, i.e. the optical phonon energy (∝200 meV) and the Fermi energy (10-20 meV), respectively. Significant slower carrier cooling is predicted and observed for photon energies below the optical phonon energy. Furthermore, a strongly anisotropic distribution of electrons in k-space upon excitation with linearly polarized radiation is discussed. Depending on photon energy, the anisotropic distribution decays either rapidly via optical phonon emission, or slowly via non-collinear Coulomb scattering. Finally, a room temperature operated ultra-broadband hot-electron bolometer is demonstrated. It covers the spectral range from the THz to visible region with a single detector element featuring a response time of 40 ps. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. A polarimetry module for CSO/SHARC-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Giles; Chuss, David T.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Dowell, Charles D.; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Houde, Martin; Kirby, Larry; Krejny, Megan; Lazarian, Alex; Li, Hua-bai; Moseley, S. H.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2004-10-01

    The Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC-II) is a 32 x 12 pixel submillimeter camera that is used with the ten-meter diameter Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea. SHARC-II can be operated at either 350 or 450 microns. We are developing an optics module that we will install at a position between the SHARC-II camera and the focus of the CSO's secondary mirror. With our module installed, SHARC-II will be converted into a sensitive imaging polarimeter. The basic idea is that the module will split the incident beam coming from the secondary into two orthogonally polarized beams which are then re-imaged onto opposite ends of the "long and skinny" SHARC-II bolometer array. When this removable polarimetry module is in use, SHARC-II becomes a dual-polarization 12 x 12 pixel polarimeter. (The central 12 x 8 pixels of the SHARC-II array will remain unused.) Sky noise is a significant source of error for submillimeter continuum observations. Because our polarimetry module will allow simultaneous observation of two orthogonal polarization components, we will be able to eliminate or greatly reduce this source of error. Our optical design will include a rotating half-wave plate as well as a cold load to terminate the unused polarization components.

  3. SHARP: the SHARC-II polarimeter for CSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Attard, M.; Dowell, C. D.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Houde, M.; Kirby, L.; Novak, G.; Vaillancourt, J. E.

    2006-06-01

    SHARC-II is a 32 × 12 pixel submillimeter camera that is used with the ten-meter diameter Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea. This camera can be operated at either 350 or 450 microns. We developed a module that is installed at the CSO Nasmyth focus in order to convert SHARC-II into a sensitive imaging polarimeter, which we refer to as "SHARP". SHARP splits the incident beam into two orthogonal polarized beams that are then re-imaged onto different halves of the SHARC-II bolometer array. When this removable polarimetry module is in use, SHARC-II becomes a dual-beam 12 × 12 pixel polarimeter. Sky noise is a significant source of error for submillimeter continuum observations. Because SHARP will simultaneously observe two orthogonal polarization components, we are able to eliminate or greatly reduce this source of error. Here we describe the design of SHARP and report preliminary results of tests and observations carried out during our first two runs at CSO in August 2005 and January 2006.

  4. Submillimeter Continuum Imaging of the Orion A Molecular Cloud with SHARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, D. C.; Serabyn, E.; Keene, J. B.; Dowell, C. D.; Benford, D. J.; Phillips, T. G.; Wang, N.; Hunter, T. R.

    1998-05-01

    We have used the SHARC bolometer camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory to map the distribution of the broad-band 350 micron continuum emission toward the Orion A Molecular Cloud. A comparison of the 350 and 1100 micron flux densities in OMC-1 indicates a strong variation of the grain emissivity exponent along the Orion Ridge. The lowest value (beta= 1.75) is found toward the Orion Bar, while the highest value is found north of IRc2. This variation is consistent with the destruction of grain mantles by the UV photons from the Trapezium cluster. The 350 micron continuum emission in the Orion Bar correlates well with the CO J=6-5 peak brightness temperature and is shifted from the molecular bar traced by 13CO J=6-5 emission. This indicates that the dust emission originates in the outer PDR layers with increased kinetic temperature. Over 30 compact dust sources have been detected in OMC-2 and OMC-3. The dust temperature is around 18K for most of the compact sources, but for three sources it may be only around 10K or is very optically thick.

  5. SHARC II, a Second Generation 350 Micron Camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, C. D.; Collins, W.; Gardner, M.; Kovacs, A.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Yoshida, H.; Allen, C.; Jhabvala, M.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Voellmer, G.

    2001-05-01

    Development of a new facility 350 micron camera (`SHARC II') for the 10 m Caltech Submillimeter Observatory is underway. The camera will feature a 12x32 array of doped silicon Pop-Up Bolometers -- scheduled for delivery from NASA-Goddard to Caltech toward the end of 2001 -- cooled with 3He to 0.3 K. Detector absorption resonances, filters, and anti-reflection coatings are optimized for 350 microns. The pixels will sub-sample the diffraction pattern of the CSO with a spacing of 5 arcsec (0.7 lambda/D). We are implementing `total power' amplifiers to allow scanned observations with good image reconstruction fidelity and sensitivity. The expected point-source sensitivity of SHARC II in excellent weather is 0.5 Jy s-1/2, an improvement of a factor of 2 over the existing SHARC (Wang et al. 1996; Benford et al. 1999). We report on an engineering run with the camera at the CSO in September 2000 using a partial (16-pixel) detector array.

  6. Effect of magnetic configuration on frequency of NBI-driven Alfvén modes in TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Ochando, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.; Eliseev, L. G.; Hidalgo, C.; Krupnik, L. I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Liniers, M.; Lysenko, S. E.; de Pablos, J. L.; Perfilov, S. V.; Sharapov, S. E.; Spong, D. A.; Jimenez, J. A.; Ufimtsev, M. V.; Breizman, B. N.; HIBP Group; the TJ-II Team

    2014-12-01

    Excitation of modes in the Alfvénic frequency range, 30 kHz values, 1.51advantage of the unique TJ-II capabilities, a dynamic magnetic configuration experiment with \\unicode{7548} (ρ , t) variation during discharges has shown strong effects on the mode frequency via both vacuum \\unicode{7548} changes and induced net plasma current. A drastic frequency increase from ˜50 to ˜250 kHz was observed for some modes when plasma current as low as ±2 kA was induced by small (10%) changes in the vertical field. A comprehensive set of diagnostics including a heavy ion beam probe, magnetic probes and a multi-chord bolometer made it possible to identify the spatial spread of the modes and deduce the internal amplitudes of their plasma density and magnetic field perturbations. A simple analytical model for fAE, based on the local Alfvén eigenmode (AE) dispersion relation, was proposed to characterize the observation. It was shown that all the observations, including vacuum iota and plasma current variations, may be fitted by the model, so the linear mode frequency dependence on \\unicode{7548} (plasma current) and one over square root density dependence present the major features of the NBI-induced AEs in TJ-II, and provide the framework for further experiment-to-theory comparison.

  7. First Results from BISTRO: A SCUBA-2 Polarimeter Survey of the Gould Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Thompson, Derek; Pattle, Kate; Bastien, Pierre; Furuya, Ray S.; Kwon, Woojin; Lai, Shih-Ping; Qiu, Keping; Berry, David; Choi, Minho; Coudé, Simon; Di Francesco, James; Hoang, Thiem; Franzmann, Erica; Friberg, Per; Graves, Sarah F.; Greaves, Jane S.; Houde, Martin; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M.; Koch, Patrick M.; Kwon, Jungmi; Lee, Chang Won; Li, Di; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mottram, Joseph C.; Parsons, Harriet; Pon, Andy; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Sadavoy, Sarah; van Loo, Sven; Aso, Yusuke; Byun, Do-Young; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, Mike C.-Y.; Chen, Wen Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Cho, Jungyeon; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Chung, Eun Jung; Doi, Yasuo; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Fiege, Jason; Friesen, Rachel K.; Fuller, Gary; Gledhill, Tim; Griffin, Matt J.; Gu, Qilao; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hatchell, Jennifer; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Holland, Wayne; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Kang, Ji-hyun; Kang, Miju; Kang, Sung-ju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Shinyoung; Lacaille, Kevin M.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-bai; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Junhao; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Liu, Tie; Lyo, A.-Ran; Mairs, Steve; Matsumura, Masafumi; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Onaka, Takashi; Peretto, Nicolas; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Qian, Lei; Retter, Brendan; Richer, John; Rigby, Andrew; Robitaille, Jean-François; Savini, Giorgio; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Soam, Archana; Tamura, Motohide; Tang, Ya-Wen; Tomisaka, Kohji; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Jia-Wei; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Yoo, Hyunju; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; André, Philippe; Dowell, C. Darren; Falle, Sam; Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. We discuss the survey’s aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions that the survey will aim to answer. The most important of these is the role of magnetic fields in the star formation process on the scale of individual filaments and cores in dense regions. We describe the data acquisition and reduction processes for POL-2, demonstrating both repeatability and consistency with previous data. We present a first-look analysis of the first results from the BISTRO survey in the OMC 1 region. We see that the magnetic field lies approximately perpendicular to the famous “integral filament” in the densest regions of that filament. Furthermore, we see an “hourglass” magnetic field morphology extending beyond the densest region of the integral filament into the less-dense surrounding material, and discuss possible causes for this. We also discuss the more complex morphology seen along the Orion Bar region. We examine the morphology of the field along the lower-density northeastern filament. We find consistency with previous theoretical models that predict magnetic fields lying parallel to low-density, non-self-gravitating filaments, and perpendicular to higher-density, self-gravitating filaments.

  8. Irradiation test of diagnostic components for ITER application in a fission reactor, Japan Materials Testing Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, T.; Nishitani, T.; Kakuta, T.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation effects on components and materials will be one of the most serious technological issues in fusion systems realizing burning plasmas. Especially, diagnostic components, which should play crucial roles to control plasmas and to understand physics of burning plasmas, will be exposed to high-flux neutrons and gamma-rays. Dynamics radiation effects will affects performance of components substantially from beginning of exposure to radiation environments, and accumulated radiation effects will gradually degrade their functioning abilities in the course of their services. High-power-density fission reactors will be only realistic tools to simulate the irradiation environments expected in burning-plasma fusion machines such as the ITER, at present. Some key diagnostic components, namely magnetic coils, bolometers, and optical fibers, were irradiation-tested in a fission reactor, JMTR, to evaluate their performances under heavy irradiation environments. Results indicate that the ITER-relevant diagnostic components could be developed in time, though there are still some technological problems to overcome. (author)

  9. The First Multichroic Polarimeter Array on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Characterization and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S. P.; Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Choi, S. K.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive receiver for the 6-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and measures the small angular scale polarization anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The full focal plane is composed of three detector arrays, containing over 3000 transition edge sensors (TES detectors) in total. The first two detector arrays, observing at 146 gigahertz, were deployed in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The third and final array is composed of multichroic pixels sensitive to both 90 and 146 gigahertz and saw first light in February 2015. Fabricated at NIST, this dichroic array consists of 255 pixels, with a total of 1020 polarization sensitive bolometers and is coupled to the telescope with a monolithic array of broad-band silicon feedhorns. The detectors are read out using time-division SQUID multiplexing and cooled by a dilution refrigerator at 110 meter Kelvins. We present an overview of the assembly and characterization of this multichroic array in the lab, and the initial detector performance in Chile. The detector array has a TES detector electrical yield of 85 percent, a total array sensitivity of less than 10 microns Kelvin root mean square speed, and detector time constants and saturation powers suitable for ACT CMB observations.

  10. The SOFIA/SAFIRE Far-Infrared Spectrometer: Highlighting Submillimeter Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    The Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory is an imaging spectrometer for wavelengths between 28 microns and 440 microns. Our design is a dual-band long-slit grating spectrometer, which provides broadband (approx. 4000 km/s) observations in two lines simultaneously over a field of view roughly 10" wide by 320" long. The low backgrounds in spectroscopy require very sensitive detectors with noise equivalent powers of order 10(exp -18) W/square root of Hz. We are developing a kilopixel, filled detector array for SAFIRE in a 32 x 40 format. The detector consists of a transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer array, a per-pixel broadband absorbing backshort array, and a NIST SQUID multiplexer readout array. This general type of array has been used successfully in the GISMO instrument, so we extrapolate to the sensitivity needed for airborne spectroscopy. Much of the cryogenic, electronics, and software infrastructure for SAFIRE have been developed. I provide here an overview of the progress on SAFIRE.

  11. THIS: A Next Generation Tuneable Heterodyne Infrared Spectrometer for SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnabend, Guido; Wirtz, Daniel; Schieder, Rudolf

    2004-01-01

    A new infrared heterodyne instrument has been developed which allows the use of both tuneable diode lasers (TDL) and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) as local oscillators (LO). The current frequency tuning range of our system extends from 900 to 1100/cm depending on the availability of lasers but is planned to be extended to 600/cm soon. The IF-bandwidth is 1.4 GHz using an acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS). The frequency resolution and stability of the system is approximately 10(exp 7). Currently, mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detectors are used as mixers while new devices like quantum-well-infrared-photodetectors (QWIP) and hot-electron-bolometers (HEB) are investigated. The IF-bandwidth can be extended to about 3 GHz by using a new broadband acousto-optical spectrometer presently under development. The instrument is fully transportable and can be attached to any infrared or optical telescope. The semiconductor laser is stabilized to a Fabry-Perot ring-resonator, which is also used as an efficient diplexer to superimpose the local-oscillator and the signal radiation. As a first step measurements of trace gases in Earth's atmosphere and non-LTE emission from Venus' atmosphere were carried out as well as observations of molecular features in sunspots. Further astronomical observations from ground-based telescopes and the airborne observatory SOFIA are planned for the future. Of particular interest are molecules without a permanent dipole moment like H2, CH4, C2H2 etc.

  12. Single-silicon CCD-CMOS platform for multi-spectral detection from terahertz to x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Vicario, Carlo; Hauri, Christoph P

    2017-11-15

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are a well-established imaging technology in the visible and x-ray frequency ranges. However, the small quantum photon energies of terahertz radiation have hindered the use of this mature semiconductor technological platform in this frequency range, leaving terahertz imaging totally dependent on low-resolution bolometer technologies. Recently, it has been shown that silicon CCDs can detect terahertz photons at a high field, but the detection sensitivity is limited. Here we show that silicon, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers enhanced detection sensitivity of almost two orders of magnitude, compared to CCDs. Our findings allow us to extend the low-frequency terahertz cutoff to less than 2 THz, nearly closing the technological gap with electronic imagers operating up to 1 THz. Furthermore, with the silicon CCD/CMOS technology being sensitive to mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the x-ray ranges, we introduce silicon as a single detector platform from 1 EHz to 2 THz. This overcomes the present challenge in spatially overlapping a terahertz/mid-IR pump and x-ray probe radiation at facilities such as free electron lasers, synchrotron, and laser-based x-ray sources.

  13. First-principles study of a MXene terahertz detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhon, Y I; Seo, M; Jhon, Y M

    2017-12-21

    2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides called MXenes have attracted increasing attention due to their outstanding properties in many fields. By performing systematic density functional theory calculations, here we show that MXenes can serve as excellent terahertz detecting materials. Giant optical absorption and extinction coefficients are observed in the terahertz range in the most popular MXene, namely, Ti 3 C 2 , which is regardless of the stacking degree. Various other optical properties have been investigated as well in the terahertz range for in-depth understanding of its optical response. We find that the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of stacked Ti 3 C 2 flakes is comparable to that of carbon nanotube films. Based on excellent terahertz absorption and decent thermoelectric efficiency in MXenes, we finally suggest the promise of MXenes in terahertz detection applications, which includes terahertz bolometers and photothermoelectric detectors. Possible ZT improvements are discussed in large-scale MXene flake films and/or MXene-polymer composite films.

  14. MERTIS: geometrical calibration of thermal infrared optical system by applying diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M.; Baumbach, D.; Buder, M.; Börner, A.; Grießbach, D.; Peter, G.; Santier, E.; Säuberlich, T.; Schischmanow, A.; Schrader, S.; Walter, I.

    2015-09-01

    Geometrical sensor calibration is essential for space applications based on high accuracy optical measurements, in this case for the thermal infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer MERTIS. The goal is the determination of the interior sensor orientation. A conventional method is to measure the line of sight for a subset of pixels by single pixel illumination with collimated light. To adjust angles, which define the line of sight of a pixel, a manipulator construction is used. A new method for geometrical sensor calibration is using Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) in connection with laser beam equipment. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are optical microstructures, which are used to split an incoming laser beam with a dedicated wavelength into a number of beams with well-known propagation directions. As the virtual sources of the diffracted beams are points at infinity, the resulting image is invariant against translation. This particular characteristic allows a complete geometrical sensor calibration with only one taken image avoiding complex adjustment procedures, resulting in a significant reduction of calibration effort. We present a new method for geometrical calibration of a thermal infrared optical system, including an thermal infrared test optics and the MERTIS spectrometer bolometer detector. The fundamentals of this new approach for geometrical infrared optical systems calibration by applying diffractive optical elements and the test equipment are shown.

  15. Dynamics of three-dimensional radiative structures during RMP assisted detached plasmas on the large helical device and its comparison with EMC3-EIRENE modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shwetang N.; Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ida, Katsumi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Sano, Ryuichi; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Hirohiko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Motojima, Gen; Ohno, Noriyasu; LHD Experiment Group

    2016-04-01

    The resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) island introduced in the stochastic edge of the large helical device (LHD) plasma plays an important role in the stabilization of the plasma detachment (Kobayashi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 093032). The plasma enters in the sustained detachment phase in the presence of an RMP once the line averaged density exceeds a critical value with a given input power. During detachment the enhanced radiation from the stochastic edge of the LHD undergoes several spatiotemporal changes which are studied quantitatively by an infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic. The experimental results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the radiation predicted by the 3D transport simulation with fluid model, EMC3-EIRENE. A fair amount of qualitative agreement, before and after the detachment, is reported. The issue of overestimated radiation from the model is addressed by changing the free parameters in the EMC3-EIRENE code till the total radiation and the radiation profiles match closely, within a factor of two with the experimental observations. A better quantitative match between the model and the experiment is achieved at higher cross-field impurity diffusion coefficient and lower sputtering coefficient after the detachment. In this article a comparison, the first of its kind, is established between the quantified radiation from the experiments and the synthetic image obtained from the simulation code. This exercise is aimed towards validating the model assumptions against the experimentally measured radiation.

  16. Sapphire scintillation tests for cryogenic detectors in the Edelweiss dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, M.

    2007-07-01

    Identifying the matter in the universe is one of the main challenges of modern cosmology and astrophysics. An important part of this matter seems to be made of non-baryonic particles. Edelweiss is a direct dark matter search using cryogenic germanium bolometers in order to look for particles that interact very weakly with the ordinary matter, generically known as WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). An important challenge for Edelweiss is the radioactive background and one of the ways to identify it is to use a larger variety of target crystals. Sapphire is a light target which can be complementary to the germanium crystals already in use. Spectroscopic characterization studies have been performed using different sapphire samples in order to find the optimum doping concentration for good low temperature scintillation. Ti doped crystals with weak Ti concentrations have been used for systematic X ray excitation tests both at room temperature and down to 30 K. The tests have shown that the best Ti concentration for optimum room temperature scintillation is 100 ppm and 50 ppm at T = 45 K. All concentrations have been checked by optical absorption and fluorescence. After having shown that sapphire had interesting characteristics for building heat-scintillation detectors, we have tested if using a sapphire detector was feasible within a dark matter search. During the first commissioning tests of Edelweiss-II, we have proved the compatibility between a sapphire heat scintillation detector and the experimental setup. (author)

  17. Current Status of the PIPER Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bradley; Ade, P.; Benford, D.; Bennett, C.; Chuss, D.; Dotson, J.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Irwin, K.; Jethava, N.; Jhabvala, C.; Kogut, A.; Lazear, J.; Lowe, L.; Miller, T.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, H.; Rodriguez, S.; Rostem, K.; Sharp, E.; Staguhn, J.; Tucker, C.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  18. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin; Benford, D.; Chuss, D.; Fixsen, D.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Mosely, H.; Staguhn, J.; Wollack, E.; Weston, A.; Vlahacos, K.; Bennett, C.; Eimer, J.; Halpern, M.; Irwin, K.; Dotson, J.; Ade, P.; Tucker, C.

    2011-05-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  19. SERS internship: Fall 1994 abstracts and research papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, B.

    1994-12-01

    This publication is a collection of articles generated as a result of the fall 1994 Science and Engineering Research Semester program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Research titles include: electrochemical cells in the reduction of hexavalent chromium; an automated system for studying the power distribution of electron beams; the mapping of novel genes to human chromosome 19; bolometer analysis comparisons; design and implementation of the LLNL Gigabit Testbed; in vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-Deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA Covalent Complexes; pre-thymic somatic mutation leads to high mutant frequency hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene; characterization of thin film multi-layers with magnetization curves and modeling of low angle X-ray diffraction data; total least squares; determining the water content of the Geysers Graywacke of northern California; a general approach to sharing data between scientific representations; nanomechanical properties of SiC thin films grown from C{sub 60} precursors; advanced information technology, a tool set for building clean database applications; the design of an automated electrolytic enrichment procedure for tritium; fluvial terrace dating using in-situ cosmogenic {sup 21}Ne; computer- aided mapping of stream channels beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA; X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions. Separate entries have been put in the energy data base for articles from this report. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. The projected background for the CUORE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Hickerson, K.P.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J.; Trentalange, S.; Zhu, B.X. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Banks, T.I.; Drobizhev, A.; Freedman, S.J.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Carbone, L.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Pettinacci, V.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Fernandes, G.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V.; Tenconi, M. [Universit Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Moggi, N. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualita della Vita, Bologna (Italy); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te with an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers operating at temperatures around 10 mK. The experiment is currently being commissioned in Hall A of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The goal of CUORE is to reach a 90% C.L. exclusion sensitivity on the {sup 130}Te decay half-life of 9 x 10{sup 25} years after 5 years of data taking. The main issue to be addressed to accomplish this aim is the rate of background events in the region of interest, which must not be higher than 10{sup -2} counts/keV/kg/year. We developed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, based on results from a campaign of material screening, radioassays, and bolometric measurements, to evaluate the expected background. This was used over the years to guide the construction strategies of the experiment and we use it here to project a background model for CUORE. In this paper we report the results of our study and our expectations for the background rate in the energy region where the peak signature of neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te is expected. (orig.)

  1. The Green Bank Telescope: First Full Winter of Operation at 3mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Felix J.

    2017-06-01

    The winter of 2016-2017 marks the first season for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) with full instrumentation in the 3mm band. ARGUS, a 16-pixel array, provides spectroscopic capabilities over 80-116 GHz. MUSTANG-2, a 223 pixel bolometer array, provides extremely sensitive continuum mapping capabilities over a 30 GHz band centered on 90 GHz at an angular resolution of 9”. In addition, there is a 2-pixel receiver that covers the lower part of the 3mm band, 67-93 GHz, for spectroscopy, continuum measurements, and VLBI.In March, under good night-time conditions, the GBT angular resolution at 109 GHz was measured to be 6.5”. This corresponds to 1.16 lambda/Diameter, exactly as expected from theoretical considerations and identical to the wavelength/Diameter ratio measured at much lower frequencies. Near sidelobe levels are below -20 dB.This poster will review some results that highlight the GBT’s new capabilities in the 3mm band, including new insights into the origin of the anomalous microwave emission, 13CO measurements of a cloud in the Milky Way halo that is in the process making the transition between atomic and molecular gas, HCO+ measurements of infall in a star-forming region, and measurements of dust emission and its spectrum in Orion.The Green Bank Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  2. Low energy analysis techniques for CUORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); D' Aguanno, D.; Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Drobizhev, A.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Freedman, S.J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Moggi, N.; Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna - Alma Mater Studiorum, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (US); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (US); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (US); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (US); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2017-12-15

    CUORE is a tonne-scale cryogenic detector operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) that uses tellurium dioxide bolometers to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te. CUORE is also suitable to search for low energy rare events such as solar axions or WIMP scattering, thanks to its ultra-low background and large target mass. However, to conduct such sensitive searches requires improving the energy threshold to 10 keV. In this paper, we describe the analysis techniques developed for the low energy analysis of CUORE-like detectors, using the data acquired from November 2013 to March 2015 by CUORE-0, a single-tower prototype designed to validate the assembly procedure and new cleaning techniques of CUORE. We explain the energy threshold optimization, continuous monitoring of the trigger efficiency, data and event selection, and energy calibration at low energies in detail. We also present the low energy background spectrum of CUORE-0 below 60 keV. Finally, we report the sensitivity of CUORE to WIMP annual modulation using the CUORE-0 energy threshold and background, as well as an estimate of the uncertainty on the nuclear quenching factor from nuclear recoils in CUORE-0. (orig.)

  3. Complementary Measurement of Thermal Architecture of NbSi TES with Alpha Particle and Complex Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, J.; Miniussi, A.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.; Pajot, F.; Decourcelle, T.; Voisin, F.; Bélier, B.; Coron, N.; Ghribi, A.; Marnieros, S.; Perbost, C.

    2014-08-01

    As shown by the Planck mission (Planck Collaboration. Astronomy and astrophysics. arXiv1303.5071P, 2013), background limited bolometers in a space environment are very sensitive to high energy particles. In order to not degrade their sensitivity, it is necessary to reduce this unwanted signal. To achieve this goal, a good understanding of the detector's thermal architecture is mandatory. To investigate this question, we used an particle source in front of our niobium silicon (NbSi) alloy Transition edge sensors (TES). The number of time constants required to fit the data and the way these time constants behave as we change the bias power gave us a good insight on the TES thermal architecture. Indeed we expect a decrease of the detector time constant due to the electro-thermal feedback properties. We will first present some standard characterizations of NbSi TES using a simple thermal model and how they indicate the presence of multiple thermal decouplings. Then we will show the results of the particles measurements and how we used them to build our thermal model for Complex Impedance fitting. All this work has been done for the QUBIC experiment, a B-modes instrument.

  4. Testing and First Light for the Pop-up Bolometric Detectors (PUDs) for the High Resoultion Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) on SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, M. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Allen, C. A.; Shafer, R. A.; Voellmer, G. M.; Staguhn, J.; Harper, D. A.; Dowell, D.; Phillips, T.

    2000-12-01

    The HAWC instrument on SOFIA is diffraction limited in four bands between 50-220μm , with background limited sensitivity. Its purpose is to provide sensitive and reliable facility-imaging capabilities for SOFIA during its first operational years. It is the first flight instrument to use a state of the art bolometric 12x32 pixel array of ion implanted silicon PUDs, a closed-packed 2D array with >95% filling factor. It will be cooled to ~0.2K, using an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). Here we report on detector characteristics: Measured I/V curves for different temperatures are completely consistent with a four parameter bolometer model. The measured detector noise contribution to the measured noise is only ~1-2% of the sky background noise. In September, 2000 a prototype instrument operating at λ =350μm using a single linear array of detectors was successfully deployed, and saw first light on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea.

  5. Quest for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 130Te with the CUORE Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Thomas; Cuore Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The CUORE experiment, in the advanced stages of construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), aims to search for 0 νββ decay of 130Te with unprecedented sensitivity: T1/ 2 0 ν = 9 . 5 ×1025 yr at 90 % C.L. The detector will consist of 19 towers, each comprising 13 planes of four, 125 cm3, cubic TeO2 crystals. This amounts to a total mass of 206 kg of 130Te. When cooled to an operating temperature of ~ 10 mK such crystals function as highly sensitive bolometers with energy resolution better than 5 keV demonstrated near the 0 νββ decay Q-value (2527.518 +/- 0.013 keV). In this talk I will describe the expected reach of CUORE considering the rigorous cleaning, materials handling, and ultra-pure assembly techniques developed by the collaboration. I will also report on the status of CUORE-0, a single CUORE-like tower where many of these background mitigation techniques were deployed during assembly. CUORE-0 represents a new 0 νββ experiment which is already operating at LNGS and will surpass the sensitivity of the previous generation experiment (Cuoricino) before CUORE begins operating.

  6. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A.J; Barreiro, R.B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J.P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J.R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F.R; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J.F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H.C; Christensen, P.R; Clements, D.L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L.P.L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B.P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R.D; Davis, R.J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F.X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J.M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T.A; Eriksen, H.K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F.K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versille, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S.R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M; Jaffe, T.R; Jaffe, A.H; Jones, W.C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J.M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C.R; Leonardi, R; Leon-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P.B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P.M; Macias-Perez, J.F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P.G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P.R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M.A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C.A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Pearson, T.J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G.W; Prunet, S; Puget, J.L; Rachen, J.P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G; Rubino-Martin, J.A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A.S; Sygnet, J.F; Tauber, J.A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L.A; Wandelt, B.D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8°...

  7. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  8. Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, O.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Chicago U., KICP; Nguyen, H.; /Fermilab; Bischoff, C.; /Chicago U., KICP /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. /Chicago U., KICP

    2011-07-01

    B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature ({approx}10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.

  9. Cylindrical target Li-beam-driven hohlraum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzon, M.S.; Aubert, J.; Chandler, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    The authors performed a series of experiments on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) in May, 1994, and obtained a brightness temperature of 61 ± 2 eV for an ion-beam heated hohlraum. The hohlraum was a 4-mm-diameter, right-circular cylinder with a 1.5-mm-thick gold wall, a low-density CH foam fill, and a 1.5- or 3-mm-diameter diagnostic aperture in the top. The nominal parameters of the radially-incident PBFA II Li ion beam were 9 MeV peak energy (∼10 MeV at the gas cell) at the target at a peak power of 2.5 ± 0.3 TW/cm 2 and a 15 ns pulse width. Azimuthal variations in intensity of a factor of 3, with respect to the mean, were observed. Nonuniformities in thermal x-ray emission across the area of the diagnostic hole were also observed. Time-dependent hole-closure velocities were measured: the time-averaged velocity of ∼2 cm/micros is in good agreement with sound speed estimates. Unfolded x-ray spectra and brightness temperatures as a function of time are reported and compared to simulations. Hole closure corrections are discussed with comparisons between XRD and bolometer measurements. Temperature scaling with power on target is also presented

  10. Effects of increased microwave heating power in the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Alejandro; Koehn, Alf; Ali, Ahmed; Ramisch, Mirko [Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    One of the microwave heating systems at the stellarator TJ-K has been recently upgraded: a third klystron has been installed, increasing the heating power from 4 kW to 6 kW operating at 14 GHz. A phased-array antenna is used which allows to vary the injection angle by sweeping the microwave frequency in order control the coupling mechanism of the microwave to the plasma. With the two klystrons already installed, ionization degrees of α ≅ 1 have been reached. We expect that an increased heating power, by means of the third klystron put into operation, leads to an increase in the electron temperature T{sub e} only, rather than in electron density n{sub e}, and thus a decrease in the collision frequency ν{sub ei} ∝ n{sub e}T{sub e}{sup -3/2} which has an impact on heating flow damping and neoclassical properties. Parameter scans have been performed in order to characterize the new heating scenario. A radial movable Langmuir probe has been used to obtain radial profiles of the electron density and temperature. An arrangement of bolometers and an optical diode have been used to obtain the power losses by radiation. A particle and power balance model is used to obtain estimated densities and temperatures in order to compare with the experimental results.

  11. Observations of M87 and Hydra A at 90 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. D.; Mason, B. S.; Dicker, S.; Korngut, P.; Devlin, M. J.; Aquirre, J.; Benford, D.; Moseley, H.; Staguhn, J.; Irwin, K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new observations of the AGNs M87 and Hydra A at 90 GHz made with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope at 8.5" resolution. A spectral analysis is performed combining this new data and archival VLA data or1 these objects at longer wavelengths. This analysis can detect variations in spectral index and curvature expected from energy losses in the radiating particles. L187 shows only weak evidence for steepening of the spectrum along the jet suggesting either re-acceleration of the relativistic particles in the jet or insufficient losesto affect the spectrum at 90 GHz The jets in Hydra A show strong steepening as they move from the nucleus suggesting unbalanced losses of the higher energy relativistic particles The difference between these two sources may be accounted for by the different lengths over which the jets are observable, 2 kpc for 5187 and 45 kpc for Hydra A. Subject headings: galaxies: jets, galaxies: active, radio continuum, galaxies: individual (M87. Hydra A),

  12. High Resolution Imaging with MUSTANG-2 on the GBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchfield, Sara; Ade, Peter; Aguirre, James; Brevik, Justus A.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark; Dicker, Simon R.; Dober, Bradley; Duff, Shannon M.; Egan, Dennis; Ford, Pam; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; Knowles, Kenda; Marganian, Paul; Mason, Brian Scott; Mates, John A. B.; McMahon, Jeff; Mello, Melinda; Mroczkowski, Tony; Romero, Charles; Sievers, Jonathon; Tucker, Carole; Vale, Leila R.; Vissers, Michael; White, Steven; Whitehead, Mark; Ullom, Joel; Young, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We present early science results from MUSTANG-2, a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array operating on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The feedhorn and waveguide-probe-coupled detector technology is a mature technology, which has been used on instruments such as the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the Atacama B-mode Search telescope. The microwave SQUID multiplexer-based readout system developed for MUSTANG-2 currently reads out 66 detectors with a single coaxial cable and will eventually allow thousands of detectors to be multiplexed. This microwave SQUID multiplexer combines the proven abilities of millimeter wave TES detectors with the multiplexing capabilities of KIDs with no degradation in noise performance of the detectors. Each multiplexing device is read out using warm electronics consisting of a commercially available ROACH board, a DAC/ADC card, and an Intermediate Frequency mixer circuit. The hardware was originally developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronic Research (CASPER) group, whose primary goal is to develop scalable FPGA-based hardware with the flexibility to be used in a wide range of radio signal processing applications. MUSTANG-2 is the first on-sky instrument to use microwave SQUID multiplexing and is available as a shared-risk/PI instrument on the GBT. In MUSTANG-2’s first season 7 separate proposals were awarded a total of 230 hours of telescope time.

  13. A general approach to low noise readout of terahertz imaging arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisum, Jonathan D; Grossman, Erich N; Popović, Zoya

    2011-06-01

    This article describes the theory and design of an ultra-low noise electronic readout circuit for use with room temperature video-rate terahertz imaging arrays. First, the noise characteristics of various imaging detectors, including low resistance bolometers and high resistance diodes are discussed. Theoretical approaches to white and 1/f noise mitigation are examined, and a corresponding low-noise readout circuit is designed, built, and tested. It is shown that the circuit is capable of achieving detector limited noise performance for use in room temperature terahertz imaging systems. A thorough noise analysis of the circuit provides the necessary information for applying the readout circuit to any type of imaging detector, and more generally, any measurement of small signals from various source impedances in the presence of white and 1/f noise. W-band measurements of an 8-element, high-resistance detector array, and a 32-element, low-resistance detector array demonstrate the usefulness of the readout circuit. Finally, recommended circuit configurations for various detectors in the literature are provided, with theoretical performance metrics summarized. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  14. Salient issues of edge physics pertaining to loss of confinement: A resistive MHD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The progress that has been made during this fiscal year is significant in the area of tokamak edge plasma transport. The drift-rippling mode model of edge turbulent transport was extended. In particular, the research areas on which were concentrated include the following topics: (1) The theoretical investigation of the radiatively enhanced transport due to the effects of impurity driven radiation instabilities has been expanded to include a situation with multiple impurities (such as carbon, C 4+ , and oxygen, O 6+ ); (2) In order to validate the use of the impurity radiation input from the tokamak bolometer experiments in the theoretical edge turbulent transport calculations, the analysis that is utilized to transform impurity brightness data to radiated power profiles has been checked for state population and Abel inversion correctness; (3) The drift-rippling model of edge turbulent transport has been extended to include ionization particle sources in addition to the impurity driven thermal instability drive; and (4) The detailed limiter and realistic edge geometric effects on the edge turbulent transport has been included in the drift-rippling model

  15. The Role of Proximity Effects in Transition-Edge Sensor Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters and bolometers are under development by numerous groups worldwide for a variety of applications involving the measurement of particle and photon radiation. Recent experimental and theoretical progress has led to the realization that the fundamental physics of some TES systems involves the longitudinal proximity effect between the electrical bias contacts and the TES. As such, these devices are described as SS'S (or SN'S) weak-links exhibiting Fraunhofer-like magnetic field dependence, and exponential temperature dependence, of the critical current. These discoveries, for the first time, provide a realistic theoretical framework for predicting the resistive transition as a function of temperature, current and magnetic field. In this contribution, we review the latest theoretical and experimental results and investigate how proximity effects play an important role in determining the resistive transition characteristics, which ultimately determines the dynamic range and energy resolution of TES detectors. We investigate how these effects could be utilized in device design to engineer desired transition characteristics for a given application.

  16. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19 deg x 14 deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5 deg. FWHM.

  17. Parallel-plate third sound waveguides with fixed and variable plate spacings for the study of fifth sound in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelatis, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Third sound in superfluid helium four films has been investigated using two parallel-plate waveguides. These investigations led to the observation of fifth sound, a new mode of sound propagation. Both waveguides consisted of two parallel pieces of vitreous quartz. The sound speed was obtained by measuring the time-of-flight of pulsed third sound over a known distance. Investigations from 1.0-1.7K were possible with the use of superconducting bolometers, which measure the temperature component of the third sound wave. Observations were initially made with a waveguide having a plate separation fixed at five microns. Adiabatic third sound was measured in the geometry. Isothermal third sound was also observed, using the usual, single-substrate technique. Fifth sound speeds, calculated from the two-fluid theory of helium and the speeds of the two forms of third sound, agreed in size and temperature dependence with theoretical predictions. Nevertheless, only equivocal observations of fifth sound were made. As a result, the film-substrate interaction was examined, and estimates of the Kapitza conductance were made. Assuming the dominance of the effects of this conductance over those due to the ECEs led to a new expression for fifth sound. A reanalysis of the initial data was made, which contained no adjustable parameters. The observation of fifth sound was seen to be consistent with the existence of an anomalously low boundary conductance

  18. A multiframe soft x-ray camera with fast video capture for the LSX field reversed configuration (FRC) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Soft x-ray pinhole imaging has proven to be an exceptionally useful diagnostic for qualitative observation of impurity radiation from field reversed configuration plasmas. We used a four frame device, similar in design to those discussed in an earlier paper [E. A. Crawford, D. P. Taggart, and A. D. Bailey III, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2795 (1990)] as a routine diagnostic during the last six months of the Large s Experiment (LSX) program. Our camera is an improvement over earlier implementations in several significant aspects. It was designed and used from the onset of the LSX experiments with a video frame capture system so that an instant visual record of the shot was available to the machine operator as well as facilitating quantitative interpretation of intensity information recorded in the images. The camera was installed in the end region of the LSX on axis approximately 5.5 m from the plasma midplane. Experience with bolometers on LSX showed serious problems with ''particle dumps'' at the axial location at various times during the plasma discharge. Therefore, the initial implementation of the camera included an effective magnetic sweeper assembly. Overall performance of the camera, video capture system, and sweeper is discussed

  19. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  20. Symposium in Honor of Minoru M. Freund

    CERN Document Server

    Langhoff, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The presentations at this NASA-hosted Symposium in honor of Mino Freund will touch upon the fields, to which his prolific mind has made significant contributions. These include low temperature physics, cosmology, and nanotechnology with its wide-ranging applicability to material science, neuroscience, Earth sciences and satellite technology.  To learn more about Mino’s career you can download the "Tribute" , which outlines his journey from (i) low-temperature physics and superconductivity at the ETH Zürich to (ii) building one remarkable milliKelvin refrigerator for the US-Japan IRTS mission at UC Berkeley and ISAS in Japan to (iii) a decade in cosmology, to (iv) being on the micro-bolometer team at NASA Goddard for the HAWC instrument on SOFIA, to (v) developing at AFRL the nanotechnology portfolio for the entire Air Force.  This was followed by six years at the NASA Ames Research Center, where Mino formulated his far-ahead ideas about swarms of capable nanosats circling the Earth, which have since star...

  1. Structural, magnetic, magnetocaloric and electrical studies of Dy0.5(Sr1-xCax)0.5MnO3 manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Tozri, A.; Smari, M.; Dhahri, E.; Bessais, L.

    2017-12-01

    Based on sol-gel method, the Dy0.5(Sr1-xCax)0.5MnO3 (x = 0 and 0.3) manganites were synthesized. Orthorhombic distortion was presented in both samples via X-ray diffraction patterns with Pnma as a space group. Magnetic measurements of both systems illustrate anomalies at around TN(Mn) ∼ 27 K for the x = 0 sample and 40 K for x = 0.3, showing antiferromagnetic coupling among Mn-spins. Then, the AC magnetic susceptibility of these systems was investigated to demonstrate the existence of spin glass state. In order to check if these samples can be good candidates for magnetic refrigeration, relative cooling power was determined depicting that the sample with a Ca content x = 0.3 can be useful for magnetic refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures with about 133.89 J/kg under a magnetic field of 5 T. The experimental magnetic entropy change was then treated via Landau theory showing a big discrepancy between the measured and the theoretical magnetic entropy change under 1 and 5 T. The antiferromagnetic behavior, which is governed by the super exchange interactions, describes also the insulating character, thus, we discussed the electrical properties and examined the conduction mechanisms. Based on Hall effect measurements, charge careers type was determined to be electron for both samples. Eventually, both systems can be investigated also as good candidates for bolometer applications.

  2. Temporal characteristics of monoenergetic electron beams generated by the laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohkubo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse length of quasimonoenergetic electrons accelerated by the wakefield generated by 12 TW, 40 fs laser pulses in a gas jet is determined via spectral measurements using a bolometer to detect coherent transition radiation. A quasimonoenergetic electron beam with its mean energy E=21  MeV, dispersion ΔE=4  MeV, total charge q∼30  pC, and the geometrical emittance 0.07π  mm mrad is generated with high reproducibility. The averaged duration of only the quasimonoenergetic electron bunches peaked around 20 MeV is 130±30  fs (FWHM, while it is 250±70  fs (FWHM for electron bunches with quasimonoenergetic distributions peaked around 4 MeV, at a distance of 180 mm far from the gas jet because of relatively large electron energy spread. Pulse elongation of the electron bunch with the quasimonoenergetic distribution after 180 mm path is 60–220  fs (FWHM. Therefore, the initial duration of the electron bunch at the gas-jet rear is expected to be less than 100  fs (FWHM.

  3. Quantum ballistic transistor and low noise HEMT for cryo-electronics lower than 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremion, E.

    2008-01-01

    Next generations of cryo-detectors, widely used in physics of particles and physics of universe, will need in the future high-performance cryo-electronics less noisy and closer to the detector. Within this context, this work investigates properties of two dimensional electron gas GaAlAs/GaAs by studying two components, quantum point contact (QPC) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). Thanks to quantized conductance steps in QPC, we have realized a quantum ballistic transistor (voltage gain higher than 1), a new component useful for cryo-electronics thanks to its operating temperature and weak power consumption (about 1 nW). Moreover, the very low capacity of this component leads to promising performances for multiplexing low temperature bolometer dedicated to millimetric astronomy. The second study focused on HEMT with very high quality 2DEG. At 4.2 K, a voltage gain higher than 20 can be obtained with a very low power dissipation of less than 100 μW. Under the above experimental conditions, an equivalent input voltage noise of 1.2 nV/√(Hz) at 1 kHz and 0.12 nV/√(Hz) at 100 kHz has been reached. According to the Hooge formula, these noise performances are get by increasing gate capacity estimated to 60 pF. (author)

  4. AzTEC on ASTE Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, K.; Tamura, Y.; Hatsukade, B.; Nakanishi, K.; Iono, D.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Perera, T.; Austermann, J. E.; Scott, K. S.; Hughes, H.; Aretxaga, I.; Tanaka, K.; Oshima, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Matsuo, H.; Ezawa, H.; Kawabe, R.

    2008-10-01

    We have conducted an unprecedented survey of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) using the 144 pixel bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on the ASTE 10-m dish in Chile. We have already obtained many (>20) wide (typically 12' × 12' or wider) and deep (1 σ sensitivity of 0.5-1.0 mJy) 1.1 mm continuum images of known blank fields and over-density regions/protoclusters across a wide range of redshifts with a spatial resolution of ˜ 30''. It has resulted in the numerous (˜ a few 100, almost equivalent to the total number of the previously known SMGs) new and secure detections of SMGs. In this paper, we present initial results of two selected fields, SSA 22 and AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S). A significnat clustering of bright SMGs toward the density peak of LAEs is found in SSA 22. We derived the differential and cumulative number counts from the detected sources in ADF-S, which probe the faintest flux densities (down to ˜1 mJy) among 1-mm blank field surveys to date.

  5. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Selecting IRAC counterparts to SMGs (Alberts+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, S.; Wilson, G. W.; Lu, Y.; Johnson, S.; Yun, M. S.; Scott, K. S.; Pope, A.; Aretxaga, I.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Kawabe, R.; Kim, S.; Kohno, K.; Oshima, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present a new submm/mm galaxy counterpart identification technique which builds on the use of Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) colours as discriminators between likely counterparts and the general IRAC galaxy population. Using 102 radio- and Submillimeter Array-confirmed counterparts to AzTEC sources across three fields [Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North, -South and Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS)], we develop a non-parametric IRAC colour-colour characteristic density distribution, which, when combined with positional uncertainty information via likelihood ratios, allows us to rank all potential IRAC counterparts around submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) and calculate the significance of each ranking via the reliability factor. We report all robust and tentative radio counterparts to SMGs, the first such list available for AzTEC/COSMOS, as well as the highest ranked IRAC counterparts for all AzTEC SMGs in these fields as determined by our technique. We demonstrate that the technique is free of radio bias and thus applicable regardless of radio detections. For observations made with a moderate beam size (~18"), this technique identifies ~85% of SMG counterparts. For much larger beam sizes (>~30"), we report identification rates of 33-49%. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this technique is an improvement over using positional information alone for observations with facilities such as AzTEC on the Large Millimeter Telescope and Submillimeter Common User Bolometer Array 2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. (3 data files).

  7. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Meyer, Stephan M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Seiffert, Michael D.; Spergel, David N.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from frequencies 30 GHz to 6 THz (I cm to 50 I-tm wavelength). PIXIE uses a polarizing Michelson interferometer with 2.7 K optics to measure the difference spectrum between two orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view either the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. The multimoded optics and high etendu provide sensitivity comparable to kilo-pixel focal plane arrays, but with greatly expanded frequency coverage while using only 4 detectors total. PIXIE builds on the highly successful COBEIFIRAS design by adding large-area polarization-sensitive detectors whose fully symmetric optics are maintained in thermal equilibrium with the CMB. The highly symmetric nulled design provides redundant rejection of major sources of systematic uncertainty. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much less than 10(exp -3). PIXIE will also return a rich data set constraining physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology, reionization, and large-scale structure to the local interstellar medium. Keywords: cosmic microwave background, polarization, FTS, bolometer

  8. An energy confinement study of the MST [Madison Symmetric Torus] reversed field pinch using a Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.

    1989-11-01

    Thomson scattering measurements of the central electron temperature and density during the plasma current peak have been performed on the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). This Thomson scattering diagnostic was calibrated for absolute electron density measurements. These measurements of T e and n e , when combined with profile assumptions, were used to calculate estimates of energy confinement time (τ E ) and poloidal beta (β θ ). A standard discharge with I p ∼ 400 kA, F ∼ -0.1, and θ ∼ 1.6 typically exhibited T e ∼ 275 eV, n e ∼ 2.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , τ E ≤ 1 ms, and β θ ≤ 8%. The results of a limited plasma current scaling study did not indicate a strong scaling of T e or τ E with I p . The Thomson scattering diagnostic was used in conjunction with a bolometer, VUV radiation monitor, and edge magnetic coils to study the loss of energy from the plasma. Results indicate that thermal transport from stochastic magnetic fields, particle loss, and radiation are important energy loss processes. The experiments done for this study included an F-scan, a paddle limiter insertion series, and an argon doping series. The plasma maintained a constant βτ during these perturbation experiments, suggesting that increases in one energy loss channel are compensated by drops in other channels and increases in input power to the plasma

  9. Heat capacity measurements of atoms and molecules adsorbed on evaporated metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, T.W.

    1989-05-01

    Investigations of the properties of absorbed monolayers have received great experimental and theoretical attention recently, both because of the importance of surface processes in practical applications such as catalysis, and the importance of such systems to the understanding of the fundamentals of thermodynamics in two dimensions. We have adapted the composite bolometer technology to the construction of microcalorimeters. For these calorimeters, the adsorption substrate is an evaporated film deposited on one surface of an optically polished sapphire wafer. This approach has allowed us to make the first measurements of the heat capacity of submonolayer films of 4 He adsorbed on metallic films. In contrast to measurements of 4 He adsorbed on all other insulating substrates, we have shown that 4 He on silver films occupies a two-dimensional gas phase over a broad range of coverages and temperatures. Our apparatus has been used to study the heat capacity of Indium flakes. CO multilayers, 4 He adsorbed on sapphire and on Ag films and H 2 adsorbed on Ag films. The results are compared with appropriate theories. 68 refs., 19 figs

  10. Spiral Antenna-Coupled Microbridge Structures for THz Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2017-12-01

    Bolometer sensor is a good candidate for THz imaging due to its compact system, low cost, and wideband operation. Based on infrared microbolometer structures, two kinds of antenna-coupled microbridge structures are proposed with different spiral antennas: spiral antenna on support layer and spiral antenna with extended legs. Aiming at applications in detection and imaging, simulations are carried out mainly for optimized absorption at 2.52 THz, which is the radiation frequency of far-infrared CO 2 lasers. The effects of rotation angle, line width, and spacing of the spiral antenna on THz wave absorption of microbridge structures are discussed. Spiral antenna, with extended legs, is a good solution for high absorption rate at low absorption frequency and can be used as electrode lead simultaneously for simplified manufacturing process. A spiral antenna-coupled microbridge structure with an absorption rate of more than 75% at 2.52 THz is achieved by optimizing the structure parameters. This research demonstrates the use of different spiral antennas for enhanced and tunable THz absorption of microbridge structures and provides an effective way to fabricate THz microbolometer detectors with great potential in the application of real-time THz imaging.

  11. Energy efficiency of the CTX magnetized coaxial plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Platts, D.A.; McKenna, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the CTX coaxial plasma source in creating spheromaks is determined experimentally to be in agreement with the theoretical prediction of lambda/sub sp//lambda/sub g/, where del x B = lambda/sub sp/ B in the spheromak, and lambda/sub g/ identical with μ 0 I/sub g//phi/sub g/ with I/sub g/ the source current and phi/sub g/ the magnetic flux through either source electrode. This is shown to be equivalent to magnetic helicity conservation. The spheromak impurity radiation was measured using an absolutely calibrated single chord bolometer system. The theoretical efficiency is within the experimental uncertainty of the ratio of spheromak radiated energy to source input energy in a group of ''dirty'' discharges. But the radiation measurement uncertainty is too large to determine whether a substantial part of the excess source energy not used in the production of spheromak magnetic energy is radiated from the spheromak volume

  12. Far-infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianbao; Billinghurst, Brant

    2017-06-01

    Far-infrared is a particularly useful technique for studies on lattice modes as they generally appear in the Far-infrared region. Far-infrared is also an important tool for gathering information on the electrical transport properties of metallic materials and the band gap of semiconductors. This poster will describe the horizontal microscope that has recently been built in the Far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source Inc. (CLS). This microscope is specially designed for high-pressure Far-infrared absorbance and reflectance spectroscopic studies. The numerical aperture (0.5) and the long working distance (82.1 mm) in the microscope are good fits for Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). The spectra are recorded using liquid helium cooled Si bolometer or Ge:Cu detector. The pressure in the DAC can be determined by using the fluorescence spectrometer available onsite. The Far-infrared beamline at CLS is a state-of-the-art synchrotron facility, offering significantly more brightness than conventional sources. Because of the high brightness of the synchrotron radiation, we can obtain the Far-infrared reflectance/absorbance spectra on the small samples with more throughput than with a conventional source. The Far-infrared beamline is open to users through peer review.

  13. Evaluation of 1024 channel VUV-photo-diodes for soft x-ray diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the operation of 1024 channel diode arrays (Model AXUV-1024, from IRD, Inc.) in subdued room light to establish that they worked and to determine the direction and speed of the scan of the 1024 channels. Further tests were performed in vacuum in the HAP, High-Average-Power Facility. There we found that the bare or glass covered diodes detected primarily visible light as expected, but diodes filtered by aluminized parylene, produced a signal consistent with soft x-rays. It is probable that the spectral response and sensitivity, as discussed below, reproduce that previously demonstrated by 1 to 16 channel VUV-photodiodes; however, significantly more effort would be required to establish that experimentally. These detectors appear to be worth further evaluation where 25 w spatial resolution bolometers or spectrograph detectors of known sensitivity are required, and single-shot or 0.02-0.2s time response is adequate. (Presumably, faster readout would be available with custom drive circuitry.)

  14. Quantitative thermal imaging using single-pixel Si APD and MEMS mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Matthew J; Grainger, Matthew P; Zhu, Chengxi; Tan, Chee Hing; Willmott, Jonathan R

    2018-02-05

    Accurate quantitative temperature measurements are difficult to achieve using focal-plane array sensors. This is due to reflections inside the instrument and the difficulty of calibrating a matrix of pixels as identical radiation thermometers. Size-of-source effect (SSE), which is the dependence of an infrared temperature measurement on the area surrounding the target area, is a major contributor to this problem and cannot be reduced using glare stops. Measurements are affected by power received from outside the field-of-view (FOV), leading to increased measurement uncertainty. In this work, we present a micromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror based scanning thermal imaging camera with reduced measurement uncertainty compared to focal-plane array based systems. We demonstrate our flexible imaging approach using a Si avalanche photodiode (APD), which utilises high internal gain to enable the measurement of lower target temperatures with an effective wavelength of 1 µm and compare results with a Si photodiode. We compare measurements from our APD thermal imaging instrument against a commercial bolometer based focal-plane array camera. Our scanning approach results in a reduction in SSE related temperature error by 66 °C for the measurement of a spatially uniform 800 °C target when the target aperture diameter is increased from 10 to 20 mm. We also find that our APD instrument is capable of measuring target temperatures below 700 °C, over these near infrared wavelengths, with D* related measurement uncertainty of ± 0.5 °C.

  15. ITER and its diagnostics- the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ITER will be a large, technically advanced fusion device that can produce 500 MW of power. It is currently under construction in France. It is building on the success of many smaller devices that have already been built and tested around the world. Designed to carry 15MA and with a major radius of 6 m and plasma diameter of approximately 4m, it will push many boundaries both technical and logistical. It will also be the first nuclear installation based on magnetic fusion. Managing the performance of this device will bring many new challenges with a particular need to have precise monitoring and control. The monitoring will be performed by a suite of diagnostics or measurement systems; there are close to 50 of these systems in total. These diagnostics are crucial for successful operation and will have to handle both routine and advanced operation and also physics exploitation. These diagnostics must perform reliably and robustly in a wide range of operating scenarios. The requirements for the diagnostics have been developed and the flow-down of these requirements dictate the exact systems that are needed. These include systems that work in the fields of magnetics, neutrons, bolometer, optical, microwave and operational systems. The latter including pressure gauges, infrared systems and a range of observation systems for tritium and dust. This talk will focus on the approaches and the challenges of the development and implementation of all the systems

  16. Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Eom, B.-H.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Holmes, W.A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report progress in fabricating ultra-sensitive superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) for BLISS. BLISS is a suite of grating spectrometers covering 35-433 micron with R approx. 700 cooled to 50 mK that is proposed to fly on the Japanese space telescope SPICA. The detector arrays for BLISS are TES bolometers readout with a time domain SQUID multiplexer. The required noise equivalent power (NEP) for BLISS is NEP = 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) with an ultimate goal of NEP= 5 x 10(exp -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) to achieve background limited noise performance. The required and goal response times are tau = 150 ms and tau = 50ms respectively to achieve the NEP at the required and goal optical chop frequency 1-5 Hz. We measured prototype BLISS arrays and have achieved NEP = 6 x 10(exp -18) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau = 1.4 ms with a Ti TES (T(sub C) = 565 mK) and NEP approx. 2.5 x 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau approximates 4.5 ms with an Ir TES (T(sub C) = 130 mK). Dark power for these tests is estimated at 1-5 fW.

  17. Radiated Power and Impurity Concentrations in the EXTRAP-T2R Reversed-Field Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Y.; Rachlew, E.; Cecconello, M.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist, A.; Pégourié, B.; Schunke, B.; Stancalie, V.

    2005-01-01

    A numerical and experimental study of the impurity concentration and radiation in the EXTRAP-T2R device is reported. The experimental setup consists of an 8-chord bolometer system providing the plasma radiated power and a vacuum-ultraviolet spectrometer providing information on the plasma impurity content. The plasma emissivity profile as measured by the bolometric system is peaked in the plasma centre. A one dimensional Onion Skin Collisional-Radiative model (OSCR) has been developed to compute the density and radiation distributions of the main impurities. The observed centrally peaked emissivity profile can be reproduced by OSCR simulations only if finite particle confinement time and charge-exchange processes between plasma impurities and neutral hydrogen are taken into account. The neutral hydrogen density profile is computed with a recycling code. Simulations show that recycling on metal first wall such as in EXTRAP-T2R (stainless steel vacuum vessel and molybdenum limiters) is compatible with a rather high neutral hydrogen density in the plasma centre. Assuming an impurity concentration of 10% for oxygen and 3% for carbon compared with the electron density, the OSCR calculation including lines and continuum emission reproduces about 60% of the total radiated power with a similarly centrally peaked emissivity profile. The centrally peaked emissivity profile is due to low ionisation stages and strongly radiating species in the plasma core, mainly O4+ (Be-like) and C3+ Li-like.

  18. Front-end electronics and trigger systems - status and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Spieler, Helmuth G

    2007-01-01

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not provide the required electronic noise at lower power, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described

  19. Probing neutrino masses with CMB lensing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Perotto, Laurence; Pastor, Sergio; Piat, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the ability of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to measure the power spectrum of large scale structure using quadratic estimators of the weak lensing deflection field. We calculate the sensitivity of upcoming CMB experiments such as BICEP, QUaD, BRAIN, ClOVER and Planck to the nonzero total neutrino mass M ν indicated by current neutrino oscillation data. We find that these experiments greatly benefit from lensing extraction techniques, improving their one-sigma sensitivity to M ν by a factor of order four. The combination of data from Planck and the SAMPAN mini-satellite project would lead to σ(M ν )∼0.1 eV, while a value as small as σ(M ν )∼0.035 eV is within the reach of a space mission based on bolometers with a passively cooled 3-4 m aperture telescope, representative of the most ambitious projects currently under investigation. We show that our results are robust not only considering possible difficulties in subtracting astrophysical foregrounds from the primary CMB signal but also when the minimal cosmological model (Λ Mixed Dark Matter) is generalized in order to include a possible scalar tilt running, a constant equation-of-state parameter for the dark energy and/or extra relativistic degrees of freedom

  20. Heterostructure infrared photovoltaic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Antoni

    2000-08-01

    HgCdTe remains the most important material for infrared (IR) photodetectors despite numerous attempts to replace it with alternative materials such as closely related mercury alloys (HgZnTe, HgMnTe), Schottky barriers on silicon, SiGe heterojunctions, GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells, InAs/GaInSb strained layer superlattices, high temperature superconductors and especially two types of thermal detectors: pyroelectric detectors and silicon bolometers. It is interesting, however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. In addition, HgCdTe exhibits nearly constant lattice parameter which is of extreme importance for new devices based on complex heterostructures. The development of sophisticated controllable vapour phase epitaxial growth methods, such as MBE and MOCVD, has allowed fabrication of almost ideally designed heterojunction photodiodes. In this paper, examples of novel devices based on heterostructures operating in the long wavelength, middle wavelength and short wavelength spectral ranges are presented. Recently, more interest has been focused on p-n junction heterostructures. As infrared technology continues to advance, there is a growing demand for multispectral detectors for advanced IR systems with better target discrimination and identification. HgCdTe heterojunction detectors offer wavelength flexibility from medium wavelength to very long wavelength and multicolour capability in these regions. Recent progress in two-colour HgCdTe detectors is also reviewed.

  1. Hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array for millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukierman, Ari; Lee, Adrian T.; Raum, Christopher; Suzuki, Aritoki; Westbrook, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and measured performance of a hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array coupled to superconducting transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for millimeter wavelengths. The architecture allows for dual-polarization wideband sensitivity with a beam width that is approximately frequency-independent. We report on measurements of a prototype device, which uses three levels of triangular phased arrays to synthesize beams that are approximately constant in width across three frequency bands covering a 3:1 bandwidth. The array element is a lens-coupled sinuous antenna. The device consists of an array of hemispherical lenses coupled to a lithographed wafer, which integrates TESs, planar sinuous antennas, and microwave circuitry including band-defining filters. The approximately frequency-independent beam widths improve coupling to telescope optics and keep the sensitivity of an experiment close to optimal across a broad frequency range. The design can be straightforwardly modified for use with non-TES lithographed cryogenic detectors such as kinetic inductance detectors. Additionally, we report on the design and measurements of a broadband 180° hybrid that can simplify the design of future multichroic focal planes including but not limited to hierarchical phased arrays.

  2. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Beam Measurements and the Microwave Brightness Temperatures of Uranus and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselfield, Matthew; Moodley, Kavilan; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gallardo, Patricio; Gralla, Megan B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T(149/U) = 106.7 +/- 2.2 K and T(219/U) = 100.1 +/- 3.1 K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T(149/S) = 137.3 +/- 3.2 K and T(219/S) = 137.3 +/- 4.7 K.

  3. Modification of a scanning electron microscope to produce Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, Oscar H.; Sun, Yin-e; Kim, Kwang-Je; Crewe, Albert V.

    2004-01-01

    We have modified a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in an attempt to produce a miniature free electron laser that can produce radiation in the far infrared region, which is difficult to obtain otherwise. This device is similar to the instrument studied by the Dartmouth group and functions on the basic principles first described by Smith and Purcell. The electron beam of the SEM is passed over a metal grating and should be capable of producing photons either in the spontaneous emission regime or in the superradiance regime if the electron beam is sufficiently bright. The instrument is capable of being continuously tuned by virtue of the period of the metal grating and the choice of accelerating voltage. The emitted Smith-Purcell photons exit the instrument via a polyethylene window and are detected by an infrared bolometer. Although we have obtained power levels exceeding nanowatts in the spontaneous emission regime, we have thus far not been able to detect a clear example of superradiance

  4. Electronic, thermoelectric and optical properties of vanadium oxides: VO2, V2O3 and V2O 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Chiranjivi

    . For understanding the influence of phase transition on transport properties, we have also studied transport parameters of VO2 for both metallic and insulating phases. The Seebeck coefficient, at experimental critical temperature of 340K, is found to change by 18.9 muV/K during IMT, which lies within 10% of the observed discontinuity of 17.3 muV/K. Numerical methods have been used to analyze the optical properties of bulk and thin films of VO2, V2O3, and V 2O5, deposited on Al2O3 substrates, from infrared to vacuum ultraviolet range (up to 12 eV). The energies corresponding to the peaks in the reflectivity-energy (R-E) spectra are explained in terms of the Penn gap and the degree of anisotropy is found to be in the order of V2O3 < VO2 < V2O5. The effective number of electrons participating in the optical transitions is described using the "sum rule". The optical absorption is found to occur followed by the transitions of d electrons as well as the transitions from O2p to V3d states. In the Honeywell microbolometer structure, the bolometer sensing element has been chosen to be VOx, with x equal to 1.8, along with other layers of Si3N4, air, Al and Si. The room temperature spectral emissivity of such a layered structure is analyzed using Multi-Rad, a simulation package that utilizes thin film optics in the form of matrix method of multilayers. Calculations show that the Si3N4 layer provides the much desired linear performance of the VOx based bolometer.

  5. Characterization of axially directed x rays generated from a target within a high-power z-pinch (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Bailey, J. E.; Chandler, G. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Fehl, D. L.; Hebron, D. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Mock, R. C.; Olson, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray powers on the order of 10 TW over an area of 4.5 mm2 are produced in the axial direction from the compression of a low-density foam target centered within a z-pinch on the Z generator.1 The x rays from this source are used for high-energy--density physics experiments, including the heating of hohlraums for inertial confinements fusion studies.2 In this article, detailed characteristics of this radiation source measured using an upgraded axial-radiation-diagnostic suite3 together with other on- and off-axis diagnostics are summarized and discussed in terms of Eulerian and Lagrangian radiation--magnetohydrodynamic code simulations. The source, characterized here, employs a nested array of 10-mm-long tungsten wires, at radii of 20 and 10 mm, having a total masses of 2 and 1 mg, and wire numbers of 240 and 120, respectively. The target is a 14mg/ccCH 2 foam cylinder of 5 mm diameter. The codes take into account the development of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in the r--z plane, and provide integrated calculations of the implosion together with the x-ray generation. The radiation exiting the imploding target through the 4.5 mm2 aperture is measured primarily by the axial diagnostic suite that now includes diagnostics at an angle of ∼30 o to the z axis. The near on-axis diagnostics include: (1) a seven-element filtered silicon-diode array,4 (2) a five-element filtered x-ray diffraction (XRD) array,5 (3) a six-element filtered PCD array,6 (4) a three-element bolometer,7 (5) time-resolved and time-integrating crystal spectrometers, and (6) two fast-framing x-ray pinhole cameras having 11 frames each. The filtered silicon diodes, XRDs, and PCDs are sensitive to 1--200, 140--2300, and 1000--4000 eV x rays, respectively. They (1) establish the magnitude of the prepluse generated during the run in of the imploding wire arrays, (2) measure the Planckian nature of the dominant thermal, and (3) nonthermal component of the emission. The bolometers and XRDs mounted on

  6. Hierarchical Phased Array Antenna Focal Plane for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Sub-mm Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian

    We propose to develop planar-antenna-coupled superconducting bolometer arrays for observations at sub-millimeter to millimeter wavelengths. Our pixel architecture features a dual-polarization, log-periodic antenna with a 5:1 bandwidth ratio, followed by a filter bank that divides the total bandwidth into several broad photometric bands. We propose to develop an hierarchical phased array of our basic pixel type that gives optimal mapping speed (sensitivity) over a much broader range of frequencies. The advantage of this combination of an intrinsically broadband pixel with hierarchical phase arraying include a combination of greatly reduced focal-plane mass, higher array sensitivity, and a larger number of spectral bands compared to focal-plane designs using conventional single-color pixels. These advantages have the potential to greatly reduce cost and/or increase performance of NASA missions in the sub-millimeter to millimeter bands. For CMB polarization, a wide frequency range of about 30 to 400 GHz is required to subtract galactic foregrounds. As an example, the multichroic architecture we propose could reduce the focal plane mass of the EPIC-IM CMB polarization mission study concept by a factor of 4, with great savings in required cryocooler performance and therefore cost. We have demonstrated the lens-coupled antenna concept in the POLARBEAR groundbased CMB polarization experiment which is now operating in Chile. That experiment uses a single-band planar antenna that gives excellent beam properties and optical efficiency. POLARBEAR recently succeeded in detecting gravitational lensing B-modes in the CMB polarization. In the laboratory, we have measured two octaves of total bandwidth in the log-periodic sinuous antenna. We have built filter banks of 2, 3, and 7 bands with 4, 6, and 14 bolometers per pixel for two linear polarizations. Pixels of this type are slated to be deployed on the ground in POLARBEAR and SPT-3G and proposed to be used on a balloon by EBEX

  7. A Microbolometer System for Radiation Detection in the THz Frequency Range with a Resonating Cavity Fabricated in the CMOS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesek, Aleksander; Zemva, Andrej; Trontelj, Janez

    2018-02-14

    The THz sensors using microbolometers as a sensing element are reported as one of the most sensitive room-temperature THz detectors suitable for THz imaging and spectroscopic applications. Microbolometer detectors are usually fabricated using different types of the MEMS technology. The patent for the detection system presented in this paper describes a method for microbolometer fabrication using a standard CMOS technology with advanced micromachining techniques. The measured sensitivity of the sensors fabricated by the patented method is 1000 V/W at an optimal frequency and is determined by the performance of a double-dipole antenna and quarter-wavelength resonant cavity. The paper presents a patented method for fabrication of a microbolometer system for radiation detection in the THz frequency range (16). The method is divided into several stages regarding the current silicon micromachining process. Main stages are fabrication of supporting structures for micro bridge, creation of micro cavities and fabrication of Aluminum antenna and Titanium microbolometer. Additional method for encapsulation in the vacuum is described which additionally improves the performance of bolometer. The CMOS technology is utilized for fabrication as it is cost effective and provides the possibility of larger sensor systems integration with included amplification. At other wavelengths (e.g. IR region) thermistors are usually also the receivers with the sensor resistance change provoked by self-heating. In the THz region the energy is received by an antenna coupled to a thermistor. Depending on the specific application requirement, two types of the antenna were designed and used; a narrow-band dipole antenna and a wideband log-periodic antenna. With method described in the paper, the microbolometer detector reaches sensitivities up to 500 V/W and noise equivalent power (NEP) down to 10 pW/√Hz. Additional encapsulation in the vacuum improves its performance at least by a factor of 2

  8. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  9. Cryogenic system for the ArTeMiS large sub millimeter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, E.; Relland, J.; Clerc, L.; Duband, L.; Jourdan, T.; Talvard, M.; Le Pennec, J.; Martignac, J.; Visticot, F.

    2014-07-01

    A new photonic camera has been developed in the framework of the ArTéMis project (Bolometers architecture for large field of view ground based telescopes in the sub-millimeter). This camera scans the sky in the sub-millimeter range at simultaneously three different wavelengths, namely 200 μm, 350 μm, 450 μm, and is installed inside the APEX telescope located at 5100m above sea level in Chile. Bolometric detectors cooled to 300 mK are used in the camera, which is integrated in an original cryostat developed at the low temperature laboratory (SBT) of the INAC institut. This cryostat contains filters, optics, mirrors and detectors which have to be implemented according to mass, size and stiffness requirements. As a result the cryostat exhibits an unusual geometry. The inner structure of the cryostat is a 40 K plate which acts as an optical bench and is bound to the external vessel through two hexapods, one fixed and the other one mobile thanks to a ball bearing. Once the cryostat is cold, this characteristic enabled all the different elements to be aligned with the optical axis. The cryogenic chain is built around a pulse tube cooler (40 K and 4 K) coupled to a double stage helium sorption cooler (300 mK). The cryogenic and vacuum processes are managed by a Siemens PLC and all the data are showed and stored on a CEA SCADA system. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal design of the cryostat, its command control, and the first thermal laboratory tests. This work was carried out in collaboration with the Astrophysics laboratory SAp of the IRFU institut. SAp and SBT have installed the camera in July 2013 inside the Cassegrain cabin of APEX.

  10. An Extreme Protocluster of Luminous Dusty Starbursts in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Maddox, S.; Lewis, A. J. R.; de Zotti, G.; Bremer, M.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Eales, S.; Greenslade, J.; Omont, A.; Perez–Fournón, I.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; van der Werf, P.; Weiss, A.; Zhang, Z.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    We report the identification of an extreme protocluster of galaxies in the early universe whose core (nicknamed Distant Red Core, DRC, because of its very red color in Herschel SPIRE bands) is formed by at least 10 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), spectroscopically confirmed to lie at {z}spec}=4.002 via detection of [C I](1–0), 12CO(6–5), 12CO(4–3), 12CO(2–1), and {{{H}}}2{{O}}({2}11{--}{2}02) emission lines with ALMA and ATCA. These DSFGs are distributed over a 260 {kpc}× 310 {kpc} region and have a collective obscured star formation rate (SFR) of ∼ 6500 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, considerably higher than those seen before in any protocluster at z≳ 4. Most of the star formation is taking place in luminous DSFGs since no Lyα emitters are detected in the protocluster core, apart from a Lyα blob located next to one of the DRC components, extending over 60 {kpc}. The total obscured SFR of the protocluster could rise to {SFR}∼ {{14,400}} {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 if all the members of an overdensity of bright DSFGs discovered around DRC in a wide-field Large APEX BOlometer CAmera 870 μm image are part of the same structure. [C I](1–0) emission reveals that DRC has a total molecular gas mass of at least {M}{{{H}}2}∼ 6.6× {10}11 {M}ȯ , and its total halo mass could be as high as ∼ 4.4× {10}13 {M}ȯ , indicating that it is the likely progenitor of a cluster at least as massive as Coma at z = 0.

  11. Distributed Framework for Dynamic Telescope and Instrument Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy J.; Case, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been developed specifically for a single instrument. Such solutions are frequently expensive and are inflexible to support the next instrument development effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC) that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. IRC combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms. The IRC framework provides the ability to communicate to components anywhere on a network using the JXTA protocol for dynamic discovery of distributed components. JXTA (see httD://www.jxta.org,) is a generalized protocol that allows any devices connected by a network to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner. IRC uses JXTA to advertise a device's IML and discover devices of interest on the network. Devices can join or leave the network and thus join or leave the instrument control environment of IRC. Currently, several astronomical instruments are working with the IRC development team to develop custom components for IRC to control their instruments. These instruments include: High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC), a first light instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA); Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), a Principal Investigator instrument for SOFIA; and Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE), a prototype of the SAFIRE instrument, used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Most recently, we have

  12. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Topics covered include: Calibration Test Set for a Phase-Comparison Digital Tracker; Wireless Acoustic Measurement System; Spiral Orbit Tribometer; Arrays of Miniature Microphones for Aeroacoustic Testing; Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time; Computational Workbench for Multibody Dynamics; High-Power, High-Efficiency Ka-Band Space Traveling-Wave Tube; Gratings and Random Reflectors for Near-Infrared PIN Diodes; Optically Transparent Split-Ring Antennas for 1 to 10 GHz; Ice-Penetrating Robot for Scientific Exploration; Power-Amplifier Module for 145 to 165 GHz; Aerial Videography From Locally Launched Rockets; SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks; Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel; TMS for Instantiating a Knowledge Base With Incomplete Data; Simulating Flights of Future Launch Vehicles and Spacecraft; Control Code for Bearingless Switched- Reluctance Motor; Machine Aided Indexing and the NASA Thesaurus; Arbitrating Control of Control and Display Units; Web-Based Software for Managing Research; Driver Code for Adaptive Optics; Ceramic Paste for Patching High-Temperature Insulation; Fabrication of Polyimide-Matrix/Carbon and Boron-Fiber Tape; Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths; Code Assesses Risks Posed by Meteoroids and Orbital Debris; Asymmetric Bulkheads for Cylindrical Pressure Vessels; Self-Regulating Water-Separator System for Fuel Cells; Self-Advancing Step-Tap Drills; Array of Bolometers for Submillimeter- Wavelength Operation; Delta-Doped CCDs as Detector Arrays in Mass Spectrometers; Arrays of Bundles of Carbon Nanotubes as Field Emitters; Staggering Inflation To Stabilize Attitude of a Solar Sail; and Bare Conductive Tether for Decelerating a Spacecraft.

  13. Experimental studies of confinement in the EXTRAP T2 and T2R reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconello, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The confinement properties of fusion plasmas are affected by magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations. The determination of the plasma confinement properties requires the measurement of several global and local quantities such as the ion and electron temperatures, the electron and neutral density profiles, the radiation emissivity profiles, the ohmic input power and the particle and heat diffusivities. The focus of this thesis is the study of the plasma confinement properties based on measurements of these quantities under different experimental conditions. The studies have been carried out on the reversed field pinch experiments EXTRAP T2 and T2R at the Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Studies carried out in EXTRAP T2 were focused on dynamo activity and on the effect of phase alignment and locking to the wall of magnetic instabilities. These were observed with a dedicated imaging system. The experimental studies in EXTRAP T2R were focused on the measurement of the confinement properties of different configurations. To this aim, a set of diagnostics were used some of which were upgraded, such as the interferometer, while others were newly installed, such as a neutral particle energy analyser and a bolometer array. The dynamo, which is responsible for the plasma sustainment, involves resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that enhance stochastic transport. Furthermore, the plasma confinement properties are in general improved in the presence of mode rotation. The possibility of reducing the stochastic transport and thereby further improving the confinement has been demonstrated in a current profile control experiment. These results indicate that long pulse operations with a resistive shell and current profile control are indeed feasible

  14. Passive athermalization of doublets in 8-13 micron waveband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Passive athermalization of lenses has become a key-technology for automotive and other outdoor applications using modern uncooled 25, 17 and 12 micron pixel pitch bolometer arrays. Typical pixel counts for thermal imaging are 384x288 (qVGA), 640x480 (VGA), and 1024x768 (XGA). Two lens arrangements (called Doublets) represent a cost effective way to satisfy resolution requirements of these detectors with F-numbers 1.4 or faster. Thermal drift of index of refraction and the geometrical changes (in lenses and housing) versus temperature defocus the initial image plane from the detector plane. The passive athermalization restricts this drop of spatial resolution in a wide temperature range (typically -40°C…+80°C) to an acceptable value without any additional external refocus. In particular, lenses with long focal lengths and high apertures claim athermalization. A careful choice of lens and housing materials and a sophistical dimensioning lead to three different principles of passivation: The Passive Mechanical Athermalization (PMA) shifts the complete lens cell, the Passive Optical and Mechanical Athermalization (POMA) shifts only one lens inside the housing, the Passive Optical Athermalization (POA) works without any mechanism. All three principles will be demonstrated for a typical narrow-field lens (HFOV about 12°) with high aperture (aperture based F-number 1.3) for the actual uncooled reference detector (17micron VGA). Six design examples using different combinations of lens materials show the impact on spatial lens resolution, on overall length, and on weight. First order relations are discussed. They give some hints for optimization solutions. Pros and cons of different passive athermalization principles are evaluated in regards of housing design, availability of materials and costing. Examples with a convergent GASIR®1-lens in front distinguish by best resolution, short overall length, and lowest weight.

  15. Design and Fabrication of the Second-Generation KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni, I.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the cryogenic wide-area light detectors with excellent resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double readout of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work we present the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. In the first part of the project, we designed and fabricated KID detectors using aluminum. Detectors are designed by means of state-of-the-art software for electromagnetic analysis (SONNET). The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (> 10 kΩ cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a HV chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography (EBL), positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally, the chip is diced into 20 × 20 mm2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC (oxygen-free high conductivity) copper using PTFE support. To increase the energy resolution of our detectors, we are changing the superconductor to sub-stoichiometric TiN (TiN x ) deposited by means of DC magnetron sputtering. We are optimizing its deposition by means of DC magnetron reactive sputtering. For this kind of material, the fabrication process is subtractive and consists of EBL patterning through negative tone resist AR-N 7700 and deep reactive ion etching. Critical temperature of TiN x samples was measured in a dedicated cryostat.

  16. The Large Millimeter Telescope- Gran Telescopio Milimetrico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.

    2004-11-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope/Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (LMT) project is a collaboration between the University of Massachusetts and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Óptica y Electrónica to build a 50 m diameter telescope that will have good efficiency at wavelengths as short as 1 mm. The LMT will have an overall effective surface accuracy of 70 micrometers and an ultimate pointing accuracy of better than 1 arcsec, and will thus be the largest millimeter-wavelength telescope in the world. The LMT site is Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, at 4,640 meters above sea level in Central Mexico. At 18° 59' N latitude, it offers good sky coverage of both hemispheres. The normally low humidity will allow operation of the radio telescope at frequencies as high as 345 GHz. The LMT will make use of recent advances in structural design and active control of surface elements to achieve the required surface and pointing accuracy. At the site the alidade has been erected and the back structure for the main reflector has been assembled, while the monitor and control system has been successfully tested on another telescope. The schedule calls for acceptance tests in 2006. The initial complement of instruments will include a 32 element, heterodyne focal plane array at 3mm; a large format, focal plane bolometer array; a unique wide band receiver and spectrometer to determine the redshifts of primordial galaxies, and a 4 element receiver for the 1mm band. With its excellent sensitivity and mapping speed, the LMT/GTM will be a powerful facility for planetary science. In particular, it will enable key observations of comets, planetary atmospheres, asteroids and KBOs.

  17. Instrument development of the CMB polarization POLARBEAR-2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritanasak, Praween; POLARBEAR Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    We present the status of the development of the Polarbear-2 (PB-2) and Simons Array experiments. PB-2 is a ground-based Cosmic Microwave Back- ground (CMB) polarization experiment located at the James Ax observatory in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile. The Simons Array will consist of three PB-2 receivers on three Huan Tran-style telescopes, each containing a multi-chroic detector array. The first new Simons Array receiver, Polarbear- 2A(PB-2A), will be deployed in 2017. The PB-2A focal plane consists of 1,897 lenslet-coupled, dual-polarization, sinuous-antenna-coupled pixels operating at 95 and 150 GHz, making a total of 7,588 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers. In the order to cover both frequencies, we developed broadband two layer anti-reflection (AR) coating for 5.345 mm diameter lenslets using two types of epoxy: Stycast2850FT and Stycast1090. We developed a mass production AR coating methodology that can control the uniformity and shape to within 25 μm error from the designed value. The second (PB-2B) and third (PB-2C) receivers will employ similar technologies and will cover 95, 150, 220 and 280 GHz. The Simons Array will survey 80% of the sky with broad frequency coverage and high resolution, making it a powerful tool to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio through measurements of primordial B-modes and the sum of the neutrino masses through measurements of B-modes produced by gravitational lensing.

  18. ICE: A Scalable, Low-Cost FPGA-Based Telescope Signal Processing and Networking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, K.; Bender, A. N.; Cliche, J. F.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Gilbert, A. J.; Griffin, S.; Hsyu, G.; Ittah, D.; Parra, J. Mena; Montgomery, J.; Pinsonneault-Marotte, T.; Siegel, S.; Smecher, G.; Tang, Q. Y.; Vanderlinde, K.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-03-01

    We present an overview of the ‘ICE’ hardware and software framework that implements large arrays of interconnected field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based data acquisition, signal processing and networking nodes economically. The system was conceived for application to radio, millimeter and sub-millimeter telescope readout systems that have requirements beyond typical off-the-shelf processing systems, such as careful control of interference signals produced by the digital electronics, and clocking of all elements in the system from a single precise observatory-derived oscillator. A new generation of telescopes operating at these frequency bands and designed with a vastly increased emphasis on digital signal processing to support their detector multiplexing technology or high-bandwidth correlators — data rates exceeding a terabyte per second — are becoming common. The ICE system is built around a custom FPGA motherboard that makes use of an Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA and ARM-based co-processor. The system is specialized for specific applications through software, firmware and custom mezzanine daughter boards that interface to the FPGA through the industry-standard FPGA mezzanine card (FMC) specifications. For high density applications, the motherboards are packaged in 16-slot crates with ICE backplanes that implement a low-cost passive full-mesh network between the motherboards in a crate, allow high bandwidth interconnection between crates and enable data offload to a computer cluster. A Python-based control software library automatically detects and operates the hardware in the array. Examples of specific telescope applications of the ICE framework are presented, namely the frequency-multiplexed bolometer readout systems used for the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Simons Array and the digitizer, F-engine, and networking engine for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment (HIRAX) radio

  19. Measuring the polarisation anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background with the QUBIC bolometric interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot-Sazy, Marie-Anne

    2013-01-01

    The quest of B-mode polarisation of the cosmic background is one of the scientific priorities of the observational cosmology today. Observing the B-mode would be the most direct way to constrain the period of inflation. The detection of such a weak signal is however a real experimental challenge. In addition to a high statistical sensitivity (huge number of horns and bolometers required), future experiments will need an excellent quality of foreground removal and an unprecedented control of systematics. An important experimental effort aiming at the detection of the B-mode is in progress. The QUBIC instrument is one of the many experiments dedicated to the search of B-mode, it is based on a novel technology: bolometric interferometry. In this thesis, we explain the design of this instrument and we describe the different components. We will focus on the optical beam combiner, we will present a method which allows to study the effects of optical aberrations and of misalignments of the components of the combiner on the global sensitivity of the instrument. We will develop a new specific procedure of calibration: the self-calibration, specific to bolometric interferometry, which is based on the redundancy of baselines. The self-calibration relies on comparing all the redundant baselines with each others and permits to calibrate parameters that characterize completely the instrument at the same time for each channel. Finally, we will present the latest results of the simulation for the map-making with the instrument QUBIC and the estimation of the power spectra from the resulting maps. (author)

  20. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STARLESS AND PROTOSTELLAR CORES IN GOULD BELT CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Di Francesco, James; Bontemps, Sylvain; Megeath, S. Thomas; Allgaier, Erin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carey, Sean; McCabe, Caer-Eve; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Padgett, Deborah; Gutermuth, Robert; Hora, Joe; Huard, Tracy; Muzerolle, James; Terebey, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue (850 μm) and Spitzer Space Telescope (3.6-70 μm), we explore dense cores in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, Serpens, and Orion molecular clouds. We develop a new method to discriminate submillimeter cores found by Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) as starless or protostellar, using point source photometry from Spitzer wide field surveys. First, we identify infrared sources with red colors associated with embedded young stellar objects (YSOs). Second, we compare the positions of these YSO candidates to our submillimeter cores. With these identifications, we construct new, self-consistent starless and protostellar core mass functions (CMFs) for the five clouds. We find best-fit slopes to the high-mass end of the CMFs of -1.26 ± 0.20, -1.22 ± 0.06, -0.95 ± 0.20, and -1.67 ± 0.72 for Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion, respectively. Broadly, these slopes are each consistent with the -1.35 power-law slope of the Salpeter initial mass function at higher masses, but suggest some differences. We examine a variety of trends between these CMF shapes and their parent cloud properties, potentially finding a correlation between the high-mass slope and core temperature. We also find a trend between core mass and effective size, but we are very limited by sensitivity. We make similar comparisons between core mass and size with visual extinction (for A V ≥ 3) and find no obvious trends. We also predict the numbers and mass distributions of cores that future surveys with SCUBA-2 may detect in each of these clouds.

  1. Unsupervised image segmentation for passive THz broadband images for concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Mabel D.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Grossman, Erich; Popović, Zoya

    2007-04-01

    This work presents the application of a basic unsupervised classification algorithm for the segmentation of indoor passive Terahertz images. The 30,000 pixel broadband images of a person with concealed weapons under clothing are taken at a range of 0.8-2m over a frequency range of 0.1-1.2THz using single-pixel row-based raster scanning. The spiral-antenna coupled 36x1x0.02μm Nb bridge cryogenic micro-bolometers are developed at NIST-Optoelectronics Division. The antenna is evaporated on a 250μm thick Si substrate with a 4mm diameter hyper-hemispherical Si lens. The NETD of the microbolometer is 125mK at an integration time of 30 ms. The background temperature calibration is performed with a known 25 pixel source above 330 K, and a measured background fluctuation of 200-500mK. Several weapons were concealed under different fabrics: cotton, polyester, windblocker jacket and thermal sweater. Measured temperature contrasts ranged from 0.5-1K for wrinkles in clothing to 5K for a zipper and 8K for the concealed weapon. In order to automate feature detection in the images, some image processing and pattern recognition techniques have been applied and the results are presented here. We show that even simple algorithms, that can potentially be performed in real time, are capable of differentiating between a metal and a dielectric object concealed under clothing. Additionally, we show that pre-processing can reveal low temperature contrast features, such as folds in clothing.

  2. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  3. Imaging the environment of a z = 6.3 submillimeter galaxy with SCUBA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, E. I.; Holland, W. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Geach, J. E.; Gibb, A. G.; Riechers, D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bintley, D.; Bock, J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a search for submillimeter emission in the vicinity of one of the most distant, luminous galaxies known, HerMES FLS3, at z = 6.34, exploiting it as a signpost to a potentially biased region of the early universe, as might be expected in hierarchical structure formation models. Imaging to the confusion limit with the innovative, wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera, SCUBA-2, we are sensitive to colder and/or less luminous galaxies in the surroundings of HFLS3. We use the Millennium Simulation to illustrate that HFLS3 may be expected to have companions if it is as massive as claimed, but find no significant evidence from the surface density of SCUBA-2 galaxies in its vicinity, or their colors, that HFLS3 marks an overdensity of dusty, star-forming galaxies. We cannot rule out the presence of dusty neighbors with confidence, but deeper 450 μm imaging has the potential to more tightly constrain the redshifts of nearby galaxies, at least one of which likely lies at z ≳ 5. If associations with HFLS3 can be ruled out, this could be taken as evidence that HFLS3 is less biased than a simple extrapolation of the Millennium Simulation may imply. This could suggest either that it represents a rare short-lived, but highly luminous, phase in the evolution of an otherwise typical galaxy, or that this system has suffered amplification due to a foreground gravitational lens and so is not as intrinsically luminous as claimed.

  4. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1m > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ∼10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (∼2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z ∼> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9 +0.9 –0.5 , and ∼4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of ∼> 1000 M ☉ yr –1 and IR luminosities of ∼10 13 L ☉ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ∼ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  5. A very wide band telescope for Planck using optical and radio frequency techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargant, Guy; Dubruel, Denis; Cornut, Myriam; Riti, Jean-Bernard; Passvogel, Thomas; de Maagt, Peter; Anderegg, Michel; Tauber, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Planck associated to FIRST is one of the ESA scientific missions belonging to the Horizon 2000 programme. It will be launched by an Ariane 5 in 2007. Planck aims at obtaining very accurate images of the Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations, thanks to a spaceborne telescope featuring a wide wavelength range and an excellent control of straylight and thermal variations. The telescope is based on an off-axis gregorian design consisting of two concave ellipsoidal mirrors with a 1.5-meter pupil, derived from radio frequency antenna, but with a very wide spectral domain which ranges from far infrared (350 μm) up to millimetric wavelengths (10 mm). Its field of view is large (10 degrees) owing to a high number of detectors in the focal plane. The short wavelength detectors (bolometers operating at 0.1 K) are located at the centre of the focal plane unit while the long wavelength ones (based on HEMT amplifier technology operating at 20 K) are located at the periphery. The Planck telescope operates at a temperature below 60 K. This level is achieved in a passive way, i.e. using a cryogenic radiator. Furthermore, this radiator must accommodate a set of coolers dedicated to the focal plane unit, cooling one of the experiments down to 0.1 K. The Planck mission leads to very stringent requirements (straylight, thermal stability) that can only be achieved by designing the spacecraft at system level, combining optical, radio frequency and thermal techniques in order to achieve the required performance.

  6. Straylight analysis for the planck telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubruel, Denis; Brossard, Julien; Astruc, Patrick; de Maagt, Peter; Passvogel, Thomas; Tauber, Jan

    2017-11-01

    PLANCK and FIRST will be launched from the European Space Port Kourou by an Ariane 5 in 2007 and spin-operated during 14 months at the L2 Lagrangian point. The aims of PLANCK are to obtain definitive images of the CMB fluctuations and to subtract the primordial signal to high accuracy from contaminating astrophysical source of emission. This can be achieved by a space telescope having a wide frequency coverage and excellent control of systematic errors (eg. stray light and thermal variations). The telescope is an off-axis aplanatic design consisting of two concave ellipsoidal mirrors with a 1.5-meter pupil, derived from radio frequency antenna, but with a very wide spectral domain ranging from far infrared (350 µm) up to millimeter wavelengths (10 mm). The short wavelength detectors (bolometers operating at 0.1 K) are located at the centre of the focal plane while the high wavelength ones (based on HEMT amplifier technology operating at 20 K) are located at the periphery. The Planck telescope operates at a temperature below 60 K. This level is achieved in a passive way, i.e. using a cryogenic radiator. Furthermore, this radiator must accommodate a set of coolers dedicated to the focal plane, cooling one of the experiments down to 0.1 K. The main performance of the Planck spacecraft is the result of the electromagnetic performance of its telescope combined with its capacity to reject parasitic signals characterised by the Straylight Induced Noise (SIN). In this case , three sources are studied and modelled, the internal straylight coming from the spacecraft itself, the galactic straylight coming from the sky, and the straylight induced by planets. This paper will describe the methods, tools and results obtained by Alcatel to assess this performance.

  7. SiGe Integrated Circuit Developments for SQUID/TES Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Beillimaz, C.; Chen, S.; Piat, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.

    2018-03-01

    SiGe integrated circuits dedicated to the readout of superconducting bolometer arrays for astrophysics have been developed since more than 10 years at APC. Whether for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations with the QUBIC ground-based experiment (Aumont et al. in astro-ph.IM, 2016. arXiv:1609.04372) or for the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme with the X-IFU instrument on-board of the ATHENA space mission (Barret et al. in SPIE 9905, space telescopes & instrumentation 2016: UV to γ Ray, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232432), several kinds of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) (Irwin and Hilton, in ENSS (ed) Cryogenic particle detection, Springer, Berlin, 2005) arrays have been investigated. To readout such superconducting detector arrays, we use time or frequency domain multiplexers (TDM, FDM) (Prêle in JINST 10:C08015, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/10/08/C08015) with Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID). In addition to the SQUID devices, low-noise biasing and amplification are needed. These last functions can be obtained by using BiCMOS SiGe technology in an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). ASIC technology allows integration of highly optimised circuits specifically designed for a unique application. Moreover, we could reach very low-noise and wide band amplification using SiGe bipolar transistor either at room or cryogenic temperatures (Cressler in J Phys IV 04(C6):C6-101, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:1994616). This paper discusses the use of SiGe integrated circuits for SQUID/TES readout and gives an update of the last developments dedicated to the QUBIC telescope and to the X-IFU instrument. Both ASIC called SQmux128 and AwaXe are described showing the interest of such SiGe technology for SQUID multiplexer controls.

  8. A novel, highly efficient cavity backshort design for far-infrared TES detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; de Lange, G.; Audley, M. D.; Trappe, N.; Murphy, J. A.; Gradziel, M.; Vreeling, W.-J.; Watson, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new cavity backshort design for TES (transition edge sensor) detectors which will provide increased coupling of the incoming astronomical signal to the detectors. The increased coupling results from the improved geometry of the cavities, where the geometry is a consequence of the proposed chemical etching manufacturing technique. Using a number of modelling techniques, predicted results of the performance of the cavities for frequencies of 4.3-10 THz are presented and compared to more standard cavity designs. Excellent optical efficiency is demonstrated, with improved response flatness across the band. In order to verify the simulated results, a scaled model cavity was built for testing at the lower W-band frequencies (75-100 GHz) with a VNA system. Further testing of the scale model at THz frequencies was carried out using a globar and bolometer via an FTS measurement set-up. The experimental results are presented, and compared to the simulations. Although there is relatively poor comparison between simulation and measurement at some frequencies, the discrepancies are explained by means of higher-mode excitation in the measured cavity which are not accounted for in the single-mode simulations. To verify this assumption, a better behaved cylindrical cavity is simulated and measured, where excellent agreement is demonstrated in those results. It can be concluded that both the simulations and the supporting measurements give confidence that this novel cavity design will indeed provide much-improved optical coupling for TES detectors in the far-infrared/THz band.

  9. Mid-IR observations of circumstellar disks. I. Pre-main sequence objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, O.; Meeus, G.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2005-02-01

    We present new N-band photometry and spectroscopy for a sample of eight pre-main sequence stars including T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be stars and FU Ori objects using the ESO TIMMI2 camera at the La Silla observatory (Chile). For some objects this is their first N-band spectroscopic observation ever. The FU Ori stars V 346 Nor, V 883 Ori and Z CMa show a broad absorption band which we attribute to silicates, while for BBW 76 we find silicate emission. A comparison with ISO-SWS spectra of V 346 Nor and Z CMa taken in 1996/1997 reveals no differences in spectral shape. All T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars possess N-band emission features. We model the emission spectra with a mixture of silicates consisting of different grain sizes and composition. The Herbig Ae star HD 34282 shows strong features of PAHs but none of silicate, while the emission spectrum of the Herbig Ae star HD 72106 resembles those of solar-system comets and known Herbig sources of evolved dust. We demonstrate that HD 72106 is host to highly processed silicates and find evidence for enstatite, which is not common in young objects. Evolved dust is also seen in the T Tauri stars HD 98800 and MP Mus. We further detected MP Mus at 1200 μm with the bolometer array SIMBA at the SEST in La Silla. The findings of our analysis are given in the context of previous dust studies of young stellar objects. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (69.C-0073, 70.C-0468, 71.C-0001, 73.C-0372).

  10. An Omnidirectional Polarization Detector Based on a Metamaterial Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binzhen; Zhang, Yong; Duan, Junping; Zhang, Wendong; Wang, Wanjun

    2016-07-23

    The theory, design, simulation, fabrication, and performance of an omnidirectional polarization detector (PD) with two resonances located in the X and Ka ranges based on a metamaterial absorber (MMA) are presented in this paper. The sandwich structure of PD is composed of 0.1 μm periodic "I" shaped patches on the metasurface, a dielectric of 200 μm FR-4 on the interlayer, and a 0.3 μm copper film on the substrate. PD absorptivity is first used to reflect and describe the polarization of the incident wave. The numerical results, derived from the standard full wave finite integration technology (FIT) of CST 2015, indicates that the designed PD shows polarization sensitivity at all incidence angles. The effects on absorptivity produced by the incidence angles, polarization angles, and materials are investigated. The amplitude of absorptivity change caused by polarization reaches 99.802%. A laser ablation process is adopted to prepare the designed PD on a FR-4 board coated with copper on the double plane with a thickness that was 1/93 and 1/48 of wavelength at a resonance frequency of 16.055 GHz and 30.9 GHz, respectively. The sample test results verify the designed PD excellent detectability on the polarization of the incident waves. The proposed PD, which greatly enriches the applications of metamaterials in bolometers, thermal images, stealth materials, microstructure measurements, and electromagnetic devices, is easy to mass produce and market because of its strong detectability, ultrathin thickness, effective cost, and convenient process.

  11. An Omnidirectional Polarization Detector Based on a Metamaterial Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binzhen Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory, design, simulation, fabrication, and performance of an omnidirectional polarization detector (PD with two resonances located in the X and Ka ranges based on a metamaterial absorber (MMA are presented in this paper. The sandwich structure of PD is composed of 0.1 μm periodic “I” shaped patches on the metasurface, a dielectric of 200 μm FR-4 on the interlayer, and a 0.3 μm copper film on the substrate. PD absorptivity is first used to reflect and describe the polarization of the incident wave. The numerical results, derived from the standard full wave finite integration technology (FIT of CST 2015, indicates that the designed PD shows polarization sensitivity at all incidence angles. The effects on absorptivity produced by the incidence angles, polarization angles, and materials are investigated. The amplitude of absorptivity change caused by polarization reaches 99.802%. A laser ablation process is adopted to prepare the designed PD on a FR-4 board coated with copper on the double plane with a thickness that was 1/93 and 1/48 of wavelength at a resonance frequency of 16.055 GHz and 30.9 GHz, respectively. The sample test results verify the designed PD excellent detectability on the polarization of the incident waves. The proposed PD, which greatly enriches the applications of metamaterials in bolometers, thermal images, stealth materials, microstructure measurements, and electromagnetic devices, is easy to mass produce and market because of its strong detectability, ultrathin thickness, effective cost, and convenient process.

  12. SHARC-II Mapping of Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwen; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J., II; Bourke, Tyler L.; Young, Chadwick H.

    2007-04-01

    We present the results of a submillimeter survey of 53 low-mass dense cores with the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC-II). The survey is a follow-up project to the Spitzer Legacy Program "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks," with the purpose of creating a complete data set of nearby low-mass dense cores from the infrared to the millimeter. We present maps of 52 cores at 350 μm and three cores at 450 μm, two of which were observed at both wavelengths. Of these 52 cores, 41 were detected by SHARC-II; 32 contained one submillimeter source, while 9 contained multiple sources. For each submillimeter source detected, we report various source properties including source position, fluxes in various apertures, size, aspect ratio, and position angle. For the 12 cores that were not detected we present upper limits. The sources detected by SHARC-II have, on average, smaller sizes at the 2 σ contours than those derived from longer wavelength bolometer observations. We conclude that this is not caused by a failure to integrate long enough to detect the full extent of the core; instead it arises primarily from the fact that the observations presented in this survey are insensitive to smoothly varying extended emission. We find that SHARC-II observations of low-mass cores are much better suited to distinguishing between starless and protostellar cores than observations at longer wavelengths. Very low luminosity objects, a new class of objects being discovered by the Spitzer Space Telescope in cores previously classified as starless, look very similar at 350 μm to other cores with more luminous protostars.

  13. The structure of protostellar dense cores: a millimeter continuum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Frederique

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical scenario explains low-mass star formation and describes the gravitational collapse of an isolated 'ideal' dense core. The major aim of this thesis is to check the standard model predictions on the structure of protostellar dense cores (or envelopes). The earliest stages of star formation remain poorly known because the protostars are still deeply embedded in massive, opaque circumstellar cocoons. On the one hand, sensitive bolometer arrays very recently allow us to measure the millimeter continuum emission arising from dense cores. Such observations are a powerful tool to constrain the density structure of proto-stellar dense cores (on large length scale). In particular, we studied the structure of isolated proto-stellar envelopes in Taurus and protostars in the ρ Ophiuchi cluster. In order to accurately derive their envelope density power law, we simulated the observation of several envelope models. Then we show that most of the Taurus protostars present a density structure consistent with the standard model predictions. In contrast, dense cores in ρ Ophiuchi main cloud are highly fragmented and protostellar envelope have finite size. Moreover fragmentation appears to be essential in determining the final stellar mass of ρ Oph forming stars. In clusters, fragmentation may thus be at the origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). On the other hand, our interferometric millimeter continuum observations are tracing (with higher angular resolution) the inner part of protostellar envelopes. Our study show that disks during protostellar stages are not yet massive and thus do not perturb the analysis of envelope density structure. (author) [fr

  14. SHARC-II 350 μm Observations of Thermal Emission from Warm Dust in z >= 5 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Wagg, Jeff; Carilli, Chris L.; Benford, Dominic J.; Dowell, C. Darren; Bertoldi, Frank; Walter, Fabian; Menten, Karl M.; Omont, Alain; Cox, Pierre; Strauss, Michael A.; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua

    2008-04-01

    We present observations of four z >= 5 SDSS quasars at 350 μm with the SHARC-II bolometer camera on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. These are among the deepest observations that have been made by SHARC-II at 350 μm, and three quasars are detected at >=3σ significance, greatly increasing the sample of 350 μm (corresponds to rest frame wavelengths of = 5), detected high-redshift quasars. The derived rest frame far-infrared (FIR) emission in the three detected sources is about five to ten times stronger than that expected from the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local quasars given the same 1450 Å luminosity. Combining the previous submillimeter and millimeter observations at longer wavelengths, the temperatures of the FIR-emitting warm dust from the three quasar detections are estimated to be in the range of 39-52 K. Additionally, the FIR-to-radio SEDs of the three 350 μm detections are consistent with the emission from typical star-forming galaxies. The FIR luminosities are ~1013 L sun and the dust masses are >=108 M sun. These results confirm that huge amounts of warm dust can exist in the host galaxies of optically bright quasars as early as z ~ 6. The universe is so young at these epochs (~1 Gyr) that a rapid dust-formation mechanism is required. We estimate the size of the FIR dust-emission region to be about a few kpc, and further provide a comparison of the SEDs among different kinds of dust-emitting sources to investigate the dominant dust-heating mechanism.

  15. 350 μm SHARC-II imaging of luminous high-redshift radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Stevens, J. A.

    2006-03-01

    Using the filled bolometer array SHARC-II on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), we have obtained deep (σ_rms˜ 15 mJy beam-1), high-quality 350 μm maps of five of the most luminous high-z radio galaxies known. In all cases the central radio galaxy is detected at the ≳ 3σ level, and in some cases the high resolution of SHARC-II (FWHM =9'') allows us to confirm the spatially extended nature of the dust emission. In PKS 1138-262 (z=2.156), 8C 1909+722 (z=3.538) and 4C 41.17 (z=3.792), additional sources - first discovered by SCUBA at 850 μm and believed to be dusty, merging systems associated with the central radio galaxy - are detected at 350 μm. Furthermore, in PKS 1138 and 4C 41.17 additional SHARC-II sources are seen which were not detected at 850 μm, although the reality of these sources will have to be confirmed by independent submm observations. Thus, our observations seem to support the notion of extended star formation taking place in radio galaxies at high redshifts, and that these systems sit at the centers of overdense regions harbouring a complexity of dusty and vigorously star forming systems. At the redshift of the radio galaxies, the 350 μm observations sample very close to the rest-frame dust peak (typically at ˜ 100 μm), and they therefore contribute a particularly important point to the spectral energy distributions of these sources, which we use this in conjunction with existing (sub)millimeter data to derive FIR luminosities, dust temperatures and spectral emissivities of the central radio galaxies.

  16. Current scaling of axially radiated power in dynamic hohlraums and dynamic hohlraum load design for ZR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, Raymond Cecil; Nash, Thomas J.; Sanford, Thomas W. L.

    2007-01-01

    We present designs for dynamic hohlraum z-pinch loads on the 28 MA, 140 ns driver ZR. The scaling of axially radiated power with current in dynamic hohlraums is reviewed. With adequate stability on ZR this scaling indicates that 30 TW of axially radiated power should be possible. The performance of the dynamic hohlraum load on the 20 MA, 100 ns driver Z is extensively reviewed. The baseline z-pinch load on Z is a nested tungsten wire array imploding onto on-axis foam. Data from a variety of x-ray diagnostics fielded on Z are presented. These diagnostics include x-ray diodes, bolometers, fast x-ray imaging cameras, and crystal spectrometers. Analysis of these data indicates that the peak dynamic radiation temperature on Z is between 250 and 300 eV from a diameter less than 1 mm. Radiation from the dynamic hohlraum itself or from a radiatively driven pellet within the dynamic hohlraum has been used to probe a variety of matter associated with the dynamic hohlraum: the tungsten z-pinch itself, tungsten sliding across the end-on apertures, a titanium foil over the end aperture, and a silicon aerogel end cap. Data showing the existence of asymmetry in radiation emanating from the two ends of the dynamic hohlraum is presented, along with data showing load configurations that mitigate this asymmetry. 1D simulations of the dynamic hohlraum implosion are presented and compared to experimental data. The simulations provide insight into the dynamic hohlraum behavior but are not necessarily a reliable design tool because of the inherently 3D behavior of the imploding nested tungsten wire arrays

  17. bicep2/ KECK ARRAY . IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P.A.R.; Aikin, R.W.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S.J.; Bischoff, C.A.; Bock, J.J.; Bradford, K.J.; Brevik, J.A.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C.D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.P.; Fliescher, S.; Golwala, S.R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hilton, G.C.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K.D.

    2015-06-18

    bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS P. A. R. Ade1, R. W. Aikin2, D. Barkats3, S. J. Benton4, C. A. Bischoff5, J. J. Bock2,6, K. J. Bradford5, J. A. Brevik2, I. Buder5, E. Bullock7Show full author list Published 2015 June 18 • © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 806, Number 2 Article PDF Figures Tables References Citations 273 Total downloads Cited by 6 articles Turn on MathJax Share this article Get permission to re-use this article Article information Abstract bicep2 and the Keck Array are polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array share a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.

  18. A measurement of the 2 neutrino double beta decay rate of Te-130 in the CUORICINO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogler, Laura K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    CUORICINO was a cryogenic bolometer experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay and other rare processes, including double beta decay with two neutrinos (2vββ). The experiment was located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and ran for a period of about 5 years, from 2003 to 2008. The detector consisted of an array of 62 TeO2 crystals arranged in a tower and operated at a temperature of 10 mK. Events depositing energy in the detectors, such as radioactive decays or impinging particles, produced thermal pulses in the crystals which were read out using sensitive thermistors. The experiment included 4 enriched crystals, 2 enriched with 130Te and 2 with 128Te, in order to aid in the measurement of the 2vββ rate. The enriched crystals contained a total of 350 g 130Te. The 128-enriched (130-depleted) crystals were used as background monitors, so that the shared backgrounds could be subtracted from the energy spectrum of the 130- enriched crystals. Residual backgrounds in the subtracted spectrum were fit using spectra generated by Monte-Carlo simulations of natural radioactive contaminants located in and on the crystals. The 2vββ half-life was measured to be T2v1/2 = [9.81± 0.96(stat)± 0.49(syst)] x1020 y.

  19. Techniques for the modelling of QUBIC: a next-generation quasi-optical bolometric interferometer for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, S.; Gayer, D.; Bennet, D.; O'Sullivan, C.; Gradziel, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    The expansion of the universe has red-shifted remnant radiation, called the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, to the terahertz band, one of the last areas of the electromagnetic spectrum to be explored. The CMB has imprinted upon it extremely faint temperature and polarisation features that were present in the early universe. The next ambitious goal in CMB astronomy is to map the polarisation characteristics but their detection will require a telescope with unprecedented levels of sensitivity and systematic error control. The QUBIC (Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology) instrument has been specifically designed for this task, combining the sensitivity of a large array of wideband bolometers with the accuracy of interferometry. QUBIC will observe the sky through an array of horns whose signals will be added using a quasi-optical beam combiner (an off-axis Gregorian dual reflector designed to have low aberrations). Fringes will be formed on two focal planes separated by a polarising grid. MODAL (our in house simulation package) has been used to great effect in achieving a detailed level of understanding of the QUBIC combiner. Using a combination of scalar (GBM) and vector (PO) analysis, MODAL is capable of high speed and accuracy in the simulation of quasi-optical systems. There are several technical challenges to overcome but the development of MODAL and simulation techniques have gone a long way to solving these in the design and analysis phase. In this paper I outline the quasi-optical modelling of the QUBIC beam combiner and work envisaged for the future.

  20. QUBIC: The QU bolometric interferometer for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qubic Collaboration; Battistelli, E.; Baú, A.; Bennett, D.; Bergé, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; de Bernardis, P.; Bordier, G.; Bounab, A.; Bréelle, É.; Bunn, E. F.; Calvo, M.; Charlassier, R.; Collin, S.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Curran, G.; de Petris, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Gault, A.; Gervasi, M.; Ghribi, A.; Giard, M.; Giordano, C.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gradziel, M.; Guglielmi, L.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.; Haynes, V.; Kaplan, J.; Korotkov, A.; Landé, J.; Maffei, B.; Maiello, M.; Malu, S.; Marnieros, S.; Martino, J.; Masi, S.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pajot, F.; Passerini, A.; Peterzen, S.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Polenta, G.; Prêle, D.; Romano, D.; Rosset, C.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Sironi, G.; Sordini, R.; Spinelli, S.; Tartari, A.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G.; Vibert, L.; Voisin, F.; Watson, R. A.; Zannoni, M.; QUBIC Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    One of the major challenges of modern cosmology is the detection of B-mode polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background. These originate from tensor fluctuations of the metric produced during the inflationary phase. Their detection would therefore constitute a major step towards understanding the primordial Universe. The expected level of these anisotropies is however so small that it requires a new generation of instruments with high sensitivity and extremely good control of systematic effects.We propose the QUBIC instrument based on the novel concept of bolometric interferometry, bringing together the sensitivity advantages of bolometric detectors with the systematics effects advantages of interferometry.The instrument will directly observe the sky through an array of entry horns whose signals will be combined together using an optical combiner. The whole set-up is located inside a cryostat. Polarization modulation will be achieved using a rotating half-wave plate and the images of the interference fringes will be formed on two focal planes (separated by a polarizing grid) tiled with bolometers.We show that QUBIC can be considered as a synthetic imager, exactly similar to a usual imager but with a synthesized beam formed by the array of entry horns. Scanning the sky provides an additional modulation of the signal and improve the sky coverage shape. The usual techniques of map-making and power spectrum estimation can then be applied. We show that the sensitivity of such an instrument is comparable with that of an imager with the same number of horns. We anticipate a low level of beam-related systematics thanks to the fact that the synthesized beam is determined by the location of the primary horns. Other systematics should be under good control thanks to an autocalibration technique, specific to our concept, that will permit the accurate determination of most of the instrumental parameters that would otherwise lead to systematics.