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Sample records for boliviano puma concolor

  1. Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica Genetic characterization of the Bolivian Andean puma (Puma concolor at the Sajama National Park (SNP and relationships with other north-western South American puma populations

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    MANUEL RUIZ-GARCÍA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron originalmente 25 muestras fecales de puma andino boliviano para proceder a su extracción de ADN. De esas 25 muestras, se detectaron cinco pumas diferentes que, junto, a tres de pieles de animales cazados, completaron un total de ocho pumas andinos bolivianos analizados. Igualmente se analizaron 45 muestras de ADN procedentes de pumas silvestres de Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela y Amazonia occidental brasileña obtenidas a partir de mechones de pelos con bulbo, trocitos de pieles, músculo y dientes. Todas ellas se genotipificaron para siete marcadores microsatélites (Fea 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 y 391. Los niveles de diversidad genética resultaron muy elevados en ambas muestras (H = 0,942 y 0,845; respectivamente, con valores muy superiores a los reportados para pumas norteamericanos. Diversos análisis de asignación poblacional mostraron que los pumas andinos bolivianos no formaron un grupo consistentemente diferente del otro grupo de pumas analizado. Únicamente un marcador, Fea 96, mostró heterogeneidad genética significativa entre ambos grupos. Sin embargo, globalmente, esa heterogeneidad fue extremadamente pequeña (F ST, G ST, R ST. Por el contrario, las estimas de flujo génico entre ambas agrupaciones fueron elevadas para toaos los procedimientos empleados. La estimación del parámetro θ (= 4Neμ mediante el método de máxima verosimilitud de Nielsen (1997 mostró que la muestra boliviana es una extensión indiferenciable de la otra agrupación de pumas de otros países latinoamericanos. Por lo tanto, este estudio aporta resultados concluyentes en favor de un único acervo genético de pumas en el nor-occidente de Sudamérica, en contraste con las tradicionales clasificaciones morfológicas y morfométricas que habían identificado un número considerable de subespecies de puma en esta región de Latinoamérica.Twenty-five Andean Bolivian fecal samples were obtained for extracting DNA. Five different Andean

  2. Puma (Puma concolor) epididymal sperm morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Cucho; Virgilio Alarcón; César Ordóñez; Enrique Ampuero; Aydee Meza; Carles Soler

    2016-01-01

    The Andean puma (Puma concolor) has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13...

  3. Puma (Puma concolor) epididymal sperm morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucho, Hernán; Alarcón, Virgilio; Ordóñez, César; Ampuero, Enrique; Meza, Aydee; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The Andean puma (Puma concolor) has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13 morphometric parameters. The principal component (PC) analysis was performed followed by cluster analysis for the establishment of subpopulations. Two PC components were obtained, the first related to size and the second to shape. Three subpopulations were observed, corresponding to elongated and intermediate-size sperm heads and acrosomes, to large heads with large acrosomes, and to small heads with short acrosomes. In conclusion, puma spermatozoa showed no uniform sperm morphology but three clear subpopulations. These results should be used for future work in the establishment of an adequate germplasm bank of this species. PMID:27678466

  4. Puma (Puma concolor epididymal sperm morphometry

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    Hernán Cucho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean puma (Puma concolor has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13 morphometric parameters. The principal component (PC analysis was performed followed by cluster analysis for the establishment of subpopulations. Two PC components were obtained, the first related to size and the second to shape. Three subpopulations were observed, corresponding to elongated and intermediate-size sperm heads and acrosomes, to large heads with large acrosomes, and to small heads with short acrosomes. In conclusion, puma spermatozoa showed no uniform sperm morphology but three clear subpopulations. These results should be used for future work in the establishment of an adequate germplasm bank of this species.

  5. Puma (Puma concolor) epididymal sperm morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucho, Hernán; Alarcón, Virgilio; Ordóñez, César; Ampuero, Enrique; Meza, Aydee; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The Andean puma (Puma concolor) has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13 morphometric parameters. The principal component (PC) analysis was performed followed by cluster analysis for the establishment of subpopulations. Two PC components were obtained, the first related to size and the second to shape. Three subpopulations were observed, corresponding to elongated and intermediate-size sperm heads and acrosomes, to large heads with large acrosomes, and to small heads with short acrosomes. In conclusion, puma spermatozoa showed no uniform sperm morphology but three clear subpopulations. These results should be used for future work in the establishment of an adequate germplasm bank of this species.

  6. Malignant paraganglioma in a cougar (Puma concolor).

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    Duhamelle, Alexis; Langlois, Isabelle; Pey, Pascaline; Tremblay, Josée; Ruel, Hélène; Parent, Joane; Lussier, Joanie; Doré, Monique

    2014-12-01

    A 7½-yr-old male cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of progressive hindlimb abnormalities. An abdominal mass was palpated on physical examination. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a mass surrounding the left ureter. A postmortem diagnosis of paraganglioma was established.

  7. Esophageal stricture in a cougar (Puma concolor).

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    Desmarchelier, Marion; Lair, Stéphane; Defarges, Alice; Lécuyer, Manon; Langlois, Isabelle

    2009-06-01

    A 7-mo-old female cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of anorexia and a 1-wk history of regurgitation. Barium contrast esophagogram and gastroesophagoscopy revealed the presence of a segmental intraluminal esophageal stricture in the middle third of the esophagus. The stricture was potentially secondary to a previous anesthetic episode. Three endoscopic balloon dilations allowed increasing the luminal diameter to a size that enabled the cougar to eat food softened with water without any signs of discomfort or regurgitation. Two months after being discharged, the cougar was doing well, had gained weight and was eating horsemeat softened with water.

  8. Músculos mandibulares de Puma concolor (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae

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    Romina Paola Llanos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen los músculos mandibulares del puma (Puma concolor, un mamífero carnívoro de amplia distribución en América. Se disecaron y fotografiaron los músculos izquierdos y derechos de la cabeza de tres individuos, dos machos adultos y una hembra juvenil. Este estudio incrementa nuestro conocimiento de los tejidos blandos mandibulares y por lo tanto, aporta información anatómica valiosa de la escasamente conocida y documentada musculatura de este félido, el más grande de la subfamilia Felinae.

  9. Capillaria hepatica in Puma concolor: first report in Brazil.

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    Quadros, Rosiléia M; Pilati, Célso; Marques, Sandra M T; Mazzolli, Marcelo; Benedet, Rodrigo C

    2009-09-01

    Capillaria hepatica was detected by histopathologic diagnosis in two cougars that were shot in April 2008 in Painel, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Macroscopic analysis of their livers revealed the presence of diffuse granulomas, and the histopathologic analysis indicated the presence of C. hepatica eggs, surrounded by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate, small foci of necrosis, and mild-to-moderate fibrosis. This is the first report of C. hepatica in cougars (Puma concolor) in Brazil.

  10. Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor in a Fragmented, Urbanizing Landscape.

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    T Winston Vickers

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging large carnivores pose myriad challenges for conservation, especially in highly fragmented landscapes. Over a 13-year period, we combined monitoring of radio collared pumas (Puma concolor with complementary multi-generational genetic analyses to inform puma conservation in southern California, USA. Our goals were to generate survivorship estimates, determine causes of mortality, identify barriers to movement, and determine the genetic and demographic challenges to puma persistence among >20,000,000 people and extensive urban, suburban, and exurban development. Despite protection from hunting, annual survival for radio collared pumas was surprisingly low (55.8%, and humans caused the majority of puma deaths. The most common sources of mortality were vehicle collisions (28% of deaths, and mortalities resulting from depredation permits issued after pumas killed domestic animals (17% of deaths. Other human-caused mortalities included illegal shootings, public safety removals, and human-caused wildfire. An interstate highway (I-15 bisecting this study area, and associated development, have created a nearly impermeable barrier to puma movements, resulting in severe genetic restriction and demographic isolation of the small puma population (n ~ 17-27 adults in the Santa Ana Mountains west of I-15. Highways that bisect habitat or divide remaining "conserved" habitat, and associated ongoing development, threaten to further subdivide this already fragmented puma population and increase threats to survival. This study highlights the importance of combining demographic and genetic analyses, and illustrates that in the absence of effective measures to reduce mortality and enhance safe movement across highways, translocation of pumas, such as was done with the endangered Florida panther (P. c. coryi, may ultimately be necessary to prevent further genetic decline and ensure persistence of the Santa Ana Mountains population.

  11. Fractured genetic connectivity threatens a southern california puma (Puma concolor population.

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    Holly B Ernest

    Full Text Available Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15. We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42 displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257, including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55. Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population.

  12. Fractured genetic connectivity threatens a southern california puma (Puma concolor) population.

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    Ernest, Holly B; Vickers, T Winston; Morrison, Scott A; Buchalski, Michael R; Boyce, Walter M

    2014-01-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars) in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15). We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42) displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257), including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55). Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population.

  13. Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor) in a Fragmented, Urbanizing Landscape.

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    Vickers, T Winston; Sanchez, Jessica N; Johnson, Christine K; Morrison, Scott A; Botta, Randy; Smith, Trish; Cohen, Brian S; Huber, Patrick R; Ernest, Holly B; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    Wide-ranging large carnivores pose myriad challenges for conservation, especially in highly fragmented landscapes. Over a 13-year period, we combined monitoring of radio collared pumas (Puma concolor) with complementary multi-generational genetic analyses to inform puma conservation in southern California, USA. Our goals were to generate survivorship estimates, determine causes of mortality, identify barriers to movement, and determine the genetic and demographic challenges to puma persistence among >20,000,000 people and extensive urban, suburban, and exurban development. Despite protection from hunting, annual survival for radio collared pumas was surprisingly low (55.8%), and humans caused the majority of puma deaths. The most common sources of mortality were vehicle collisions (28% of deaths), and mortalities resulting from depredation permits issued after pumas killed domestic animals (17% of deaths). Other human-caused mortalities included illegal shootings, public safety removals, and human-caused wildfire. An interstate highway (I-15) bisecting this study area, and associated development, have created a nearly impermeable barrier to puma movements, resulting in severe genetic restriction and demographic isolation of the small puma population (n ~ 17-27 adults) in the Santa Ana Mountains west of I-15. Highways that bisect habitat or divide remaining "conserved" habitat, and associated ongoing development, threaten to further subdivide this already fragmented puma population and increase threats to survival. This study highlights the importance of combining demographic and genetic analyses, and illustrates that in the absence of effective measures to reduce mortality and enhance safe movement across highways, translocation of pumas, such as was done with the endangered Florida panther (P. c. coryi), may ultimately be necessary to prevent further genetic decline and ensure persistence of the Santa Ana Mountains population.

  14. PHOTORECEPTOR DEGENERATION IN A MOUNTAIN LION CUB (PUMA CONCOLOR).

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    DiSalvo, Andrew R; Reilly, Christopher M; Wiggans, K Tomo; Woods, Leslie W; Wack, Ray F; Clifford, Deana L

    2016-12-01

    An orphaned 4-mo-old female mountain lion cub ( Puma concolor ) was captured along the coastline in Montaña de Oro State Park in Los Osos, California, USA. Following suspicion that the cub was visually impaired, ophthalmic examination revealed diffuse bilateral retinal atrophy. Due to a poor prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Necropsy and histopathological findings were consistent with photoreceptor degeneration. Based on the cub's signalment, history, and histopathology, a genetic or nutritional etiology was suspected, with the former etiology more strongly supported. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of photoreceptor degeneration in a wild felid and should be considered in cases of blindness.

  15. The Role of Scent Marking in Mate Selection by Female Pumas (Puma concolor.

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    Maximilian L Allen

    Full Text Available Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared to be correlated with oestrus. Female pumas on average selected from 1.7 collared males, and selection was based on multiple cues that varied among the different time periods measured (i.e. the female's visitation bout and in 90 days previous to the consorting event. Female mate selection over the course of a visitation bout was based on frequency of the male visitation, mass, and age. In the 90 days previous to consorting, the number of scrapes a male created was the most important contributor to selection, which was likely related to his residency status. We also found that at least 14% of females mated with multiple males, thus possibly confusing paternity. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of how female pumas use scent and auditory communication at community scrapes to select dominant resident males to mate with.

  16. Cycle and duration of the seminiferous epithelium in puma (Puma concolor).

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    Leite, Flaviana Lima Guião; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; das Neves, Marco Túlio David; de Barros, João Bosco Gonçalves

    2006-02-01

    Puma or sussuarana (Puma concolor) is the second largest feline in the American continent and has an ample latitudinal distribution in very diverse habitats. In relation to its conservation status, the puma is considered an extinction-threatened species. The study of the testis morphology and the spermatogenic process in a species is fundamental for establishing the physiologic patterns that will make possible the selection of the protocols for assisted reproduction. A number of peculiarities associated with the reproductive biology of specific species such as the duration of spermatogenic process can be used to determine the frequency of sperm collection. Nine adult male pumas maintained in captivity were used to determine the relative frequency of stages in the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Three of them received intra-testicular injections of 0.1ml tritiated thymidine to determine the duration of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, and were subjected to biopsy 7 days later. The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in puma was didactically described into eight stages by the tubular morphology method. The total duration of one seminiferous epithelium cycle in puma was calculated to be 9.89 days, and approximately 44.5 days are required for development of spermatozoon from spermatogonia. The duration of spermiogenesis, prophase and other events of meiosis were 14.08, 15.20 and 1.79 days, respectively. The relative frequency of the pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic phases were 3.98, 1.79 and 4.12 days, respectively.

  17. The Role of Scent Marking in Mate Selection by Female Pumas (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Wittmer, Heiko U; Houghtaling, Paul; Smith, Justine; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals) and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor) to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared to be correlated with oestrus. Female pumas on average selected from 1.7 collared males, and selection was based on multiple cues that varied among the different time periods measured (i.e. the female's visitation bout and in 90 days previous to the consorting event). Female mate selection over the course of a visitation bout was based on frequency of the male visitation, mass, and age. In the 90 days previous to consorting, the number of scrapes a male created was the most important contributor to selection, which was likely related to his residency status. We also found that at least 14% of females mated with multiple males, thus possibly confusing paternity. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of how female pumas use scent and auditory communication at community scrapes to select dominant resident males to mate with.

  18. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  19. Medium-grade astrocytoma in a cougar (Puma concolor).

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    Kondo, Hirotaka; Leone, Angelique M; Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Gary, Joy; Kiupel, Matti; Farina, Lisa L; Abbott, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    A 17-year-old, male castrated cougar (Puma concolor) was presented minimally responsive and severely depressed, with bilateral mydriasis and absent pupillary light response. On gross examination of the brain, there was a tan-to-gray, invasive mass with a central cavitation on the ventral aspect in the left cerebral hemisphere, rostral to the caudate nucleus. On histopathologic examination, the mass was composed of sheets of medium-sized, round-to-polygonal cells that were multifocally separated by islands of neuropil. Approximately 80% of the neoplastic cells showed strong cytoplasmic labeling for glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings were consistent with a medium-grade astrocytoma. To the authors' knowledge, neoplastic disease of the central nervous system has not been previously reported in cougars.

  20. Intralesional vincristine use for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in a puma (Puma concolor).

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    Sandoval, Blanca Juarez; Amat, Azlan Che'; Sabri, Jasni; Ramli, Mat Naim

    2013-12-01

    A 14-yr-old male puma (Puma concolor) was presented to the veterinary staff of the National Zoo in Malaysia for an auricular mass. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy. Systemic administration of chemotherapy using vincristine (0.5 mg/m2 i.v. q. 7 days for six treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 7 days) caused side effects of vomiting, weight loss, and alopecia and did not improve the size or appearance of the tumor. Intralesional vincristine injections (0.2 mg q. 7 days for two treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 15 days) were administered, resulting in complete tumor regression after 14 days of treatment.

  1. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

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    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  2. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  3. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure.

  4. Acompanhamento do crescimento dental em Puma concolor mantido em cativeiro Accompaniment of the dental growth in Puma concolor kept in captivity

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    João L. Rossi Junior

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho fazer levantamento sobre a troca de dentição decídua por permanente, notadamente dos dentes caninos e a prevalência de maloclusão em pumas (Puma concolor manejados nas instituições visitadas no Estado de São Paulo. Para os estudos utilizou-se amostra constituída de 36 pumas, provenientes de 18 instituições mantenedoras de tais espécies em cativeiro no Estado de São Paulo, sendo que três animais com idade de oito meses, irmãos de ninhada, apresentaram retenção dos dentes caninos decíduos e foram acompanha dos por 2 anos e 8 meses. Todos os animais foram examinados, observando se a oclusão estava de acordo com o normal para a espécie. Os dentes foram identificados um a um, examinados diretamente por meio de explorador odontológico. Os animais que apresentaram retenção dos dentes caninos decíduos não foram tratados, pois a maloclusões aparentemente não comprometia a preensão ou mastigação de alimentos, embora apresentassem acúmulo de alimentos ou indutos moles na região dos dentes com espaço interproximal mais reduzido.The development of dentistry is delayed in the preventive internal medicine for wild animals. Some international papers about wild animal dentistry have already been published regarding some species in wild life or kept in captivity in different geographical regions, but not specifically about the great neotropical felines Panthera onca and Puma concolor. The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of malocclusion in neotropical felines maintained in the state of São Paulo. For the study a sample of 42 jaguars (Panthera onca and 36 pumas (Puma concolor was used, totalizing 78 animals, proceeding from 18 institutions where such species were kept in captivity. All animals were examined if the occlusion was in accordance with the normal for the species. The teeth were identified one by one, examined directly by means of a dental explorer. Malocclusion was present in 47

  5. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  6. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design

  7. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of Neotropic pumas (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Clark, J Alan; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2014-08-01

    Pumas occupy the largest latitudinal range of any New World terrestrial mammal. Human population growth and associated habitat reduction has reduced their North American range by nearly two-thirds, but the impact of human expansion in Central and South America on puma populations is not clear. We examined mitochondrial DNA diversity of pumas across the majority of their range, with a focus on Central and South America. Four mitochondrial gene regions (1140 base pairs) revealed 16 unique haplotypes differentiating pumas into three geographic groupings: North America, Central America and South America. These groups were highly differentiated as indicated by significant pairwise FST values. North American samples were genetically homogenous compared to Central and South American samples, and South American pumas were the most diverse and ancestral. These findings support an earlier hypothesis that North America was recolonized by founding pumas from Central and South America.

  8. IMPLANTACIÓN DE PRÓTESIS INTRAESCLERAL COMO MANEJO DE GLAUCOMA EN PUMA (PUMA CONCOLOR LINNAEUS, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Díaz-Parra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un macho adulto de puma o león americano (Puma concolor, de la Fundación Zoológico santacruz (Colombia, evidenció al examen oftalmológico del ojo derecho buftalmo seve-ro, congestión episcleral, epífora, atrofia retiniana, luxación del cristalino y pérdida de la visión como signos relevantes. debido a los hallazgos del examen clínico y la cronicidad del caso se realizó evisceración e implantación de prótesis intraescleral como parte del tratamiento del glaucoma crónico del animal. después de la cirugía el puma presentó una buena recuperación y adaptación a la prótesis, lo que permitió dar un adecuado manejo de la enfermedad, proporcionando bienestar al animal.

  9. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  10. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaigne, Ivonne; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie; Ochoa, Alexander; Vargas, Karla; Childs, Jack L.; Sanderson, Jim; List, Rurik; Torres-Gomez, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We documented puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) prey consumption in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, by investigating global positioning system cluster sites (n = 220), and conducting molecular analyses of scat (n = 116) collected between 2011 and 2013. We used camera trap data (n = 8,976 camera days) to estimate relative abundances of pumas and jaguars. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was the most frequent prey for puma found at kill sites (67%) and identified from scat (74%), although based on relative numbers of prey consumed, deer represented 45% and lagomorphs 20% of the proportion of all individuals eaten. A variety of small prey (weighing pumas preyed on calves at a higher frequency than previously reported in the same area. In our study area, jaguars preyed on calves at approximately the same rate as pumas (jaguars 3.7 calves per year, pumas 4.9 calves per year). Calculated predation rates were limited only to collared animals within our study area and therefore should not be considered applicable to all pumas and jaguars in Sonora.

  11. [Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi-Catalá, Emiliana; Barreto, Guillermo R

    2008-12-01

    Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and pumas based on morphometric analyses of their tracks. The footprints of five jaguars and four pumas were drawn and the foot (hind or fore foot, left or right foot) and the substrate were recorded. We took 16 measures from each footprint including lengths, widths, areas and angles. Variables were analyzed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and substituted by the first Principal Component (PC) (> 70% variance). We assessed the effect of the substrate and type of foot by means of paired t-student tests, and found differences between fore and hind feet and footprints from the same individual when made on soil or sand. No differences were found between right or left feet. The footprints changed over time as revealed by Multiple ANOVA. Different individuals could be identifyied based on discriminant analyses with more than 70% confidence. We conclude that this method is feasible and can be useful when studying endangered felines.

  12. Esophageal hiatal hernia in three exotic felines--Lynx lynx, Puma concolore, Panthera leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F; Hobson, H Phil; Ducoté, Julie; Fossum, Theresa W; Johnson, James H

    2010-03-01

    Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in three exotic felines-lynx (Lynx lynx), cougar (Puma concolore), and lion (Panthera leo). All cats had a history of anorexia. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs showed evidence of a soft tissue mass within the caudal mediastinum suggestive of a hiatal hernia in all animals. A barium esophagram was performed in one case. All animals underwent thoracic or abdominal surgery for hernia reduction. Surgical procedures included: intercostal thoracotomy with herniorrhaphy and esophagopexy (lynx and cougar), and incisional gastropexy (lion). Concurrent surgical procedures performed were gastrotomy for gastric foreign body removal and jejunostomy tube placement. Clinical signs related to the hiatal hernia disappeared after surgery and recurrence of signs was not reported for the time of follow-up.

  13. Genetic variability of Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Panthera onca (Mammalia, Felidae studied using Felis catus microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Roma Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used four microsatellite loci (Fca08, Fca45, Fca77 and Fca96 from the domestic cat, Felis catus, to investigate genetic variability in specimens of Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat, eyra, Puma concolor (cougar, mountain lion, puma and Panthera onca (jaguar held in various Brazilian zoos. Samples of DNA from the cats were PCR amplified and then sequenced before being analyzed using the CERVUS program. Our results show a mean polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.83 for H. yagouaroundi, 0.66 for P. concolor and 0.69 for P. onca and a mean of 10.3 alleles for the Fca08 locus, 5.3 for Fca 45, 9 for Fca 77 and 14 for Fca 96. These results indicate a relatively high level of genetic diversity for the specimens studied.

  14. Birth timing for mountain lions (Puma concolor); testing the prey availability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brian D; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June-August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April-June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1(st) litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage.

  15. Feline infectious peritonitis in a mountain lion (Puma concolor), California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pamela; Moeller, Robert B; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated vasculitis of felids caused by a mutant form of a common feline enteric virus, feline enteric coronavirus. The virus can attack many organ systems and causes a broad range of signs, commonly including weight loss and fever. Regardless of presentation, FIP is ultimately fatal and often presents a diagnostic challenge. In May 2010, a malnourished young adult male mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Kern County, California, USA was euthanized because of concern for public safety, and a postmortem examination was performed. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing, multifocal myocarditis; necrotizing, neutrophilic, and histiocytic myositis and vasculitis of the tunica muscularis layer of the small and large intestines; and embolic, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Feline coronavirus antigen was detected in both the heart and intestinal tissue by immunohistochemistry. A PCR for coronavirus performed on kidney tissue was positive, confirming a diagnosis of FIP. Although coronavirus infection has been documented in mountain lions by serology, this is the first confirmed report of FIP.

  16. Eletrocardiografia em onças-pardas (Puma concolor anestesiadas com sevoflurano ou isoflurano

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    A.R. Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os achados eletrocardiográficos de 11 onças- pardas (Puma concolor. Os animais foram sedados com 0,15mg/kg de detomidina associado a 5mg/kg de cetamina e mantidos anestesiados com sevoflurano (GSEVO, n=6 ou isoflurano (GISO, n=5. A frequência cardíaca foi de 95 ± 13bpm. As alterações observadas nos animais no GSEVO foram: atrial standtill com condução ventricular, episódios isolados de contração ventricular prematura, bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau, diminuição da amplitude do complexo QRS, onda S profunda e aumento da amplitude da onda T. No grupo GISO, observou-se bloqueio de ramo direito do feixe de His, bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau e aumento da amplitude da onda T. Arritmias não puderam ser associadas ao uso dos anestésicos inalatórios devido à não sensibilização do miocárdio às catecolaminas. Achados como o BAV de primeiro grau pode ter ocorrido devido ao uso de agonistas α-2 adrenérgicos. Este estudo aumentou o conhecimento sobre as alterações eletrocardiográficas em onças-pardas anestesiadas, entretanto mais estudos são necessários para correlacionar estes achados ao uso de agentes anestésicos.

  17. Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-11-01

    There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca, Pumas (Puma concolor, and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wultsch

    Full Text Available With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis. We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09, followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16, and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08. We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca), Pumas (Puma concolor), and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2016-01-01

    With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09), followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16), and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08). We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes.

  20. Validación y aplicación de la prueba ELISA para medir cortisol fecal en jaguar (Panthera onca) y puma (Puma concolor) durante un programa de enriquecimiento ambiental en el Zoológico Jaime Duque

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Rodríguez Álvarez; Leonardo Arias Bernal

    2005-01-01

    El enriquecimiento ambiental busca aumentar el bienestar de los animales cautivos mediante la provisión de estímulos que motiven la realización de comportamientos típicos de la especie. A las poblaciones de jaguares (Panthera onca) y pumas (Puma concolor) presentes en el Zoológico Jaime Duque se les aplicó un programa de enriquecimiento ambiental y con el fin de probar si su bienestar aumentaba, se realizaron mediciones de cortisol en materia fecal mediante la prueba de ELISA, para lo cual hu...

  1. Tracking the source of mercury in coastal populations of California Cougars (puma concolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Wilmers, C.; Yovovich, V.; Houghtaling, P.; Torregrosa, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a project on the cycling of mercury (Hg) from the ocean to fog and deposition to land in coastal California, the whiskers of pumas from coastal and inland populations in California were analyzed for total Hg (HgT). Previous studies have shown that fog water in coastal California contains enhanced concentrations of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) compared to rain water. The likely source of fog MMHg is from evasion and demethylation of dimethyl Hg (DMHg) from coastal ocean upwelling. The California coast receives seasonal inputs of fog drip, and we hypothesized that if fog water deposition of MMHg was making an impact, the observable effects might be seen in high trophic level predators of the terrestrial ecosystem. Puma whiskers from 88 individuals from the Santa Cruz Mountains, a sub-range of the California Coast Range, were obtained and compared with puma whiskers from 12 individuals from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mean total Hg in puma whiskers from the coastal population is 1.0 ± 1.5 ug Hg / g whisker (ppm), whereas mean HgT from the inland puma population is 0.13 ± 0.09 ppm. The difference between these means is significant to the 95% confidence level. For the coastal puma population, the whiskers from 10 individuals had HgT concentrations > 2.0 ppm and 3 individuals had HgT > 4 ppm, which exceeds the U.S. EPA reference dose for humans (1 ppm) approaches a level of concern found for other large mammals such as polar bears (5 ppm). The study is ongoing and HgT concentrations will be determined in the fur and flesh of deer from the same locations as the puma whiskers, since deer comprise ~95% of the puma diet. Samples of plants that are likely fed upon by deer that span the coastal-inland transect will also be analyzed for HgT. Estimates of fog frequency spatial patterns, derived from weather satellite observations and topographic modeling, will be compared with the HgT content of plant and animal tissue in coastal California to quantify

  2. A new atypical genotype mouse virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from the heart of a wild caught puma (Felis concolor) from Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Herrera-Valenzuela, V H; Ortiz-Diaz, J J; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

    2013-11-08

    Nothing is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife in Mexico. In the present study, a mouse virulent T. gondii strain was isolated from the heart of a wild puma (Felis concolor). The puma was found roaming in outskirt of Durango City, Mexico and tranquilized for moving to a zoo. The puma died during translocation and a necropsy examination was performed. The puma had an antibody titer for T. gondii of 200 by the modified agglutination test. Its heart and brain tissue were bioassayed into 2 outbred Swiss Webster (SW) and 1 gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse. The KO mouse and the 2 SW mice that became infected after inoculation with homogenate of puma heart died of acute toxoplasmosis 12, 19 and 20 days p.i. respectively and tachyzoites were found in lungs of all 3 mice. None of the 4 SW and 1 KO mouse inoculated with digest of the puma brain became infected with T. gondii. Tachyzoites from the lungs of mice were propagated in cell cultures. Tachyzoites from cell culture were inoculated into 5 SW; the mice died or had to be killed 14 days p.i. and a cat fed tissues of these mice shed T. gondii oocysts. Results of mortality and infectivity of tachyzoites and oocysts in SW mice indicated that the puma T. gondii strain (designated TgPumaMe1) was virulent for outbred mice. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) revealed a new genotype (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #222). Isolation of atypical genotype T. gondii from wild puma indicates that mouse virulent strains are circulating in wildlife in Mexico.

  3. Pride diaries: sex, brain size and sociality in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in social life histories correspond to intraspecific variation in total or regional brain volumes in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor). African lions live in gregarious prides usually consisting of related adult females, their dependent offspring, and a coalition of immigrant males. Upon reaching maturity, male lions enter a nomadic and often, solitary phase in their lives, whereas females are mainly philopatric and highly social throughout their lives. In contrast, the social life history does not differ between male and female cougars; both are solitary. Three-dimensional virtual endocasts were created using computed tomography from the skulls of 14 adult African lions (8 male, 6 female) and 14 cougars (7 male, 7 female). Endocranial volume and basal skull length were highly correlated in African lions (r = 0.59, p < 0.05) and in cougars (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Analyses of total endocranial volume relative to skull length revealed no sex differences in either African lions or cougars. However, relative anterior cerebrum volume comprised primarily of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly greater in female African lions than males, while relative posterior cerebrum volume and surface area was greater in males than females. These differences were specific to the neocortex and were not found in the solitary cougar, suggesting that social life history is linked to sex-specific neocortical patterns in these species. We further hypothesize that increased frontal cortical volume in female lions is related to the need for greater inhibitory control in the presence of a dominant male aggressor.

  4. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence.

  5. Parámetros genético poblacionales en seis especies de Felidae neotropicales ( Leopardus tigrina, L. wiedii, L. pardalis, Herpailurus jagouroundi, Puma concolor y Pantera onca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 196 muestras pertenecientes a 68 Leopardus pardalis (Ocelote; Colombia, Perú, a12 L. wiedi (Margay; Colombia y Bolivia, a 24 L. tigrinus (Tigrillo; Colombia, a 16 Herpailurus jagouroundi (yagouroundi; Colombia, Venezuela, Brasil a 50 Puma concolor (Puma; Colombia, Perú, Bolivia y a 24 Panthera onca (Jaguar; Colombia con 6 marcadores microsatélites diferentes (FCA08, FCA43, FCA45, FCA90, FCA96 y FCA126. Los resultados y conclusiones más obvias fueron las siguientes: (1 Para la mayoría de esas especies no se dio equilibrio Hardy- Weinberg cuando se analizaron individuos de localidades diferentes por exceso de homocigotos. Probablemente, el efecto Wahlund es responsable de ese hecho.

  6. Validación y aplicación de la prueba ELISA para medir cortisol fecal en jaguar (Panthera onca y puma (Puma concolor durante un programa de enriquecimiento ambiental en el Zoológico Jaime Duque

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    Catalina Rodríguez Álvarez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El enriquecimiento ambiental busca aumentar el bienestar de los animales cautivos mediante la provisión de estímulos que motiven la realización de comportamientos típicos de la especie. A las poblaciones de jaguares (Panthera onca y pumas (Puma concolor presentes en el Zoológico Jaime Duque se les aplicó un programa de enriquecimiento ambiental y con el fin de probar si su bienestar aumentaba, se realizaron mediciones de cortisol en materia fecal mediante la prueba de ELISA, para lo cual hubo necesidad de validar la técnica para cada especie. La prueba utilizada resultó ser válida para ambas especies; sin embargo, los niveles de cortisol se ven influenciados por múltiples variables y no se hizo evidente la reducción de los niveles del mismo con el enriquecimiento ambiental.

  7. 同域栖息的美洲虎和美洲狮存在竞争吗?%Is there competition between sympatric jaguar Panthera onca and puma Puma concolor ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. HAINES

    2006-01-01

    美洲虎(Panthera onca)和美洲狮(Puma concolor)是中美洲和南美洲大部区域共存的大型猫科动物,其共存理论得到研究验证.本文作者回顾了有关文献,认为同域分布的美洲虎和美洲狮存在生境和猎物分化,提出热带美洲狮具有较小体型以利用较小的猎物并减少与美洲虎竞争的假设.研究支持美洲虎和美洲狮的空间相互回避概念,但两者猎物之间分化的研究结果不相吻合.尽管如此,文献认为新热带界美洲狮体型较小只是反映了在进化过程中偏于利用较小猎物的事实,而与美洲虎的竞争无关.人类的影响会引起美洲虎和美洲狮的共存.在新热带界环境中,美洲虎由于依赖特定猎物而较大程度地受到人类引起的猎物种群下降之影响,但美洲狮由于可以偏向利用小型猎物或猎物多样化而得到补偿,从而能更好地适应人类的影响[动物学报52(6):1142-1147,2006].%The jaguar Panthera onca and puma Puma concolor are large felids that coexist throughout Central and most of South America. Studies have tested theories of coexistence of sympatric jaguar and puma. By reviewing the scientific literature, I assessed whether habitat or prey are partitioned between sympatric jaguar and puma, and hypothesized that puma in the tropics have a smaller body size to select smaller prey items to minimize competition with jaguar. Studies support the concept of mutual spatial avoidance between jaguar and puma, whereas results of prey partitioning between jaguar and puma are conflicting. Despite these relationships, the scientific literature suggests that smaller puma in the Neotropics may simply reflect the fact that they have evolved to concentrate on smaller prey species regardless of competition with jaguar.However, anthropogenic impacts can cause changes between jaguar and puma coexistence. The jaguar may suffer from declining prey populations caused by humans because of predator

  8. The challenge of monitoring elusive large carnivores: An accurate and cost-effective tool to identify and sex pumas (Puma concolor) from footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Acquiring reliable data on large felid populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. However, large felids, typically solitary, elusive and nocturnal, are difficult to survey. Tagging and following individuals with VHF or GPS technology is the standard approach, but costs are high and these methodologies can compromise animal welfare. Such limitations can restrict the use of these techniques at population or landscape levels. In this paper we describe a robust technique to identify and sex individual pumas from footprints. We used a standardized image collection protocol to collect a reference database of 535 footprints from 35 captive pumas over 10 facilities; 19 females (300 footprints) and 16 males (235 footprints), ranging in age from 1–20 yrs. Images were processed in JMP data visualization software, generating one hundred and twenty three measurements from each footprint. Data were analyzed using a customized model based on a pairwise trail comparison using robust cross-validated discriminant analysis with a Ward’s clustering method. Classification accuracy was consistently > 90% for individuals, and for the correct classification of footprints within trails, and > 99% for sex classification. The technique has the potential to greatly augment the methods available for studying puma and other elusive felids, and is amenable to both citizen-science and opportunistic/local community data collection efforts, particularly as the data collection protocol is inexpensive and intuitive. PMID:28273159

  9. El jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa: Un invasor biológico como presa reciente del puma (Puma concolor en el sur de Chile The European wild boar (Sus scrofa: A biological invader as a recent prey of the American puma (Puma concolor in southern Chile

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    OSCAR SKEWES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta del puma (Puma concoloren los anos 1988 y 2004 en los faldeos de los volcanes Mocho y Choshuenco, pluviselva valdiviana, sur de Chile, a través de la identificación de ítemes-presas en sus heces y la búsqueda en terreno de carcasas de jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa.Se registra por primera vez al jabalí europeo entre los ítemes-presas del puma en Chile. El puma depredó predominantemente sobre juveniles y los porcentajes de consumo variaron entre un 17-37 % dependiendo del método empleado para analizar el contenido de presas presentes en sus heces.The diet of the American puma (Puma concolorwas studied in 1988 and 2004 in the foothills of the volcanoes Mocho and Choshuenco, Valdivian rainforest, southern Chile, through the identification of prey-items in their feces and field surveys of European wild boar (Sus scrofacarcasses. We reported for the first time the invader European wild boar as a puma's prey in Chile. The puma preys mainly on juveniles and its percentage of consumed prey ranges between 17 and 37 % according to the method employed to assess the analyses of their feces prey contents.

  10. Chemical immobilization of captive Cougars Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (Carnivora: Felidae using a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine and xylazine

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    Jesús Lescano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Handling of large felids is highly risky, hence immobilization is required for the safety of personnel.  Data on the effects of anesthetic drugs used for immobilizing Cougars Puma concolor are scarce. This study describes the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (2mg/kg, ketamine (1.6mg/kg and xylazine (0.4mg/kg in pumas. Five captive adult and clinically healthy Cougars were included in this study.  Animals were immobilized by remote injection using blow pipe and darts.  The durations of induction, immobilization and recovery periods and their qualities were recorded.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature and blood pressure were recorded at five minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then all animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine, intramuscularly administered.  Central tendency and dispersal statistics were calculated for each parameter.  The duration of the induction period was 10.4±6.4 minutes and the duration of the recovery period was 83.3±35.1 minutes. Induction, immobilization and recovery periods were smooth and adequate anesthetic depth was achieved.  The mean heart rate was 122±10 beats/minute, mean respiratory rate was 10±1 breaths/minute, mean body temperature was 39.1±0.2 0C and mean blood pressure was 139±12 mmHg.  No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in vital parameters over the duration of the assessment.  The tested anesthetic combination effectively immobilized the cougars included in this study and provided safety for the personnel involved.  Though vital signs were not significantly affected, a degree of hypoventilation was observed and respiratory support is recommended when using this anesthetic combination in cougars. 

  11. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids.

  12. Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations.

  13. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary parameters and recovery from anesthesia in cougars (Puma concolor anesthetized with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane

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    Verônica B. Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the cardiopulmonary effects, the onset time after the administration of a detomidine/ketamine combination, and the recovery from anesthesia of cougars (Puma concolor anesthetized with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane for abdominal ultrasound imaging. Fourteen animals were randomly allocated into two experimental groups: GISO (n=7 and GSEVO (n=7. Chemical restraint was performed using 0.15mg/kg detomidine combined with 5mg/kg ketamine intramuscularly; anesthesia induction was achieved using 2mg/kg propofol intravenously and maintenance with isoflurane (GISO or sevoflurane (GSEVO. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, rectal temperature, central venous pressure, and end-tidal carbon dioxide. The time to sternal recumbency (TSR and time to standing position (TSP were also determined. There was not statistically significant difference for the cardiopulmonary variables or TSP whereas TSR was significantly shorter in GSEVO. The time to onset of anesthesia was 11.1±1.2 minutes and 11.3±1.8 minutes for GISO and GSEVO, respectively. The anesthesia of cougars with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane was conducted with safety, cardiopulmonary stability, and increased time to sternal recumbency in the GISO group.

  14. Oxygen isotope composition of North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) bone phosphate: implications for provenance and climate reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephanie J; Tütken, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Feline carnivores are threatened by illegal wildlife trade. Tracing the provenance of unknown felid tissues via stable isotope analysis could provide important information in wildlife crime investigations. The oxygen isotope composition of mammalian skeletal phosphate (δ(18)Op) is widely applied to trace the origin of animal remains and to reconstruct migratory patterns in palaeontological, archaeological, ecological and wildlife forensic applications. Teeth and bones of terrestrial mammals form at constant body temperature in isotope equilibrium with body water, which is predominantly controlled by ingested meteoric water (δ(18)Ow) that varies systematically with latitude, altitude and climate. Here we analysed δ(18)Op of 106 North American puma and bobcat bones of known geographic origin to establish the first δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow regression for feline carnivores: δ(18)Op = 0.40(±0.04) * δ(18)Ow + 20.10(±0.40) (R(2) = 0.46, n = 106). This was compared with those from their respective prey species (deer and rabbit), a canid carnivore (fox) and other placental mammals. Effects of species, sex and relative humidity on the feline δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation were analysed and additional intra-individual tissue comparisons (hair δ(18)Oh vs. bone δ(18)Op) were performed for some bobcat individuals. Bobcats and pumas exhibited only a moderate δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation, which differed from canid carnivores and other placental mammals. However, feline δ(18)Op values revealed a moderate relation with δ(18)Ow, which lacks for the δ(18)Oh of hair from the same bobcat individuals. This indicates a difference in oxygen isotope routing from body water to bioapatite and hair. Most herbivores and omnivores track δ(18)Ow in their bioapatite δ(18)Op values much better, whereas δ(18)Op and especially δ(18)Oh values of feline carnivores are less precise proxies for meteoric water δ(18)Ow values and thus for provenance determination in wildlife

  15. Development and testing of an optimized method for DNA-based identification of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) faecal samples for use in ecological and genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Taiana; Santos, Anelisie S; De Angelo, Carlos; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Sana, Dênis A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    The elusive nature and endangered status of most carnivore species imply that efficient approaches for their non-invasive sampling are required to allow for genetic and ecological studies. Faecal samples are a major potential source of information, and reliable approaches are needed to foster their application in this field, particularly in areas where few studies have been conducted. A major obstacle to the reliable use of faecal samples is their uncertain species-level identification in the field, an issue that can be addressed with DNA-based assays. In this study we describe a sequence-based approach that efficiently distinguishes jaguar versus puma scats, and that presents several desirable properties: (1) considerably high amplification and sequencing rates; (2) multiple diagnostic sites reliably differentiating the two focal species; (3) high information content that allows for future application in other carnivores; (4) no evidence of amplification of prey DNA; and (5) no evidence of amplification of a nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertion known to occur in the jaguar. We demonstrate the reliability and usefulness of this approach by evaluating 55 field-collected samples from four locations in the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil and Argentina, and document the presence of one or both of these endangered felids in each of these areas.

  16. A new panel of SNP markers for the individual identification of North American pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitak, Robert R.; Naidu, Ashwin; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Pumas Puma concolor are one of the most studied terrestrial carnivores because of their widespread distribution, substantial ecological impacts, and conflicts with humans. Over the past decade, managing pumas has involved extensive efforts including the use of genetic methods. Microsatellites have been the most commonly used genetic markers; however, technical artifacts and little overlap of frequently used loci render large-scale comparison of puma genetic data across studies challenging. Therefore, a panel of genetic markers that can produce consistent genotypes across studies without the need for extensive calibrations is essential for range-wide genetic management of puma populations. Here, we describe the development of PumaPlex, a high-throughput assay to genotype 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pumas. We validated PumaPlex in 748 North American pumas Puma concolor couguar, and demonstrated its ability to generate reproducible genotypes and accurately identify individuals. Furthermore, in a test using fecal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples, we found that PumaPlex produced significantly more genotypes with fewer errors than 12 microsatellite loci, 8 of which are commonly used. Our results demonstrate that PumaPlex is a valuable tool for the genetic monitoring and management of North American puma populations. Given the analytical simplicity, reproducibility, and high-throughput capability of single nucleotide polymorphisms, PumaPlex provides a standard panel of markers that promotes the comparison of genotypes across studies and independent of the genotyping technology used.

  17. Puma predation on radiocollared and uncollared bighorn sheep

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    Johnson Christine K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used Global Positioning System (GPS data from radiocollared pumas (Puma concolor to identify kill sites of pumas preying upon an endangered population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis in southern California. Our aims were to test whether or not pumas selected radiocollared versus uncollared bighorn sheep, and to identify patterns of movement before, during, and after kills. Findings Three pumas killed 23 bighorn sheep over the course of the study, but they did not preferentially prey on marked (radiocollared versus unmarked bighorn sheep. Predation occurred primarily during crepuscular and nighttime hours, and 22 kill sites were identified by the occurrence of 2 or more consecutive puma GPS locations (a cluster within 200 m of each other at 1900, 0000, and 0600 h. Conclusion We tested the "conspicuous individual hypothesis" and found that there was no difference in puma predation upon radiocollared and uncollared bighorn sheep. Pumas tended to move long distances before and after kills, but their movement patterns immediately post-kill were much more restricted. Researchers can exploit this behaviour to identify puma kill sites and investigate prey selection by designing studies that detect puma locations that are spatially clustered between dusk and dawn.

  18. Food habits of pumas in northwestern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Valdez, R.; Bender, L.C.; Daniel, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is questionable whether food-habits studies of pumas conducted in the southwestern United States can be extrapolated to northwestern Mexico, because of differences in management, distribution, and abundance of wildlife. We determined food habits of pumas (Puma concolor) in the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Based on studies in the western United States, we hypothesized that desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the major food source of pumas in Sonoran Desert habitats of Mexico. The study area supports populations of desert mule deer, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), lagomorphs (Lepus spp. and Sylvilagus audubonii), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and the largest population (???300 individuals) of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Sonora. Based on pugmark characteristics, we recorded 3 different adult resident pumas in approximately 90 km2. We analyzed 60 puma fecal samples collected September 1996-November 1998. Primary prey items based on frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumed were desert bighorn sheep (40% and 45%, respectively), lagomorphs (33%, 19%), deer (17%, 17%), and collared peccary (15%, 11%). The high percentage of desert bighorn sheep in puma diets may be due to high abundance relative to mule deer, which declined in number during our study. No differences were found in puma diets between seasons (??22=2.4526, P=0.2934). Fluctuations in mule deer populations in northwestern Sonora may influence prey selection by pumas.

  19. Nuisance ecology: do scavenging condors exact foraging costs on pumas in Patagonia?

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    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor, in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1 Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2 If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3 Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma "giving up times" (GUTs across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas.

  20. Epizootiology and management of feline leukemia virus in the Florida puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Meredith A; Shindle, David B; Terrell, Scott P; Hayes, Kathleen A; Ferree, Bambi C; McBride, R T; Blankenship, Emmett L; Jansen, Deborah; Citino, Scott B; Roelke, Melody E; Kiltie, Richard A; Troyer, Jennifer L; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-07-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002-2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positive increased, with antibody-positive pumas concentrated in the northern portion of puma range. Five of 131 (4%) pumas sampled between July 2000 and April 2007 were viremic, with all cases clustered in Okaloacoochee Slough (OKS). Clinical signs and clinical pathology at capture were absent or included lymphadenopathy, moderate-to-severe anemia, and lymphopenia. All viremic pumas died; causes of death were septicemia (n=2), intraspecific aggression (n=2), and anemia/dehydration (n=1). Outcome after FeLV exposure in pumas was similar to that in domestic cats, with evidence of regressive, latent, and persistent infections. Management of the epizootic included vaccination, and as of April 2007, 52 free-ranging pumas had received one or more inoculations. Vaccinations were concentrated in OKS and in a band between OKS and the remainder of the puma population. There have been no new cases since July 2004; however, the potential for reintroduction of the virus remains.

  1. Mammalian energetics. Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrie M; Wolfe, Lisa; Davis, Tracy; Kendall, Traci; Richter, Beau; Wang, Yiwei; Bryce, Caleb; Elkaim, Gabriel Hugh; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2014-10-03

    Pumas (Puma concolor) live in diverse, often rugged, complex habitats. The energy they expend for hunting must account for this complexity but is difficult to measure for this and other large, cryptic carnivores. We developed and deployed a physiological SMART (species movement, acceleration, and radio tracking) collar that used accelerometry to continuously monitor energetics, movements, and behavior of free-ranging pumas. This felid species displayed marked individuality in predatory activities, ranging from low-cost sit-and-wait behaviors to constant movements with energetic costs averaging 2.3 times those predicted for running mammals. Pumas reduce these costs by remaining cryptic and precisely matching maximum pouncing force (overall dynamic body acceleration = 5.3 to 16.1g) to prey size. Such instantaneous energetics help to explain why most felids stalk and pounce, and their analysis represents a powerful approach for accurately forecasting resource demands required for survival by large, mobile predators.

  2. Mosaics of Exotic Forest Plantations and Native Forests as Habitat of Pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolli, Marcelo

    2010-08-01

    There is a general lack of information on the impact of forest plantations and the presence of urban settlements on populations of resource-demanding species such as large felids. To partially address this problem, a project study was conducted to find out whether mosaics of forest plantations and native vegetation can function as an adequate habitat for pumas ( Puma concolor) in southern Brazil. The study was conducted within a 1255-km2 area, managed for planted stands of Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. Individual identification of pumas was carried out using a combination of track-matching analysis (discriminant analysis) and camera-trapping. Both techniques recorded closely similar numbers of individual pumas, either total (9-10 individuals) or resident (5-6 individuals). A new approach, developed during this study, was used to individualize pumas by their markings around the muzzle. The estimated density varied from 6.2 to 6.9 individuals/100 km2, ranking among the highest across the entire puma range and indicating a potential total population of up to 87 individuals in the study site. In spite of the availability of extensive areas without human disturbance, a radio-tracked female used a core home range that included forest plantations, an urbanized village, and a two-lane paved road with regular vehicular traffic. The high density of pumas and the species’ intensive use of modified landscapes are interpreted here as deriving from conditions rarely found near human settlements: mutual tolerance by pumas and humans and an adequate habitat (regardless of plantations) largely due to the inhibition of invasions and hunting and maintenance of sizable extents of native forest patches. More widely, it suggests the potential of careful management in forestry operations to provide habitat conditions for resource-demanding species such as the puma. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of curbing invasions and hunting, in this case provided by the presence of

  3. Scale dependent behavioral responses to human development by a large predator, the puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Wang, Yiwei; Nickel, Barry; Houghtaling, Paul; Shakeri, Yasaman; Allen, Maximilian L; Kermish-Wells, Joe; Yovovich, Veronica; Williams, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    The spatial scale at which organisms respond to human activity can affect both ecological function and conservation planning. Yet little is known regarding the spatial scale at which distinct behaviors related to reproduction and survival are impacted by human interference. Here we provide a novel approach to estimating the spatial scale at which a top predator, the puma (Puma concolor), responds to human development when it is moving, feeding, communicating, and denning. We find that reproductive behaviors (communication and denning) require at least a 4× larger buffer from human development than non-reproductive behaviors (movement and feeding). In addition, pumas give a wider berth to types of human development that provide a more consistent source of human interference (neighborhoods) than they do to those in which human presence is more intermittent (arterial roads with speeds >35 mph). Neighborhoods were a deterrent to pumas regardless of behavior, while arterial roads only deterred pumas when they were communicating and denning. Female pumas were less deterred by human development than males, but they showed larger variation in their responses overall. Our behaviorally explicit approach to modeling animal response to human activity can be used as a novel tool to assess habitat quality, identify wildlife corridors, and mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  4. Interfacing models of wildlife habitat and human development to predict the future distribution of puma habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Christopher L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Theobald, David M.; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of human land uses on ecological systems typically differ relative to how extensively natural conditions are modified. Exurban development is intermediate-intensity residential development that often occurs in natural landscapes. Most species-habitat models do not evaluate the effects of such intermediate levels of human development and even fewer predict how future development patterns might affect the amount and configuration of habitat. We addressed these deficiencies by interfacing a habitat model with a spatially-explicit housing-density model to study the effect of human land uses on the habitat of pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California. We studied the response of pumas to natural and anthropogenic features within their home ranges and how mortality risk varied across a gradient of human development. We also used our housing-density model to estimate past and future housing densities and model the distribution of puma habitat in 1970, 2000, and 2030. The natural landscape for pumas in our study area consisted of riparian areas, oak woodlands, and open, conifer forests embedded in a chaparral matrix. Pumas rarely incorporated suburban or urban development into their home ranges, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the behavioral decisions of individuals can be collectively manifested as population-limiting factors at broader spatial scales. Pumas incorporated rural and exurban development into their home ranges, apparently perceiving these areas as modified, rather than non-habitat. Overall, pumas used exurban areas less than expected and showed a neutral response to rural areas. However, individual pumas that selected for or showed a neutral response to exurban areas had a higher risk of mortality than pumas that selected against exurban habitat. Exurban areas are likely hotspots for puma-human conflict in southern California. Approximately 10% of our study area will transform from exurban, rural, or undeveloped areas to suburban or

  5. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  6. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-Jun; LIU Qiu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations.We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model.In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry,the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero.The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.%The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  7. Using Species Distribution Models to Predict Potential Landscape Restoration Effects on Puma Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Cintia Camila Silva; Adams-Hosking, Christine; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Souza, Marcelo Pereira; McAlpine, Clive Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic of intact native and human-modified vegetation use can provide important habitat for top predators such as the puma (Puma concolor), avoiding negative effects on other species and ecological processes due to cascade trophic interactions. This study investigates the effects of restoration scenarios on the puma's habitat suitability in the most developed Brazilian region (São Paulo State). Species Distribution Models incorporating restoration scenarios were developed using the species' occurrence information to (1) map habitat suitability of pumas in São Paulo State, Southeast, Brazil; (2) test the relative contribution of environmental variables ecologically relevant to the species habitat suitability and (3) project the predicted habitat suitability to future native vegetation restoration scenarios. The Maximum Entropy algorithm was used (Test AUC of 0.84 ± 0.0228) based on seven environmental non-correlated variables and non-autocorrelated presence-only records (n = 342). The percentage of native vegetation (positive influence), elevation (positive influence) and density of roads (negative influence) were considered the most important environmental variables to the model. Model projections to restoration scenarios reflected the high positive relationship between pumas and native vegetation. These projections identified new high suitability areas for pumas (probability of presence >0.5) in highly deforested regions. High suitability areas were increased from 5.3% to 8.5% of the total State extension when the landscapes were restored for ≥ the minimum native vegetation cover rule (20%) established by the Brazilian Forest Code in private lands. This study highlights the importance of a landscape planning approach to improve the conservation outlook for pumas and other species, including not only the establishment and management of protected areas, but also the habitat restoration on private lands. Importantly, the results may inform environmental

  8. High consumption of primates by pumas and ocelots in a remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Santos

    Full Text Available We studied the diet of the ocelot and puma during the years 2007 and 2008 at the Feliciano Miguel Abdala Reserve, in Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. We collected 49 faecal samples (scats from cats, and identified the species of cat from 23 of them by the analysis of the microstructure patterns of hairs found in their faeces: 17 scats of the puma (Puma concolor and six of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In the puma scats, we identified three species of primates (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Alouatta guariba and Sapajus nigritus, the remains of which were found in eight of 17 collected (47.1%, representing 26.7% of items consumed. For the ocelot, we detected capuchin monkey (S. nigritus remains in three of the six scats (50%, accounting for 18.7% of items consumed by ocelot. We were unable to identify the cat species in the remaining 26 faecal samples, but we were able to analyse the food items present. Primates were found in five of these 26 faeces (19.2% and represented 10.2% of the items found. Although the sample size is limited, our results indicate a relatively high consumption of primates by felines. We believe that this high predation may be the result of the high local density of primates as well as the greater exposure to the risks of predation in fragmented landscapes, which tends to increase the incidence of the primates using the ground.

  9. Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-11-01

    Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (≥ 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.

  10. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  11. Erotismo, sexualidad y humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Sigl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.

  12. ABL Tyrosine Kinase Stimulates PUMA Protein Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Oon, Chet K

    2016-01-01

    ABL is an ubiquitously expressed non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in multiple cellular functions including programmed cell death. Upon DNA damage, ABL has been shown to upregulate PUMA, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis, and causes downstream mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic events. However, the mechanism by which ABL regulates PUMA expression remains unknown. We have shown that ABL does not change PUMA protein subcellular localization through immunofluorescence. Through protein an...

  13. PUMA test program for SBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The objective of the PUMA integral test program is to obtain confirmatory test data for the SBWR Developed by the General Electric-Nuclear Energy Company. The program was initiated in July 1993 under the sponsorship of the NRC. The SBWR has a simplified coolant circulation system and a passive emergency cooling system. The engineered safety systems and safety-grade systems in the SBWR are: (1) the Automatic Depressurization System (ADS), (2) the Gravity-Driven Cooling System (GDCS), (3) the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS), (4) the Isolation Condenser Systems (ICS), and (5) the Pressure Suppression Pool (SP). The GDCS and PCCS are new designs unique to the SBWR and do not exist in operating BWRs. The ICS is similar to those in some operating BWRs. The PCCS is designed for low-pressure operation for the containment cooling, but the ICS is capable of high pressure operation as well to cool the reactor pressure vessel. The PUMA design was completed based on an extensive scaling analysis. The PUMA facility having 1/4 height and 1/400 volume scales is constructed. Various facility characterization tests and instrumentation and data acquisition system checks are performed presently. The facility acceptance test will be performed in November and integral tests will be initiated.

  14. El legado de Pablo Dermizaky y su aporte al constitucionalismo boliviano (Homenaje póstumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Vargas Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio bio-bibliográfico, pretende realizar un bosquejo generalacerca de la vida, obra y pensamiento del eminente constitucionalista bolivianoDr. Pablo Dermizaky Peredo (†, describiendo algunos de sus rasgos biográficosmás importantes, y desarrollando a su vez, una revisión bibliográfica desus principales obras, con la finalidad de destacar: su loable labor académicade enseñanza del Derecho Constitucional, su indispensable contribución en laconsolidación del primer Tribunal Constitucional en Bolivia, y su extraordinarioaporte al desarrollo del constitucionalismo boliviano.

  15. PUMA: The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Line, J L B; Pindor, B; Mitchell, D A; Trott, C M

    2016-01-01

    We present new software to cross-match low-frequency radio catalogues: the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm (PUMA). PUMA combines a positional Bayesian probabilistic approach with spectral matching criteria, allowing for confusing sources in the matching process. We go on to create a radio sky model using PUMA based on the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, and are able to automatically cross-match 98.5% of sources. Using the characteristics of this sky model, we create simple simulated mock catalogues on which to test PUMA, and find that PUMA can reliably find the correct spectral indices of sources, along with being able to recover ionospheric offsets. Finally, we use this sky model to calibrate and remove foreground sources from simulated interferometric data, generated using OSKAR (the Oxford University visibility generator). We demonstrate that there is a substantial improvement in foreground source removal when using higher frequency and higher resolution source positions, even when...

  16. Ectoparasites of free-ranging pumas and jaguars in the Paraguayan Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Lance A; Cunningham, Mark W; McBride, Rocky; Ferree, Bambi

    2006-04-15

    Ectoparasites were collected from seven puma (Puma concolor) and seven jaguar (Panthera onca) live-captures (each representing six different animals) in the Paraguayan Chaco from 2002 to 2004. The same five species of ectoparasites were recovered from both host species: the flea, Pulex simulans (total on both hosts combined=30 male, 49 female), and the ticks, Amblyomma cajennense (1 male, 4 female, 46 nymphs, 241 larvae), Amblyomma parvum (42 male, 25 female), Amblyomma tigrinum (1 male, 7 female, 34 larvae) and Amblyomma triste (4 male). There were no statistical differences between the prevalences (percent of hosts infested) for any of these ectoparasite species between the two host species, and only P. simulans showed a significantly higher mean intensity (mean no. of each ectoparasite species per infested host) on one of the host species (jaguar). Clearly, these two large carnivores share similar ectoparasite faunas in the Paraguayan Chaco. However, both carnivores occupy large geographical distributions in the New World and this study, combined with the few previous studies, suggests that their ectoparasite faunas differ slightly in different parts of their respective ranges.

  17. c-Jun transactivates Puma gene expression to promote osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huading; Hou, Gang; Zhang, Yongkai; Dai, Yuhu; Zhao, Huiqing

    2014-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disorder in which genetic, hormonal, mechanical and ageing factors affect its progression. Current studies are focusing on chondrocytes as a key mediator of OA at a cellular level. however, the mechanism underlying chondrocyte apoptosis remains unclear. PUMA is a pro-apoptotic member of the BH3-only subgroup of the Bcl-2 family and is involved in a large number of physiological and pathological processes. In the present study, we examined whether PUMA has a role in IL-1β-induced apoptosis and whether the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun pathway mediates the induction of PUMA, thus contributing to chondrocyte apoptosis. The results demonstrated an increase in PUMA protein and mRNA levels in cultured mouse chondrocytes following 4 h of IL-1β treatment. Furthermore, this upregulation of PUMA was critical for chondrocyte apoptosis as knockdown of PUMA using PUMA-specific siRNA significantly reduced apoptosis in cultured cells. Upon pharmacological inhibition of the JNK/c-Jun pathway with CE11004 or SP600125, the expression of PUMA was notably suppressed with a concomitant decrease in apoptosis observed in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes. Also, immunohistochemical studies revealed that the PUMA and c-Jun proteins were upregulated in chondrocytes from the articular cartilage of OA patients. Together, these data suggest a role for PUMA and the JNK/c-Jun pathway in the regulation of chondrocyte apoptosis during OA.

  18. Role of PUMA in methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanxiang; Qincao, Litao; Xu, Jingtao; Du, Sihao; Huang, Enping; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Xie, Wei-Bing; Wang, Huijun

    2016-01-05

    Exposure to methamphetamine (METH), a widely used illicit drug, has been shown to cause neuron apoptosis. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a key mediator in neuronal apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of PUMA in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis. We determined PUMA protein expression in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells after METH exposure using western blot. We also observed the effect of METH on neuronal apoptosis after silencing PUMA expression with siRNA using TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. Additionally, to investigate possible mechanisms of METH-induced PUMA-mediated neuronal apoptosis, we measured the protein expression of apoptotic markers, including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (cyto c), after METH treatment with or without PUMA knockdown. Results showed that METH exposure induced cell apoptosis, increased PUMA protein levels, activated caspase-3 and PARP, elevated Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression, as well as increased the release of cyto c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm in both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. All these effects were attenuated or reversed after silencing PUMA. A schematic depicting the role of PUMA in METH-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was proposed. Our results suggest that PUMA plays an important role in METH-triggered apoptosis and it may be a potential target for ameliorating neuronal injury and apoptosis caused by METH.

  19. Crizotinib induces PUMA-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xingnan; He, Kan; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Oncogenic alterations in MET or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have been identified in a variety of human cancers. Crizotinib (PF02341066) is a dual MET and ALK inhibitor and approved for the treatment of a subset of non-small cell lung carcinoma and in clinical development for other malignancies. Crizotinib can induce apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we found that crizotinib induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through the BH3-only protein PUMA. In cells with wild-type p53, crizotinib induces rapid induction of PUMA and Bim accompanied by p53 stabilization and DNA damage response. The induction of PUMA and Bim is mediated largely by p53, and deficiency in PUMA or p53, but not Bim, blocks crizotinib-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, MET knockdown led to selective induction of PUMA, but not Bim or p53. Crizotinib also induced PUMA-dependent apoptosis in p53-deficient colon cancer cells and synergized with gefitinib or sorafenib to induce marked apoptosis via PUMA in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, PUMA deficiency suppressed apoptosis and therapeutic responses to crizotinib in xenograft models. These results establish a critical role of PUMA in mediating apoptotic responses of colon cancer cells to crizotinib and suggest that mechanisms of oncogenic addiction to MET/ALK-mediated survival may be cell type-specific. These findings have important implications for future clinical development of crizotinib.

  20. La escolaridad como hito en las biografías de los hijos de bolivianos en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gavazzo

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone un dialogo entre tres trabajos de investigación realizados desde perspectivas socio antropológicas aplicadas al análisis de las experiencias de los hijos de inmigrantes bolivianos en distintos puntos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la Provincia de Buenos Aires. A partir del estudio de los procesos migratorios desde Bolivia y de sus cambios a lo largo de las generaciones, pretendemos postular que la escolaridad constituye parte fundamental de la experiencia de los niños y jóvenes migrantes y muy especialmente de los descendientes de inmigrantes bolivianos. Puesto que la misma afecta su formación intelectual, pero sobre todo, sus identificaciones nacionales, étnicas, de género, de clase y particularmente de edad, nos enfocaremos en comprender el rol de la escolaridad en esa etapa vital considerada como juventud. Teniendo en cuenta algunas de las representaciones mas habituales en los casos examinados, expondremos que el paso por la escuela primaria y secundaria implica un hito en las biografías de los hijos de los bolivianos y los niños y jóvenes bolivianos que se han criado en Buenos Aires y analizaremos el impacto en sus formas de identificación y sus relaciones.

  1. El proceso constituyente boliviano como escenario de disputas por la economía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena González Piñeros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el reciente proceso constituyente boliviano como un escenario de disputas sociales y políticas por el tipo de economía por plasmar en la Nueva Constitución. En la primera parte se hace referencia al entramado monocultural, colonial y excluyente que ha sostenido una forma de entender la economía, la cual ha estado respaldada por la Constitución en favor de un bloque específico de poder. En la segunda parte, el escenario constituyente se analiza como oportunidad histórica para debatir el sentido de la economía. Como resultado de esa disputa, surge el modelo económico nacional productivo dentro del texto constitucional.

  2. PUMA mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis in portal hypertensive gastropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Wei, X; Song, M; Tao, J; Yang, Y; Khatoon, S; Liu, H; Jiang, J; Wu, B

    2014-03-13

    Mucosal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an essential pathological feature in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that has an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, whether PUMA is involved in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear, and whether PUMA induces PHG by mediating ER stress remains unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress apoptotic signaling. To identify whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress, gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis were studied in both PHG patients and PHG animal models using PUMA knockout (PUMA-KO) and PUMA wild-type (PUMA-WT) mice. The induction of PUMA expression and ER stress signaling were investigated, and the mechanisms of PUMA-mediated apoptosis were analyzed. GES-1 and SGC7901 cell lines were used to further identify whether PUMA-mediated apoptosis was induced by ER stress in vitro. Epithelial apoptosis and PUMA were markedly induced in the gastric mucosa of PHG patients and mouse PHG models. ER stress had a potent role in the induction of PUMA and apoptosis in PHG models, and the apoptosis was obviously attenuated in PUMA-KO mice. Although the targeted deletion of PUMA did not affect ER stress, mitochondrial apoptotic signaling was downregulated in mice. Meanwhile, PUMA knockdown significantly ameliorated ER stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in vitro. These results indicate that PUMA mediates ER stress-induced mucosal epithelial apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in PHG, and that PUMA is a potentially therapeutic target for PHG.

  3. PUMA: An Operating System for Massively Parallel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Wheat

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture, a message-passing kernel for massively parallel systems. Message passing in PUMA is based on portals – an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is no need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel and later copy them into the applications address space. PUMA consists of two components: the quintessential kernel (Q-Kernel and the process control thread (PCT. Although the PCT provides management decisions, the Q-Kernel controls access and implements the policies specified by the PCT.

  4. PUMA-PCCS separate effect tests and RELAP5 code evaluation in PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Won

    One of the key areas in the design of advanced nuclear reactors is to develop a reliable Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The purpose of the current work is to better understand the condensation phenomena in PCCS for the downward co-current flow of a steam/air mixture through condenser tube bundles during the three PCCS operational modes, namely the bypass mode, the cyclic venting mode and the long-term cooling mode. A series of unique separate-effect PCCS test data were obtained for condensation heat transfer in the PCCS heat exchangers of the PUMA (Purdue University Multidimensional Integral Test Assembly) facility under a task sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Test conditions includes bypass mode, cyclic venting mode and long term mode, covering a wide range of Loss of Coolant Accident(LOCA) conditions with a parameters of pressure, mass flow rate, noncondensable(NC) gases, and PCCS pool water level. The parametric effect studies and a further validation of the PUMA-PCCS separate effect test data were performed. The evaluation of a best estimate system code (RELAP5/MOD3.3) was performed by using unique PUMA-PCCS separate effects data and PUMA-Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) integral test (1998). Through a sensitivity studies of nodalization method and physical models on the MSLB test simulations, deficiencies in RELAP5/MOD3.3 code were found as follows: (1) over prediction of heat removal rate by condensation models, (2) overestimation of SP heat transfer through the horizontal venting line and thermal stratification distortion, (3) underestimation of NC gas effects in PCCS by the distortion of cyclic venting phenomena and (4) overestimation of the DW and SP wall condensation. The improvement for the code calculation predictions could be obtained by removing the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code deficient factors in the PUMA MSLB integral test simulation. The unique PCCS NC gas venting visualizations were obtained according to various PCCS inlet NC

  5. Innovative optronics for the new PUMA tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, J.; Münzberg, M.; Schlemmer, H.

    2010-04-01

    The new PUMA tank is equipped with a fully stabilized 360° periscope. The thermal imager in the periscope is identical to the imager in the gunner sight. All optronic images of the cameras can be fed on every electronic display within the tank. The thermal imagers operate with a long wave 384x288 MCT starring focal plane array. The high quantum efficiency of MCT provides low NETD values at short integration times. The thermal imager has an image resolution of 768x576 pixels by means of a micro scanner. The MCT detector operates at high temperatures above 75K with high stability in noise and correctibility and offers high reliability (MTTF) values for the complete camera in a very compact design. The paper discusses the principle and functionality of the optronic combination of direct view optical channel, thermal imager and visible camera and discusses in detail the performances of the subcomponents with respect to demands for new tank applications.

  6. PUMA Pædagogisk udredningsmateriale til AKT - og specialundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, René

    2011-01-01

    PUMA er et nyudviklet pædagogisk udredningsmateriale bestående af en bog samt en cd med 35 opgaver, modeller og skemaer til udskrivning på skolelicensvilkår. Materialet arbejder ud fra anerkendte teorier som systemisk konstruktionisme, selvpsykologi, samt kognitive teorier om hukommelse, analyse og...... lignende. Der kan downloades en flyer, samt supplerende materiale fra www.rkris.dk/PUMA...

  7. Idelalisib induces PUMA-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shida; Zhu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Zhicheng

    2017-01-24

    Idelalisib, a PI3K inhibitor, specifically targeting p110δ, has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. However, the mechanisms of action of idelalisib in colon cancer cells are not well understood. We investigated how idelalisib suppresses colon cancer cells growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we found that idelalisib treatment induces PUMA in colon cancer cells irrespective of p53 status through the p65 pathway following AKT inhibition and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. PUMA is necessary for idelalisib-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Idelalisib also synergized with 5-FU or regorafenib to induce marked apoptosis via PUMA in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, PUMA deficiency suppressed apoptosis and antitumor effect of idelalisib in xenograft model. These results demonstrate a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of idelalisib in colon cancer cells and suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of idelalisib sensitivity, and also have important implications for it clinical applications.

  8. Caspase-9 mediates Puma activation in UCN-01-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, C; Luo, Y; Zhao, X; Luo, N; Tong, A; Liu, X; Yuan, Z; Wang, C; Wei, Y

    2014-10-30

    The protein kinase inhibitor 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) is one of the most potent and frequently used proapoptotic stimuli. The BH3-only molecule of Bcl-2 family proteins has been reported to contribute to UCN-01-induced apoptosis. Here we have found that UCN-01 triggers Puma-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Our data confirmed that Akt-FoxO3a pathway mediated Puma activation. Importantly, we elucidate the detailed mechanisms of Puma-induced apoptosis. Our data have also demonstrated that caspase-9 is a decisive molecule of Puma induction after UCN-01 treatment. Caspase-9 mediates apoptosis through two kinds of feedback loops. On the one hand, caspase-9 enhances Puma activation by cleaving Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL independent of caspase-3. On the other hand, caspase-9 directly activated caspase-3 in the presence of caspase-3. Caspase-3 could cleave XIAP in an another positive feedback loop to further sensitize cancer cells to UCN-01-induced apoptosis. Therefore, caspase-9 mediates Puma activation to determine the threshold for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer cells.

  9. HER2 phosphorylates and destabilizes pro-apoptotic PUMA, leading to antagonized apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Richard L; Han, Woody; Paw, Ivy; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2013-01-01

    HER2 is overexpressed in 15-20% of breast cancers. HER2 overexpression is known to reduce apoptosis but the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms for HER2-mediated survival, we investigated the relationship between HER2 and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a potent apoptosis inducer. Our results showed that HER2 interacts with PUMA, which was independent of HER2 activation. In addition, we observed that HER2 interacted with PUMA in both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial compartments. We next examined whether HER2 phosphorylates PUMA. Notably, PUMA tyrosine phosphorylation has never been reported. Using an intracellular assay, we found PUMA to be phosphorylated in breast cancer cells with activated HER2. Via cell-free HER2 kinase assay, we observed that PUMA was directly phosphorylated by HER2. Activation of HER2 decreased PUMA protein half-life. To identify which of the three tyrosines within PUMA are targeted by HER2, we generated three PUMA non-phosphorylation mutants each with a single Tyr→Phe substitution. Results indicated that each PUMA single mutant had lost some, but not all phosphorylation by HER2 indicating that HER2 targets all three tyrosines. Consequently, we created an additional PUMA mutant with all three tyrosines mutated (TM-PUMA) that could not be phosphorylated by HER2. Importantly, TM-PUMA was found to have a longer half-life than PUMA. An inverse association was observed between HER2 and PUMA in 93 invasive breast carcinoma samples. We further found that TM-PUMA suppressed growth of breast cancer cells to a greater degree than PUMA. Also, TM-PUMA had a stronger propensity to induce apoptosis than PUMA. Together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that PUMA can be tyrosine phosphorylated and that HER2-mediated phosphorylation destabilizes PUMA protein. The HER2-PUMA interplay represents a novel mechanism by which PUMA is regulated and a new molecular basis for HER2

  10. Por quê confiamos nas instituições? O caso boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Schwarz-Blum

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A Bolívia passou por um grande processo de reforma institucional desde seu retorno à democracia, em 1982, reconhecido internacionalmente como um dos mais profundos da América Latina. Apesar de todos os esforços do Estado boliviano para aperfeiçoar e modernizar suas instituições, e apesar das reformas bem sucedidas em setores fundamentais do governo, a Bolívia tem um dos níveis mais baixos de confiança nas instituições dos países latino-americanos e os dados mostram indícios de que a confiança nas instituições políticas tende a diminuir com o tempo. Ao mesmo tempo, a Bolívia é o país mais pobre da América do Sul; tem os graus mais altos de corrupção na administração pública e, nos últimos anos, um ambiente político cada vez mais instável. Há indícios de que os efeitos de uma polarização regional de interesses, as percepções negativas da situação econômica e da corrupção e níveis baixos de conhecimento político da população boliviana sejam preditores confiáveis dos baixos níveis de confiança institucional que consistentemente encobrem a melhoria do desempenho institucional dos governos bolivianos.Bolivia has undergone a deep process of institutional reform since its return to democracy in 1982 that is recognized internationally as one of the deepest in the Latin American region. Despite all the efforts of the Bolivian state to improve and modernize its institutions, Bolivia has one of the lowest levels of institutional trust among Latin American countries and data show evidence that trust in political institutions tends to decrease over time. At the same time, Bolivia is the poorest country in South America; it has high levels of corruption in the public administration and in the last years an increasingly unstable political environment. Evidence indicates that the effects of a regional polarization of interests, the negative perceptions of the economic situation and of corruption and low levels of

  11. Genetic Variation among 11 Abies concolor Populations Based on Allozyme Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin-feng; Li Hui; Dong Jian-sheng; Wang Jun-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the genetic structure of Abies concolor and the genetic variation among 11 populations introduced from America to China, allozyme analysis based on starch gel electrophoresis technology was used. 24 loci of 10allozyme systems were mensurated, and the genetic structure and genetic diversity of the 11 populations of A. concolor evaluated.The results show that the genetic variation among is significant, and the genetic variation within A. concolor populations is more important. In contrast with other conifers, the variation of A. concolor is above the average level of conifers, and higher than the same level ofAbies. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 62.5%, the number of alleles per locus (A) 2.08, the number of effective alleles per locus (Ae) was 1.37, the expected heterozygosity (H) 0.204, and the Shannon information index (I) 0.351 7. There is a short genetic distance (D=0.061) and a low gene flow (Nm=0.839 4) among the 11 introduced populations of A. concolor with high genetic variation. The genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) was 0.229 5, which is higher than that of the mean in Abies or Pinus.

  12. El "Tío" está sordo: Los mineros bolivianos y el Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Fernández Juárez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los mineros quechuas de Potosí rinden culto en el interior de mina a un personaje al que denominan “Tío”, el diablo. El artículo reflexiona sobre las contradicciones aparentes en que incurre la UNESCO en el reconocimiento de los bienes de interés cultural intangible o inmaterial aplicadas, en este caso, a la figura del “Tío” y su contexto minero. Las perspectivas “emic” y “etic” chocan con especial violencia intelectual al valorar la significación cultural del “Tio” en las minas potosinas como bien cultural intangible, en un contexto social difícilmente compatible con la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, tal y como reclama la UNESCO. ¿La cultura de la pobreza en que viven los mineros bolivianos agudiza la responsabilidad ética del “tío” o son los responsables del turismo en la zona los que usan al tío para “invisibilizar” a los propios mineros? El artículo pretende responder a estas cuestiones y acercarnos a la vez a las vivencias y expresiones que sobre el “tío” realizan los propios mineros, y analizar las profundas contradicciones que la UNESCO presenta en sus criterios de definición ,” puesta en valor” y reconocimiento de los bienes del Patrimonio Cultural inmaterial.

  13. El peso de lo institucional: auge y caída del modelo boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón PACHANO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo debate la relación entre el tipo de régimen y las orientaciones de la política. Analiza las características institucionales que han llevado a considerar al caso boliviano como una excepción dentro del presidencialismo predominante en América Latina. A la modalidad de elección presidencial, que ha sido considerada elemento básico en ese aspecto, añade dos componentes del diseño institucional que tienen efectos sobre los cálculos estratégicos de los actores y consecuentemente sobre la construcción de consensos. Finalmente, busca detectar la incidencia de esas mismas disposiciones institucionales en el agotamiento del modelo consensual y de coaliciones que estuvo vigente por casi dos décadas.ABSTRACT: This article examines the relationship between regime type and political orientation. It analyzes the institutional features that make Bolivia an exception within the context of presidentialism in Latin America. In addition to the system for the election of the president, which has been considered the cornerstone of the political system, there are tow other features of institutional design which have effects on the strategic calculations of the political actors, and consequently, also for consensus building. Finally, the article addresses how these same features have impacted on the decline of the consensus and coalition based political model that has prevailed for almost two decades.

  14. Estructuras agrarias comparadas: la Puna argentina y el sur boliviano a comienzos del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana A. Teruel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article expects to be another contribution to the knowledge about the social-economic problems from the Argentine Puna, especifically to its agricultural structure, paying special attention to changes and permanences, concerning to property and land, key to economical and social power and fundamental axis of production relationship of this society. It focuses on the problematical fact of indian lands, making a comparison between the North of Argentina and the South of Bolivia, considering both political state systems about comunity lands and its effects in the agrarian structures in the begining of the XXth century.Este artículo tiene por propósito realizar un aporte más al conocimiento de la problemática socio-económica de la Puna argentina, específicamente a su estructura agraria, atendiendo los cambios y permanencias relativos a la propiedad y tenencia de la tierra, clave del poder económico y social y eje fundamental en las relaciones de producción de esta sociedad agraria. Se trata la cuestión en el marco de la problemática de las tierras indígenas, comparando la situación del Norte argentino con la del Sur boliviano, analizando las políticas de ambos Estados en torno a la tierra de las comunidades y sus efectos en las estructuras agrarias de comienzos del siglo XX.

  15. Helminth parasites found in hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aydogdu, Ali; Selver, Melih; Akyol, Volkan

    2010-10-01

    Hedgehog diseases are becoming important issues for veterinary surgeons due to growing interest in this animal species among pet owners and an increase in cases of rescued hedgehogs requiring veterinary care. A parasitological study was carried out on hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in the Bursa province of Turkey, found dead mainly due to road casualties, to determine their helminth parasite burden. The detected helminths and their prevalences were as follows: Physaloptera clausa (72.2%), Crenosoma striatum (55.5%), Aonchotheca erinacei (55.5%), Hymenolepis erinacei (55.5%), Nephridiorhynchus major (50%) and Eucoleus aerophilus (22.2%). The number of parasites in infected animals varied from 1 to 203. The highest mean intensity of infection was observed with C. striatum, and the lowest was observed with N. major. The mean abundance of different species varied from 0.7 to 41.8, where E. aerophilus and C. striatum had the lowest and highest abundance, respectively. This study represents the first time N. major and E. aerophilus have been reported in hedgehogs in Turkey. The presence of E. aerophilus and its potential role as a zoonotic agent are discussed.

  16. Multimodal interaction with BCL-2 family proteins underlies the proapoptotic activity of PUMA BH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda L; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; LaBelle, James L; Braun, Craig R; Opoku-Nsiah, Kwadwo A; Bird, Gregory H; Walensky, Loren D

    2013-07-25

    PUMA is a proapoptotic BCL-2 family member that drives the apoptotic response to a diversity of cellular insults. Deciphering the spectrum of PUMA interactions that confer its context-dependent proapoptotic properties remains a high priority goal. Here, we report the synthesis of PUMA SAHBs, structurally stabilized PUMA BH3 helices that, in addition to broadly targeting antiapoptotic proteins, directly bind to proapoptotic BAX. NMR, photocrosslinking, and biochemical analyses revealed that PUMA SAHBs engage an α1/α6 trigger site on BAX to initiate its functional activation. We further demonstrated that a cell-permeable PUMA SAHB analog induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and, like expressed PUMA protein, engages BCL-2, MCL-1, and BAX. Thus, we find that PUMA BH3 is a dual antiapoptotic inhibitor and proapoptotic direct activator, and its mimetics may serve as effective pharmacologic triggers of apoptosis in resistant human cancers.

  17. PUMA Development through a Multi physics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jinsik; Kim, Junehyung; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Meanwhile advances of numerical methods make it possible for the multi physics problem to be solved in a fully coupled way. In addition to a multidimensional, multi physical approach, a nuclear fuel performance analysis code, which is 1D code, should be improved by accommodating the state-of-the-art in the numerical analysis to support current fuel design and performance analysis. In particular, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of numerically stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is of great importance for a multi physics simulation of nuclear fuel. Instead, coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was found to be made with a relative ease by employing an ordinary differential equations solver. As an effort for a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code), the deformation of U-Zr fuel for SFR in connection with a fission gas release model is analyzed. A finite element analyses for purely mechanical problems are performed using a backward differentiation formula, and are subjected to scrupulous verification with Abaqus. Then mechanical equilibrium equation and the equations for fission gas release are coupled with the same differential-algebraic equations (DAE) solver.

  18. PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic disruption by hypoxic postconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YuZhen; Guo, Qi; Liu, XiuHua; Wang, Chen; Song, DanDan

    2015-08-01

    Postconditioning can reduce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting mitochondria. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is involved in lethal I/R injury. Here, we hypothesized that postconditioning might inhibit mitochondrial pathway-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis by controlling PUMA expression. The cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes underwent 3 h of hypoxia and 3 h of reoxygenation. Postconditioning consisted of three cycles of 5 min reoxygenation and 5 min hypoxia after prolonged hypoxia. Hypoxic postconditioning reduced the levels of PUMA mRNA and protein. Concomitantly, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation were decreased significantly by postconditioning. Overexpression of PUMA increased greatly not only the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, but also the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation under postconditioning condition. The data suggest that reduction of PUMA expression mediates the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms of postconditioning by disrupting mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  19. Evolución tectonomagmática de los Andes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Andes bolivianos ocuparonuna posición de retroarco durante gran parte del Fanerozoico. En su evoluciónse reconoce una primera etapa, restringida al Paleozoico inferior, en la quehubo una gran transferencia de material sedimentario en la corteza superior, yuna segunda en la que predominó el reciclaje de la masa cortical. A lo largodel Paleozoico inferior, una cuenca marina epicratónica se formó entre elcratón de Amazonia, el macizo Arequipa-Antofalla, y el macizo Pampeanofuncionando inicialmente como cuenca de retroarco y luego como cuenca deantepaís hasta colmatarse en el Paleozoico superior. En este lapso ocurrierontres etapas de deformación: La fase oclóyica (límite Ordovícico-Silúrico decarácter restringido, la fase eohercínica (límite Devónico-Carbonífero, y lafase hercínica (Carbonífero Superior también de influencia areal restringida.En el Mesozoico, se registraron aún breves incursiones marinas antes que en elEoceno comience a edificarse una protocordillera. El solevantamiento general detoda la región centroandina, se inició en el Oligoceno Superior afectando alAltiplano y la Cordillera Oriental actuales. Este solevantamiento ocurrió entres etapas limitadas por la formación de superficies de erosión datadas en 18y 10 Ma. La ladera oeste de la Cordillera Oriental, denominada faja de Huarina,tuvo un rol muy importante en la evolución de la región centroandina. Además decobijar a gran parte del magmatismo de retroarco, en esta faja ocurrió la mayorsubsidencia de la cuenca paleozoica. En esta faja ocurrieron preferentementedurante el Mesozoico, procesos de rifting y de adelgazamiento litosférico. Enel Paleógeno, la faja de Huarinas fue la primera en ser solevantada aislando lacuenca altiplánica del interior del continente, y durante el OligocenoSuperior, se constituyó en el cinturón retrocabalgante del orógeno. Ladeformación en el Altiplano y la Cordillera Oriental concluyó hace 10 Ma cuandose form

  20. Investigation of Adaptive Controllers for Puma Trajectory Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Tarokh’s and Seraji’s Control Algorithms - Trajectory ] 4-14 vii 0 Imagen Laser Printer (im132) Owner dsims 00 Host wa7 //printer im132 Date Wed Apr...INVESTIGATION OF ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS FOR PUMA TRAJECTORY TRACKING THESIS Daniel J. Sims Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/91J-05 Approved for public release...Adaptive Controllers for PUMA Trajectory Tracking. 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel J. Sims, Capt, USAF 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8

  1. Comportamientos matrimoniales en migrantes bolivianos residentes en San Salvador de Jujuy : un análisis exploratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana, Sonia B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la Biodemografía, los datos relativos a las uniones conyugales son importantes, en razón de su influencia en la estructura genética de las poblaciones. En el estudio de las migraciones de origen boliviano hacia Argentina -desde diferentes disciplinas- se han caracterizado a aquéllas como altamente endogámicas. De allí que nuestro objetivo fue explorar -desde una perspectiva antropológica- las prácticas matrimoniales de bolivianos residentes en la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy; para lo cual recurrimos a entrevistas en profundidad realizadas en el marco del proyecto "Los procesos de construcción/reconstrucción de identidades sociales y culturales en espacios fronterizos". Encontramos 46% de uniones exógamas y 54% endógamas (24% constituidas en Argentina y 30 % en Bolivia; situación que no se correspondería con lo reportado para otras ciudades argentinas. Dinámica migratoria en espacios de frontera -como lo es Jujuy-, podría contribuir a la comprensión de lo hasta aquí observado.

  2. Clinical and pathological correlations of marrow PUMA and P53 expressions in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Ozlen; Uner, Aysegul; Buyukasik, Yahya; Uz, Burak; Bozkurt, Sureyya; Eliacik, Eylem; Işik, Ayse; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Goker, Hakan; Demiroglu, Haluk; Aksu, Salih; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Sayinalp, Nilgun

    2015-05-01

    p53 is a key regulator of apoptosis. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a critical mediator of p53-dependent and independent apoptosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of p53 and PUMA to the prognosis of MDS. Bone marrow biopsies of MDS patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 76) and at the time of transformation (n = 19) were included in the study group. The expression of p53 and PUMA was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. When compared to the control group, both p53 (p PUMA (p = 0.012) expression levels were significantly higher in MDS group. In MDS group, there was a moderate positive correlation between p53 and PUMA expressions. PUMA expression was not correlated with event free and overall survival. However, overall survival was significantly lower in cases with p53 expression in more than 50% of the cells. There was an increase in PUMA expression in cases that showed transformation as compared to the initial diagnostic bone marrows but was not statistically significant. The correlation that existed between p53 and PUMA was lost in transformed cases. Our results showed that PUMA and p53 expressions are increased in MDS marrows compared to normal marrows. PUMA expression increases further during transformation while the expression of p53 is not significantly altered which suggests that PUMA alterations might be a late event during the evolution of MDS.

  3. In vitro binding properties of tumor suppressor p53 with PUMA and NOXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Jeong, Mi Suk; Jang, Se Bok

    2012-04-06

    The p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and Noxa, are direct targets in p53-mediated apoptosis localized to the mitochondria. Tumor suppressor p53 induces apoptosis by transcriptional induction of Puma and Noxa, which encode proapoptotic BH3-only member Bcl-1 family proteins. However, at a molecular level, the mechanism of action of Puma and Noxa proteins remain poorly defined. In addition, there have been no reports on whether or not p53 directly interacts with Puma and Noxa, in vitro. Here, we provide evidence indicating that the DNA binding domain (DBD) of p53 directly interacted with the BH3 domains of human PUMA and NOXA. Our studies revealed that PUMA has a weak affinity for p53, but NOXA has significant affinity for p53. In this study, we developed a molecular docking model using homology modeling based on the structures of truncated p53, PUMA and NOXA. In addition, we investigated whether or not six mutants of p53 (K101A, T102A, L111A, D186A, G199A and S227A) were able to bind to PUMA and NOXA. Four structure-based mutations (T102A, L111A, D186A and G199A) disrupted the p53-PUMA/NOXA interaction. Our study suggested that these four mutations lowered the stability of the p53 DBD domain and induced aggregation of structurally destabilized p53, and thus disrupted the p53-PUMA/NOXA interaction.

  4. [Knockdown of Puma protects cord blood CD34(+) cells against γ- irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Pang, Ya-Kun; Gu, Hai-Hui; Xu, Jing; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2014-04-01

    Puma (P53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only BCL-1 family member and a critical mediator of P53-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Puma plays an essential role in the apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells exposed to irradiation without an increased risk of malignancies. This study was purposed to develop an effective lentiviral vector to target Puma in human hematopoietic cells and to investigate the effect of Puma gene knockdown on the biological function of human cord blood CD34(+) cells. SF-LV-shPuma-EGFP and control vectors were constructed, and packaged with the pSPAX2/pMD2.G packaging plasmids via 293T cells to produce pseudo-type lentiviruses. SF-LV-shPuma-EGFP or control lentiviruses were harvested within 72 hours after transfection and then were used to transduce human cord blood CD34(+) cells. GFP(+) transduced cells were sorted by flow cytometry (FCM) for subsequent studies. Semi-quantitative real time RT PCR, Western blot, FCM with Annexin V-PE/7-AAD double staining, Ki67 staining, colony forming cell assay (CFC), CCK-8 assay and BrdU incorporation were performed to determine the expression of Puma and its effect on the cord blood CD34(+) cells. The results showed that Puma was significantly knocked down in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the low expression of Puma conferred a radio-protective effect on the cord blood CD34(+) cells. This effect was achieved through reduced apoptosis and sustained quiescence after irradiation due to Puma knockdown. It is concluded that knockdown of puma gene in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells of human cord blood possesses the radioprotective effect, maintains the cells in silence targeting Puma in human hematopoietic cells may have a similar effect with that on mouse hematopoietic cells as previously shown, and our lentiviral targeting system for Puma provides a valuable tool for future translational studies with human cells.

  5. [Parasitic effect of Opius concolor (Spzl) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on an intermediate host Ceratitis capitata Wied (Diptera, Trypetidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamouda, M H; Ben Salah, H

    1984-01-01

    The parasitic incidence of Opius concolor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on a replacement host, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Trypetidae) was studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis methods. A noticeable modification of C. capitata proteins was observed when parasited by O. concolor. But the most important phenomenon is the finding of common antigens between the host and the parasite. These results are discussed with regard to trophic and parasitic behaviour of the parasite.

  6. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Everaldo de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Art...

  7. Desarrollo y evaluación de un cuestionario semi-cuantitativo de frecuencias alimenticias para adolescentes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Text Available Introducción: Puesto que estudios previos sugieren que los patrones dietéticos y el estilo de vida durante la adolescencia tienen un impacto en la salud adulta, es pertinente monitorear y documentar los patrones alimenticios de los adolescentes. Objetivo: Desarrollar y evaluar la confiabilidad y la validez de un cuestionario semi-cuantitativo de frecuencias alimenticias para adolescentes Bolivianos. Metodología: Una muestra de conveniencia de 82 adolescentes de un colegio secundario de la ciudad de La Paz participaron en el estudio. Un cuestionario semi-cuantitativo de frecuencias alimenticias fue aplicado dos veces con un mes de intervalo (Q1 y Q2. Paralelamente, se obtuvieron tres días de registro dietético (3R efectuados por 38 de los estudiantes, para utilizarlos como patrón referencial. Resultados: La mayoría (87% de las preguntas sobre consumo individual de cada ítem de alimentos presentaron niveles entre módicos a sustanciales de concordancia,11 ítems presentaron un nivel regular mientras que sólo 2 ítems presentaron un nivel ligero de concordancia utilizando la estadística kappa. Las cantidades que se obtuvieron de las dos aplicaciones del cuestionario dieron resultados similares (P > 0,05. Las estimaciones de nutrientes obtenidas de Q1, Q2 y 3R no fueron estadísticamente diferentes (P > 0,05. Conclusión: El cuestionario semi-cuantitativo de frecuencias alimenticias es aparentemente confiable y válido para medir el consumo absoluto de alimentos por adolescentes Bolivianos. Se deberá tener cuidado en el futuro para prevenir sobre-estimaciones por este cuestionario particular.

  8. HER2 Phosphorylates and Destabilizes Pro-Apoptotic PUMA, Leading to Antagonized Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Woody Han; Ivy Paw; Hui-Wen Lo

    2013-01-01

    HER2 is overexpressed in 15-20% of breast cancers. HER2 overexpression is known to reduce apoptosis but the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms for HER2-mediated survival, we investigated the relationship between HER2 and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a potent apoptosis inducer. Our results showed that HER2 interacts with PUMA, which was independent of HER2 activation. In addition, we observed that HER2 interacted with PUMA i...

  9. PUMA mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis in portal hypertensive gastropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, S; X Wei; Song, M.; Tao, J.; Yang, Y.; Khatoon, S.; Liu, H; Jiang, J.; Wu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an essential pathological feature in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that has an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, whether PUMA is involved in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear, and whether PUMA induces PHG by mediating ER stress remains unknown. The aim of th...

  10. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Andrea Lucchi

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly,Bactrocera oleae (Rossi),and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management.Augmentative releases ofP.concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success.We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues.Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship.Indeed,the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically.

  11. Gli arakuaa iya non ci sono più? Modi di “fare conoscenza” in comunità guaraní del Sud-Est boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La situazione della scolarizzazione di quello che attualmente, nel Sud-Est boliviano, si autodefinisce “popolo guaraní” si articola nel rapporto tra la storia della colonizzazione, la costituzione dello Stato boliviano e la storia del movimento indigenista, nelle complesse implicazioni politiche che portano alla configurazione attuale (cfr. Rockwell 1999. Nel percorso tracciato attraverso alcune delle principali problematiche di etnografia della scuola incontrate sul campo emerge lo stretto rapporto tra i contesti locali di “scuola”, “comunità”, “società guaraní” e i macro-contesti “Stato” e “organizzazioni internazionali” implicati nella costruzione del processo educativo (cfr. Geertz 1999.

  12. Jaguar interactions with pumas and prey at the northern edge of jaguars’ range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E. Gutiérrez-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first study that evaluates jaguar-puma interactions in the arid lands of northern Mexico, where jaguars have their northernmost breeding population and both predators are persecuted for livestock depredation. We tested whether jaguars are the dominant species in this unique ecosystem, where: (1 pumas outnumber jaguars, (2 pumas are better adapted to arid environments, and (3 jaguars and pumas are of similar size. We analyzed four years of data with two approaches; a two species conditional occupancy model and an activity patterns analysis. We used camera location and prey presence as covariates for jaguar and puma detection and presence probabilities. We also explored overlap in activities of predators and prey. Where both species were detected, peccary presence was positively correlated with both jaguar and puma presence, whereas in areas where jaguars were detected but pumas were not, deer presence explained the probability of jaguar presence. We found that both predators were more likely to co-occur together than to be found independently, and so we rejected the hypothesis that jaguars were the dominant species in our study area. Predators were mainly nocturnal and their activity patterns overlapped by 60%. Jaguar, as compared with puma, overlapped more with deer and calves; puma overlapped with calves more than with other prey, suggesting a preference. We believe exploring predator relationships at different scales may help elucidate mechanisms that regulate their coexistence.

  13. Jaguar interactions with pumas and prey at the northern edge of jaguars’ range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present the first study that evaluates jaguar-puma interactions in the arid lands of northern Mexico, where jaguars have their northernmost breeding population and both predators are persecuted for livestock depredation. We tested whether jaguars are the dominant species in this unique ecosystem, where: (1) pumas outnumber jaguars, (2) pumas are better adapted to arid environments, and (3) jaguars and pumas are of similar size. We analyzed four years of data with two approaches; a two species conditional occupancy model and an activity patterns analysis. We used camera location and prey presence as covariates for jaguar and puma detection and presence probabilities. We also explored overlap in activities of predators and prey. Where both species were detected, peccary presence was positively correlated with both jaguar and puma presence, whereas in areas where jaguars were detected but pumas were not, deer presence explained the probability of jaguar presence. We found that both predators were more likely to co-occur together than to be found independently, and so we rejected the hypothesis that jaguars were the dominant species in our study area. Predators were mainly nocturnal and their activity patterns overlapped by 60%. Jaguar, as compared with puma, overlapped more with deer and calves; puma overlapped with calves more than with other prey, suggesting a preference. We believe exploring predator relationships at different scales may help elucidate mechanisms that regulate their coexistence. PMID:28133569

  14. Aβ induces PUMA activation: a new mechanism for Aβ-mediated neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Meng, Chengbo; Xing, Da

    2015-02-01

    p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a promising tumor therapy target because it elicits apoptosis and profound sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy. However, inhibition of PUMA may be beneficial for curbing excessive apoptosis associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a representative neurodegenerative disease in which amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition causes neurotoxicity. The regulation of PUMA during Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis remains poorly understood. Here, we reported that PUMA expression was significantly increased in the hippocampus of transgenic mice models of AD and hippocampal neurons in response to Aβ. PUMA knockdown protected the neurons against Aβ-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, besides p53, PUMA transactivation was also regulated by forkhead box O3a through p53-independent manner following Aβ treatment. Notably, PUMA contributed to neuronal apoptosis through competitive binding of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain to activate caspase-8 that cleaved Bid into tBid to accelerate Bax mitochondrial translocation, revealing a novel pathway of Bax activation by PUMA to mediate Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis. Together, we demonstrated that PUMA activation involved in Aβ-induced apoptosis, representing a drug target to antagonize AD progression.

  15. PUMA Cooperates with p21 to Regulate Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Yan, Wensheng; Jung, Yong Sam; Chen, Xinbin

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is essential for mammary morphogenesis and requires proliferative suppression and apoptotic clearance of the inner cells within developing acini. Previously, we showed that knockdown of p53 or p73 leads to aberrant mammary acinus formation accompanied with decreased expression of p53 family targets PUMA and p21, suggesting that PUMA, an inducer of apoptosis, and p21, an inducer of cell cycle arrest, directly regulate mammary morphogenesis. To address this, we generated multiple MCF10A cell lines in which PUMA, p21, or both were stably knocked down. We found that morphogenesis of MCF10A cells was altered modestly by knockdown of either PUMA or p21 alone but markedly by knockdown of both PUMA and p21. Moreover, we found that knockdown of PUMA and p21 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression along with increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of ΔNp73, which antagonizes the ability of wide-type p53 and TA isoform of p73 to regulate PUMA and p21, mitigates the abnormal morphogenesis and EMT induced by knockdown of PUMA or p21. Together, our data suggest that PUMA cooperates with p21 to regulate normal acinus formation and EMT.

  16. PUMA Cooperates with p21 to Regulate Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zhang

    Full Text Available Lumen formation is essential for mammary morphogenesis and requires proliferative suppression and apoptotic clearance of the inner cells within developing acini. Previously, we showed that knockdown of p53 or p73 leads to aberrant mammary acinus formation accompanied with decreased expression of p53 family targets PUMA and p21, suggesting that PUMA, an inducer of apoptosis, and p21, an inducer of cell cycle arrest, directly regulate mammary morphogenesis. To address this, we generated multiple MCF10A cell lines in which PUMA, p21, or both were stably knocked down. We found that morphogenesis of MCF10A cells was altered modestly by knockdown of either PUMA or p21 alone but markedly by knockdown of both PUMA and p21. Moreover, we found that knockdown of PUMA and p21 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression along with increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of ΔNp73, which antagonizes the ability of wide-type p53 and TA isoform of p73 to regulate PUMA and p21, mitigates the abnormal morphogenesis and EMT induced by knockdown of PUMA or p21. Together, our data suggest that PUMA cooperates with p21 to regulate normal acinus formation and EMT.

  17. Evaluating potential olive orchard sugar food sources for the olive fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, C.; A.F. Belo; Nunes, F. M.; Ganhão, E.; Müller, Carsten Theodor; Torres, L.; Rei, F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major olive pest in the Mediterranean basin where increasing insecticide resistance has enhanced damage and necessitates more reliance on other control strategies, such as biological control. Provision of floral resources has been reported to improve the effectiveness of natural enemies. Here, we tested the effect of six plant nectars and two honeydew sources on the survival of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: B...

  18. Subcellular localization of PUMA regulates its pro-apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroise, Gorbatchev; Portier, Alain; Roders, Nathalie; Arnoult, Damien; Vazquez, Aimé

    2015-11-10

    The BH3-only protein PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a major regulator of apoptosis. It belongs to the Bcl-2 family of proteins responsible for maintaining mitochondrial outer membrane integrity by controlling the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. We describe here a new pathway regulating PUMA activation through the control of its subcellular distribution. Surprisingly, neither PUMA upregulation in normal activated human B lymphocytes nor high levels of PUMA in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were associated with cell death. We show that PUMA is localized to the cytosol in these cells. By contrast, various apoptosis-triggering signals were found to promote the translocation of PUMA to the mitochondria in these cells, leading to their death by apoptosis. This apoptosis was associated with the binding of mitochondrial PUMA to anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. This translocation was caspase-independent but was prevented by inhibiting or knocking down the expression of the MAPK kinase p38. Our data suggest that the accumulation of PUMA in the cytosol may be important for the participation of this protein in apoptosis without the need for prior transcription. This regulatory pathway may be an important feature of differentiation and tumorigenic processes.

  19. Akt Requires Glucose Metabolism to Suppress Puma Expression and Prevent Apoptosis of Leukemic T Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloff, Jonathan L.; Mason, Emily F.; Altman, Brian J.; Gerriets, Valerie A.; Liu, Tingyu; Nichols, Amanda N.; Zhao, Yuxing; Wofford, Jessica A.; Jacobs, Sarah R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Garrison, Sean P.; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt pathway is activated in stimulated cells and in many cancers to promote glucose metabolism and prevent cell death. Although inhibition of Akt-mediated cell survival may provide a means to eliminate cancer cells, this survival pathway remains incompletely understood. In particular, unlike anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins that prevent apoptosis independent of glucose, Akt requires glucose metabolism to inhibit cell death. This glucose dependence may occur in part through metabolic regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Here, we show that activated Akt relies on glycolysis to inhibit induction of Puma, which was uniquely sensitive to metabolic status among pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and was rapidly up-regulated in glucose-deficient conditions. Importantly, preventing Puma expression was critical for Akt-mediated cell survival, as Puma deficiency protected cells from glucose deprivation and Akt could not readily block Puma-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bim was induced normally even when constitutively active Akt was expressed, yet Akt could provide protection from Bim cytotoxicity. Up-regulation of Puma appeared mediated by decreased availability of mitochondrial metabolites rather than glycolysis itself, as alternative mitochondrial fuels could suppress Puma induction and apoptosis upon glucose deprivation. Metabolic regulation of Puma was mediated through combined p53-dependent transcriptional induction and control of Puma protein stability, with Puma degraded in nutrient-replete conditions and long lived in nutrient deficiency. Together, these data identify a key role for Bcl-2 family proteins in Akt-mediated cell survival that may be critical in normal immunity and in cancer through Akt-dependent stimulation of glycolysis to suppress Puma expression. PMID:21159778

  20. IRES-mediated translation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltouki, Atossa; Harford, Terri J; Komar, Anton A; Weyman, Crystal M

    2013-01-01

    The proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member PUMA is a critical regulator of apoptosis. We have previously shown that PUMA plays a pivotal role in the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation and that a MyoD-dependent mechanism is responsible for the increased expression of PUMA in these cells. Herein, we report that the increased expression of PUMA under these conditions involves regulation at the level of translation. Specifically, we have found that the increase in PUMA protein levels occurs under conditions of decreased total protein synthesis, eIF2-alpha phosphorylation and hypophosphorylation of eIF4E-BP, suggesting that PUMA translation is proceeding via an alternative initiation mechanism. Polyribosome analysis of PUMA mRNA further corroborated this suggestion. A combination of in vitro and ex vivo (cellular) approaches has provided evidence suggesting that PUMA mRNA 5'UTR harbors an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) element. Using mono- and bi-cistronic reporter constructs, we have delineated an mRNA fragment that allows for cap-independent translation in vitro and ex vivo (in skeletal myoblasts) in response to culture in differentiation media (DM), or in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent, etoposide. This mRNA fragment also supports translation in HeLa and 293T cells. Thus, our data has revealed a novel IRES-mediated regulation of PUMA expression in several cell types and in response to several stimuli. These findings contribute to our understanding and potential manipulation of any developmental or therapeutic scenario involving PUMA.

  1. Comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol para a criopreservação de sêmen de suçuarana (Puma concolor Comparison between two glycerol concentrations to cryopreservation of semen of mountain lions (Puma concolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyara de Deco-Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de biotécnicas de reprodução é uma importante ferramenta para a conservação de animais silvestres ameaçados de extinção. Procedimentos de reprodução assistida em suçuarana, no entanto, são escassos na literatura, em especial aqueles relacionados à criopreservação de sêmen. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a congelabilidade do sêmen de suçuaranas adultas mantidas em cativeiro, por meio da comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol no meio de congelamento. Foram usados cinco machos adultos de suçuarana, mantidos no Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres do Mato Grosso do Sul (CRAS/MS. As amostras foram coletadas por eletroejaculação e avaliadas quanto ao seu aspecto físico, volume, vigor, motilidade, concentração e índice espermático. De cada ejaculado duas alíquotas foram diluídas em meio Tris-citrato-gema de ovo, em concentrações finais de 5 e 7,5% de glicerol, resfriadas a uma taxa de -0,55ºC/min e congeladas a uma taxa de -5,8ºC/min. Depois de descongeladas, as amostras foram reavaliadas e submetidas aos testes de termorresistência e hiposmótico. O protocolo de criopreservação e descongelamento de sêmen proposto se mostrou eficiente em ambas as concentrações de glicerol testadas, não havendo diferença (p>0,05 entre estas.The development of biotechnologies of reproduction is an important tool for the conservation of wild animals threatened with extinction. Assisted reproduction procedures in mountain lions, however, are scarce, especially those related to sperm cryopreservation. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the freezing capacity of semen from adult mountain lions in captivity through the comparison of two concentrations of glycerol in the freezing media. Five adult male mountain lions were used, held at the Rehabilitation Center for Wild Animals of Mato Grosso do Sul (CRAS/MS. Samples were collected by electroejaculation and evaluated for physical appearance, volume, sperm progressive status, sperm motility, sperm concentration and sperm motility index. Each ejaculate was spliced into two aliquots and diluted in Tris-citrate-half egg yolk, at final concentrations of 5 and 7.5% glycerol, cooled at a rate of -0.55ºC/min and frozen at a rate of -5.8ºC/min. Once thawed, the samples were re-evaluated and tested for thermoresistance and hypoosmotic swelling. The suggested protocol for cryopreservation and thawing of semen is efficient in both glycerol concentrations tested, with no difference (p>0.05 between them.

  2. PUMA Internet Task Logging Using the IDAC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tarchanidis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This project uses an IDAC-1 board to sample the joint angle position of the PUMA 76 1 robot and log the results on a computer. The robot is at the task location and the logging computer is located in a different one. The task the robot is performing is based on a Pseudo Stereo Vision System (PSVS. Internet is the transport media. The protocol used in this project is UDP/IP. The actual angle is taken straight from the PUMA controller. High-resolution potentiometers are connected on each robot joint and are buffered and sampled as potential difference on an A/D converter integrated on the IDAC-1. The logging computer through the Internet acting as client asks for the angle set, the IDAC-1 responds as server with the 10-bit resolution sampling of the joint position. The whole task is logged in a file on the logging computer. This application can give the ability to the Internet user to monitor and log the robot tasks anywhere in the Word Wide Web (www.

  3. PUMA promotes Bax translocation in FOXO3a-dependent pathway during STS-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Qun

    2009-08-01

    PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis, also called Bbc3) was first identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that is transcriptionally up-regulated by p53 and activated upon p53-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as treatment with DNA-damaging drugs or UV irradiation. Recently studies have been shown that Puma is also up-regulated in response to certain p53-independent apoptotic stimuli, such as growth factor deprivation or treatment with glucocorticoids or STS (staurosporine). However, the molecular mechanisms of PUMA up-regulation and how PUMA functions in response to p53-independent apoptotic stimuli remain poorly understood. In this study, based on real-time single cell analysis, flow cytometry and western blotting technique, we investigated the function of PUMA in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) after STS treatment. Our results show that FOXO3a was activated by STS stimulation and then translocated from cytosol to nucleus. The expression of PUMA was up-regulated via a FOXO3a-dependent manner after STS treatment, while p53 had little function in this process. Moreover, cell apoptosis and Bax translocation induced by STS were not blocked by Pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor), which suggested that p53 was not involved in this signaling pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that PUMA promoted Bax translocation in a FOXO3a-dependment pathway during STS-induced apoptosis, while p53 was dispensable in this process.

  4. Slug promotes survival during metastasis through suppression of Puma-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seaho; Yao, Jiahong; Suyama, Kimita; Qian, Xia; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Bandyopadhyay, Sanmay; Loudig, Olivier; De Leon-Rodriguez, Carlos; Zhou, Zhen Ni; Segall, Jeffrey; Macian, Fernando; Norton, Larry; Hazan, Rachel B

    2014-07-15

    Tumor cells must overcome apoptosis to survive throughout metastatic dissemination and distal organ colonization. Here, we show in the Polyoma Middle T mammary tumor model that N-cadherin (Cdh2) expression causes Slug (Snai2) upregulation, which in turn promotes carcinoma cell survival. Slug was dramatically upregulated in metastases relative to primary tumors. Consistent with a role in metastasis, Slug knockdown in carcinoma cells suppressed lung colonization by decreasing cell survival at metastatic sites, but had no effect on tumor cell invasion or extravasation. In support of this idea, Slug inhibition by shRNA sensitized tumor cells to apoptosis by DNA damage, resulting in caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. The prosurvival effect of Slug was found to be caused by direct repression of the proapoptotic gene, Puma (Bbc3), by Slug. Consistent with a pivotal role for a Slug-Puma axis in metastasis, inhibition of Puma by RNA interference in Slug-knockdown cells rescued lung colonization, whereas Puma overexpression in control tumor cells suppressed lung metastasis. The survival function of the Slug-Puma axis was confirmed in human breast cancer cells, where Slug knockdown increased Puma expression and inhibited lung colonization. This study demonstrates a pivotal role for Slug in carcinoma cell survival, implying that disruption of the Slug-Puma axis may impinge on the survival of metastatic cells.

  5. Phosphorylation of Puma modulates its apoptotic function by regulating protein stability

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fricker; O'Prey, J; Tolkovsky, A. M.; Ryan, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Puma is a potent BH3-only protein that antagonises anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, promotes Bax/Bak activation and has an essential role in multiple apoptotic models. Puma expression is normally kept very low, but can be induced by several transcription factors including p53, p73, E2F1 and FOXO3a, whereby it can induce an apoptotic response. As Puma can to bind and inactivate all anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, its activity must be tightly controlled. We report here, for the first ...

  6. COMPOSICIÓN, ESTRUCTURA Y PATRÓN ESPACIAL DE UN BOSQUE TUCUMANO-BOLIVIANO EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TARIJA (BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Santiago Zenteno-Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El bosque tucumano-boliviano, en su sector correspondiente a Bolivia, ha comenzado a ser conocido con mayor detalle en los últimos años. Sin embargo, los estudios realizados han tenido un carácter más cualitativo o se han realizado en superficies pequeñas (0,1 ha; además, la biogeografía de sus zonas más bajas no está del todo clara. Por otro lado, algunos aspectos ecológicos, como los referidos a patrones espaciales de los árboles, no han sido nunca abordados. Nosotros realizamos el estudio de una hectárea de bosque tucumano-boliviano a 700-950 m, y mapeamos todos los árboles y lianas con DAP ¿10 cm a fin de caracterizar cuantitativamente un área representativa de este bosque. El propósito fue conocer su composición, abundancia y estructura. Realizamos el primer estudio de patrones espaciales para este tipo de bosque en Bolivia. Registramos 591 individuos agrupados en 31 familias, 47 géneros y 57 especies. Seis especies fueron las más abundantes: Urera caracasana, Trichilia clausenii, Piper tucumanum, Diatenopteryx sorbifolia, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum y Cupania vernalis. El bosque estudiado puede considerarse parte del bosque tucumano-boliviano más que del Arco Pleistocénico. El área basal total fue de 29.4 m2/ha. La presencia de lianas fue relativamente baja, lo que indica que se trata de un bosque relativamente poco perturbado. Se trata de un lugar diverso. La riqueza específica resultó comparable a la de los bosques secos de Madidi (La Paz, Bolivia, y superior a la del tucumano-boliviano en el lado argentino, y fue estimada en 74 especies de árboles. La diversidad (3,5 índice Shannon-Wiener es tan alta como la de muchos bosques más tropicales, e incluso algunos amazónicos. Encontramos un patrón espacial aleatorio en los individuos de la comunidad, y la mayoría de las especies presentó agregación a alguna escala espacial.

  7. Las encuestas: Herramientas necesarias de los estudios socioterritoriales. : Un relato metodológico a partir de encuestas de migraciones desarrolladas en el Sur Boliviano.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Ceydric

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Este capítulo tiene como doble objetivo mostrar el interés de las encuestas por cuestionario y cómo producir datos de buena calidad. A partir del ejemplo de encuestas de migraciones, desarrolladas en el sur boliviano, se propone una metodología que permitirá a los estudiantes visualizar todas las etapas de una encuesta: de los prepa¬rativos a los análisis de datos, pasando por el muestreo, el cuestio¬nario (enfoque espacial), la codificación y la carga. Se concluye con...

  8. Correlation of Puma airloads: Evaluation of CFD prediction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Roger C.; Desopper, Andre; Miller, Judith; Jones, Alan

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program was undertaken by research organizations in England, France, Australia and the U.S. to study the capabilities of computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) to predict the aerodynamic loading on helicopter rotor blades. The program goal is to compare predictions with experimental data for flight tests of a research Puma helicopter with rectangular and swept tip blades. Two topics are studied. First, computed results from three CFD codes are compared for flight test cases where all three codes use the same partial inflow-angle boundary conditions. Second, one of the CFD codes (FPR) is iteratively coupled with the CAMRAD/JA helicopter performance code. These results are compared with experimental data and with an uncoupled CAMRAD/JA solution. The influence of flow field unsteadiness is found to play an important role in the blade aerodynamics. Alternate boundary conditions are suggested in order to properly model this unsteadiness in the CFD codes.

  9. Correlation of Puma airfoils - Evaluation of CFD prediction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Roger C.; Desopper, Andre; Miller, Judith; Jones, Alan

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program was undertaken by research organizations in England, France, Australia and the U.S. to study the capabilities of computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) to predict the aerodynamic loading on helicopter rotor blades. The program goal is to compare predictions with experimental data for flight tests of a research Puma helicopter with rectangular and swept tip blades. Two topics are studied. First, computed results from three CFD codes are compared for flight test cases where all three codes use the same partial inflow-angle boundary conditions. Second, one of the CFD codes (FPR) is iteratively coupled with the CAMRAD/JA heilcopter performance code. These results are compared with experimental data and with an uncoupled CAMRAD/JA solution. The influence of flow field unsteadiness is found to play an important role in the blade aerodynamics. Alternate boundary conditions are suggested in order to properly model this unsteadiness in the CFD codes.

  10. 波鞋之变异Puma Go Court Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    运动品牌商PUMA近年推出的鞋越来越不像波鞋,淡化了运动的功能性,取而代之的则是更多的潮流设计元素出现在新鞋中,所以,称PUMA此类鞋为“时装波鞋”比“运动波鞋”会更加贴切。处于运动界潮流最尖端的PUMA本季推出的全新“时装鞋”代表作Puma Go Court Laser上市,

  11. Evaluation of the BH3-only protein Puma as a direct Bak activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haiming; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2014-01-03

    Interactions among Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in cellular life and death decisions. Previous studies have established the BH3-only proteins Bim, tBid, and Noxa as "direct activators" that are able to directly initiate the oligomerization and activation of Bak and/or Bax. Earlier studies of Puma have yielded equivocal results, with some concluding that it also acts as a direct activator and other studies suggesting that it acts solely as a sensitizer BH3-only protein. In the present study we examined the interaction of Puma BH3 domain or full-length protein with Bak by surface plasmon resonance, assessed Bak oligomerization status by cross-linking followed by immunoblotting, evaluated the ability of the Puma BH3 domain to induce Bak-mediated permeabilization of liposomes and mitochondria, and determined the effect of wild type and mutant Puma on cell viability in a variety of cellular contexts. Results of this analysis demonstrate high affinity (KD = 26 ± 5 nM) binding of the Puma BH3 domain to purified Bak ex vivo, leading to Bak homo-oligomerization and membrane permeabilization. Mutations in Puma that inhibit (L141E/M144E/L148E) or enhance (M144I/A145G) Puma BH3 binding to Bak also produce corresponding alterations in Bak oligomerization, Bak-mediated membrane permeabilization and, in a cellular context, Bak-mediated killing. Collectively, these results provide strong evidence that Puma, like Bim, Noxa, and tBid, is able to act as a direct Bak activator.

  12. PUMA is invovled in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis of mouse cerebral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Tian, M; Jin, L; Jia, H; Jin, Y

    2015-01-22

    PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 protein family, is required for p53-dependent and p53-independent forms of apoptosis. PUMA has been invovled in the onset and progress of several diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and ischemic brain disease. Although many studies have shown that ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) can induce the apoptosis of astrocytes, the role of PUMA in I/R-mediated apoptosis of cerebral astrocyte apoptosis remains unclear. To mimic in vivo I/R conditions, primary mouse cerebral astrocytes were incubated in a combinational cultural condition of oxygen, glucose, and serum deprivation (OSGD) for 1 h followed by reperfusion (OSGD/R). Cell death determination assays and cell viability assays indicated that OSGD and OSGD/R induce the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The expression of PUMA was significantly elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD/R. Moreover, targeted down-regulation of PUMA by siRNA transfection significantly decreased the OSGD/R-induced apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. We also found that OSGD and OSGD/R triggered the release of cytochrome c in astrocytes, indicating the dependence on a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was extremely generated during OSGD and OSGD/R, and the elimination of ROS by treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) remarkably inhibited the expression of PUMA and the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The activation of Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 was extremely elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD. In addition, we found that knockdown of PUMA led to the depressed expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 during OSGD/R. These results indicate that PUMA is invovled in the apoptosis of cerebral astrocytes upon I/R injury.

  13. Overview and Motivation for the PUMA 2004 and 2005 Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, D. W.; Ross, M. N.; Avallone, L. M.; Baccus, S.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Davis, S. M.; Herman, R. L.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Kok, G. L.; Thompson, T. L.; Troy, R. F.

    2005-12-01

    The influence of rocket engine emissions on stratospheric ozone concentrations is less significant than influences due to other industrial emissions. Nevertheless, since rocket engines provide an easily detected and well characterized perturbation to atmospheric composition and particle population, in situ plume measurements allow a unique experimental approach to the understanding of important atmospheric processes including particle microphysics, oxidation chemistry and chemical kinetics, and sub-kilometer scale transport and mixing. As part of the Plume Ultrafast Measurements Acquisition (PUMA) effort to characterize mixing and constituent partitioning in rocket plumes, in situ measurements of H2O vapor, ice water content, CO2, O3, and 0.1 to 100 μm particles were obtained from the NASA WB-57 aircraft during intercepts of the plumes of an Atlas IIAS rocket launched on 19 May 2004 and the Space Shuttle launched on 26 July 2005, both from Cape Canaveral, FL. Data were collected during multiple plume encounters between 14 and 18 km altitude beginning within 10 minutes after launch of each vehicle. This presentation discusses the rationale behind the selection of the suite of instruments, the strategy employed for sampling, and some important first results. Known H2O, CO2, and alumina particle emissions of the rockets' propulsion are used to (1) test our understanding of the role that H2O may play in the activation of alumina particle surfaces, (2) examine potential changes to ice vapor pressure in response to HNO3 production on the ice surfaces, (3) establish consistency of the H2O measurements at various relative humidities in the plume, and (4) characterize the dilution rate of the plume. Additional details and early scientific results will be presented in companion posters by individual PUMA investigators at this session.

  14. PUMA promotes apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitors driving leukemic progression in a mouse model of myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, A A; Slape, C I; Failla, L M; Saw, J; Tremblay, C S; Powell, D R; Rossello, F; Wei, A; Strasser, A; Curtis, D J

    2016-06-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with resultant cytopenias. Increased apoptosis and aberrantly functioning progenitors are thought to contribute to this phenotype. As is the case for other malignancies, overcoming apoptosis is believed to be important in progression toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using the NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgenic mouse model of MDS, we previously reported that overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2, blocked apoptosis and improved cytopenias, paradoxically, delaying leukemic progression. To further understand this surprising result, we examined the role of p53 and its pro-apoptotic effectors, PUMA and NOXA in NHD13 mice. The absence of p53 or PUMA but not NOXA reduced apoptosis and expanded the numbers of MDS-repopulating cells. Despite a similar effect on apoptosis and cell numbers, the absence of p53 and PUMA had diametrically opposed effects on progression to AML: absence of p53 accelerated leukemic progression, while absence of PUMA significantly delayed progression. This may be explained in part by differences in cellular responses to DNA damage. The absence of p53 led to higher levels of γ-H2AX (indicative of persistent DNA lesions) while PUMA-deficient NHD13 progenitors resolved DNA lesions in a manner comparable to wild-type cells. These results suggest that targeting PUMA may improve the cytopenias of MDS without a detrimental effect on leukemic progression thus warranting further investigation.

  15. Uncoupling of PUMA Expression and Apoptosis Contributes to Functional Heterogeneity in Renal Cell Carcinoma - Prognostic and Translational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoguang; Li, Jielin; Marx, Christina; Tolstov, Yanis; Rauch, Geraldine; Herpel, Esther; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Roth, Wilfried; Grüllich, Carsten; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus; Duensing, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by a profound disruption of proapoptotic signaling networks leading to chemo- and radioresistance. A key mediator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis is the BH3-only protein PUMA. Given its central role in proapoptotic signaling, we analyzed a series of more than 600 precision-annotated primary RCC specimens for PUMA protein expression. We found a reduced expression of PUMA in 22.6% of RCCs analyzed. Unexpectedly, however, PUMA deficiency was not associated with more aggressive tumor characteristic as expected. Instead, a reduced PUMA expression was associated with a lower TNM stage, lower histopathologic grade, and more favorable cancer-specific patient survival. A direct correlation in a separate patient cohort revealed a profound disconnection between PUMA expression and apoptosis as exemplified by the fact that the tumor with the highest level of apoptotic cells was PUMA deficient. In a series of in vitro studies, we corroborated these results and discovered the highest propensity to undergo apoptosis in an RCC cell line with virtually undetectable PUMA expression. At the same time, PUMA expression was not necessarily associated with stronger apoptosis induction, which underscores the striking functional heterogeneity of PUMA expression and apoptosis in RCC. Collectively, our findings suggest that PUMA-independent mechanisms of cell death exist and may play an important role in suppressing malignant progression. They underscore the functional heterogeneity of RCCs and suggest that PUMA expression alone may not be a suitable predictive biomarker. A better understanding of alternative proapoptotic pathways, however, may help to design novel therapeutic strategies for patients with advanced RCC.

  16. Ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor) in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J.M.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a three-year study to describe the ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake, Crotalus organus concolor. We encountered 426 and telemetered 50 C. o. concolor between 2000 and 2002. We found that their primary diet was lizards (associated with rock outcrops), though they will consume small mammals and birds. They den in aggregations, although in low numbers when compared to other subspecies. Movements and activity ranges were among the largest reported for rattlesnakes. Minimum convex polygon area was 117.8 ha for males, 63.9 ha for nongravid females, and 4.8 ha for gravid females. Mean distances traveled per year were 2122.0 m for males, 1956.0 m for nongravid females, and 296.7 m for gravid and postpartum females. Following emergence from hibernation, they spent several weeks shedding, often in aggregations before migration, and migrations occurred in early summer. Most snakes made straight-line movements to and from discrete summer activity ranges where short, multidirectional movements ensued, although others made multidirectional movements throughout the active season. We observed mating behavior between 21 July and 12 August. Gravid females gave birth during the third week of August. Mean clutch size was 4.17 (range 2-7). We found that the sex ratio was skewed favoring females 1:1.24, and they were sexually dimorphic in size (males SVL = 44.1 cm; females SVL = 40.8 cm). Our data further illustrate the diversity within the large group of Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  17. Transcription factor Sox4 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor, TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sang-Min; Kang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Woong; Kim, Chul-Hong; An, Joo-Hee; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-08-23

    PUMA is a crucial regulator of apoptotic cell death mediated by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In many cancer cells, PUMA expression is induced in response to DNA-damaging reagent in a p53-dependent manner. However, few studies have investigated transcription factors that lead to the induction of PUMA expression via p53-independent apoptotic signaling. In this study, we found that the transcription factor Sox4 increased PUMA expression in response to trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor in the p53-null human lung cancer cell line H1299. Ectopic expression of Sox4 led to the induction of PUMA expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and TSA-mediated up-regulation of PUMA transcription was repressed by the knockdown of Sox4. Using luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we also determined that Sox4 recruits p300 on the PUMA promoter region and increases PUMA gene expression in response to TSA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sox4 is required for p53-independent apoptotic cell death mediated by PUMA induction via TSA treatment.

  18. Structure and Development of the Gametophytes of Philippine Cheilanthoid Ferns, III. Cheilanthes concolor (Langsdorff et Fischer R. Tryon

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    Prescillano Zamora

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The gametophytes of Cheilanthes concolor (Langsdorff et Fischer R. Tryon from the Philippines (Quezon City are no different in pattern of development and in morphology from those from India with one possible notable difference, which is, that the gametophytes under report (which were grown from spores produced from 32-sporate sporangia are apogamous while those from India (sporangial type of source was not stated are sexual.

  19. Evolución tectonomagmática de los Andes bolivianos Tectonomagmaticevolution of the Bolivian Andes

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    Néstor Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Andes bolivianos ocuparonuna posición de retroarco durante gran parte del Fanerozoico. En su evoluciónse reconoce una primera etapa, restringida al Paleozoico inferior, en la quehubo una gran transferencia de material sedimentario en la corteza superior, yuna segunda en la que predominó el reciclaje de la masa cortical. A lo largodel Paleozoico inferior, una cuenca marina epicratónica se formó entre elcratón de Amazonia, el macizo Arequipa-Antofalla, y el macizo Pampeanofuncionando inicialmente como cuenca de retroarco y luego como cuenca deantepaís hasta colmatarse en el Paleozoico superior. En este lapso ocurrierontres etapas de deformación: La fase oclóyica (límite Ordovícico-Silúrico decarácter restringido, la fase eohercínica (límite Devónico-Carbonífero, y lafase hercínica (Carbonífero Superior también de influencia areal restringida.En el Mesozoico, se registraron aún breves incursiones marinas antes que en elEoceno comience a edificarse una protocordillera. El solevantamiento general detoda la región centroandina, se inició en el Oligoceno Superior afectando alAltiplano y la Cordillera Oriental actuales. Este solevantamiento ocurrió entres etapas limitadas por la formación de superficies de erosión datadas en 18y 10 Ma. La ladera oeste de la Cordillera Oriental, denominada faja de Huarina,tuvo un rol muy importante en la evolución de la región centroandina. Además decobijar a gran parte del magmatismo de retroarco, en esta faja ocurrió la mayorsubsidencia de la cuenca paleozoica. En esta faja ocurrieron preferentementedurante el Mesozoico, procesos de rifting y de adelgazamiento litosférico. Enel Paleógeno, la faja de Huarinas fue la primera en ser solevantada aislando lacuenca altiplánica del interior del continente, y durante el OligocenoSuperior, se constituyó en el cinturón retrocabalgante del orógeno. Ladeformación en el Altiplano y la Cordillera Oriental concluyó hace 10 Ma cuandose form

  20. Counterpart experimental study of ISP-42 PANDA tests on PUMA facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun, E-mail: toyangjun@gmail.com [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Choi, Sung-Won; Lim, Jaehyok; Lee, Doo-Yong; Rassame, Somboon; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Counterpart tests were performed on two large-scale BWR integral facilities. ► Similarity of post-LOCA system behaviors observed between two tests. ► Passive core and containment cooling systems work as design in both tests. -- Abstract: A counterpart test to the Passive Nachwärmeabfuhr und Druckabbau Test Anlage (Passive Decay Heat Removal and Depressurization Test Facility, PANDA) International Standard Problem (ISP)-42 test was conducted at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. Aimed to support code validation on a range of light water reactor (LWR) containment issues, the ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phases A–F) with separately defined initial and boundary conditions, addressing different stages of anticipated accident scenario and system responses. The counterpart test was performed from Phases A to D, which are within the scope of the normal integral tests performed on the PUMA facility. A scaling methodology was developed by using the PANDA facility as prototype and PUMA facility as test model, and an engineering scaling has been applied to the PUMA facility. The counterpart test results indicated that functions of passive safety systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) start-up, gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) discharge, PCCS normal operation and overload function were confirmed in both the PANDA and PUMA facilities with qualitative similarities.

  1. Explaining reported puma-related behaviors and behavioral intentions among northern Arizona residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Ruther, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of pumas in the American West is typified by conflict among stakeholders plausibly rooted in life experiences and worldviews. We used a mail questionnaire to assess demographics, nature-views, puma-related life experiences and behaviors, and support for puma-related policies among residents of northern Arizona. Data from the questionnaire (n = 693 respondents) were used to model behaviors and support for policies. Compared to models based on nature-views and life experiences, those based on demographics had virtually no support from the data. The Utilitarian/Dominionistic nature-view had the strongest effect of any variable in six of seven models, and was associated with firearms and opposition to policies that would limit killing pumas. The Humanistic/Moralistic nature-view was positively associated with non-lethal behaviors and policies in five models. Gender had the strongest effect of any demographic variable. Compared to demographics alone, our results suggest that worldviews provide a more meaningful explanation of reported human behaviors and behavioral intentions regarding pumas.

  2. Noxa induces apoptosis in oncogene-expressing cells through catch-and-release mechanism operating between Puma and Mcl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Wataru; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2011-10-07

    Tumor suppressor p53 induces apoptosis by transcriptional induction of Noxa and Puma, which encode the proapoptotic BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family proteins. In the p53-mediated tumor surveillance system, p53 induces apoptosis or replicative senescence in oncogene-expressing cells, resulting in elimination of such cells. In this context, we previously found that Noxa and Puma synergistically induce apoptosis. Here, we found the adenovirus oncogene E1A to induce p53-dependently expression of Puma, but not Noxa. The induced Puma associates with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1, accompanied by accumulated Mcl-1 protein on mitochondria. Moreover, E1A also reduces expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-X(L). In contrast, the DNA-damaging agent adriamycin induces Noxa expression in E1A-expressing cells. Interestingly, Mcl-1 knockdown itself induced apoptosis in E1A-expressing MEFs. Furthermore, Noxa displaced Puma's association with Mcl-1, accompanied by Mcl-1 degradation and apoptosis induction by activating mitochondrial apoptotic executers Bax and Bak. These results suggest that p53-induced apoptosis in oncogene-expressing cells is regulated by differential induction and sequential activation of Noxa and Puma. Accumulated Puma by oncogene enhances susceptibility to apoptosis through "catch" in mitochondria by Mcl-1. Subsequently, in response to DNA-damage, Noxa efficiently induces apoptosis by "release" of Puma from Mcl-1.

  3. The BH3-only protein Puma plays an essential role in p53-mediated apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Jia; Liu, Ling; Fan, Lei; Zhang, Li-Na; Fang, Cheng; Zou, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics and functions of BH3-only proteins Puma, Noxa and Bim in the prognosis, therapy and drug resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Puma, Noxa and Bim mRNAs were evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and correlations between their expression levels and CLL prognostic markers were analyzed. Primary CLL samples were treated in vitro with fludarabine to investigate the role of Puma, Noxa and Bim in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs which act through activation of the p53 pathway. We found that a low expression level of Puma was associated with some markers of poor prognosis. However, the level of Noxa or Bim was not different in patients with CLL with variant clinical features and prognostic factors. Puma expression was up-regulated after fludarabine treatment in primary CLL cells, but there was no significant difference for Noxa and Bim. Up-regulation of Puma occurred only in CLL cells with functional p53. CLL cells with p53 abnormalities were deficient in the activation of Puma by chemotherapeutics. These results suggest that a lack of Puma induction may contribute to the development of resistance to anticancer agents in CLL.

  4. Pazopanib, a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, shows potent antitumor activity in colon cancer through PUMA-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Huanan; Li, Wei; Zhong, Juchang; Yu, Rongcheng; Huang, Xinfeng; Wang, Honghui; Tan, Zhikai; Wang, Jiangang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2017-01-10

    Colon cancer is still the third most common cancer which has a high mortality but low five-year survival rate. Novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as pazopanib become effective antineoplastic agents that show promising clinical activity in a variety of carcinoma, including colon cancer. However, the precise underlying mechanism against tumor is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that pazopanib promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis through inducing PUMA expression. Pazopanib induced p53-independent PUMA activation by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby activating Foxo3a, which subsequently bound to the promoter of PUMA to activate its transcription. After induction, PUMA activated Bax and triggered the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, administration of pazopanib highly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. PUMA deletion in cells and tumors led to resistance of pazopanib, indicating PUMA-mediated pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Combing pazopanib with some conventional or novel drugs, produced heightened and synergistic antitumor effects that were associated with potentiated PUMA induction via different pathways. Taken together, these results establish a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of pazopanib in colon cancer cells and provide the rationale for clinical evaluation.

  5. Un abordaje comparativo en torno a la incidencia de la tuberculosis en inmigrantes bolivianos de Buenos Aires y São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Goldberg

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone de manera exploratoria y desde una perspectiva sociosanitaria regional, en clave comparativa, algunas dimensiones de análisis en torno a la incidencia de la tuberculosis en inmigrantes bolivianos de las ciudades de Buenos Aires y São Paulo. En ambos casos, se trata de un padecimiento ligado a sus modos de vida y de trabajo precarios en talleres textiles clandestinos. Sumado a lo anterior, la falta de documentación en regla, las dificultades de acceso a la atención sanitaria pública y el sufrimiento social experimentado, potencian la situación de vulnerabilidad social de estas personas; aumentando los riesgos de infectarse y desarrollar la enfermedad.

  6. Expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakakibara-Konishi Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family have been proposed to play a key role in the control of apoptosis and in the initiation of the apoptotic pathways. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 135 surgically resected NSCLCs were immunohistochemically assessed for Bim, Noxa, and Puma expression. The immunoscores were determined, and then its correlation with either the clinicopathological variables or the survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Immunohistochemical reactivity for Bim, Noxa, and Puma was detected in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Bim expression was associated with several clinicopathological factors, including sex (p  Conclusions The current analyses demonstrated that Bim expression in the NSCLCs was associated with both squamous cell carcinoma histology and tumor proliferation.

  7. Organic chemistry of cometary dust as derived from PUMA 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, J.; Krueger, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Onboard the Halley Fly-By spacecrafts Vega 1, Vega 2, and Giotto were the dust impact mass spectrometers PUMA 1, PUMA 2, and PIA respectively. PUMA 1 was the most sensitive instrument among them. From its data the occurrence of masslines greater than 60 Daltons could be shown to be statistically significant. An analysis of these masslines lead to a scenario, which could explain the masslines as fragment ions from larger molecules which characterize the chemical nature of cometary organic matter as: (1) highly unsaturated hydrocarbons; (2) some of them containing oxygen; (3) less containing nitrogen; and (4) a few containing oxygen and nitrogen as heteroatoms. From the properties of the spectrometer, also some physical parameters of the dust particles could be inferred, such as their density and structure.

  8. BMW Sauber F1 Team 车队专用——BMW X PUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian

    2007-01-01

    Puma x F1.第一时间会想起Puma与法拉利车队合作的法拉利系列.还有,Puma更与法拉利签下长期合作协议。可是.最近却杀出个程咬金-BMW Sauber F1 Team车队,说的是Puma与宝马车队联合设计的新系.当中最注目的有这双Kart Cat Ⅱ F1赛车鞋.鞋形延用Puma Cat一贯的流线形设计,除了用上宝马车队专用的宝蓝色外.中底更用上Puma CeⅡ蜂巢缓震系统,算是向法拉利车队示威吧!

  9. PUMAS: The On-line journal of Math and Science Examples for Pre-College Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-11-01

    PUMAS - “Practical Uses of Math And Science” - is an on-line collection of brief examples showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes can be used in interesting settings, including every day life. The examples are written primarily by scientists, engineers, and other content experts having practical experience with the material. They are aimed mainly at classroom teachers to enrich their presentation of math and science topics. The goal of PUMAS is to capture, for the benefit of pre-college education, the flavor of the vast experience that working scientists have with interesting and practical uses of math and science. There are currently over 80 examples in the PUMAS collection, and they are organized by curriculum topics and tagged with relevant grade levels and curriculum topic benchmarks. The published examples cover a wide range of subject matter: from demonstrating why summer is hot, to describing the fluid dynamics of a lava lamp, to calculating the best age to collect Social Security Benefits. The examples are available to all interested parties via the PUMAS web site: http://pumas.nasa.gov/.We invite the community to participate in the PUMAS collection. We seek scientists and scientific thinkers to provide innovative examples of practical uses for teachers to use to enrich the classroom experience, and content experts to participate in peer-review. We also seek teachers to review examples for originality, accuracy of content, clarity of presentation, and grade-level appropriateness. Finally, we encourage teachers to mine this rich repository for real-world examples to demonstrate the value of math in science in everyday life.

  10. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  11. Helminth Parasites of Eastern European Hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor in Northern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a high tendency among exotic pet owners for keeping hedgehogs. This mammal can transfer some significant zoonotic pathogens to human. Hence, the present study was conducted for the first time to prepare a list of helminth parasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in North of Iran.Ten (four males and six females road killed hedgehogs were collected during April to January 2011 in rural areas of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. All of internal organs were scrutinized for helminth burden. The extracted specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and then cleared in Lacto-phenol solution. Helminth identification was carried out according to available systematic keys.All the examined hedgehogs (100% were infected with parasitic helminth as following: two hedgehogs (20% were infected with Crenosoma striatum, four hedgehogs (40% harbored Physaloptera clausa, one (10% host had Hymenolepis erinacei and three (30% of them were infected with Nephridiacanthus major.This is noteworthy that the current survey is the first report of helminth parasites fauna of Eastern European Hedgehog in Iran. Since, this is the first such investigation in our country, more researches are required to perform on unexplored areas of Iran in order to increase our knowledge regarding hedgehog parasitic diseases.

  12. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

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    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  13. Mesothelioma in Two Nondomestic Felids: North American Cougar (Felis concolor and Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Whiton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male North American cougar (Felis concolor presented with a 2-day history of anorexia, restlessness, and dyspnea. White blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased, and BUN (143 mg/dL, creatinine (6.3 mg/dL, and phosphorus (8.5 mg/dL concentrations indicated chronic renal disease. Thoracic radiographs showed severe pleural and pericardial effusion. During attempts to remove the fluid, cardiac tamponade developed and the cat died. At necropsy, nodular masses decorated the pericardium at the level of the base of the heart. The final microscopic diagnosis was mesothelioma of the pericardium, tunica adventitia of the main pulmonary artery, left auricle epicardium, and left ventricular epicardium. A 15-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus was evaluated for acute respiratory distress. The white blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased. Radiographically pleural effusion and a cranial thoracic mass were seen. The cheetah was euthanized, and a gross diagnosis of disseminated pleural mesothelioma with thoracic effusion was made. Histologically, pleural mesothelioma was confirmed with local invasion of the lung and pulmonary arterial emboli and infarction. In both cases, a diagnosis of mesothelioma was made based on cellular morphology, microscopic architecture, and neoplastic cell coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin.

  14. Pro-apoptotic Gene PUMA and Tumor Therapy%促凋亡基因puma与肿瘤治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明立

    2012-01-01

    p53上调凋亡调控因子(puma)是Bcl-2蛋白家族的促凋亡成员之一,是p53的下游靶基因,发挥作用却与p53的状态无关,可通过p53依赖和非依赖途径诱导细胞凋亡.puma在多种肿瘤组织中低表达,与肿瘤的发生密切相关.puma与放疗、化疗有协同作用,上调puma可以增强肿瘤细胞对放化疗的敏感性,而puma缺失则可降低放化疗对正常细胞的损伤.随着研究的深入,puma有望成为肿瘤治疗的新靶点.%p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis( PUMA )is a pro-apoptotic protein member of the Bcl-2 family. PUMA is the down-stream target gene of p53, playing the role regardless of the state of p53. PUMA induces apoptosis via both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. PUMA has low expression in a variety of tumor tissues and is closely related with tumor occurrence. PUMA has a syner-gistic effect with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Upregulation of PUMA expression could enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, while the deletion of PUMA could reduce the damage of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to normal cells. PUMA is expected to be a new target of cancer therapy along with the further studies.

  15. Identification of a coupled flapping/inflow model for the PUMA helicopter from flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Val, Ronald; Bruhis, Ofer; Green, John

    1989-01-01

    A model validation procedure is applied to a coupled flapping/inflow model of a PUMA helicopter blade. The structure of the baseline model is first established. Model structure and flight test data are checked for consistency. Parameters of the model are then identified from the flight test data.

  16. Harnessing the p53-PUMA Axis to Overcome DNA Damage Resistance in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to DNA damage–induced apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and a major cause of treatment failure and lethal disease outcome. A tumor entity that is largely resistant to DNA-damaging therapies including chemo- or radiotherapy is renal cell carcinoma (RCC. This study was designed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of DNA damage resistance in RCC to develop strategies to resensitize tumor cells to DNA damage–induced apoptosis. Here, we show that apoptosis-resistant RCC cells have a disconnect between activation of p53 and upregulation of the downstream proapoptotic protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA. We demonstrate that this disconnect is not caused by gene-specific repression through CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF but instead by aberrant chromatin compaction. Treatment with an HDAC inhibitor was found to effectively reactivate PUMA expression on the mRNA and protein level and to revert resistance to DNA damage–induced cell death. Ectopic expression of PUMA was found to resensitize a panel of RCC cell lines to four different DNA-damaging agents tested. Remarkably, all RCC cell lines analyzed were wild-type for p53, and a knockdown was likewise able to sensitize RCC cells to acute genotoxic stress. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA damage resistance in RCC is reversible, involves the p53-PUMA axis, and is potentially targetable to improve the oncological outcomes of RCC patients.

  17. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infections disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vectorborne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  18. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infectious disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S.N.; Carver, S.; Boydston, E.E.; Lyren, L.M.; Alldredge, M.; Logan, K.A.; Riley, S.P.D.; Fisher, R.N.; Vickers, T.W.; Boyce, W.; Salman, M.; Lappin, M.R.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  19. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Bevins

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral, that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact, and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  20. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toruno, Cristhian; Carbonneau, Seth; Stewart, Rodney A; Jette, Cicely

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  1. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Toruno

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  2. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  3. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer A2780s cells by activation of ERK/p53/PUMA signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Wei, Mei; Liu, Wenfen; Shen, Shulin; Li, Jiaqun; Wang, Liming

    2017-03-13

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, including ovarian cancer. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to cell apoptosis remain obscure. In this study, the signaling pathways involved in CDDP -induced apoptosis were examined using CDDP-sensitive ovarian cancer A2780s cells. A2780s cells were treated with CDDP (1.5-3 μg/ml) for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. Using siRNA targeting P53 and PUMA, and a selective MEK inhibitor, PD98059 to examine the relation between ERK1/2 activation, p53 and PUMA expression after exposure to CDDP, and the effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis. The results shown that treatment of A2780s cells with CDDP (3 μg/ml) for 6-24 h induced apoptosis, resulting in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and accumulation of p53 and PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) protein. Knockdown of P53 or PUMA by siRNA transfection blocked CDDP-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of ERK1/2 using PD98059, a selective MEK inhibitor, blocked the apoptotic cell death but prevented CDDP-induced accumulation of p53 and PUMA. Knockdown of P53 by siRNA transfection also blocked CDDP-induced accumulation of PUMA. We therefore concluded that CDDP activated ERK1/2 and induced-p53-dependent PUMA upregulation, resulting in triggering apoptosis in A2780s cells. Our study clearly demonstrates that the ERK1/2/p53/PUMA axis is related to CDDP-induced cell death in A2780s cells.

  4. Role of BH3-only molecules Bim and Puma in β-cell death in Pdx1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Decheng; Sun, Juan; Wang, Changzheng; Ye, Honggang; Mao, Liqun; Cheng, Emily H; Bell, Graeme I; Polonsky, Kenneth S

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1) are associated with diabetes in humans. Pdx1-haploinsufficient mice develop diabetes due to an increase in β-cell death leading to reduced β-cell mass. For definition of the molecular link between Pdx1 deficiency and β-cell death, Pdx1-haploinsufficient mice in which the genes for the BH3-only molecules Bim and Puma had been ablated were studied on a high-fat diet. Compared with Pdx1(+/-) mice, animals haploinsufficient for both Pdx1 and Bim or Puma genes showed improved glucose tolerance, enhanced β-cell mass, and reduction in the number of TUNEL-positive cells in islets. These results suggest that Bim and Puma ablation improves β-cell survival in Pdx1(+/-) mice. For exploration of the mechanisms responsible for these findings, Pdx1 gene expression was knocked down in mouse MIN6 insulinoma cells resulting in apoptotic cell death that was found to be associated with increased expression of BH3-only molecules Bim and Puma. If the upregulation of Bim and Puma that occurs during Pdx1 suppression was prevented, apoptotic β-cell death was reduced in vitro. These results suggest that Bim and Puma play an important role in β-cell apoptosis in Pdx1-deficient diabetes.

  5. EZH2-mediated Puma gene repression regulates non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidan; Li, Wei; Yu, Xinfang; Gao, Feng; Duan, Zhi; Ma, Xiaolong; Tan, Shiming; Yuan, Yunchang; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Xinmin; Yang, Yifeng

    2016-08-30

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are highly conserved epigenetic effectors that maintain the silenced state of genes. EZH2 is the catalytic core and one of the most important components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and primary lung tumors, we found that PRC2 components, including EZH2, are overexpressed. High levels of EZH2 protein were associated with worse overall survival rate in NSCLC patients. RNA interference mediated attenuation of EZH2 expression blunted the malignant phenotype in this setting, exerting inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. Unexpectedly, we discovered that, in the suppression of EZH2, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression was concomitantly induced. This is achieved through EZH2 directly binds to the Puma promoter thus epigenetic repression of PUMA expression. Furthermore, cisplatin-induced apoptosis of EZH2-knocking down NSCLC cells was elevated as a consequence of increased PUMA expression. Our work reveals a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism controlling PUMA expression and suggests that EZH2 offers a candidate molecular target for NSCLC therapy and EZH2-regulated PUMA induction would synergistically increase the sensitivity to platinum agents in non-small cell lung cancers.

  6. La necesidad de comprometer la existencia. Nación y descolonización en el cine boliviano de la época neoliberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mattos Vazualdo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is twofold: to analyze post-dictatorial Bolivian filmic discourse on the thematic of the nation vis-à-vis processes of decolonization, and to observe the effect that this relation had in the formation of subjectivities during the so called  “neoliberal” era . Toward this end, I examine three films that reflect on the colonial condition of the nation through cinematographic language: Mi socio (Paolo Agazzi, 1982, La nación clandestina (Jorge Sanjinés, 1989, and American Visa (Juan Carlos Valdivia, 2005. El objetivo principal del presente ensayo es analizar la reflexión que se da en el discurso fílmico boliviano post-dictatorial sobre la temática de la nación en relación a procesos de descolonización; al mismo tiempo, observar el efecto que dicha relación tuvo en el proceso de formación de subjetividades durante la nueva época denominada “neoliberal”. Para ello, acudo a la lectura de tres películas que de distintas maneras reflexionan la condición colonial de la nación a través del lenguaje cinematográfico: Mi socio (Paolo Agazzi, 1982, La nación clandestina (Jorge Sanjinés, 1989, y American Visa (Juan Carlos Valdivia, 2005.

  7. La reconfiguración del Estado boliviano hacia el plurinacionalismo: economía política de autonomía indígena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kwon Mun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El salto de la sociedad multicultural al Estado plurinacional significa establecer una nueva estructura de poder con base étnica, reconociendo a los grupos étnicos como las naciones y después implementando su estatalización que supone formar parte de las estructuras del Estado. Este trabajo se propone evaluar el alcance y el límite del plurinacionalismo boliviano en la época del gobierno izquierdista, mediante el análisis de la economía política de la Autonomía Indígena Originario Campesina (AIOC, que es la forma más explícita y clara de hacer efectiva la noción de Estado plurinacional. Al fin, la realidad de la AIOC demuestra que el Estado plurinacional encarnado en descentralización ha probado ser sólo retórica vacía de los intentos reformistas.

  8. Aspectos do uso territorial por onça parda (Puma concolor, através de monitoramento via satélite, na região do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A.R. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo monitorar o comportamento do uso territorial de um macho de onça parda, capturado no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, por meio da telemetria, usando colar de GPS via Satélite Globalstar. O monitoramento de doze meses resultou na transmissão via satélite de 328 localizações, as quais sugerem que a área utilizada por esse felino seja de aproximadamente 610km2, sendo esta a maior área já descrita para a espécie. Foi possível observar que apenas 20% das localizações ocorreram dentro da área do PESB. O comportamento territorial observado neste trabalho mostra a vulnerabilidade do animal a ações antrópicas, como a caça, atropelamentos e o contato com patógenos entre animais silvestres e domésticos. Observou-se também que duas rodovias configuram barreiras artificiais para o deslocamento do animal, possivelmente impedindo o fluxo gênico entre o PESB e dois outros importantes parques. Com os dados levantados é possível a sugestão de ações de manejo, como a criação de uma conectividade efetiva entre o PESB, o Parque Estadual do Rio Doce e o Parque Nacional do Caparaó, o que poderia contribuir para o intercâmbio genético entre as populações e, dessa forma, favorecer a conservação não somente da onça parda.

  9. Comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol para a criopreservação de sêmen de suçuarana (Puma concolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyara de Deco-Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de biotécnicas de reprodução é uma importante ferramenta para a conservação de animais silvestres ameaçados de extinção. Procedimentos de reprodução assistida em suçuarana, no entanto, são escassos na literatura, em especial aqueles relacionados à criopreservação de sêmen. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a congelabilidade do sêmen de suçuaranas adultas mantidas em cativeiro, por meio da comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol no meio de congelamento. Foram usados cinco machos adultos de suçuarana, mantidos no Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres do Mato Grosso do Sul (CRAS/MS. As amostras foram coletadas por eletroejaculação e avaliadas quanto ao seu aspecto físico, volume, vigor, motilidade, concentração e índice espermático. De cada ejaculado duas alíquotas foram diluídas em meio Tris-citrato-gema de ovo, em concentrações finais de 5 e 7,5% de glicerol, resfriadas a uma taxa de -0,55ºC/min e congeladas a uma taxa de -5,8ºC/min. Depois de descongeladas, as amostras foram reavaliadas e submetidas aos testes de termorresistência e hiposmótico. O protocolo de criopreservação e descongelamento de sêmen proposto se mostrou eficiente em ambas as concentrações de glicerol testadas, não havendo diferença (p>0,05 entre estas.

  10. Adult neurogenesis in the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) and mole (Talpa europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, K; Turlejski, K; Grabiec, M; Ghazaryan, A; Yavruoyan, E; Djavadian, R L

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adult neurogenesis in two species of mammals belonging to the superorder Laurasiatheria, the southern white-breasted hedgehog (order Erinaceomorpha, species Erinaceus concolor) from Armenia and the European mole (order Soricomorpha, species Talpa europaea) from Poland. Neurogenesis in the brain of these species was examined immunohistochemically, using the endogenous markers doublecortin (DCX) and Ki-67, which are highly conserved among species. We found that in both the hedgehog and mole, like in the majority of earlier investigated mammals, neurogenesis continues in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the dentate gyrus (DG). In the DG of both species, DCX-expressing cells and Ki-67-labeled cells were present in the subgranular and granular layers. In the mole, a strong bundle of DCX-labeled processes, presumably axons of granule cells, was observed in the center of the hilus. Proliferating cells (expressing Ki-67) were identified in the SVZ of lateral ventricles of both species, but neuronal precursor cells (expressing DCX) were also observed in the olfactory bulb (OB). In both species, the vast majority of cells expressing DCX in the OB were granule cells with radially orientated dendrites, although some periglomerular cells surrounding the glomeruli were also labeled. In addition, this paper is the first to show DCX-labeled fibers in the anterior commissure of the hedgehog and mole. These fibers must be axons of new neurons making interhemispheric connections between the two OB or piriform (olfactory) cortices. DCX-expressing neurons were observed in the striatum and piriform cortex of both hedgehog and mole. We postulate that in both species a fraction of cells newly generated in the SVZ migrates along the rostral migratory stream to the piriform cortex. This pattern of migration resembles that of the 'second-wave neurons' generated during embryonal development of the neocortex rather than the pattern observed during

  11. PUMA gene transfection can enhance the sensitivity of epirubicin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C-G; Zhuang, J; Teng, W-J; Wang, Z; Du, S-S

    2015-05-29

    We explored whether p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) gene transfection could enhance the sensitivity of epirubicin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The liposome-mediated recombinant eukaryotic expression vector PU-MA-pCDNA3 and empty vector plasmid were stably transfected into MCF-7 cells. Epirubicin (0.01-100 μM) was applied to MCF-7, MCF-7/PUMA, and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells for 72 h. The MTT assay was used to calculate the cell survival rate in each group, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated. The IC50 values of epirubicin in MCF-7, MCF-7/PUMA, and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells were 13 ± 1.4, 1.8 ± 0.2, and 10.7 ± 1.3 μM, respectively. The sensitivity of MCF-7/PUMA cells to epirubicin increased 7.2-fold. Epirubicin induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells dose-dependently, but MCF-7/PUMA cell-induced apoptosis was more significant compared to controls. Low concentrations of epirubicin (0.1 μM) caused low levels of apoptosis of MCF-7/pCDNA3 (1.15 ± 0.26%) and MCF-7 cells (0.9 ± 0.24%), but significantly induced apoptosis of MCF-7/PUMA cells (6.44 ± 1.46%). High epirubicin concentration (1 μM) induced apoptosis in each group, but the epirubicin MCF-7/PUMA apoptosis rate (35.47 ± 9.36%) was significantly higher than that of MCF-7 (12.6 ± 3.73%) and MCF-7/ pCDNA3 (15.2 ± 5.17%) cells (P PUMA protein expression in MCF-7/PUMA cells was significantly higher than that in MCF-7 and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells by Western blot analysis. There-fore, stable transfection of PUMA can significantly enhance epirubicin-induced apoptosis sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  12. Implementation of a new PC based controller for a PUMA robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the replacement of a controller for a programmable universal machine for assembly (PUMA) 512 robot with a newly designed PC based (open architecture) controller employing a real-time direct control of six joints. The original structure of the PUMA robot is retained. The hardware of the new controller includes such in-house designed parts as pulse width modulation (PWM) amplifiers, digital and analog controllers, I/O cards, signal conditioner cards, and 16-bit A/D and D/A boards.An Intel Pentium Ⅳ industrial computer is used as the central controller. The control software is implemented using VC++ programming language. The trajectory tracking performance of all six joints is tested at varying velocities. Experimental results show that it is feasible to implement the suggested open architecture platform for PUMA 500 series robots through the software routines running on a PC. By assembling controller from off-the-shell hardware and software components, the benefits of reduced and improved robustness have been realized.

  13. Primeira e segunda geração de jovens imigrantes argentinos, bolivianos e peruanos em São Paulo: um estudo psicossocial da identidade e aculturação

    OpenAIRE

    Huayhua, Gladys Llajaruna

    2007-01-01

    Esta pesquisa analisou o estudo psicossocial da identidade e o processo de aculturação dos jovens imigrantes argentinos, bolivianos e peruanos de primeira e segunda geração que moram em São Paulo. Foram considerados os jovens que tinham entre 17 a 30 anos de idade, e que morem neste país há pelo menos dois anos. O estudo baseou-se na teoria de estratégias de aculturação e a psicologia intercultural de Berry, da mesma forma à teoria de grupo e o preconceito de Tajfel, reflexões de Marti...

  14. Lo que a nadie asusta pero a todos preocupa. Etnografía de los miedos cotidianos en una comunidad del altiplano sur boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil García, Francisco M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the idea that fear is installed in our lives, I analyze the double talk of fears denied and concerns recognized from which the inhabitants of a community in the Bolivian high-plateau explain their daily lives, paying particular attention to the reasons given by adults in the education of children when being in certain environments or forbid them to perform certain actions. So, I will present a spatial distinction among urban settings: the own spaces, secure and recognized —but potentially threatened—, and the territory of the others, which the concurrency of past and present terrible otherness transforms in a frightening geography where things happen, fear scenarios that need to be conspirators and reordered.Partiendo de la idea de que el miedo existe instalado en nuestras vidas, se analiza el doble discurso de miedos negados y preocupaciones reconocidas desde el que los habitantes de una comunidad del altiplano boliviano explican su vida cotidiana, prestando especial atención a las razones esgrimidas por los adultos en la educación de los niños a la hora de prohibirles frecuentar determinados ambientes o realizar en ellos ciertas acciones. Para ello partiré de una distinción espacial dentro del entramado urbano, diferenciando así entre espacios propios, seguros y reconocidos —pero potencialmente amenazados— que, debido a la concurrencia de determinadas alteridades terribles presentes y pretéritas, son sentidos como un territorio de los otros, una geografía atemorizadora donde suceden cosas, escenarios del miedo que necesitan ser conjurados y reordenados.

  15. Expression of PUMA in Follicular Granulosa Cells Regulated by FoxO1 Activation During Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Qun; Shen, Ming; Wu, Wang-Jun; Li, Bo-Jiang; Weng, Qian-Nan; Li, Mei; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is a main cause of follicular atresia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways involving numerous genes and transcription factors. In this study, we found expression of the p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 subfamily protein, in ovarian GCs during oxidative stress. By overexpression and knockdown of Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), we found that FoxO1 regulates PUMA at the protein level. Moreover, as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to activate FoxO1 by promoting its nuclear import, we used a JNK inhibitor to reduce FoxO1 activation and detected decreased PUMA messenger RNA expression and protein levels during oxidative stress. In addition, in vivo oxidative stress-induced upregulation of PUMA was found following injection of 3 nitropropionic acid in mice. In conclusion, oxidative stress increases PUMA expression regulated by FoxO1 in follicular GCs.

  16. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  17. The proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma are downstream of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial oxidative stress in pancreatic islets in response to glucotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, J A; Rondas, D; McKenzie, M D; Zhao, Y; Elkerbout, L; Fynch, S; Gurzov, E N; Akira, S; Mathieu, C; Kay, T W H; Overbergh, L; Strasser, A; Thomas, H E

    2014-03-13

    Apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells is a feature of type 2 diabetes and its prevention may have therapeutic benefit. High glucose concentrations induce apoptosis of islet cells, and this requires the proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins Bim and Puma. We studied the stress pathways induced by glucotoxicity in beta cells that result in apoptosis. High concentrations of glucose or ribose increased expression of the transcription factor CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein) but not endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, indicating activation of proapoptotic ER stress signaling. Inhibition of ER stress prevented ribose-induced upregulation of Chop and Puma mRNA, and partially protected islets from glucotoxicity. Loss of Bim or Puma partially protected islets from the canonical ER stressor thapsigargin. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine also partially protected islets from glucotoxicity. Islets deficient in both Bim and Puma, but not Bim or Puma alone, were significantly protected from killing induced by the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species donor rotenone. Our data demonstrate that high concentrations of glucose induce ER and oxidative stress, which causes cell death mediated by Bim and Puma. We observed significantly higher Bim and Puma mRNA in islets of human donors with type 2 diabetes. This indicates that inhibition of Bim and Puma, or their inducers, may prevent beta-cell destruction in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Targeting miR-155 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells by targeting Slug/PUMA signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Dong, Ziyan; Liu, Jiang-Feng; Chuang, Wei; Gao, Li-Zhen; Ren, Yu-Guo

    2016-10-27

    Recent studies have shown that high miR-155 expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML). Furthermore, targeting miR-155 results in monocytic differentiation and apoptosis. However, the exact role and mechanisms of miR-155 in human AML remains speculative. HL-60 cells were treated with anti-miR-155 for 72 h. Cell growth and apoptosis in vitro were detected by MTT, BrdU proliferation, colony formation and flow cytometry assay. The effect of anti-miR-155 on growth of HL-60 cells was also evaluated in a leukemia mouse model. Slug cDNA and PUMA siRNA trannsfection was used to assess the signal pathway. Different protein expression was detected by western blot assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results shown that targeting miR-155 resulted in a 24-fold decrease of miR-155 expression compared to negative control in the HL-60 cells. Targeting miR-155 significantly downregulated Slug and upregulated PUMA expression, and decreased HL-60 cell growth by 70% , impaired colony formation by approximately 60%, and increased HL-60 cell apoptosis by 45%. Targeting PUMA reversed miR-155 sliencing-induced proliferation and apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Restoration of Slug decreased PUMA expression. In murine engraftment models of HL-60 cells, we showed that targeting miR-155 was able to reduce tumor growth. This was accompanied with decreased Slug expression and increased PUMA expression in these tumors. Collectively, our findings strongly suggest targeting miR-155 exhibited in vivo and in vitro antileukemic activities in AML through a novel mechanism resulting in inhibition of Slug expression and increase of PUMA expression.

  19. PUMA and NF-kB Are Cell Signaling Predictors of Reovirus Oncolysis of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhong-Qiao; Thirukkumaran, Ponnampalam; Luider, Joanne; Kopciuk, Karen; Spurrell, Jason; Elzinga, Kate; Morris, Don

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour. Experimental approach and results In the present study global gene expression profiling was utilized as a preliminary roadmap to tease-out pivotal molecules involved in reovirus induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Reovirus treated HTB133 and MCF7 breast cancer cells revealed transcriptional alteration of a defined subset of apoptotic genes and members of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) family and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) were prominent. Since NF-kB can paradoxically suppress or promote apoptosis in cancer, the significance of NF-kB in reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer was investigated. Real time PCR analysis indicated a 2.9–4.3 fold increase in NF-kB p65 message levels following reovirus infection of MCF7 and HTB133, respectively. Nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 protein was also dramatically augmented post reovirus treatment and correlated with enhanced DNA binding. Pharmacologic inhibition of NF-kB lead to oncolytic protection and significant down regulation of PUMA message levels. PUMA down regulation using siRNA suppressed reovirus oncolysis via significantly repressed apoptosis in p53 mutant HTB133 cells. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that a prominent pathway of reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer is mediated through NF-kB and that PUMA upregulation is dependent on NF-kB activation. These findings represent potential therapeutic indicators of

  20. Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality%Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis):network structure and seasonality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Hua GUAN; Bei HUANG; Wen-He NING; Qing-Yong NI; Xue-Long JIANG

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the structure and seasonality of the proximity network in a group of polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) using social network analysis.The spatial proximity changed seasonally and was affected by temperature and rainfall.Preferred proximity association was not distributed randomly among individuals.Kinship was one explanation for the social structure,as offspring preferred to maintain close proximity with their mothers.The proximity of infants to mothers decreased with age,and independent offspring had lower proximity to mothers than dependent ones.We found that the adult male had different proximity relationships with two different adult females.The frequency of proximity between the male and the infant-carrying female was significantly higher than that between the male and the female who had immigrated carrying one offspring of uncertain paternity into the group.Infanticide avoidance and/or predation protection for dependent infants might explain the proximity relationship differences.Temperature influenced group proximity association,with individual proximity increasing in the cold months and decreasing in the hot months.Group proximity decreased in months with higher anthropogenic disturbance.

  1. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  2. 促凋亡基因puma的研究进展%Research Progress of Proapoptic Gene puma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宇

    2011-01-01

    p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis( puma )acts as an essential mediator of apoptosis via p53 -dependent and p53 -independent mechanisms, which may play a prominent role in the formation , development,treatment of tumors and autoimmune diseases. It can be potentially used as a new target for anticancer and apoptosis-associated diseases therapy. Here is to review its structural characteristics, function, pro-apoptotic role, chemical drugs influence on the expression of puma in several cell lines, other transcription pathways regulation and post-transcription regulation of puma.%p53上调凋亡调控因子(puma)可通过p53依赖途径和p53非依赖途径诱导多种肿瘤细胞的凋亡,可能在肿瘤及自身免疫性疾病的发生、发展和治疗中发挥重要的作用,并有望成为人类肿瘤和凋亡相关疾病治疗的新靶点.现就其结构和功能、促凋亡作用、化学药物对多种细胞株中puma表达水平的影响、其他转录途径调节以及转录后调节puma予以综述.

  3. Over-expression of PUMA correlates with the apoptosis of spinal cord cells in rat neuropathic intermittent claudication model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic intermittent claudication (NIC is a typical clinical symptom of lumbar spinal stenosis and the apoptosis of neurons caused by cauda equina compression (CEC has been proposed as an important reason. Whereas, the factors and the mechanism involved in the process of apoptosis induced by CEC remain unclear. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In our modified rat model of NIC, a trapezoid-shaped silicon rubber was inserted into the epidural space under the L5 and L6 vertebral plate. Obvious apoptosis was observed in spinal cord cells after compression by TUNEL assay. Simultaneously, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis and p53 were upregulated significantly in spinal cord under compression, while the expression of p53 inhibitor MDM2 and SirT2 decreased in the same region. Furthermore, CEC also resulted in the upregulation of Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic genes expression and caspase-3 activation. With the protection of Methylprednisolone, the upregulation of PUMA and p53 expression as well as the decrease of MDM2 and SirT2 in spinal cord were partially rescued in western bolt analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that over-expression of PUMA correlates with CEC caused apoptosis of spinal cord cells, which is characterized by the increase of p53, Bax and Bad expression. PUMA upregulation might be crucial to induce apoptosis of spinal cord cells through p53-dependent pathway in CEC.

  4. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Salim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  5. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB del estudio MESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baya Botti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP and Charts(BAC where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.La antropometría es una herramienta clínica importante para el seguimiento individual de los pacientes así como para la planificación de políticas públicas. En Bolivia no existen referencias antropométricas nacionales para adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue de desarrollar percentiles y diagramas de crecimiento para peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, circunferencia de muñeca, brazo y abdominal de adolescentes bolivianos. Los datos antropométricos en el estudio MESA (Síndrome metabólico en adolescentes bolivianos fueron obtenidos a partir de 32 unidades muestrales, considerando proporcionalidad muestral con reposición. Fueron evaluados 3445 adolescentes de 12 a 18, 45% hombres; 55% mujeres, de colegios de

  6. Estrogen receptor β upregulates FOXO3a and causes induction of apoptosis through PUMA in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P; Ström, A; Gustafsson, J-Å

    2014-08-14

    Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is emerging as a critical factor in understanding prostate cancer biology. Although reduced in prostate cancer above Gleason grade 3, ERβ is a potential drug target at the initial stage of the disease. In human prostate cancer cells, we found that ERβ causes apoptosis by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic factor p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), independent of p53, but dependent on the forkhead transcription factor class-O family member, FOXO3a. FOXO3a has previously been shown to induce PUMA after growth factor withdrawal and inhibition of the Akt pathway. Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of FOXO3a remained unchanged, while the mRNA and total protein levels of FOXO3a were increased in response to ERβ expression or treatment of PC3, 22Rv1 and LNCaP cells with the ERβ-specific ligands 3β-Adiol (5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol), DPN (diarylpropionitrile) or 8β-VE2 (8-vinylestra-1,3,5 (10)-triene-3,17β-diol). Knockdown of FOXO3a or ERβ expression abolished the increase of PUMA in response to 3β-Adiol in LNCaP and PC3 cells, suggesting that FOXO3a mediates the apoptotic effect of 3β-Adiol-activated ERβ. Moreover, the ventral prostate of ERβ-/- mice had decreased expression of FOXO3a and PUMA compared with the ERβ+/+ mice, indicating a relationship between ERβ and FOXO3a expression. The regulation of FOXO3a by ERβ in normal basal epithelial cells indicates a function of ERβ in cell differentiation and maintenance of cells in a quiescent state. In addition, the expression of ERβ, FOXO3a and PUMA is comparable and higher in benign prostatic hyperplasia than in prostate cancer Gleason grade 4 or higher, where there is substantial loss of ERβ, FOXO3a and PUMA. We conclude that ERβ induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by increasing transcription of FOXO3a, leading to an increase of PUMA and subsequent triggering of apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway involving caspase-9. Furthermore, we conclude that

  7. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    OpenAIRE

    Everaldo Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Art...

  8. Nacionalización de los hidrocarburos bolivianos: reflexiones sobre su impacto en lo doméstico y en los vínculos con Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ceppi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En mayo de 2006, Evo Morales anunció una medida de trascendencia histórica: la tercera nacionalización de los hidrocarburos bolivianos. Se elabora una serie de reflexiones sobre las principales connotaciones del Decreto Supremo 28 701 “Héroes del Chaco” para la sociedad boliviana, del cual se consideran sus aspectos más relevantes en materia económica y social. Asimismo, se analizan los cambios en los contratos de exportación de gas natural que alimentan las necesidades de energía de Argen - tina y Brasil en este siglo. Se revaloriza en el debate académico el lugar de la energía como un asunto prioritario en las agendas estatales y en el escenario internacional.

  9. An Efficient Inverse Kinematic Algorithm for a PUMA560-Structured Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huashan Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient inverse kinematics (IK approach which features fast computing performance for a PUMA560‐structured robot manipulator. By properties of the orthogonal matrix and block matrix, the complex IK matrix equations are transformed into eight pure algebraic equations that contain the six unknown joint angle variables, which makes the solving compact without computing the reverses of the 4×4 homogeneous transformation matrices. Moreover, the appropriate combination of related equations ensures that the solutions are free of extraneous roots in the solving process, and the wrist singularity problem of the robot is also addressed. Finally, a case study is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. PUMA PUblication MAnagement: un network di Archivi Istituzionali CNR, ad accesso aperto, nella prospettiva di una infrastruttura per la Ricerca in Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    The Publication Management System (PUMA) is one of the major software component made available by the CNR Portal Of Libraries And Repositories (POLAR) that provides CNR librarians and researchers with services for managing libraries and accessing information. PUMA also constitutes the first step towards creating the Italian network of CNR Institutional repositories, looking at the DRIVER vision, i.e., building an infrastructure that allows European Research Institutions to share content and f...

  11. Inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling induced PUMA expression in response to p53-independent cytotoxic effects of H1: A derivative of tetrandrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Xu; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Jing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Yu, Xue-Wen; Wei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    PUMA (p53 unregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, can be induced by p53-dependent and p53-independent manners. It plays an important role as regulator of cellular apoptosis. Herein, we evaluate the effects of H1 (a derivative of tetrandrine) on induction of PUMA and underlie its potential mechanism in p53-independent cytotoxic response. Anti-proliferative activity and evidently cytotoxic activity of H1 were observed in wild-type and p53 null cells. Further studies demonstrated that H1 resulted in an increase of cleaved PARP, decease of survivin and elevation of p-H2AX. What is more, H1 significantly induced PUMA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and caused an increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in p53 null cells. Of note, knockdown of PUMA attenuated cytotoxic activity of H1. Further studies demonstrated that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling contributed to H1-mediated PUMA induction. Targeted suppression of AKT/FoxO3a signaling by siRNA could overcome H1-mediated PUMA induction. In addition, H1 significantly suppressed NF-κB activity and caused an increase of early apoptotic and late apoptotic cells, and elevated caspase-3 activity. Taken together, we found that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling may contribute to H1-mediated PUMA induction, suggesting that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling result in PUMA expression in response to p53-independent cytotoxic effects of H1.

  12. Effects of acidic fog on seedlings of Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor: foliar injury, physiological and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, B K; Bytnerowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) and Abies concolor (white fir) were exposed to acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0) in open-field plots for six weeks. The two species exhibited dissimilar injury responses; neither current year nor previous year needles of ponderosa pine were injured by pH 2.0 fog, but current year needles exhibited higher membrane permeability responses (i.e. needle extract conductivity, K+ concentration). In comparison, both needle age classes in white fir were significantly injured by pH 2.0 fog, but no significant effects on membrane permeability were observed. For both species, whole-study average rates of net photosynthesis in previous year needles were lower in plants exposed to pH 2.0 fog than in plants treated with pH 4.0 fog. While decreased process rates coincided with leaf necrosis in white fir, stomatal closure appeared to be the mechanism of inhibition in ponderosa pine with pH 2.0 fog (i.e. no visible injury). The findings of the present study provide evidence that frequent applications of highly acidic fog (i.e. pH 2.0-3.0) can cause temporal alterations in membrane permeability and gas exchange rates in western conifer seedlings, in the presence or absence of visible injury. However, because incipient effects on other measures of foliage health were species-specific (i.e. concentrations of starch, photosynthetic pigments, inorganic nutrients), a general mechanism of phytotoxicity could not be identified.

  13. Maximal killing of lymphoma cells by DNA damage-inducing therapy requires not only the p53 targets Puma and Noxa, but also Bim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Lina; Cragg, Mark S; Phipson, Belinda; Haga, Jon M; Jansen, Elisa S; Herold, Marco J; Dewson, Grant; Michalak, Ewa M; Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Smyth, Gordon K; Strasser, Andreas; Cory, Suzanne; Scott, Clare L

    2010-12-09

    DNA-damaging chemotherapy is the backbone of cancer treatment, although it is not clear how such treatments kill tumor cells. In nontransformed lymphoid cells, the combined loss of 2 proapoptotic p53 target genes, Puma and Noxa, induces as much resistance to DNA damage as loss of p53 itself. In Eμ-Myc lymphomas, however, lack of both Puma and Noxa resulted in no greater drug resistance than lack of Puma alone. A third B-cell lymphoma-2 homology domain (BH)3-only gene, Bim, although not a direct p53 target, was up-regulated in Eμ-Myc lymphomas incurring DNA damage, and knockdown of Bim levels markedly increased the drug resistance of Eμ-Myc/Puma(-/-)Noxa(-/-) lymphomas both in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, c-MYC-driven lymphoma cell lines from Noxa(-/-)Puma(-/-)Bim(-/-) mice were as resistant as those lacking p53. Thus, the combinatorial action of Puma, Noxa, and Bim is critical for optimal apoptotic responses of lymphoma cells to 2 commonly used DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents, identifying Bim as an additional biomarker for treatment outcome in the clinic.

  14. The Evaluation and Comparison of Transcriptionally Targeted Noxa and Puma Killer Genes to Initiate Apoptosis Under Cancer-Specific Promoter CXCR1 in Hepatocarcinoma Gene Therapy

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    Khoshtinat Nikkhoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancerous cells proliferate as fast as possible without a proper surveillance system. This rapid cell division leads to enormous mutation rates, which help a tumor establish. Objectives This study evaluated the potential of inducing apoptosis using Noxa and Puma in a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Methods The current study generated two recombinant lentiviruses, pLEX-GCN and pLEX-GCP, bearing Noxa and Puma, respectively. Transduction of both genes to hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 was verified using fluorescent microscopic analysis, western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. To evaluate the potential of Noxa and Puma to initiate apoptosis, a caspase-9 real-time, MTT assay, and a 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI reagent were performed to stain apoptotic cells. Results The data verified successful transduction to HepG2 and HEK293T. Higher relative expression of Noxa and Puma rather than the untransduced cell line showed these genes are expressed more in HepG2 in comparison to HEK293T. The results of the real-time PCR, MTT assay, and DAPI reagent illustrated that higher cells initiated apoptosis following Puma transduction rather than Noxa. Conclusions In this approach, the suicide gene was transferred to transformed cells and ignited apoptosis to exterminate them. Puma is a more potent killer gene and has higher capabilities to start intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

  15. Puma and p21 represent cooperating checkpoints limiting self-renewal and chromosomal instability of somatic stem cells in response to telomere dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperka, Tobias; Song, Zhangfa; Morita, Yohei; Nalapareddy, Kodandaramireddy; Guachalla, Luis Miguel; Lechel, André; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; Burkhalter, Martin D; Mach, Monika; Schlaudraff, Falk; Liss, Birgit; Ju, Zhenyu; Speicher, Michael R; Rudolph, K Lenhard

    2011-12-04

    The tumour suppressor p53 activates Puma-dependent apoptosis and p21-dependent cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. Deletion of p21 improved stem-cell function and organ maintenance in progeroid mice with dysfunctional telomeres, but the function of Puma has not been investigated in this context. Here we show that deletion of Puma improves stem- and progenitor-cell function, organ maintenance and lifespan of telomere-dysfunctional mice. Puma deletion impairs the clearance of stem and progenitor cells that have accumulated DNA damage as a consequence of critically short telomeres. However, further accumulation of DNA damage in these rescued progenitor cells leads to increasing activation of p21. RNA interference experiments show that upregulation of p21 limits proliferation and evolution of chromosomal imbalances of Puma-deficient stem and progenitor cells with dysfunctional telomeres. These results provide experimental evidence that p53-dependent apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest act in cooperating checkpoints limiting tissue maintenance and evolution of chromosomal instability at stem- and progenitor-cell levels in response to telomere dysfunction. Selective inhibition of Puma-dependent apoptosis can result in temporary improvements in maintenance of telomere-dysfunctional organs.

  16. Phylogenetically Distant Viruses Use the Same BH3-Only Protein Puma to Trigger Bax/Bak-Dependent Apoptosis of Infected Mouse and Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaianni, Emanuela; El Maadidi, Souhayla; Schejtman, Andrea; Neumann, Simon; Maurer, Ulrich; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Mastino, Antonio; Borner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can trigger apoptosis of infected host cells if not counteracted by cellular or viral anti-apoptotic proteins. These protective proteins either inhibit the activation of caspases or they act as Bcl-2 homologs to prevent Bax/Bak-mediated outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The exact mechanism by which viruses trigger MOMP has however remained enigmatic. Here we use two distinct types of viruses, a double stranded DNA virus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV) to show that the BH3-only protein Puma is the major mediator of virus-induced Bax/Bak activation and MOMP induction. Indeed, when Puma was genetically deleted or downregulated by shRNA, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and IL-3-dependent monocytes as well as human colon carcinoma cells were as resistant to virus-induced apoptosis as their Bax/Bak double deficient counterparts (Bax/Bak-/-). Puma protein expression started to augment after 2 h postinfection with both viruses. Puma mRNA levels increased as well, but this occurred after apoptosis initiation (MOMP) because it was blocked in cells lacking Bax/Bak or overexpressing Bcl-xL. Moreover, none of the classical Puma transcription factors such as p53, p73 or p65 NFκB were involved in HSV-1-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that viruses use a Puma protein-dependent mechanism to trigger MOMP and apoptosis in host cells.

  17. Educação ambiental e a conservação da onça parda: potenciais das unidades de conservação do nordeste paulista. Environmental education and puma conservation: potentials of the protected areas of northeastern São Paulo state (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayla Willk VALENTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No nordeste do Estado de São Paulo as unidades de conservação abrigam importante parcela da biodiversidade brasileira. Espécies predadoras de topo de cadeia, como a onça parda (Puma concolor, ainda estão presentes nessa região e dependem dessas unidades para sobreviverem. Nesse contexto, a educação ambiental pode contribuir com a conservação das espécies, embora existam desafios a serem superados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar potencialidades e limites da educação ambiental para a conservação da biodiversidade nas unidades de conservação do nordeste paulista, tendo como tema a conservação de predadores, em especial a onça parda. A área de estudo foi definida com base na população dessa espécie na região. Realizamos levantamento das unidades de conservação na área de estudo e consulta para identificar aquelas com programas de educação ambiental ativos. Visitamos sete áreas protegidas, sendo que em cada uma realizamos entrevista estruturada com pessoas envolvidas em ações de educação ambiental e/ou gestores das unidades, totalizando sete entrevistas. Os dados indicaram que essas unidades estão em contextos relevantes para a realização de ações educativas voltadas à conservação de predadores. Contudo, as/os entrevistadas/os relataram dificuldades em se aproximar da população do entorno fora do ambiente escolar, especialmente o público adulto. Apesar disso, identificamos uma preocupação em envolver a comunidade do entorno, percebida nos próprios objetivos das atividades realizadas pelas unidades de conservação. A partir dos resultados obtidos, consideramos que, embora o tema dos predadores não seja especificamente trabalhado, existe um potencial grande para atuação nesse sentido. Ainda, destacamos que as unidades de conservação são espaços privilegiados para a integração dos conhecimentos científicos e educação ambiental. In northeastearn São Paulo state (Brazil, the

  18. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  19. A critical role of PUMA in maintenance of genomic integrity of murine spermatogonial stem cell precursors after genotoxic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Forand; J Bernardino-Sgherri

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal gonocytes are precursors of spermatogoniai stem cells. Preserving their integrity by elimination of dam-aged germ cells may be crucial to avoid the transmission of genetic alterations to progeny. Using T-irradiation, we investigated by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and real-time PCR components of the death machinery in neonatal gonocytes. Their death was correlated with caspase 3 activation but not with AIF translocation into the nu-cleus. The in vivo contribution of both the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathways was then investigated. We focused on the roles of TRAIL/Death Receptor 5 (DR5) and PUMA. Our results were validated using knockout mice. Whereas DR5 expression was upregulated at the cell surface after radiation, caspase 8 was not activated. However, we detected caspase 9 cleavage associated with cytochrome c release. In mice deficient for PUMA, radiation-induced gonocyte apoptosis was reduced, whereas invalidation of TRAIL had no effect. Overall, our results show that genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis of gonocytes is caspase-dependent and involves almost exclusively the intrinsic pathway. Further-more, PUMA plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity of spermatogonial stem cell precursors.

  20. International BMI-for-age references underestimate thinness and overestimate overweigth and obesity in Bolivian adolescents Las referencias internacionales de IMC por edad subestiman delgadez y sobreestiman sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baya Botti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since no growth standards for adolescents exist and a single reference applicable everywhere is still in debate, it is recognized that the best reference should be derived from the growth pattern of the healthy population that will use it. In 2007 a study developed references for body mass index for 12th to 18th y Bolivian school adolescent (BAP. Objectives: To compare nutritional status outcomes applying BMI references from the BAP, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 2000, the International Task Force (IOTF, and the 2007 WHO, to determine appropriateness of use in Bolivian adolescents. Subjects/methods: References were applied in 3306 adolescents, 45.0% male, 55% female, 12th to 18th y selected from a nationally representative sample. Results: Main findings reveal that the CDC and the 2007 WHO underestimate underweight (p Introducción: Puesto que no existen estándares de crecimiento para adolescentes y la aplicación de una sola referencia a nivel mundial es aún debatible, se reconoce que la mejor referencia es aquella derivada del patrón de crecimiento de la población saludable en la que será posteriormente utilizada. Por ello en 2007 se efectuó un estudio para desarrollar la Referencia Boliviana de IMC poredad (BAP para adolescentes entre 12 a 18 años. Objetivos: Comparar la clasificación de adolescentes por categorías nutricionales, aplicando las referencias de IMC boliviano (BAP, la referencia CDC 2000, los puntosde corte de IOTF y de la OMS, 2007. Métodos y población: Las referencias se aplicaron a los datos medidos de peso y talla de 3.306 adolescentes, 45% varones y 55% mujeres seleccionados de una muestrarepresentativa de la población boliviana. Resultados: Se observa que CDC y OMS 2007 subestiman la prevalencia de delgadez (P < 0,001 mientras que las tres referencias internacionales sobreestiman el sobrepeso(p < 0,001 con variaciones por edad y género. Conclusión: Se recomienda al personal de

  1. Combined loss of PUMA and p21 accelerates c-MYC-driven lymphoma development considerably less than loss of one allele of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, L J; Grabow, S; Vandenberg, C J; Strasser, A; Janic, A

    2016-07-21

    The tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in ~50% of human cancers. P53 is activated by a range of stimuli and regulates several cellular processes, including apoptotic cell death, cell cycle arrest, senescence and DNA repair. P53 induces apoptosis via transcriptional induction of the BH3-only proteins PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and NOXA, and cell cycle arrest via p21. Induction of these processes was proposed to be critical for p53-mediated tumor suppression. It is therefore surprising that mice lacking PUMA, NOXA and p21, as well as mice bearing mutations in p53 that impair the transcriptional activation of these genes, are not tumor prone, unlike mice lacking p53 function, which spontaneously develop tumors with 100% incidence. These p53 target genes and the processes they regulate may, however, impact differently on tumor development depending on the oncogenic drivers. For example, loss of PUMA enhances c-MYC-driven lymphoma development in mice, but, interestingly, the acceleration was less impressive compared with that caused by the loss of even a single p53 allele. Different studies have reported that loss of p21 can accelerate, delay or have no impact on tumorigenesis. In an attempt to resolve this controversy, we examined whether loss of p21-mediated cell cycle arrest cooperates with PUMA deficiency in accelerating lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc mice (overexpressing c-MYC in B-lymphoid cells). We found that Eμ-Myc mice lacking both p21 and PUMA (Eμ-Myc;Puma(-/-);p21(-/-)) developed lymphoma at a rate comparable to Eμ-Myc;Puma(-/-) animals, notably with considerably longer latency than Eμ-Myc;p53(+/-)mice. Loss of p21 had no impact on the numbers, cycling or survival of pre-leukemic Eμ-Myc B-lymphoid cells, even when PUMA was lost concomitantly. These results demonstrate that even in the context of deregulated c-MYC expression, p53 must suppress tumor development by activating processes apart from, or in addition to, PUMA

  2. A mono-dimensional nuclear fuel performance analysis code, PUMA, development from a coupled approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, C. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yacout, A. M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Multidimensional-multi-physical phenomena in nuclear fuels are treated as a set of mono-dimensional-coupled problems which encompass heat, displacement, fuel constituent redistribution, and fission gas release. Rather than uncoupling these coupled equations as in conventional fuel performance analysis codes, efforts are put into to obtain fully coupled solutions by relying on the recent advances of numerical analysis. Through this approach, a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code) is under development. Although coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was made easily, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is accomplished by introducing one-level Newton scheme through backward differentiation formula. Displacement equations from 1D finite element formulation of the mechanical equilibrium equation are solved simultaneously with stress equation, creep equation, swelling equation, and FGR equations. Calculations was made successfully such that the swelling and the hydrostatic pressure are interrelated each other. (authors)

  3. Therapeutic Response to Non-genotoxic Activation of p53 by Nutlin3a Is Driven by PUMA-Mediated Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz J. Valente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutlin3a is a small-molecule antagonist of MDM2 that promotes non-genotoxic activation of p53 through p53 protein stabilization and transactivation of p53 target genes. Nutlin3a is the forerunner of a class of cancer therapeutics that have reached clinical trials. Using transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models lacking the critical p53 target genes, p21, Puma, and Noxa, we found that only loss of PUMA conferred profound protection against Nutlin3a-induced killing in both non-transformed lymphoid cells and Eμ-Myc lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the PUMA gene rendered human hematopoietic cancer cell lines markedly resistant to Nutlin3a-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that PUMA-mediated apoptosis, but not p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest or senescence, is a critical determinant of the therapeutic response to non-genotoxic p53 activation by Nutlin3a. Importantly, in human cancer, PUMA expression may predict patient responses to treatment with MDM2 antagonists.

  4. Therapeutic Response to Non-genotoxic Activation of p53 by Nutlin3a Is Driven by PUMA-Mediated Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Liz J; Aubrey, Brandon J; Herold, Marco J; Kelly, Gemma L; Happo, Lina; Scott, Clare L; Newbold, Andrea; Johnstone, Ricky W; Huang, David C S; Vassilev, Lyubomir T; Strasser, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Nutlin3a is a small-molecule antagonist of MDM2 that promotes non-genotoxic activation of p53 through p53 protein stabilization and transactivation of p53 target genes. Nutlin3a is the forerunner of a class of cancer therapeutics that have reached clinical trials. Using transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models lacking the critical p53 target genes, p21, Puma, and Noxa, we found that only loss of PUMA conferred profound protection against Nutlin3a-induced killing in both non-transformed lymphoid cells and Eμ-Myc lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the PUMA gene rendered human hematopoietic cancer cell lines markedly resistant to Nutlin3a-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that PUMA-mediated apoptosis, but not p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest or senescence, is a critical determinant of the therapeutic response to non-genotoxic p53 activation by Nutlin3a. Importantly, in human cancer, PUMA expression may predict patient responses to treatment with MDM2 antagonists.

  5. La participación política de bolivianos y paraguayos residentes de villas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires: una aproximación desde la lucha por la vivienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gallinati

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo se dedica en analizar la participación política de los migrantes bolivianos y paraguayos que, al lado de la población nacional, desarrollan un proceso de reclamo por la urbanización y por la vivienda digna en las villas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Presentaré parte de la cartografía de discusiones de un grupo específico de residentes de villas que, independiente del origen nacional, compartían problemáticas comunes y reivindicaron ser reconocidos como vecinos de la ciudad y militantes en lucha por la vivienda. La propuesta es poner en foco dos aspectos poco observados por los estudios del campo migratorio: a la centralidad de la escala urbana para el estudio del fenómeno migratorio y b el reclamo como práctica política fundamental en la vida cotidiana (urbana de los migrantes. Es objetivo ofrecer una reflexión sobre las complejas articulaciones entre política, clase y nacionalidad que se abren a partir de un proceso local de puja por el suelo urbano y por el derecho a la ciudad.

  6. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Deborah Bowne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled CO2 climates was estimated.

  7. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Rugulies, R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation a...... work environment, and equally important, the organizations should be attentive to employees with symptoms of burnout...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long...

  8. Repression of p53-target gene Bbc3/PUMA by MYSM1 is essential for the survival of hematopoietic multipotent progenitors and contributes to stem cell maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, J I; Petrov, J C; Langlais, D; Robert, F; Cencic, R; Shen, S; Pelletier, J; Gros, P; Nijnik, A

    2016-05-01

    p53 is a central mediator of cellular stress responses, and its precise regulation is essential for the normal progression of hematopoiesis. MYSM1 is an epigenetic regulator essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, hematopoietic progenitor survival, and lymphocyte development. We recently demonstrated that all developmental and hematopoietic phenotypes of Mysm1 deficiency are p53-mediated and rescued in the Mysm1(-/-)p53(-/-) mouse model. However, the mechanisms triggering p53 activation in Mysm1(-/-) HSPCs, and the pathways downstream of p53 driving different aspects of the Mysm1(-/-) phenotype remain unknown. Here we show the transcriptional activation of p53 stress responses in Mysm1(-/-) HSPCs. Mechanistically, we find that the MYSM1 protein associates with p53 and colocalizes to promoters of classical p53-target genes Bbc3/PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and Cdkn1a/p21. Furthermore, it antagonizes their p53-driven expression by modulating local histone modifications (H3K27ac and H3K4me3) and p53 recruitment. Using double-knockout mouse models, we establish that PUMA, but not p21, is an important mediator of p53-driven Mysm1(-/-) hematopoietic dysfunction. Specifically, Mysm1(-/-)Puma(-/-) mice show full rescue of multipotent progenitor (MPP) viability, partial rescue of HSC quiescence and function, but persistent lymphopenia. Through transcriptome analysis of Mysm1(-/-)Puma(-/-) MPPs, we demonstrate strong upregulation of other p53-induced mediators of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. The full viability of Mysm1(-/-)Puma(-/-) MPPs, despite strong upregulation of many other pro-apoptotic mediators, establishes PUMA as the essential non-redundant effector of p53-induced MPP apoptosis. Furthermore, we identify potential mediators of p53-dependent but PUMA-independent Mysm1(-/-)hematopoietic deficiency phenotypes. Overall, our study provides novel insight into the cell-type-specific roles of p53 and its downstream

  9. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  10. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  11. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Arte Revolucionária e Independente lançado por André Breton, Diego Rivera e Leon Trotski em 1936, permitindo o surgimento de uma obra original, polêmica e marcante para a História latino-americana.This article intends to evaluate how art and politics are expressed both in the creation and in the action of the Bolivian militant politician Miguel Alandia Pantoja, who was an active participant in decisive moments of his country's history, as the Chaco War, the 1952 Revolution and the Commune of La Paz in 1971. The Andean indigenismo and the Mexican muralist influences seemed to have crossed with Alandia political options and with his enrollment at the proposal made by artists related to the Manifesto for a Revolutionary and Independent Art launched by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotski in 1936, allowing the uprising of an original and controversial artistic creation for Latin American history.

  12. p53 efficiently suppresses tumor development in the complete absence of its cell-cycle inhibitory and proapoptotic effectors p21, Puma, and Noxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Liz J; Gray, Daniel H D; Michalak, Ewa M; Pinon-Hofbauer, Josefina; Egle, Alex; Scott, Clare L; Janic, Ana; Strasser, Andreas

    2013-05-30

    Activation of apoptosis through transcriptional induction of Puma and Noxa has long been considered to constitute the critical (if not sole) process by which p53 suppresses tumor development, although G1/S boundary cell-cycle arrest via induction of the CDK inhibitor p21 has also been thought to contribute. Recent analyses of mice bearing mutations that impair p53-mediated induction of select target genes have indicated that activation of apoptosis and G1/S cell-cycle arrest may, in fact, be dispensable for p53-mediated tumor suppression. However, the expression of Puma, Noxa, and p21 was not abrogated in these mutants, only reduced; therefore, the possibility that the reduced levels of these critical effectors of p53-mediated apoptosis and G1/S-cell-cycle arrest sufficed to prevent tumorigenesis could not be excluded. To resolve this important issue, we have generated mice deficient for p21, Puma, and Noxa (p21-/-puma-/-noxa-/- mice). Cells from these mice were deficient in their ability to undergo p53-mediated apoptosis, G1/S cell-cycle arrest, and senescence. Nonetheless, these animals remained tumor free until at least 500 days, in contrast to p53-deficient mice, which had all succumbed to lymphoma or sarcoma by 250 days. Interestingly, DNA lesions induced by γ-irradiation persisted longer in p53-deficient cells compared to wild-type or p21-/-puma-/-noxa-/- cells, and the former failed to transcriptionally activate several p53 target genes implicated in DNA repair. These results demonstrate beyond a doubt that the induction of apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and possibly senescence is dispensable for p53-mediated suppression of spontaneous tumor development and indicate that coordination of genomic stability and possibly other processes, such as metabolic adaptation, may instead be critical.

  13. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defibered xaxim (control; PBC= sugar cane bagasse powder; PBC:I= sugar cane bagasse powder: estruted polystyrene (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= sugar cane bagasse powder: sphagnum (1:1, v:v; PBC:PC = sugar cane bagasse powder: husk pinus (1:1, v:v; CP= coconut powder and PBC:PC= coconut powder: sugar cane bagasse powder (1:1, v:v. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with seven treatments, and ten replications. Growing parameters evaluated after 12 months were: height of above ground part (APA, length of the heigher pseudobulb (CMP, diameter of the heigher pseudobulb (DMP, length of the heigher root (CMR, number of roots (NR, number of buds (NB, total fresh mass weight (MFT and substrate pH. All the studied substrates, except the sugar cane bagasse powder with sphagnum, can be recommended to substitute xaxim on the hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. crop.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim, no desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular de plantas aclimatizadas do híbrido primário de orquídea Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. Mudas com aproximadamente oito meses, obtidas por propagação in vitro e com altura média 6,4 ± 0,5 cm, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação com 60% de sombreamento em vasos de polipropileno número um, contendo os seguintes substratos: XD= xaxim desfibrado (controle; PBC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; PBC:I= pó de bagaço de cana

  14. The multianalyser system of the three axes neutron spectrometer PUMA: Pilot experiments with the innovative multiplex technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Oleg; Hoffmann, Ron; Gibhardt, Holger; Jünke, Norbert; Knorr, Andreas; Meyer, Volker; Eckold, Götz

    2015-02-01

    A new type of multiplex technique for three axes neutron spectrometers has been realized and successfully commissioned at the PUMA spectrometer at FRM II. Consisting of eleven analyser-detector channels which can be configured individually, this technique is especially suitable for kinetic experiments where a single excitation spectrum is recorded as a function of time without the need to move the spectrometer. On a time-scale of seconds an entire spectrum can be recorded thus allowing users to monitor changes during fast kinetic processes in single shot experiments without the need for stroboscopic techniques. Moreover, the multianalyser system provides an efficient and rapid tool for mapping excitations in (Q,ω)-space. The results of pilot experiments demonstrate the performance of this new technique and a user-friendly software is presented which assists users during their experiments.

  15. The essential role of p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and its regulation by FoxO3a transcription factor in β-amyloid-induced neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Rumana; Sanphui, Priyankar; Biswas, Subhas Chandra

    2014-04-11

    Neurodegeneration underlies the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The molecules responsible for such neurodegeneration in AD brain are mostly unknown. Recent findings indicate that the BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family play an essential role in various cell death paradigms, including neurodegeneration. Here we report that Puma (p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis), an important member of the BH3-only protein family, is up-regulated in neurons upon toxic β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) exposure both in vitro and in vivo. Down-regulation of Puma by specific siRNA provides significant protection against neuron death induced by Aβ(1-42). We further demonstrate that the activation of p53 and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathways induce Puma. The transcription factor FoxO3a, which is activated when PI3K/Akt signaling is inhibited, directly binds with the Puma gene and induces its expression upon exposure of neurons to oligomeric Aβ(1-42). Moreover, Puma cooperates with another BH3-only protein, Bim, which is already implicated in AD. Our results thus suggest that Puma is activated by both p53 and PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathways and cooperates with Bim to induce neuron death in response to Aβ(1-42).

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in rural villages of the Bolivian Amazon Prevalência da infecção pelo papilomavirus humano nas aldeias rurais do Amazonas Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cervantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer constitutes a major health problem in developing countries like Bolivia. The roles of certain genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer is well established. The prevalence of HPV infection among sexually active women varies greatly. Information regarding HPV infection in Bolivia is very much scarce, specially in regions like the Amazonian lowland. We studied 135 healthy women living in four rural localities of the Bolivian Amazon. Presence of HPV in DNA extracted from cervical swabs was analyzed using a reverse line hybridization assay. The estimated overall HPV infection prevalence among the studied rural localities was 5.9% (ranging from 0-16.6%. These values were unexpectedly low considering Bolivia has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The fact that Amazonian people seem to be less exposed to HPV, makes it likely that some other risk factors including host lifestyle behaviors and genetic background may be involved in the development of cervical cancer in this population.O câncer cervical constitui problema de saúde da maior importância nos países em desenvolvimento tais como a Bolívia. O papel de certos genótipos de papilomavirus humano (HPVs na patologia do câncer cervical está bem estabelecido. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV nas mulheres sexualmente ativas varia amplamente. Contudo, as informações existentes acerca da infecção pelo HPV na Bolivia são muito escassas, especialmente nas zonas rurais, nomeadamente na região amazônica do país. Foram estudadas 135 mulheres saudáveis, residentes em quatro localidades do Amazonas Boliviano. Foi detectada a presença de HPV no DNA extraído de esfregaços cervicais, utilizando o método de hibridização em linha reversa. A prevalência da infecção por HVP, encontrada nas localidades rurais, foi de 5,9% (variação entre 0-16,6%. Estes valores foram inesperadamente baixos, uma vez que a Bolívia é um país com alta

  17. Environmental quality for jaguar, puma and ocelot in Guaratuba Bay, State of Paraná, using the programs Capture and Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ludwig Alfons Hammer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two month-long expeditions to Guaratuba Bay in the southern Atlantic Forest of Brazil were conducted in 2006. Parameters calculated from vestiges and camera-trap sampling were mammalian richness and proportion of area occupied (PAO by jaguar, puma, and opportunistically, by ocelot. Eight quadrats 4km2 in size were sampled, over an area of 130km2, where fourteen species of mammals were recorded (CI(Nˆ =14 to 14, CAPTURE. PAO was 25% for puma, and 100% for both jaguar and ocelot. It is argued that jaguar was expected to have capture probabilities similar to those of puma, as they both leave signs on open trails when present. The resulting PAO for jaguar is thus likely to be an artifact derived from low area substantiated by the reduced presence of important prey species in many of the sampling quadrats. The results do not diminish the importance of the study site for jaguar conservation; instead, these observations objectively identify the need to restore prey populations in the area.

  18. A rede sociotécnica na relação entre ribeirinhos e onças (Panthera onca e Puma concolor nas Reservas de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã e Mamirauá no Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Silva Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted by natural scientists on the relationship between wildlife and traditional populations often do not indicate the inherent asymmetry and controversies of the subject, especially when dealing with charismatic fauna. The clash between traditional ways of dealing with the problems arising from the coexistence with big cats and the commitment to preserve these animals is taking place in an arena with little room for dialog. The objective of this paper was to present the socio-technical relationship of this conflict. By taking the Actor-Network Theory as a method to analyze this relationship, we hope to take a step towards the composition of a common world that considers the humans and non-humans that make up the network in a symmetric way. The actors, their practices and connections in the network, and the dissonances in discourses were presented according to some basic rules of the theory, such as adopting policy as part of the scientific process, abandoning the modernist division and representations, and accepting the ontological multiplicity.

  19. 76 FR 71379 - Florida Power & Light Company, Turkey Point, Units 3 and 4; Draft Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... supply. The FAS underlies approximately 100,000 square miles (258,000 km\\2\\) in southern Alabama..., mollusks, crustaceans, fish, sea turtles, and marine mammals. The portion of Biscayne Bay adjacent to... swallowtail E ponceanus. butterfly. Mammals Puma concolor mountain lion \\b\\... T/SA Felis concolor...

  20. p53's mitochondrial translocation and MOMP action is independent of Puma and Bax and severely disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja Wolff; Susan Erster; Gustavo Palacios; Ute M Moll

    2008-01-01

    p53's apoptotic program consists of transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways. In the latter, physical interactions between mitochondrial p53 and anti-and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl2 family of mitochondrial permeability regulators are central. Using isogenic cell systems with defined deficiencies, we characterize in detail how mitochondrial p53 contributes to mitochondrial permeabilization, to what extent its action depends on other key Bcl2 family members and define its release activity. We show that mitochondrial p53 is highly efficient in inducing the release of soluble and insoluble apoptogenic factors by severely disrupting outer and inner mitochondrial membrane integrity. This action is associated with wild-type p53-induced oligomerization of Bax, Bak and VDAC and the formation of a stress-induced endogenous complex between p53 and cyclophilin D, normally located at the inner membrane. Tumor-derived p53 mutants are deficient in activating the Bax/Bak lipid pore. These actions are independent of Puma and Bax. Importantly, the latter distinguishes the mitochondrial from the cytosolic p53 death pathway.

  1. The R/V EL PUMA and JUSTO SIERRA impact on the development of oceanography in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, A.

    2007-05-01

    The acquisition of the two research vessels (R/V EL PUMA AND R/V JUSTO SIERRA) of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México represented a milestone for the development of oceanography and capacity building in Mexico. These boats were designed to conduct multi and interdisciplinary research in the Economic Exclusive Zone of Mexico in the main areas of oceanography (Physics, Geology, Chemistry and Biology). Its use, by different institutions, resulted in a substantial advancement of the knowledge of Marine ecosystems of Mexico. About 460 oceanographic campaigns, with more than 8700 participants, have been conducted since the boats arrived. These covered a wide array of topics of the marine ecosystem from the inner shelf to deep sea. Extensive research was done on current patterns, primary productivity and pollution monitoring of the Mexican Pacific, Sea of Cortez, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean sea. Marine biodiversity studies were also carried which discovered more than 180 new species in Mexican seas. Ecological characterization and paleo-oceanographic research from continental shelf to deep sea also registered a substantial advance. The vessels are now renewed with hi-tech equipment for sea bottom, water column and navigation that increased their research capacity, representing again a new milestone in the history of oceanography in Mexico. This improved capacity is very promising and opens new and sound opportunities for carrying modern oceanographic in order to improve knowledge of the Mexican Economic Exclusive Zone.

  2. A social-democracia do MAS boliviano

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    Guilherme Simões Reis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O partido MAS, que governa a Bolívia e é liderado pelo presidente Evo Morales, geralmente é classificado como populista ou como revolucionário. Este artigo contesta ambos os diagnósticos, e sustenta que o MAS é um partido social-democrata. Tanto em sua gênese, como em seu comportamento na oposição, como em suas políticas no governo, o MAS apresenta todas as características necessárias para ser classificado como um representante da social-democracia. Para contestar os diagnósticos predominantes na literatura, o argumento desenvolve-se aplicando três distintas abordagens sobre a social-democracia. Uma comparação histórico-ideológica com os partidos tradicionalmente apontados como social-democratas mostra que o MAS assemelha-se a eles tanto em sua origem fortemente sindical como no tipo de mudança que introduziu na política do país. Uma análise institucional mostra que não procedem as acusações de que é antissistema e contrário à democracia, características associadas tanto aos "populistas", de acordo com "teóricos das duas esquerdas latino-americanas", como aos partidos adeptos da "revolução violenta". Por fim, uma análise das políticas adotadas pelo MAS no governo indica que estão alinhadas com aquelas consideradas como social-democráticas no contexto de integração dos mercados globais. Argumenta-se no texto que o MAS não é em geral classificado como social-democrata, em parte devido a uma visão equivocada sobre suas práticas, e em parte por uma tendência dos estudiosos a chamarem a atenção para o que lhe é específico, e não para o que ele tem em comum com outros partidos de esquerda, como é feito com quaisquer partidos ao catalogá-los em famílias.

  3. Los conflictos ambientales del gas boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavaldá Palacín, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ajustes neoliberales introducidos en la legislación bolivana han facilitado la apropiación de los recursos hidrocarburíferos por parte de las transnacionales petroleras. Estas compañías invaden territorios indígenas y áreas protegidas. En su accionar generan graves conflictos ambientales con las comunidades locales. La costrucción de los gasoductos Bolivia-Brasil, Cuiabá y Gasyrg así como la oposición de la población a exportar gas a Estados Unidos nos reflejan cómo la población se organiza para resistir al expolio de las compañías petroleras. Las movilizaciones populares de ¿La Guerra del gas¿, en octubre 2003 no han terminado, porque el gas sigue en manos extranjeras.

  4. p53 Efficiently Suppresses Tumor Development in the Complete Absence of Its Cell-Cycle Inhibitory and Proapoptotic Effectors p21, Puma, and Noxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz J. Valente

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of apoptosis through transcriptional induction of Puma and Noxa has long been considered to constitute the critical (if not sole process by which p53 suppresses tumor development, although G1/S boundary cell-cycle arrest via induction of the CDK inhibitor p21 has also been thought to contribute. Recent analyses of mice bearing mutations that impair p53-mediated induction of select target genes have indicated that activation of apoptosis and G1/S cell-cycle arrest may, in fact, be dispensable for p53-mediated tumor suppression. However, the expression of Puma, Noxa, and p21 was not abrogated in these mutants, only reduced; therefore, the possibility that the reduced levels of these critical effectors of p53-mediated apoptosis and G1/S-cell-cycle arrest sufficed to prevent tumorigenesis could not be excluded. To resolve this important issue, we have generated mice deficient for p21, Puma, and Noxa (p21−/−puma−/−noxa−/− mice. Cells from these mice were deficient in their ability to undergo p53-mediated apoptosis, G1/S cell-cycle arrest, and senescence. Nonetheless, these animals remained tumor free until at least 500 days, in contrast to p53-deficient mice, which had all succumbed to lymphoma or sarcoma by 250 days. Interestingly, DNA lesions induced by γ-irradiation persisted longer in p53-deficient cells compared to wild-type or p21−/−puma−/−noxa−/− cells, and the former failed to transcriptionally activate several p53 target genes implicated in DNA repair. These results demonstrate beyond a doubt that the induction of apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and possibly senescence is dispensable for p53-mediated suppression of spontaneous tumor development and indicate that coordination of genomic stability and possibly other processes, such as metabolic adaptation, may instead be critical.

  5. Plasma membrane lipid alterations associated with cold acclimation of winter rye seedlings (Secale cereale L. cv Puma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, D.V.; Steponkus, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1987-01-01

    Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted > 50 mole % of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole % of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole %, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole % and 4 to 1 mole %, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free {beta}-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole % (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing {beta}-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h) were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane.

  6. Effects of PUMA/ASPP1 Gene on Proliferation of Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells%PUMA/ASPP1双抑癌基因对胃癌 SGC-7901细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 龚辉; 朱水山

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨 p53正向细胞凋亡调控因子(p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis protein,PUMA)/p53促凋亡蛋白(apoptosis stimulating protein of p53,ASPP)1融合基因及单个基因对胃癌 SGC-7901细胞的杀伤作用。方法通过脂质体(lipofectamine)2000TM 将 PUMA/ASPP1融合基因及 PUMA、ASPP1单个基因分别转染胃癌SGC-7901细胞系[实验设5组,分别为胃癌细胞无转染空白对照(SGC-7901)组,空载质粒转染细胞对照(SGC-7901-pcDNA3.1)组以及重组 ASPP1质粒转染细胞实验(SGC-7901-ASPP1)组、重组 PUMA 质粒转染细胞实验(SGC-7901-PUMA)组、重组 PUMA/ASPP1质粒转染细胞实验(SGC-7901-PUMA/ASPP1)组],再次经 G418筛选,获得稳定表达融合基因 SGC-7901-PUMA/ASPP1细胞株。通过 MTT 法及使用流式细胞仪测定各组胃癌SGC-7901系细胞的存活数(光吸收度即 A 值)及细胞周期。结果SGC-7901组与 SGC-7901-pcDNA3.1组 A 值比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);SGC-7901-ASPP1组、SGC-7901-PUMA 组和 SGC-7901-PUMA/ASPP1组 A值明显低于 SGC-7901组与 SGC-7901-pcDNA3.1组(均 P <0.01);SGC-7901-ASPP1组、SGC-7901-PUMA 组和SGC-7901-PUMA/ASPP13组中,SGC-7901-PUMA/ASPP1细胞组 A 值最低(P <0.01)。与 SGC-7901组、SGC-7901-pcDNA3.1组比较,SGC-7901-ASPP1、SGC-7901-PUMA、SGC-7901-PUMA/ASPP1组的 G1期明显增多,S 期明显减少,尤以 SGC-7901-PUMA/ASPP1组 S 期减少为甚(均 P <0.01);SGC-7901-pcDNA3.1组与 SGC-7901组比较 G1期、S 期差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论双抑癌基因可有效抑制胃癌 SGC-7901系细胞增殖,双抑癌基因较单个抑癌基因具有更强的抗肿瘤作用。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the lethal effects of p53 up-regulated modulator of apopto-sis(PUMA),apoptosis stimulating protein of p53(ASPP1 )and PUMA-ASPP1 fusion gene on hu-man gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

  7. Roscovitine-induced apoptosis in neutrophils and neutrophil progenitors is regulated by the Bcl-2-family members Bim, Puma, Noxa and Mcl-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivan Gautam

    Full Text Available Neutrophil granulocyte (neutrophil apoptosis plays a key role in determining inflammation in infectious and non-infectious settings. Recent work has shown that inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk such as roscovitine can potently induce neutrophil apoptosis and reduce inflammation. Using a conditional Hoxb8-expression system we tested the participation of Bcl-2-family proteins to roscovitine-induced apoptosis in mouse neutrophils and in neutrophil progenitor cells. Bcl-2 strongly protected against roscovitine-induced apoptosis in neutrophils. The isolated loss of either Bim or noxa provided significant, partial protection while protection through combined loss of Bim and noxa or Bim and Puma was only slightly greater than this individual loss. The only substantial change in protein levels observed was the loss of Mcl-1, which was not transcriptional and was inhibited by proteasome blockade. In progenitor cells there was no protection by the loss of Bim alone but substantial protection by the loss of both Bim and Puma; surprisingly, strongest protection was seen by the isolated loss of noxa. The pattern of protein expression and Mcl-1-regulation in progenitor cells was very similar to the one observed in differentiated neutrophils. In addition, roscovitine strongly inhibited proliferation in progenitor cells, associated with an accumulation of cells in G2/M-phase.

  8. Contesting the Equivalency of Continuous Sedation until Death and Physician-assisted Suicide/Euthanasia: A Commentary on LiPuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raho, Joseph A; Miccinesi, Guido

    2015-10-01

    Patients who are imminently dying sometimes experience symptoms refractory to traditional palliative interventions, and in rare cases, continuous sedation is offered. Samuel H. LiPuma, in a recent article in this Journal, argues that continuous sedation until death is equivalent to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia based on a higher brain neocortical definition of death. We contest his position that continuous sedation involves killing and offer four objections to the equivalency thesis. First, sedation practices are proportional in a way that physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia is not. Second, continuous sedation may not entirely abolish consciousness. Third, LiPuma's particular version of higher brain neocortical death relies on an implausibly weak construal of irreversibility--a position that is especially problematic in the case of continuous sedation. Finally, we explain why continuous sedation until death is not functionally equivalent to neocortical death and, hence, physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia. Concluding remarks review the differences between these two end-of-life practices.

  9. Sevoflurane Post-conditioning Protects Primary Rat Cortical Neurons Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Resuscitation: Roles of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 and Bid, Bim, Puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Xiaochun; Jiang, Xiaojing

    2015-08-01

    Temporal post-conditioning to induce neuroprotection against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury insult is considered to be an effective intervention, but the exact mechanisms of sevoflurane post-conditioning are poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) play a pivotal role in the cell growth and proliferation. The essential axis of activator Bid, Bim, Puma (BH3s) and BAX, BAK in activating the mitochondrial death program might offer common ground for cell death signal. We hypothesized that, sevoflurane post-conditioning might inhibit the expression of Bid, Bim and Puma and is activated by phosphor-Erk1/2 to reduce neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1 h and resuscitation for 24 h (OGD/R). The assays of MTT, propidium iodide uptake, JC-1 fluorescence and western blot demonstrated that OGD/R exposure reduced cell viability, increased cell death, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the expressions of Bid, Bim, and Puma. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation could partially attenuate 2 % of sevoflurane post-conditioning mediated increase in neuronal viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, and also a decrease in cell death and expression of Bid, Bim and Puma after OGD/R treatment. The results demonstrated that, the protection of sevoflurane post-conditioning markedly reducing death of cortical neurons exposed to OGD/R could be correlated with down-regulation of Bid, Bim and Puma expression mediated by phosphorylation/activation of Erk1/2.

  10. PUMA gene inhibits the growth of PC-3 Pancreatic carcinoma cells%PUMA基因转染对胰腺癌细胞生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克君; 李德春; 朱新国; 朱东明; 赵志泓

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨PUMA基因转染抑制胰腺肿瘤生长的体内外效果.方法 利用脂质体转染法将表达PUMA的质粒转染导入胰腺癌细胞株PC-3中,G418筛选出阳性克隆,Western和RT-PCR法检测PUMA转染后PC-3 PUMA的表达,流式细胞仪检测转染后细胞凋亡率;分别将转染PUMA的PC-3细胞(实验组)和未转染的PC-3细胞移植到裸鼠体内,比较裸鼠移植肿瘤的大小和重量以及PUMA表达.结果 PUMA表达质粒转染的PC-3细胞(PC-3/PUMA)稳定表达PUMA,其细胞凋亡率为(5.50 ± 0.90)%,明显高于未转染组的(1.073 ± 0.248)%和空载体转染组的(1.08 ± 0.35)%(P <0.05);裸鼠接种4周后PC-3/PUMA细胞成瘤率为70%,PC-3细胞和空载体PC-3细胞成瘤率为100%(P > 0.05),PC-3/PUMA细胞形成的肿瘤体积比PC-3细胞和空载体PC-3细胞明显减小(P <0.05),并且形成的肿瘤组织中PUMA高表达.结论 胰腺癌细胞中缺失PUMA基因表达,PUMA转染胰腺癌细胞后表达PUMA,并能促进细胞凋亡.

  11. Both p53-PUMA/NOXA-Bax-mitochondrion and p53-p21cip1 pathways are involved in the CDglyTK-mediated tumor cell suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhendong, E-mail: zdyu@hotmail.com [Department of Clinical laboratory, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Guangdong (China); Wang, Hao [Department of pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Libin; Tang, Aifa; Zhai, Qinna; Wen, Jianxiang; Yao, Li [Department of Clinical laboratory, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Guangdong (China); Li, Pengfei, E-mail: lipengfei@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-09-04

    CDglyTK fusion suicide gene has been well characterized to effectively kill tumor cells. However, the exact mechanism and downstream target genes are not fully understood. In our study, we found that CDglyTK/prodrug treatment works more efficiently in p53 wild-type (HONE1) cells than in p53 mutant (CNE1) cells. We then used adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system to either knockdown or overexpress p53 and its target genes in these cells. Consistent results showed that both p53-PUMA/NOXA/Bcl2-Bax and p53-p21 pathways contribute to the CDglyTK induced tumor cell suppression. Our work for the first time addressed the role of p53 related genes in the CDglyTK/prodrug system.

  12. Exacerbations and health care resource utilization in patients with airflow limitation diseases attending a primary care setting: the PUMA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes de Oca M

    2016-12-01

    . Asthma patients with exacerbations had twice the number of visits versus those without an exacerbation. The number of visits was higher (2.8 times in asthma–COPD overlap, asthma (1.9 times, or COPD (1.4 times patients versus those without these respiratory diseases; the number of visits due to exacerbation was also higher (4.9 times in asthma–COPD overlap, asthma (3.5 times, and COPD (3.8 times patients. Conclusion: COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap increase the prevalence of medical visits and, therefore, health care resource utilization. Attempts to reduce health care resource use in these patients require interventions aimed at preventing exacerbations. Keywords: COPD, asthma, asthma–COPD overlap, exacerbation, health care resource utilization, primary care, PUMA

  13. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  14. Sevoflurane post-conditioning protects primary rat cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/resuscitation via down-regulation in mitochondrial apoptosis axis of Bid, Bim, Puma-Bax and Bak mediated by Erk1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Sun, Wen-Bo; Li, Rui; Jiang, Xiao-Jing

    2015-10-15

    Temporal post-conditioning helps provide neuroprotection against brain injury secondary to ischemia-reperfusion and is considered an effective intervention, but the exact mechanism of sevoflurane post-conditioning is unclear. The essential axis involves activator Bid, Bim, Puma (BH3s), Bax, and Bak; activates the mitochondrial death program; and might be involved in a cell death signal. Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) play a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that sevoflurane post-conditioning might inhibit Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak expression and is activated by phosphor-Erk1/2 to decrease neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cortical neuron cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1h, along with resuscitation for 24h (OGD/R). MTT assays, propidium iodide uptake (PI), JC-1 fluorescence, and Western blot indicated the following: decreased cell viability (PPuma, Bax, and Bak expression with OGD/R exposure. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation could attenuate sevoflurane post-conditioning that mediated an increase in neuronal viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as a decrease in cell death and Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak expression after OGD/R treatment. The results demonstrated that sevoflurane post-conditioning caused a marked decrease in cortical neuronal death secondary to OGD/R exposure through the downregulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis axis involving Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak that was mediated by the phosphorylation/activation of Erk1/2.

  15. Recombinant adenovirus containing PUMA gene regulated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter transfected into ovarian cancer COC1 cells%hTERT启动子调控的PUMA腺病毒转染卵巢癌COC1细胞的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨聪; 王冬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To over-express the P53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis(PUMA) in ovarian cancer COC1 cells for playing the role to restrain the cell growth .Methods Adenovirus vector (Ad)-human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (hTERT)-PUMA was transfected into ovarian cancer COC1 cells .Then the growth of COC1 cells was studied by CCK-8 and the apoptosis kit and the level of PUMA was analyzed .Results After transfection of Ad-hTERT-PUMA ,PUMA was over-expressed in COC1 cells ,which restrained the cells growth and promoted the cell apoptosis .Conclusion Ad-hTERT-PUMA is successfully transfected into ovarian cancer COC1 cells and PUMA is over-expressed to play the role for restraining the cells growth .%目的:探讨卵巢癌COC1细胞中大量表达p53正向凋亡调控因子(PUMA)在抑制COC1细胞中的作用。方法采用人端粒酶逆转录酶(hTERT)启动子调控的PUMA基因腺病毒载体(Ad-hTERT-PUMA)转染卵巢癌COC1细胞,通过细胞活性检测试剂盒和凋亡试剂盒研究COC1细胞的生长情况,同时分析表达PUMA的水平。结果转染Ad-hTERT-PUMA后,PU-MA大量表达,抑制COC1细胞生长,促进细胞凋亡。结论Ad-hTERT-PUMA成功转染卵巢癌COC1细胞并大量表达,起到了抑制卵巢癌细胞增长的作用。

  16. Molecular detection of Cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcos R; Adania, Cristina H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Allegretti, Silmara M; Felippe, Paulo A N; Silva, Ketty F; Nakaghi, Andréa C H; Dagnone, Ana S

    2009-01-01

    Cytauxzoon spp. DNA was detected for the first time in blood samples from asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids. In 2006, 72 EDTA blood samples from seven wild felids species: Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), Leopardus wiedii (margay), Leopardus tigrinus (little spotted cat), Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat) and Panthera onca (jaguar) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18S rRNA gene segment in order to verify the presence of Cytauxzoon spp. DNA. Nine samples were positive: six ocelots, two pumas, and one jaguar. In Brazil, wild felids may be natural reservoirs for Cytauxzoon spp.

  17. "A carne mais barata do mercado é a carne negra: uma reflexão sobre o "design" das camisas da Puma na Copa do Mundo de Futebol/2010 "The cheapest flesh in the market is the black one": body, soccer and advertising Puma uniforms in the 2010 soccer world cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Puma, uma empresa de material esportivo, desde meados da primeira década do século XXI tem constantemente utilizado jogadores negros em suas campanhas publicitárias, parte de uma estratégia de busca de aproximação com o continente africano. À beira da falência no início dos anos 90, a empresa conseguiu se reposicionar no mercado unindo o esporte à moda, investindo em produtos de "design" arrojado. Uma de suas iniciativas foi buscar inspiração no "caráter exótico" das nações africanas para produzir peças que possam ser utilizadas em situações cotidianas, não só para a prática de esportes. Como o corpo do negro africano tem sido representado em suas estratégias publicitárias? Esse estudo teve por objetivo analisar um ponto específico da publicidade da Puma por ocasião da Copa do Mundo de Futebol de 2010, realizada na África do Sul: o "design" das camisas fornecidas a três seleções africanas - Camarões, Costa do Marfim e Gana. Para alcance do objetivo, entabulamos uma comparação com os modelos das camisas fornecidas pela empresa a outros selecionados (Suíça, Uruguai e Itália, prospectando o quanto suas ações publicitárias reforçam ou não certos estereótipos comumente observados quando se utilizam negros em campanhas de publicidade.Puma, a company of sport gears, has been inserting black soccer players in its advertising campaigns as a strategy to get closer to the African continent. Near to bankruptcy at the 90' beginning, the company has succeeded in bringing to the market products with more daring design, linking fashion and sports. One of its latest initiatives was to seek inspiration in the exotic profile of African people to produce pieces that can be used in all occasions not only for sports. How African's bodies have been exposed in its adverting campaigns? The objective of this study was to analyze an specific issue related to some strategies adopted in Puma advertising campaigns launched during

  18. Anti-tumour activity of a novel coumarin-chalcone hybrid is mediated through intrinsic apoptotic pathway by inducing PUMA and altering Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Sarkar, Jayanta; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Ali, Shakir; Sinha, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Coumarins and chalcones are secondary plant metabolites which have shown an array of pharmacological properties including anti-tumour activity. We have previously reported on the synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of a series of novel coumarin-chalcone hybrids. Now we report on the in vivo efficacy as well as mechanism of action of the most potent molecule of the series, S009-131. Oral administration of this molecule resulted in regression of tumours induced by HeLa cell xenografts in nod SCID mice. The molecule inhibited proliferation of cervical cancer cells (HeLa and C33A) by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase. Apoptosis was induced through induction of caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and alterations in the cellular levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential got highly depleted in S009-131 treated cells due to an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and intracellular ROS. The molecule induced release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspases-3/7. Tumour suppressor protein p53 and its transcriptional target PUMA were up regulated, suggesting their role in mediating the cell death. These results suggest that S009-131 is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of cervical carcinoma.

  19. Jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) food habits in a mosaic of Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantations of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tófoli, C F; Rohe, F; Setz, E Z F

    2009-08-01

    Food habits of jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) were studied between November 2000 and November 2001, in a 24.9 km(2) area of secondary Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantation, in the Serra de Paranapiacaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Analyses of 26 fecal and regurgitate samples, obtained over a stretch of 570.1 km, showed the consumption of 19 prey items and 74 prey occurrences. Small mammals were the most frequent food item (42.5%), followed by birds (21%), reptiles (14%) and medium-sized mammals (3%). The percent occurrence (PO) suggests that the diet consisted mainly of small rodents (30%) and birds (21%). We recorded for the first time the predation of Viperidae snakes by P. yagouaroundi. Although having a large list of items and range of dietary niche breadths (Bsta = 0.76), our data show that jaguarundi prey mainly on small vertebrates (mammals, birds or reptiles), and even in tall tropical forests or eucalypt plantations, it preys mostly on animals that come to, or live on, the ground.

  20. Survivin启动子调控的PUMA基因表达载体对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞凋亡的影响%Construction of a PUMA gene-targeted expression vector regulated by Survivin promoter and research of its effect on cell apoptosis in MCF-7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍坤; 刘晓华; 黄丽; 余红; 税青林

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨构建带有肿瘤特异性Survivin启动子的PUMA基因表达载体pUC57-Survivin-PUMA对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的肿瘤特异性促凋亡作用.方法:化学合成PUMA基因片段克隆至pUC57质粒,构建重组质粒pUC57-PUMA;克隆Survivin启动子序列,取代pUC57-PUMA质粒原有的CMV启动子,构建重组质粒pUC57-Survivin-PUMA,测序鉴定.实验设置pUC57-PUMA组、pUC57-Survivin-PUMA组、阴性对照组(pUC57group)和空白对照组(blank group).将以上各组分别转染人乳腺癌MCF-7细胞及人正常乳腺Hs 578Bst细胞.转染后48h,western blot技术检测各组细胞中PUMA蛋白表达情况,流式细胞仪检测细胞的凋亡率.结果:重组质粒经测序鉴定证实符合设计要求,构建成功;MCF-7细胞中pUC57-PUMA组和pUC57-Survivin-PUMA组的PUMA蛋白表达均较对照组显著增高(P<0.05),而人正常乳腺Hs 578Bst细胞中只有pUC57-PUMA组的PUMA蛋白表达较其他3组显著增高(P<0.05).MCF-7细胞中pUC57-PUMA组和pUC57-Survivin-PUMA组的细胞凋亡率分别为29.02%和29.31%,均较对照组显著增高(P<0.05),而人正常乳腺Hs 578Bst细胞中仅pUC57-PUMA组的细胞凋亡率较其他3组显著增高(P<0.05).结论:Survivin启动子调控的PUMA表达载体能显著增高乳腺癌MCF-7细胞中PUMA的表达,进而促进乳腺癌MCF-7细胞凋亡,而对正常乳腺Hs 578Bst细胞的凋亡不产生影响.%Objective:To construct PUMA gene-targeted expression vector driven by tumor specific Survivin promoter (pUC57-Survivin-PUMA) and investigate its cell apoptosis effects in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.Methods:The PUMA gene sequence by chemical synthesis was cloned in the plasmid pUC57 to construct the recombinant plasmid pUC57-PUMA,the CMV promoter in which then were replaced respectively by the Survivin promoter,and the plasmid pUC57-Survivin-PUMA was constructed finally.Four experimental groups were set up,they were pUC57-PUMA group,pUC57-Survivin-PUMA group,pUC57 control group

  1. The pan-Bcl-2 blocker obatoclax promotes the expression of Puma, Noxa, and Bim mRNA and induces apoptosis in neoplastic mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Barbara; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Schuch, Karina; Stefanzl, Gabriele; Eisenwort, Gregor; Gleixner, Karoline V; Hoermann, Gregor; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Kundi, Michael; Baumgartner, Sigrid; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Pickl, Winfried F; Willmann, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Advanced SM is an incurable neoplasm with short survival time. So far, no effective therapy is available for these patients. We and others have shown recently that neoplastic MC in ASM and MCL express antiapoptotic Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. In this study, we examined the effects of the pan-Bcl-2 family blocker obatoclax (GX015-070) on primary neoplastic MC, the human MC leukemia cell line HMC-1, and the canine mastocytoma cell line C2. Obatoclax was found to inhibit proliferation in primary human neoplastic MC (IC₅₀: 0.057 μM), in HMC-1.2 cells expressing KIT D816V (IC₅₀: 0.72 μM), and in HMC-1.1 cells lacking KIT D816V (IC₅₀: 0.09 μM), as well as in C2 cells (IC₅₀: 0.74 μM). The growth-inhibitory effects of obatoclax in HMC-1 cells were accompanied by an increase in expression of Puma, Noxa, and Bim mRNA, as well as by apoptosis, as evidenced by microscopy, TUNEL assay, and caspase cleavage. Viral-mediated overexpression of Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, or Bcl-2 in HMC-1 cells was found to introduce partial resistance against apoptosis-inducing effects of obatoclax. We were also able to show that obatoclax synergizes with several other antineoplastic drugs, including dasatinib, midostaurin, and bortezomib, in producing apoptosis and/or growth arrest in neoplastic MC. Together, obatoclax exerts major growth-inhibitory effects on neoplastic MC and potentiates the antineoplastic activity of other targeted drugs. Whether these drug effects can be translated to application in patients with advanced SM remains to be determined.

  2. COPD Underdiagnosis and Misdiagnosis in a High-Risk Primary Care Population in Four Latin American Countries. A Key to Enhance Disease Diagnosis: The PUMA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Herrera, Alejandro; Montes de Oca, Maria; López Varela, Maria Victorina; Aguirre, Carlos; Schiavi, Eduardo; Jardim, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acknowledgement of COPD underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis in primary care can contribute to improved disease diagnosis. PUMA is an international primary care study in Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay. Objectives To assess COPD underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis in primary care and identify factors associated with COPD underdiagnosis in this setting. Methods COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator (post-BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <0.70 and the lower limit of normal (LLN). Prior diagnosis was self-reported physician diagnosis of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or COPD. Those patients with spirometric COPD were considered to have correct prior diagnosis, while those without spirometric criteria had misdiagnosis. Individuals with spirometric criteria without previous diagnosis were considered as underdiagnosed. Results 1,743 patients were interviewed, 1,540 completed spirometry, 309 (post-BD FEV1/FVC <0.70) and 226 (LLN) had COPD. Underdiagnosis using post-BD FEV1/FVC <0.70 was 77% and 73% by LLN. Overall, 102 patients had a prior COPD diagnosis, 71/102 patients (69.6%) had a prior correct diagnosis and 31/102 (30.4%) had a misdiagnosis defined by post-BD FEV1/FVC ≥0.70. Underdiagnosis was associated with higher body mass index (≥30 kg/m2), milder airway obstruction (GOLD I–II), black skin color, absence of dyspnea, wheezing, no history of exacerbations or hospitalizations in the past-year. Those not visiting a doctor in the last year or only visiting a GP had more risk of underdiagnosis. COPD underdiagnosis (65.8%) and misdiagnosis (26.4%) were less prevalent in those with previous spirometry. Conclusions COPD underdiagnosis is a major problem in primary care. Availability of spirometry should be a priority in this setting. PMID:27073880

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements (Including First and Second Record of Decision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    internal rock color. Biological soil crusts are formed from very small living organisms consisting of cyanobacteria (or ―blue-green algae‖) along with...other algae, lichens, mosses, fungi, and bacteria. Cyanobacteria create sticky materials that bind soil particles together and increase soil...W.E. Johnson, J. Pecon-Slattery, and S.J. O’Brien. 2000. Genomic ancestry of the American puma (Puma concolor). The Journal of Heredity 91:186-197

  4. Concurrent acetylation of FoxO1/3a and p53 due to sirtuins inhibition elicit Bim/PUMA mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shatrunajay; Sharma, Ankita; Pandey, Vivek Kumar; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kakkar, Poonam

    2016-01-15

    Post-translational modifications i.e. phosphorylation and acetylation are pivotal requirements for proper functioning of eukaryotic proteins. The current study aimed to decode the impact of acetylation/deacetylation of non-histone targets i.e. FoxO1/3a and p53 of sirtuins (NAD(+) dependent enzymes with lysine deacetylase activity) in berberine treated human hepatoma cells. Berberine (100 μM) inhibited sirtuins significantly (Pberberine potentiated sirtuins inhibition and increased the expression of FoxO1/3a and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. As sirtuins deacetylate non-histone targets including FoxO1/3a and p53, berberine increased the acetylation load of FoxO1/3a and p53 proteins. Acetylated FoxO and p53 proteins transcriptionally activate BH3-only proteins Bim and PUMA (3.89 and 3.87 fold respectively, Pberberine and nicotinamide was curtailed up to 28.3% (Pberberine (25 μM), reversed sirtuins expression comparable to control and significantly restored the cell viability (Pberberine mediated sirtuins inhibition resulting into FoxO1/3a and p53 acetylation followed by BH3-only protein Bim/PUMA activation may in part be responsible for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

  5. Huéspedes definitivos de Spirometra mansonoides (Cestoda, Diphyllobothriidae en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio parasitológico en el zoológico Parque de Las Leyendas, Lima, Perú en el año de 1993. Se recolectaron 49 muestras de heces de carnívoros pertenecientes a cinco familias: Canidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae y Felidae, éstas fueron procesadas usando métodos rutinarios para la búsqueda de huevos de helmintos. En las heces de tres especies de la familia Felidae, Puma concolor (puma andino y puma de la selva, Panthera onca (otorongo y Leopardus pardalis (tigrillo se identificaron huevos de Spirometra mansonoides.

  6. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  7. 50 CFR 14.252 - What definitions do I need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wildlife species means a specimen of any of the following eight species: Lion (Panthera leo), tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and cougar (Puma concolor) or any hybrids...

  8. Environmental Assessment Newport Research Facility Irish Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    pasture to that has been recently seeded as a hay field. The northern portion of this parcel is primarily a moderately to steeply sloped forested...Name ANIMALS American burying beetle Canada lynx Eastern cougar Gray wolf Scientific Name Nicrophorus americanus Lynx canadensis Puma (=Felis...concolor couguar Canis lupus Northeastern beach tiger beetle Cincindela dorsalis dorsalis PLANTS Northeastern bulrush Swamp pink Scirpus

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Sterna antillarum N T Mammals Florida panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians ...Casuarina glauca Australian pine Dioscorea bulbifera Air potato Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla...Cuban treefrog (Osteophilus septentrionalis), Cuban brown anole (Anole sagrei) and the Indo-Pacific gecko (Hemidactylus garnoti) are some amphibian and

  10. AS PERDAS TERRITORIAIS DO ESTADO BOLIVIANO (1825-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siliano Reyes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study approaches the constitution of the Bolivian State and its territorial losses since its foundation in 1825 until the end of the Chaco War in 1935. Not only did such losses diminish the size of this Bolivian State’s territory but also restrained the country’s circulation perspectives. The country has tried to minimize its losses through international agreements on territorial use with exactly those neighbors which have taken part of its territory.To understand this process, the present study describes Bolivia’s populational and territorial formation, beginning with pre-Colombian peoples, mainly the Quechuas and the Aymaras, followed by the Spanish occupation, taking into account the fact that Bolivia has its own plentiful historicity, and is specifically inserted in the order of the world capital. Last but not least, this paper discusses the successive wars fought against three neighbor countries – Chile, Brazil and Paraguay – which resulted in significant territorial loss to the Bolivian State.

  11. CONDEPA Y UCS: El declive del neopopulismo boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Romero Ballivián

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available CONDEPA y UCS nacieron con las transformaciones de los años 1980 en Bolivia: transición a la democracia, crisis económica, aplicación del liberalismo económico, valoración del multiculturalismo. Integraron la tercera generación partidaria del siglo XX, caracterizada por su respeto a la democracia, la personalización de su liderazgo, su respuesta a la marginalidad social y a la pérdida de confianza en el nuevo proyecto estatal. CONDEPA y UCS alcanzaron su cenit en la presidencial de 1997. Sin embargo, cinco años después CONDEPA ocupó el último lugar y la UCS se convirtió meramente en un actor secundario. El artículo sigue el abrupto final de estos partidos, analizando los rasgos compartidos y las dificultades propias de cada organización: la personalización del liderazgo, el costo de la participación en la administración pública, la mala gestión de la herencia política y económica dejada por los fundadores

  12. Músicas, movimientos, colores en la fiesta andina: ejemplos bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la fiesta andina, la música suele tanto oírse como verse. Esta dimensión multisensorial de la situación musical no es únicamente el resultado de una yuxtaposición de elementos sonoros y visuales. El análisis de las articulaciones que los campesinos indígenas de la zona de sucre (Bolivia construyen entre sonidos, movimientos y colores revela la presencia de organizaciones singulares de la experiencia sensible que se caracterizan tanto por su espesor sensorial como por la manera en la cual se encuentran conectadas con otros campos del conocimiento. Estas formas de intersección culturalmente elaboradas implican el cuerpo mismo de los músicos, generando nuevas configuraciones perceptivas.

  13. Evidencias fotográfica, biológica y genética de la presencia actual de jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi en Michoacán, México Photographic, biological and genetic evidences of the presence of jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi at the moment in Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio C. Monterrubio-Rico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El jaguaroundi, a pesar de su amplia distribución neotropical, es uno de los felinos menos estudiados del continente y se carece de estudios genéticos sobre la especie. Para el estado de Michoacán ha existido la sospecha de su presencia y no obstante que sólo se tenía un registro del año 1970, los mapas de distribución de la especie en México incluyen al estado. Combinando métodos de campo (trampas cámara, recolección de campo, transectos y genotipificación molecular, obtuvimos evidencia fotográfica, biológica y genética que confirma la presencia actual de jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi en 3 regiones del estado de Michoacán, México. Se obtuvieron 11 registros fotográficos en 7 localidades con bosque tropical y 7 de estos registros, revelaron que la especie está activa principalmente por la tarde, que existen 2 fases de pelaje, predominando la fase clara y que se reproduce en el estado. Con base en las distancias e independencia entre registros de los municipios de Arteaga y Lázaro Cárdenas, se plantea la hipótesis de que la distribución continúa a lo largo de la sierra Madre del Sur y la costa del Pacífico de Michoacán, aunque se desconoce si hay conectividad hacia la depresión del Balsas. Se obtuvieron 2 secuencias de 1089 y 1096 pb del gen de citocromo b que actualmente son las más largas que se han obtenido para la especie en México y el norte del continente. Las secuencias indican que hay 2 haplotipos distintos. La presencia de la especie en 3 regiones y los 2 haplotipos permiten suponer que en Michoacán puede contar con importante diversidad genética, aunque hace falta ampliar el tamaño de muestra para confirmarlo. Las secuencias obtenidas permitirán la comparación con individuos de otras regiones del país para conocer mejor la variabilidad genética en la especie y auxiliarán en la identificación de poblaciones para conservación.The jaguaroundi is one of the least studied felids on the American

  14. The comparative effects of large carnivores on the acquisition of carrion by scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2015-06-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor) and black bears (Ursus americanus) are large carnivores that may influence scavenger population dynamics. We used motion-triggered video cameras deployed at deer carcasses to determine how pumas and black bears affected three aspects of carrion acquisition by scavengers: presence, total feeding time, and mean feeding-bout duration. We found that pumas were unable to limit acquisition of carrion by large carnivores but did limit aspects of carrion acquisition by both birds and mesocarnivores. Through their suppression of mesocarnivores and birds, pumas apparently initiated a cascading pattern and increased carrion acquisition by small carnivores. In contrast, black bears monopolized carrion resources and generally had larger limiting effects on carrion acquisition by all scavengers. Black bears also limited puma feeding behaviors at puma kills, which may require pumas to compensate for energetic losses through increasing their kill rates of ungulates. Our results suggest that pumas provide carrion and selectively influence species acquiring carrion, while black bears limit carrion availability to all other scavengers. These results suggest that the effects of large carnivores on scavengers depend on attributes of both carnivores and scavengers (including size) and that competition for carcasses may result in intraguild predation as well as mesocarnivore release.

  15. NOXA、PUMA等基因在乳腺癌中的表达及其意义%The Expression Characteristics of MDM2, PCNA, NOXA and PUMA in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尚文; 佟钧; 诸晨; 平妮娜; 喻箴; 崔明; 何越峰

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较癌组织与正常组织中MDM2、PCNA、NOXA、PUMA表达的差异,了解乳腺癌与表达的关系.方法 通过SYBR Green实时荧光定量PCR方法检测乳腺癌组织和正常乳腺组织中MDM2、PCNA、NOXA、PUMA 4个基因的含量.结果 (1) NOXA、和PUMA在乳腺癌组织中表达升高(P<0.05);(2) PCNA和NOXA的表达存在正相关关系(r=0.82,P<0.05));PCNA和MDM2的表达存在正相关关系(r=0.80,P<0.05);PUMA和MDM2的表达存在正相关关系(r=0.82,P<0.05).结论 NOXA、PUMA在乳腺癌组织中处于高表达状态,4个基因表达与乳腺癌有关.

  16. Evaluating the responses of a territorial solitary carnivore to potential mates and competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Yovovich, Veronica; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2016-06-02

    Successful communication is critical to the fitness of individuals and maintenance of populations, but less is known regarding the social contexts and reactions to scent marking by other individuals in solitary carnivores, including pumas. We evaluated the responses of resident male pumas to visitation and scent marking by potential competitors (other male pumas) and potential mates (female pumas) by capturing and marking 46 pumas (Puma concolor), and documenting scent marking behaviours using motion-triggered video cameras. By comparing resident male puma visitation rates and communication behaviours in response to either male or female visitors, we found that their visitation and communication behaviours were best explained by the combination of visitation by both competitors and potential mates. Resident males returned to scent marking sites more quickly and increased their rate of flehmen response after visitation by a females, while they increased their rate of visitation and duration of visits in response to other males. Male pumas also visited less frequently in summer and autumn when female visitation rates were lower, but males created nearly twice as many scrapes during these visits. This study suggests that advertising for mates when scent marking may sometimes overshadow the importance of deterring competitors and claiming territory.

  17. Registros adicionales de felinos del estado de Guerrero, México

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Almazán-Catalán; Cornelio Sánchez-Hernández; Fernando Ruíz-Gutiérrez; María de Lourdes Romero-Almaraz; Alejandro Taboada-Salgado; Elizabeth Beltrán-Sánchez; Leobardo Sánchez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Se amplía la información sobre distribución, hábitat y medidas somáticas y craneales de las 6 especies de felinos que se distribuyen en nuestro país y que se encuentran en Guerrero. La presencia de estas especies se obtuvo a través de métodos directos y registros indirectos. Lynx rufus está representado por la piel y el cráneo de un joven y es el segundo registro para el estado; mientras que Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii y Panthera onca incrementan su ...

  18. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.

  19. Información molecular obtenida a partir de pieles de la colección del Museo Regional Fagnano, Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se aplicaron técnicas moleculares sobre muestras poco conservadas de pieles depositadas en la colección del Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, con el objetivo de identificar la especie con la que fueron confeccionadas. Se extrajeron pelos de mantas realizadas con pieles de guanaco (Lama guanicoe) por Selk’nam y de una piel de puma (Puma concolor) procedente de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Ambas muestras se encontraban almacenadas en el Museo Re...

  20. Isolation and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii from a red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul), a jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), and a black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, H F J; Marvulo, M F V; Horta, M C; Silva, M A; Silva, J C R; Siqueira, D B; Lima, P-A C P; Vitaliano, S N; Gennari, S M

    2011-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates are highly diverse in domestic animals from Brazil. However, little is known about the genetics of this parasite from wild mammals in the same region. Reveal genetic similarity or difference of T. gondii among different animal populations is necessary for us to understand transmission of this parasite. Here we reported isolation and genetic characterisation of three T. gondii isolates from wild animals in Brazil. The parasite was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of a young male red handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul), an adult male jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), and an adult female black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita). The monkey and the jaguarundi had inhabited the Zoo of Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil, for 1 year and 8 years, respectively. The wild black-eared opossum was captured in São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, and euthanised for this study because it was seropositive for T. gondii (titre 1:100 by the modified agglutination test, MAT). Ten PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico, were used to genotype the isolates. T. gondii was isolated from the brain and heart homogenate of the monkey, the muscle homogenate of the jaguarundi, and the heart homogenate of the black-eared opossum. This was the first isolation of T. gondii from a neotropical felid from Brazil. The isolate from the monkey (TgRhHmBr1) was not virulent in mice, whereas the isolates from the jaguarundi (TgJagBr1) and the black-eared opossum (TgOpBr1) were virulent in mice. The genotype of the isolate from the monkey has been identified in isolates from a goat and ten chickens in the same region of Brazil, suggesting that it may be a common lineage circulating in this region. The genotypes of the isolates from the jaguarundi and the black-eared opossum have not been previously reported. Although there

  1. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I.

  2. Resource Selection by an Endangered Ungulate: A Test of Predator-Induced Range Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated influences of risk of predation by mountain lions (Puma concolor), topographic metrics at multiple scales, and vegetation, land, and snow cover on resource selection by Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), an endangered taxon, during winters 2002–2007, in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. We hypothesized that those mountain ungulates would trade off rewards accrued from using critical low-elevation habitat in winter for the safety of areas with reduced risk...

  3. Final Environmental Assessment: For the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Expanded Training Use Areas at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-10

    panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais...hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Hymenachne amplexicaulis West Indian marsh grass Imperata cylindrica Cogon grass...garnoti) are some amphibian and reptile species that occur within the built up areas of APAFR (U.S. Navy, 2004). Sub-tropical bird species noted to

  4. PUMA: The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J. L. B.; Webster, R. L.; Pindor, B.; Mitchell, D. A.; Trott, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present new software to cross-match low-frequency radio catalogues: the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm. The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm combines a positional Bayesian probabilistic approach with spectral matching criteria, allowing for confusing sources in the matching process. We go on to create a radio sky model using Positional Update and Matching Algorithm based on the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, and are able to automatically cross-match 98.5% of sources. Using the characteristics of this sky model, we create simple simulated mock catalogues on which to test the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm, and find that Positional Update and Matching Algorithm can reliably find the correct spectral indices of sources, along with being able to recover ionospheric offsets. Finally, we use this sky model to calibrate and remove foreground sources from simulated interferometric data, generated using OSKAR (the Oxford University visibility generator). We demonstrate that there is a substantial improvement in foreground source removal when using higher frequency and higher resolution source positions, even when correcting positions by an average of 0.3 arcmin given a synthesised beam-width of 2.3 arcmin.

  5. I AM 60——PUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincnet

    2009-01-01

    PUMA的60大寿.有三个不同的意义。简而言之.PUMA这攻特别将这个60周年企划划分成40至50、60至70、80至90年代三个以不同年代背景为设计概念,继而转化成3个其不同年代的特殊系列。总体上.整个系列以不同色调贯穿3个不同年代背景,彤成强烈的对比,Unlimited Hi与Easv Rider球鞋是本系列的重点。而wndbreaker同样不可错过。

  6. Registros adicionales de felinos del estado de Guerrero, México Additional records of cats in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Almazán-Catalán

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la información sobre distribución, hábitat y medidas somáticas y craneales de las 6 especies de felinos que se distribuyen en nuestro país y que se encuentran en Guerrero. La presencia de estas especies se obtuvo a través de métodos directos y registros indirectos. Lynx rufus está representado por la piel y el cráneo de un joven y es el segundo registro para el estado; mientras que Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii y Panthera onca incrementan su área de distribución en el estado. Las principales amenazas para estos felinos son la fragmentación del hábitat y la cacería furtiva.Information on distribution, habitat and measurements of the 6 species of cats found in Mexico and in Guerrero is provided. The specimens were recorded through direct and indirect methods. Lynx rufus is represented by the skin and skull of a young specimen and it is the second record for the state, while Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii and Panthera onca increase its distribution range in the state. The main threats to cats are habitat fragmentation and poaching.

  7. Probing HER2-PUMA and EGFR-PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    have high resistance to p53 inducible therapies such as DNA damaging agents, UV, and gamma irradiation among others [19]. However, a number of...Following washes, protein A agarose pellets were dephosphorylated with recombi nant human PTP1B followed by incubation with recombinant human HER2 as

  8. El "Tío" está sordo: Los mineros bolivianos y el Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Fernández Juárez

    2013-01-01

    Los mineros quechuas de Potosí rinden culto en el interior de mina a un personaje al que denominan “Tío”, el diablo. El artículo reflexiona sobre las contradicciones aparentes en que incurre la UNESCO en el reconocimiento de los bienes de interés cultural intangible o inmaterial aplicadas, en este caso, a la figura del “Tío” y su contexto minero. Las perspectivas “emic” y “etic” chocan con especial violencia intelectual al valorar la significación cultural del “Tio” en las minas potos...

  9. Moviéndose por Argentina: Sobre la presencia de bolivianos en Ushuaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Inés MALLIMACI BARRAL

    2012-01-01

    presentan algunos resultados sobre el tipo de trayectorias migratorias experimentadas por las/os bolivianas/os y los mecanismos que operaron detrás de sus modalidades de asentamiento. Se demostrará que la presencia de bolivianas/os en Ushuaia responde tanto a lógicas locales, de los Estados y los mercados regionales, como a mecanismos propios de la migración boliviana en Argentina.

  10. Grupos marginados en el desarrollo político argentino-boliviano 1880-1920

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Comparar el desarrollo político de Argentina y Bolivia no presenta mayores dificultades, por el contrario, con excepción del Brasil, quizá sean las realidades más opuestas entre todos los países hispanoamericanos, lo cual da un margen de comparación y contraste muy grandes. Sin embargo, el presente trabajo no tiene por objeto únicamente comparar ambas realidades sino más bien enfocar las perspectivas teórico metodológicas que se emplearon para estudiarlas. Se pretende establecer, sobre todo, ...

  11. A formação do movimento Katarista. classe e cultura nos Andes bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Hiroaki Hashizume

    2010-01-01

    O protagonismo social de camponeses e indígenas na Bolívia é comumente associado à particular composição étnico-cultural da população do país vizinho. O exame do katarismo - nome herdado do índio insurgente Tupac Katari, que liderou rebelião contra os colonizadores espanhóis no final do século XVIII -, especialmente em sua fase inicial (1969 a 1985), permite uma compreensão mais ampla e complexa do processo de formação, mudança e consolidação da classe trabalhadora boliviana. Antes disso, o t...

  12. Documentation of mountain lions in Marin County, California, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifield, Virginia L.; Rossi, Aviva J.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2010, mountain lions (Puma concolor) have rarely been documented in Marin County, California. Although there are reports of sightings of mountain lions or observations of mountain lion sign, most have not been verified by photographs or physical samples. Beginning in 2010, we conducted a pilot study of mountain lions in Marin County using motion-triggered cameras. Our objectives were to obtain additional documentations, confirm the presence of mountain lions outside of Point Reyes National Seashore, and determine if mountain lions had a regular presence in the county. 

  13. New Flea and Tick Records for Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Krausman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of ectoparasite ecology in wild felid populations is limited in free-ranging species and in regions such as Arizona. As part of a larger study, we collected ectoparasites from 4 radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor in Tucson, Arizona (32.189N -110.881E between January 2006 and December 2007. Ectoparasites were identified as Pulex, a genus of flea not commonly reported on mountain lions. The tick was a nymph of Argas (Alveonasus cooleyi, a species about which little is known.

  14. Freqüência de parasitas intestinais em felinos mantidos em zoológicos Frequency of intestinal parasites in felines kept in zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C.K. Müller

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The endoparasites occurrence in felines confined in two Zoos, between December 1999 and April 2000, was studied. Fecal samples of 18 felines (Panthera tigris, Panthera leo, Felis serval, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii were collected and the methods of Faust, modified Baermann and Hoffmann, were used for fecal analyses. Three genera were identified in the feces: Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp. In the zoo of Pomerode, six animals (46% were infected by Trichuris spp. and/or Giardia spp. and all samples from the zoo of Brusque were infected by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp.

  15. Predation of wild spider monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Izawa, Kosei

    2008-01-01

    The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size.

  16. [Felines: an alternative in genetic toxicology studies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria L; Batista-González, Cecilia M; Luna-Aguirre, Jaime; González-Rodríguez, Andrés; Rodríguez-Avila, José L; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M

    2008-06-01

    The micronuclei (MN) test carry out in peripheral blood is fast, simple, economic and it is used to detect genotoxic environmental agents. MN are fragments of chromosomes or complete chromosomes remaining in the cytoplasm after cell division, which increase when organisms are exposed to genotoxic agents. Therefore, species with the highest values of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) are the most suitable to be potentials biomonitor of micronucleogenic agents, using a drop of blood. Nine species of Felines that present spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood are shown. From these species, the cat has been previously proven, with positive results and also lion (Panthera leo), yaguaroundi (Felis yagoaroundi), lynx (Lynx ruffus), jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), tiger (Panthera tigris), ocelote (Felis padalis) and leopard (Panthera pardus) display spontaneous MNE, and with this characteristic this Family can be propose like a potential group to be used in toxicogenetic studies.

  17. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  18. Niche partitioning and species coexistence in a Neotropical felid assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bitetti, Mario S.; De Angelo, Carlos D.; Di Blanco, Yamil E.; Paviolo, Agustín

    2010-07-01

    Carnivores have been used as a model to understand the effects of competition in community structure. Behavioral mechanisms that facilitate species coexistence have been poorly explored and may explain the lack of community-wide morphological character displacement in some carnivore assemblages. We use the results of large-scale and intensive camera-trap surveys conducted in the Atlantic Forest of NE Argentina between 2003 and 2008 to describe the spatial patterns of detection and the daily pattern of records of the six wild cat species present in the region (jaguar Panthera onca, puma Puma concolor, ocelot Leopardus pardalis, jaguarundi Puma yagouaroundi, margay Leopardus wiedii, and oncilla Leopardus tigrinus). We use these patterns to generate hypotheses about behavioral differences that may facilitate species coexistence. The larger species were more frequently recorded in the better-protected areas, probably as a result of anthropogenic effects (poaching of cats and their prey). Competitive release from ocelots and jaguarundis may explain why the oncilla and the margay showed the opposite pattern. Morphologically similar species had the most contrasting activity patterns: the margay was exclusively nocturnal and the jaguarundi diurnal. The other species were cathemeral, but alternated their peaks of activity in relation to the relative order of their body weights. The contrasting temporal patterns observed and the ability of pumas and oncillas to adjust their activity patterns to local conditions may facilitate the coexistence of these cat species and explain the lack of character displacement in this assemblage.

  19. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  20. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  1. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lima Massara

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  2. Estimation of the bottleneck size in Florida panthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, M.; Hedrick, P.W.; Murphy, K.; O'Brien, S.; Hornocker, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    We have estimated the extent of genetic variation in museum (1890s) and contemporary (1980s) samples of Florida panthers Puma concolor coryi for both nuclear loci and mtDNA. The microsatellite heterozygosity in the contemporary sample was only 0.325 that in the museum samples although our sample size and number of loci are limited. Support for this estimate is provided by a sample of 84 microsatellite loci in contemporary Florida panthers and Idaho pumas Puma concolor hippolestes in which the contemporary Florida panther sample had only 0.442 the heterozygosity of Idaho pumas. The estimated diversities in mtDNA in the museum and contemporary samples were 0.600 and 0.000, respectively. Using a population genetics approach, we have estimated that to reduce either the microsatellite heterozygosity or the mtDNA diversity this much (in a period of c. 80years during the 20th century when the numbers were thought to be low) that a very small bottleneck size of c. 2 for several generations and a small effective population size in other generations is necessary. Using demographic data from Yellowstone pumas, we estimated the ratio of effective to census population size to be 0.315. Using this ratio, the census population size in the Florida panthers necessary to explain the loss of microsatellite variation was c .41 for the non-bottleneck generations and 6.2 for the two bottleneck generations. These low bottleneck population sizes and the concomitant reduced effectiveness of selection are probably responsible for the high frequency of several detrimental traits in Florida panthers, namely undescended testicles and poor sperm quality. The recent intensive monitoring both before and after the introduction of Texas pumas in 1995 will make the recovery and genetic restoration of Florida panthers a classic study of an endangered species. Our estimates of the bottleneck size responsible for the loss of genetic variation in the Florida panther completes an unknown aspect of this

  3. Cat, cougar, and jaguar spermatogenesis: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative review about the spermatogenic process in cats (Felis domestica, jaguars (Panthera onca and cougars (Puma concolor, with emphasis on testicular biometry, gonadossomatic index, volumetric proportion of testicular parenchyma components, tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial height and seminiferous tubule length. It was an approach of the differences among the cell proportions that allowed conclusions about the overall yield of spermatogenic process and Sertoli cell index in three feline species.O processo espermatogênico do gato doméstico (Felis domestica, da onça-pintada (Panthera onca e da onça-parda (Puma concolor são analisados de forma comparativa, dando-se ênfase à biometria testicular, ao índice gonadossomático, à proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do parênquima testicular, ao diâmetro tubular, à altura do epitélio seminífero e ao comprimento dos túbulos seminíferos. Abordam-se ainda as diferenças entres as razões celulares que permitem conclusões sobre o rendimento do processo espermatogênico e índices de células de Sértoli das três espécies.

  4. PUMA基因转染胰腺癌AsPC-1细胞增强对5-FU致凋亡的敏感性%PUMA gene transfection increases sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1 to 5-FU-induced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克君; 李德春; 朱东明

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨PUMA基因转染是否增强胰腺癌AsPC-1细胞对5-FU致凋亡的敏感性.方法: 采用脂质体转染法将PUMA-pCEP4和空载体pCEP4质粒转染入胰腺癌AsPC-1细胞中,G418筛选阳性细胞.将系列浓度(0.01~100 μmol/L)的5-FU 分别作用于AsPC-1、AsPC-1/PUMA和AsPC-1/pCEP4细胞72 h,MTT法测定各组细胞的存活率并计算IC50, FCM、断裂DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳和TUNEL法检测细胞凋亡情况,Western blotting检测各组细胞PUMA蛋白表达的变化.结果: AsPC-1、AsPC-1/PUMA和AsPC-1/pCEP4细胞的5-FU IC50分别为(12±1.9)、(1.6±0 4)和(10.4±1.6)μmol/L,AsPC-1/PUMA细胞对5-FU作用的敏感性增加了7.5倍.5-FU以剂量依赖方式诱导AsPC-1细胞凋亡,但对AsPC-1/PUMA细胞所诱导的凋亡比AsPC-1和AsPC-1/pCEP4 更明显.低浓度5-FU(0.1 μmol/L)轻微引起AsPC-1/pCEP4[(1.14±0.28)%]和AsPC-1细胞凋亡[(0.9±0.23)%],但能诱导AsPC-1/PUMA细胞明显凋亡[(6.47±1.42)%];高浓度5-FU (1μmol/L)诱导各组细胞凋亡,但AsPC-1/PUMA细胞凋亡率[(34.54±9.36)%]明显高于AsPC-1[(12.8±3.74)%]和AsPC-1/pCEP4细胞[(15.8±5.15)%],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);FCM、断裂DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳和TUNEL方法检测显示相同的结果.PUMA蛋白在AsPC-1/PUMA细胞中的表达明显高于AsPC-1和AsPC-1/pCEP4细胞.结论: PUMA基因转染明显地增强了胰腺癌AsPC-1细胞对5-FU致凋亡作用的敏感性.

  5. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  6. PUMA CELL VOLTRA跑步新“蜂巢”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEXXXXXY

    2009-01-01

    PUMA的CELL蜂巢减震技术一直与时俱进地与PUMA跑鞋系列不断进步。从最原始的CELL,到双层的DUOCELL,再到07年的SPIDERCELL,以及去年用在CELL MEIO上的反转DUOCELL。如今,PUMA借新款跑鞋CELL VOLTRA推出了全新的蜂巢减震技术——10CELL。

  7. La frontera boliviano-brasileña en construcción (principios del siglo XX. Los conflictos territoriales, fiscales y legales. La Columna Prestes en el territorio boliviano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Bridikhina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos contribuir al estudio de los temas de las fronteras a través de zoom out sobre un tramo extenso de la frontera Bolivia - Brasil entre las poblaciones de San Matías y Puerto Suárez en las primeras décadas del siglo XX. En el artículo se tocarán los temas sobre los procesos de redefinición regional de las zonas fronterizas, el desempeño de las autoridades centrales, regionales y locales, la violencia, relacionada con el robo del ganado, provocada por los individuos y bandas organizadas que afectaba a los pobladores, y, sobre todo, a los grupos indígenas como los más vulnerables. Asimismo, se reconstruye la desconocida historia del célebre movimiento militar brasileño encabezado por Luis Carlos Prestes o la columna Prestes que se encontraba exilado en el territorio de Bolivia.

  8. Las relaciones de pareja entre migrantes bolivianos/as en Madrid: ¿Cambios, resistencias o continuidades?

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    Marcela Tapia Ladino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La migración internacional es un escenario propicio para estudiar los cambios y las permanencias de la relaciones de género patriarcal desde la perspectiva de quienes migran. El artículo que se presenta quiere avanzar hacia la comprensión del impacto del cruce de fronteras en las relaciones entre hombres y mujeres desde la consideración relacional de género. Se advierte que los sistemas de desigualdad social en origen y en destino se enlazan con el género para describir tránsitos hacia relaciones más democráticas o de mayor subordinación en la sociedad receptora. Los elementos que explican dichas trayectorias se relacionan con factores de nivel micro social como el tipo de relación de pareja predominante antes de migrar, el capital social de las personas, y de nivel macro como las condiciones laborales y jurídicas que encuentran lo/as migrantes en el contexto de recepción. En general se aprecia que la migración es, al mismo tiempo, una oportunidad para el cambio a pequeña escala y una forma de dar continuidad a las prácticas tradicionales de género entre migrantes. Las diferencias en cada caso se relacionan con el impacto acumulado de la migración que vincula factores de nivel micro y estructural

  9. Economía y política del modelo boliviano 2006-2014: evaluación preliminar

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    Guillermo Alexander Arévalo Luna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia sufrió un profundo cambio socioeconómico y político en el periodo 2006-2014, pasó de un modelo de crecimiento liberal a uno de economía mixta, donde el Gobierno juega un papel muy relevante en la economía. El Estado tiene un control completo de los recursos económicos y principales ingresos de la industria. El excedente generado por los commodities contribuyó a la política de distribución de ingreso y además fue utilizado para la lucha contra la pobreza a través de una mejor educación y salud. El modelo macroeconómico fue exitoso: la economía boliviana creció a una tasa promedio de 4.6 % anual durante el periodo 2006–2014 y registró un superávit fiscal, un balance comercial positivo y un aumento en el volumen de reservas internacionales. Además, el país goza de estabilidad macroeconómica y baja inflación.

  10. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol.

  11. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

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    Ioan Blada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abiesconcolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill.rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p <0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 better than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively.Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  12. The role of landowners in jaguar conservation in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, Octavio C; Valdez, Raul

    2010-04-01

    The northernmost known breeding population of jaguars occurs in the municipality of Nácori Chico, Sonora, Mexico about 270 km from the United States-Mexico border and may be the source from which jaguars sighted in the United States dispersed. Since 1999 at least 11 jaguars (Panthera onca) had been illegally killed in the area due to predator control programs. We initiated a jaguar landowner-based conservation plan in 2004. The eight participating landowners agreed to suspend predator control programs targeting jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) only if cattle losses were compensated. A private outfitter, with the consent of landowners, initiated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunts in 2004 and agreed to pay the group of participating landowners US$1500 for every deer hunt permit sold. The funds paid to the landowners from deer hunts were sufficient to convince landowners to suspend all predator-control efforts of jaguars and pumas. The involvement of landowners in the jaguar conservation program in northeastern Sonora is a successful, private, wildlife-conservation initiative that provides an example for jaguar conservation efforts in northern Mexico.

  13. Resistance to antibiotics of clinical relevance in the fecal microbiota of Mexican wildlife.

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    Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate

    Full Text Available There are a growing number of reports of antibiotic resistance (ATBR in bacteria living in wildlife. This is a cause for concern as ATBR in wildlife represents a potential public health threat. However, little is known about the factors that might determine the presence, abundance and dispersion of ATBR bacteria in wildlife. Here, we used culture and molecular methods to assess ATBR in bacteria in fecal samples from howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata, spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, tapirs (Tapirus bairdii and felids (jaguars, Panthera onca; pumas, Puma concolor; jaguarundis, Puma yagouaroundi; and ocelots, Leopardus pardalis living freely in two regions of the Mexican state of Veracruz under different degrees of human influence. Overall, our study shows that ATBR is commonplace in bacteria isolated from wildlife in southeast Mexico. Most of the resistances were towards old and naturally occurring antibiotics, but we also observed resistances of potential clinical significance. We found that proximity to humans positively affected the presence of ATBR and that ATBR was higher in terrestrial than arboreal species. We also found evidence suggesting different terrestrial and aerial routes for the transmission of ATBR between humans and wildlife. The prevalence and potential ATBR transfer mechanisms between humans and wildlife observed in this study highlight the need for further studies to identify the factors that might determine ATBR presence, abundance and distribution.

  14. Resistance to antibiotics of clinical relevance in the fecal microbiota of Mexican wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Dunn, Jacob C; Day, Jennifer M W; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    There are a growing number of reports of antibiotic resistance (ATBR) in bacteria living in wildlife. This is a cause for concern as ATBR in wildlife represents a potential public health threat. However, little is known about the factors that might determine the presence, abundance and dispersion of ATBR bacteria in wildlife. Here, we used culture and molecular methods to assess ATBR in bacteria in fecal samples from howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), tapirs (Tapirus bairdii) and felids (jaguars, Panthera onca; pumas, Puma concolor; jaguarundis, Puma yagouaroundi; and ocelots, Leopardus pardalis) living freely in two regions of the Mexican state of Veracruz under different degrees of human influence. Overall, our study shows that ATBR is commonplace in bacteria isolated from wildlife in southeast Mexico. Most of the resistances were towards old and naturally occurring antibiotics, but we also observed resistances of potential clinical significance. We found that proximity to humans positively affected the presence of ATBR and that ATBR was higher in terrestrial than arboreal species. We also found evidence suggesting different terrestrial and aerial routes for the transmission of ATBR between humans and wildlife. The prevalence and potential ATBR transfer mechanisms between humans and wildlife observed in this study highlight the need for further studies to identify the factors that might determine ATBR presence, abundance and distribution.

  15. High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Francisco; Roques, Séverine; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Silveira, Leandro; Keller, Claudia; Sollmann, Rahel; do Prado, Denise Mello; Torres, Patricia Carignano; Adrados, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.

  16. High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palomares

    Full Text Available Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars. Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493 were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68, with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  18. Feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: Implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L.; Wood, Britta A.; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark W.; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin E.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Riley, Seth P D; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- vs. intra-species transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analysis of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrates that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but did not detect selection among twenty PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus, which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome will occur are complex, and the risk of new virus emergence is therefore difficult to predict. Here

  19. Ocorrência de Platynosomum illiciens em felinos selvagens mantidos em cativeiro no estado da Bahia, Brasil Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. de Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de ovos de Platynosomum illiciens nas fezes de três espécies de felídeos silvestres Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Panthera onca e Leopardus tigrinus coletados nos recintos do Parque Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Sendo o primeiro registro deste parasito em P. onca e F. tigrinus.This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus.

  20. Continuous-time discrete-space models for animal movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2015-01-01

    The processes influencing animal movement and resource selection are complex and varied. Past efforts to model behavioral changes over time used Bayesian statistical models with variable parameter space, such as reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo approaches, which are computationally demanding and inaccessible to many practitioners. We present a continuous-time discrete-space (CTDS) model of animal movement that can be fit using standard generalized linear modeling (GLM) methods. This CTDS approach allows for the joint modeling of location-based as well as directional drivers of movement. Changing behavior over time is modeled using a varying-coefficient framework which maintains the computational simplicity of a GLM approach, and variable selection is accomplished using a group lasso penalty. We apply our approach to a study of two mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Colorado, USA.

  1. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  2. Shopping Centers as Panther Habitat: Inferring Animal Locations from Models

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    Jeffery L. Larkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent model of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi habitat erred in arbitrarily creating buffers around radio locations collected during daylight hours on the assumption that study animals were only at rest during these times. The buffers generated by this method likely cause an overestimation of the amounts and kinds of habitats that are used by the panther. This, and other errors, could lead to the impression that unfragmented forest cover is unimportant to panther conservation, and could encourage inaccurate characterizations of panther habitat. Previous 24-hour monitoring of activity and activity readings made during routine telemetry flights indicate that high levels of activity occur in the early morning hours. Literature on the behavior of the species does not support the creation of large buffers around telemetry locations to compensate for the lack of nighttime telemetry data. A thorough examination of ongoing studies that use global positioning systems may help calibrate future Florida panther habitat models.

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  4. Políticas de salud basadas en el concepto de interculturalidad: Los centros de salud intercultural en el altiplano boliviano

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    Susana Ramírez Hita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en Bolivia, uno de los mayores problemas en el ámbito de la salud es la incorporación del concepto de cultura a las políticas sanitarias, hecho que hizo que se crearan centros de salud denominados "interculturales", así como el Modelo de Salud Familiar Comunitario e Intercultural. Este artículo, a través de una investigación realizada en el año 2007 en la zona altiplánica de Bolivia, pretende demostrar como el concepto de cultura está sirviendo de base para implementar políticas que no están ayudando a cambiar los deficientes índices epidemiológicos del país.One of the most important problems in the health field nowadays in Bolivia is the incorporation of the culture concept to public health politics, which had led to the creation of health centers called "intercultural", as well as the Communitary and Intercultural Model of Family Health. This paper, based on a research project undertaken in 2007 in the Bolivian altiplano, seeks to demonstrate how the culture concept is being used as a basis to implement politics that are not contributing to improve the deficient epidemiological indexes of the country.

  5. Migración en el Sur boliviano : Contrastes entre valles andinos tradicionales y áreas orientales de colonización

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Ceydric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; La relevancia de los resultados presentados en este volumen se debe a dos novedosos enfoques geográficos elegidos y profundizados por Ceydric Martin: el primero , abarca varias aldeas de los valles andinos cercanos a la ciudad de Tarija, y el segundo los límites del Chaco tarijeño, en donde la historia de migración -que en este caso es la inmigración- es reciente. Estos dos estudios tienen que leerse, y entenderse, en el marco de la larga historia de emigración que car...

  6. La “defensa social”. Pugnas y competencias en torno a la mano de obra en el Oriente Boliviano, 1890-1910.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Lema Garrett

    2010-01-01

    A fines del siglo XIX, la explotación de los gomales ubicados en la región amazónica boliviana, al norte del país, suscitó profundos cambios en otros departamentos y, entre otras cuestiones, en el mercado laboral. Los departamentos de Beni y de Santa Cruz se constituyeron entonces en reservorios de mano de obra y el flujo migratorio hacia las regiones gomeras del norte fue creciendo proporcionalmente a las necesidades de los empresarios gomeros. Sin embargo, las regiones de origen, y espec...

  7. Producción de β-glucosidasas por cultivos de bacterias termófilas indígenas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Casablanca Alarcón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available β-glucoside production by thermophilic bacteria indigenous the bolivian altiplano culture Resumen Las β-glucosidasas son enzimas que poseen actividad hidrolítica y transferasa o transglucosidasa. Tienen diversas aplicaciones; en la biosíntesis de oligosacáridos, producción de etanol utilizando residuos agrícolas y en la industria de vinos. La aplicación industrial, sin embargo, requiere estabilidad a temperaturas elevadas, por lo que los microorganismos termófilos tienen gran interés. El propósito de esta investigación es el de optimizar el medio de cultivo anaerobio de bacterias termófilas, para aumentar la producción de β-glucosidasas. Esta enzima es producida por tres aislados bacterianos: FT3, 2B y P5 los cuales fueron aislados de la región andina de Bolivia. El aislado bacteriano FT3 mostró una actividad β-glucosidasa de 0,35 [UI/mL]. Se tomaron como variables dentro de la optimización del medio de cultivo las fuentes de nitrógeno y de carbono, y el pH. Así también se probaron dos sistemas de cultivo: células libres y encapsuladas. Empleando extracto de levadura como fuente de nitrógeno se obtuvo una actividad de 0,52 [UI/mL]. En la optimización del pH del medio de cultivo se obtuvo una actividad de 0,81 [UI/mL] a pH 5. Como fuente de carbono se eligieron los hidrolizados de paja de trigo y paja de quinoa llegándose a obtener actividades de 1,27 y 1,34 [UI/mL] respectivamente. Se estableció que la localización celular de la enzima β-glucosidasa es extracelular y presenta estabilidad hasta una temperatura de 80 °C y un pH de 7.Palabras clave: optimización, células inmobilizadas, bacterias extremófilas.  Abstract The β-glucosidases possess hydrolytic and transferase activity or transglucosidase. They have various applications; such as biosynthesis of oligosaccharides, production of ethanol using agricultural residues and wine industry. However for industrial application, stability to high temperatures is needed. Therefore a great interesting in the thermophile microorganism study exist. The purpose of this research is to optimize the culture medium of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria to increase the production of β-glucosidase. This enzyme is produced by three isolate bacterial FT3, 2B and P5 which were isolated from the Andean region of Bolivia. FT3 isolate showed β-glucosidase activity of 0.35 [IU/mL]. In regards to the optimization of culture medium variables such as nitrogen source, carbon source and pH were taken into account and also the combination with free and encapsulated bacterial cells. Yeast extract was the selected source of nitrogen obtaining an activity of 0.52 [IU/ mL]. The optimal pH was 5 obtaining an activity of 0.81 [IU/mL]. The selected carbon source was the hydrolyzed wheat straw and quinoa straw obtaining activities of 1.27 and 1.34 [IU/mL], respectively. The cellular localization of β-glucosidase enzyme is extracellular and provides stability to temperature of 80 °C and stability at pH 7.Key words: Optimization, immobilized cells, extremophile bacteria.

  8. 12. Evaluación del seguimiento y de la promoción del crecimiento realizados en los Centros de Salud bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    Méjean, Caroline; Maire, Bernard; Sejas, Edgar; Suremain, Charles-Édouard de

    2015-01-01

    1. Introducción El Proyecto, centrado en la problemática general del crecimiento y desarrollo del niño pequeño, ha implementado una estrategia para sensibilizar y promover la participación de las madres en el cuidado de salud de los niños menores de cinco años. En Bolivia, la fase operativa del Proyecto consistió en la elaboración e introducción de un nuevo carnet de salud, el Manual de Salud Infantil (msi), concebido con el fin de mejorar las actividades de promoción del crecimiento (véase C...

  9. ¿Carga o bendición? La respuesta de organizaciones no gubernamentales y gobiernos locales bolivianos a la migración internacional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, G.; Bogaardt, I. van den; Weenink, G.

    2012-01-01

    La migración internacional forma parte de la vida cotidiana de muchos hogares en el Sur. A muchas personas les atraen las oportunidades de trabajo en otros países - tanto en el Sur como en el Norte - con el fin de ganarse la vida. Muchos de estos migrantes mantienen estrechos vínculos con sus famili

  10. Efectos de espacio sobre costos de provisión local. Un modelo de ecualización por bloques para los municipios bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Suvelza, Franz Xavier

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia experimentó una importante transformación territorial después de que se aprobó la Ley de Participación Popular en 1994. Los efectos benéficos de tal reforma estuvieron acompañados de una serie de efectos contraproducentes, entre ellos los que se derivan del modelo de transferencias centrales hacia los municipios. Este artículo propone un nuevo modelo de transferencias que complementa el actual ¿sistema de dotación fiscal a municipios según el principio per cápita¿ con uno de ¿ecualización fiscal intermunicipal por bloques¿.

  11. Impacts of the Bolivian regulatory changes for the future of natural gas in Brazil; Impacto na relacao Brasil-Bolivia com a nacionalizacao dos hidrocarbonetos bolivianos de 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Berrnardo Pestana Mello C.; Saraiva, Thiago Carvalho; Bone, Rosemarie Broker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to clarify and understand the reasons for the current economic policy and trade between Bolivia and Brazil, the latter represented by PETROBRAS, as the year 2006. Focuses on the regulatory change in Bolivia that culminated in a period of re-nationalization of its mineral wealth as opposed to international interests, including Brazilians, and agreements entered into during the opening of the market in the country. Thus, set in the Latin American actual situation, we undertake to understand the process and its consequences for Brazil, which, even with the third largest gas reserves in the region, in the short term, it follows as an importer of this feature. To have a concrete base with foundations and analyze what happens today, we must understand the political history of Bolivia and their internal changes. So we divided the work into two parts: first, we analyze the neo liberal period, and the agreements signed with Brazil in the hydrocarbon sector, for mutual benefits. In the second part, we understand the political rise of Evo Morales and the nationalization process of national wealth and the consequent crisis that developed with the international oil companies, especially with PETROBRAS, to the final outcome on the price, production and export of gas.

  12. The Bolivian natural gas crisis and the future of natural gas industry in Brazil; Crise do gas boliviano e o futuro da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar de

    2007-07-01

    The recent Bolivian natural crisis exhibits the worst scenery for the Brazilian natural gas industry. The government and PETROBRAS strategies for guaranteeing the gas supply undoubtedly failed. Independent of the discussion on the existence of other possible strategies, today the distributors and the consumers does not know how the PETROBRAS and government will guarantee the supply for the years to come. An also the agents do not know which will be the gas price in the future, as both the Bolivia but also the Natural Gas Industry in Brazil alternatives will be highly expensive.

  13. Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of social,

  14. Evidencias sedimentarias y geoquímicas de la pequena edad de hielo en el lago Milluni Grande del Altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Miguel Salvarredy-Aranguren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El lago de Milluni Grande (LMG está ubicado en el flanco occidental de los Andes Orientales en el valle de Milluni que posee una clásica forma en U dado que se encuentra en una región glacial. El lago es el más grande de este valle, y dado que se halla situado al cierre de cuenca, resulta estratégico para albergar un registro sedimentario de los últimos 450 años. El registro sedimentario fue estudiado a partir de un testigo del lago, del cual se describieron y analizaron detalladamente parámetros físicos y químicos, sedimentología, mineralogía e indicadores geoquímicos los que permitieron evidenciar una importante variación del clima (VC. Adicionalmente, una datación con 210Pb en los niveles mas superficiales del testigo fue usada para establecer una tasa de sedimentación del lago y estimar una cronología para los niveles sin datación. La cronología definida señala que la variación del clima detectada sucede durante la Pequeña Edad de Hielo (LIA. Además, una correlación detallada fue establecida entre los niveles arenosos del registro sedimentario del LMG y las morrenas glaciarias del Cerro Charquini. Finalmente, algunas evidencias históricas bien documentadas sobre el desarrollo de Pequeña Edad de Hielo en Bolivia son mencionadas.

  15. PERSPECTIVES, NEGOTIATIONS AND DILEMMAS IN THE TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN YACIMIENTOS PETROLÍFEROS FISCALES BOLIVIANOS (YPFB AND YACIMIENTOS PETROLÍFEROS FISCALES (YPF, 1937-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Zuleta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These research notes present a study about the linkages established between two state oil companies in South America, YPFB and YPF, in a few decades marked by economic, energy and political problems in Bolivia and Argentina. Founded in the image and likeness of YPF (Argentina entity created in 1922, state oil company vertically integrated, the YPFB (Bolivian entity created in 1936 developed from its origins several strategies to link in the technical, production, transportation and distribution of fuel, with the Argentinian YPF. The article provides specific information elements about connections, dealings, agreements and negotiations, dynamics, instruments and priorities, explaining its context and reasons. Moreover, this text explores the plot of negotiations between state oil companies, in order to clarify an earlier history of the most recent experiences of international interaction of state companies in the frame of energetical integration processes. It is proposed that the interaction between the two YPFs was ephemeral, because their agenda was overtaken by the favourable opportunities offered by cooperation within the framework of hemispheric programs, by agencies of the U.S. government.

  16. La “defensa social”. Pugnas y competencias en torno a la mano de obra en el Oriente Boliviano, 1890-1910.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lema Garrett

    2010-01-01

    la región amazónica boliviana, al norte del país, suscitó profundos cambios en otros departamentos y, entre otras cuestiones, en el mercado laboral. Los departamentos de Beni y de Santa Cruz se constituyeron entonces en reservorios de mano de obra y el flujo migratorio hacia las regiones gomeras del norte fue creciendo proporcionalmente a las necesidades de los empresarios gomeros. Sin embargo, las regiones de origen, y específicamente Santa Cruz, reaccionaron en contra de este “vaciamiento”, desarrollando estrategias para controlar las migraciones o, eventualmente, frenarlas. Este proceso fue acompañado por el despliegue de varias normas novedosas en el ámbito laboral, producto de un debate parlamentario en torno al tema de las migraciones.

  17. PERSPECTIVES, NEGOTIATIONS AND DILEMMAS IN THE TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN YACIMIENTOS PETROLÍFEROS FISCALES BOLIVIANOS (YPFB) AND YACIMIENTOS PETROLÍFEROS FISCALES (YPF), 1937-1945

    OpenAIRE

    María Cecilia Zuleta

    2013-01-01

    These research notes present a study about the linkages established between two state oil companies in South America, YPFB and YPF, in a few decades marked by economic, energy and political problems in Bolivia and Argentina. Founded in the image and likeness of YPF (Argentina entity created in 1922), state oil company vertically integrated, the YPFB (Bolivian entity created in 1936) developed from its origins several strategies to link in the technical, production, transportation and distribu...

  18. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals.

  19. Genetic Introgression and the Survival of Florida Panther Kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Nichols, James D; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2010-11-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982-2008 and a live recapture-dead recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0 - 1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F(1) admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data.

  20. Genetic introgression and the survival of Florida panther kittens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Onorato, David P.; Nichols, James D.; Johnson, Warren E.; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982–2008 and a live-recapture dead-recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0–1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F1 admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data.

  1. Using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat to expand knowledge and assist felid conservation in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatteo, Karen E; Rinas, Miguel A; Argüelles, Carina F; Holman, Bernardo E; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Davenport, Barbara; Parker, Patricia G; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-11-01

    Many carnivores require large ranges to meet their ecological and energetic needs; however, anthropogenic changes threaten species and their habitats. Camera traps have been used to effectively collect data on carnivores in a variety of habitat types; however, a single survey effort is typically limited to species that have similar body size, habitat use and movement patterns, and individual identification of animals is not always possible. We evaluated whether scat detection dogs could effectively survey for 4 wide-ranging felids that vary in these characteristics: jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). From June to October 2009 and May to August 2011, a detection dog-handler team detected 588 scats, from which 176 unique genotypes were detected. We assigned sex to 84.7% of the genotyped scats and identified 55 individuals multiple times. The effectiveness of these noninvasive techniques (detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat) not only opens the door for additional studies in areas that were previously difficult or impossible with standard survey techniques, but also provides conservationists with a set of tools that overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of camera traps alone.

  2. Composition and relative abundance of terrestrial medium- and large-sized mammals of Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Valle Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Three northern areas of Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB were sampled for terrestrial medium- and large-sized mammals, using camera traps, for twelve months. Nine wild species and one domestic species were registered, through 49 records. The community’s composition was based on an exponential series with dominance of few species. In contrast, there was a relatively high proportion of species that might be “rare” in the community observed, with dominance of puma (Puma concolor over the other ones. The results show that the area named Vale Perdido is the most important one for the conservation of mammals, because the estimated species richness is higher there (13.99 ± 2.23 when compared to that of the other two areas, which had a richness of 6.00 ± 1.41 and 6.00 ± 1.00, respectively. It’s possible that the structural and spatial characteristics of Vale Perdido favored the use of this area by the species. The structure of the community of medium-and large-sized terrestrial mammals of PESB is unstructured or in a structuring phase. Possibly, this model was caused by negative historical effects of the occupation and extraction that the region underwent in the 1960s.

  3. Lack of response of an open-habitat ungulate to the presence of predator urine La falta de la respuesta de un ungulado de habitat abierto a la presencia de orina de depredadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONALD J SARNO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral response of ungulates to the presence of odors associated with dangerous predators has received some attention, yet little is known about how predominantly open-habitat ungulates react to the presence of predator scents. We investigated the behavioral responses of a predominantly open-habitat ungulate, the guanaco, Lama guanicoe, when exposed to the urine of various predators. Guanacos only reacted to the urine of mountain lions (native predator, Puma concolor, in one trial. The lack of a response to predator urine may indicate that guanacos generally rely on visión more than olfaction for predator detection.La respuesta conductual de ungulados a la presencia de olores asociados a depredadores ha recibido algo de atención, pero aún se sabe poco sobre cuan predominantemente los ungulados de habitat abiertos reaccionan a la presencia de olores de depredadores. Examinamos las respuestas conductuales del guanaco, Lama guanicoe, cuando estos animales estaban expuestos a orina de varios depredadores. Los guanacos solo reaccionaron a la presencia de la orina del puma en uno de los ensayos. La ausencia de respuesta registrada podría indicar que los guanacos utilizan más la visión que el olfato para detectar a sus depredadores.

  4. Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B. Soso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus, puma (Puma concolor snow leopard (Panthera uncia, African lions (Panthera leo, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, and tigers (Panthera tigris for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal’s sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior.

  5. Información molecular obtenida a partir de pieles de la colección del Museo Regional Fagnano, Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrigh, Romi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplicaron técnicas moleculares sobre muestras poco conservadas de pieles depositadas en la colección del Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, con el objetivo de identificar la especie con la que fueron confeccionadas. Se extrajeron pelos de mantas realizadas con pieles de guanaco (Lama guanicoe por Selk’nam y de una piel de puma (Puma concolor procedente de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Ambas muestras se encontraban almacenadas en el Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano y en la Misión Salesiana Candelaria en Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. La extracción de ADN de los fragmentos de pelos de 5mm de longitud se realizó en un buffer de lisis PCR-compatible. Se amplificaron por PCR fragmentos específicos de ADN mitocondrial y se secuenciaron. Las secuencias fueron comparadas con las depositadas en la base de secuencias de nucleótidos del National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI de Estados Unidos. La aplicación de técnicas moleculares permitió recuperar secuencias de ADN de muestras de pieles con un estado de conservación poco óptimo para análisis genéticos, pudiendo extenderse a otras fuentes de pelos como las fibras textiles de origen arqueológico de la región.

  6. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  7. Measurement of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) in captive nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodini, Débora Cattaruzzi; Felippe, Erika Cristiane Gutierrez; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this research was to obtain basic values for the evaluation of thyroid function in nondomestic felids. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 145 cats, representing nine species of captive nondomestic felids: jaguar (Panthera onca), n = 49; puma (Puma concolor), n = 10; ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), n = 22; oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), n = 12; geoffroy (Oncifelis geoffroyi), n = 4; jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), n = 8; margay (Leopardus wiedii), n = 7; lion (Panthera leo), n = 26; and tiger (Panthera tigris), n = 7. For each species, mean +/- SEM of T3 and T4, respectively, were as follows: jaguar, 0.56 +/- 0.03 and 9.7 +/- 0.8 ng/ml; puma, 0.67 +/- 0.04 and 11.2 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; ocelot, 0.48 +/- 0.03 and 13.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; oncilla, 0.43 +/- 0.03 and 10.0 +/- 1.6 ng/ml; geoffroy, 0.44 +/- 0.04 and 8.0 +/- 0.16 ng/ml; jaguarundi, 0.7 +/- 0.03 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 ng/ml; margay, 0.48 +/- 0.04 and 12.2 +/- 2.3 ng/ml; lion, 0.43 +/- 0.02 and 5.7 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; and tiger, 0.66 +/- 0.03 and 12.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml. Within species, T3 and T4 concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between males and females.

  8. PUMA-PUblication MAnagement: sistemi per la gestione delle pubblicazioni degli enti di ricerca

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    Lo scopo di questa presentazione ? quello di illustrare i) come ? stato realizzato un ciclo gestionale completo dell'informazione: dall'inserimento dei metadati e dei documenti digitali alla restituzione degli stessi all'utente finale; ii) come sono stati resi accessibili via web, a livelli diversi e secondo viste diverse l'informazione prodotta; iii) come siano stati creati servizi differenti utilizzando gli stessi oggetti. Vengono illustrati i sistemi utilizzati presso il CNR di Pisa per la...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Three Axis Force Override Rate Control of a PUMA 560 Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    and Intelligence, p. 242, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987. 8. Whitney, D.E., "Historical Perspective and State of the Art in Robot Force Control ," Proceedings... Force Control ," Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, (1987), pp.904-909. 12. Syvertsen, J. M., Force Override Rate...the IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, (1989), p. 102. 110 11. Eppinger, S.D., and Seering, W.P., "Understanding Bandwidth Limitations in Robot

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Multiplex-detectie van Phytophthora: "padlock-based Universal Multiplex detection Array" (pUMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaszczyk, K.; Mendes, O.; Verstappen, E.C.P.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Schoen, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    Plant Research International heeft een diagnostische methode ontwikkeld die toe te passen is 'in planta', en ook de meest recent beschreven (quarantaine-) soorten omvat. De methode omvat de ontwikkeling van een generieke Phytophthora-methode gevolgd door een Phytophthora-identificatie.

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Opinión de universitarios Bolivianos sobre el uso de alcohol en el contexto universitario Opinião de universitários Bolivianos sobre o uso de álcool no contexto universitário Bolivian university students' view of alcohol use in the university context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Balda-Cabello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una investigación cualitativa que enfocó el mundo universitario sobre los valores de vida utilizados por los jóvenes para lidiar con los peligros del consumo de alcohol. Fueron realizados grupos de discusión con 46 jóvenes universitarios. Los resultados evidenciaron que la sociedad boliviana es tolerante y permisiva en el consumo de alcohol de universitarios hombres. Los valores y el amor propio, el respeto por sí mismo, la responsabilidad y la capacidad de reflexión constituyeron un marco de actuación regulador, sin embargo no es generalizado.Esta é uma investigação qualitativa que enfocou o mundo universitário sobre os valores de vida, utilizados pelos jovens, para lidar com os perigos do consumo de álcool. Foram realizados grupos de discussão com 46 jovens universitários. Os resultados evidenciaram que a sociedade boliviana é tolerante e permissiva para o consumo de álcool de universitários homens. Os valores e o amor próprio, o respeito por si mesmo, a responsabilidade e a capacidade de reflexão constituíram marco de atuação regulador, porém, não é generalizado.Qualitative research inquiring into the university world about the values of young people's life to successfully offset the danger of alcohol consumption. Discussion groups were implemented in workshops with 46 university students. The results show that that Bolivian society is very tolerant and permissive towards alcohol consumption by male university students. Values like pride, self-respect, responsibility and capacity for reflection constitute a framework of regulatory action, but it is not generalized.

  2. Tracking cats: problems with placing feline carnivores on δO, δD isoscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Pietsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. Establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. As shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (δD(h, δ(18O(h can be used as a tool for provenance determination. However, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of δD(h and δ(18O(h requires confirmation from animal tissues of known origin and a detailed understanding of the isotopic routing of dietary nutrients into felid hair. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used coupled δD(h and δ(18O(h measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus and puma (Puma concolor with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo-location of felidae. Hairs of felid and rabbit museum specimens from 75 sites across the United States and Canada were analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters, and also exhibited an isotopic decoupling of δ(18O(h and δD(h. Conversely, strong δD and δ(18O coupling was found for key prey, eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus; hair and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; collagen, bone phosphate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Puma and bobcat hairs do not adhere to expected pattern of H and O isotopic variation predicted by precipitation isoscapes for North America. Thus, using bulk hair, felids cannot be placed on δ(18O and δD isoscapes for use in forensic investigations. The effective application of isotopes to trace the provenance of feline carnivores is likely compromised by major controls of their diet, physiology and metabolism on hair δ(18O and δD related to body water budgets. Controlled feeding experiments, combined with single amino acid isotope analysis of diets and hair, are needed to reveal mechanisms and physiological traits

  3. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  5. Comparative anatomy of the frontal sinuses in the primitive sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia (Felidae, Machairodontinae and similarly sized extant felines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the frontal sinuses of the sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia are analysed, in comparison to those of the extant felines Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor and Panthera pardus, of similar body weight. The study was carried out using 3D virtual models obtained from CT Scan images, a non-destructive technique that has revealed as a powerful tool for accessing to all kind of intracranial information. Our study shows that the frontal sinuses of P. ogygia were more similar to those of P. concolor, both in the presence of several struts reinforcing the dorsal part, and in the development of a remarkable caudal expansion. This caudal expansion would act as a thermal insulator of the brain, and would indicate a more open environment than previously supposed for this species, whereas the struts would be related to biomechanical stresses produced during the “canine shear-bite”, the killing method of the machairodontines.En el presente trabajo, se analizan los senos frontales del félido dientes de sable Promegantereon ogygia, en comparación con los de los felinos actuales Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor y Panthera pardus, de similar peso corporal. El estudio se llevó a cabo utilizando modelos virtuales 3D obtenidos por tomografía axial computerizada, una técnica no destructiva que se ha revelado como una poderosa herramienta para acceder a todo tipo de información intracraneal. Nuestro estudio muestra que los senos frontales de P. ogygia eran más similares a los de P. concolor, tanto en la presencia de varios puntales óseos de refuerzo de la parte dorsal, y en el desarrollo de una notable expansión caudal. Esta expansión caudal actuaría como un aislante térmico del cerebro, y podría indicar un entorno más abierto de lo que se supone para esta especie, mientras que los puntales óseos se relacionarían con tensiones biomecánicas producidas durante el mordisco típico de los macairodontinos, el método de ataque

  6. Sociocultural Variables That Impact High School Students' Perceptions of Native Fauna: a Study on the Species Component of the Biodiversity Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M. A.; Battistón, Luisina V.; García Capocasa, María C.; De Longhi, Ana L.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the influence of school sector (private versus state schools) and student gender on knowledge of native fauna. Our main objectives were (a) to describe the knowledge of high school students from the province of Cordoba, Argentina with respect to native animal species, (b) to determine if any exotic species (introduced or domestic) are considered native, and (c) to analyze the effects of school sector and gender on the students' knowledge of the native fauna. In total, 321 students aged 15-18 from 14 urban schools (8 state and 6 private schools) were asked to write down ten animals native to Córdoba, Argentina, in a free-list questionnaire. Relative frequencies and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to analyze the categorized (animal names) and continuous answers (quantity of responses, number of native animals, etc.), with the 25 most frequently mentioned species showing a predominance of native ones, of which "Puma" (Puma concolor) and "Andean condor" (Vultur gryphus) were the most prominent. An overrepresentation of mammalian species compared to other classes of chordates was also found, with high school students mentioning native and domestic species higher on the free-list. Using GLMM, we found that school sector had a significant effect on the number of native animals mentioned at both national and local levels, and on domestic and mixed species. Finally, male students mentioned more species and more native animals than their female counterparts. These findings were interpreted and discussed in light of sociocultural and traditional ecological knowledge theories, from which several implications arose related to research and practice.

  7. Sociocultural Variables That Impact High School Students' Perceptions of Native Fauna: a Study on the Species Component of the Biodiversity Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M. A.; Battistón, Luisina V.; García Capocasa, María C.; De Longhi, Ana L.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of school sector (private versus state schools) and student gender on knowledge of native fauna. Our main objectives were (a) to describe the knowledge of high school students from the province of Cordoba, Argentina with respect to native animal species, (b) to determine if any exotic species (introduced or domestic) are considered native, and (c) to analyze the effects of school sector and gender on the students' knowledge of the native fauna. In total, 321 students aged 15-18 from 14 urban schools (8 state and 6 private schools) were asked to write down ten animals native to Córdoba, Argentina, in a free-list questionnaire. Relative frequencies and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to analyze the categorized (animal names) and continuous answers (quantity of responses, number of native animals, etc.), with the 25 most frequently mentioned species showing a predominance of native ones, of which "Puma" ( Puma concolor) and "Andean condor" ( Vultur gryphus) were the most prominent. An overrepresentation of mammalian species compared to other classes of chordates was also found, with high school students mentioning native and domestic species higher on the free-list. Using GLMM, we found that school sector had a significant effect on the number of native animals mentioned at both national and local levels, and on domestic and mixed species. Finally, male students mentioned more species and more native animals than their female counterparts. These findings were interpreted and discussed in light of sociocultural and traditional ecological knowledge theories, from which several implications arose related to research and practice.

  8. Isolation of Malassezia spp. from cerumen of wild felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Selene Dall' Acqua; Fedullo, José Daniel; Corrêa, Sandra Helena

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence of different species of the genus Malassezia in the healthy external auditory canal of wild felids maintained in captivity. One hundred and thirty-two adult animals (264 samples of cerumen), 77 males (58.3%) and 55 females (41.7%), were studied: large felids (55 animals) - 26 lions (Panthera leo), 13 tigers (Panthera tigris), 6 leopards (Panthera pardus), 6 jaguars (Panthera onca), 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), 2 pumas (Puma concolor); small felids (77 animals) - 29 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus), 19 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 9 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo), 6 geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), and 4 servals (Leptailurus serval). Samples were obtained by the introduction of a sterile swab into the ear canal after cleaning the auricle with an alcohol-ether solution. The swabs were seeded onto Petri dishes containing modified Mycosel agar and sterile olive oil was added to the surface of the medium before specimen seeding. The plates were incubated at 35oC for two weeks. The isolates were analyzed regarding macro-and micromorphology and identified through catalase tests and growth on Tween 20, 40, 60 and 80. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 58 of the felids studied (43.9%) and from 102 samples of cerumen (38.6%). Malassezia sympodialis was isolated exclusively in large felids (33 animals-56.9%), and Malassezia pachydermatis exclusively in smaller varieties (25 animals - 43.1%). The incidence of fungi was higher in lions, with yeast being isolated in 25 of 26 animals (96.2%). Forty-eight strains (47.1%) were isolated from the right ear canal and 54 (52.9%) from the left. Although M. pachydermatis is the species considered a member of the microbiota of the mammalian external ear canal these results suggest that M. sympodialis participates in the microbiota of large felids.

  9. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  10. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

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    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  11. What makes a feline fatal in Toxoplasma gondii's fatal feline attraction? Infected rats choose wild cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, M; Knowles, S C L; Webster, J P

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an indirectly transmitted protozoan parasite, of which members of the cat family (Felidae) are the only definitive hosts and small mammals such as rats serve as intermediate hosts. The innate aversion of rodents to cat odor provides an obstacle for the parasite against successful predation by the feline definitive host. Previous research has demonstrated that T. gondii appears to alter a rat's perception of the risk of being preyed upon by cats. Although uninfected rats display normal aversion to cat odor, infected rats show no avoidance and in some cases even show attraction to cat odor, which we originally termed the "Fatal Feline Attraction." In this study, we tested for the first time whether the "Fatal Feline Attraction" of T. gondii-infected rats differed according to the type of feline odor used, specifically whether it came from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) or wild cats-cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) or pumas (Felis concolor). In two-choice odor trials, where wild and domestic cat odors were competed against one another, consistent with previous findings we demonstrated that infected rats spent more time in feline odor zones compared with uninfected rats. However, we further demonstrated that all cat odors are not equal: infected rats had a stronger preference for wild cat odor over that of domestic cats, an effect that did not differ significantly according to the type of wild cat odor used (cheetah or puma). We discuss these results in terms of the potential mechanism of action and their implications for the current and evolutionary role of wild, in addition to domestic, cats in transmission of T. gondii.

  12. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  13. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals' Visitation to Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Harris

    Full Text Available Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014 using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus. Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans visitation. Puma (Puma concolor visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx. Most ungulate visitation peaked during

  14. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Rick A; Furnas, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, "Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests" [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km(2) grid cells of forest habitat.

  15. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

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    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  16. A data-based conservation planning tool for Florida panthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Jennifer L.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are the greatest threats to the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). We developed a data-based habitat model and user-friendly interface so that land managers can objectively evaluate Florida panther habitat. We used a geographic information system (GIS) and the Mahalanobis distance statistic (D2) to develop a model based on broad-scale landscape characteristics associated with panther home ranges. Variables in our model were Euclidean distance to natural land cover, road density, distance to major roads, human density, amount of natural land cover, amount of semi-natural land cover, amount of permanent or semi-permanent flooded area–open water, and a cost–distance variable. We then developed a Florida Panther Habitat Estimator tool, which automates and replicates the GIS processes used to apply the statistical habitat model. The estimator can be used by persons with moderate GIS skills to quantify effects of land-use changes on panther habitat at local and landscape scales. Example applications of the tool are presented.

  17. A habitat assessment for Florida panther population expansion into central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, C.A.; Van Manen, F.T.; Clark, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) recovery plan is to expand panther range north of the Caloosahatchee River in central Florida. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of that region to support panthers. We used a geographic information system and the Mahalanobis distance statistic to develop a habitat model based on landscape characteristics associated with panther home ranges. We used cross-validation and an independent telemetry data set to test the habitat model. We also conducted a least-cost path analysis to identify potential habitat linkages and to provide a relative measure of connectivity among habitat patches. Variables in our model were paved road density, major highways, human population density, percentage of the area permanently or semipermanently flooded, and percentage of the area in natural land cover. Our model clearly identified habitat typical of that found within panther home ranges based on model testing with recent telemetry data. We identified 4 potential translocation sites that may support a total of approximately 36 panthers. Although we identified potential habitat linkages, our least-cost path analyses highlighted the extreme isolation of panther habitat in portions of the study area. Human intervention will likely be required if the goal is to establish female panthers north of the Caloosahatchee in the near term.

  18. Resource Selection by an Endangered Ungulate: A Test of Predator-Induced Range Abandonment

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    Jeffrey T. Villepique

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated influences of risk of predation by mountain lions (Puma concolor, topographic metrics at multiple scales, and vegetation, land, and snow cover on resource selection by Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae, an endangered taxon, during winters 2002–2007, in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. We hypothesized that those mountain ungulates would trade off rewards accrued from using critical low-elevation habitat in winter for the safety of areas with reduced risk of predation. Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep did not trade off benefits of forage for reduced risk of predation but selected areas of high solar radiation, a correlate of vegetation productivity, where risk of predation by mountain lions was greatest, while mitigating indirect risk of predation by selecting for steep, rugged terrain. Bighorn sheep selected more strongly for areas where mountain lions were active, than for low-elevation habitat in winter, likely because mountain lions were most active in those areas of bighorn sheep winter ranges overlapping ranges of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, where both ungulates accrued forage benefits. We demonstrated reduced benefit of migration to low elevation during drought years, providing an alternative explanation to the predator-induced abandonment hypothesis for the disuse of low-elevation winter range observed during drought years.

  19. Leukoencephalomyelopathy of mature captive cheetahs and other large felids: a novel neurodegenerative disease that came and went?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, A I; Munson, L; Radcliffe, R W; Citino, S B; Lackey, L B; Van Winkle, T J; Stalis, I; Terio, K A; Summers, B A; de Lahunta, A

    2014-09-01

    A novel leukoencephalomyelopathy was identified in 73 mature male and female large captive felids between 1994 and 2005. While the majority of identified cases occurred in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), the disease was also found in members of 2 other subfamilies of Felidae: 1 generic tiger (Panthera tigris) and 2 Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). The median age at time of death was 12 years, and all but 1 cheetah were housed in the United States. Characteristic clinical history included progressive loss of vision leading to blindness, disorientation, and/or difficulty eating. Neurologic deficits progressed at a variable rate over days to years. Mild to severe bilateral degenerative lesions were present in the cerebral white matter and variably and to a lesser degree in the white matter of the brain stem and spinal cord. Astrocytosis and swelling of myelin sheaths progressed to total white matter degeneration and cavitation. Large, bizarre reactive astrocytes are a consistent histopathologic feature of this condition. The cause of the severe white matter degeneration in these captive felids remains unknown; the lesions were not typical of any known neurotoxicoses, direct effects of or reactions to infectious diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Leukoencephalomyelopathy was identified in 70 cheetahs, 1 tiger, and 2 panthers over an 11-year period, and to our knowledge, cases have ceased without planned intervention. Given what is known about the epidemiology of the disease and morphology of the lesions, an environmental or husbandry-associated source of neurotoxicity is suspected.

  20. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti, rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A. Sweitzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]. Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus] ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii], gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  2. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

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    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  3. Predicting mountain lion activity using radiocollars equipped with mercury tip-sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.; Johnson, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Radiotelemetry collars with tip-sensors have long been used to monitor wildlife activity. However, comparatively few researchers have tested the reliability of the technique on the species being studied. To evaluate the efficacy of using tip-sensors to assess mountain lion (Puma concolor) activity, we radiocollared 2 hand-reared mountain lions and simultaneously recorded their behavior and the associated telemetry signal characteristics. We noted both the number of pulse-rate changes and the percentage of time the transmitter emitted a fast pulse rate (i.e., head up) within sampling intervals ranging from 1-5 minutes. Based on 27 hours of observations, we were able to correctly distinguish between active and inactive behaviors >93% of the time using a logistic regression model. We present several models to predict activity of mountain lions; the selection of which to us would depend on study objectives and logistics. Our results indicate that field protocols that use only pulse-rate changes to indicate activity can lead to significant classification errors.

  4. Individual behaviors dominate the dynamics of an urban mountain lion population isolated by roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pollinger, John P; Sikich, Jeffrey A; Dalbeck, Lisa; Wayne, Robert K; Ernest, Holly B

    2014-09-01

    Large carnivores can be particularly sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity [1, 2]. The Santa Monica Mountains (SMMs), a large natural area within Greater Los Angeles, is completely isolated by urban development and the 101 freeway to the north. Yet the SMMs support a population of mountain lions (Puma concolor), a very rare example of a large carnivore persisting within the boundaries of a megacity. GPS locations of radio-collared lions indicate that freeways are a near-absolute barrier to movement. We genotyped 42 lions using 54 microsatellite loci and found that genetic diversity in SMM lions, prior to 2009, was lower than that for any population in North America except in southern Florida, where inbreeding depression led to reproductive failure [3-5]. We document multiple instances of father-daughter inbreeding and high levels of intraspecific strife, including the unexpected behavior of a male killing two of his offspring and a mate and his son killing two of his brothers. Overall, no individuals from the SMMs have successfully dispersed. Gene flow is critical for this population, and we show that a single male immigrated in 2009, successfully mated, and substantially enhanced genetic diversity. Our results imply that individual behaviors, most likely caused by limited area and reduced opportunities to disperse, may dominate the fate of small, isolated populations of large carnivores. Consequently, comprehensive behavioral monitoring can suggest novel solutions for the persistence of small populations, such as the transfer of individuals across dispersal barriers.

  5. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles.

  6. Experimental evaluation of population trend and harvest composition in a Wyoming cougar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.; Lindzey, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) management has been hindered by inability to identify population trends. We documented changes in sex and age of harvested cougars during an experimentally induced reduction in population size and subsequent recovery to better understand the relationship between sex-age composition and population trend in exploited populations. The cougar population in the Snowy Range, southeast Wyoming, was reduced by increased harvest (treatment phase) from 58 independent cougars (>1 year old) (90% CI = 36-81) in the autumn of 1998 to 20 by the spring of 2000 (mean exploitation rate = 43%) and then increased to 46 by spring 2003 following 3 years of reduced harvests (mean exploitation rate = 18%). Pretreatment harvest composition was 63% subadults (1.0-2.5 years old), 23% adult males, and 14% adult females (2 seasons; n = 22). A reduction in subadult harvest, an initial increase followed by a reduction in adult male harvest, and a steady increase in adult female harvest characterized harvest composition trends during the treatment phase. Harvest composition was similar at high and low densities when harvest was light, but proportion of harvested subadult males increased at low density as they replaced adult males removed during the treatment period (high harvest). While sex ratio of harvested cougars alone appears of limited value in identifying population change, when combined with age class the 2 appear to provide an index to population change. Composition of the harvest can be applied to adaptively manage cougar populations where adequate sex and age data are collected from harvested animals.

  7. CARNIVORE: A Disruption-Tolerant System for Studying Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams TerrieM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present CARNIVORE, a system for in situ, unobtrusive monitoring of cryptic, difficult-to-catch/observe wildlife in their natural habitat. CARNIVORE is a network of mobile and static nodes with sensing, processing, storage, and wireless communication capabilities. CARNIVORE's compact, low-power, mobile animal-borne nodes collect sensor data and transmit it to static nodes, which then relay it to the Internet. Depending on the wildlife being studied, the network can be quite sparse and therefore disconnected frequently for arbitrarily long periods of time. To support "disconnected operation", CARNIVORE uses an "opportunistic routing" approach taking advantage of every encounter between nodes (mobile-to-mobile and mobile-to-static to propagate data. With a lifespan of 50–100 days, a CARNIVORE mobile node, outfitted on a collar, collects and transmits 1 GB of data compared to 450 kB of data from comparable commercially available wildlife collars. Each collar records 3-axis accelerometer and GPS data to infer animal behavior and energy consumption.Testing in both laboratory and free-range settings with domestic dogs shows that galloping and trotting behavior can be identified. Data collected from first deployments on mountain lions (Puma concolor near Santa Cruz, CA, USA show that the system is a viable and useful tool for wildlife research.

  8. Assessing Timing and Causes of Neonatal Lamb Losses in a Bighorn Sheep Ovis canadensis canadensis Herd via Use of Vaginal Implant Transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Jamin L; Wolfe, Lisa L; Fox, Karen A; Killion, Halcyon J; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Miller, Michael W; P Dreher, Brian

    2017-02-13

    We evaluated the use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) as a means of detecting, capturing, and radio collaring Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis) lambs to estimate survival and to facilitate carcass recovery to assess causes of mortality. We focused on one of several bighorn herds in Colorado, USA, suffering from depressed recruitment that was not preceded by a classic all-age die-off. We captured, radio-collared, diagnosed pregnancy by ultrasound examination, and inserted VITs into 15 pregnant ewes from a herd residing near Granite, Colorado. We were subsequently able to collar a lamb from each of 13 VITs, and two additional lambs opportunistically from ewes without transmitters. As lambs died, we recovered and submitted carcasses for necropsy and laboratory assessment. All lambs captured and one additional lamb (carcass found opportunistically) were dead by about 130 d of age: 11 died of apparent pneumonia (all within 8-10 wk of age), one died from trauma after being kicked or trampled, one was killed by a mountain lion ( Puma concolor ), and three died of starvation likely caused by abandonment after capture. Pneumonic lambs had involvement of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi . The use of VITs and lamb collars enabled us to efficiently identify pneumonia as the predominant cause of depressed lamb recruitment in this herd; however, we urge care in neonatal lamb handling to minimize abandonment.

  9. Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp. (Nematoda), a new encapsulated species infecting carnivorous mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokapich, Silvio J; Pozio, Edoardo; Gatti, Graciana M; Prous, Cinthia L Gonzalez; Ribicich, Mabel; Marucci, Gianluca; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Confalonieri, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    Until a few years ago, Trichinella spiralis was the only taxon of the genus Trichinella detected in both domestic and wild animals of South America. Recently, a new genotype, named Trichinella T12, was identified in cougars (Puma concolor) from Argentina, on the basis of molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers. In the present study, cross-breeding experiments indicated that Trichinella T12 is reproductively isolated from all other encapsulated Trichinella spp. and suggested that it is biologically more similar to Trichinella britovi and Trichinella murrelli than to the other encapsulated species/genotypes. Biological assays revealed that the reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 was ~4 and >2000 times lower than those of T. spiralis in mice and rats, respectively. The reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 in domestic pigs ranged from 0.0 to 0.05. Larvae parasitising the muscles of carnivores were infective to mice after freezing at -5°C for 3 months, but they lost infectivity after freezing at -18°C for 1 week. The region within the rDNA, known as the expansion segment V, showed a unique sequence which differs from those of all other known Trichinella spp./genotypes. The biological, geographical and molecular data support the classification of the genotype Trichinella T12 as a new species widespread in the Neotropical region, for which we propose the name Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp.

  10. Habitat capacity for cougar recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T O Neil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2 of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region.

  11. Lions and prions and deer demise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contagious prion diseases--scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease of several species in the deer family--give rise to epidemics that seem capable of compromising host population viability. Despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cohort study design, we found that prion infection dramatically lowered survival of free-ranging adult (>2-year-old mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus: estimated average life expectancy was 5.2 additional years for uninfected deer but only 1.6 additional years for infected deer. Prion infection also increased nearly fourfold the rate of mountain lions (Puma concolor preying on deer, suggesting that epidemics may alter predator-prey dynamics by facilitating hunting success. Despite selective predation, about one fourth of the adult deer we sampled were infected. High prevalence and low survival of infected deer provided a plausible explanation for the marked decline in this deer population since the 1980s. CONCLUSION: Remarkably high infection rates sustained in the face of intense predation show that even seemingly complete ecosystems may offer little resistance to the spread and persistence of contagious prion diseases. Moreover, the depression of infected populations may lead to local imbalances in food webs and nutrient cycling in ecosystems in which deer are important herbivores.

  12. Model of automatic fuel management for the Atucha II nuclear central with the PUMA IV code; Modelo de gestion automatica de combustible para la Central Nuclear Atucha II con el codigo PUMA IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconi G, J.F.; Tarazaga, A.E.; Romero, L.D. [CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 San Martin-Bs. As. (Argentina)]. e-mail: marconi@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    The Atucha II central is a heavy water power station and natural uranium. For this reason and due to the first floor reactivity excess that have this type of reactors, it is necessary to carry out a continuous fuel management and with the central in power (for the case of Atucha II every 0.7 days approximately). To maintain in operation these centrals and to achieve a good fuels economy, different types of negotiate of fuels that include areas and roads where the fuels displace inside the core are proved; it is necessary to prove the great majority of these managements in long periods in order to corroborate the behavior of the power station and the burnt of extraction of the fuel elements. To carry out this work it is of great help that a program implements the approaches to continue in each replacement, using the roads and areas of each administration type to prove, and this way to obtain as results the one regulations execution in the time and the average burnt of extraction of the fuel elements, being fundamental this last data for the operator company of the power station. To carry out the previous work it is necessary that a physicist with experience in fuel management proves each one of the possible managements, even those that quickly can be discarded if its don't fulfill with the regulatory standards or its possess an average extraction burnt too much low. For this it is of fundamental help that with an automatic model the different administrations are proven and lastly the physicist analyzes the more important cases. The pattern in question not only allows to program different types of roads and areas of fuel management, but rather it also foresees the possibility to disable some of the approaches. (Author)

  13. The new 1.7 ltr. Zetec-SE engine for Ford`s sports coupe Puma; Der neue 1,7-l-Zetec-SE-Motor fuer das Sportcoupe Puma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, G. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Oppel, R. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Eden, M.; Farenden, G.; Warren, G.A. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Menne, R.J. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For the 1996 model year, as well as a much revised Fiesta, Ford has introduced an entire generation of newly-developed engines. These were four-valve engines with swept volumes of 1.25 and 1.4 litres. On the basis of these engines, in close collaboration with Yamaha Ford has developed a high-performance engine with a swept volume of 1.7 litres. This engine will be launched in the course of this year in the sports coupe based on the Fiesta. In this engine, Ford is using a continuously variable advance/retard adjustment of the inlet camshaft for the first time. The essential features of this new engine are presented in this article, focusing on the most important differences and innovations compared with the 1.25 ltr. and 1.4 ltr. engines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Modelljahr 1996 fuehrte Ford zusammen mit dem stark ueberarbeiteten Fiesta eine komplett neu entwickelte Motorengeneration ein. Hierbei handelt es sich um Motoren in Vierventiltechnik mit Hubraeumen von 1,25 l und 1,4 l. Basierend auf diesen Motoren hat Ford in enger Zusammenarbeit mit Yamaha einen Hochleistungsmotor mit einem Hubraum von 1,7 l entwickelt. Er kommt im Verlauf dieses Jahres im auf dem Fiesta basierenden Sportcoupe zum Einsatz. Bei diesem Motor setzt Ford erstmals eine kontinuierlich einstellbare Einlassnockenwellen-Verstellung ein. In diesem Beitrag wird der neue Motor in seinen Grundzuegen vorgestellt. Den Schwerpunkt stellt jedoch die Darstellung der wichtigsten Unterschiede und Neuerungen im Vergleich zum 1,25-l- und zum 1,4-l-Motor dar. (orig.)

  14. ¿Cómo hacer chicha en Córdoba? Reflexiones en torno a los aspectos políticos y materiales de la producción de chicha por inmigrantes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pazzarelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas bebidas y las comidas pueden ser consideradas como instancias con una cotidianeidad particular,y con una poética y una gastro-política específicas, que se involucran en la reproducción cotidiana yen los sentidos de pertenencia de un grupo. En esas instancias convergen distintos sujetos ymaterialidades que se articulan en un proceso en el que ellos mismos son definidos. Desde estaperspectiva, nos interesa reflexionar en torno de los procesos de producción de chicha (bebidafermentada a base de maíz por parte de mujeres inmigrantes bolivianas y su articulación con otroscontextos en la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina. Consideramos que existe una tensión entre la necesidadde contar con esta bebida para ciertas celebraciones y la dificultad que existe para producirla, y quedicha tensión se inscribe en las situaciones de marginalidad que experimentan la mayoría de losinmigrantes. Para aproximarnos a la gastro-política que se despliega en estos procesos de producción,nos concentraremos en las trayectorias de las mujeres chicheras, así como de las materias primas yobjetos necesarios para su elaboración. AbstractBeverages and food might be considered as instances with a special daily routine, and with a poeticand a special gastro-politic, which implicates in the everyday reproduction and in the sense ofmembership in a group. In these instances different subjects and materialities convergence, whicharticulates in a process in which themselves are defined. From this perspective, it interests us toreflect around the «chicha» (a fermented beverage based on maize production processes from the viewof the Bolivian women immigrants and it articulation with other contexts in the city of Córdoba(Argentina. We consider that it exists a tension between the necessity to count with this beverage forcertain celebrations and the difficulty to produce it, and the tension which are inscribed in the marginalsituations that experience the majority of the immigrants. To approximate the gastro-politics thatunfolds in these production processes, we concentrate on the trajectories of the «chichera» women, asthe source materials and other necessities for its elaboration.

  15. Inserción de horticultores bolivianos en Río Cuarto (Argentina Procesos de inmigración, trabajo y conformación de economías étnicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rodolfo Benencia

    2016-12-01

    En este artículo trataremos de apreciar si estos procesos migratorio-laborales en los que se produce una concentración de inmigrantes de una misma nacionalidad en algunas áreas económico-laborales de la Argentina, como por ejemplo en la horticultura de Río Cuarto (provincia de Córdoba, y en la que tanto los patrones como los empleados pertenecen a la misma nacionalidad migrante, pueden ser considerados economías o negocios étnicos, como han sido catalogados en otros países por la literatura especializada.

  16. Del altiplano sur boliviano hasta el mercado global: coordinación y estructuras de gobernancia en la cadena de valor de la quinua orgánica y del comercio justo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.; Cáceres, Z.; Carimetrand, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to describe and to analyze the recent development of real organic quinoa global value chain, linked to consumer demand in specific quality food markets. Taking into account small producers¿ organizations and local and multinational private companies, the authors consider the evolut

  17. La frontière boliviano-paraguayenne : des contentieux historiques aux dynamiques d’intégration énergétiques (The Bolivia-Paraguay Border: From Old Enemies to the Integrated Energy Powerhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Lacroix

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En avril 2009, la Bolivie et le Paraguay signent un traité de démarcation frontalière qui met fin à un contentieux frontalier né de la guerre du Chaco (1932-1935. Pour les deux seuls pays enclavés du continent américain, l'enjeu consiste désormais à réhabiliter une région frontalière qui a longtemps constitué un glacis. Malgré les projets d'intégration économique et de coopération bilatérale, la frontière reste un thème sensible, à l'origine de quelques tensions diplomatiques et militaires. Les deux pays devront outrepasser ces contretemps liés à la mémoire collective encore marquée par le conflit armé qui les a opposés. Sans quoi, le Chaco pourrait bien demeurer un angle mort dans les mégaprojets définis dans le cadre de l'intégration de la région sud-américaine (IIRSA et rester un espace idéal pour les contrebandiers et les trafiquants.(In April 2009, Bolivia and Paraguay signed a treaty establishing their border, ending a dispute born of the war of Chao (1932-1935. For the two land-locked countries of the American continent the challenge was to establish a border region which had long been a buffer zone. Despite economic integration and bilateral cooperation, the border remains a sensitive issue and has been the source of diplomatic and military tension. The two countries must surpass these difficulties stemming from the collective memory of the armed conflict between them. Otherwise Chao will remain the stumbling block to the megaprojects of South American regional integration (IIRSA and borders will remain an ideal place for smugglers and drug traffickers.

  18. El comportamiento de las tasas de interés en el sistema bancario boliviano y el margen del Banco Central de Bolivia para políticas de tasas de interés

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Laguna Vargas

    1999-01-01

    Se estudian las posibilidades del BCB para influir en el comportamiento de las tasas de interés del sistema bancario, en una estructura de mercado del sistema financiero no competitiva. Adicionalmente, se emplea un modelo de extracción de señales para analizar la respuesta de los bancos a la variabilidad de la política de operaciones de mercado abierto. El comportamiento de las tasas de interés que predicen estos modelos puede explicar los resultados de trabajos anteriores que señalan una res...

  19. Análisis de las transformaciones de la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años : El rol de los horticultores bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    García, Matías

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis en su conjunto provee un análisis de la producción, la tecnología, la tierra, los agentes de la producción, la comercialización, la fuerza de trabajo que, en interacción, brindan elementos no sólo para interpretar las transformaciones en la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años, sino que también logran desarrollar o poner en cuestión el nuevo modelo de producción y abastecimiento a nivel agregado. Estas transformaciones fueron descriptas y analizada...

  20. Análisis de las transformaciones de la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años : El rol de los horticultores bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    García, Matías

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis en su conjunto provee un análisis de la producción, la tecnología, la tierra, los agentes de la producción, la comercialización, la fuerza de trabajo que, en interacción, brindan elementos no sólo para interpretar las transformaciones en la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años, sino que también logran desarrollar o poner en cuestión el nuevo modelo de producción y abastecimiento a nivel agregado. Estas transformaciones fueron descriptas y an...

  1. ¿Cómo hacer chicha en Córdoba? Reflexiones en torno a los aspectos políticos y materiales de la producción de chicha por inmigrantes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Vargas Ibarra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Beverages and food might be considered as instances with a special daily routine, and with a poeticand a special gastro-politic, which implicates in the everyday reproduction and in the sense ofmembership in a group. In these instances different subjects and materialities convergence, whicharticulates in a process in which themselves are defined. From this perspective, it interests us toreflect around the «chicha» (a fermented beverage based on maize production processes from the viewof the Bolivian women immigrants and it articulation with other contexts in the city of Córdoba(Argentina. We consider that it exists a tension between the necessity to count with this beverage forcertain celebrations and the difficulty to produce it, and the tension which are inscribed in the marginalsituations that experience the majority of the immigrants. To approximate the gastro-politics thatunfolds in these production processes, we concentrate on the trajectories of the «chichera» women, asthe source materials and other necessities for its elaboration

  2. Construcción de la noción de estado en función de la voz de otro: el discurso del vicepresidente boliviano Álvaro García Linera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, María del Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] En este artículo, analizamos la conferencia pronunciada por el Vicepresidente de Bolivia, Álvaro García Linera, en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, el 8 de abril de 2010. El trabajo se encuadra en una investigación acerca del discurso político y la construcción de la noción de estado a partir de la promulgación de la nueva Construcción del Estado (2007. Primero, situaremos, en el contexto de la escena englobadora del discurso académico, a la conferencia como escena genérica e indicaremos sus diversas escenografías. Ello, considerando que el género discursivo resulta el primer gran otro en función del cual se construyen los discursos. Nuestra hipótesis interpretativa sostiene que el discurso acerca del estado se vincularía con la contraargumentación (implícita o explícita del otro y ello se plasmaría en diversas estrategias lingüísticas: las negaciones polémicas y metalingüísticas; el uso de conectores contraargumentativos o antiorientados; la presencia de ciertas formas deícticas. Estos dos últimos aspectos se irán señalando en los diversos análisis. Nuestro aporte radica, creemos, en proveer una herramienta interpretativa a partir del análisis del discurso que favorezca una lectura interdisciplinaria en las áreas de la Ciencia Política y la Comunicación. [en] In this paper, we analyze the speech delivered by Vice-President of Bolivia, Alvaro Garcia Linera, at the Law Faculty at the University of Buenos Aires on April 8, 2010. The work is part of a research about the political discourse and the construction of the notion of state since the enactment of the new State Building (2007. First, the conference will be placed, in the context of the scene encompassing the academic discourse, as a generic scene and the different scenery will be indicated. This, considering that the discourse genre results in the first major other in terms of which discourses are constructed. Our interpretative hypothesis argues that the discourse about the state would be associated with the counter-argument (implicit or explicit of the other and this would be reflected in different linguistic strategies: the controversial and metalinguistic negations; the use of counter-argumentative connectors; the presence of certain deictic forms. The latter two will be pointed out in the different analysis. Our contribution lies, we believe, in providing an interpretative tool coming from discourse analysis that would promote an interdisciplinary reading in the areas of Political Science and Communication

  3. Exacerbations and health care resource utilization in patients with airflow limitation diseases attending a primary care setting: the PUMA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Maria; Aguirre, Carlos; Lopez Varela, Maria Victorina; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Casas, Alejandro; Surmont, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap increase health care resource consumption, predominantly because of hospitalization for exacerbations and also increased visits to general practitioners (GPs) or specialists. Little information is available regarding this in the primary care setting. Objectives To describe the prevalence and number of GP and specialist visits for any cause or due to exacerbations in patients with COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap. Methods COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio <0.70; asthma was defined as prior medical diagnosis, wheezing in the last 12 months, or wheezing plus reversibility (post-bronchodilator FEV1 or FVC increase ≥200 mL and ≥12%); asthma–COPD overlap was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70 plus prior asthma diagnosis. Health care utilization was evaluated as GP and/or specialist visits in the previous year. Results Among the 1,743 individuals who completed the questionnaire, 1,540 performed acceptable spirometry. COPD patients had a higher prevalence of any medical visits to any physician versus those without COPD (37.2% vs 21.8%, respectively) and exacerbations doubled the number of visits. The prevalence of any medical visits to any physician was also higher in asthma patients versus those without asthma (wheezing: 47.2% vs 22.7%; medical diagnosis: 54.6% vs 21.6%; wheezing plus reversibility: 46.2% vs 23.8%, respectively). Asthma patients with exacerbations had twice the number of visits versus those without an exacerbation. The number of visits was higher (2.8 times) in asthma–COPD overlap, asthma (1.9 times), or COPD (1.4 times) patients versus those without these respiratory diseases; the number of visits due to exacerbation was also higher (4.9 times) in asthma–COPD overlap, asthma (3.5 times), and COPD (3.8 times) patients. Conclusion COPD, asthma, and asthma–COPD overlap increase the prevalence of medical visits and, therefore, health care resource utilization. Attempts to reduce health care resource use in these patients require interventions aimed at preventing exacerbations. PMID:27994446

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. METHODS: A total of 1772 participants in different human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyse...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande diversidade de animais: dentre as aves, urubus (Coragyps atratus e Cathartes aura, carcará (Polyborus plancus, jaburu (Jabiru mycteria; lagartos (Tupinambis teguixin e mamíferos de pequeno porte, coati (Nasua nasua e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Do total anual de desovas de P. unifilis em média 65,98% são predadas, sendo 41,68% de forma total e 24,30% parcialmente. Enquanto que apenas 5,31% das ninhadas de P. expansa são sempre parcialmente predadas. Dentre os predadores aquáticos existem diversos peixes, principalmente piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri e jacarés (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. Os predadores das fêmeas de P. unifilis são: jacaré-açu (Melanosuchus niger, onça-pintada (Panthera onca e onça-parda (Puma concolor. Enquanto que as fêmeas de P. expansa em postura, somente são predadas por P. onca. As fêmeas de P. unifilis em postura são predadas num total médio de 3,93% anualmente, enquanto que para P. expansa a média anual é 5,66% das fêmeas.Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis long lived with late sexual maturation, which influences a low replacement rate of individuals. Their populations are characterized by low adults mortality, but high mortality of embryos and hatchlings. The natural nest predation is an important factor for hatchling success. In Javaés River, the eggs and hatchlings can be predated by a large number of animals such as birds, vultures (Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura, carcar

  2. Salvia meera, S. rogersiana, S. santanae and S. concolor var. iltisii (Lamiaceae, three new species and a variety from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia meera, S. rogersiana, S. santanae y S. concolor var. iltisii (Lamiaceae, tres especies nuevas y una variedad de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of a major project on the genus Salvia in the state of Jalisco and adjacent areas, Mexico, 4 new taxa of Salvia L. are described and illustrated. Identification Keys for the related species and comparison tables of morphological characters are given. Three of them were tentatively proposed -but not formally published- as new species in the book Flora de Manantlán.Como parte de un proyecto mayor del género Salvia en el estado de Jalisco y áreas colindantes, México, se describen e ilustran 4 nuevos taxa. Se proveen claves de determinación para las especies relacionadas y tablas comparativas de caracteres morfológicos. Tres de ellos fueron tentativamente propuestos -pero no formalmente publicados- como nuevas especies en el libro de Flora de Manantlán.

  3. Ecological Relationships of Meso-Scale Distribution in 25 Neotropical Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  4. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln José Michalski

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca and Puma (Puma concolor] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons. Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%. Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all

  5. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  6. Effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in determining species presence in a tropical savanna landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Skalski, John R; Machado, Ricardo B; Groom, Martha J; Jácomo, Anah T A; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Ramos Neto, Mario B; Pomilla, Cristina; Silveira, Leandro; Smith, Heath; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-02-01

    Most protected areas are too small to sustain populations of wide-ranging mammals; thus, identification and conservation of high-quality habitat for those animals outside parks is often a high priority, particularly for regions where extensive land conversion is occurring. This is the case in the vicinity of Emas National Park, a small protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado. Over the last 40 years the native vegetation surrounding the park has been converted to agriculture, but the region still supports virtually all of the animals native to the area. We determined the effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in detecting presence of five species of mammals threatened with extinction by habitat loss: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), puma (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), and giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus). The probability of scat detection varied among the five species and among survey quadrats of different size, but was consistent across team, season, and year. The probability of occurrence, determined from the presence of scat, in a randomly selected site within the study area ranged from 0.14 for jaguars, which occur primarily in the forested areas of the park, to 0.91 for maned wolves, the most widely distributed species in our study area. Most occurrences of giant armadillos in the park were in open grasslands, but in the agricultural matrix they tended to occur in riparian woodlands. At least one target species occurred in every survey quadrat, and giant armadillos, jaguars, and maned wolves were more likely to be present in quadrats located inside than outside the park. The effort required for detection of scats was highest for the two felids. We were able to detect the presence for each of five wide-ranging species inside and outside the park and to assign occurrence probabilities to specific survey sites. Thus, scat dogs provide an effective survey tool for rare species even when accurate detection

  7. Composição e caracterização da fauna de mamíferos de médio e grande porte em uma pequena reserva de cerrado em Mato Grosso, Brasil Composition and characterization of the medium and large size mammal fauna in a small cerrado reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Nova Xavantina, MT, objetivando inventariar e avaliar a abundância e diversidade de mamíferos terrestres de médio e grande porte. Para tanto, foram realizadas duas visitas mensais a um transecto com 2.820 m de extensão, durante todo o ano de 2001, para o levantamento de pegadas (rastreamentos e outras evidências de mamíferos. Um total de 29 espécies foram registradas na área de estudo, sendo que 22 ocorreram no transecto e tiveram suas seqüências individuais de pegadas quantificadas para realização do cálculo dos índices de abundância e de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H'. De acordo com seus índices de abundância, as espécies foram classificadas em raras, comuns e abundantes. Dentre outras, onça-parda (Puma concolor - Linnaeus, 1771 e tatu-canastra (Priodontes maximus - Keer, 1792 mostraram-se raras; jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis - Linnaeus, 1758, e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla - Linnaeus, 1758, comuns; e cutia (Dasyprocta azarae - Lichtenstein, 1823 e tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis - Linnaeus, 1758, abundantes. O H' encontrado foi 2,40, sendo considerado significativo. O presente trabalho apontou que, apesar de pequena (470 ha, a área de estudo desempenha importante papel para a conservação da mastofauna da região de Nova Xavantina, MT.This study was carried out at the 'Mario Viana' Municipal Biological Reserve in Nova Xavantina, MT, aiming to make an inventory and evaluate the abundance and diversity of terrestrial mammals of medium and large size. Thus, two monthly visits were made to a 2.820 m long transect throughout 2001 to assess tracking and other evidences of mammals. Twenty-nine species were recorded in the study area, with 22 in the transect and two individual tracking sequences being quantified for calculation of the Shannon-Wiener (H' abundance and diversity indices. According to the abundance indices, the species were

  8. Estimativas de parâmetros populacionais e demográficos de Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae em Piraí do Sul, Paraná, sul do Brasil Estimates of population and demographic parameters of Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae in Piraí do Sul, Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. Braga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado em duas propriedades particulares, situadas no município de Piraí do Sul, sul do Brasil. Foram realizadas 16 fases de campo mensais, com três dias de duração, no período compreendido entre fevereiro de 2001 e maio de 2002, com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a biologia do veado-campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758 e identificar os principais fatores de impacto sobre o mesmo. Foram computadas 1.065 observações, estimando-se 71,45 indivíduos na população, sendo o tamanho médio dos grupos de 2,29 (DV ± 0,55, e a razão sexual de 0,83. Indivíduos isolados corresponderam a 40% das observações, sendo o maior grupo composto por 10 indivíduos. Registrou-se um pico de nascimentos entre setembro e novembro, embora esses tenham acontecido ao longo de todo o estudo. Foram registrados 34 óbitos, correspondendo a uma mortalidade de 47,6%, sendo as principais causas a predação por Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, a caça e os atropelamentos. A população estudada encontra-se severamente ameaçada, e não sobreviverá por muito tempo a menos que políticas que garantam a sua conservação sejam adotadas. Estas políticas devem incluir o manejo adequado das áreas e o controle dos vetores de pressão.This study was conducted in two private properties in the municipality of Piraí do Sul (Paraná state, southern Brazil. Sixteen monthly visits were made each one lasting three days between February 2001 and May 2002. The study aimed at the observation of pampas deer biology (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758, and the evaluation of main impacts to this population. We computed 1,065 observations of estimated 71.45 individuals. The average size of the groups was 2.29 (SD ± 0.55 animals, and the sexual ratio was 0.83. Isolated deer accounted for 40% of the observations, whereas the largest group comprised 10 individuals. It was recorded a peack period of births between September and November, although

  9. Using fecal profiles of bile acids to assess habitat use by threatened carnivores in the Maulino forest of central Chile Empleo del perfil de ácidos biliares fecales para evaluar uso del hábitat por carnívoros amenazados en el bosque maulino de Chile central

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    CARLA GUERRERO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and habitat use by carnivores can be assessed by studying their tracks or feces. If these methods are to be used confidently, they should not only unequivocally discriminate among species, but should also render the same patterns of spatial distributions. We assessed the fulfillment of these requirements with five carnivores inhabiting the Maulino forest of central Chile: Galictis cuja, Oncifelis guigna, Pseudalopex culpaeus, Pseudalopex griseus, and Puma concolor. Fecal bile acid thin layer chromatographic profiles were assessed, and shown to be species-specific, invariant within samples of a given individual and among individuals of a given species, but consistently different across species. The spatial distribution of feces in mixed stands of native forests and exotic pine plantations in the coastal Maule region of central Chile was compared with the expected distribution according to habitat offer, and also with the expected distribution based on earlier track records. The results revealed that Pseudalopex culpaeus makes extensive use of pine plantations; Oncifelis guigna prefers native forests, and Pseudalopex griseus thrives in pine plantations, native forests, and patches of native forest, in proportion to habitat availability. Results from scat distribution were similar to those obtained by tracks records. Feces and tracks were thus useful indicators of habitat use by carnivores, and could be used complementarily to study species with conservation problemsEl uso del hábitat por carnívoros puede ser examinado a partir de la distribución de sus huellas y fecas. Para que ambas aproximaciones sean usadas en forma segura y complementaria, ellas deberían no solamente discriminar inequívocamente entre especies, sino que también deberían entregar la misma información sobre los patrones de distribución espacial. Analizamos el cumplimiento de estos requisitos con cinco especies de carnívoros en el bosque maulino de Chile

  10. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sawaya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS

  11. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  12. Spatial overlap in a solitary carnivore: support for the land tenure, kinship or resource dispersion hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E; Quigley, Howard; Caragiulo, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    There are several alternative hypotheses about the effects of territoriality, kinship and prey availability on individual carnivore distributions within populations. The first is the land-tenure hypothesis, which predicts that carnivores regulate their density through territoriality and temporal avoidance. The second is the kinship hypothesis, which predicts related individuals will be clumped within populations, and the third is the resource dispersion hypothesis, which suggests that resource richness may explain variable sociality, spatial overlap or temporary aggregations of conspecifics. Research on the socio-spatial organization of animals is essential in understanding territoriality, intra- and interspecific competition, and contact rates that influence diverse ecology, including disease transmission between conspecifics and courtship behaviours. We explored these hypotheses with data collected on a solitary carnivore, the cougar (Puma concolor), from 2005 to 2012 in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, Wyoming, USA. We employed 27 annual home ranges for 13 cougars to test whether home range overlap was better explained by land tenure, kinship, resource dispersion or some combination of the three. We found support for both the land tenure and resource dispersion hypotheses, but not for kinship. Cougar sex was the primary driver explaining variation in home range overlap. Males overlapped significantly with females, whereas the remaining dyads (F-F, M-M) overlapped significantly less. In support for the resource dispersion hypothesis, hunting opportunity (the probability of a cougar killing prey in a given location) was often higher in overlapping than in non-overlapping portions of cougar home ranges. In particular, winter hunt opportunity rather than summer hunt opportunity was higher in overlapping portions of female-female and male-female home ranges. Our results may indicate that solitary carnivores are more tolerant of sharing key resources with unrelated

  13. Assessing the efficacy of hair snares as a method for noninvasive sampling of Neotropical felids

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    Tatiana P. Portella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hair snares have been used in North and Central America for a long time in assessment and monitoring studies of several mammalian species. This method can provide a cheap, suitable, and efficient way to monitor mammals because it combines characteristics that are not present in most alternative techniques. However, despite their usefulness, hair snares are rarely used in other parts of the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hair snares and three scent lures (cinnamon, catnip, and vanilla in the detection of felids in one of the largest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We performed tests with six captive felid species - Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758, L. tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, L. wiedii (Schinz, 1821, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, and P. yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803 - to examine their responses to the attractants, and to correlate those with lure efficiency in the field. The field tests were conducted at the Parque Estadual Pico do Marumbi, state of Paraná, Brazil. Hair traps were placed on seven transects. There were equal numbers of traps with each scent lure, for a total of 1,551 trap-days. In captivity, vanilla provided the greatest response, yet no felids were detected in the field with any of the tested lures, although other species were recorded. Based on the sampling of non-target species, and the comparison with similar studies elsewhere, this study points to a possible caveat of this method when rare species or small populations are concerned. Meanwhile, we believe that improved hair snares could provide important results with several species in the location tested and others.

  14. Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2005-05-01

    The pantherine lineage of the cat family Felidae (order: Carnivora) includes five big cats of genus Panthera and a great many midsized cats known worldwide. Presumably because of their recent and rapid radiation, the evolutionary relationship among pantherines remains ambiguous. We provide an independent assessment of the evolutionary history of pantherine lineage using two complete mitochondrial (mt) genes (ND2 and ND4) and the nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 gene, whose utility in carnivoran phylogeny was first explored. The available four mt (ND5, cytb, 12S, and 16SrRNA) and two nuclear (IRBP and TTR) sequence loci were also combined to reconstruct phylogeny of 14 closely related cat species. Our analyses of combined mt data (six genes; approximately 3750 bp) and combined mt and nuclear data (nine genes; approximately 6500 bp) obtained identical tree topologies, which were well-resolved and strongly supported for almost all nodes. Monophyly of Panthera genus in pantherine lineage was confirmed and interspecific affinities within this genus revealed a novel branching pattern, with P. tigris diverging first in Panthera genus, followed by P. onca, P. leo, and last two sister species P. pardus and P. uncia. In addition, close association of Neofelis nebulosa to Panthera, the phylogenetic redefinition of Otocolobus manul within the domestic cat group, and the relatedness of Acinonyx jubatus and Puma concolor were all important findings in the resulting phylogenies. The potential utilities of nine different genes for phylogenetic resolution of closely related pantherine species were also evaluated, with special interest in that of the novel nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7.

  15. A long-term evaluation of biopsy darts and DNA to estimate cougar density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, Richard A.; Clark, Joseph D.; Maletzke, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating cougar (Puma concolor) density is usually based on long-term research consisting of intensive capture and Global Positioning System collaring efforts and may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars annually. Because wildlife agency budgets rarely accommodate this approach, most infer cougar density from published literature, rely on short-term studies, or use hunter harvest data as a surrogate in their jurisdictions; all of which may limit accuracy and increase risk of management actions. In an effort to develop a more cost-effective long-term strategy, we evaluated a research approach using citizen scientists with trained hounds to tree cougars and collect tissue samples with biopsy darts. We then used the DNA to individually identify cougars and employed spatially explicit capture–recapture models to estimate cougar densities. Overall, 240 tissue samples were collected in northeastern Washington, USA, producing 166 genotypes (including recaptures and excluding dependent kittens) of 133 different cougars (8-25/yr) from 2003 to 2011. Mark–recapture analyses revealed a mean density of 2.2 cougars/100 km2 (95% CI=1.1-4.3) and stable to decreasing population trends (β=-0.048, 95% CI=-0.106–0.011) over the 9 years of study, with an average annual harvest rate of 14% (range=7-21%). The average annual cost per year for field sampling and genotyping was US$11,265 ($422.24/sample or $610.73/successfully genotyped sample). Our results demonstrated that long-term biopsy sampling using citizen scientists can increase capture success and provide reliable cougar-density information at a reasonable cost.

  16. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  17. Controlling for anthropogenically induced atmospheric variation in stable carbon isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E.S.; Sweitzer, R.A.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Ben-David, M.

    2005-01-01

    Increased use of stable isotope analysis to examine food-web dynamics, migration, transfer of nutrients, and behavior will likely result in expansion of stable isotope studies investigating human-induced global changes. Recent elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, related primarily to fossil fuel combustion, has reduced atmospheric CO2 ??13C (13C/12C), and this change in isotopic baseline has, in turn, reduced plant and animal tissue ??13C of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Such depletion in CO2 ??13C and its effects on tissue ??13C may introduce bias into ??13C investigations, and if this variation is not controlled, may confound interpretation of results obtained from tissue samples collected over a temporal span. To control for this source of variation, we used a high-precision record of atmospheric CO2 ??13C from ice cores and direct atmospheric measurements to model modern change in CO2 ??13C. From this model, we estimated a correction factor that controls for atmospheric change; this correction reduces bias associated with changes in atmospheric isotopic baseline and facilitates comparison of tissue ??13C collected over multiple years. To exemplify the importance of accounting for atmospheric CO2 ??13C depletion, we applied the correction to a dataset of collagen ??13C obtained from mountain lion (Puma concolor) bone samples collected in California between 1893 and 1995. Before correction, in three of four ecoregions collagen ??13C decreased significantly concurrent with depletion of atmospheric CO2 ??13C (n ??? 32, P ??? 0.01). Application of the correction to collagen ??13C data removed trends from regions demonstrating significant declines, and measurement error associated with the correction did not add substantial variation to adjusted estimates. Controlling for long-term atmospheric variation and correcting tissue samples for changes in isotopic baseline facilitate analysis of samples that span a large temporal range. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  18. Spatial and temporal interactions of sympatric mountain lions in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kerry L.; Krausman, Paul R.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Culver, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal interactions among individual members of populations can have direct applications to habitat management of mountain lions (Puma concolor). Our objectives were to evaluate home range overlap and spatial/temporal use of overlap zones (OZ) of mountain lions in Arizona. We incorporated spatial data with genetic analyses to assess relatedness between mountain lions with overlapping home ranges. We recorded the space use patterns of 29 radio-collared mountain lions in Arizona from August 2005 to August 2008. We genotyped 28 mountain lions and estimated the degree of relatedness among individuals. For 26 pairs of temporally overlapping mountain lions, 18 overlapped spatially and temporally and eight had corresponding genetic information. Home range overlap ranged from 1.18% to 46.38% (x̄=2443, SE = 2.96). Male–male pairs were located within 1 km of each other on average, 0.04% of the time, whereas male–female pairs on average were 3.0%. Two male–male pairs exhibited symmetrical spatial avoidance and two symmetrical spatial attractions to the OZ. We observed simultaneous temporal attraction in three male–male pairs and four male–female pairs. Individuals from Tucson were slightly related to one another within the population (n = 13, mean R = 0.0373 ± 0.0151) whereas lions from Payson (n = 6, mean R = -0.0079 ± 0.0356) and Prescott (n = 9, mean R = -0.0242 ± 0.0452) were not as related. Overall, males were less related to other males (n = 20, mean R = -0.0495 ± 0.0161) than females were related to other females (n = 8, mean R = 0.0015 ± 0.0839). Genetic distance was positively correlated with geographic distance (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.001). Spatial requirements and interactions influence social behavior and can play a role in determining population density.

  19. Cougar survival and source-sink structure on Greater Yellowstone's Northern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.K.; Haroldson, M.A.; Murphy, K.M.; Buotte, P.C.; Hornocker, M.G.; Quigley, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    We studied survival and causes of mortality of radiocollared cougars (Puma concolor) on the Greater Yellowstone Northern Range (GYNR) prior to (1987–1994) and after wolf (Canis lupus) reintroduction (1998–2005) and evaluated temporal, spatial, and environmental factors that explain variation in adult, subadult, and kitten survival. Using Program MARK and multimodel inference, we modeled cougar survival based on demographic status, season, and landscape attributes. Our best models for adult and independent subadults indicated that females survived better than males and survival increased with age until cougars reached older ages. Lower elevations and increasing density of roads, particularly in areas open to cougar hunting north of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), increased mortality risks for cougars on the GYNR. Indices of ungulate biomass, cougar and wolf population size, winter severity, rainfall, and individual characteristics such as the presence of dependent young, age class, and use of Park or Wilderness were not important predictors of survival. Kitten survival increased with age, was lower during winter, increased with increasing minimum estimates of elk calf biomass, and increased with increasing density of adult male cougars. Using our best model, we mapped adult cougar survival on the GYNR landscape. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated a good model fit for both female (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.92, n = 35 locations) and male cougars (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74–0.94, n = 49 locations) relative to hunter harvest locations in our study area. Using minimum estimates of survival necessary to sustain the study population, we developed a source-sink surface and we identify several measures that resource management agencies can take to enhance cougar population management based on a source-sink strategy.

  20. Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus and moose (Alces alces than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, 3 distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4 steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3 distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection.

  1. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  2. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  3. Adidas ja Nike - nina vastu nina / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Spordikaupade tootja Adidas ostab Reeboki 3 miljardi euro eest. Adidase ja Reeboki ühinemisse suhtub skeptiliselt Puma, selle tegevjuht Jochen Zeitz lükkab tagasi kuuldused Nike'i ja Puma võimaliku ühinemise kohta

  4. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tage S.; Borritz, Marianne; Villadsen, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity......Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity...

  5. Hvad velja nemendur ad syna okkur? (Islandsk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, René

    2014-01-01

    Pædagogisk udredning med PUMA, et redskab udviklet af forfatteren til brug i specialundervisning og inklusion......Pædagogisk udredning med PUMA, et redskab udviklet af forfatteren til brug i specialundervisning og inklusion...

  6. Un método para el análisis de frecuencia regional de lluvias máximas diarias: aplicación en los Andes bolivianos A method for regional frequency analysis of maximum daily rainfall: application in the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Luna Vera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis de frecuencia regional con series de lluvia diaria máxima anual para una zona con escasa información. La compleja orografía de montañas y el altiplano de una región en la cordillera de Los Andes, Bolivia, produce diferentes patrones de lluvia diaria. La combinación de los Momentos-L y el análisis de conglomerados resultan adecuados para identificarlas regiones homogéneas de las series máximas anuales. El trabajo desarrollado define 4 regiones homogéneas. La región 1 comprende las estaciones ubicadas en el altiplano y la zona Sur Este. La región 2 abarca el altiplano central y la cuenca del Río La Paz, compuesto por cuencas interandinas. La 3 delimita claramente las estaciones de la zona tropical amazónica; y la 4 está compuesta por estaciones ubicadas en las montañas del Norte. Se probaron diversas distribuciones para el análisis regional de frecuencias aplicando la técnica de estaciones-año; los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las funciones Gumbel y Doble Gumbel. Finalmente se expresan las ecuaciones regionales y se comparan con algunas series puntuales de cada región, con el objeto de verificar la aplicabilidad de la metodología propuesta para fines de diseño hidrológico.A regional frequency analysis of daily annual maximum rainfall series for an area with poor information is presented. The complex topography mountains and the highlands region in the Cordillera de Los Andes, Bolivia, produce different patterns of daily rainfall. The combination of L-Moments and cluster analysis are adequate to identify the homogeneous regions of the annual maximum series. The work defines 4 homogeneous regions. Region 1 includes the stations located in the highlands and south-east. Region 2 covers the central highlands and La Paz River Basin, consisting of inter-Andean basins. Region 3 clearly defines the Amazonian basin stations and 4 is composed of stations located in the northern mountains. Different distributions were tested for regional frequency analysis using the Index Flood method, the best results were obtained with the Double Gumbel and Gumbel functions. Finally, regional equations are compared with some specified series of each region, in order to verify the applicability of the proposed methodology for hydrological design purposes.

  7. Radiation levels of radon gas and its progeny in labor activities of mine interior and their effects in the Bolivian workers to 4000 m; Niveles de radiacion de gas radon y su progenie en actividades laborales de interior mina y sus efectos en los trabajadores bolivianos a 4000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani M, R.; Claros J, J. T.; Vasquez A, R.; Chirveches, H. [Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias, Villa Imperial de Potosi (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Weyer, J.; Arnold, D., E-mail: raulm2k13@hotmail.com [Universidad Tecnica de Freiberg, Academia de Minas, Akademiestrabe 6, 09599 Freiberg (Georgia)

    2014-08-15

    The objectives of this study are guided to determine the radiation charges to those that the mining workers are exposed, in order to assume the appropriate protection measures. The first phase of this study begun in March of 2009, with the support of the Freiberg University (Germany), has been preceded of different scientific events and preparatory measurements in the Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias (UATF) and Cerro Rico de Potosi. Experimentally the presence of radon gas has been quantified by means of measurements in 7 mines of Cerro Rico de Potosi, the COMSUR mines (today SINCHY WAYRA) and the state mining company COMIBOL (Oruro-Huanuni), using the measurement equipment Alpha Zaeller-2 (AZ-2). The Radon-222 that emerges of the interior of the fractured rocks and/or loose rocks, with more intensity if they are fresh, is inhaled by the mining worker. Considering the breathing parameters (1, 2 m{sup 3}/h), recommended by the ICRP, was observed that the miners breathing of the region is more bigger, due to the high effort that they develop in the work. Therefore, the calculation results of the concentration of the radiation activity of Radon, allow assuming that this is the causing of the damage to the lungs in the human body. Outdoor or in superficial tunnels, the impact is low or imperceptible. But when the process is verified to more depths in an underground mine, or not properly ventilated, the concentration as well as the exposure dose to the radiation of radon gas is increased to amazing values. Assuming that the maximum permissible limit is of 20 mSv, the study has established some values that exceeded this limit in the Bolivian mining, not controlled in this field until now. The component of the medical study, through exams: hematology and spirometric, notes that, by the complex inhalation of: air + powders + Radon gas and others in his working environment, contribute strongly to the generation of lethal illnesses in the mining worker, as the Poliglobulia, Silicosis and the Lung Cancer. (Author)

  8. Con la secularización «se abrió el campo; el que quería venía». La formación de un grupo dirigente en el ámbito local boliviano, 1938/39-1948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Jordán, Pilar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to study the most significant changes that took place in Guarayos (NW of Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia, as a consequence of the secularization of the Franciscan Missions approved in 1938/39 and the implantation of the «Delegación Nacional de Guarayos», a state institution that was in charge of completing the incorporation to the «nation» of the Guarayos population. We will focus particularly on the «administradores», new «managers» of both territories and goods that through the connivance of their superiors and the incapacity of the State to set presence in the region, held complete power between 1939 and 1948 and were the main responsible actors of the economic decay and depopulation of the region.

    Objetivo del artículo es estudiar los cambios más significativos producidos en la región de Guarayos (Noroeste del departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia como consecuencia de la secularización de las misiones franciscanas en la zona, aprobada en 1938/39, y la implantación de la Delegación Nacional de Guarayos encargada de completar el proceso de incorporación de la población guaraya a la «nacionalidad». En particular, se analiza el papel desempeñado por los «administradores », nuevos «gestores» de los territorios y bienes que entre 1939 y 1948 detentaron todo el poder en cada uno de los poblados y fueron los responsables principales de la decadencia económica y despoblación de la región con la connivencia de sus superiores jerárquicos y la incapacidad del Estado para hacerse presente en la convulsa política boliviana del período marcada por continuados golpes militares.

  9. Evidencias sedimentarias y geoquímicas de la pequena edad de hielo en el lago Milluni Grande del Altiplano boliviano Sedimentary and geochemical evidences of the little Ice Age in the Milluni Grande Lake of the Bolivia high-platean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Miguel Salvarredy-Aranguren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El lago de Milluni Grande (LMG está ubicado en el flanco occidental de los Andes Orientales en el valle de Milluni que posee una clásica forma en U dado que se encuentra en una región glacial. El lago es el más grande de este valle, y dado que se halla situado al cierre de cuenca, resulta estratégico para albergar un registro sedimentario de los últimos 450 años. El registro sedimentario fue estudiado a partir de un testigo del lago, del cual se describieron y analizaron detalladamente parámetros físicos y químicos, sedimentología, mineralogía e indicadores geoquímicos los que permitieron evidenciar una importante variación del clima (VC. Adicionalmente, una datación con 210Pb en los niveles mas superficiales del testigo fue usada para establecer una tasa de sedimentación del lago y estimar una cronología para los niveles sin datación. La cronología definida señala que la variación del clima detectada sucede durante la Pequeña Edad de Hielo (LIA. Además, una correlación detallada fue establecida entre los niveles arenosos del registro sedimentario del LMG y las morrenas glaciarias del Cerro Charquini. Finalmente, algunas evidencias históricas bien documentadas sobre el desarrollo de Pequeña Edad de Hielo en Bolivia son mencionadas.Milluni Grande Lake (MGL is located Milluni Valley, west-side of Eastern Andes, Bolivia. The Milluni area presents a classic U shaped valley, product of the last glacial regression. MGL is the biggest lake of the valley, and it is at the end of Milluni Valley, a strategic position that allow a complete sedimentary record of last 450 years. The sediment record was studied with a lake core. A full description and analysis of physical and chemical parameters, sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemical proxys allow to conclude that sediment record shows an important climate change (CC. Complementary, a 210Pb datation over the superficial core levels was used to establish a sedimention rate and estimate a chronology for no dated levels. The chronology point out that the detected climate change clearly occurs during the Last Ice Age (LIA. Moreover, a detailed correlation has been established between sandy levels in the sedimentary record of MGL and Charquini mountain glacier moraines. Finally, some well documented facts about the development of Last Ice Age in this area of Bolivia are mentioned.

  10. Alexela välisomanik plaanib lisaraha kaasamist. Eesti on suure raha jaoks ebahuvitav / Hannes Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    Alexela Logisticsi omanikeringi kuuluv Puma Energy plaanib minna börsile. Puma Energy äripartneri Heiti Hääle sõnul Puma oma tegevust Eestis laiendama ei tõtta, sest siin pole kuhugi investeerida. Raivo Vare kommentaare

  11. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil Isolamento de Microsporum gypseum do pelame de felídeos selvagens sadios mantidos em cativeiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Donnarumma Levy Bentubo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco™. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.Os dermatófitos são os fungos mais comumente associados às micoses superficiais em animais e homem. O estado de

  12. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os zoológicos modernos são instituições destinadas à manutenção da fauna selvagem com o objetivo de promover a conservação, pesquisa científica, lazer, recreação e educação ambiental. A ampla variedade de espécies selvagens, vivendo em condições diferentes do seu habitat natural, representa um ambiente propício à disseminação de doenças, muitas delas zoonóticas. Devido à escassez de dados e à relevância dos mamíferos selvagens neste contexto epidemiológico, tanto na toxoplasmose, quanto na leptospirose, foi efetuado o inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 32 animais, adultos, de ambos os sexos incluindo: 14 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus, quatro macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus xanthosternus, três onças-suçuaranas (Puma concolor, uma onça-pintada (Pantheraonca, uma raposa (Cerdocyon thous, seis guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, dois quatis (Nasua nasua e um papa-mel (Eira barbara. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi utilizado o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT ³"1:25 e para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. foi utilizado o teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (ponto de corte ³1:100 com uma coleção de antígenos vivos que incluiu 24 variantes sorológicas de leptospiras patogênicas e duas leptospiras saprófitas. Dentre os 32 mamíferos, 17 (53,1% apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii e quatro (12,5% foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. De acordo com o sexo, 60% (9/15 dos machos e 47,1% (8/17 das fêmeas foram soropositivos para T. gondii e 26,7% (4/15 dos machos apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. Dos mamíferos que apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, 47% (8/17 nasceram no zoológico, 41,2% (7/17 foram oriundos de outras instituições e dois (11,8% foram provenientes da natureza. Em rela

  13. Promoción de la conservación de la biodiversidad mediante el aumento de la demanda interna de ajíes nativos en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia es uno de los centros de diversidad de ajíes nativos (Capsicum spp.. El comercio informal de ajíes peruanos ha contribuido a una baja demanda y, por ende, a una reducción del cultivo (o conservación in situ de ajíes bolivianos. Este estudio analiza el consumo de ajíes mediante una encuesta a 359 hogares. Los resultados sugieren que los hogares están acostumbrados al sabor de los ajíes peruanos, y que entre las ventajas de los ajíes bolivianos está el color. Mezclas estandarizadas de ajíes con sabor y color deseados podrían introducirse satisfactoriamente al mercado, lo cual favorecería las ventas de ajíes bolivianos.

  14. Circuitos de la economía urbana en la ciudad de Buenos Aires: el comercio étnico de la colectividad boliviana en el barrio de Liniers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Escobar Basavilbaso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las divisiones territoriales del trabajo coexistentes en las ciudades pueden ser estudiadas como un circuito superior y un circuito inferior de la economía. El objetivo de este trabajo es comprender la convivencia de dichos circuitos en el barrio de Liniers (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires para analizar los rasgos que toma el circuito inferior y en particular, el comercio étnico boliviano. Las características del medio construido de Liniers y su situación de encrucijada y nudo del transporte de pasajeros lo convierten en un distrito comercial privilegiado con un enorme y fluido mercado. Sobresale allí el circuito inferior y en particular el comercio étnico boliviano. Para tal fin hemos utilizado estrategias cualitativas, tales como recorridos de visu, entrevistas a comerciantes argentinos y bolivianos.

  15. Cougar space use and movements in the wildland-urban landscape of western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertson, B.N.; Spencer, R.D.; Marzluff, J.M.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, J.; Grue, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface lies at the confluence of human-dominated and wild landscapes, creating a number of management and conservation challenges. Because wildlife ecology, behavior, and evolution at this interface are shaped by both natural and human phenomena, this requires greater understanding of how diverse factors affect ecosystem and population processes. We illustrate the challenge of understanding and managing a frequent and often undesired inhabitant of the wildland-urban landscape, the cougar (Puma concolor). In wildland and residential areas of western Washington State, USA, we captured and radiotracked 27 cougars to model space use and understand the role of landscape features in interactions (sightings, encounters, and depredations) between cougars and humans. Resource utilization functions (RUFs) identified cougar use of areas with features that were probably attractive to prey, influential on prey vulnerability, and associated with limited or no residential development. Early-successional forest (+), conifer forest (+), distance to road (-), residential density (-), and elevation (-) were significant positive and negative predictors of use for the population, whereas use of other landscape features was highly variable. Space use and movement rates in wildland and residential areas were similar because cougars used wildland-like forest patches, reserves, and corridors in residential portions of their home range. The population RUF was a good predictor of confirmed cougar interactions, with 72% of confirmed reports occurring in the 50% of the landscape predicted to be medium-high and high cougar use areas. We believe that there is a threshold residential density at which the level of development modifies the habitat but maintains enough wildland characteristics to encourage moderate levels of cougar use and maximize the probability of interaction. Wildlife managers trying to reduce interactions between cougars and people should incorporate

  16. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sharleen T.; Arsznov, Bradley M.; Hristova, Ani E.; Yoon, Elise J.; Lundrigan, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls (n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC volumes

  17. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  18. Factors governing risk of cougar attacks on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David; Logan, Kenneth; Sweanor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s wildlife managers in the United States and Canada have expressed increasing concern about the physical threat posed by cougars (Puma concolor) to humans. We developed a conceptual framework and analyzed 386 human–cougar encounters (29 fatal attacks, 171 instances of nonfatal contact, and 186 close-threatening encounters) to provide information relevant to public safety. We conceived of human injury and death as the outcome of 4 transitions affected by different suites of factors: (1) a human encountering a cougar: (2) given an encounter, odds that the cougar would be aggressive; (3) given aggression, odds that the cougar would attack; and (4) given an attack, odds that the human would die. We developed multivariable logistic regression models to explain variation in odds at transitions three and four using variables pertaining to characteristics of involved people and cougars. Young (≤ 2.5 years) or unhealthy (by weight, condition, or disease) cougars were more likely than any others to be involved in close (typically females were more likely than males to attack, and of attacking animals, adults were more likely than juveniles to kill the victim (32% versus 9% fatality, respectively). During close encounters, victims who used a weapon killed the involved cougar in 82% of cases. Other mitigating behaviors (e.g., yelling, backing away, throwing objects, increasing stature) also substantially lessened odds of attack. People who were moving quickly or erratically when an encounter happened (running, playing, skiing, snowshoeing, biking, ATV-riding) were more likely to be attacked and killed compared to people who were less active (25% versus 8% fatality). Children (≤ 10 years) were more likely than single adults to be attacked, but intervention by people of any age reduced odds of a child’s death by 4.6×. Overall, cougar attacks on people in Canada and the United States were rare (currently 4 to 6/year) compared to attacks by large felids and

  19. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  20. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  1. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. Morrison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cougar (Puma concolor observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges. Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection

  2. Espacios rurales y sociedades campesinas de una región andina

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Lejos de ser homogéneo, el espacio rural boliviano comprende una gran diversidad de paisajes agrarios y de economías agrícolas. En este conjunto, las sociedades campesinas quechuas de la región de Cochabamba ocupan un lugar específico, tanto por su origen sociohistórico como por su economía rural. Las transformaciones económicas, políticas y sociales que han afectado al espacio rural boliviano a partir de los años cincuenta, fueron especialmente intensas en los valles de Cochabamba. Son ejemp...

  3. ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA EM CONDIÇÕES DE IRRIGAÇÃO SUPLEMENTAR E SEU EFEITO NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) NO PLANALTO DA BOLÍVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Miranda Casas

    2012-01-01

    A quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) é um grão andino, com elevado valor proteico (14%), sendo um dos principais cultivos que geram rendas para os agricultores do Planalto Boliviano. A cultura desenvolve-se em condições de baixa temperatura, precipitação pluvial e fertilidade e, embora tenha um bom desenvolvimento em condições com limitações ambientais e de solo, os rendimentos usualmente observados no Planalto Boliviano são baixos. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividad...

  4. Identidades de diáspora a través de la danza folclórica: Un estudio ciberantropológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Sigl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explora el discurso sobre las danzas folclóricas bolivianas desde la perspectiva de diáspora tal como se presenta en la Web 2.0 y a través de ella. Metodológicamente se trata de un estudio ciberantropológico que investiga las implicaciones que tiene la danza folclórica no solo para los migrantes bolivianos y sus descendientes sino también para bailarines no bolivianos, y se enfoca especialmente en cuestiones de identidad y etnicidad.

  5. Inserción de la inmigración boliviana en la actividad hortícola del Departamento Lules (Tucumán, Argentina a mediados de la década de los noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Rivas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración de trabajadores agrícolas de origen boliviano hacia el departamento Lules ha pasado de ser una inmigración temporal inscrita en circuitos que les llevaban a trabajar en diferentes provincias de la República, a otra de carácter permanente, ligada a la horticultura; el paso de obrero golondrina a productor hortícola ha sido posible por las peculiares condiciones por las que atravesaba la horticultura luleña en la década de los ochenta, y ha traído consigo la conversión en arrendatarios, y aún en propietarios, de una fracción de los antiguos braceros bolivianos. Pero la presencia de horticultores bolivianos no se limita a Lules, sino que, desde la década de los noventa, están produciendo hortalizas en Vipos, al norte de Tucumán, reproduciendo las estrategias productivas previamente puestas en práctica en Lules. El análisis tanto de estas corrientes migratorias de bolivianos hacia Lules, como el estado del proceso de su inserción en la estructura productiva del departamento a mediados de los noventa, se resuelven como el objetivo de la presente investigación.

  6. Boliivia kihutab vaesuse pärast võõrad gaasifirmad riigist välja / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Boliivia president Evo Morales teatas 1. mail otsusest võtta gaasitööstus riigi kontrolli alla: Boliivias gaasi tootvad välisfirmad peavad kuue kuu jooksul loovutama kontrolli tootmise üle riiklikule energiafirmale Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos. Kaart: Boliivia energiatüli

  7. Investment opportunities with YPFB capitalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, F. [Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, La Paz (Bolivia)

    1996-10-01

    Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors` incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development.

  8. A new UV-curing elastomeric substrate for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping in the design cycle of new microfluidic devices is very important for shortening time-to-market. Researchers are facing the challenge to explore new and suitable substrates with simple and efficient microfabrication techniques. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a UV-curing elastomeric polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. The swelling and solubility of PUMA in different chemicals is determined. Time-dependent measurements of water contact angle show that the native PUMA is hydrophilic without surface treatment. The current monitoring method is used for measurement of the electroosmotic flow mobility in the microchannels made from PUMA. The optical, physical, thermal and mechanical properties of PUMA are evaluated. The UV-lithography and molding process is used for making micropillars and deep channel microfluidic structures integrated to the supporting base layer. Spin coating is characterized for producing different layer thicknesses of PUMA resin. A device is fabricated and tested for examining the strength of different bonding techniques such as conformal, corona treating and semi-curing of two PUMA layers in microfluidic application and the results show that the bonding strengths are comparable to that of PDMS. We also report fabrication and testing of a three-layer multi inlet/outlet microfluidic device including a very effective fluidic interconnect for application demonstration of PUMA as a promising new substrate. A simple micro-device is developed and employed for observing the pressure deflection of membrane made from PUMA as a very effective elastomeric valve in microfluidic devices.

  9. Mercury contamination in Florida panthers [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a result of the death of an apparently healthy, radio-collared female Florida panther (Felis concolor qoryi) (FP#27) in Everglades National Park in July 1989, we...

  10. 无量山大寨子黑长臂猿一夫二妻制的群体结构及其行为学原因%Polygynous Mating System and Behavioural Reason of Black Crested Gibbon ( Nomascus concolor jingdongensis ) at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范朋飞; 蒋学龙; 刘长铭; 罗文寿

    2006-01-01

    The field research on five black crested gibbon groups, recently performed at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang,Central Yunnan, China, showed that all groups in the local population consisted of one adult male, two adult females and2 - 5 sub-adults, juveniles and infants. The mean group size was 6.2 in August 2003 and 6.4 in August 2005. Two subadult males disappeared from their natal home range and three newborns were given birth in Group 3 (G3) and G4 during this study. The two adult females in G1, G2 and G3 gave births and/or carried babies but at different times. There was no aggressive or dominating behaviour observed between the two adult females. One floating female was first seen in G3's territory on April 15, 2005. The two resident females interrupted her duet with adult male and chased her. We did not observe adult male chased this floating female and she left G3's territory 10 days later. Sub-adult males often kept distance with the family, and they often sang solo bouts in their natal territory before they dispersed. The sub-adult males and females dispersed from natal territory and two adult resident females rejected the third one, which might were the reasons why the black gibbon groups were polygyny in Dazhaizi.%2003年8月-2005年8月,对无量山大寨子5个黑长臂猿群体的结构和组成进行了观察.当一个群体在早晨鸣叫或依次通过树冠时,记录群体的结构和组成.每个群体都由1个成年雄性、2个成年雌性及其后代组成.2003年8月平均群体大小为6.2只;到2005年8月,平均群体大小发展为6.4只,其中有2个亚成年雄性从出生群迁出,且有3只幼猿出生.在3个群体(G1、G2和G3)中两个成年雌性都成功繁殖了后代.同一群体内两个成年雌性间无攻击或等级行为.2005年4月15日,当一只亚成年雌性进入G3的领域后,两只成年雌性对其进行追逐驱赶,并且干扰其与成年雄性配合进行二重唱,成年雄性没有直接驱赶流浪的亚成年雌性,10天后这只亚成年雌性离开了G3的领域.亚成年雄性经常与群体其他成员保持一定距离,并且在出生地通过独唱练习鸣叫.黑长臂猿可能通过亚成年雄性和雌性的迁出,及成年雌性对外来流浪雌性的驱赶维持这种一夫二妻的群体结构.

  11. A Tool for Creating and Parallelizing Bioinformatics Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    well as that are incorporated into InterPro (Mulder, et al., 2005). other users’ work. PUMA2 ( Maltsev , et al., 2006) incorporates more than 20 0-7695...pipeline for protocol-based bioinformatics analysis." Genome Res., 13(8), pp. 1904-1915, 2003. Maltsev , N. and E. Glass, et al., "PUMA2--grid-based 4

  12. ErbB4 Overexpression as an Antagonist of ErbB2/HER2/Neu Induced Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    BH3-only proteins, including BID, BIM, BIK, HRK, NOXA , and PUMA, share a single BH3 domain that is essential for cell-killing activity. They are...BH3-only proteins, including BIM, HRK, BBC3, NOXA , and PUMA, are transcriptionally regulated, whereas the apoptotic activities of BID, BAD, and BIK

  13. Anopheles (Anopheles) Lesteri Biases and Hu (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    Anopheles) anthropoplwglts: Ma 1981: 1I (key; distribution, China: Fukien. Kiangsi. Kiangsu. Kwangsi. Kweichow. Shanghai. provinces south of Yantze River ...lowing: Taina Litwak for her illustrations; Bel Rueda, Buddy Buenavista. Lerma Bue- navista. Benjie Puma. and Modesta Coro- nado-Puma for their help in

  14. en el ordenamiento jurídico interno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rivera Santiváez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza los diferentes efectos que producen las sentencias constitucionales, tanto en cuanto a las autoridades y personas a quienes se aplica, como en cuanto a su aplicación en el tiempo, acudiendo para el efecto a la doctrina del Derecho Procesal Constitucional, las normas del ordenamiento jurídico interno de los Estados, así como la jurisprudencia constitucional, haciendo énfasis en el sistema constitucional boliviano.

  15. Transitioning the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) to Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    foundation to explore the molecular mechanisms of acclimatization and its retention. Citation: Subudhi AW, Bourdillon N, Bucher J, Davis C, Elliott JE...acclimatiza- tion and its retention. These might include physiological responses that we did not measure, or molecular and cellular responses in a...the following people and organizations were key to our success: Marcelino Gonzales and Enrique Vargas, Instituto Biologia de Boliviano Human

  16. Analisis de la microbiota en suelos cultivados del Altiplano central

    OpenAIRE

    Sivila, R.; Hervé, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    Se estudio la poblacion microbina en una rotacion de cultivos con descanso, comun en el Altiplano Central boliviano. Se determino la presencia y densidad de cuatro grupos taxonomicos de microorganismos: bacterias; hongos, actinomicetos y esporas de las micorrizas arbusculares en el suelo rizosferico de cuatro cultivos de la rotacion (papa, quinua, cebada y avena); en las principales especies silvestres perennes (#Stipa ichu, Festuca dolichophylla, Baccharis incarum$) que colonizan las parcela...

  17. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm

  18. Respiratory adaptations to oxygen lack in three species of Glossiphoniidae (Hirudinea) in Lake Esrom, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohle, B. D.; Hamburger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The weight-specific respiration rate (µl O2 mg-1 AFDW h-1) of three species of leech from Lake Esrom, Denmark, Glossiphonia concolor, G. complanata and Helobdella stagnalis was measured in a closed stirred chamber with a micro electrode. At declining oxygen concentration (mg O2 l-1) all three...... species expressed moderate ability to regulate respiration, in G. concolor and G. complanata down to 2 mg O2 l-1, in H. stagnalis down to 0.75 mg O2 l-1. Survival in anoxia was measured in closed bottles. The time to 50% survival (LD50) was 30 days in G. concolor at 20 °C and 30 and 4 days in H. stagnalis...

  19. The role of integrated databases in microbial genome sequence analysis and metabolic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaasterland, T., Maltsev, N., Overbeek, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States), Mathematics and Computer Science Division

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the PUMA system which provides access to data about metabolic pathways, enzymes, compounds, organisms, encoded activity, and assay condition information for enzymes in particular organisms and multiple sequence alignments.

  20. Toidupoolis Säästumarketist, riided Kreisimarketist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    2005. a. alguses tekkis Eestisse uus riiete säästukauplus, kus müüakse tuntud kaubamärkide nagu Puma, Nike, Adidas jt. tooteid umbes poole odavamalt kui tavakauplustes. Vt. samas: Hinnapommi juhtum