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Sample records for boliviano puma concolor

  1. Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica Genetic characterization of the Bolivian Andean puma (Puma concolor at the Sajama National Park (SNP and relationships with other north-western South American puma populations

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    MANUEL RUIZ-GARCÍA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron originalmente 25 muestras fecales de puma andino boliviano para proceder a su extracción de ADN. De esas 25 muestras, se detectaron cinco pumas diferentes que, junto, a tres de pieles de animales cazados, completaron un total de ocho pumas andinos bolivianos analizados. Igualmente se analizaron 45 muestras de ADN procedentes de pumas silvestres de Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela y Amazonia occidental brasileña obtenidas a partir de mechones de pelos con bulbo, trocitos de pieles, músculo y dientes. Todas ellas se genotipificaron para siete marcadores microsatélites (Fea 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 y 391. Los niveles de diversidad genética resultaron muy elevados en ambas muestras (H = 0,942 y 0,845; respectivamente, con valores muy superiores a los reportados para pumas norteamericanos. Diversos análisis de asignación poblacional mostraron que los pumas andinos bolivianos no formaron un grupo consistentemente diferente del otro grupo de pumas analizado. Únicamente un marcador, Fea 96, mostró heterogeneidad genética significativa entre ambos grupos. Sin embargo, globalmente, esa heterogeneidad fue extremadamente pequeña (F ST, G ST, R ST. Por el contrario, las estimas de flujo génico entre ambas agrupaciones fueron elevadas para toaos los procedimientos empleados. La estimación del parámetro θ (= 4Neμ mediante el método de máxima verosimilitud de Nielsen (1997 mostró que la muestra boliviana es una extensión indiferenciable de la otra agrupación de pumas de otros países latinoamericanos. Por lo tanto, este estudio aporta resultados concluyentes en favor de un único acervo genético de pumas en el nor-occidente de Sudamérica, en contraste con las tradicionales clasificaciones morfológicas y morfométricas que habían identificado un número considerable de subespecies de puma en esta región de Latinoamérica.Twenty-five Andean Bolivian fecal samples were obtained for extracting DNA. Five different Andean

  2. Fractured genetic connectivity threatens a southern california puma (Puma concolor population.

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    Holly B Ernest

    Full Text Available Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15. We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42 displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257, including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55. Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population.

  3. Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor in a Fragmented, Urbanizing Landscape.

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    T Winston Vickers

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging large carnivores pose myriad challenges for conservation, especially in highly fragmented landscapes. Over a 13-year period, we combined monitoring of radio collared pumas (Puma concolor with complementary multi-generational genetic analyses to inform puma conservation in southern California, USA. Our goals were to generate survivorship estimates, determine causes of mortality, identify barriers to movement, and determine the genetic and demographic challenges to puma persistence among >20,000,000 people and extensive urban, suburban, and exurban development. Despite protection from hunting, annual survival for radio collared pumas was surprisingly low (55.8%, and humans caused the majority of puma deaths. The most common sources of mortality were vehicle collisions (28% of deaths, and mortalities resulting from depredation permits issued after pumas killed domestic animals (17% of deaths. Other human-caused mortalities included illegal shootings, public safety removals, and human-caused wildfire. An interstate highway (I-15 bisecting this study area, and associated development, have created a nearly impermeable barrier to puma movements, resulting in severe genetic restriction and demographic isolation of the small puma population (n ~ 17-27 adults in the Santa Ana Mountains west of I-15. Highways that bisect habitat or divide remaining "conserved" habitat, and associated ongoing development, threaten to further subdivide this already fragmented puma population and increase threats to survival. This study highlights the importance of combining demographic and genetic analyses, and illustrates that in the absence of effective measures to reduce mortality and enhance safe movement across highways, translocation of pumas, such as was done with the endangered Florida panther (P. c. coryi, may ultimately be necessary to prevent further genetic decline and ensure persistence of the Santa Ana Mountains population.

  4. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  5. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

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    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  6. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

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    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  7. Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)

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    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Kays, R.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Boyce, W.M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  8. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet

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    Cassaigne, Ivonne; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie; Ochoa, Alexander; Vargas, Karla; Childs, Jack L.; Sanderson, Jim; List, Rurik; Torres-Gomez, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We documented puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) prey consumption in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, by investigating global positioning system cluster sites (n = 220), and conducting molecular analyses of scat (n = 116) collected between 2011 and 2013. We used camera trap data (n = 8,976 camera days) to estimate relative abundances of pumas and jaguars. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was the most frequent prey for puma found at kill sites (67%) and identified from scat (74%), although based on relative numbers of prey consumed, deer represented 45% and lagomorphs 20% of the proportion of all individuals eaten. A variety of small prey (weighing Sonora.

  9. Filogeografia de Puma concolor (CARNIVORA, FELIDAE) na América do Sul

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    Eunice Moara Matte

    2012-01-01

    O felino Puma concolor, também conhecido por puma entre tantos outros nomes, é uma espécie de ampla distribuição no continente americano e está entre as 10 espécies de felídeos existentes na região Neotropical. Sua ampla distribuição e a história geológica das diferentes regiões ocupadas pela espécie ao longo de sua evolução agem diretamente na sua história evolutiva e demográfica. E muito do que aconteceu com a espécie, como expansões ou drásticas reduções demográficas, isolamento geográfico...

  10. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor) (Mammalia, Felidae)

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    Matte, Eunice M.; Castilho, Camila S.; Miotto, Renata A.; Sana, Denis A.; Johnson, Warren E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species’ molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America. PMID:24385863

  11. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

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    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  12. Hábitos alimentarios del Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia

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    Andrés Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La dieta de Puma concolor es ampliamente conocida a lo largo de su distribución, sin embargo, en Colombia no se ha realizado ningún estudio sobre sus hábitos alimentarios. Entre 2007-2009, la dieta de puma fue analizada en el Parque-Nacional-Natural-Puracé, sur occidente de los Andes colombianos. Ítems alimenticios de cinco especies presa fueron identificadas en su dieta; el venado conejo (Pudu mephistophiles es la presa más importante. Como herramienta complementaria para la identificación de huesos y pelos contenidos en heces (n=60, se instalaron seis cámarastrampa en lugares estratégicos, para registrar la presencia de pumas y presas potenciales. El descubrimiento de la dependencia de los pumas con el pudú sugiere una única adaptación de los pumas de paramo a la disponibilidad de presas y resalta su importancia como reguladores de las poblaciones presa. Estos resultados contribuyen a incrementar el poco conocimiento sobre la ecología de pumas de los Andes, de sus presas y de las especies en su conjunto en Colombia. Obtener información sobre el grupo de presas de pumas en diferentes ecosistemas, es esencial para entender los requerimientos regionales para su supervivencia y diseñar acciones de conservación que permitan seguir/evaluar las necesidades particulares de áreas protegidas en toda su distribución.Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé,Colombia. Neotropical puma (Puma concolor diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for

  13. Genetic variability of Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Panthera onca (Mammalia, Felidae studied using Felis catus microsatellites

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    Vanessa Roma Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used four microsatellite loci (Fca08, Fca45, Fca77 and Fca96 from the domestic cat, Felis catus, to investigate genetic variability in specimens of Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat, eyra, Puma concolor (cougar, mountain lion, puma and Panthera onca (jaguar held in various Brazilian zoos. Samples of DNA from the cats were PCR amplified and then sequenced before being analyzed using the CERVUS program. Our results show a mean polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.83 for H. yagouaroundi, 0.66 for P. concolor and 0.69 for P. onca and a mean of 10.3 alleles for the Fca08 locus, 5.3 for Fca 45, 9 for Fca 77 and 14 for Fca 96. These results indicate a relatively high level of genetic diversity for the specimens studied.

  14. Hábitos alimentarios del Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia

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    Andrés Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La dieta de Puma concolor es ampliamente conocida a lo largo de su distribución, sin embargo, en Colombia no se ha realizado ningún estudio sobre sus hábitos alimentarios. Entre 2007-2009, la dieta de puma fue analizada en el Parque-Nacional-Natural-Puracé, sur occidente de los Andes colombianos. Ítems alimenticios de cinco especies presa fueron identificadas en su dieta; el venado conejo (Pudu mephistophiles es la presa más importante. Como herramienta complementaria para la identificación de huesos y pelos contenidos en heces (n=60, se instalaron seis cámarastrampa en lugares estratégicos, para registrar la presencia de pumas y presas potenciales. El descubrimiento de la dependencia de los pumas con el pudú sugiere una única adaptación de los pumas de paramo a la disponibilidad de presas y resalta su importancia como reguladores de las poblaciones presa. Estos resultados contribuyen a incrementar el poco conocimiento sobre la ecología de pumas de los Andes, de sus presas y de las especies en su conjunto en Colombia. Obtener información sobre el grupo de presas de pumas en diferentes ecosistemas, es esencial para entender los requerimientos regionales para su supervivencia y diseñar acciones de conservación que permitan seguir/evaluar las necesidades particulares de áreas protegidas en toda su distribución.

  15. Feline infectious peritonitis in a mountain lion (Puma concolor), California, USA.

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    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pamela; Moeller, Robert B; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated vasculitis of felids caused by a mutant form of a common feline enteric virus, feline enteric coronavirus. The virus can attack many organ systems and causes a broad range of signs, commonly including weight loss and fever. Regardless of presentation, FIP is ultimately fatal and often presents a diagnostic challenge. In May 2010, a malnourished young adult male mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Kern County, California, USA was euthanized because of concern for public safety, and a postmortem examination was performed. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing, multifocal myocarditis; necrotizing, neutrophilic, and histiocytic myositis and vasculitis of the tunica muscularis layer of the small and large intestines; and embolic, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Feline coronavirus antigen was detected in both the heart and intestinal tissue by immunohistochemistry. A PCR for coronavirus performed on kidney tissue was positive, confirming a diagnosis of FIP. Although coronavirus infection has been documented in mountain lions by serology, this is the first confirmed report of FIP.

  16. Eletrocardiografia em onças-pardas (Puma concolor anestesiadas com sevoflurano ou isoflurano

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    A.R. Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os achados eletrocardiográficos de 11 onças- pardas (Puma concolor. Os animais foram sedados com 0,15mg/kg de detomidina associado a 5mg/kg de cetamina e mantidos anestesiados com sevoflurano (GSEVO, n=6 ou isoflurano (GISO, n=5. A frequência cardíaca foi de 95 ± 13bpm. As alterações observadas nos animais no GSEVO foram: atrial standtill com condução ventricular, episódios isolados de contração ventricular prematura, bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau, diminuição da amplitude do complexo QRS, onda S profunda e aumento da amplitude da onda T. No grupo GISO, observou-se bloqueio de ramo direito do feixe de His, bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau e aumento da amplitude da onda T. Arritmias não puderam ser associadas ao uso dos anestésicos inalatórios devido à não sensibilização do miocárdio às catecolaminas. Achados como o BAV de primeiro grau pode ter ocorrido devido ao uso de agonistas α-2 adrenérgicos. Este estudo aumentou o conhecimento sobre as alterações eletrocardiográficas em onças-pardas anestesiadas, entretanto mais estudos são necessários para correlacionar estes achados ao uso de agentes anestésicos.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca, Pumas (Puma concolor, and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

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    Claudia Wultsch

    Full Text Available With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis. We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09, followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16, and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08. We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes.

  18. Pride diaries: sex, brain size and sociality in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor).

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    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in social life histories correspond to intraspecific variation in total or regional brain volumes in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor). African lions live in gregarious prides usually consisting of related adult females, their dependent offspring, and a coalition of immigrant males. Upon reaching maturity, male lions enter a nomadic and often, solitary phase in their lives, whereas females are mainly philopatric and highly social throughout their lives. In contrast, the social life history does not differ between male and female cougars; both are solitary. Three-dimensional virtual endocasts were created using computed tomography from the skulls of 14 adult African lions (8 male, 6 female) and 14 cougars (7 male, 7 female). Endocranial volume and basal skull length were highly correlated in African lions (r = 0.59, p African lions or cougars. However, relative anterior cerebrum volume comprised primarily of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly greater in female African lions than males, while relative posterior cerebrum volume and surface area was greater in males than females. These differences were specific to the neocortex and were not found in the solitary cougar, suggesting that social life history is linked to sex-specific neocortical patterns in these species. We further hypothesize that increased frontal cortical volume in female lions is related to the need for greater inhibitory control in the presence of a dominant male aggressor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Parámetros genético poblacionales en seis especies de Felidae neotropicales ( Leopardus tigrina, L. wiedii, L. pardalis, Herpailurus jagouroundi, Puma concolor y Pantera onca

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    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 196 muestras pertenecientes a 68 Leopardus pardalis (Ocelote; Colombia, Perú, a12 L. wiedi (Margay; Colombia y Bolivia, a 24 L. tigrinus (Tigrillo; Colombia, a 16 Herpailurus jagouroundi (yagouroundi; Colombia, Venezuela, Brasil a 50 Puma concolor (Puma; Colombia, Perú, Bolivia y a 24 Panthera onca (Jaguar; Colombia con 6 marcadores microsatélites diferentes (FCA08, FCA43, FCA45, FCA90, FCA96 y FCA126. Los resultados y conclusiones más obvias fueron las siguientes: (1 Para la mayoría de esas especies no se dio equilibrio Hardy- Weinberg cuando se analizaron individuos de localidades diferentes por exceso de homocigotos. Probablemente, el efecto Wahlund es responsable de ese hecho.

  20. Genética e conservação do leão-baio (Puma concolor) no sul do Brasil

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    Camila Schlieper de Castilho

    2010-01-01

    O leão-baio (Puma concolor), segundo maior felino neotropical, tem a maior distribuição geográfica nas Américas. A subespécie que ocorre no sul do Brasil é listada como least concern e vulnerável nas listas de espécies ameaçadas da IUCN e do Ministério do Meio Ambiente brasileiro, respectivamente. Em áreas nas quais a onça-pintada (Panthera onca) foi localmente extinta, o leão-baio tem o papel de predador de topo de cadeia alimentar influenciando na manutenção de processos do ecossistema e na...

  1. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

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    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF APPENDICULAR LONG-BONE FRACTURES IN FREE-RANGING FLORIDA PANTHERS ( PUMA CONCOLOR CORYI): SIX CASES (2000-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au Yong, Jo Anne; Lewis, Daniel D; Citino, Scott B; Cunningham, Mark W; Cross, Alan R; Farese, James P; Pablo, Luisito S

    2018-03-01

    The clinical outcomes of six free-ranging Florida panthers ( Puma concolor coryi) that underwent surgical stabilization of appendicular long-bone fractures (three femoral fractures, one tibial and one tibial and fibular fracture and two radial and ulnar fractures) were evaluated. These panthers presented to the University of Florida from 2000-2014. Estimated age of the panthers ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 yr, and weights ranged from 22 to 65 kg. Causes of injuries were vehicular collision ( n = 4) and capture related ( n = 2). All panthers underwent open reduction and fracture stabilization. Fixation failure necessitated three subsequent surgeries in one panther. Five panthers survived the immediate postoperative period, and all of these panthers' fractures obtained radiographic union (range, 8-36 [mean, 22] wk). The five surviving panthers underwent convalescence for 7-14 mo at White Oak Conservation Center before being released back into the wild; however, one panther was killed when hit by a car 3 days after release. The remaining four panthers were tracked for up to 106 mo in the wild and successfully integrated back into the native population. Surgical stabilization of appendicular long-bone fractures in free-ranging Florida panthers can be successful, but must take into account the stress that a large, undomesticated felid will place on the stabilized limb during convalescence as well as the difficulties involved in rehabilitating a wild panther in captivity.

  3. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary parameters and recovery from anesthesia in cougars (Puma concolor anesthetized with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica B. Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the cardiopulmonary effects, the onset time after the administration of a detomidine/ketamine combination, and the recovery from anesthesia of cougars (Puma concolor anesthetized with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane for abdominal ultrasound imaging. Fourteen animals were randomly allocated into two experimental groups: GISO (n=7 and GSEVO (n=7. Chemical restraint was performed using 0.15mg/kg detomidine combined with 5mg/kg ketamine intramuscularly; anesthesia induction was achieved using 2mg/kg propofol intravenously and maintenance with isoflurane (GISO or sevoflurane (GSEVO. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, rectal temperature, central venous pressure, and end-tidal carbon dioxide. The time to sternal recumbency (TSR and time to standing position (TSP were also determined. There was not statistically significant difference for the cardiopulmonary variables or TSP whereas TSR was significantly shorter in GSEVO. The time to onset of anesthesia was 11.1±1.2 minutes and 11.3±1.8 minutes for GISO and GSEVO, respectively. The anesthesia of cougars with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane was conducted with safety, cardiopulmonary stability, and increased time to sternal recumbency in the GISO group.

  4. Ecologia e conservação da onça parda (Puma concolor Linnaeus, 1771) no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD) e entorno do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB), Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, João Bosco Gonçalves de

    2009-01-01

    Com a crescente fragmentação da Mata Atlântica, maior bioma brasileiro ameaçado, o entendimento do comportamento de espécies-chave de grande porte como a onça parda (Puma concolor), torna-se importante para elaboração de estratégias de conservação. Neste sentido, os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar o status de conservação da espécie e de outros felinos de maior porte na região sul do Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD), Marliéria-MG; acompanhamento por técnica de rádio telemetria, de exemp...

  5. A new panel of SNP markers for the individual identification of North American pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitak, Robert R.; Naidu, Ashwin; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Pumas Puma concolor are one of the most studied terrestrial carnivores because of their widespread distribution, substantial ecological impacts, and conflicts with humans. Over the past decade, managing pumas has involved extensive efforts including the use of genetic methods. Microsatellites have been the most commonly used genetic markers; however, technical artifacts and little overlap of frequently used loci render large-scale comparison of puma genetic data across studies challenging. Therefore, a panel of genetic markers that can produce consistent genotypes across studies without the need for extensive calibrations is essential for range-wide genetic management of puma populations. Here, we describe the development of PumaPlex, a high-throughput assay to genotype 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pumas. We validated PumaPlex in 748 North American pumas Puma concolor couguar, and demonstrated its ability to generate reproducible genotypes and accurately identify individuals. Furthermore, in a test using fecal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples, we found that PumaPlex produced significantly more genotypes with fewer errors than 12 microsatellite loci, 8 of which are commonly used. Our results demonstrate that PumaPlex is a valuable tool for the genetic monitoring and management of North American puma populations. Given the analytical simplicity, reproducibility, and high-throughput capability of single nucleotide polymorphisms, PumaPlex provides a standard panel of markers that promotes the comparison of genotypes across studies and independent of the genotyping technology used.

  6. Food habits of pumas in northwestern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Valdez, R.; Bender, L.C.; Daniel, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is questionable whether food-habits studies of pumas conducted in the southwestern United States can be extrapolated to northwestern Mexico, because of differences in management, distribution, and abundance of wildlife. We determined food habits of pumas (Puma concolor) in the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Based on studies in the western United States, we hypothesized that desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the major food source of pumas in Sonoran Desert habitats of Mexico. The study area supports populations of desert mule deer, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), lagomorphs (Lepus spp. and Sylvilagus audubonii), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and the largest population (???300 individuals) of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Sonora. Based on pugmark characteristics, we recorded 3 different adult resident pumas in approximately 90 km2. We analyzed 60 puma fecal samples collected September 1996-November 1998. Primary prey items based on frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumed were desert bighorn sheep (40% and 45%, respectively), lagomorphs (33%, 19%), deer (17%, 17%), and collared peccary (15%, 11%). The high percentage of desert bighorn sheep in puma diets may be due to high abundance relative to mule deer, which declined in number during our study. No differences were found in puma diets between seasons (??22=2.4526, P=0.2934). Fluctuations in mule deer populations in northwestern Sonora may influence prey selection by pumas.

  7. Nuisance ecology: do scavenging condors exact foraging costs on pumas in Patagonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor), in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1) Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2) If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3) Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma "giving up times" (GUTs) across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas.

  8. Hábito alimentar e interferência antrópica na atividade de marcação territorial do Puma concolor e Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae e outros carnívoros na Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo, Brasil Food habits and anthropic interference on the territorial marking activity of Puma concolor and Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae and other carnivores in the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hábitos alimentares da onça-parda, jaguatirica e outros carnívoros foram estudados na Juréia (80.000 ha, um dos maiores remanescentes de Mata Atlântica do estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi baseado na análise de fezes encontradas durante um período de amostragem de 15 meses e 415 km percorridos. A diversidade de presas encontradas nas fezes foi alta para ambos os felinos, tendo como presas mais importantes da onça-parda em freqüência de ocorrência e biomassa, o cateto e o tatu-de-rabo-mole, e marsupiais na dieta da jaguatirica. Maior freqüência de fezes de carnívoros foi encontrada distante das casas de moradores tradicionais, sugerindo um comportamento territorial evitando a proximidade da presença humana.Food habits of puma, ocelot and other carnivores were studied in Juréia (80.000 ha, one of the largest remnants of Atlantic forest of the state of São Paulo. The study was based on the analysis of scats found during a sampling period of 15 months and 415 km traversed. The diversity of prey found was high for both felines, with higher frequency and estimated biomass of collared peccary and the greater naked-tailed armadillo in the diet of the puma, and marsupials in the diet of the ocelot. The highest frequency of carnivore scats was found distant from traditional households, suggesting avoidance behavior towards human presence.

  9. Table scraps: inter-trophic food provisioning by pumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2012-10-23

    Large carnivores perform keystone ecological functions through direct predation, or indirectly, through food subsidies to scavengers or trophic cascades driven by their influence on the distributions of their prey. Pumas (Puma concolor) are an elusive, cryptic species difficult to study and little is known about their inter-trophic-level interactions in natural communities. Using new GPS technology, we discovered that pumas in Patagonia provided 232 ± 31 kg of edible meat/month/100 km(2) to near-threatened Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and other members of a diverse scavenger community. This is up to 3.1 times the contributions by wolves (Canis lupus) to communities in Yellowstone National Park, USA, and highlights the keystone role large, solitary felids play in natural systems. These findings are more pertinent than ever, for managers increasingly advocate controlling pumas and other large felids to bolster prey populations and mitigate concerns over human and livestock safety, without a full understanding of the potential ecological consequences of their actions.

  10. Interfacing models of wildlife habitat and human development to predict the future distribution of puma habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Christopher L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Theobald, David M.; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of human land uses on ecological systems typically differ relative to how extensively natural conditions are modified. Exurban development is intermediate-intensity residential development that often occurs in natural landscapes. Most species-habitat models do not evaluate the effects of such intermediate levels of human development and even fewer predict how future development patterns might affect the amount and configuration of habitat. We addressed these deficiencies by interfacing a habitat model with a spatially-explicit housing-density model to study the effect of human land uses on the habitat of pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California. We studied the response of pumas to natural and anthropogenic features within their home ranges and how mortality risk varied across a gradient of human development. We also used our housing-density model to estimate past and future housing densities and model the distribution of puma habitat in 1970, 2000, and 2030. The natural landscape for pumas in our study area consisted of riparian areas, oak woodlands, and open, conifer forests embedded in a chaparral matrix. Pumas rarely incorporated suburban or urban development into their home ranges, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the behavioral decisions of individuals can be collectively manifested as population-limiting factors at broader spatial scales. Pumas incorporated rural and exurban development into their home ranges, apparently perceiving these areas as modified, rather than non-habitat. Overall, pumas used exurban areas less than expected and showed a neutral response to rural areas. However, individual pumas that selected for or showed a neutral response to exurban areas had a higher risk of mortality than pumas that selected against exurban habitat. Exurban areas are likely hotspots for puma-human conflict in southern California. Approximately 10% of our study area will transform from exurban, rural, or undeveloped areas to suburban or

  11. Harwell hardens Staeubli Puma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Remote Handling and Robotics Department at Harwell, has argued that it ought to be possible to combine all the advantages of the industrial robot - its off-the-shelf availability, low cost and high reliability - with the specific requirements of the nuclear industry, by subjecting an industrial robot to a programme of ''nuclear engineering''. After a careful evaluation, they selected the Staubli Unimation Puma 760 robot as the first candidate for this programme. Three years, and several Pound 100,000s later, they have launched on the market the world's first Nuclear Engineered Advanced Telerobot, or NEATER, as it is called. The device is manufactured by Staubli Unimation, to the same mechanical and QA standards as a standard PUMA, but with all the non-metallic components replaced by radiation tolerant materials. These were chosen by Harwell, after extensive radiation testing and design work, to ensure that the whole robot can tolerate up to 100 MRads - i.e. the highest radiation dose that a robot is likely to experience in a normal nuclear facility. It is controlled, like a normal PUMA, by a VAL 2 industrial robot controller, but this is ''front-ended'' by the Harwell Telerobotic Controller, a PC-based controller, which takes human commands from mechanical ''Input Device'' and translates these into VAL commands, which can then be interpreted by the VAL 2 controller in the normal way. (Author)

  12. Using Species Distribution Models to Predict Potential Landscape Restoration Effects on Puma Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Cintia Camila Silva; Adams-Hosking, Christine; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Souza, Marcelo Pereira; McAlpine, Clive Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic of intact native and human-modified vegetation use can provide important habitat for top predators such as the puma (Puma concolor), avoiding negative effects on other species and ecological processes due to cascade trophic interactions. This study investigates the effects of restoration scenarios on the puma's habitat suitability in the most developed Brazilian region (São Paulo State). Species Distribution Models incorporating restoration scenarios were developed using the species' occurrence information to (1) map habitat suitability of pumas in São Paulo State, Southeast, Brazil; (2) test the relative contribution of environmental variables ecologically relevant to the species habitat suitability and (3) project the predicted habitat suitability to future native vegetation restoration scenarios. The Maximum Entropy algorithm was used (Test AUC of 0.84 ± 0.0228) based on seven environmental non-correlated variables and non-autocorrelated presence-only records (n = 342). The percentage of native vegetation (positive influence), elevation (positive influence) and density of roads (negative influence) were considered the most important environmental variables to the model. Model projections to restoration scenarios reflected the high positive relationship between pumas and native vegetation. These projections identified new high suitability areas for pumas (probability of presence >0.5) in highly deforested regions. High suitability areas were increased from 5.3% to 8.5% of the total State extension when the landscapes were restored for ≥ the minimum native vegetation cover rule (20%) established by the Brazilian Forest Code in private lands. This study highlights the importance of a landscape planning approach to improve the conservation outlook for pumas and other species, including not only the establishment and management of protected areas, but also the habitat restoration on private lands. Importantly, the results may inform environmental

  13. Participatory development of incentives to coexist with jaguars and pumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Ronit; Jacobson, Susan K

    2018-01-22

    Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative, structured, group communication process based on a Delphi technique as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, nongovernmental organizations, and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion. The final product integrated 862 ideas into 6 types of incentives: organization of communities, mechanisms for improved dialogue, citizen technical assistance, green labeling for community products, payment for the ecosystem service of biodiversity, and an assessment of financial alternatives. We used quantitative and qualitative techniques to indicate support for decisions about the design of incentives, which reduced researcher subjectivity. The diverse incentives developed and the cooperation from multiple stakeholders resulted in an incentive plan that integrated issues of governance, equity, and social norms. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. High consumption of primates by pumas and ocelots in a remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Santos

    Full Text Available We studied the diet of the ocelot and puma during the years 2007 and 2008 at the Feliciano Miguel Abdala Reserve, in Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. We collected 49 faecal samples (scats from cats, and identified the species of cat from 23 of them by the analysis of the microstructure patterns of hairs found in their faeces: 17 scats of the puma (Puma concolor and six of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In the puma scats, we identified three species of primates (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Alouatta guariba and Sapajus nigritus, the remains of which were found in eight of 17 collected (47.1%, representing 26.7% of items consumed. For the ocelot, we detected capuchin monkey (S. nigritus remains in three of the six scats (50%, accounting for 18.7% of items consumed by ocelot. We were unable to identify the cat species in the remaining 26 faecal samples, but we were able to analyse the food items present. Primates were found in five of these 26 faeces (19.2% and represented 10.2% of the items found. Although the sample size is limited, our results indicate a relatively high consumption of primates by felines. We believe that this high predation may be the result of the high local density of primates as well as the greater exposure to the risks of predation in fragmented landscapes, which tends to increase the incidence of the primates using the ground.

  15. Energetics and evasion dynamics of large predators and prey: pumas vs. hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Caleb M; Wilmers, Christopher C; Williams, Terrie M

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of fine-scale movement, performance, and energetics of hunting by large carnivores is critical for understanding the physiological underpinnings of trophic interactions. This is particularly challenging for wide-ranging terrestrial canid and felid predators, which can each affect ecosystem structure through distinct hunting modes. To compare free-ranging pursuit and escape performance from group-hunting and solitary predators in unprecedented detail, we calibrated and deployed accelerometer-GPS collars during predator-prey chase sequences using packs of hound dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris , 26 kg, n  = 4-5 per chase) pursuing simultaneously instrumented solitary pumas ( Puma concolor , 60 kg, n  = 2). We then reconstructed chase paths, speed and turning angle profiles, and energy demands for hounds and pumas to examine performance and physiological constraints associated with cursorial and cryptic hunting modes, respectively. Interaction dynamics revealed how pumas successfully utilized terrain (e.g., fleeing up steep, wooded hillsides) as well as evasive maneuvers (e.g., jumping into trees, running in figure-8 patterns) to increase their escape distance from the overall faster hounds (avg. 2.3× faster). These adaptive strategies were essential to evasion in light of the mean 1.6× higher mass-specific energetic costs of the chase for pumas compared to hounds (mean: 0.76 vs. 1.29 kJ kg -1  min -1 , respectively). On an instantaneous basis, escapes were more costly for pumas, requiring exercise at ≥90% of predicted [Formula: see text] and consuming as much energy per minute as approximately 5 min of active hunting. Our results demonstrate the marked investment of energy for evasion by a large, solitary carnivore and the advantage of dynamic maneuvers to postpone being overtaken by group-hunting canids.

  16. Energetics and evasion dynamics of large predators and prey: pumas vs. hounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb M. Bryce

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of fine-scale movement, performance, and energetics of hunting by large carnivores is critical for understanding the physiological underpinnings of trophic interactions. This is particularly challenging for wide-ranging terrestrial canid and felid predators, which can each affect ecosystem structure through distinct hunting modes. To compare free-ranging pursuit and escape performance from group-hunting and solitary predators in unprecedented detail, we calibrated and deployed accelerometer-GPS collars during predator-prey chase sequences using packs of hound dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, 26 kg, n = 4–5 per chase pursuing simultaneously instrumented solitary pumas (Puma concolor, 60 kg, n = 2. We then reconstructed chase paths, speed and turning angle profiles, and energy demands for hounds and pumas to examine performance and physiological constraints associated with cursorial and cryptic hunting modes, respectively. Interaction dynamics revealed how pumas successfully utilized terrain (e.g., fleeing up steep, wooded hillsides as well as evasive maneuvers (e.g., jumping into trees, running in figure-8 patterns to increase their escape distance from the overall faster hounds (avg. 2.3× faster. These adaptive strategies were essential to evasion in light of the mean 1.6× higher mass-specific energetic costs of the chase for pumas compared to hounds (mean: 0.76 vs. 1.29 kJ kg−1 min−1, respectively. On an instantaneous basis, escapes were more costly for pumas, requiring exercise at ≥90% of predicted $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2\\mathrm{MAX}}$ V ̇ O 2 MAX and consuming as much energy per minute as approximately 5 min of active hunting. Our results demonstrate the marked investment of energy for evasion by a large, solitary carnivore and the advantage of dynamic maneuvers to postpone being overtaken by group-hunting canids.

  17. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  18. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  19. Ppr - Puma: a successful acquisition?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Buongiorno; B. Rovetta

    2010-01-01

    The PPR-Puma case explores the issue of evaluating the acquisition of Puma by the PPR group. Starting from the assessment of the business strategy and the analysis of the competitive scenario and firm-specific positioning, the case moves to a sound financial analysis and company valuation to be carried out with the objective to assess the actual value of the target company and the potential synergies to be achieved by the bidder. PPR is a very well-known player in the retail and luxury busine...

  20. "Bolivianos" en la "escuela argentina": representaciones acerca de los hijos de inmigrantes bolivianos en una escuela de la periferia urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Domenech

    Full Text Available Este artículo problematiza la presencia de alumnos identificados como bolivianos en una escuela estatal de nivel primario ubicada en un barrio de la periferia urbana de la capital cordobesa, cuya historia y vida cotidiana están atravesadas por el asentamiento temprano de trabajadores inmigrantes provenientes de distintas regiones de Bolivia. A partir de las observaciones hechas en diversas situaciones escolares y las entrevistas realizadas a los sujetos involucrados en ellas, se analizan las distintas representaciones producidas acerca de los "alumnos bolivianos" en las interacciones cotidianas de la escuela. La evidencia empírica utilizada para elaborar este artículo es producto del trabajo de campo que llevado a cabo, fundamentalmente, en los años 2002-2004 y 2007-2008 en la escuela.

  1. Trophic facilitation or limitation? Comparative effects of pumas and black bears on the scavenger community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2014-01-01

    Scavenging is a widespread behaviour and an important process influencing food webs and ecological communities. Large carnivores facilitate the movement of energy across trophic levels through the scavenging and decomposition of their killed prey, but competition with large carnivores is also likely to constrain acquisition of carrion by scavengers. We used an experimental approach based on motion-triggered video cameras at black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) carcasses to measure the comparative influences of two large carnivores in the facilitation and limitation of carrion acquisition by scavengers. We found that pumas (Puma concolor) and black bears (Ursus americanus) had different effects on their ecological communities. Pumas, as a top-level predator, facilitated the consumption of carrion by scavengers, despite significantly reducing their observed sum feeding times (165.7 min ± 21.2 SE at puma kills 264.3 min ± 30.1 SE at control carcasses). In contrast, black bears, as the dominant scavenger in the system, limited consumption of carrion by scavengers as evidenced by the observed reduction of scavenger species richness recorded at carcasses where they were present (mean = 2.33 ± 0.28 SE), compared to where they were absent (mean = 3.28 ± 0.23 SE). Black bears also had large negative effects on scavenger sum feeding times (88.5 min ± 19.8 SE at carcasses where bears were present, 372.3 min ± 50.0 SE at carcasses where bears were absent). In addition, we found that pumas and black bears both increased the nestedness (a higher level of order among species present) of the scavenger community. Our results suggest that scavengers have species-specific adaptions to exploit carrion despite large carnivores, and that large carnivores influence the structure and composition of scavenger communities. The interactions between large carnivores and scavengers should be considered in future studies of food webs and ecological communities.

  2. Trophic facilitation or limitation? Comparative effects of pumas and black bears on the scavenger community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian L Allen

    Full Text Available Scavenging is a widespread behaviour and an important process influencing food webs and ecological communities. Large carnivores facilitate the movement of energy across trophic levels through the scavenging and decomposition of their killed prey, but competition with large carnivores is also likely to constrain acquisition of carrion by scavengers. We used an experimental approach based on motion-triggered video cameras at black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus carcasses to measure the comparative influences of two large carnivores in the facilitation and limitation of carrion acquisition by scavengers. We found that pumas (Puma concolor and black bears (Ursus americanus had different effects on their ecological communities. Pumas, as a top-level predator, facilitated the consumption of carrion by scavengers, despite significantly reducing their observed sum feeding times (165.7 min ± 21.2 SE at puma kills 264.3 min ± 30.1 SE at control carcasses. In contrast, black bears, as the dominant scavenger in the system, limited consumption of carrion by scavengers as evidenced by the observed reduction of scavenger species richness recorded at carcasses where they were present (mean = 2.33 ± 0.28 SE, compared to where they were absent (mean = 3.28 ± 0.23 SE. Black bears also had large negative effects on scavenger sum feeding times (88.5 min ± 19.8 SE at carcasses where bears were present, 372.3 min ± 50.0 SE at carcasses where bears were absent. In addition, we found that pumas and black bears both increased the nestedness (a higher level of order among species present of the scavenger community. Our results suggest that scavengers have species-specific adaptions to exploit carrion despite large carnivores, and that large carnivores influence the structure and composition of scavenger communities. The interactions between large carnivores and scavengers should be considered in future studies of food webs and ecological communities.

  3. Behavioral response races, predator-prey shell games, ecology of fear, and patch use of pumas and their ungulate prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundré, John W

    2010-10-01

    The predator-prey shell game predicts random movement of prey across the landscape, whereas the behavioral response race and landscape of fear models predict that there should be a negative relationship between the spatial distribution of a predator and its behaviorally active prey. Additionally, prey have imperfect information on the whereabouts of their predator, which the predator should incorporate in its patch use strategy. I used a one-predator-one-prey system, puma (Puma concolor)-mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to test the following predictions regarding predator-prey distribution and patch use by the predator. (1) Pumas will spend more time in high prey risk/low prey use habitat types, while deer will spend their time in low-risk habitats. Pumas should (2) select large forage patches more often, (3) remain in large patches longer, and (4) revisit individual large patches more often than individual smaller ones. I tested these predictions with an extensive telemetry data set collected over 16 years in a study area of patchy forested habitat. When active, pumas spent significantly less time in open areas of low intrinsic predation risk than did deer. Pumas used large patches more than expected, revisited individual large patches significantly more often than smaller ones, and stayed significantly longer in larger patches than in smaller ones. The results supported the prediction of a negative relationship in the spatial distribution of a predator and its prey and indicated that the predator is incorporating the prey's imperfect information about its presence. These results indicate a behavioral complexity on the landscape scale that can have far-reaching impacts on predator-prey interactions.

  4. The PUMA test program and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The PUMA test program is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data that are relevant to various Boiling Water Reactor phenomena. The author briefly describes the PUMA test program and facility, presents the objective of the program, provides data analysis for a large-break loss-of-coolant accident test, and compares the data with a RELAP5/MOD 3.1.2 calculation

  5. PUMAS: Practical Uses of Math And Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    For more than ten years, PUMAS has provided a forum for disseminating peer-reviewed examples of Practical Uses of Math And Science, aimed at helping pre-college teachers enrich their presentation of math and science topics. Contributors include scientists, engineers, and content experts from many disciplines. The innovative ideas in PUMAS examples tend to be treasures, containing the ‘sparks’ of understanding that comes only from having real-life experience with the material. Examples can be essays, anecdotes, problems, demonstrations, or activities, and can be written in any style that serves the material well. They are keyed to the National Standards and Benchmarks, which provide the critical connection to K-12 curriculum guidelines, and the peer-review process involves at least one scientist with a relevant background, and at least one teacher at an appropriate grade level. The PUMAS Web Site has recently been upgraded. It is now a NASA-wide facility, recognized by both the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). This presentation will describe and illustrate the operation of PUMAS, will highlight a few of our many treasures, and will appeal to scientists interested in contributing meaningfully to pre-college education to consider submitting examples to PUMAS.

  6. (Gmelin, 1791) and Patella concolor Krauss, 1848 (Gastropoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-21

    Nov 21, 1986 ... Trans Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 41: 111-160. BRANCH, G.M. 1975. Notes on the ecology of Patella concolor and Cellana capensis and the effects of human consumption on limpet populations. 2001 Afr. 10: 75-85. BRANCH, G.M. 1981. The biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow, and ecological interactions.

  7. OS BOLIVIANOS EM CORUMBÁ-MS: CONFLITOS E RELAÇÕES DE PODER NA FRONTEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Villela Lima da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de pesquisas etnográficas realizadas desde 2009 em Corumbá, na fronteira Brasil-Bolívia, procuro compreender alguns aspectos das relações de poder que se tornam mais visíveis por meio da análise dos conflitos sociais entre brasileiros e bolivianos. Para organizar os principais temas envolvidos nessa pesquisa, o artigo está dividido em três partes. Na primeira, abordo as interseções entre nacionalidade e etnicidade como critérios de classificação social na fronteira e as representações estigmatizantes sobre os bolivianos produzidas no lado brasileiro. Na segunda, discuto as estratégias de trabalho dos bolivianos em Corumbá em torno do comércio informal, relacionando etnicidade e nacionalidade com as oportunidades de trabalho e as formas de organização social. Por fim, nas considerações finais, busco compreender quais os efeitos sociais da deslegitimação progressiva dos bolivianos no lado brasileiro, manifestados nas políticas de controle e vigilância na fronteira, a partir da criminalização das práticas de trabalho informal

  8. Imigrantes bolivianos em São Paulo : a Praça Kantuta e o futebol

    OpenAIRE

    Ubiratan Silva Alves

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A migração para o Brasil tem um marco nos anos 50 quando os bolivianos vieram para estudar através de um intercâmbio Brasil-Bolívia ou ainda por fuga política. Mas a relevância dos movimentos migratórios da América Latina se destaca a partir da década de 70 devido ao processo de industrialização de países como o Brasil, a Argentina e a Venezuela além da fuga de suas respectivas pátrias por divergências políticas. A partir da década de 1980, houve um grande aumento de bolivianos que vi...

  9. "Ciudadanos bonaerenses-bolivianos": Activismo político binacional en una organización de inmigrantes bolivianos residentes en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pizarro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el activismo político en una organización de inmigrantes bolivianos residentes en Argentina, que instauró un espacio político binacional. Es decir, un escenario en el que ellos fueron reconocidos como ciudadanos por autoridades de diversos niveles estatales argentinos y bolivianos. El argumento se basa en una descripción etnográfica tanto de la estructura de oportunidades políticas que permitió la constitución de tal espacio, como de las características de la migración boliviana en el norte del Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, la trayectoria de la asociación estudiada en relación al escenario político local y la conformación de alianzas basadas en afinidades político-partidarias entre las autoridades de diferente nivel en Argentina. Cierra con una discusión sobre la importancia que la problemática migratoria ha adquirido en Argentina y Bolivia en los últimos años.

  10. Evaluating public participation exercises - PUMA findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergez, Christian; )

    2003-01-01

    A programme of work was undertaken under the auspices of the PUMA (Public Management Project) Working Group on Strengthening Government-Citizen Connections during 1999-2000. Two comparative surveys were conducted among 23 OECD member countries and the European Union, and eight in-depth country cases were performed; the results were discussed in five meetings and published as 'OECD PUMA, 2001'. While the benefits of engaging citizens in policy-making may be considerable, governments should not underestimate the risks associated with poorly designed and inadequate measures for information, consultation and active participation. They may seek to inform, consult and encourage active participation by citizens in order to enhance the quality, credibility and legitimacy of their policy decisions. However the opposite effect may be achieved if citizens discover that their efforts to be informed, provide feedback and actively participate are ignored or have no impact at all on the decisions reached. To reduce the risk of rapid disillusionment and further erosion of citizens' trust, governments must ensure that: - information is complete, objective, reliable, relevant, easy to find and understand; - consultation is conducted with clear goals and according to unambiguous rules which clearly state the limits of the exercise and government's obligation to account for the use made of citizens' input; - participation provides sufficient time and flexibility to allow for the emergence of new ideas and proposals on the part of citizens and a mechanism for their integration into government's policy-making process. Yet the comparative study performed by PUMA found that evaluation was often overlooked. There is a striking imbalance between the amount of time, money and energy which OECD Member countries invest in strengthening government-citizen connections and their efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures and their impact on public policy-making

  11. Regorafenib inhibits colorectal tumor growth through PUMA-mediated apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongshi; Wei, Liang; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Regorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, has recently been approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanisms of action of regorafenib in CRC cells have been unclear. We investigated how regorafenib suppresses CRC cell growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. Experimental Design We determined whether and how regorafenib induces the expression of PUMA, a p53 target and a critical mediator of apoptosis in CRC cells. We also investigated whether PUMA is necessary for the killing and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib in CRC cells. Furthermore, xenograft tumors were used to test if PUMA mediates the in vivo antitumor, antiangiogenic and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib. Results We found that regorafenib treatment induces PUMA in CRC cells irrespective of p53 status through the NF-κB pathway following ERK inhibition and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. Upregulation of PUMA is correlated with apoptosis induction in different CRC cell lines. PUMA is necessary for regorafenib-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. Chemosensitization by regorafenib is mediated by enhanced PUMA induction through different pathways. Furthermore, deficiency in PUMA abrogates the in vivo antitumor, antiangiogenic and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a key role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of regorafenib in CRC cells. They suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of regorafenib sensitivity, and also provide a rationale for manipulating the apoptotic machinery to improve the therapeutic efficacy of regorafenib and other targeted drugs. PMID:24763611

  12. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Kusler, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf), two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear) are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx). We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5%) of their 22,735,268 km 2 range across North and South America. Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands from harassment, exhibit increased starvation, and

  13. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mark Elbroch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Methods Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf, two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx. We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. Results We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5% of their 22,735,268 km2 range across North and South America. Discussion Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands

  14. Lorena Córdoba (editora. Dos suizos en la selva. Historias del auge cauchero en el Oriente Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El libro "Dos suizos en la selva. Historias del auge cauchero en el Oriente Boliviano" presenta, por primera vez traducidos al castellano, los testimonios memoriales de dos trabajadores caucheros originarios de Suiza que permanecieron en la región de la selva boliviana en los años de su juventud, a comienzos del siglo pasado.

  15. Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraedrich, K.; Kirk, E.; Lunkeit, F. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1998-10-01

    The Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA) is based on the Reading multi-level spectral model SGCM (Simple Global Circulation Model) described by Hoskins and Simmons (1975) and James and Gray (1986). Originally developed as a numerical prediction model, it was changed to perform as a circulation model. For example, James and Gray (1986) studied the influence of surface friction on the circulation of a baroclinic atmosphere, James and James (1992), and James et al. (1994) investigated ultra-low-frequency variability, and Mole and James (1990) analyzed the baroclinic adjustment in the context of a zonally varying flow. Frisius et al. (1998) simulated an idealized storm track by embedding a dipole structure in a zonally symmetric forcing field and Lunkeit et al. (1998) investigated the sensitivity of GCM (General Circulation Model) scenarios by an adaption technique applicapable to SGCMs. (orig.)

  16. PUMA: An Operating System for Massively Parallel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Wheat

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture, a message-passing kernel for massively parallel systems. Message passing in PUMA is based on portals – an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is no need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel and later copy them into the applications address space. PUMA consists of two components: the quintessential kernel (Q-Kernel and the process control thread (PCT. Although the PCT provides management decisions, the Q-Kernel controls access and implements the policies specified by the PCT.

  17. The Perception of the PUMA Brand in the Czech Market

    OpenAIRE

    Martínková, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    The ambition of this master thesis is to provide a deeper insight into a marketing strategy of the multinational company PUMA applied in the Czech Republic. Specifically, the thesis includes a survey of customers designed to examine the perception of the PUMA brand in the Czech market within the target group of people from 16 to 26 years old. One of the essential requirements of this thesis is to provide a very important theoretical background of the marketing field, explaining the basic mark...

  18. Involvement of PUMA in pericyte migration induced by methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Yuan; Bai, Ying; Chao, Jie; Hu, Gang; Chen, Xufeng; Yao, Honghong

    2017-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier damage, with emphasis on endothelial cells. The role of pericytes in methamphetamine-induced BBB damage remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that methamphetamine increased the migration of pericytes from the endothelial basement membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Thus, we examined the molecular mechanisms involved in methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. The results showed that exposure of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs to methamphetamine increased PUMA expression via activation of the sigma-1 receptor, MAPK and Akt/PI3K pathways. Moreover, methamphetamine treatment resulted in the increased migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. Knockdown of PUMA in pericytes transduced with PUMA siRNA attenuated the methamphetamine-induced increase in cell migration through attenuation of integrin and tyrosine kinase mechanisms, implicating a role of PUMA in the migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. This study has demonstrated that methamphetamine-mediated pericytes migration involves PUMA up-regulation. Thus, targeted studies of PUMA could provide insights to facilitate the development of a potential therapeutic approach for alleviation of methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Radiological investigations of the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) appendicular skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Javadi, Shahram; Hadian, Mojtaba; Pourreza, Behzad; Behfar, Mahdi

    2009-03-01

    The normal radiographic anatomy of the healthy hedgehog can help to identify anatomic features unique to the hedgehog while comparing it with other small mammals, such as the dog and cat. Radiographic examination is a method that can play an important role in the diagnosis of a wide variety of skeletal diseases. Seven (2 males, 5 females) free-living hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from the Urmia region of Iran were selected for this study. Lateral and craniocaudal radiographs from the front and hind limbs were obtained. The radiographs from these hedgehogs were compared with the normal canine and feline skeletal radiographic anatomy. On the forelimb radiographs, the clavicle was observed as a complete bone connected to the scapula and manubrium. There are three and five carpal bones in the proximal and distal rows, respectively, as in the dog and cat. The pelvis has a larger obturator foramen when compared with the dog and cat. In the lateral view, the pubis and ischium are relatively larger than in the dog and cat and have a more ventral position. The tarsal bones are similar to those of the dog and cat. The number of phalanges and sesamoid bones in the forelimb and hindlimb are likewise similar to those found in the dog and cat.

  20. Vínculos transfronterizos: vida, movilidad y comercio en el barrio boliviano de Iquique, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Tapia Ladino

    Full Text Available Resumen El estudio del Barrio Boliviano de Iquique permite captar los vínculos laborales e interacciones económicas que dan lugar a prácticas sociales fronterizas y que se expresan en movilidades en el territorio que no siempre implican el establecimiento o sedentarización en el lugar de destino. De modo que el barrio se convierte en un dispositivo comercial fronterizo y en parte de un territorio circulatorio donde las brechas de desarrollo, las diferencias salariales y el efecto llamada del mercado de trabajo explican la circulación de personas por motivos comerciales y laborales más allá de los litigios diplomáticos entre Bolivia y Chile.

  1. PUMA Development through a Multi physics Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jinsik; Kim, Junehyung; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2013-01-01

    Meanwhile advances of numerical methods make it possible for the multi physics problem to be solved in a fully coupled way. In addition to a multidimensional, multi physical approach, a nuclear fuel performance analysis code, which is 1D code, should be improved by accommodating the state-of-the-art in the numerical analysis to support current fuel design and performance analysis. In particular, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of numerically stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is of great importance for a multi physics simulation of nuclear fuel. Instead, coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was found to be made with a relative ease by employing an ordinary differential equations solver. As an effort for a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code), the deformation of U-Zr fuel for SFR in connection with a fission gas release model is analyzed. A finite element analyses for purely mechanical problems are performed using a backward differentiation formula, and are subjected to scrupulous verification with Abaqus. Then mechanical equilibrium equation and the equations for fission gas release are coupled with the same differential-algebraic equations (DAE) solver

  2. Movimientos Sociales y Democracia. Notas sobre la Crisis del Sindicalismo Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique IBAÑEZ ROJO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El caso boliviano demuestra el papel decisivo jugado por los movimientos sociales en los procesos de transición denwcrática. Así como ,sus carencias atribuidas a la peculiar "cultura política" del movimiento obrero boliviano. Sin embargo un análisis del contexto de la transición - caótico, vioknto y con fuerte polarización ideológica - exige la consideración de un conjunto de variables estructurales. La multiplicación de la "incertidumbre estructural" favorecid la inhibición de la acción estratégica constructiva de la COB que junto a las disfuncionalidad de su propuesta sindicalista en una sociedad heterogénea, explica la incapacidad de la central para encauzar el proceso en favor de sus intereses. Se sugiere la urgencia de recomponer la mediación política capazde articular la dispersión del campo popular mediante fórmulas adecuadas a la estructura social y a la tradición hiktórica boliviana.ABSTRACT: The bolivian case shows the decisive rol played by social movements in the proceses towards democracy, so as their lacks, due to the peculiar "political culture" in labor movement. Nevertheless a further analysis of the transition environment - caotic, violent and with a high polarization - has to take into account a set of structural variables. So, the multiplication of structural uncertainty favourend the inhibition of the strategic constructive action of COB that added to plus disfuncionality of the union proposals in a heterogeneous society, explain the union uncapability for guiding the process towards its own interests. Its also suggested the urgency of rebuilding the political mediation capable of structuring the dispersed popular sector by means of suittable formulas to the social structure and historic traditions of Bolivia.

  3. Direct adaptive control of a PUMA 560 industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1989-01-01

    The implementation and experimental validation of a new direct adaptive control scheme on a PUMA 560 industrial robot is described. The testbed facility consists of a Unimation PUMA 560 six-jointed robot and controller, and a DEC MicroVAX II computer which hosts the Robot Control C Library software. The control algorithm is implemented on the MicroVAX which acts as a digital controller for the PUMA robot, and the Unimation controller is effectively bypassed and used merely as an I/O device to interface the MicroVAX to the joint motors. The control algorithm for each robot joint consists of an auxiliary signal generated by a constant-gain Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) controller, and an adaptive position-velocity (PD) feedback controller with adjustable gains. The adaptive independent joint controllers compensate for the inter-joint couplings and achieve accurate trajectory tracking without the need for the complex dynamic model and parameter values of the robot. Extensive experimental results on PUMA joint control are presented to confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. Experimental results validate the capabilities of the proposed control scheme. The control scheme is extremely simple and computationally very fast for concurrent processing with high sampling rates.

  4. PuMA: the Porous Microstructure Analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Joseph C.; Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2018-01-01

    The Porous Microstructure Analysis (PuMA) software has been developed in order to compute effective material properties and perform material response simulations on digitized microstructures of porous media. PuMA is able to import digital three-dimensional images obtained from X-ray microtomography or to generate artificial microstructures. PuMA also provides a module for interactive 3D visualizations. Version 2.1 includes modules to compute porosity, volume fractions, and surface area. Two finite difference Laplace solvers have been implemented to compute the continuum tortuosity factor, effective thermal conductivity, and effective electrical conductivity. A random method has been developed to compute tortuosity factors from the continuum to rarefied regimes. Representative elementary volume analysis can be performed on each property. The software also includes a time-dependent, particle-based model for the oxidation of fibrous materials. PuMA was developed for Linux operating systems and is available as a NASA software under a US & Foreign release.

  5. Estructuras agrarias comparadas: la Puna argentina y el sur boliviano a comienzos del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana A. Teruel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article expects to be another contribution to the knowledge about the social-economic problems from the Argentine Puna, especifically to its agricultural structure, paying special attention to changes and permanences, concerning to property and land, key to economical and social power and fundamental axis of production relationship of this society. It focuses on the problematical fact of indian lands, making a comparison between the North of Argentina and the South of Bolivia, considering both political state systems about comunity lands and its effects in the agrarian structures in the begining of the XXth century.Este artículo tiene por propósito realizar un aporte más al conocimiento de la problemática socio-económica de la Puna argentina, específicamente a su estructura agraria, atendiendo los cambios y permanencias relativos a la propiedad y tenencia de la tierra, clave del poder económico y social y eje fundamental en las relaciones de producción de esta sociedad agraria. Se trata la cuestión en el marco de la problemática de las tierras indígenas, comparando la situación del Norte argentino con la del Sur boliviano, analizando las políticas de ambos Estados en torno a la tierra de las comunidades y sus efectos en las estructuras agrarias de comienzos del siglo XX.

  6. E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Hongying; Dong, Yanbin; Bowling, Maria T; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Zhou, H Sam; McMasters, Kelly M

    2007-01-01

    PUMA is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that has been shown to be involved in apoptosis in many cell types. We sought to ascertain whether induction of PUMA plays a crucial role in E2F-1-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells. PUMA gene and protein expression levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot in SK-MEL-2 and HCT116 cell lines after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Activation of the PUMA promoter by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by dual luciferase reporter assay. E2F-1-induced Bax translocation was shown by immunocytochemistry. The induction of caspase-9 activity was measured by caspase-9 colorimetric assay kit. Up-regulation of the PUMA gene and protein by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in the SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell line. In support of this finding, we found six putative E2F-1 binding sites within the PUMA promoter. Subsequent dual luciferase reporter assay showed that E2F-1 expression could increase the PUMA gene promoter activity 9.3 fold in SK-MEL-2 cells. The role of PUMA in E2F-1-induced apoptosis was further investigated in a PUMA knockout cell line. Cell viability assay showed that the HCT116 PUMA-/- cell line was more resistant to Ad-E2F-1-mediated cell death than the HCT116 PUMA+/+ cell line. Moreover, a 2.2-fold induction of the PUMA promoter was also noted in the HCT116 PUMA+/+ colon cancer cell line after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Overexpression of a truncated E2F-1 protein that lacks the transactivation domain failed to up-regulate PUMA promoter, suggesting that PUMA may be a transcriptional target of E2F-1. E2F-1-induced cancer cell apoptosis was accompanied by Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria and the induction of caspase-9 activity, suggesting that E2F-1-induced apoptosis is mediated by PUMA through the cytochrome C/Apaf-1-dependent pathway. Our studies strongly demonstrated that E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation. The signaling

  7. Efectos de la capitalización en el derecho y la economía bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana Orsini, Carlos Raymundo

    2005-01-01

    Más allá de considerar si la Capitalización fue positiva o negativa, este trabajo pretende mostrar como esta medida de reforma estructural del Estado ha tenido efectos en el derecho y la economía bolivianos. Partiendo de la descripción del modelo de capitalismo de Estado y su crisis a principios de la década de los ochenta, pretendemos mostrar los antecedentes que originaron la adopción de medidas de ajuste estructural en sus diferentes etapas, hasta llegar a las medidas de ...

  8. Spatial and temporal genetic homogeneity of the Monterey Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus concolor, in the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Magallón-Gayón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic homogeneity of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor population in the Gulf of California was confirmed using nine nuclear microsatellite loci in combination with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Samples were collected from the upper and central Gulf areas, representing the two main biogeographical regions of the Gulf. The analyses support the existence of a single panmictic population of S. concolor inhabiting the Gulf of California which in terms of fishery management represents a single genetic stock. Additionally, the contemporary effective population size estimated for the S. concolor population (Ne = 3056.9 was high and similar to another pelagic species. The gene flow seems to be bidirectional between the upper and central Gulf, which coincides with the seasonal movements between both regions related to spawning and feeding activities. A population expansion event was detected, which agrees with a colonization-expansion hypothesis of the S. concolor population in the Gulf.

  9. Apoptosis-promoted tumorigenesis: γ-irradiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis requires Puma-driven leukocyte death

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Ewa M.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Delbridge, Alex R.D.; Wu, Li; Scott, Clare L.; Adams, Jerry M.; Strasser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor development requires impaired apoptosis, we describe a novel paradigm of apoptosis-dependent tumorigenesis. Because DNA damage triggers apoptosis through p53-mediated induction of BH3-only proteins Puma and Noxa, we explored their roles in γ-radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis. Surprisingly, whereas Noxa loss accelerated it, Puma loss ablated tumorigenesis. Tumor suppression by Puma deficiency reflected its protection of leukocytes from γ-irradiation-induced death, because...

  10. Feeding kinematics and performance of Hawaiian stream gobies, Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor: linkage of functional morphology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Wilson, Megan P; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-03-01

    Distributions of Hawaiian stream fishes are typically interrupted by waterfalls that divide streams into multiple segments. Larvae hatch upstream, are flushed into the ocean, and must climb these waterfalls to reach adult habitats when returning back to freshwater as part of an amphidromous life cycle. Stream surveys and studies of climbing performance show that Lentipes concolor Gill can reach fast-flowing upper stream segments but that Awaous guamensis Valenciennes reaches only slower, lower stream segments. Gut content analyses for these two species indicate considerable overlap in diet, suggesting that feeding kinematics and performance of these two species might be comparable. Alternatively, feeding kinematics and performance of these species might be expected to differ in relation to the different flow regimes in their habitat (feeding in faster stream currents for L. concolor versus in slower currents for A. guamensis). To test these alternative hypotheses, we compared food capturing kinematics and performance during suction feeding behaviors of A. guamensis and L. concolor using morphological data and high-speed video. Lentipes concolor showed both a significantly larger gape angle and faster jaw opening than A. guamensis. Geometric models calculated that despite the inverse relationship of gape size and suction pressure generation, the fast jaw motions of L. concolor allow it to achieve higher pressure differentials than A. guamensis. Such elevated suction pressure would enhance the ability of L. concolor to successfully capture food in the fast stream reaches it typically inhabits. Differences in jaw morphology may contribute to these differences in performance, as the lever ratio for jaw opening is about 10% lower in L. concolor compared with A. guamensis, suiting the jaws of L. concolor better for fast opening. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Jaguar interactions with pumas and prey at the northern edge of jaguars’ range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E. Gutiérrez-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first study that evaluates jaguar-puma interactions in the arid lands of northern Mexico, where jaguars have their northernmost breeding population and both predators are persecuted for livestock depredation. We tested whether jaguars are the dominant species in this unique ecosystem, where: (1 pumas outnumber jaguars, (2 pumas are better adapted to arid environments, and (3 jaguars and pumas are of similar size. We analyzed four years of data with two approaches; a two species conditional occupancy model and an activity patterns analysis. We used camera location and prey presence as covariates for jaguar and puma detection and presence probabilities. We also explored overlap in activities of predators and prey. Where both species were detected, peccary presence was positively correlated with both jaguar and puma presence, whereas in areas where jaguars were detected but pumas were not, deer presence explained the probability of jaguar presence. We found that both predators were more likely to co-occur together than to be found independently, and so we rejected the hypothesis that jaguars were the dominant species in our study area. Predators were mainly nocturnal and their activity patterns overlapped by 60%. Jaguar, as compared with puma, overlapped more with deer and calves; puma overlapped with calves more than with other prey, suggesting a preference. We believe exploring predator relationships at different scales may help elucidate mechanisms that regulate their coexistence.

  12. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine’s antimelanoma activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. While it is well known that chloroquine impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of chloroquine and the subsequent cascade of events that leads to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, chloroquine induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein PUMA. This finding adds to the unfolding story of chloroquine’s mechanism of action as a cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:23949767

  13. Comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol para a criopreservação de sêmen de suçuarana (Puma concolor Comparison between two glycerol concentrations to cryopreservation of semen of mountain lions (Puma concolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyara de Deco-Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de biotécnicas de reprodução é uma importante ferramenta para a conservação de animais silvestres ameaçados de extinção. Procedimentos de reprodução assistida em suçuarana, no entanto, são escassos na literatura, em especial aqueles relacionados à criopreservação de sêmen. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a congelabilidade do sêmen de suçuaranas adultas mantidas em cativeiro, por meio da comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol no meio de congelamento. Foram usados cinco machos adultos de suçuarana, mantidos no Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres do Mato Grosso do Sul (CRAS/MS. As amostras foram coletadas por eletroejaculação e avaliadas quanto ao seu aspecto físico, volume, vigor, motilidade, concentração e índice espermático. De cada ejaculado duas alíquotas foram diluídas em meio Tris-citrato-gema de ovo, em concentrações finais de 5 e 7,5% de glicerol, resfriadas a uma taxa de -0,55ºC/min e congeladas a uma taxa de -5,8ºC/min. Depois de descongeladas, as amostras foram reavaliadas e submetidas aos testes de termorresistência e hiposmótico. O protocolo de criopreservação e descongelamento de sêmen proposto se mostrou eficiente em ambas as concentrações de glicerol testadas, não havendo diferença (p>0,05 entre estas.The development of biotechnologies of reproduction is an important tool for the conservation of wild animals threatened with extinction. Assisted reproduction procedures in mountain lions, however, are scarce, especially those related to sperm cryopreservation. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the freezing capacity of semen from adult mountain lions in captivity through the comparison of two concentrations of glycerol in the freezing media. Five adult male mountain lions were used, held at the Rehabilitation Center for Wild Animals of Mato Grosso do Sul (CRAS/MS. Samples were collected by electroejaculation and evaluated for physical appearance, volume, sperm progressive status, sperm motility, sperm concentration and sperm motility index. Each ejaculate was spliced into two aliquots and diluted in Tris-citrate-half egg yolk, at final concentrations of 5 and 7.5% glycerol, cooled at a rate of -0.55ºC/min and frozen at a rate of -5.8ºC/min. Once thawed, the samples were re-evaluated and tested for thermoresistance and hypoosmotic swelling. The suggested protocol for cryopreservation and thawing of semen is efficient in both glycerol concentrations tested, with no difference (p>0.05 between them.

  14. PUMA Internet Task Logging Using the IDAC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tarchanidis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This project uses an IDAC-1 board to sample the joint angle position of the PUMA 76 1 robot and log the results on a computer. The robot is at the task location and the logging computer is located in a different one. The task the robot is performing is based on a Pseudo Stereo Vision System (PSVS. Internet is the transport media. The protocol used in this project is UDP/IP. The actual angle is taken straight from the PUMA controller. High-resolution potentiometers are connected on each robot joint and are buffered and sampled as potential difference on an A/D converter integrated on the IDAC-1. The logging computer through the Internet acting as client asks for the angle set, the IDAC-1 responds as server with the 10-bit resolution sampling of the joint position. The whole task is logged in a file on the logging computer. This application can give the ability to the Internet user to monitor and log the robot tasks anywhere in the Word Wide Web (www.

  15. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Parker, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    Primers for 10 microsatellite loci were developed for midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor), a small bodied subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake, which is found in the Colorado Plateau of eastern Utah, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming. In a screen of 23 individuals from the most northern portion of the subspecies range in southwestern Wyoming, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from 4 to 11 alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, which will ultimately aid in management efforts for this rare subspecies of rattlesnake.

  16. PUMA Version 6 Multiplatform with Facilities to be coupled with other Simulation Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    PUMA is a code for nuclear reactor calculation used in all nuclear installations in Argentina for simulation of fuel management, power cycles and transient events by means of spatial kinetic diffusion theory in 3D. For the versions used up to now the WINDOWS platform was used with very good results. Nowadays PUMA must work in different operative systems, LINUX among others, and must also have facilities to be coupled with other models. For this reason this new version was reprogrammed in ADA, language oriented to a safe programming and be found in any operative system. In former versions PUMA was executed through macro instructions written in LOGO. For this version it is possible to use also PYTHON, which makes also possible the access in execution time to internal data of PUMA. The use of PYTHON allows a easy way to couple PUMA with other codes. The possibilities of this new version of PUMA are shown by means of examples of input data and process control using PYTHON and LOGO. It is discussed the implementation of this methodology in other codes to be coupled with PUMA for versions run in WINDOWS and LINUX. (author)

  17. Budování sportovní značky PUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lečková, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Title: PUMA branding Objective: The aim of diploma thesis is to get improvement proposal which could be used for further building of PUMA brand. The research will be carried out on two samples of respondents. The first sample will be Generation Y which is defined by Bergh (2012). A second sample of respondents are employees of the company PUMA. Methods: The entire thesis is focused and based on standardized method of the brand personality from J. L. Aaker (1997), adapted by the authors Geuens...

  18. Abies Concolor Seeds and Cones as New Source of Essential Oils-Composition and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-11-02

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, of essential oils from seeds and cones of Abies concolor was studied by chromatographic (GC) and spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance), leading to the determination of 98 compounds. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The dominant volatiles of seed essential oil were: limonene (47 g/100 g, almost pure levorotary form) and α-pinene (40 g/100 g), while α-pinene (58 g/100 g), sabinene (11 g/100 g), and β-pinene (4.5 g/100 g) were the predominant components of the cone oil. The seed and cone essential oils exhibited mild antibacterial activity, and the MIC ranged from 26 to 30 μL/mL against all of the tested bacterial standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . The cytotoxic studies have demonstrated that tested essential oils were cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells at concentrations much lower than the MIC. The essential oils from A. concolor seeds and cones had no toxic effect on human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells, when added to the cells at a low concentration (0-0.075 μL/mL) and (0-1.0 μL/mL), respectively, and cultured for 24 h.

  19. Possible use of measurements to amend cross section tables (PUMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kherani, N.P.; Bonalumi, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    In a companion paper, the RAM flux mapping procedure has been demonstrated. RAM combines theory and in-core detector flux measurements, thereby recognizing a difference between the two. Assuming that the RAM ''smoothed-out'' flux distribution is exact, then the discrepancy with purely theoretical fluxes is due to inadequacies in the diffusion theory, homogenised core parameters. PUMA has been devised with the purpose of inferring adjustments in the homogenised core parameters from the theory vs. experiment flux discrepancy. This has been achieved by introducing influence functions similar to those defined by Buckler. A thorough mathematical analysis shows that influence functions are not all linearly independent and that it is crucial to use the criticality equation in the equation set. Numerical examples are shown to demonstrate the procedure

  20. Značky Adidas a Puma v letech 2006-08 : komparativní studie

    OpenAIRE

    Suchá, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Adidas and Puma brands in the years 2006-2008 : comparative study " deals with comparing the positioning and communication activities of Adidas and Puma sport brands in the years 2006-2008 in both Czech and Global market for sporting goods. Their Sharp origin and history is reflected in the production and marketing communication of brands that belong to the leaders in the sports industry and sponsorships. The first two parts deal with representation of brands Adidas and P...

  1. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Fuente del Puma Sheet G-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Pena, S.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Fuente del Puma) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. The area corresponding to Fuente del Puma is located in the SW of Lavalleja and NW of Maldonado town and its stratigraphy belong to the Cretaceous and Cenozoic formations as well as the Cambrian and upper Precambrian

  2. Marketingový výzkum hodnoty značky Puma

    OpenAIRE

    Lhota, Filip

    2011-01-01

    My thesis introduces a problem of value identification concerning the brand Puma in the Czech Republic. The main objective of this thesis is to find out how is Puma perceived by the Czech population as well as how satisfied and familiar is the Czech population with its products. The theoretical part of the thesis will deal with obtaining information and defining terms in field of marketing research, brand value and propagation. The practical part will include data collection and its processin...

  3. Analýza vývoje sportovních značek (Adidas a Puma)

    OpenAIRE

    Cajzl, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Title: Analysis of development of sports brands Adidas and Puma Objectives: The main aim of this thesis is to compile, describe and analyze informations about history and development of sports brands Adidas and Puma. Methods: The main informations obout historical development of Adidas and Puma were processed by direct historical method, method of deduction and progressive method. Research through the comparative method was used marginally. Results: The results show the direction in which the...

  4. Transcription factor Sox4 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor, TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sang-Min; Kang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Woong; Kim, Chul-Hong; An, Joo-Hee; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-08-23

    PUMA is a crucial regulator of apoptotic cell death mediated by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In many cancer cells, PUMA expression is induced in response to DNA-damaging reagent in a p53-dependent manner. However, few studies have investigated transcription factors that lead to the induction of PUMA expression via p53-independent apoptotic signaling. In this study, we found that the transcription factor Sox4 increased PUMA expression in response to trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor in the p53-null human lung cancer cell line H1299. Ectopic expression of Sox4 led to the induction of PUMA expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and TSA-mediated up-regulation of PUMA transcription was repressed by the knockdown of Sox4. Using luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we also determined that Sox4 recruits p300 on the PUMA promoter region and increases PUMA gene expression in response to TSA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sox4 is required for p53-independent apoptotic cell death mediated by PUMA induction via TSA treatment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression and clinical significance of ATM and PUMA gene in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangnan

    2017-12-01

    The expression of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) genes in patients with colorectal cancer were investigated, to explore the correlation between the expression of ATM and PUMA and tumor development, to evaluate the clinical significance of ATM and PUMA in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of ATM and PUMA in tumor tissue and adjacent healthy tissue of 67 patients with colorectal cancer and in normal colorectal tissue of 33 patients with colorectal polyps at mRNA level. The expression level of ATM mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissue (P≤0.05), while no significant differences in expression level of ATM mRNA were found between normal mucosa tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue (P=0.07). There was a negative correlation between the expression of ATM mRNA and the degree of differentiation of colorectal cancer (r= -0.312, P=0.013), while expression level of ATM mRNA was not significantly correlated with the age, sex, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis or clinical stage (P>0.05). Expression levels of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues, adjacent noncancerous tissue and normal tissues were 0.68±0.07, 0.88±0.04 and 1.76±0.06, respectively. Expression level of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue was significantly lower than that in normal colorectal tissues (PATM mRNA is expressed abnormally in colorectal cancer tissues. Expression of PUMA gene in colorectal carcinoma is downregulated, and is negatively correlated with the occurrence of cancer.

  6. Trayectorias, redes migratorias y procesos identitarios, en la conformación del mercado de trabajo agrícola destinado a bolivianos : estudio en dos municipios del este salteño 1960 - 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Ataide, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis pretende aportar a los estudios sobre la segmentación étnica de los mercados laborales en general y de aquellos vinculados a los migrantes bolivianos en Salta (Argentina), en particular. Partimos de la existencia de un mercado de trabajo agrícola segmentado por la pertenencia de los trabajadores al colectivo nacional: bolivianos, en dos municipios de la provincia de Salta, Apolinario Saravia y Gral. Pizarro. En este caso, la migración boliviana conforma un destino temprano, ...

  7. Counterpart experimental study of ISP-42 PANDA tests on PUMA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Choi, Sung-Won; Lim, Jaehyok; Lee, Doo-Yong; Rassame, Somboon; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Counterpart tests were performed on two large-scale BWR integral facilities. ► Similarity of post-LOCA system behaviors observed between two tests. ► Passive core and containment cooling systems work as design in both tests. -- Abstract: A counterpart test to the Passive Nachwärmeabfuhr und Druckabbau Test Anlage (Passive Decay Heat Removal and Depressurization Test Facility, PANDA) International Standard Problem (ISP)-42 test was conducted at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. Aimed to support code validation on a range of light water reactor (LWR) containment issues, the ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phases A–F) with separately defined initial and boundary conditions, addressing different stages of anticipated accident scenario and system responses. The counterpart test was performed from Phases A to D, which are within the scope of the normal integral tests performed on the PUMA facility. A scaling methodology was developed by using the PANDA facility as prototype and PUMA facility as test model, and an engineering scaling has been applied to the PUMA facility. The counterpart test results indicated that functions of passive safety systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) start-up, gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) discharge, PCCS normal operation and overload function were confirmed in both the PANDA and PUMA facilities with qualitative similarities

  8. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-11-18

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment.

  9. Explaining reported puma-related behaviors and behavioral intentions among northern Arizona residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Ruther, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of pumas in the American West is typified by conflict among stakeholders plausibly rooted in life experiences and worldviews. We used a mail questionnaire to assess demographics, nature-views, puma-related life experiences and behaviors, and support for puma-related policies among residents of northern Arizona. Data from the questionnaire (n = 693 respondents) were used to model behaviors and support for policies. Compared to models based on nature-views and life experiences, those based on demographics had virtually no support from the data. The Utilitarian/Dominionistic nature-view had the strongest effect of any variable in six of seven models, and was associated with firearms and opposition to policies that would limit killing pumas. The Humanistic/Moralistic nature-view was positively associated with non-lethal behaviors and policies in five models. Gender had the strongest effect of any demographic variable. Compared to demographics alone, our results suggest that worldviews provide a more meaningful explanation of reported human behaviors and behavioral intentions regarding pumas.

  10. COMPOSICIÓN, ESTRUCTURA Y PATRÓN ESPACIAL DE UN BOSQUE TUCUMANO-BOLIVIANO EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TARIJA (BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Santiago Zenteno-Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El bosque tucumano-boliviano, en su sector correspondiente a Bolivia, ha comenzado a ser conocido con mayor detalle en los últimos años. Sin embargo, los estudios realizados han tenido un carácter más cualitativo o se han realizado en superficies pequeñas (0,1 ha; además, la biogeografía de sus zonas más bajas no está del todo clara. Por otro lado, algunos aspectos ecológicos, como los referidos a patrones espaciales de los árboles, no han sido nunca abordados. Nosotros realizamos el estudio de una hectárea de bosque tucumano-boliviano a 700-950 m, y mapeamos todos los árboles y lianas con DAP ¿10 cm a fin de caracterizar cuantitativamente un área representativa de este bosque. El propósito fue conocer su composición, abundancia y estructura. Realizamos el primer estudio de patrones espaciales para este tipo de bosque en Bolivia. Registramos 591 individuos agrupados en 31 familias, 47 géneros y 57 especies. Seis especies fueron las más abundantes: Urera caracasana, Trichilia clausenii, Piper tucumanum, Diatenopteryx sorbifolia, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum y Cupania vernalis. El bosque estudiado puede considerarse parte del bosque tucumano-boliviano más que del Arco Pleistocénico. El área basal total fue de 29.4 m2/ha. La presencia de lianas fue relativamente baja, lo que indica que se trata de un bosque relativamente poco perturbado. Se trata de un lugar diverso. La riqueza específica resultó comparable a la de los bosques secos de Madidi (La Paz, Bolivia, y superior a la del tucumano-boliviano en el lado argentino, y fue estimada en 74 especies de árboles. La diversidad (3,5 índice Shannon-Wiener es tan alta como la de muchos bosques más tropicales, e incluso algunos amazónicos. Encontramos un patrón espacial aleatorio en los individuos de la comunidad, y la mayoría de las especies presentó agregación a alguna escala espacial.

  11. Structure and Development of the Gametophytes of Philippine Cheilanthoid Ferns, III. Cheilanthes concolor (Langsdorff et Fischer R. Tryon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescillano Zamora

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The gametophytes of Cheilanthes concolor (Langsdorff et Fischer R. Tryon from the Philippines (Quezon City are no different in pattern of development and in morphology from those from India with one possible notable difference, which is, that the gametophytes under report (which were grown from spores produced from 32-sporate sporangia are apogamous while those from India (sporangial type of source was not stated are sexual.

  12. Organic chemistry of cometary dust as derived from PUMA 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, J.; Krueger, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Onboard the Halley Fly-By spacecrafts Vega 1, Vega 2, and Giotto were the dust impact mass spectrometers PUMA 1, PUMA 2, and PIA respectively. PUMA 1 was the most sensitive instrument among them. From its data the occurrence of masslines greater than 60 Daltons could be shown to be statistically significant. An analysis of these masslines lead to a scenario, which could explain the masslines as fragment ions from larger molecules which characterize the chemical nature of cometary organic matter as: (1) highly unsaturated hydrocarbons; (2) some of them containing oxygen; (3) less containing nitrogen; and (4) a few containing oxygen and nitrogen as heteroatoms. From the properties of the spectrometer, also some physical parameters of the dust particles could be inferred, such as their density and structure.

  13. DESARTICULACIÓN DE DISCURSOS NACIONALISTAS EN EL CINE DE AUTOR BOLIVIANO: 3B´S Y SOCAVÓNCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lacunza Mendizábal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinta a México, Argentina y Brasil, Bolivia tiene una industria cinematográfica poco desarrollada que no ha logrado consolidarse por varias razones. Entre éstas está la falta de apoyo estatal, el escaso desarrollo profesional en estas áreas y una carencia de cultura cinematográfica y visual en general. Sin embargo, durante la última década, la industria cinematográfica boliviana ha sido partícipe de logros importantes gracias a la aparición de las nuevas tecnologías. Películas digitales hechas por una nueva generación de jóvenes directores reconocidos globalmente se han desarrollado en tres ramas distintas: a cine de autor, b cine documental y c cortometrajes. Al mismo tiempo, la producción de este tipo de filmes se apoya en un esfuerzo colectivo, como es el caso de RAV (Rojo, Amarillo y Verde, 2006 de Rodrigo Bellot, Martín Bolulocq y Sergio Bastani y aquellos filmes producidos por el colectivo SocavónCine desde el año 2013. Este artículo busca explorar cómo el más reciente cine boliviano de autor desarticula discursos de identidad nacional al deconstruir oposiciones binarias. Además,  este artículo busca examinar la aplicabilidad del cine de autor y de las prácticas colaborativas en los “cines pequeños” o “small cinemas” al comparar y contrastar ambos grupos a través del análisis de las formas de producción y corrientes estéticas.

  14. Radiosensitization effect of recombinant adenoviral-mediated PUMA gene on pancreatic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dongming; Zhang Kejun; Li Dechun; Zhu Xuefeng; Yang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of PUMA gene mediated by recombinant adenovirus vector combined with radiation on the pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: The PANC-1 cells were infected with Ad- PUMA (MOI=10, 50 and 100, respectively) for 48 h. The expression of PUMA mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. PANC-1 cells were divided into 4 groups: control group, transfection group, irradiation group and combined treatment group. The cell growth inhibition rate and apoptotic rate of PANC-1 cells were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Human pancreatic carcinomas were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice, which were randomized into 4 groups: control group, transfection group, irradiation group and combined treatment group. Tumor growth rate and apoptotic index at different time points were recorded in 35 days. Results: The expression of PUMA mRNA and protein was increased with the increase of MOI of Ad-PUMA, which was does-dependant (MOI=10, mRNA=0.46± 0.02, protein=0.75± 0.09; MOI=50, mRNA=1.12±0.09, protein=1.01±0.18; MOI=100, mRNA=1.50±0.08, protein= 1.80±0.15; P 3 , (39.5±9.23)mm 3 , (33.6±10.3)mm 3 and (52.0±11.43)mm 3 , respectively, P<0.05]. And the apoptotic index was increased in the same manner (AI=0.43±0.05, 0.29±0.10, 0.24±0.05 and 0.00±0.00, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions: Recombinant adenoviral-mediated PUMA gene combined with irradiation could increase the cell-killing effect on pancreatic carcinoma. It is better than that of either one kind of therapy. (authors)

  15. A New Tool for CME Arrival Time Prediction using Machine Learning Algorithms: CAT-PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Ye, Yudong; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Erdélyi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are arguably the most violent eruptions in the solar system. CMEs can cause severe disturbances in interplanetary space and can even affect human activities in many aspects, causing damage to infrastructure and loss of revenue. Fast and accurate prediction of CME arrival time is vital to minimize the disruption that CMEs may cause when interacting with geospace. In this paper, we propose a new approach for partial-/full halo CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms (CAT-PUMA). Via detailed analysis of the CME features and solar-wind parameters, we build a prediction engine taking advantage of 182 previously observed geo-effective partial-/full halo CMEs and using algorithms of the Support Vector Machine. We demonstrate that CAT-PUMA is accurate and fast. In particular, predictions made after applying CAT-PUMA to a test set unknown to the engine show a mean absolute prediction error of ∼5.9 hr within the CME arrival time, with 54% of the predictions having absolute errors less than 5.9 hr. Comparisons with other models reveal that CAT-PUMA has a more accurate prediction for 77% of the events investigated that can be carried out very quickly, i.e., within minutes of providing the necessary input parameters of a CME. A practical guide containing the CAT-PUMA engine and the source code of two examples are available in the Appendix, allowing the community to perform their own applications for prediction using CAT-PUMA.

  16. PUMAS: The On-line journal of Math and Science Examples for Pre-College Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-11-01

    PUMAS - “Practical Uses of Math And Science” - is an on-line collection of brief examples showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes can be used in interesting settings, including every day life. The examples are written primarily by scientists, engineers, and other content experts having practical experience with the material. They are aimed mainly at classroom teachers to enrich their presentation of math and science topics. The goal of PUMAS is to capture, for the benefit of pre-college education, the flavor of the vast experience that working scientists have with interesting and practical uses of math and science. There are currently over 80 examples in the PUMAS collection, and they are organized by curriculum topics and tagged with relevant grade levels and curriculum topic benchmarks. The published examples cover a wide range of subject matter: from demonstrating why summer is hot, to describing the fluid dynamics of a lava lamp, to calculating the best age to collect Social Security Benefits. The examples are available to all interested parties via the PUMAS web site: http://pumas.nasa.gov/.We invite the community to participate in the PUMAS collection. We seek scientists and scientific thinkers to provide innovative examples of practical uses for teachers to use to enrich the classroom experience, and content experts to participate in peer-review. We also seek teachers to review examples for originality, accuracy of content, clarity of presentation, and grade-level appropriateness. Finally, we encourage teachers to mine this rich repository for real-world examples to demonstrate the value of math in science in everyday life.

  17. CSR och politisk konsumtion : - en studie av Nikes och Pumas CSR- rapporter

    OpenAIRE

    Björling, Ameli

    2010-01-01

    “CSR and political consumption – a study of Nike’s and Puma’s CSR-reports” The purpose of this dissertation is to examine if political consumption has influenced multinational corporations to improve their Corporate Social Responsibility reports and policies more, than a company who has not been a target for political consumption. This dissertation is a content analysis of Nike’s and Puma’s first (Nike 2001, Puma 2001) and latest (Nike 2007/09, Puma 2007/08) CSR- reports. Archie Carroll’s mod...

  18. Neoliberalismo socioeconômico e mutações jurídicas do Estado moderno: o Estado Plurinacional boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinho Martins Botelho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar as recentes modificações no ordenamento jurídico constitucional boliviano, no que tange à institucionalização do Estado Plurinacional, criado a partir do diálogo maior entre a democracia cultural, o direito e as instituições econômicas. Em 2009, fora aprovada a Constituição Política do Estado Plurinacional de Bolívia, depois de manifestação por meio de referendo. O legado da nova Constituição Política boliviana reside no desligamento com o antigo regime mais corporativista e voltado para a difusão de um ideal neoliberal socioeconômico.  A compreensão da nova categoria constitucional poderá contribuir para o levantamento de elementos que possibilitem a compreensão de novas mutações constitucionais e intervenções jurídicas na sociedade do século XXI. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a recente crise do Estado boliviano e na institucionalização do Estado Plurinacional como uma demanda social para a superação das ideias neoliberais.

  19. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill. rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p < 0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 be-tter than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively. Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  20. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  1. Mesothelioma in Two Nondomestic Felids: North American Cougar (Felis concolor and Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Whiton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male North American cougar (Felis concolor presented with a 2-day history of anorexia, restlessness, and dyspnea. White blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased, and BUN (143 mg/dL, creatinine (6.3 mg/dL, and phosphorus (8.5 mg/dL concentrations indicated chronic renal disease. Thoracic radiographs showed severe pleural and pericardial effusion. During attempts to remove the fluid, cardiac tamponade developed and the cat died. At necropsy, nodular masses decorated the pericardium at the level of the base of the heart. The final microscopic diagnosis was mesothelioma of the pericardium, tunica adventitia of the main pulmonary artery, left auricle epicardium, and left ventricular epicardium. A 15-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus was evaluated for acute respiratory distress. The white blood cell count ( cells/μL and absolute segmented neutrophil count ( cells/μL were increased. Radiographically pleural effusion and a cranial thoracic mass were seen. The cheetah was euthanized, and a gross diagnosis of disseminated pleural mesothelioma with thoracic effusion was made. Histologically, pleural mesothelioma was confirmed with local invasion of the lung and pulmonary arterial emboli and infarction. In both cases, a diagnosis of mesothelioma was made based on cellular morphology, microscopic architecture, and neoplastic cell coexpression of cytokeratin and vimentin.

  2. Harnessing the p53-PUMA Axis to Overcome DNA Damage Resistance in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to DNA damage–induced apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and a major cause of treatment failure and lethal disease outcome. A tumor entity that is largely resistant to DNA-damaging therapies including chemo- or radiotherapy is renal cell carcinoma (RCC. This study was designed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of DNA damage resistance in RCC to develop strategies to resensitize tumor cells to DNA damage–induced apoptosis. Here, we show that apoptosis-resistant RCC cells have a disconnect between activation of p53 and upregulation of the downstream proapoptotic protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA. We demonstrate that this disconnect is not caused by gene-specific repression through CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF but instead by aberrant chromatin compaction. Treatment with an HDAC inhibitor was found to effectively reactivate PUMA expression on the mRNA and protein level and to revert resistance to DNA damage–induced cell death. Ectopic expression of PUMA was found to resensitize a panel of RCC cell lines to four different DNA-damaging agents tested. Remarkably, all RCC cell lines analyzed were wild-type for p53, and a knockdown was likewise able to sensitize RCC cells to acute genotoxic stress. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA damage resistance in RCC is reversible, involves the p53-PUMA axis, and is potentially targetable to improve the oncological outcomes of RCC patients.

  3. PUMAS (Practical Uses of Math And Science) - Low Cost, High Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    PUMAS is an on-line journal, aimed at giving pre-college teachers brief examples showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes can be used in interesting settings, including everyday life. The concept is a simple one - (1) ask scientists, engineers, and other content experts to write up their favorite examples of practical uses, (2) ask the authors to key their examples to the National Standards and Benchmarks, so the material is grade-appropriate and useful in the classroom, (3) have each example peer-reviewed by at least one scientist with a relevant background, and at least one teacher at an appropriate grade level, helping keep an emphasis on quality, and (4) disseminate the examples widely and inexpensively through the PUMAS Web Site (http://pumas.jpl.nasa.gov). PUMAS examples may be activities, anecdotes, descriptions of "neat ideas," formal exercises, puzzles, or demonstrations; each one is a gem, written in the voice of its author. The PUMAS site also provides opportunities for feedback on individual examples and on the journal as a whole. As with most scientific journals, the writing, reviewing, and editing efforts are volunteered; they leverage the "community service" offered by so many teachers and scientists. We have streamlined all aspects of the example submission, review, and search processes so participants can contribute at a high level, with a minimum of extraneous effort. The primary PUMAS operating expenses cover Web Site technical maintenance and computer security. The PUMAS site receives several thousand unique queries per week, and publishes an average of about one new example per month. Maintaining a strong user base has been helped by endorsements from such organizations as the NSTA and NCTM. To contributors we offer an avenue for making a real impact on pre-college education with a relatively small time commitment, and the opportunity for peer-reviewed publication. We are always looking for good examples of the Practical Uses

  4. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toruno, Cristhian; Carbonneau, Seth; Stewart, Rodney A; Jette, Cicely

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  5. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Bevins

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral, that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact, and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  6. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infections disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases – vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii – varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  7. Individual, contextual, and age-related acoustic variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor loud calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M Erb

    Full Text Available Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor. Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53% followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0 decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances.

  8. Comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol para a criopreservação de sêmen de suçuarana (Puma concolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyara de Deco-Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de biotécnicas de reprodução é uma importante ferramenta para a conservação de animais silvestres ameaçados de extinção. Procedimentos de reprodução assistida em suçuarana, no entanto, são escassos na literatura, em especial aqueles relacionados à criopreservação de sêmen. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a congelabilidade do sêmen de suçuaranas adultas mantidas em cativeiro, por meio da comparação entre duas concentrações de glicerol no meio de congelamento. Foram usados cinco machos adultos de suçuarana, mantidos no Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres do Mato Grosso do Sul (CRAS/MS. As amostras foram coletadas por eletroejaculação e avaliadas quanto ao seu aspecto físico, volume, vigor, motilidade, concentração e índice espermático. De cada ejaculado duas alíquotas foram diluídas em meio Tris-citrato-gema de ovo, em concentrações finais de 5 e 7,5% de glicerol, resfriadas a uma taxa de -0,55ºC/min e congeladas a uma taxa de -5,8ºC/min. Depois de descongeladas, as amostras foram reavaliadas e submetidas aos testes de termorresistência e hiposmótico. O protocolo de criopreservação e descongelamento de sêmen proposto se mostrou eficiente em ambas as concentrações de glicerol testadas, não havendo diferença (p>0,05 entre estas.

  9. Análise da predação de Puma concolor em rebanhos domésticos na região do Parque Nacional de São Joaquim e entorno, SC, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Guilherme Marins de Sá

    2005-01-01

    A predação de rebanhos domésticos por predadores silvestres é o conflito mais intenso entre seres humanos e animais silvestres por causa do prejuízo econômico. A solução encontrada pelos fazendeiros é o abate do predador, causa principal de mortalidade destes animais ao redor do mundo. Para compreender melhor as variáveis ambientais relacionadas a este conflito na região do Parque Nacional de São Joaquim, SC, Brasil, e entorno, foram visitadas propriedades que registraram a presença de leões-...

  10. New light on an old friend: targeting PUMA in radioprotection and therapy of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Ales; Marek, Jan; Havelek, Radim; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Seifrtova, Martina; Zarybnicka, Lenka; Filipova, Alzbeta; Rezacova, Martina; Sinkorova, Zuzana

    2018-04-05

    This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the role of p53-upregulated mediator of apoptosis (PUMA) in molecular pathways with respect to its potential therapeutic applications. Particular emphasis is given to the PUMA´s role in ionizing radiation-induced signalling as radiotoxicity of normal tissue is mediated mostly via apoptosis. PUMA and its p53-dependent and p53-independent induction is described and potential use as a new target for the development of radioprotective agents is suggested. Further implications, including targeting PUMA to prevent and treat cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed together with overview of other therapeutic applications. Finally, basic chemical structures for development of novel PUMA modulators such as pifithrine derivativeses, kinase inhibitors or modulators of Bcl-2 protein family are described. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Un abordaje comparativo en torno a la incidencia de la tuberculosis en inmigrantes bolivianos de Buenos Aires y São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Goldberg

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone de manera exploratoria y desde una perspectiva sociosanitaria regional, en clave comparativa, algunas dimensiones de análisis en torno a la incidencia de la tuberculosis en inmigrantes bolivianos de las ciudades de Buenos Aires y São Paulo. En ambos casos, se trata de un padecimiento ligado a sus modos de vida y de trabajo precarios en talleres textiles clandestinos. Sumado a lo anterior, la falta de documentación en regla, las dificultades de acceso a la atención sanitaria pública y el sufrimiento social experimentado, potencian la situación de vulnerabilidad social de estas personas; aumentando los riesgos de infectarse y desarrollar la enfermedad.

  12. Tras las huellas de los Ñanaigua: de tapii, tapiete y otros salvajes en el Chaco boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les noms de peuples et d’ethnies qui pullulent dans les chroniques coloniales, ceux de Tapii et Tapiete ont mis beaucoup d’auteurs à l’épreuve et ont été qualifiés de véritable “énigme ethnografique”. Ils ont donné lieu, en particulier, à de nombreuses confusions dans la littérature postérieure, faute de prêter attention à leur sens original et générique : “esclaves”, ou “vrais esclaves”. Ainsi, les étiquettes de Tapii et Tapiete ont pu désigner différentes ethnies selon les lieux et les époques. L’article tente d’éclaircir le panorama dans le cas du Chaco bolivien, tout en introduisant un troisième terme générique qui est celui de Ñanaigua ou “sauvages”, et en présentant des données historiques inédites sur les différentes ethnies ainsi appelées au XIXe siècle. Entre los nombres de etnias y pueblos que pululan en las crónicas coloniales, los de tapii y tapiete han puesto a prueba muchos autores y fueron calificados de verdadero “enigma etnográfico”. Han dado lugar, en particular, a muchas confusiones en la literatura posterior, principalmente por no prestar atención a su sentido original y genérico: “esclavos” o “verdaderos esclavos”. Así, las etiquetas de tapii y tapiete han podido designar a diferentes etnias según los lugares y las épocas. El artículo intenta aclarar el panorama en el caso del Chaco boliviano, introduciendo un tercer término genérico que es el de ñanaigua o “salvaje”, y aportando datos históricos inéditos sobre las diferentes etnias así designadas en el siglo XIX. Among the many ethnonyms that proliferate throughout the colonial records, those of tapii and tapiete have challenged a number of scholars, and have even been deemed an “ethnographic enigma.” Largely due to ignorance of their original and generic meaning -“slaves” and “true slaves”- both have given rise to several confusions in subsequent literature. In fact, the labels tapii and tapiete

  13. Juan Puma, el hijo del oso. Cuento quechua de La Jalca, Chachapoyas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available JUAN PUMA, LE FILS DE L'OURS . CONTE QUECHUA DE LA JALCA, CHACHAPOYAS. Une des fêtes les plus importantes de la communauté de La Jalca, Province de Chachapoyas, Amazonas, est celle de la Saint-Pierre où l’on exécute une danse de l’ours très semblable à celle des ukukus du sud péruvien. Le narrateur du récit que nous publions ici assimile ce rite à l’histoire de Juan Oso (Jean de l’Ours très connue dans le monde andin. L’importance de l’ours dans cette culture des hautes terres amazoniennes est fondamentale. En quechua local, l’ours s’appelle “puma” et partage avec le puma de la forêt les caractéristiques de puissance effrayante et de pouvoirs surnaturels. Le fils de l’ours, Juan, évoque les relations ambiguës liant les “chrétiens” des hautes terres d’Amazonas et les “sauvages” de la forêt. Una de las fiestas más importantes de la comunidad de La Jalca, Provincia de Chachapoyas, Amazonas, es la de San Pedro en la que se representa un baile del oso muy semejante al baile de los ukukus del sur peruano. El narrador del cuento que publicamos aquí asimila este rito a la historia de Juan Oso, muy conocido en el mundo andino. La importancia del oso en esta cultura de la ceja de selva alta es fundamental. En quechua local, el oso se llama “puma” y comparte con el puma de la selva las características de fuerza temible y poderes sobrenaturales. El hijo del oso, Juan, evoca las relaciones ambiguas existentes entre los “cristianos” de la serranía de Amazonas y los “chunchos” de la selva. JUAN PUMA, THE BEAR'S SON. A QUECHUA TALE FROM LA JALCA, CHACHAPOYAS. One of the most important feasts of the community of La Jalca, Province of Amazonas, is that of Saint Peter in which a bear dance similar to the southern Peruvian dance of the ukukus is performed. In the story published here, the narrator assimilates this rite with the tale of Juan Oso, another story which is well known throughout the Andes. The importance of bears

  14. Plutonium and minor actinides management in thermal high - temperature reactors - the EU FP6 project puma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (HTR) can fulfil a very useful niche for the purposes of Pu and Minor Actinide (MA) incineration due to its unique and unsurpassed safety features, as well as to the attractive incentives offered by the nature of the coated particle (CP) fuel. No European reactor of this type is currently available, but there has been, and still is, considerable interest internationally. Decisions to construct such a reactor in China and in South Africa have already been made or are about to be made. Apart from the unique and unsurpassed safety features offered by this reactor type, the nature of the CP fuel offers a number of attractive characteristics. In particular, it can withstand burn-ups far beyond that in either LWR or FR systems. Demonstrations as high as 75% FIMA have been achieved. The coated particle itself offers significantly improved proliferation resistance, and finally with a correct choice of the kernel composition, it can be a very effective support for direct geological disposal of the fuel. The overall objective of the PUMA project, a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the European Union 6th Framework (EU FP6), is to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO 2 -free energy generation. A number of important issues concerning the use of Pu and MA in gas-cooled reactors have already been dealt with in other projects, or are being treated in ongoing projects, e.g. as part of EU FP6. However, further steps are required to demonstrate the potential of HTRs as Pu/MA transmuters based on realistic/feasible designs of CP Pu/MA fuel and the PUMA focuses on necessary

  15. Expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara-Konishi, Jun; Oizumi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Junko; Kikuchi, Eiki; Mizugaki, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    The BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family have been proposed to play a key role in the control of apoptosis and in the initiation of the apoptotic pathways. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 135 surgically resected NSCLCs were immunohistochemically assessed for Bim, Noxa, and Puma expression. The immunoscores were determined, and then its correlation with either the clinicopathological variables or the survival outcomes were analyzed. Immunohistochemical reactivity for Bim, Noxa, and Puma was detected in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Bim expression was associated with several clinicopathological factors, including sex (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.03), pathological histology (p = 0.001), pathological T stage (p = 0.03), pathological disease stage (p = 0.02), and differentiation of tumor (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between low Bim expression and squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.04), in addition to a correlation between high Bim expression and well differentiated tumors (p = 0.02). Analysis of cellular biological expression demonstrated a link between low Bim expression and high Ki67. While Noxa expression was also shown to be correlated with both smoking habit (p = 0.02) and the pathological histology (p = 0.03), there was no strong association observed between the expression and the clinical features when they were examined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. No correlations were noted between Puma expression and any of the variables. Our analyses also indicated that the expression levels of the BH3-only proteins were not pertinent to the survival outcome. The current analyses demonstrated that Bim expression in the NSCLCs was associated with both squamous cell carcinoma histology and tumor proliferation

  16. CAT-PUMA: CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Ye, Yudong; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Erdélyi, Robert

    2018-04-01

    CAT-PUMA (CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms) quickly and accurately predicts the arrival of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) of CME arrival time. The software was trained via detailed analysis of CME features and solar wind parameters using 182 previously observed geo-effective partial-/full-halo CMEs and uses algorithms of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) to make its predictions, which can be made within minutes of providing the necessary input parameters of a CME.

  17. PUMA and NF-kB Are Cell Signaling Predictors of Reovirus Oncolysis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirukkumaran, Chandini; Shi, Zhong-Qiao; Thirukkumaran, Ponnampalam; Luider, Joanne; Kopciuk, Karen; Spurrell, Jason; Elzinga, Kate; Morris, Don

    2017-01-01

    Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour. In the present study global gene expression profiling was utilized as a preliminary roadmap to tease-out pivotal molecules involved in reovirus induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Reovirus treated HTB133 and MCF7 breast cancer cells revealed transcriptional alteration of a defined subset of apoptotic genes and members of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) family and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) were prominent. Since NF-kB can paradoxically suppress or promote apoptosis in cancer, the significance of NF-kB in reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer was investigated. Real time PCR analysis indicated a 2.9-4.3 fold increase in NF-kB p65 message levels following reovirus infection of MCF7 and HTB133, respectively. Nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 protein was also dramatically augmented post reovirus treatment and correlated with enhanced DNA binding. Pharmacologic inhibition of NF-kB lead to oncolytic protection and significant down regulation of PUMA message levels. PUMA down regulation using siRNA suppressed reovirus oncolysis via significantly repressed apoptosis in p53 mutant HTB133 cells. This study demonstrates for the first time that a prominent pathway of reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer is mediated through NF-kB and that PUMA upregulation is dependent on NF-kB activation. These findings represent potential therapeutic indicators of reovirus treatment in future clinical trials.

  18. Universitätsbibliografie mit PUMA. Praxisbericht aus der Einführung der Universitätsbibliografie an der Universitätsbibliothek Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Hermann

    2017-12-01

    The added value of the Academic Publication Management PUMA at the University of Stuttgart compared to a bibliographic cataloguing environment lies in the direct processing of data by scientists without an interim step via the library. For the university content management system, a plugin is available, which dynamically integrates publication lists into employees’ web pages. The metadata is loaded directly from PUMA, filtered, sorted and can be put out in the citation style desired. PUMA offers many interfaces and display possibilities.

  19. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Giunti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs, which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  20. Ecdysteroid receptor docking suggests that dibenzoylhydrazine-based insecticides are devoid of any deleterious effect on the parasitic wasp Psyttalia concolor (Hym. Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea, Paloma; Christiaens, Olivier; Amor, Fermín; Viñuela, Elisa; Rougé, Pierre; Medina, Pilar; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-07-01

    The moulting accelerating compounds (MACs) or ecdysteroid agonists represent a selective group of insecticides acting upon binding to the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and leading to lethal premature moulting in larval stages and aborted reproduction in adults. Psyttalia concolor Szèpl. is a useful parasitic wasp attacking important tephritid pests such as the medfly and olive fruit fly. Contact and oral exposure in the laboratory of female parasitic wasps to the dibenzoylhydrazine-based methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide and RH-5849 did not provoke negative effects. No mortality and no reduction in beneficial capacity were observed. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the EcR of P. concolor was sequenced, and a homology protein model was constructed which confirmed a cavity structure with 12 α-helices, harbouring the natural insect moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. However, a steric clash occurred for the MAC insecticides owing to a restricted extent of the ligand-binding cavity of the PcLBD-EcR, while they did dock well in that of susceptible insects. The insect toxicity assays demonstrated that MACs are selective for P. concolor. The modelling/docking experiments are indications that these insecticides do not bind with the LBD-EcR of P. concolor and support the theory that they show no biological effects in the parasitic wasp. These data may help in explaining the compatible use of MACs together with parasitic wasps in IPM programmes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. miR-34 increases in vitro PANC-1 cell sensitivity to gemcitabine via targeting Slug/PUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Yang, Xu-Hai; Chen, Dong; Yan, Xiang; Jing, Fu-Chun; Liu, Hong-Qian; Zhang, Ronghua

    2018-01-01

    miR-34 was deregulated in tumor tissues compared with corresponding noncancerous tissue samples. Furthermore, miR-34 may contribute to cancer-stromal interaction associated with cancer progression. However, whether miR-34 could decrease chemoresistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agent remains unclear. In our study, we examined whether overexpression of miR-34 could sensitize gemcitabine -mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. We found that miR-34 markedly induced gemcitabine -mediated apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. miR-34 induced down-regulation of Slug expression and upregulation of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression. The over-expression of Slug or downregulation of PUMA by Slug cDNA or PUMA siRNA transfection markedly blocked miR-34-induced gemcitabine sensitization. Furthermore, miR-34 induced PUMA expression by downregulation of Slug. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-34 enhances sensitization against gemcitabine-mediated apoptosis through the down-regulation of Slug expression, and up-regulation of Slug-dependent PUMA expression.

  2. Examining the Relationship Between Edaphic Variables and the Rooting System of Abies concolor in the southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Jackson, R. B.; Tumber-Davila, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    An increase in the frequency and severity of droughts has been associated with the changing climate. These events have the potential to alter the composition and biogeography of forests, as well as increase tree mortality related to climate-induced stress. Already, an increase in tree mortality has been observed throughout the US. The recent drought in California led to millions of tree mortalities in the southern Sierra Nevada alone. In order to assess the potential impacts of these events on forest systems, it is imperative to understand what factors contribute to tree mortality. As plants become water-stressed, they may invest carbon more heavily belowground to reach a bigger pool of water, but their ability to adapt may be limited by the characteristics of the soil. In the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, a high tree mortality zone, we have selected both dead and living trees to examine the factors that contribute to root zone variability and belowground biomass investment by individual plants. A series of 15 cores surrounding the tree were taken to collect root and soil samples. These were then used to compare belowground rooting distributions with soil characteristics (texture, water holding capacity, pH, electric conductivity). Abies concolor is heavily affected by drought-induced mortality, therefore the rooting systems of dead Abies concolor trees were examined to determine the relationship between their rooting systems and environmental conditions. Examining the relationship between soil characteristics and rooting systems of trees may shed light on the plasticity of rooting systems and how trees adapt based on the characteristics of its environment. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to tree mortality can improve our ability to predict how forest systems may be impacted by climate-induced stress. Key words: Root systems, soil characteristics, drought, adaptation, terrestrial carbon, forest ecology

  3. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  4. Puma and Trail/Dr5 Pathways Control Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Distinct Populations of Testicular Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coureuil, M.; Tavernier, M.; Barroca, V.; Fouchet, P.; Allemand, I.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogonia- stem cells and progenitors of adult spermatogenesis- are killed through a p53-regulated apoptotic process after γ-irradiation but the death effectors are still poorly characterized. Our data demonstrate that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved, and especially that spermatogonia can be split into two main populations, according to apoptotic effectors. Following irradiation both Dr5 and Puma genes are up-regulated in the α 6 -integrin-positive Side Population (SP) fraction, which is highly enriched in spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis confirms an increased number of Dr5-expressing SP cells, and Puma-β isoform accumulates in α 6 -integrin positive cellular extracts, enriched in spermatogonia. Trail -/- or Puma -/- spermatogonia display a reduced sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis. The TUNEL kinetics strongly suggest that the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, via Trail/Dr5 and Puma respectively, could be engaged in distinct subpopulations of spermatogonia. Indeed flow cytometric studies show that Dr5 receptor is constitutively present on more than half of the undifferentiated progenitors (Kit - α 6 + SP) and half of the differentiated ones (Kit + α 6 + SP). In addition after irradiation, Puma is not detected in the Dr5-positive cellular fraction isolated by immuno-magnetic purification, while Puma is present in the Dr5-negative cell extracts. In conclusion, adult testicular progenitors are divided into distinct sub-populations by apoptotic effectors, independently of progenitor types (immature Kit-negative versus mature Kit-positive), underscoring differential radiosensitivities characterizing the stem cell/progenitors compartment. (authors)

  5. Pequeña historia de un proyecto utópico: el Movimiento del Nuevo Cine y Video Boliviano y su Revista Imagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Aimaretti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de una investigación más amplia que releva, describe y analiza las prácticas de producción audiovisual en La Paz, Bolivia, entre 1978 y 1989, el presente trabajo se centra en historiar el proyecto editorial Imagen: una revista de cine que publicó el Movimiento del Nuevo Cine y Video Boliviano durante la segunda mitad de la década del ochenta. Sin tradición local en lo que refiere a publicaciones dedicadas al cine, Imagen fue una iniciativa autogestiva y autofinanciada, que funcionó con una frecuencia y formato variable, y sirvió como foro de discusión sobre temas específicos del quehacer local, vehículo de difusión de actividades del Movimiento, microespacio de formación, medio de circulación de convocatorias y concursos, y herramienta de articulación entre distintas propuestas. El trabajo explica su devenir histórico, describe sus caracteres generales y perfil editorial, da cuenta de los actores intervinientes y sus formas de organización, y señala las condiciones de posibilidad, alcances y limitaciones del proyecto.

  6. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  7. «Y VERÁS COMO QUIEREN EN CHILE...»: Un estudio sobre el prejuicio hacia los inmigrantes bolivianos por parte de los jóvenes chilenos

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas C, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este estudio fue indagar en las formas que toma el prejuicio hacia los inmigrantes de origen boliviano. Hemos utilizado las tipologías que se derivan de las escalas de prejuicio sutil y manifiesto (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) para comparar a los sujetos en diferentes variables psicosociales relevantes en la literatura existente sobre prejuicio y racismo. La muestra se compuso de 167 estudiantes de último año de enseñanza media, pertenecientes a diversos centros educac...

  8. Inhibition of p38 MAPK enhances ABT-737-induced cell death in melanoma cell lines: novel regulation of PUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuling, Angela M; Andrew, Susan E; Tron, Victor A

    2010-06-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is constitutively activated in the majority of melanomas, promoting cell survival, proliferation and migration. In addition, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 are frequently overexpressed, contributing to melanoma's well-documented chemoresistance. Recently, it was reported that the combination of MAPK pathway inhibition by specific MEK inhibitors and Bcl-2 family inhibition by BH3-mimetic ABT-737 synergistically induces apoptotic cell death in melanoma cell lines. Here we provide the first evidence that inhibition of another key MAPK, p38, synergistically induces apoptosis in melanoma cells in combination with ABT-737. We also provide novel mechanistic data demonstrating that inhibition of p38 increases expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein PUMA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PUMA can be cleaved by a caspase-dependent mechanism during apoptosis and identify what appears to be the PUMA cleavage product. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of ABT-737 and inhibition of p38 is a promising, new treatment strategy that acts through a novel PUMA-dependent mechanism.

  9. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  10. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  11. Maximal killing of lymphoma cells by DNA damage–inducing therapy requires not only the p53 targets Puma and Noxa, but also Bim

    OpenAIRE

    Happo, Lina; Cragg, Mark S.; Phipson, Belinda; Haga, Jon M.; Jansen, Elisa S.; Herold, Marco J.; Dewson, Grant; Michalak, Ewa M.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Strasser, Andreas; Cory, Suzanne; Scott, Clare L.

    2010-01-01

    DNA-damaging chemotherapy is the backbone of cancer treatment, although it is not clear how such treatments kill tumor cells. In nontransformed lymphoid cells, the combined loss of 2 proapoptotic p53 target genes, Puma and Noxa, induces as much resistance to DNA damage as loss of p53 itself. In Eμ-Myc lymphomas, however, lack of both Puma and Noxa resulted in no greater drug resistance than lack of Puma alone. A third B-cell lymphoma-2 homology domain (BH)3-only gene, Bim, although not a dire...

  12. Calculation of the CAREM reactor with the HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT chain of codes; Calculo del reactor CAREM con la cadena de codigos HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notari, Carla; Grant, Carlos R [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the work was the evaluation of the the CAREM 25 reactor core, using a chain of codes (HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT) different to the one used in the original design (CONDOR-CITVAP-THERMIT). First, we performed a partial validation of the our codes in lattices similar to CAREM and reproduced a benchmark for simulation of gadolinium burnup. The results were considered satisfactory for this stage of the project. Then, we calculated the core along the normal operating equilibrium cycle and in hot and cold shut-down conditions. The main outcome of our evaluation confirms the general behaviour of the reference calculations except in one important point referring to the cold shut down. In this condition, the failure of one single rod of bank number 13 of the shut down system, leaves the core in a supercritical state at the beginning of the cycle and this anomaly persists during almost a third of the overall cycle. A new design of the core is proposed with minor modifications of the reference one, without introducing new types of fuel elements and keeping the same fuel management scheme. This new core fulfills all the design requirements. (author)

  13. Lo que a nadie asusta pero a todos preocupa. Etnografía de los miedos cotidianos en una comunidad del altiplano sur boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil García, Francisco M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the idea that fear is installed in our lives, I analyze the double talk of fears denied and concerns recognized from which the inhabitants of a community in the Bolivian high-plateau explain their daily lives, paying particular attention to the reasons given by adults in the education of children when being in certain environments or forbid them to perform certain actions. So, I will present a spatial distinction among urban settings: the own spaces, secure and recognized —but potentially threatened—, and the territory of the others, which the concurrency of past and present terrible otherness transforms in a frightening geography where things happen, fear scenarios that need to be conspirators and reordered.Partiendo de la idea de que el miedo existe instalado en nuestras vidas, se analiza el doble discurso de miedos negados y preocupaciones reconocidas desde el que los habitantes de una comunidad del altiplano boliviano explican su vida cotidiana, prestando especial atención a las razones esgrimidas por los adultos en la educación de los niños a la hora de prohibirles frecuentar determinados ambientes o realizar en ellos ciertas acciones. Para ello partiré de una distinción espacial dentro del entramado urbano, diferenciando así entre espacios propios, seguros y reconocidos —pero potencialmente amenazados— que, debido a la concurrencia de determinadas alteridades terribles presentes y pretéritas, son sentidos como un territorio de los otros, una geografía atemorizadora donde suceden cosas, escenarios del miedo que necesitan ser conjurados y reordenados.

  14. Forward Models for Following a Moving Target with the Puma 560 Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a forward model could be applied in a manipulator robot to accomplish the task of following a moving target. The forward model has been implemented in the puma 560 robot manipulator in simulation after a babbling motor phase using ANFIS neural networks. The forward model delivers a rough estimation of the position in the operational space of a moving target. Using this information a Cartesian controller tracks the moving target. An implementation of the proposed architecture and the Piepmeir algorithm for the problem of following a moving target is also shown in the paper. The control architecture proposed in this paper was also tested with MLP and RBF neural networks. Results and simulations are shown to demonstrate the applicability of our proposed architecture for tracking a moving target.

  15. Startup transient simulation for natural circulation boiling water reactors in PUMA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuran, S.; Xu, Y.; Sun, X.; Cheng, L.; Yoon, H.J.; Revankar, S.T.; Ishii, M.; Wang, W.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the importance of instabilities that may occur at low-pressure and -flow conditions during the startup of natural circulation boiling water reactors, startup simulation experiments were performed in the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. The simulations used pressure scaling and followed the startup procedure of a typical natural circulation boiling water reactor. Two simulation experiments were performed for the reactor dome pressures ranging from 55 kPa to 1 MPa, where the instabilities may occur. The experimental results show the signature of condensation-induced oscillations during the single-phase-to-two-phase natural circulation transition. The results also suggest that a rational startup procedure is needed to overcome the startup instabilities in natural circulation boiling water reactor designs

  16. Simulasi Penggunaan Ipv6 Pada PD. Pumas Jaya Menggunakan Metode Manual Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidjen Elidjen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet usage trends with IPv4 addresses that only have 32-bit addresses could no longer cope with the large allocation of the required addresses. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has issued a new standard of Internet protocol called IPv6 to anticipate this problem. PD. Pumas Jaya, which started in 1996 in the field of marine products in particular marinated seafood, such as salted fish, rebon shrimp, cuttlefish, anchovies and other marine products to anticipate the need for this in its network. However, IPv6 can not simply be used to replace IPv4 as the existing network infrastructure with IPv4. This research discussed IPv6 simulation tunneling with manual methods so that an IPv6 site can communicate with other IPv6 site even if separated by an infrastructure that supports only IPv4. 

  17. Response to LiPuma and DeMarco’s Article on “Hastening Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Zenz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Palliative care and patient autonomy: moving beyond prohibitions against hastening death” by LiPuma and DeMarco deals with an aspect of end of life care which is the source of considerable disagreement. It is important to emphasize that autonomy is not the unique feature for end of life care. There is always a medical and ethical commitment to care, i.e. beneficence and nonmaleficence. All of these aspects have to be taken into account when treating patients at the very end of life. There is considerable scientific proof indicating that most patients and families can experience a death in dignity when being cared for in palliative care or hospice units.

  18. Consumption of an adult Puma yagouaroundi (Felidae by the snake Boa constrictor (Boidae in Central Mexico Consumo de un jaguarundi adulto Puma yagouaroundi (Felidae por la serpiente Boa constrictor (Boidae en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Few felids have been recorded as being preyed upon by the Boa constrictor snake (Boa constrictor. Documentation of predation on felids by reptiles is scarce, and natural predators of the adult jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi are poorly known. Here, we report for the first time an adult male jaguarundi being eaten by the snake Boa constrictor (of 273 cm snout-to-vent length at the Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve, Estado de México.Pocos depredadores han sido registrados como presas de la Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor. La depredación de felinos por reptiles es escasamente documentada y los depredadores naturales del jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi son pobremente conocidos. Aquí, nosotros informamos de un evento de depredación de un jaguarundi macho adulto que fue consumido por una B. constrictor (longitud hocico-cloaca: 273 cm en la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, Estado de México.

  19. Anti-cancer effect of novel PAK1 inhibitor via induction of PUMA-mediated cell death and p21-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Tae-Gyun; Yoon, Min-Ho; Hong, Shin-Deok; Choi, Jiyun; Ha, Nam-Chul; Sun, Hokeun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2017-04-04

    Hyper-activation of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is frequently observed in human cancer and speculated as a target of novel anti-tumor drug. In previous, we also showed that PAK1 is highly activated in the Smad4-deficient condition and suppresses PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) through direct binding and phosphorylation. On the basis of this result, we have tried to find novel PAK1-PUMA binding inhibitors. Through ELISA-based blind chemical library screening, we isolated single compound, IPP-14 (IPP; Inhibitor of PAK1-PUMA), which selectively blocks the PAK1-PUMA binding and also suppresses cell proliferation via PUMA-dependent manner. Indeed, in PUMA-deficient cells, this chemical did not show anti-proliferating effect. This chemical possessed very strong PAK1 inhibition activity that it suppressed BAD (Bcl-2-asoociated death promoter) phosphorylation and meta-phase arrest via Aurora kinase inactivation in lower concentration than that of previous PAK1 kinase, FRAX486 and AG879. Moreover, our chemical obviously induced p21/WAF1/CIP1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) expression by releasing from Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and by inhibition of AKT-mediated p21 suppression. Considering our result, IPP-14 and its derivatives would be possible candidates for PAK1 and p21 induction targeted anti-cancer drug.

  20. mPUMA: a computational approach to microbiota analysis by de novo assembly of operational taxonomic units based on protein-coding barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Matthew G; Chaban, Bonnie; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Muirhead, Kevin; Hill, Janet E

    2013-08-15

    Formation of operational taxonomic units (OTU) is a common approach to data aggregation in microbial ecology studies based on amplification and sequencing of individual gene targets. The de novo assembly of OTU sequences has been recently demonstrated as an alternative to widely used clustering methods, providing robust information from experimental data alone, without any reliance on an external reference database. Here we introduce mPUMA (microbial Profiling Using Metagenomic Assembly, http://mpuma.sourceforge.net), a software package for identification and analysis of protein-coding barcode sequence data. It was developed originally for Cpn60 universal target sequences (also known as GroEL or Hsp60). Using an unattended process that is independent of external reference sequences, mPUMA forms OTUs by DNA sequence assembly and is capable of tracking OTU abundance. mPUMA processes microbial profiles both in terms of the direct DNA sequence as well as in the translated amino acid sequence for protein coding barcodes. By forming OTUs and calculating abundance through an assembly approach, mPUMA is capable of generating inputs for several popular microbiota analysis tools. Using SFF data from sequencing of a synthetic community of Cpn60 sequences derived from the human vaginal microbiome, we demonstrate that mPUMA can faithfully reconstruct all expected OTU sequences and produce compositional profiles consistent with actual community structure. mPUMA enables analysis of microbial communities while empowering the discovery of novel organisms through OTU assembly.

  1. Puma (Herpailurus) pumoides (Castellanos, 1958) nov. comb: Comentarios sistemáticos y registro fósil

    OpenAIRE

    Chimento, Nicolás R; Derguy, Maria Rosa; Hemmer, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Entre los Felinae de procedencia dudosa descritos para Argentina se encuentra Felis pumoides Castellanos 1958, hallado en estratos asignados al Plioceno ("horizonte Brocherense”) de la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina). Los restos craneanos y post-craneanos que posee el ejemplar tipo (MUFyCA 767) fueron comparados primeramente con todos los felinos sudamericanos y con Acinonyx jubatus concluyendo que posee un gran parecido a la especie actual Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi, con algunos rasgos...

  2. IGF-1 protects against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal cell death via inhibition of PUMA expression and Bax activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xunyao; Jin, Yan; Chen, Jian; Hong, Yan; Luo, Dingzhen; Yin, Qingqing; Liu, Xueping

    2017-01-10

    Amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) is considered to be the toxic species in AD and causes cell death in the affected areas of patient's brain. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been reported to attenuate Aβ toxicity in neuronal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective function of IGF-1 remain largely unknown. In the present study, we for the first time demonstrated that IGF-1 protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of PUMA expression and Bax activation. We found that IGF-1 could activate Akt, which in turn inhibited Aβ-induced FOXO3a nuclear translocation and thus decreased the binding ability of FOXO3a to PUMA promoter, leading to decreased PUMA expression. In addition, IGF-1 inhibited the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria induced by Aβ. Notably, addition of wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, significantly abolished the neuroprotective effect of IGF-1, suggesting that IGF-1 exerts its anti-apoptotic effect depend on PI3K activity. Our findings may provide new insights into molecular mechanisms mediated by IGF-1 in cell survival against Aβ-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy S. Sprague

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4+ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection. In this study, we reinforced previous observations that prior exposure to an apathogenic lentivirus infection can diminish the effects of acute infection with a second, more virulent, viral exposure. In addition, we investigated whether the viral load differences that were observed between PLV/FIV and FIV infected cats were associated with different immunocyte phenotypes and cytokines. We found that the immune landscape at the time of FIV infection influences the infection outcome. The novel findings in this study advance our knowledge about early immune correlates and documents an immune state that is associated with PLV/FIV co-infection that has positive outcomes for lentiviral diseases.

  4. Calculation of the CAREM reactor with the HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT chain of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Grant, Carlos R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the work was the evaluation of the the CAREM 25 reactor core, using a chain of codes (HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT) different to the one used in the original design (CONDOR-CITVAP-THERMIT). First, we performed a partial validation of the our codes in lattices similar to CAREM and reproduced a benchmark for simulation of gadolinium burnup. The results were considered satisfactory for this stage of the project. Then, we calculated the core along the normal operating equilibrium cycle and in hot and cold shut-down conditions. The main outcome of our evaluation confirms the general behaviour of the reference calculations except in one important point referring to the cold shut down. In this condition, the failure of one single rod of bank number 13 of the shut down system, leaves the core in a supercritical state at the beginning of the cycle and this anomaly persists during almost a third of the overall cycle. A new design of the core is proposed with minor modifications of the reference one, without introducing new types of fuel elements and keeping the same fuel management scheme. This new core fulfills all the design requirements. (author)

  5. Therapeutic Response to Non-genotoxic Activation of p53 by Nutlin3a Is Driven by PUMA-Mediated Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz J. Valente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutlin3a is a small-molecule antagonist of MDM2 that promotes non-genotoxic activation of p53 through p53 protein stabilization and transactivation of p53 target genes. Nutlin3a is the forerunner of a class of cancer therapeutics that have reached clinical trials. Using transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models lacking the critical p53 target genes, p21, Puma, and Noxa, we found that only loss of PUMA conferred profound protection against Nutlin3a-induced killing in both non-transformed lymphoid cells and Eμ-Myc lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the PUMA gene rendered human hematopoietic cancer cell lines markedly resistant to Nutlin3a-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that PUMA-mediated apoptosis, but not p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest or senescence, is a critical determinant of the therapeutic response to non-genotoxic p53 activation by Nutlin3a. Importantly, in human cancer, PUMA expression may predict patient responses to treatment with MDM2 antagonists.

  6. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  7. The concept of fuel cycle integrated molten salt reactor for transmuting Pu+MA from spent LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Takashima, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Japan should need a new fuel cycle, not to save spent fuels indefinitely as the reusable resources but to consume plutonium and miner actinides orderly without conventional reprocessing. The key component is a molten salt reactor fueled with the Pu+MA (PMA) separated from LWR spent fuels using fluoride volatility method. A double-tiered once-through reactor system can burn PMA down to 5% remnant ratio, and can make PMA virtually free from the HAW to be disposed geometrically. A key issue to be demonstrated is the first of all solubility behavior of trifluoride species in the molten fuel salt of 7 LiF-BeF 2 mixture. (author)

  8. Novel type of neutron polarization analysis using the multianalyzer-equipment of the three-axes spectrometer PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesig, Steffen; Maity, Avishek; Sobolev, Oleg; Ziegler, Fabian; Eckold, Götz

    2018-01-01

    The combination of polarization analysis and multianalyzer system available at the three axes spectrometer PUMA@FRM II allows the simultaneous determination of both spin states of the scattered neutrons and the absolute value of the polarization. The present paper describes the technical details along with the basic formalism used for the precise calibration. Moreover, the performance of this method is illustrated by several test experiments including first polarized inelastic studies of the magnetic excitations of CuO in the multiferroic and the uniaxial antiferromagnetic phases.

  9. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Deborah Bowne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled CO2 climates was estimated.

  10. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Bültmann, Ute

    2010-01-01

    and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long...... work environment, and equally important, the organizations should be attentive to employees with symptoms of burnout......Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...

  11. Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, cool-season precipitation reconstructed from earlywood width of Abies concolor tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Díaz, J. Villanueva; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Castro, C. L.; Carillo, C.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Tree ring data are analyzed for a multicentury record of drought history in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (SSPM) of Baja California, Mexico. Climatic variation in the study area is of particular interest because the SSPM is a rich biotic environment at the southern limit of the California floristic province and the southern limit of the planetary jet stream. Future shifts in the jet stream would be expected to have amplified effect on this marginal environment. The study applies linear regression to tree ring indices of earlywood-width of Abies concolor to estimate a 353 year (1658-2010 C.E.) record of cool-season (October-April) precipitation, P, in SSPM. Time-nested regression models account for more than half the variance of grid point P in calibration periods of length 50-65 years. Cross-spectral analysis indicates strong tracking of observed P by the reconstruction over a broad range of frequencies. Robustness of the reconstruction is supported by synchrony of reconstructed P with tree ring variations in other tree species from SSPM. The reconstruction emphasizes the severity of the 1950s drought in a long-term context and the single-year intensity of droughts in the last decade: 2007 stands out as the driest reconstructed year, with a high percentage of missing rings in A. concolor. The reconstruction identifies the early twentieth century pluvial as the wettest epoch in the last 353 years in the SSPM. High-elevation tree species in SSPM may be especially well-suited to sensing snowpack-related moisture variations associated with a southerly branched jet stream and the types of weather systems active in the pluvial.

  12. Phosphorylation of Tip60 by GSK-3 determines the induction of PUMA and apoptosis by p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Céline; Wissler, Manuela; Brauns-Schubert, Prisca; Wang, Shang-Jui; Tang, Yi; Sigloch, Florian C.; Mellert, Hestia; Brandenburg, Martin; Lindner, Silke E.; Breit, Bernhard; Green, Douglas R.; McMahon, Steven B.; Borner, Christoph; Gu, Wei; Maurer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Summary Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60S86A mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, Histone 4 acetylation and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86-phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53. PMID:21658600

  13. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  14. Democracia paritaria en Latinoamérica: la situación de jure y de facto de la participación política de las mujeres en el contexto boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Gonzalo Barrientos Jiménez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El contexto histórico del desarrollo de los derechos políticos de las mujeres refleja una constante discriminación a favor del género masculino, por ello, y en buena medida gracias a una serie de conquistas significativas de las mismas mujeres, se van adoptando diversos instrumentos internacionales específicos de protección que permitan lograr cierta igualdad de oportunidades en derechos de participación política. En el caso del contexto boliviano, en el marco de la Constitución Política del Estado y de diferentes leyes de desarrollo constitucional, se ha logrado consolidar a Bolivia como el único país de América Latina en lograr resultados de paridad en todos los niveles estatales. No obstante, y sin perder objetividad, el trabajo refleja también la sistemática violación de derechos de participación política de autoridades municipales electas. A continuación se analiza la aplicación de la primera ley específica de acoso y violencia política en Latinoamérica. Las conclusiones muestran que la construcción de una democracia paritaria plena contribuye a la legitimidad democrática, el buen gobierno y el desarrollo sostenible de cualquier país.

  15. La participación política de bolivianos y paraguayos residentes de villas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires: una aproximación desde la lucha por la vivienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gallinati

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo se dedica en analizar la participación política de los migrantes bolivianos y paraguayos que, al lado de la población nacional, desarrollan un proceso de reclamo por la urbanización y por la vivienda digna en las villas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Presentaré parte de la cartografía de discusiones de un grupo específico de residentes de villas que, independiente del origen nacional, compartían problemáticas comunes y reivindicaron ser reconocidos como vecinos de la ciudad y militantes en lucha por la vivienda. La propuesta es poner en foco dos aspectos poco observados por los estudios del campo migratorio: a la centralidad de la escala urbana para el estudio del fenómeno migratorio y b el reclamo como práctica política fundamental en la vida cotidiana (urbana de los migrantes. Es objetivo ofrecer una reflexión sobre las complejas articulaciones entre política, clase y nacionalidad que se abren a partir de un proceso local de puja por el suelo urbano y por el derecho a la ciudad.

  16. The multianalyser system of the three axes neutron spectrometer PUMA: Pilot experiments with the innovative multiplex technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, Oleg; Hoffmann, Ron; Gibhardt, Holger [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Tammannstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Jünke, Norbert [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz-Maier-Leibnitz, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Knorr, Andreas; Meyer, Volker [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Tammannstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Eckold, Götz, E-mail: geckold@gwdg.de [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Tammannstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    A new type of multiplex technique for three axes neutron spectrometers has been realized and successfully commissioned at the PUMA spectrometer at FRM II. Consisting of eleven analyser-detector channels which can be configured individually, this technique is especially suitable for kinetic experiments where a single excitation spectrum is recorded as a function of time without the need to move the spectrometer. On a time-scale of seconds an entire spectrum can be recorded thus allowing users to monitor changes during fast kinetic processes in single shot experiments without the need for stroboscopic techniques. Moreover, the multianalyser system provides an efficient and rapid tool for mapping excitations in (Q,ω)-space. The results of pilot experiments demonstrate the performance of this new technique and a user-friendly software is presented which assists users during their experiments.

  17. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defibered xaxim (control; PBC= sugar cane bagasse powder; PBC:I= sugar cane bagasse powder: estruted polystyrene (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= sugar cane bagasse powder: sphagnum (1:1, v:v; PBC:PC = sugar cane bagasse powder: husk pinus (1:1, v:v; CP= coconut powder and PBC:PC= coconut powder: sugar cane bagasse powder (1:1, v:v. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with seven treatments, and ten replications. Growing parameters evaluated after 12 months were: height of above ground part (APA, length of the heigher pseudobulb (CMP, diameter of the heigher pseudobulb (DMP, length of the heigher root (CMR, number of roots (NR, number of buds (NB, total fresh mass weight (MFT and substrate pH. All the studied substrates, except the sugar cane bagasse powder with sphagnum, can be recommended to substitute xaxim on the hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. crop.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim, no desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular de plantas aclimatizadas do híbrido primário de orquídea Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. Mudas com aproximadamente oito meses, obtidas por propagação in vitro e com altura média 6,4 ± 0,5 cm, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação com 60% de sombreamento em vasos de polipropileno número um, contendo os seguintes substratos: XD= xaxim desfibrado (controle; PBC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; PBC:I= pó de bagaço de cana

  18. Attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and the acceptability of killing big cats in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: An application of the Potential for Conflict Index2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Monica T; Vaske, Jerry J; Bath, Alistair J; Marchini, Silvio

    2017-09-01

    We explored the overall acceptability of killing jaguars and pumas in different scenarios of people-big cat interactions, the influence of attitudes toward big cats on acceptability, and the level of consensus on the responses. Data were obtained from 326 self-administered questionnaires in areas adjacent to Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Park. Overall, people held slightly positive attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and viewed the killing of big cats as unacceptable. However, individuals that held negative attitudes were more accepting of killing. As the severity of people-big cat interactions increased, the level of consensus decreased. Knowing whether killing a big cat is acceptable or unacceptable in specific situations allows managers to anticipate conflict and avoid illegal killing of big cats.

  19. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Arte Revolucionária e Independente lançado por André Breton, Diego Rivera e Leon Trotski em 1936, permitindo o surgimento de uma obra original, polêmica e marcante para a História latino-americana.This article intends to evaluate how art and politics are expressed both in the creation and in the action of the Bolivian militant politician Miguel Alandia Pantoja, who was an active participant in decisive moments of his country's history, as the Chaco War, the 1952 Revolution and the Commune of La Paz in 1971. The Andean indigenismo and the Mexican muralist influences seemed to have crossed with Alandia political options and with his enrollment at the proposal made by artists related to the Manifesto for a Revolutionary and Independent Art launched by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotski in 1936, allowing the uprising of an original and controversial artistic creation for Latin American history.

  20. Development of a simple screening tool for opportunistic COPD case finding in primary care in Latin America: The PUMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Varela, Maria Victorina; Montes de Oca, Maria; Rey, Alejandra; Casas, Alejandro; Stirbulov, Roberto; Di Boscio, Valentina

    2016-10-01

    Opportunistic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) case finding approaches for high-risk individuals with or without symptoms is a feasible option for disease identification. PUMA is an opportunistic case finding study conducted in primary care setting of Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay. The objectives were to measure COPD prevalence in an at-risk population visiting primary care for any reason, to assess the yield of this opportunistic approach and the accuracy of a score developed to detect COPD. Subjects attending routine primary care visits, ≥40 years of age, current or former smokers or exposed to biomass smoke, completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator (post-BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) 50 years, heavy smokers (>30 pack-years), with dyspnoea, and having prior spirometry. A simple score and a weighted score constructed using the following predictive factors: gender, age, pack-years smoking, dyspnoea, sputum, cough and spirometry, had a mean accuracy for detecting COPD (post-BD FEV1 /FVC tool to select subjects for spirometry in primary care. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in rural villages of the Bolivian Amazon Prevalência da infecção pelo papilomavirus humano nas aldeias rurais do Amazonas Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cervantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer constitutes a major health problem in developing countries like Bolivia. The roles of certain genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer is well established. The prevalence of HPV infection among sexually active women varies greatly. Information regarding HPV infection in Bolivia is very much scarce, specially in regions like the Amazonian lowland. We studied 135 healthy women living in four rural localities of the Bolivian Amazon. Presence of HPV in DNA extracted from cervical swabs was analyzed using a reverse line hybridization assay. The estimated overall HPV infection prevalence among the studied rural localities was 5.9% (ranging from 0-16.6%. These values were unexpectedly low considering Bolivia has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The fact that Amazonian people seem to be less exposed to HPV, makes it likely that some other risk factors including host lifestyle behaviors and genetic background may be involved in the development of cervical cancer in this population.O câncer cervical constitui problema de saúde da maior importância nos países em desenvolvimento tais como a Bolívia. O papel de certos genótipos de papilomavirus humano (HPVs na patologia do câncer cervical está bem estabelecido. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV nas mulheres sexualmente ativas varia amplamente. Contudo, as informações existentes acerca da infecção pelo HPV na Bolivia são muito escassas, especialmente nas zonas rurais, nomeadamente na região amazônica do país. Foram estudadas 135 mulheres saudáveis, residentes em quatro localidades do Amazonas Boliviano. Foi detectada a presença de HPV no DNA extraído de esfregaços cervicais, utilizando o método de hibridização em linha reversa. A prevalência da infecção por HVP, encontrada nas localidades rurais, foi de 5,9% (variação entre 0-16,6%. Estes valores foram inesperadamente baixos, uma vez que a Bolívia é um país com alta

  2. Innovative building automation concept for Pumavision Headquarters. Where Pimas are feeling well; Innovatives Gebaeudeautomationskonzept fuer Pumavision Headquarters. Wo Pumas sich wohl fuehlen sollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, Ralf [IPM Gebaeudeleittechnik GmbH, Feucht bei Nuernberg (Germany); Kerz, Thomas [Siemens-Div. Building Technologies Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Business Unit CPS; Vogel, Helmut [Siemens-Div. Building Technologies Deutschland, Muenchen (Germany). Business Unit CPS Region Bayern

    2011-03-15

    The sport's and lifestyle company PUMA (Herzogenaurach, Federal Republic of Germany) claims the establishment of the first climate neutral corporate headquarter of its industry. Therefore, the electricity for the new 35,000 m{sup 2} large corporate headquarters exclusively results from renewable energy sources. The conversion of this goal is supported by the interdisciplinary building automation system Desigo from Siemens AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany). The basic heating and basic cooling of the main building are performed by a concrete core tempering. A part of the heating and cooling is produced by means of two heat pumps.

  3. “ SITUACIÓN DE LA MUJER EN LA CIENCIA Y LA TECNOLOGÍA EN BOLIVIA Y SU PARTICIPACIÓN EN EL SISTEMA BOLIVIANO DE INNOVACIÓN: CASO DE LA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS Y TECNOLOGÍA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD MAYOR DE SAN SIMÓN”

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    En las ultimas décadas el concepto de Sistemas de Innovación se ha convertido en una poderosa herramienta para el análisis y la comprensión del rol de la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación en el desarrollo de las naciones. Bolivia, al igual que numerosos países de América Latina, adopta una estrategia basada en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la tecnología y la construcción del Sistema Boliviano de Innovación. Sin embargo, a lo largo de la historia, las mujeres han sido relegadas de la cien...

  4. Contesting the Equivalency of Continuous Sedation until Death and Physician-assisted Suicide/Euthanasia: A Commentary on LiPuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raho, Joseph A; Miccinesi, Guido

    2015-10-01

    Patients who are imminently dying sometimes experience symptoms refractory to traditional palliative interventions, and in rare cases, continuous sedation is offered. Samuel H. LiPuma, in a recent article in this Journal, argues that continuous sedation until death is equivalent to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia based on a higher brain neocortical definition of death. We contest his position that continuous sedation involves killing and offer four objections to the equivalency thesis. First, sedation practices are proportional in a way that physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia is not. Second, continuous sedation may not entirely abolish consciousness. Third, LiPuma's particular version of higher brain neocortical death relies on an implausibly weak construal of irreversibility--a position that is especially problematic in the case of continuous sedation. Finally, we explain why continuous sedation until death is not functionally equivalent to neocortical death and, hence, physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia. Concluding remarks review the differences between these two end-of-life practices. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, Justin M.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Grant, Robert A.; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E. (DFCI); (MIT)

    2017-06-08

    Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins contributes to cancer progression and confers resistance to chemotherapy. Small molecules that target Bcl-2 are used in the clinic to treat leukemia, but tight and selective inhibitors are not available for Bcl-2 paralog Bfl-1. Guided by computational analysis, we designed variants of the native BH3 motif PUMA that are > 150-fold selective for Bfl-1 binding. The designed peptides potently trigger disruption of the mitochondrial outer membrane in cells dependent on Bfl-1, but not in cells dependent on other anti-apoptotic homologs. High-resolution crystal structures show that designed peptide FS2 binds Bfl-1 in a shifted geometry, relative to PUMA and other binding partners, due to a set of epistatic mutations. FS2 modified with an electrophile reacts with a cysteine near the peptide-binding groove to augment specificity. Designed Bfl-1 binders provide reagents for cellular profiling and leads for developing enhanced and cell-permeable peptide or small-molecule inhibitors.

  6. Generic Techniques for the Calibration of Robots with Application of the 3-D Fixtures and Statistical Technique on the PUMA 500 and ARID Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hazem

    1991-01-01

    A relatively simple, inexpensive, and generic technique that could be used in both laboratories and some operation site environments is introduced at the Robotics Applications and Development Laboratory (RADL) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In addition, this report gives a detailed explanation of the set up procedure, data collection, and analysis using this new technique that was developed at the State University of New York at Farmingdale. The technique was used to evaluate the repeatability, accuracy, and overshoot of the Unimate Industrial Robot, PUMA 500. The data were statistically analyzed to provide an insight into the performance of the systems and components of the robot. Also, the same technique was used to check the forward kinematics against the inverse kinematics of RADL's PUMA robot. Recommendations were made for RADL to use this technique for laboratory calibration of the currently existing robots such as the ASEA, high speed controller, Automated Radiator Inspection Device (ARID) etc. Also, recommendations were made to develop and establish other calibration techniques that will be more suitable for site calibration environment and robot certification.

  7. Los conflictos ambientales del gas boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavaldá Palacín, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ajustes neoliberales introducidos en la legislación bolivana han facilitado la apropiación de los recursos hidrocarburíferos por parte de las transnacionales petroleras. Estas compañías invaden territorios indígenas y áreas protegidas. En su accionar generan graves conflictos ambientales con las comunidades locales. La costrucción de los gasoductos Bolivia-Brasil, Cuiabá y Gasyrg así como la oposición de la población a exportar gas a Estados Unidos nos reflejan cómo la población se organiza para resistir al expolio de las compañías petroleras. Las movilizaciones populares de ¿La Guerra del gas¿, en octubre 2003 no han terminado, porque el gas sigue en manos extranjeras.

  8. Both p53-PUMA/NOXA-Bax-mitochondrion and p53-p21cip1 pathways are involved in the CDglyTK-mediated tumor cell suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhendong; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Libin; Tang, Aifa; Zhai, Qinna; Wen, Jianxiang; Yao, Li; Li, Pengfei

    2009-01-01

    CDglyTK fusion suicide gene has been well characterized to effectively kill tumor cells. However, the exact mechanism and downstream target genes are not fully understood. In our study, we found that CDglyTK/prodrug treatment works more efficiently in p53 wild-type (HONE1) cells than in p53 mutant (CNE1) cells. We then used adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system to either knockdown or overexpress p53 and its target genes in these cells. Consistent results showed that both p53-PUMA/NOXA/Bcl2-Bax and p53-p21 pathways contribute to the CDglyTK induced tumor cell suppression. Our work for the first time addressed the role of p53 related genes in the CDglyTK/prodrug system.

  9. Comparison between a finite difference model (PUMA) and a finite element model (DELFIN) for simulation of the reactor of the atomic power plant of Atucha I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The reactor code PUMA, developed in CNEA, simulates nuclear reactors discretizing space in finite difference elements. Core representation is performed by means a cylindrical mesh, but the reactor channels are arranged in an hexagonal lattice. That is why a mapping using volume intersections must be used. This spatial treatment is the reason of an overestimation of the control rod reactivity values, which must be adjusted modifying the incremental cross sections. Also, a not very good treatment of the continuity conditions between core and reflector leads to an overestimation of channel power of the peripherical fuel elements between 5 to 8 per cent. Another code, DELFIN, developed also in CNEA, treats the spatial discretization using heterogeneous finite elements, allowing a correct treatment of the continuity of fluxes and current among elements and a more realistic representation of the hexagonal lattice of the reactor. A comparison between results obtained using both methods in done in this paper. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  10. Both p53-PUMA/NOXA-Bax-mitochondrion and p53-p21cip1 pathways are involved in the CDglyTK-mediated tumor cell suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhendong, E-mail: zdyu@hotmail.com [Department of Clinical laboratory, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Guangdong (China); Wang, Hao [Department of pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Libin; Tang, Aifa; Zhai, Qinna; Wen, Jianxiang; Yao, Li [Department of Clinical laboratory, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Guangdong (China); Li, Pengfei, E-mail: lipengfei@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-09-04

    CDglyTK fusion suicide gene has been well characterized to effectively kill tumor cells. However, the exact mechanism and downstream target genes are not fully understood. In our study, we found that CDglyTK/prodrug treatment works more efficiently in p53 wild-type (HONE1) cells than in p53 mutant (CNE1) cells. We then used adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system to either knockdown or overexpress p53 and its target genes in these cells. Consistent results showed that both p53-PUMA/NOXA/Bcl2-Bax and p53-p21 pathways contribute to the CDglyTK induced tumor cell suppression. Our work for the first time addressed the role of p53 related genes in the CDglyTK/prodrug system.

  11. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  12. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y.; Rendon, Pedro A.; Sivinski, John

    2006-01-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  13. "A carne mais barata do mercado é a carne negra: uma reflexão sobre o "design" das camisas da Puma na Copa do Mundo de Futebol/2010 "The cheapest flesh in the market is the black one": body, soccer and advertising Puma uniforms in the 2010 soccer world cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Puma, uma empresa de material esportivo, desde meados da primeira década do século XXI tem constantemente utilizado jogadores negros em suas campanhas publicitárias, parte de uma estratégia de busca de aproximação com o continente africano. À beira da falência no início dos anos 90, a empresa conseguiu se reposicionar no mercado unindo o esporte à moda, investindo em produtos de "design" arrojado. Uma de suas iniciativas foi buscar inspiração no "caráter exótico" das nações africanas para produzir peças que possam ser utilizadas em situações cotidianas, não só para a prática de esportes. Como o corpo do negro africano tem sido representado em suas estratégias publicitárias? Esse estudo teve por objetivo analisar um ponto específico da publicidade da Puma por ocasião da Copa do Mundo de Futebol de 2010, realizada na África do Sul: o "design" das camisas fornecidas a três seleções africanas - Camarões, Costa do Marfim e Gana. Para alcance do objetivo, entabulamos uma comparação com os modelos das camisas fornecidas pela empresa a outros selecionados (Suíça, Uruguai e Itália, prospectando o quanto suas ações publicitárias reforçam ou não certos estereótipos comumente observados quando se utilizam negros em campanhas de publicidade.Puma, a company of sport gears, has been inserting black soccer players in its advertising campaigns as a strategy to get closer to the African continent. Near to bankruptcy at the 90' beginning, the company has succeeded in bringing to the market products with more daring design, linking fashion and sports. One of its latest initiatives was to seek inspiration in the exotic profile of African people to produce pieces that can be used in all occasions not only for sports. How African's bodies have been exposed in its adverting campaigns? The objective of this study was to analyze an specific issue related to some strategies adopted in Puma advertising campaigns launched during

  14. Comparison between a finite difference model (PUMA) and a finite element model (DELFIN) for simulation of the reactor of the atomic power plant of Atucha I; Comparacion entre un modelo de diferencias finitas (PUMA) y uno de elementos finitos (DELFIN) para la simulacion del reactor de la CNA-I (central nuclear Atucha-I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C R [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    The reactor code PUMA, developed in CNEA, simulates nuclear reactors discretizing space in finite difference elements. Core representation is performed by means a cylindrical mesh, but the reactor channels are arranged in an hexagonal lattice. That is why a mapping using volume intersections must be used. This spatial treatment is the reason of an overestimation of the control rod reactivity values, which must be adjusted modifying the incremental cross sections. Also, a not very good treatment of the continuity conditions between core and reflector leads to an overestimation of channel power of the peripherical fuel elements between 5 to 8 per cent. Another code, DELFIN, developed also in CNEA, treats the spatial discretization using heterogeneous finite elements, allowing a correct treatment of the continuity of fluxes and current among elements and a more realistic representation of the hexagonal lattice of the reactor. A comparison between results obtained using both methods in done in this paper. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Latitudes, el ancho mundo de la investigación social: Bolivianos, paraguayos y argentinos en la obra : Una investigación de la antropóloga Patricia Vargas sobre la relación entre la migración de países limítrofes y el mercado de trabajo en la construcción en el área metropolitana

    OpenAIRE

    Mendivil, Adrián; Vargas, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Latitudes es un ciclo de programas especiales, idea y conducción del periodista Adrián Mendivil, basado en la investigación en ciencias sociales. En esta entrega, se entrevista a la antropóloga Patricia Vargas sobre el impacto de inmigración de países limítrofes en el mercado de trabajo en la construcción en el área metropolitana argentina. Explica el concepto de "etnografía" y su aplicación para comprender la temática: la llegada de bolivianos y paraguayos y su relación con los trabajadores ...

  16. EWS Knockdown and Taxifolin Treatment Induced Differentiation and Removed DNA Methylation from p53 Promoter to Promote Expression of Puma and Noxa for Apoptosis in Ewing's Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Motarab; Ray, Swapan Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a pediatric tumor that mainly occurs in soft tissues and bones. Malignant characteristics of Ewing's sarcoma are correlated with expression of EWS oncogene. We achieved knockdown of EWS expression using a plasmid vector encoding EWS short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to increase anti-tumor mechanisms of taxifolin (TFL), a new flavonoid, in human Ewing's sarcoma cells in culture and animal models. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis showed high expression of EWS in human Ewing's sarcoma SK-N-MC and RD-ES cell lines. EWS shRNA plus TFL inhibited 80% cell viability and caused the highest decreases in EWS expression at mRNA and protein levels in both cell lines. Knockdown of EWS expression induced morphological features of differentiation. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused more alterations in molecular markers of differentiation than either agent alone. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused the highest decreases in cell migration with inhibition of survival, angiogenic and invasive factors. Knockdown of EWS expression was associated with removal of DNA methylation from p53 promoter, promoting expression of p53, Puma, and Noxa. EWS shRNA plus TFL induced the highest amounts of apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in both cell lines in culture. EWS shRNA plus TFL also inhibited growth of Ewing's sarcoma tumors in animal models due to inhibition of differentiation inhibitors and angiogenic and invasive factors and also induction of activation of caspase-3 for apoptosis. Collectively, knockdown of EWS expression increased various anti-tumor mechanisms of TFL in human Ewing's sarcoma in cell culture and animal models.

  17. Concurrent acetylation of FoxO1/3a and p53 due to sirtuins inhibition elicit Bim/PUMA mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Shatrunajay [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi ‐110062 (India); Sharma, Ankita [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Pandey, Vivek Kumar [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Raisuddin, Sheikh [Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi ‐110062 (India); Kakkar, Poonam, E-mail: kakkarp59@gmail.com [Herbal Research Section, CSIR — Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow‐226001 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India)

    2016-01-15

    Post-translational modifications i.e. phosphorylation and acetylation are pivotal requirements for proper functioning of eukaryotic proteins. The current study aimed to decode the impact of acetylation/deacetylation of non-histone targets i.e. FoxO1/3a and p53 of sirtuins (NAD{sup +} dependent enzymes with lysine deacetylase activity) in berberine treated human hepatoma cells. Berberine (100 μM) inhibited sirtuins significantly (P < 0.05) at transcriptional level as well as at translational level. Combination of nicotinamide (sirtuin inhibitor) with berberine potentiated sirtuins inhibition and increased the expression of FoxO1/3a and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. As sirtuins deacetylate non-histone targets including FoxO1/3a and p53, berberine increased the acetylation load of FoxO1/3a and p53 proteins. Acetylated FoxO and p53 proteins transcriptionally activate BH3-only proteins Bim and PUMA (3.89 and 3.87 fold respectively, P<0.001), which are known as direct activator of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bax that culminated into mitochondria mediated activation of apoptotic cascade. Bim/PUMA knock-down showed no changes in sirtuins' expression while cytotoxicity induced by berberine and nicotinamide was curtailed up to 28.3% (P < 0.001) and it restored pro/anti apoptotic protein ratio in HepG2 cells. Sirtuins inhibition was accompanied by decline in NAD{sup +}/NADH ratio, ATP generation, enhanced ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. TEM analysis confirmed mitochondrial deterioration and cell damage. SRT-1720 (1–10 μM), a SIRT-1 activator, when pre-treated with berberine (25 μM), reversed sirtuins expression comparable to control and significantly restored the cell viability (P < 0.05). Thus, our findings suggest that berberine mediated sirtuins inhibition resulting into FoxO1/3a and p53 acetylation followed by BH3-only protein Bim/PUMA activation may in part be responsible for mitochondria

  18. Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats.

  19. Evidencias fotográfica, biológica y genética de la presencia actual de jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi en Michoacán, México Photographic, biological and genetic evidences of the presence of jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi at the moment in Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio C. Monterrubio-Rico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El jaguaroundi, a pesar de su amplia distribución neotropical, es uno de los felinos menos estudiados del continente y se carece de estudios genéticos sobre la especie. Para el estado de Michoacán ha existido la sospecha de su presencia y no obstante que sólo se tenía un registro del año 1970, los mapas de distribución de la especie en México incluyen al estado. Combinando métodos de campo (trampas cámara, recolección de campo, transectos y genotipificación molecular, obtuvimos evidencia fotográfica, biológica y genética que confirma la presencia actual de jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi en 3 regiones del estado de Michoacán, México. Se obtuvieron 11 registros fotográficos en 7 localidades con bosque tropical y 7 de estos registros, revelaron que la especie está activa principalmente por la tarde, que existen 2 fases de pelaje, predominando la fase clara y que se reproduce en el estado. Con base en las distancias e independencia entre registros de los municipios de Arteaga y Lázaro Cárdenas, se plantea la hipótesis de que la distribución continúa a lo largo de la sierra Madre del Sur y la costa del Pacífico de Michoacán, aunque se desconoce si hay conectividad hacia la depresión del Balsas. Se obtuvieron 2 secuencias de 1089 y 1096 pb del gen de citocromo b que actualmente son las más largas que se han obtenido para la especie en México y el norte del continente. Las secuencias indican que hay 2 haplotipos distintos. La presencia de la especie en 3 regiones y los 2 haplotipos permiten suponer que en Michoacán puede contar con importante diversidad genética, aunque hace falta ampliar el tamaño de muestra para confirmarlo. Las secuencias obtenidas permitirán la comparación con individuos de otras regiones del país para conocer mejor la variabilidad genética en la especie y auxiliarán en la identificación de poblaciones para conservación.The jaguaroundi is one of the least studied felids on the American

  20. Primeros registros de 4 especies de felinos en el sur de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Farías, Verónica; Téllez, Oswaldo; Botello, Francisco; Hernández, Omar; Berruecos, Jessica; Olivares, Saúl J.; Hernández, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    Se presentan los primeros registros de margay (Leopardus wiedii), gato montés (Lynx rufus), puma (Puma concolor) y jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) en el sur del estado de Puebla. El trabajo de campo fue parte de una monitorización participativa que incluyó a las autoridades civiles del ejido. Se colocaron 11 estaciones de cámaras-trampa digitales que funcionaron del 18 de diciembre de 2012 al 18 de febrero de 2014. Con un esfuerzo de muestreo de 2,669 días-trampa y dentro del conjunto de regis...

  1. Assessing temporal genetic variation in a cougar population: Influence of harvest and neighboring populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeca L. Juarez; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Daniel J. Thompson; Stephanie A. Tucker; Joshua B. Smith; Jonathan A. Jenks

    2016-01-01

    The geography of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming may limit connectivity for many species. For species with large energetic demands and large home ranges or species at low densities this can create viability concerns. Carnivores in this region, such as cougars (Puma concolor), have the additive effect of natural and human-induced mortality;...

  2. Músicas, movimientos, colores en la fiesta andina: ejemplos bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la fiesta andina, la música suele tanto oírse como verse. Esta dimensión multisensorial de la situación musical no es únicamente el resultado de una yuxtaposición de elementos sonoros y visuales. El análisis de las articulaciones que los campesinos indígenas de la zona de sucre (Bolivia construyen entre sonidos, movimientos y colores revela la presencia de organizaciones singulares de la experiencia sensible que se caracterizan tanto por su espesor sensorial como por la manera en la cual se encuentran conectadas con otros campos del conocimiento. Estas formas de intersección culturalmente elaboradas implican el cuerpo mismo de los músicos, generando nuevas configuraciones perceptivas.

  3. Toxocariasis in Carnivora from Argentinean Patagonia: Species molecular identification, hosts, and geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Vega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four specimens of seven species belonging to the families Felidae, Mustelidae, and Canidae were obtained in Lanín and Nahuel Huapi National Parks from March 1996 to April 2016. Specimens were processed by necropsy in order to contribute to the knowledge of toxocariasis in wild carnivores of Argentinean Patagonia. The only Puma concolor and the seven Leopardus geoffroyi were positive for Toxocara cati. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP of the ITS-1 region from larval and adult DNA was carried out to confirm parasite species identification. This is the first molecular determination of T. cati from wild felids in Argentina and the study also fill gaps about the spatial distribution and hosts for Toxocara cati. Keywords: Toxocara cati, Puma concolor, Leopardus geoffroyi, Molecular identification, Argentina

  4. Molecular detection of viral agents in free-ranging and captive neotropical felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana M; Taniwaki, Sueli A; de Barros, Iracema N; Brandão, Paulo E; Catão-Dias, José L; Cavalcanti, Sandra; Cullen, Laury; Filoni, Claudia; Jácomo, Anah T de Almeida; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Silva, Nairléia Dos Santos; Silveira, Leandro; Ferreira Neto, José S

    2017-09-01

    We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV. Based on comparison of 103 nucleotides of the UL24-UL25 gene, the FHV-1 sequences were 99-100% similar to the FHV-1 strain of domestic cats. Nucleotide sequences of CPPV-1 were closely related to sequences detected in other wild carnivores, comparing 294 nucleotides of the VP1 gene. The FIV nucleotide sequence detected in the free-ranging puma, based on comparison of 444 nucleotides of the pol gene, grouped with other lentiviruses described in pumas, and had 82.4% identity with a free-ranging puma from Yellowstone Park and 79.5% with a captive puma from Brazil. Our data document the circulation of FHV-1, CPPV-1, and FIV in neotropical felids in Brazil.

  5. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer

    OpenAIRE

    Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters i...

  6. Toward a Panther-centered View of the Forests of South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Kerkhoff; Bruce T. Milne; David S. Maehr

    2000-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat degradation and loss is the single largest threat to the endangered Florida panther, Puma concolor coryi. Conservation of the subspecies must be undertaken on the scale of the entire landscape. Thus, a view of the forested landscape of South Florida must be developed that is meaningful with reference to the panther. We approach this problem by analyzing the spatial interactions of panthers and forests at multiple scales. We apply tools derived from fractal geometry to th...

  7. Abundance and food habits of cougars and bobcats in the Sierra San Luis, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo Luna Soria; Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    Cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) are present throughout the Sky Islands of the Sonoran desert. We determined the abundance and food habits in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Abundance indicated that cougars were common (4.19±5.57 cougars/100 km2 and 0.05±0.05 scats/km). According to the scat index, bobcats were more...

  8. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. Results We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people’s spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them. PMID:23764186

  9. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja

    2013-06-13

    The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people's spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them.

  10. New World feline APOBEC3 potently controls inter-genus lentiviral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yoriyuki; Nagaoka, Shumpei; Kimura, Izumi; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Kagawa, Yumiko; Kumata, Ryuichi; Aso, Hirofumi; Ueda, Mahoko Takahashi; Nakagawa, So; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2018-04-10

    The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) gene family appears only in mammalian genomes. Some A3 proteins can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. In turn, the lentiviral viral infectivity factor (Vif) counteracts the A3-mediated antiviral effect by degrading A3 proteins. Recent investigations have suggested that lentiviral vif genes evolved to combat mammalian APOBEC3 proteins, and have further proposed that the Vif-A3 interaction may help determine the co-evolutionary history of cross-species lentiviral transmission in mammals. Here we address the co-evolutionary relationship between two New World felids, the puma (Puma concolor) and the bobcat (Lynx rufus), and their lentiviruses, which are designated puma lentiviruses (PLVs). We demonstrate that PLV-A Vif counteracts the antiviral action of APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3) of both puma and bobcat, whereas PLV-B Vif counteracts only puma A3Z3. The species specificity of PLV-B Vif is irrespective of the phylogenic relationships of feline species in the genera Puma, Lynx and Acinonyx. We reveal that the amino acid at position 178 in the puma and bobcat A3Z3 is exposed on the protein surface and determines the sensitivity to PLV-B Vif-mediated degradation. Moreover, although both the puma and bobcat A3Z3 genes are polymorphic, their sensitivity/resistance to PLV Vif-mediated degradation is conserved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that the host A3 protein potently controls inter-genus lentiviral transmission. Our findings provide the first evidence suggesting that the co-evolutionary arms race between lentiviruses and mammals has occurred in the New World.

  11. Campesinos, pueblos originarios y sectores obrero-populares en el proceso de cambio boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cajías De La Vega

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as transformações ocorridas na Bolívia durante a última década, ponderando a importância dos diferentes setores sociais mobilizados contra as medidas neoliberais, destacando o papel dos povos originários e dos campesinos indígenas organizados sindicalmente, que emergem politicamente neste período. Busca retratar o processo de construção de um poder alternativo baseado na organização indígena, na força adquirida pelos cocaleiros e na “Confederación Sindical Única de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia”, que contribuíram para o triunfo eleitoral do “Movimiento al Socialismo” que elege o presidente Evo Morales. Por fim, destaca a importância da “Central Obrera Boliviana”, especialmente do movimento mineiro organizado por meio da “Federación Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia” que promoveu a "Guerra del Gas", em outubro de 2003, e que acabou subestimado pelas visões políticas dominantes dentro do Movimiento al Socialismo.

  12. La chola en el imaginario de la ciudad: decolonialidad y resistencia en Los Andes bolivianos

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    Cleverth Carlos Cárdenas Plaza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto expone cómo la chola paceña, por medio de la fiesta popular del Gran Poder, logró revertir los estereotipos negativos que se urdieron acerca de ella. Especialmente, desde principios del siglo XX, cuando se desarrolló todo un discurso destinado a rezagar a su grupo social. Larson (2001, lo llamo el discurso del antimestizaje. Para revertir tales estereotipos, se usó el prestigio de la fraternidad y se mostró su potencial económico, mediante ello se ha reivindicado su lugar en la sociedad. Pero, sobre todo, impuso su vestimenta, su marcador étnico más visible, ante una sociedad que discrimina y racializa.

  13. Paleohidrología de los últimos 25000 años en los Andes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PALÉOHYDROLOGIE DES DERNIÈRES 25 000 ANNÉES DANS LES ANDES BOLIVIENNES. Nous présentons une reconstruction climatique de haute résolution de l’Altiplano bolivien (Andes Centrales basée sur des données géomorphologiques, sédimentologiques, palynologiques et provenant de l’analyse des faunes d’ostracodes. Nous avons déterminé (1, de manière semi-quantitative, la température ainsi que (2 de façon quantitative, les variations des niveaux lacustres depuis la fin du Pléistocène (25 000 ans BP. Les principaux résultats obtenus sont les suivants: de 25 000 à 18 000 ans BP, les températures atmosphériques sont basses ainsi que les niveaux des lacs entre 18 000 et 15 000/14 000 ans BP, la présence d’une lacune de sédimentation est indicatrice d’une phase climatique sèche pendant le Tardi-Glaciaire (15 000/14 000 - 10 500, les lacs (phase Tauca et les glaciers se sont étendus de 10 500 à 8000 ans BP, les lacs et les glaciers reculent très rapidement pendant que la température globale moyenne augmente à l’Holocène moyen (8 000-3 900 ans BP, le climat régional est globalement de type sec autour de 3900 ans BP, le niveau du lac Titicaca monte fortement des conditions relativement humides s’installent alors et se maintiennent par la suite pendant le Petit âge de la Glace (16ème-19ème siècles, des conditions froides et humides prévalent. En base a datos geomorfológicos, sedimentológicos, palinológicos y el análisis de fauna de ostrácodos, se ha determinado (1, de manera semicuantitativa, la temperatura así como (2 los cambios cuantificados de las variaciones de los niveles lacustres desde el final del Pleistoceno (25 000 años BP. Los principales resultados obtenidos son los siguientes: de 25 000 a 18 000 años BP, las temperaturas atmosféricas son bajas así como los niveles de los lagos entre 18 000 y 15 000/14 000 años BP, una fase climática seca es definida por la presencia de una laguna de sedimentación durante el Tardi-Glaciar (15 000/14 000 a 10 500 años BP, los lagos (fase Tauca y los glaciares se extendieron de 10 500 a 8 000 años BP, los lagos y los glaciares retroceden muy rápidamente mientras que la temperatura global media aumenta el Holoceno medio (8 000-3 900 años BP corresponde generalmente a un clima seco alrededor de 3 900 años BP, el nivel del lago Titicaca sube considerablemente luego se instalan condiciones relativamente húmedas durante la Pequeña Edad de Hielo (siglos XVI y XIX, prevalecen condiciones frías y húmedas. 25,000 YR BP PALEOHYDROLOGY OF THE BOLIVIAN ANDES. We report a high-resolution climate reconstruction for the Bolivian Altiplano (Central Andes based on geomorphological, sedimentological, palynological, and analysis of lacustrine ostracod shells. We determine (1 semi-quantitative changes in temperature and (2 quantitative changes in lake-levels from the late Pleistocene (25,000 yr BP to the present. The principal results are the following ones: from 25,000 to 18,000 yr BP, temparatures decreased as lake-levels lowered between 18,000 and 15,000/14,000 yr BP, a sedimentary hiatus indicates very low Lake Titicaca levels during the last deglaciation (15,000/14,000 , 10,500 yr BP, lake levels (Tauca phase and glaciers were consistently wide in the Altiplano and cordilleras from 10,500 to 8000 yr BP, lake levels declined and glaciers receded as global temperature increased during the mid-Holocene (8000-3900 yr BP a dry climate generally prevailed by 3900 yr BP, the lake level rose markedly and relatively moist conditions were established and persisted after during the Little Ice Age (16th-19th centuries, moist and cold conditions prevailed.

  14. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en camélidos bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    Barreta Pinto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de los camélidos sudamericanos es de gran interés en los países andinoscomo Perú, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, debido a su importante valor económico y suimportancia en el mantenimiento y desarrollo de las poblaciones rurales en dichos países. Dada la falta de estudios genéticos centrados en las poblaciones de camélidos quehabitan en Bolivia, y la necesidad de realizar una valoración de la diversidad genética deestas poblaciones, la presente Tesis doctoral ha abordado el estudio gené...

  15. El proceso constitucional boliviano: dos visiones de país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Buitrago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflexión a  propósito del proceso constitucional iniciado por el presidente de Bolivia, Evo Morales, con un discurso el 22 de enero de 2006, en el cual se pretendía incluir a todos los grupos sociales y étnicos que habitaran el país para refundar la identidad boliviana.

  16. Pluralismo giuridico e pratica giuridica indigena: il caso dei Guaranì del Chaco Boliviano

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    Francesca Scionti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article ethnographically explores the form and the content of juridical practices of Guarani people living in the Capitanías of Charagua Norte and Alto Isoso, Bolivia. Starting from the Bolivian legal pluralism main field and through the analysis of some juridical case study, I answer some questions about how the Guarani people act and interpret the legal field in a plural legal context. I argue that such guarani people practice is both rooted in an interlegal field of sense and meaning and product of a legal and political strategy useful to hide and protect the indigenous juridical habitus.

  17. Freqüência de parasitas intestinais em felinos mantidos em zoológicos Frequency of intestinal parasites in felines kept in zoos

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    G.C.K. Müller

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The endoparasites occurrence in felines confined in two Zoos, between December 1999 and April 2000, was studied. Fecal samples of 18 felines (Panthera tigris, Panthera leo, Felis serval, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii were collected and the methods of Faust, modified Baermann and Hoffmann, were used for fecal analyses. Three genera were identified in the feces: Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp. In the zoo of Pomerode, six animals (46% were infected by Trichuris spp. and/or Giardia spp. and all samples from the zoo of Brusque were infected by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp.

  18. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine?s antimelanoma activity

    OpenAIRE

    Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. While it is well known that chloroquine impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of chloroquine and the subsequent cascade of events that leads to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, chloroquine induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only prot...

  19. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine's antimelanoma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2013-09-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. Although it is well known that CQ impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of CQ and the subsequent cascade of events that lead to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, CQ induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. This finding adds to the unfolding story of CQ's mechanism of action as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  20. Pumas affect elk dynamics in absence of other large carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Christopher T. Rota; Jarod D. Raithel; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated survival, reproduction, and population growth (λ) for a declining elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) population in South Dakota, USA, 2011-2015. We obtained survival data from 125 calves and 34 yearlings. We determined survival and pregnancy rates for 42 adults (2-8 years old) and 39 old adults (≥8 years old). We combined population vital rates into a...

  1. Detection of Toxolasma gondii in captive wild felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhirongawatr, Ruangrat; Tungsudjai, Siriporn; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Sangloung, Charoonluk; Tantawiwattananon, Nitipan; Phonaknguen, Rassameepen; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect all species of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and causes serious diseases in immunocompromized hosts. Live tachyzoites derived from serial passage in HeLa culture were used in the Sabin-Feldman dye test for detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in serum samples of 21 captive wild felids including one fishing cat (Prion nailurus viverrina), one leopard (Panthera pardus), two flat-headed cats (Prion nailurus planiceps), 6 tigers (Panthera tigris), two leopard cats (Felis bengalensis), two clouded leopards (Felis nebulosa), 3 pumas (Puma concolor), and 4 jungle cats (Felis chaus). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were founded in 9 of 21 felids (42.8%). This study revealed that cell culture-derived tachyzoites can be used successfully as a source of live organisms in a gold standard Sabin-Feldman dye test, which is simpler, cheaper and less ethically sensitive than in vivo inoculation.

  2. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  3. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  4. Seroprevalence and Genomic Divergence of Circulating Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae Species†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today. PMID:15956574

  5. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  6. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lima Massara

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  7. Modeling connectivity to identify current and future anthropogenic barriers to movement of large carnivores: A case study in the American Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Meredith L; Dickson, Brett G; Nicholson, Kerry L

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to identify critical areas for puma ( Puma concolor ) movement across the state of Arizona in the American Southwest and to identify those most likely to be impacted by current and future human land uses, particularly expanding urban development and associated increases in traffic volume. Human populations in this region are expanding rapidly, with the potential for urban centers and busy roads to increasingly act as barriers to demographic and genetic connectivity of large-bodied, wide-ranging carnivores such as pumas, whose long-distance movements are likely to bring them into contact with human land uses and whose low tolerance both for and from humans may put them at risk unless opportunities for safe passage through or around human-modified landscapes are present. Brownian bridge movement models based on global positioning system collar data collected during bouts of active movement and linear mixed models were used to model habitat quality for puma movement; then, a wall-to-wall application of circuit theory models was used to produce a continuous statewide estimate of connectivity for puma movement and to identify pinch points, or bottlenecks, that may be most at risk of impacts from current and future traffic volume and expanding development. Rugged, shrub- and scrub-dominated regions were highlighted as those offering high quality movement habitat for pumas, and pinch points with the greatest potential impacts from expanding development and traffic, although widely distributed, were particularly prominent to the north and east of the city of Phoenix and along interstate highways in the western portion of the state. These pinch points likely constitute important conservation opportunities, where barriers to movement may cause disproportionate loss of connectivity, but also where actions such as placement of wildlife crossing structures or conservation easements could enhance connectivity and prevent detrimental impacts before they occur.

  8. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N; Lappin, Michael R; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mathew; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Mcbride, Roy; Cunningham, Mark C; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure; providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban land use predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest interspecific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intraspecific

  9. Cat, cougar, and jaguar spermatogenesis: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative review about the spermatogenic process in cats (Felis domestica, jaguars (Panthera onca and cougars (Puma concolor, with emphasis on testicular biometry, gonadossomatic index, volumetric proportion of testicular parenchyma components, tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial height and seminiferous tubule length. It was an approach of the differences among the cell proportions that allowed conclusions about the overall yield of spermatogenic process and Sertoli cell index in three feline species.O processo espermatogênico do gato doméstico (Felis domestica, da onça-pintada (Panthera onca e da onça-parda (Puma concolor são analisados de forma comparativa, dando-se ênfase à biometria testicular, ao índice gonadossomático, à proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do parênquima testicular, ao diâmetro tubular, à altura do epitélio seminífero e ao comprimento dos túbulos seminíferos. Abordam-se ainda as diferenças entres as razões celulares que permitem conclusões sobre o rendimento do processo espermatogênico e índices de células de Sértoli das três espécies.

  10. Isolamento de micobactérias em Felis concolor em cativeiro

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    María Julia Traversa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em uma reserva natural da Argentina com antecedentes de tuberculose em uma suçuarana adulta. O objetivo foi identificar por meio de técnicas bacteriológicas e de biologia molecular as espécies isoladas da orofaringe de cinco suçuaranas que apresentavam sinais clínicos inespecíficos. As amostras foram colhidas das suçuaranas após sedação. Posteriormente foram processadas para obtenção do isolamento e identificação por meio de provas bioquímicas do gênero Mycobacterium pela técnica de PCR. Investigou-se a presença das seqüências de inserção IS6110 e IS1081 e hsp65. Obtiveram-se resultados positivos à coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen de quatro amostras, isolando cinco cepas de crescimento lento. As cepas foram classificadas como M. gordonae em dois casos e M. simiae, M scrofulaceum e M. avium/intracellulare em um. Por PRA, identificou-se o padrão de M. gordonae em três cepas e M. avium III ou M. simiae em dois.

  11. La acción de amparo constitucional en el "estado de transición constitucional" boliviano

    OpenAIRE

    Arias López, Boris Wilson

    2011-01-01

    La reforma constitucional de 2009 en Bolivia implicó el cambio de muchos paradigmas; sin embargo, la configuración constitucional del amparo constitucional en esencia no se vio grandemente afectada porque su diseño provenía del derecho internacional, en especial de los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos que en Bolivia integran el denominado "bloque de constitucionalidad"; en este contexto, el presente trabajo aborda algunas de las ratificaciones, modulaciones y cambios de líneas jur...

  12. CASE REPORT: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF BEEF CATTLE, DEVELOPED BY BRAZILIANS IN THE REGION OF CHACO BOLIVIANO

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    Ronan Lopes Albino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the characteristic of the beef cattle production system in Bolivia. From a scholarship that happened in a Brazilian company who provide management in livestock, during this time it was possible know a little bit about the characteristic on Bolivia livestock. In oriental region from Bolivia the Boviplan Consultoria Agropecuaria Ltda., Brazilian company with head office in Piracicaba-SP, built an office, to offer a bigger technical support for customer that have farm in Bolivia. This region is inside on biome of Bolivian Chaco that is characterized by soil extremely fertile and cheap land. These factora help to explain the favorable scenario of beef cattle found on farms that are managed by Boviplan in Bolivia.

  13. CASE REPORT: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF BEEF CATTLE, DEVELOPED BY BRAZILIANS IN THE REGION OF CHACO BOLIVIANO

    OpenAIRE

    Ronan Lopes Albino; Ricardo Marostegan de Paula; Virgílio Mesquita Gomes; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Rogério de Paula Lana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the characteristic of the beef cattle production system in Bolivia. From a scholarship that happened in a Brazilian company who provide management in livestock, during this time it was possible know a little bit about the characteristic on Bolivia livestock. In oriental region from Bolivia the Boviplan Consultoria Agropecuaria Ltda., Brazilian company with head office in Piracicaba-SP, built an office, to offer a bigger technical support for customer th...

  14. El léxico del oriente boliviano en el siglo XVIII: una aproximación

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    Jose Luis Ramírez-Luengo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo presenta una primera descripción del léxico dieciochesco del español del oriente de Bolivia a partir del "Práctico Diario de Antonio Seoane de los Santos". De su estudio se pueden extraer una serie de conclusiones de cierta relevancia, tales como el empleo ya en esta época de voces propias actualmente de la región, la abundancia de lusismos, o la coincidencia léxica que existe entre esta zona y el área platense.Palabras clave: historia del español de América, léxico, siglo XVIII, Bolivia orientalAbstractThis paper presents a first description of 18th century Eastern Bolivian lexicon, based on Seoane de los Santos’ "Práctico Diario". It is possible to obtain some relevant conclusions from this study, such as the use of some bolivianisms already in this moment, the abundance of Portuguese words, or the lexical coincidence of this region with the Platense area.Keywords: history of American Spanish, vocabulary, 18th century, Eastern Bolivia

  15. Tromboembolismo pulmonar y enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica embólica en un anciano boliviano

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    Daymarelis Rodríguez Yero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 71 años de edad, quien en el 2008, luego de un episodio de tromboembolismo pulmonar, fuera ingresado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Integral Comunitario de Chacaltaya en Bolivia, por presentar una enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica embólica de tipo paradójica, como consecuencia de un agujero oval permeable. Como tratamiento se indicó, primero, heparina de bajo peso molecular y, posteriormente, dicumarínicos, con lo cual el paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente

  16. Economía y política del modelo boliviano 2006-2014: evaluación preliminar

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    Guillermo Alexander Arévalo Luna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia sufrió un profundo cambio socioeconómico y político en el periodo 2006-2014, pasó de un modelo de crecimiento liberal a uno de economía mixta, donde el Gobierno juega un papel muy relevante en la economía. El Estado tiene un control completo de los recursos económicos y principales ingresos de la industria. El excedente generado por los commodities contribuyó a la política de distribución de ingreso y además fue utilizado para la lucha contra la pobreza a través de una mejor educación y salud. El modelo macroeconómico fue exitoso: la economía boliviana creció a una tasa promedio de 4.6 % anual durante el periodo 2006–2014 y registró un superávit fiscal, un balance comercial positivo y un aumento en el volumen de reservas internacionales. Además, el país goza de estabilidad macroeconómica y baja inflación.

  17. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol.

  18. Social interactions in a solitary carnivore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Mark ELBROCH; Howard QUIGLEY

    2017-01-01

    In total,177 of 245 terrestrial carnivores are described as solitary,and much of carnivore ecology is built on the assumptions that interactions between adult solitary carnivores are rare.We employed Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and motion-triggered cameras to test predictions of land-tenure territoriality and the resource dispersion hypothesis in a territorial carnivore,the puma Puma concolor.We documented 89 independent GPS interactions,60% of which occurred at puma kills (n=53),59 camera interactions,11 (17%) of which captured courtship behaviors,and 5 other interactions (1 F-F,3 M-F,and 1 M-M).Mean minimum weekly contact rates were 5.5 times higher in winter,the season when elk Cervus elaphus were aggregated at lower elevations and during which puma courtship primarily occurred.In winter,contacts rates were 0.6± 0.3 (standard deviation (SD)) interactions/week vs.0.1 ± 0.1 (SD) interactions/week during summer.The preponderance of interactions at food sources supported the resource dispersion hypothesis,which predicts that resource fluxes can explain temporary social behaviors that do not result in any apparent benefits for the individuals involved.Conspecific tolerance is logical when a prey is so large that the predator that killed it cannot consume it entirely,and thus,the costs of tolerating a conspecific sharing the kill are less than the potential costs associated with defending it and being injured.Puma aggregations at kills numbered as high as 9,emphasizing the need for future research on what explains tolerance among solitary carnivores.

  19. The role of landowners in jaguar conservation in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, Octavio C; Valdez, Raul

    2010-04-01

    The northernmost known breeding population of jaguars occurs in the municipality of Nácori Chico, Sonora, Mexico about 270 km from the United States-Mexico border and may be the source from which jaguars sighted in the United States dispersed. Since 1999 at least 11 jaguars (Panthera onca) had been illegally killed in the area due to predator control programs. We initiated a jaguar landowner-based conservation plan in 2004. The eight participating landowners agreed to suspend predator control programs targeting jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) only if cattle losses were compensated. A private outfitter, with the consent of landowners, initiated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunts in 2004 and agreed to pay the group of participating landowners US$1500 for every deer hunt permit sold. The funds paid to the landowners from deer hunts were sufficient to convince landowners to suspend all predator-control efforts of jaguars and pumas. The involvement of landowners in the jaguar conservation program in northeastern Sonora is a successful, private, wildlife-conservation initiative that provides an example for jaguar conservation efforts in northern Mexico.

  20. Camera traps as a tool for Carnivore conservation in a mosaic of Protected Areas in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil

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    Grasiela Porfirio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although known globally for its biodiversity, only around 5% of the Brazilian Pantanal is protected. The Network for Protection and Conservation of Amolar Mountain Ridge is an informal initiative that legally protects over 2000 km2 of the Pantanal biome. Several camera-trapping surveys were carried out at Amolar Mountain Ridge from August 2011 to September 2013 in order to increase our knowledge of the species occurrence and its ecological requirements. The aims of this study were : 1 to inventory the carnivore species occurring within this network of protected areas; 2 to describe their activity patterns and 3 to discuss threats for those species' conservation in the region. We used the Kernel density method to describe the species' activity patterns. We obtained 764 records (from 12703 camera-days of eight carnivores, including endangered species in Brazil, such as the jaguar (Panthera onca, puma (Puma concolor, and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, that were among the most frequently recorded by camera traps. The other species detected were the South America coati (Nasua nasua, the tayra (Eira barbara, the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus and the jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi. We provided information on activity patterns of the jaguar and puma, which exhibited cathemeral activity patterns, on the ocelot and crab-eating fox, which were mostly nocturnal, and on the Southern coati and jaguarundi, which were diurnal. Scansorial and species that occur naturally in low densities as the tayra and the crab-eating raccoon were difficult to be detected with the used camera trapping setting. However, due to the natural characteristics of the study area, camera trapping is among the most appropriate tools for providing data about carnivores and their prey. This information is essential to delineate conservation plans for Amolar Mountain Ridge.

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  2. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Cross-Species Transmission: Implications for Emergence of New Lentiviral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L; Wood, Britta A; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin; Serieys, Laurel; Riley, Seth; Crooks, Kevin; VandeWoude, Sue

    2017-03-01

    Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ) for a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study, we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- versus intraspecies transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analyses of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrate that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to that in bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but we did not detect selection among 20 PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support the hypothesis that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals that intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers ( Puma concolor coryi ) in Florida following the initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to the emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates. IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  5. Shopping Centers as Panther Habitat: Inferring Animal Locations from Models

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    David S. Maehr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent model of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi habitat erred in arbitrarily creating buffers around radio locations collected during daylight hours on the assumption that study animals were only at rest during these times. The buffers generated by this method likely cause an overestimation of the amounts and kinds of habitats that are used by the panther. This, and other errors, could lead to the impression that unfragmented forest cover is unimportant to panther conservation, and could encourage inaccurate characterizations of panther habitat. Previous 24-hour monitoring of activity and activity readings made during routine telemetry flights indicate that high levels of activity occur in the early morning hours. Literature on the behavior of the species does not support the creation of large buffers around telemetry locations to compensate for the lack of nighttime telemetry data. A thorough examination of ongoing studies that use global positioning systems may help calibrate future Florida panther habitat models.

  6. Effects of simulated mountain lion caching on decomposition of ungulate carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Mattson, Z.; Mattson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Caching of animal remains is common among carnivorous species of all sizes, yet the effects of caching on larger prey are unstudied. We conducted a summer field experiment designed to test the effects of simulated mountain lion (Puma concolor) caching on mass loss, relative temperature, and odor dissemination of 9 prey-like carcasses. We deployed all but one of the carcasses in pairs, with one of each pair exposed and the other shaded and shallowly buried (cached). Caching substantially reduced wastage during dry and hot (drought) but not wet and cool (monsoon) periods, and it also reduced temperature and discernable odor to some degree during both seasons. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that caching serves to both reduce competition from arthropods and microbes and reduce odds of detection by larger vertebrates such as bears (Ursus spp.), wolves (Canis lupus), or other lions.

  7. Genetic analysis of scats reveals minimum number and sex of recently documented mountain lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Ashwin; Smythe, Lindsay A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Recent records of mountain lions Puma concolor and concurrent declines in desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis mexicana on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona, United States, have prompted investigations to estimate the number of mountain lions occurring there. We performed noninvasive genetic analyses and identified species, individuals, and sex from scat samples collected from the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains. From 105 scats collected, we identified a minimum of 11 individual mountain lions. These individuals consisted of six males, two females and three of unknown sex. Three of the 11 mountain lions were identified multiple times over the study period. These estimates supplement previously recorded information on mountain lions in an area where they were historically considered only transient. We demonstrate that noninvasive genetic techniques, especially when used in conjunction with camera-trap and radiocollaring methods, can provide additional and reliable information to wildlife managers, particularly on secretive species like the mountain lion.

  8. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  9. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in wild felines from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello Ribeiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoplasma infections are emerging and wild fauna can represent an important reservoir of these pathogens. However, there are very few epidemiological studies about the occurrence of hemoplasmas in wild cats around the world. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1 evaluate the occurrence and phylogeny of hemoplasmas in captive wild felines at a zoo in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and (2 verify the correlation between subpopulations of these bacteria and the hematological and biochemical parameters of the animals. PCR was used to detect hemoplasmas in the blood of three cougars (Puma concolor, a jaguar (Panthera onca, a tiger (Panthera tigris and a lion (Panthera leo, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cougars and jaguar were found to be hemoplasma-positive by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences enabled the identification of genotypes of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ circulating in this zoo. The identified sequences were closely related to hemoplasma sequences originating from domestic cats and other wild cats, but the infected cougars and jaguar were healthy and showed no hematological or biochemical changes. It was concluded that P. concolor and P. onca are exposed to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in Paraná, but further research is suggested to assess the resistance of wild cats to different hemoplasma subpopulations.

  10. ¿Carga o bendición? La respuesta de organizaciones no gubernamentales y gobiernos locales bolivianos a la migración internacional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, G.; Bogaardt, I. van den; Weenink, G.

    2012-01-01

    La migración internacional forma parte de la vida cotidiana de muchos hogares en el Sur. A muchas personas les atraen las oportunidades de trabajo en otros países - tanto en el Sur como en el Norte - con el fin de ganarse la vida. Muchos de estos migrantes mantienen estrechos vínculos con sus

  11. Coleccionista de Arena. La comisión médico - quirúrgica Italiana en el Altiplano Boliviano (1875 - 1877.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Podgorny.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the itineraries in the bolivian highlands of guido bennatti and his fellow travelers around 1876, with particular focus on the observations and collections from tiahuanaco and the titicaca lake. visible only regionally, the scale of these trips remains a pending task that must be rebuilt through a bureaucratic investigation records, brochures and regional daily press. this work forms a link in this project

  12. Impacts of the Bolivian regulatory changes for the future of natural gas in Brazil; Impacto na relacao Brasil-Bolivia com a nacionalizacao dos hidrocarbonetos bolivianos de 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Berrnardo Pestana Mello C.; Saraiva, Thiago Carvalho; Bone, Rosemarie Broker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to clarify and understand the reasons for the current economic policy and trade between Bolivia and Brazil, the latter represented by PETROBRAS, as the year 2006. Focuses on the regulatory change in Bolivia that culminated in a period of re-nationalization of its mineral wealth as opposed to international interests, including Brazilians, and agreements entered into during the opening of the market in the country. Thus, set in the Latin American actual situation, we undertake to understand the process and its consequences for Brazil, which, even with the third largest gas reserves in the region, in the short term, it follows as an importer of this feature. To have a concrete base with foundations and analyze what happens today, we must understand the political history of Bolivia and their internal changes. So we divided the work into two parts: first, we analyze the neo liberal period, and the agreements signed with Brazil in the hydrocarbon sector, for mutual benefits. In the second part, we understand the political rise of Evo Morales and the nationalization process of national wealth and the consequent crisis that developed with the international oil companies, especially with PETROBRAS, to the final outcome on the price, production and export of gas.

  13. La “defensa social”. Pugnas y competencias en torno a la mano de obra en el Oriente Boliviano, 1890-1910.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lema Garrett

    2010-01-01

    la región amazónica boliviana, al norte del país, suscitó profundos cambios en otros departamentos y, entre otras cuestiones, en el mercado laboral. Los departamentos de Beni y de Santa Cruz se constituyeron entonces en reservorios de mano de obra y el flujo migratorio hacia las regiones gomeras del norte fue creciendo proporcionalmente a las necesidades de los empresarios gomeros. Sin embargo, las regiones de origen, y específicamente Santa Cruz, reaccionaron en contra de este “vaciamiento”, desarrollando estrategias para controlar las migraciones o, eventualmente, frenarlas. Este proceso fue acompañado por el despliegue de varias normas novedosas en el ámbito laboral, producto de un debate parlamentario en torno al tema de las migraciones.

  14. Producción de β-glucosidasas por cultivos de bacterias termófilas indígenas del altiplano boliviano

    OpenAIRE

    Casablanca Alarcón, Esther; Ríos Manríquez, Neida; Terrazas Siles, Enrique; Álvarez Aliaga, María Teresa

    2011-01-01

    β-glucoside production by thermophilic bacteria indigenous the bolivian altiplano culture Resumen Las β-glucosidasas son enzimas que poseen actividad hidrolítica y transferasa o transglucosidasa. Tienen diversas aplicaciones; en la biosíntesis de oligosacáridos, producción de etanol utilizando residuos agrícolas y en la industria de vinos. La aplicación industrial, sin embargo, requiere estabilidad a temperaturas elevadas, por lo que los microorganismos termófilos tienen gran interés. El prop...

  15. Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of

  16. Efectos de espacio sobre costos de provisión local. Un modelo de ecualización por bloques para los municipios bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Suvelza, Franz Xavier

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia experimentó una importante transformación territorial después de que se aprobó la Ley de Participación Popular en 1994. Los efectos benéficos de tal reforma estuvieron acompañados de una serie de efectos contraproducentes, entre ellos los que se derivan del modelo de transferencias centrales hacia los municipios. Este artículo propone un nuevo modelo de transferencias que complementa el actual ¿sistema de dotación fiscal a municipios según el principio per cápita¿ con uno de ¿ecualización fiscal intermunicipal por bloques¿.

  17. Políticas de salud basadas en el concepto de interculturalidad: Los centros de salud intercultural en el altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ramírez Hita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en Bolivia, uno de los mayores problemas en el ámbito de la salud es la incorporación del concepto de cultura a las políticas sanitarias, hecho que hizo que se crearan centros de salud denominados "interculturales", así como el Modelo de Salud Familiar Comunitario e Intercultural. Este artículo, a través de una investigación realizada en el año 2007 en la zona altiplánica de Bolivia, pretende demostrar como el concepto de cultura está sirviendo de base para implementar políticas que no están ayudando a cambiar los deficientes índices epidemiológicos del país.One of the most important problems in the health field nowadays in Bolivia is the incorporation of the culture concept to public health politics, which had led to the creation of health centers called "intercultural", as well as the Communitary and Intercultural Model of Family Health. This paper, based on a research project undertaken in 2007 in the Bolivian altiplano, seeks to demonstrate how the culture concept is being used as a basis to implement politics that are not contributing to improve the deficient epidemiological indexes of the country.

  18. Producción de β-glucosidasas por cultivos de bacterias termófilas indígenas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Casablanca Alarcón

    2011-01-01

     The β-glucosidases possess hydrolytic and transferase activity or transglucosidase. They have various applications; such as biosynthesis of oligosaccharides, production of ethanol using agricultural residues and wine industry. However for industrial application, stability to high temperatures is needed. Therefore a great interesting in the thermophile microorganism study exist. The purpose of this research is to optimize the culture medium of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria to increase the production of β-glucosidase. This enzyme is produced by three isolate bacterial FT3, 2B and P5 which were isolated from the Andean region of Bolivia. FT3 isolate showed β-glucosidase activity of 0.35 [IU/mL]. In regards to the optimization of culture medium variables such as nitrogen source, carbon source and pH were taken into account and also the combination with free and encapsulated bacterial cells. Yeast extract was the selected source of nitrogen obtaining an activity of 0.52 [IU/ mL]. The optimal pH was 5 obtaining an activity of 0.81 [IU/mL]. The selected carbon source was the hydrolyzed wheat straw and quinoa straw obtaining activities of 1.27 and 1.34 [IU/mL], respectively. The cellular localization of β-glucosidase enzyme is extracellular and provides stability to temperature of 80 °C and stability at pH 7. Key words: Optimization, immobilized cells, extremophile bacteria.

  19. IMPACTO DEL NUEVO MARCO JURÍDICO COMERCIAL DEL GAS EN EL COMERCIO EXTERIOR Y CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO DEL ESTADO BOLIVIANO

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Medina, Omar Franz

    2012-01-01

    Muchos estudios abordan la unión de disciplinas distintas a fin de comprender hechos que cada día nos reclaman respuestas para afrontarlos, en el presente caso se llega a unir dos ramas de conocimiento que muchos autores hoy ya creen en una relación de complementariedad de las mismas, nos referimos al Derecho y a la Economía, dos ramas catalogadas en escenarios pasados como distantes. Nuestro estudio aborda una relación de correlación entre variables cualitativas y cuantitat...

  20. Identidades colectivas y proceso de modernización: los indígenas, el Estado y los cambios contemporáneos en el caso boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C.F. Mansilla

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En Bolivia se ha conformado un movimiento popular que intenta reivindicar los derechos indígenas, ante la consigna de! Estado de que este es un país pluricultural. Los grupos nativos cuentan con poca memoria histórica, se han asimilado a la vida urbana y han tomado referentes ajenos a su propia experiencia (identificación con etnias de origen diferente o adhesión de comerciantes indígenas exitosos a partidos populistas. Esto ha desembocado en un lucha ideológica de retroceso a lo premoderno, pero fundadada en intereses particulares. Han comprendido de manera fundamentalista la recuperación de lo étnico, aunque exista una referencia palpable de idioma, costumbres y territorio. Palabras clave: Bolivia, Nación, Indígenas, Multiculturalismo, Ideología, Aculturación.

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells display p53-dependent drug-induced Puma upregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, W. J. M.; Kater, A. P.; Grummels, A.; Evers, L. M.; Hooijbrink, B.; Kramer, M. H. H.; Castro, J. E.; Kipps, T. J.; van Lier, R. A. W.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Eldering, E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the apoptosis gene expression profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in relation to (1) normal peripheral and tonsillar B-cell subsets, (2) IgV(H) mutation status, and (3) effects of cytotoxic drugs. In accord with their noncycling, antiapoptotic status in vivo, CLL

  2. Smoke, Biomass Exposure, and COPD Risk in the Primary Care Setting: The PUMA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Maria; Zabert, Gustavo; Moreno, Dolores; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Lopez Varela, Maria Victorina; Surmont, Filip

    2017-08-01

    The evidence indicates that risk factors other than smoking are important in the development of COPD. It has been postulated that less traditional risk factors (eg, exposure to coal and/or biomass smoke) may interact with smoking to further increase COPD risk. This analysis evaluated the effect of exposure to biomass and smoking on COPD risk in a primary care setting in Latin America. Subjects attending routine primary care visits, ≥40 y old, who were current or former smokers or were exposed to biomass smoke, completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC 30), and biomass exposure was defined as an exposure to coal or wood (for heating, cooking, or both) for ≥ 10 y. One thousand seven hundred forty-three individuals completed the questionnaire, and 1,540 performed spirometry. Irrespective of COPD definition, approximately 40% of COPD subjects reported exposure to biomass versus 30% of those without COPD. A higher proportion of COPD subjects (post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC 30 pack-years (66% vs 39%); similar results were found with the lower limit of normal definition. Analysis of exposure to biomass > 10 y plus smoking > 20 pack-years (reference was no exposure) found that tobacco smoking (crude odds ratio [OR] 4.50, 95% CI 2.73-7.41; adjusted OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.93-5.63) and biomass exposure (crude OR 3.66, 95% CI 2.00-6.73; adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.41) were risk factors for COPD, with smoking a possible confounder for the association between biomass and COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC biomass and smoking compared with non-COPD subjects. Smoking and biomass are both risk factors for COPD, but they do not appear to have an additive effect. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Detection of Bim and Puma in mouse hair follicles using immunofluorescence and TUNEL assay double staining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, Barbora; Matalová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2015), s. 587-593 ISSN 1052-0295 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/12/1285 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : apoptosis * Bim * development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2015

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Model of automatic fuel management for the Atucha II nuclear central with the PUMA IV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi G, J.F.; Tarazaga, A.E.; Romero, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Atucha II central is a heavy water power station and natural uranium. For this reason and due to the first floor reactivity excess that have this type of reactors, it is necessary to carry out a continuous fuel management and with the central in power (for the case of Atucha II every 0.7 days approximately). To maintain in operation these centrals and to achieve a good fuels economy, different types of negotiate of fuels that include areas and roads where the fuels displace inside the core are proved; it is necessary to prove the great majority of these managements in long periods in order to corroborate the behavior of the power station and the burnt of extraction of the fuel elements. To carry out this work it is of great help that a program implements the approaches to continue in each replacement, using the roads and areas of each administration type to prove, and this way to obtain as results the one regulations execution in the time and the average burnt of extraction of the fuel elements, being fundamental this last data for the operator company of the power station. To carry out the previous work it is necessary that a physicist with experience in fuel management proves each one of the possible managements, even those that quickly can be discarded if its don't fulfill with the regulatory standards or its possess an average extraction burnt too much low. For this it is of fundamental help that with an automatic model the different administrations are proven and lastly the physicist analyzes the more important cases. The pattern in question not only allows to program different types of roads and areas of fuel management, but rather it also foresees the possibility to disable some of the approaches. (Author)

  13. Using step and path selection functions for estimating resistance to movement: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Paul Beier; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2015-01-01

    GPS telemetry collars and their ability to acquire accurate and consistently frequent locations have increased the use of step selection functions (SSFs) and path selection functions (PathSFs) for studying animal movement and estimating resistance. However, previously published SSFs and PathSFs often do not accommodate multiple scales or multiscale modeling....

  14. Pu and MA Management in Thermal HTR, QUO VADIS? Insights from the Euratom PUMA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The results of this study demonstrate the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burn-up of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burn-up and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the “wallpaper” fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect

  15. Exposure of Free-Ranging Wild Carnivores and Domestic Dogs to Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in the Cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Hayashi, Erika Midori Kida; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Coelho, Claudio José; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Megid, Jane; Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Silveira, Leandro; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2016-09-01

    Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP. Serological tests showed that 10.6% of wild carnivores (maned wolves, crab-eating foxes and ocelots) and 71.4% of domestic dogs were exposed to CDV, and 56.8% of wild carnivores, including all species sampled except coatis, and 57.1% of domestic dogs were exposed to parvovirus. This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

  16. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals.

  17. Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B. Soso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus, puma (Puma concolor snow leopard (Panthera uncia, African lions (Panthera leo, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, and tigers (Panthera tigris for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal’s sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior.

  18. Genetic introgression and the survival of Florida panther kittens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Onorato, David P.; Nichols, James D.; Johnson, Warren E.; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982–2008 and a live-recapture dead-recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0–1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F1 admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data.

  19. Lack of response of an open-habitat ungulate to the presence of predator urine La falta de la respuesta de un ungulado de habitat abierto a la presencia de orina de depredadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONALD J SARNO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral response of ungulates to the presence of odors associated with dangerous predators has received some attention, yet little is known about how predominantly open-habitat ungulates react to the presence of predator scents. We investigated the behavioral responses of a predominantly open-habitat ungulate, the guanaco, Lama guanicoe, when exposed to the urine of various predators. Guanacos only reacted to the urine of mountain lions (native predator, Puma concolor, in one trial. The lack of a response to predator urine may indicate that guanacos generally rely on visión more than olfaction for predator detection.La respuesta conductual de ungulados a la presencia de olores asociados a depredadores ha recibido algo de atención, pero aún se sabe poco sobre cuan predominantemente los ungulados de habitat abiertos reaccionan a la presencia de olores de depredadores. Examinamos las respuestas conductuales del guanaco, Lama guanicoe, cuando estos animales estaban expuestos a orina de varios depredadores. Los guanacos solo reaccionaron a la presencia de la orina del puma en uno de los ensayos. La ausencia de respuesta registrada podría indicar que los guanacos utilizan más la visión que el olfato para detectar a sus depredadores.

  20. Información molecular obtenida a partir de pieles de la colección del Museo Regional Fagnano, Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrigh, Romi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplicaron técnicas moleculares sobre muestras poco conservadas de pieles depositadas en la colección del Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, con el objetivo de identificar la especie con la que fueron confeccionadas. Se extrajeron pelos de mantas realizadas con pieles de guanaco (Lama guanicoe por Selk’nam y de una piel de puma (Puma concolor procedente de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Ambas muestras se encontraban almacenadas en el Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano y en la Misión Salesiana Candelaria en Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. La extracción de ADN de los fragmentos de pelos de 5mm de longitud se realizó en un buffer de lisis PCR-compatible. Se amplificaron por PCR fragmentos específicos de ADN mitocondrial y se secuenciaron. Las secuencias fueron comparadas con las depositadas en la base de secuencias de nucleótidos del National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI de Estados Unidos. La aplicación de técnicas moleculares permitió recuperar secuencias de ADN de muestras de pieles con un estado de conservación poco óptimo para análisis genéticos, pudiendo extenderse a otras fuentes de pelos como las fibras textiles de origen arqueológico de la región.

  1. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  2. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  3. [The jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in “El Cielo” Biosphere Reserve, Tamaulipas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Treviño, Rogelio; Lira-Torres, Iván; Martínez-García, Luis; López-Hernández, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Information on the ecology of jaguars (Panthera onca) in “El Cielo” Biosphere Reserve in Tamaulipas, Mexico is scant and limited to anecdotic records in a handful of publications. The objectives of our study were to: a) determine population density and structure of jaguars, b) compare their activity patterns with that of pumas (Puma concolor), c) ascertain potential prey relative abundance, and d) evaluate local resident’s perception on loss of domestic animals due to jaguar predation. Between April 2013 and April 2014 we conducted camera trapping in Gomez Farias Township with a total sampling effort of 8 580 camera trap days. Besides, we completed 136 semi-structured interviews among local residents of Gomez Farias and Llera Townships to gather information on domestic animal losses attributed to jaguars and other carnivores. We identified eight different jaguar individuals during a complete year of camera-trapping, composed of four adult females, one juvenile female, two adult males and one juvenile male. We estimated a jaguar density of 5.9 ± 1.3 jaguars/100 km². Activity patterns for jaguars and pumas were similar as both were nocturnal and crepuscular in nature. The most abundant potential prey species for jaguars in the study site were Crax rubra, Cuniculus paca, Mazama temama, Odocoileus virginianus and Didelphis virginiana; while the rarest were Mephitis macroura and Procyon lotor. Interview results suggested that chickens, dogs, and house cats were the most consumed domestic animals from all reported losses by local residents (n= 107). This study represents the first attempt to describe jaguar ecology in “El Cielo” Biosphere Reserve; however, there is a need of additional monitoring efforts to determine the current status of jaguars in a larger area in order to establish conservation strategies. Finally, this jaguar population may have an important role in maintaining the species in the Sierra Madre Oriental biological corridor connecting

  4. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Ríos, Galo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km) were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus), puma (Puma concolor), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus), and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus)]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  5. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Zapata-Ríos

    Full Text Available Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus, puma (Puma concolor, striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus, and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  6. Tracking cats: problems with placing feline carnivores on δO, δD isoscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Pietsch

    Full Text Available Several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. Establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. As shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (δD(h, δ(18O(h can be used as a tool for provenance determination. However, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of δD(h and δ(18O(h requires confirmation from animal tissues of known origin and a detailed understanding of the isotopic routing of dietary nutrients into felid hair.We used coupled δD(h and δ(18O(h measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus and puma (Puma concolor with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo-location of felidae. Hairs of felid and rabbit museum specimens from 75 sites across the United States and Canada were analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters, and also exhibited an isotopic decoupling of δ(18O(h and δD(h. Conversely, strong δD and δ(18O coupling was found for key prey, eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus; hair and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; collagen, bone phosphate.Puma and bobcat hairs do not adhere to expected pattern of H and O isotopic variation predicted by precipitation isoscapes for North America. Thus, using bulk hair, felids cannot be placed on δ(18O and δD isoscapes for use in forensic investigations. The effective application of isotopes to trace the provenance of feline carnivores is likely compromised by major controls of their diet, physiology and metabolism on hair δ(18O and δD related to body water budgets. Controlled feeding experiments, combined with single amino acid isotope analysis of diets and hair, are needed to reveal mechanisms and physiological traits explaining why felid hair does not follow isotopic patterns

  7. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  8. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  9. Comparative anatomy of the frontal sinuses in the primitive sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia (Felidae, Machairodontinae and similarly sized extant felines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the frontal sinuses of the sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia are analysed, in comparison to those of the extant felines Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor and Panthera pardus, of similar body weight. The study was carried out using 3D virtual models obtained from CT Scan images, a non-destructive technique that has revealed as a powerful tool for accessing to all kind of intracranial information. Our study shows that the frontal sinuses of P. ogygia were more similar to those of P. concolor, both in the presence of several struts reinforcing the dorsal part, and in the development of a remarkable caudal expansion. This caudal expansion would act as a thermal insulator of the brain, and would indicate a more open environment than previously supposed for this species, whereas the struts would be related to biomechanical stresses produced during the “canine shear-bite”, the killing method of the machairodontines.En el presente trabajo, se analizan los senos frontales del félido dientes de sable Promegantereon ogygia, en comparación con los de los felinos actuales Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor y Panthera pardus, de similar peso corporal. El estudio se llevó a cabo utilizando modelos virtuales 3D obtenidos por tomografía axial computerizada, una técnica no destructiva que se ha revelado como una poderosa herramienta para acceder a todo tipo de información intracraneal. Nuestro estudio muestra que los senos frontales de P. ogygia eran más similares a los de P. concolor, tanto en la presencia de varios puntales óseos de refuerzo de la parte dorsal, y en el desarrollo de una notable expansión caudal. Esta expansión caudal actuaría como un aislante térmico del cerebro, y podría indicar un entorno más abierto de lo que se supone para esta especie, mientras que los puntales óseos se relacionarían con tensiones biomecánicas producidas durante el mordisco típico de los macairodontinos, el método de ataque

  10. Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. METHODS: A total of 1772 participants in different human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyses....... We measured 14 psychosocial work characteristics and three types of burnout. Linear regression models were used for analyzing associations between psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and burnout at baseline and at 3 years of follow up. RESULTS: Low possibilities for development, high...... meaning of work, low predictability, high quality of leadership, low role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted burnout at 3 years of follow up after the psychosocial work characteristics were adjusted for each other, potential confounders, and burnout level at baseline. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial work...

  11. A theoretical analysis of the electromagnetic environment of the AS330 super Puma helicopter external and internal coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flourens, F.; Morel, T.; Gauthier, D.; Serafin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical techniques such as Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) computer programs, which were first developed to analyze the external electromagnetic environment of an aircraft during a wave illumination, a lightning event, or any kind of current injection, are now very powerful investigative tools. The program called GORFF-VE, was extended to compute the inner electromagnetic fields that are generated by the penetration of the outer fields through large apertures made in the all metallic body. Then, the internal fields can drive the electrical response of a cable network. The coupling between the inside and the outside of the helicopter is implemented using Huygen's principle. Moreover, the spectacular increase of computer resources, as calculations speed and memory capacity, allows the modellization structures as complex as these of helicopters with accuracy. This numerical model was exploited, first, to analyze the electromagnetic environment of an in-flight helicopter for several injection configurations, and second, to design a coaxial return path to simulate the lightning aircraft interaction with a strong current injection. The E field and current mappings are the result of these calculations.

  12. PUMA code simulation of recovery power transients after a short shutdown of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Javier; Pomerantz, Marcelo E.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation of recovery power transients after a short shutdown on Embalse nuclear power plant equilibrium core with slightly enriched uranium fuel was performed in order to know the response of the reactor under such conditions. Also, comparison against the same event in a natural uranium core were done. No significant restrictions were found in operating with enriched fuel in the conditions of the analyzed event and in fact, slightly differences arose with natural uranium fuels. (author)

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2014, Series Information for the 2010 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) State-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. Echinococcus oligarthrus in the subtropical region of Argentina: First integration of morphological and molecular analyses determines two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal, Juan Pablo; Avila, Hector Gabriel; Rivero, Maria Romina; Camicia, Federico; Salas, Martin Miguel; Costa, Sebastián A; Nocera, Carlos G; Rosenzvit, Mara C; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2017-06-15

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis that is considered as a neglected disease by the World Health Organization. The species Echinococcus oligarthrus is one of the causative agents of Neotropical echinococcosis, which is a poorly understood disease that requires a complex medical examination, may threaten human life, and is frequently associated with a low socioeconomic status. Morphological and genetic diversity in E. oligarthrus remains unknown. The aim of this work is to identify and characterize E. oligarthrus infections in sylvatic animals from the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest in the province of Misiones, Argentina, by following an integrative approach that links morphological, genetic and ecological aspects. This study demonstrates, for the first time, one of the complete life cycles of E. oligarthrus in an important ecoregion. The Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest constitutes the largest remnant continuous forest of the Atlantic Forest, representing 7% of the world's biodiversity. This is the first molecular determination of E. oligarthrus in Argentina. In addition, the agouti (Dasyprocta azarae), the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and the puma (Puma concolor) were identified as sylvatic hosts of Neotropical echinococcosis caused by E. oligarthrus. Mitochondrial and nuclear molecular marker analyses showed a high genetic diversity in E. oligarthrus. Moreover, the genetic distance found among E. oligarthrus isolates is higher than the one observed among Echinococcus granulosus genotypes, which clearly indicates that there are at least two different E. oligarthrus populations in Argentina. This study provides valuable information to understand the underlying conditions that favour the maintenance of E. oligarthrus in sylvatic cycles and to evaluate its zoonotic significance for devising preventive measures for human and animal wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  17. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  18. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco(TM. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.

  19. Detecção de Chlamydophila felis e Herpesvirus felino tipo 1 em felídeo não doméstico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Christina Seki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poucos trabalhos descrevem a ocorrência dos agentes do complexo respiratório felino, Herpesvírus Felino tipo 1 (FHV-1 e Chlamydophila felis, e a coinfecção com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV e leucemia viral felina (FeLV em felinos não domésticos no Brasil. Entre 2009 e 2010, 72 amostras de swab de conjuntiva e de soro foram coletados de oito espécies de felinos não domésticos (Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Panthera leo, Panthera tigris, Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Oncifelis colocolo, and Panthera onca mantidos em cativeiro em zoológicos brasileiros. O DNA foi extraído das amostras de swab de conjuntiva para detecção de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Anticorpos para FIV e antígeno para FeLV foram determinados pelo kit comercial de ELISA. Anticorpos para FIV foram detectados em cinco felídeos (6,9%. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para a presença de antígeno de FeLV. Um (1,3% dos 72 felinos não domésticos apresentou fragmentos de DNA de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Este felino era uma jaguatirica que não apresentou anticorpos para FIV e nem antígeno para FelV. Estes resultados demonstram a ocorrência de coinfecção de C. felis e FHV-1 em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis no Brasil.

  20. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across the western US become drier and wolves recolonize portions of the region. In the absence of human harvest, wolves had additive, although limited, effects on mortality. However, human harvest, and its apparent use by managers to offset predation, primarily controls overall variation in adult female mortality. Altering harvest quotas is thus a strong tool for offsetting impacts of carnivore recolonization and shifting weather patterns on elk across western North America.

  1. Use of Atlantic Forest protected areas by free-ranging dogs: estimating abundance and persistence of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Ana Maria; Massara, Rodrigo; Bailey, Larissa L.; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Hirsch, Andre; Chiarello, Adriano; Paglia, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are one of the most common carnivoran species in natural areas and their populations are still increasing. Dogs have been shown to impact wildlife populations negatively, and their occurrence can alter the abundance, behavior, and activity patterns of native species. However, little is known about abundance and density of the free-ranging dogs that use protected areas. Here, we used camera trap data with an open-robust design mark–recapture model to estimate the number of dogs that used protected areas in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We estimated the time period these dogs used the protected areas, and explored factors that influenced the probability of continued use (e.g., season, mammal richness, proportion of forest), while accounting for variation in detection probability. Dogs in the studied system were categorized as rural free-ranging, and their abundance varied widely across protected areas (0–73 individuals). Dogs used protected areas near human houses for longer periods (e.g., >50% of sampling occasions) compared to more distant areas. We found no evidence that their probability of continued use varied with season or mammal richness. Dog detection probability decreased linearly among occasions, possibly due to the owners confining their dogs after becoming aware of our presence. Comparing our estimates to those for native carnivoran, we found that dogs were three to 85 times more abundant than ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), two to 25 times more abundant than puma (Puma concolor), and approximately five times more abundant than the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). Combining camera trapping data with modern mark–recapture methods provides important demographic information on free-ranging dogs that can guide management strategies to directly control dogs' abundance and ranging behavior.

  2. Los felinos: ¿Una alternativa en estudios de toxicología genética?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zamora-Perez

    2008-06-01

    results and also lion (Panthera leo, yaguaroundi (Felis yagoaroundi, lynx (Lynx ruffus, jaguar (Panthera onca, puma (Puma concolor, tiger (Panthera tigris, ocelote (Felis padalis and leopard (Panthera pardus display spontaneous MNE, and with this characteristic this Family can be propose like a potential group to be used in toxicogenetic studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 969-974. Epub 2008 June 30.

  3. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals' Visitation to Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Harris

    Full Text Available Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014 using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus. Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans visitation. Puma (Puma concolor visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx. Most ungulate visitation peaked during

  4. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals’ Visitation to Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant; Sanderson, James G.; Erz, Jon; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Butler, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation) and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence) predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014) using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella) and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii) visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature) and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits) predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus) visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans) visitation. Puma (Puma concolor) visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx). Most ungulate visitation peaked during May and

  5. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  6. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  7. Lions and prions and deer demise.

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    Michael W Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contagious prion diseases--scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease of several species in the deer family--give rise to epidemics that seem capable of compromising host population viability. Despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cohort study design, we found that prion infection dramatically lowered survival of free-ranging adult (>2-year-old mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus: estimated average life expectancy was 5.2 additional years for uninfected deer but only 1.6 additional years for infected deer. Prion infection also increased nearly fourfold the rate of mountain lions (Puma concolor preying on deer, suggesting that epidemics may alter predator-prey dynamics by facilitating hunting success. Despite selective predation, about one fourth of the adult deer we sampled were infected. High prevalence and low survival of infected deer provided a plausible explanation for the marked decline in this deer population since the 1980s. CONCLUSION: Remarkably high infection rates sustained in the face of intense predation show that even seemingly complete ecosystems may offer little resistance to the spread and persistence of contagious prion diseases. Moreover, the depression of infected populations may lead to local imbalances in food webs and nutrient cycling in ecosystems in which deer are important herbivores.

  8. Florida panther habitat use response to prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Catherine S.; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) is one of the most endangered mammals in the world, with only 30-50 adults surviving in and around Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge and the adjacent Big Cypress National Preserve. Managers at these areas conduct annual prescribed burns in pine (Pinus sp.) as a cost-effective method of managing wildlife habitat. Our objectives were to determine if temporal and spatial relationships existed between prescribed fire an panther use of pine. to accomplish this, we paired fire-event data from the Refuge an the Preserve with panther radiolocations collected between 1989 and 1998, determined the time that had elapsed since burning had occurred in management units associated with the radiolocations, and generated a frequency distribution based on those times. We then generated ant expected frequency distribution, based on random use relative to time since burning. This analysis revealed that panther use of burned pine habitats was greatest during the first year after a management unit was burned. Also, compositional analysis indicated that panthers were more likely to position their home ranges in areas that contained pine. We conclude that prescribed burning is important to panther ecology. We suggest that panthers were attracted to effects of shorter burning intervals on vegetation composition and evaluate the landscape-scale changes that would result. 

  9. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

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    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  10. A habitat assessment for Florida panther population expansion into central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, C.A.; Van Manen, F.T.; Clark, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) recovery plan is to expand panther range north of the Caloosahatchee River in central Florida. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of that region to support panthers. We used a geographic information system and the Mahalanobis distance statistic to develop a habitat model based on landscape characteristics associated with panther home ranges. We used cross-validation and an independent telemetry data set to test the habitat model. We also conducted a least-cost path analysis to identify potential habitat linkages and to provide a relative measure of connectivity among habitat patches. Variables in our model were paved road density, major highways, human population density, percentage of the area permanently or semipermanently flooded, and percentage of the area in natural land cover. Our model clearly identified habitat typical of that found within panther home ranges based on model testing with recent telemetry data. We identified 4 potential translocation sites that may support a total of approximately 36 panthers. Although we identified potential habitat linkages, our least-cost path analyses highlighted the extreme isolation of panther habitat in portions of the study area. Human intervention will likely be required if the goal is to establish female panthers north of the Caloosahatchee in the near term.

  11. A data-based conservation planning tool for Florida panthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Jennifer L.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are the greatest threats to the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). We developed a data-based habitat model and user-friendly interface so that land managers can objectively evaluate Florida panther habitat. We used a geographic information system (GIS) and the Mahalanobis distance statistic (D2) to develop a model based on broad-scale landscape characteristics associated with panther home ranges. Variables in our model were Euclidean distance to natural land cover, road density, distance to major roads, human density, amount of natural land cover, amount of semi-natural land cover, amount of permanent or semi-permanent flooded area–open water, and a cost–distance variable. We then developed a Florida Panther Habitat Estimator tool, which automates and replicates the GIS processes used to apply the statistical habitat model. The estimator can be used by persons with moderate GIS skills to quantify effects of land-use changes on panther habitat at local and landscape scales. Example applications of the tool are presented.

  12. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (≥2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1–0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3–30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1–10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

  13. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

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    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  14. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti, rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A. Sweitzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]. Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus] ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii], gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat. Keywords: Carnivores, Competition, Distribution, Foraging guild, Predation, Tree squirrels

  15. Assessing Timing and Causes of Neonatal Lamb Losses in a Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis ) Herd via Use of Vaginal Implant Transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Jamin L; Wolfe, Lisa L; Fox, Karen A; Killion, Halcyon J; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Miller, Michael W; P Dreher, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) as a means of detecting, capturing, and radio collaring Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis) lambs to estimate survival and to facilitate carcass recovery to assess causes of mortality. We focused on one of several bighorn herds in Colorado, US, suffering from depressed recruitment that was not preceded by a classic all-age die-off. We captured, radio-collared, diagnosed pregnancy by ultrasound examination, and inserted VITs into 15 pregnant ewes from a herd residing near Granite, Colorado. We were subsequently able to collar a lamb from each of 13 VITs, and two additional lambs opportunistically from ewes without transmitters. As lambs died, we recovered and submitted carcasses for necropsy and laboratory assessment. All lambs captured and one additional lamb (carcass found opportunistically) were dead by about 130 d of age: 11 died of apparent pneumonia (all within 8-10 wk of age), one died from trauma after being kicked or trampled, one was killed by a mountain lion ( Puma concolor ), and three died of starvation likely caused by abandonment after capture. Pneumonic lambs had involvement of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi . The use of VITs and lamb collars enabled us to efficiently identify pneumonia as the predominant cause of depressed lamb recruitment in this herd; however, we urge care in neonatal lamb handling to minimize abandonment.

  16. Habitat capacity for cougar recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Neil, Shawn T; Rahn, Kasey C; Bump, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor) are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL) region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2) of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  18. Predicting mountain lion activity using radiocollars equipped with mercury tip-sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.; Johnson, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Radiotelemetry collars with tip-sensors have long been used to monitor wildlife activity. However, comparatively few researchers have tested the reliability of the technique on the species being studied. To evaluate the efficacy of using tip-sensors to assess mountain lion (Puma concolor) activity, we radiocollared 2 hand-reared mountain lions and simultaneously recorded their behavior and the associated telemetry signal characteristics. We noted both the number of pulse-rate changes and the percentage of time the transmitter emitted a fast pulse rate (i.e., head up) within sampling intervals ranging from 1-5 minutes. Based on 27 hours of observations, we were able to correctly distinguish between active and inactive behaviors >93% of the time using a logistic regression model. We present several models to predict activity of mountain lions; the selection of which to us would depend on study objectives and logistics. Our results indicate that field protocols that use only pulse-rate changes to indicate activity can lead to significant classification errors.

  19. CARNIVORE: A Disruption-Tolerant System for Studying Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams TerrieM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present CARNIVORE, a system for in situ, unobtrusive monitoring of cryptic, difficult-to-catch/observe wildlife in their natural habitat. CARNIVORE is a network of mobile and static nodes with sensing, processing, storage, and wireless communication capabilities. CARNIVORE's compact, low-power, mobile animal-borne nodes collect sensor data and transmit it to static nodes, which then relay it to the Internet. Depending on the wildlife being studied, the network can be quite sparse and therefore disconnected frequently for arbitrarily long periods of time. To support "disconnected operation", CARNIVORE uses an "opportunistic routing" approach taking advantage of every encounter between nodes (mobile-to-mobile and mobile-to-static to propagate data. With a lifespan of 50–100 days, a CARNIVORE mobile node, outfitted on a collar, collects and transmits 1 GB of data compared to 450 kB of data from comparable commercially available wildlife collars. Each collar records 3-axis accelerometer and GPS data to infer animal behavior and energy consumption.Testing in both laboratory and free-range settings with domestic dogs shows that galloping and trotting behavior can be identified. Data collected from first deployments on mountain lions (Puma concolor near Santa Cruz, CA, USA show that the system is a viable and useful tool for wildlife research.

  20. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations.

  1. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, Kristine J; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.

  2. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J Teichman

    Full Text Available Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007 involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007 conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.

  3. Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-07-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations.

  4. The molecular biology and evolution of feline immunodeficiency viruses of cougars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Mary; Ross, Howard; Rodrigo, Allen; Terwee, Julie; VandeWoude, Sue; Biek, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that has been identified in many members of the family Felidae but domestic cats are the only FIV host in which infection results in disease. We studied FIVpco infection of cougars (Puma concolor) as a model for asymptomatic lentivirus infections to understand the mechanisms of host-virus coexistence. Several natural cougar populations were evaluated to determine if there are any consequences of FIVpco infection on cougar fecundity, survival, or susceptibility to other infections. We have sequenced full length viral genomes and conducted a detailed analysis of viral molecular evolution on these sequences and on genome fragments of serially sampled animals to determine the evolutionary forces experienced by this virus in cougars. In addition, we have evaluated the molecular genetics of FIVpco in a new host, domestic cats, to determine the evolutionary consequences to a host-adapted virus associated with cross-species infection. Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in survival, fecundity or susceptibility to other infections between FIVpco-infected and uninfected cougars. The molecular evolution of FIVpco is characterized by a slower evolutionary rate and an absence of positive selection, but also by proviral and plasma viral loads comparable to those of epidemic lentiviruses such as HIV-1 or FIVfca. Evolutionary and recombination rates and selection profiles change significantly when FIVpco replicates in a new host. PMID:18295904

  5. Molecular epidemiology of feline immunodeficiency virus in the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jessica J; Rodrigo, Allen G

    2009-01-01

    Studying the evolutionary mechanisms of feline immunodeficiency virus in the domestic cat (Felis catus), FIVFca, provides a good comparison to other lentiviruses, such as HIV and FIVPco in the cougar (Puma concolor). We review the current epidemiological and evolutionary findings of FIVFca,. In addition to the five accepted FIVFca, subtypes, several recent phylogenetic studies have found strains that form separate clades, indicative of novel subtypes. In New Zealand cats, these strains of unknown subtype have been found to be involved in complex patterns of intergenic recombination, and whole genome sequences are required to resolve these. Evidence of recombination events has been documented with the highest levels in the env gene, the region involved in host cell receptor recognition. Several cases of FIVFca, multiple infection, both inter- and intra-subtype, have been reported. The findings of both unknown subtypes and relatively high levels of recombination suggest the need for further testing of the current vaccine. Limited studies on the evolutionary rate of FIVFca, document a value twice to three times that of FIV in the cougar, a result suggesting the different levels of co-adaptation between the viruses and their respective hosts. We studied the tissue distribution of FIVFca, in feral domestic cats, finding the first case of FIV compartmentalisation, a phenomenon well-documented in HIV-1 patients. PMID:19896220

  6. Habitat capacity for cougar recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes region.

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    Shawn T O Neil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2 of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region.

  7. Genetic characterization of feline leukemia virus from Florida panthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A; Cunningham, Mark W; Roca, Alfred L; Troyer, Jennifer L; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    From 2002 through 2005, an outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) occurred in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). Clinical signs included lymphadenopathy, anemia, septicemia, and weight loss; 5 panthers died. Not associated with FeLV outcome were the genetic heritage of the panthers (pure Florida vs. Texas/Florida crosses) and co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus. Genetic analysis of panther FeLV, designated FeLV-Pco, determined that the outbreak likely came from 1 cross-species transmission from a domestic cat. The FeLV-Pco virus was closely related to the domestic cat exogenous FeLV-A subgroup in lacking recombinant segments derived from endogenous FeLV. FeLV-Pco sequences were most similar to the well-characterized FeLV-945 strain, which is highly virulent and strongly pathogenic in domestic cats because of unique long terminal repeat and envelope sequences. These unique features may also account for the severity of the outbreak after cross-species transmission to the panther.

  8. Del altiplano sur boliviano hasta el mercado global: coordinación y estructuras de gobernancia en la cadena de valor de la quinua orgánica y del comercio justo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.; Cáceres, Z.; Carimetrand, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to describe and to analyze the recent development of real organic quinoa global value chain, linked to consumer demand in specific quality food markets. Taking into account small producers¿ organizations and local and multinational private companies, the authors consider the

  9. Infracción electoral y violencia política en la construcción de la ciudadanía en América Latina. Propuesta conceptual a partir del caso Boliviano (1825-1952)

    OpenAIRE

    Irurozqui Victoriano, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Después de 1990 comenzó una renovación de los estudios de historia política sobre América Latina. Uno de los temas centrales ha sido el proceso de formación de la ciudadanía. Se pro- pone una perspectiva sistemática sobre el aprendizaje y ejercicio de la ciudadanía en Bolivia como procesos políticos donde interesa entender las dinámicas que revelan las movilizaciones políticas. De este modo, es importante interpretar la infracción electoral evidenciada en el fraude, el clientelismo y la viole...

  10. Inserción de horticultores bolivianos en Río Cuarto (Argentina Procesos de inmigración, trabajo y conformación de economías étnicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rodolfo Benencia

    2016-12-01

    En este artículo trataremos de apreciar si estos procesos migratorio-laborales en los que se produce una concentración de inmigrantes de una misma nacionalidad en algunas áreas económico-laborales de la Argentina, como por ejemplo en la horticultura de Río Cuarto (provincia de Córdoba, y en la que tanto los patrones como los empleados pertenecen a la misma nacionalidad migrante, pueden ser considerados economías o negocios étnicos, como han sido catalogados en otros países por la literatura especializada.

  11. ¿Cómo hacer chicha en Córdoba? Reflexiones en torno a los aspectos políticos y materiales de la producción de chicha por inmigrantes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Vargas Ibarra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Beverages and food might be considered as instances with a special daily routine, and with a poeticand a special gastro-politic, which implicates in the everyday reproduction and in the sense ofmembership in a group. In these instances different subjects and materialities convergence, whicharticulates in a process in which themselves are defined. From this perspective, it interests us toreflect around the «chicha» (a fermented beverage based on maize production processes from the viewof the Bolivian women immigrants and it articulation with other contexts in the city of Córdoba(Argentina. We consider that it exists a tension between the necessity to count with this beverage forcertain celebrations and the difficulty to produce it, and the tension which are inscribed in the marginalsituations that experience the majority of the immigrants. To approximate the gastro-politics thatunfolds in these production processes, we concentrate on the trajectories of the «chichera» women, asthe source materials and other necessities for its elaboration

  12. Estimación poblacional y conservación de felinos (Carnivora: Felidae en el norte de Quintana Roo, México

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    Dulce María Ávila-Nájera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:La estimación de la densidad de fauna silvestre permite tener una idea del estado de salud de las poblaciones y en algunos casos indica el estado de conservación de los ecosistemas. Los métodos de evaluación deben hacer estimaciones no sesgadas, ya que servirán de base para estrategias de conservación de especies clave. Algunas regiones en México han sido identificadas como áreas de alta prioridad para la conservación de especies con cierto nivel de riesgo, como es la Península de Yucatán (PY, donde prevalece la mayor población de jaguares en México. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de la situación actual de los felinos amenazados y en peligro de extinción, como un grupo de especies que conviven en la parte noreste de la Península. Nuestro objetivo fue estimar la densidad de las poblaciones de felinos silvestres a mediano plazo en la Reserva Ecológica El Edén (EEER y sus alrededores. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos con cámaras-trampa durante cuatro años (2008, 2010, 2011 y 2012, se usaron modelos de captura-recaptura para poblaciones cerradas (CAPTURA + MMDM o VMMDM y un modelo de C-R espacial-mente explícito (CERC por medio del paquete SPCACAP para realizar las estimaciones de densidad. Las especies estudiadas fueron: jaguar (Panthera onca,puma (Puma concolor,ocelote (Leopardus pardalis,jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundiy tigrillo (Leopardus wiedii.La frecuencia de captura se obtuvo para las cinco especies y la densidad para tres (individuos/100km2. La densidad estimada por medio de MMDM varió entre 1.2 y 2.6 para jaguares, pumas (1.7-4.3 y ocelotes (1.4-13.8. Las estimaciones de la densidad en SPACECAP variaron desde 0.7 hasta 3.6 para jaguares, de 1.8 a 5.2 para pumas y de 2.1 a 5.1 en ocelotes. El método de C-R espacialmente explícito (SECR, SPACECAP tiene menos probabilidades de sobrestimar la densidad, lo que provee una herramienta útil en el proceso de planificación y toma de decisiones para la conservación de

  13. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande diversidade de animais: dentre as aves, urubus (Coragyps atratus e Cathartes aura, carcará (Polyborus plancus, jaburu (Jabiru mycteria; lagartos (Tupinambis teguixin e mamíferos de pequeno porte, coati (Nasua nasua e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Do total anual de desovas de P. unifilis em média 65,98% são predadas, sendo 41,68% de forma total e 24,30% parcialmente. Enquanto que apenas 5,31% das ninhadas de P. expansa são sempre parcialmente predadas. Dentre os predadores aquáticos existem diversos peixes, principalmente piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri e jacarés (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. Os predadores das fêmeas de P. unifilis são: jacaré-açu (Melanosuchus niger, onça-pintada (Panthera onca e onça-parda (Puma concolor. Enquanto que as fêmeas de P. expansa em postura, somente são predadas por P. onca. As fêmeas de P. unifilis em postura são predadas num total médio de 3,93% anualmente, enquanto que para P. expansa a média anual é 5,66% das fêmeas.Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis long lived with late sexual maturation, which influences a low replacement rate of individuals. Their populations are characterized by low adults mortality, but high mortality of embryos and hatchlings. The natural nest predation is an important factor for hatchling success. In Javaés River, the eggs and hatchlings can be predated by a large number of animals such as birds, vultures (Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura, carcar

  14. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  15. THE EFFECT OF SPORT SPONSORSHIP ON BRAND EQUITY : Does the sponsorship of Usain Bold help Puma to increase their brand equity?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Sponsorship has become increasingly popular as a marketing tool in recent years. It is one of the most used tools and especially sport sponsorship is often used to promote their products and to reach their targeting customers. Because of its popularity and the lack of research on how sport sponsorship influences the brand equity of a company, the author decided to do further investigation about this topic. The principle aim of this bachelor thesis was to investigate if sport sponsorship h...

  16. Effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in determining species presence in a tropical savanna landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Skalski, John R; Machado, Ricardo B; Groom, Martha J; Jácomo, Anah T A; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Ramos Neto, Mario B; Pomilla, Cristina; Silveira, Leandro; Smith, Heath; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-02-01

    Most protected areas are too small to sustain populations of wide-ranging mammals; thus, identification and conservation of high-quality habitat for those animals outside parks is often a high priority, particularly for regions where extensive land conversion is occurring. This is the case in the vicinity of Emas National Park, a small protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado. Over the last 40 years the native vegetation surrounding the park has been converted to agriculture, but the region still supports virtually all of the animals native to the area. We determined the effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in detecting presence of five species of mammals threatened with extinction by habitat loss: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), puma (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), and giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus). The probability of scat detection varied among the five species and among survey quadrats of different size, but was consistent across team, season, and year. The probability of occurrence, determined from the presence of scat, in a randomly selected site within the study area ranged from 0.14 for jaguars, which occur primarily in the forested areas of the park, to 0.91 for maned wolves, the most widely distributed species in our study area. Most occurrences of giant armadillos in the park were in open grasslands, but in the agricultural matrix they tended to occur in riparian woodlands. At least one target species occurred in every survey quadrat, and giant armadillos, jaguars, and maned wolves were more likely to be present in quadrats located inside than outside the park. The effort required for detection of scats was highest for the two felids. We were able to detect the presence for each of five wide-ranging species inside and outside the park and to assign occurrence probabilities to specific survey sites. Thus, scat dogs provide an effective survey tool for rare species even when accurate detection

  17. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  18. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln José Michalski

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca and Puma (Puma concolor] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons. Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%. Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all

  19. Using niche-modelling and species-specific cost analyses to determine a multispecies corridor in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurano, Juan Pablo; Selleski, Nicole; Schneider, Rosio G.

    2017-01-01

    Misiones, Argentina, contains the largest remaining tract of Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion; however, ~50% of native forest is unprotected and located in a mosaic of plantations, agriculture, and pastures. Existing protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated due to ongoing habitat modification. These factors, combined with lower than expected regional carnivore densities, emphasize the need to understand the effect of fragmentation on animal movement and connectivity between protected areas. Using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat, we collected data on jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus), and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) across habitats that varied in vegetation, disturbance, human proximity, and protective status. With MaxEnt we evaluated habitat use, habitat suitability, and potential species richness for the five carnivores across northern-central Misiones, Argentina. Through a multifaceted cost analysis that included unique requirements of each carnivore and varying degrees of overlap among them, we determined the optimal location for primary/secondary corridors that would link the northern-central zones of the Green Corridor in Misiones and identified areas within these corridors needing priority management. A secondary analysis, comparing these multispecies corridors with the jaguar’s unique requirements, demonstrated that this multispecies approach balanced the preferences of all five species and effectively captured areas required by this highly restricted and endangered carnivore. We emphasize the potential importance of expanding beyond a single umbrella or focal species when developing biological corridors that aim to capture the varied ecological requirements of coexisting species and ecological processes across the landscape. Detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat allow data on multiple species to be collected efficiently across multiple habitat

  20. The dynamic proliferation of CanSINEs mirrors the complex evolution of Feliforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the Felidae family as a reference phylogeny, along with representative taxa from other families of Feliformia, the origin, proliferation and evolution of CanSINEs within the suborder were assessed. Results We identified 93 novel intergenic CanSINE loci in Feliformia. Sequence analyses separated Feliform CanSINEs into two subfamilies, each characterized by distinct RNA polymerase binding motifs and phylogenetic associations. Subfamily I CanSINEs arose early within Feliformia but are no longer under active proliferation. Subfamily II loci are more recent, exclusive to Felidae and show evidence for adaptation to extant RNA polymerase activity. Further, presence/absence distributions of CanSINE loci are largely congruent with taxonomic expectations within Feliformia and the less resolved nodes in the Felidae reference phylogeny present equally ambiguous CanSINE data. SINEs are thought to be nearly impervious to excision from the genome. However, we observed a nearly complete excision of a CanSINEs locus in puma (Puma concolor). In addition, we found that CanSINE proliferation in Felidae frequently targeted existing CanSINE loci for insertion sites, resulting in tandem arrays. Conclusions We demonstrate the existence of at least two SINE families within the Feliformia suborder, one

  1. A cat's tale: the impact of genetic restoration on Florida panther population dynamics and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2013-05-01

    1. Genetic restoration has been suggested as a management tool for mitigating detrimental effects of inbreeding depression in small, inbred populations, but the demographic mechanisms underlying population-level responses to genetic restoration remain poorly understood. 2. We studied the dynamics and persistence of the endangered Florida panther Puma concolor coryi population and evaluated the potential influence of genetic restoration on population growth and persistence parameters. As part of the genetic restoration programme, eight female Texas pumas P. c. stanleyana were released into Florida panther habitat in southern Florida in 1995. 3. The overall asymptotic population growth rate (λ) was 1.04 (5th and 95th percentiles: 0.95-1.14), suggesting an increase in the panther population of approximately 4% per year. Considering the effects of environmental and demographic stochasticities and density-dependence, the probability that the population will fall below 10 panthers within 100 years was 0.072 (0-0.606). 4. Our results suggest that the population would have declined at 5% per year (λ = 0.95; 0.83-1.08) in the absence of genetic restoration. Retrospective life table response experiment analysis revealed that the positive effect of genetic restoration on survival of kittens was primarily responsible for the substantial growth of the panther population that would otherwise have been declining. 5. For comparative purposes, we also estimated probability of quasi-extinction under two scenarios - implementation of genetic restoration and no genetic restoration initiative - using the estimated abundance of panthers in 1995, the year genetic restoration was initiated. Assuming no density-dependence, the probability that the panther population would fall below 10 panthers by 2010 was 0.098 (0.002-0.332) for the restoration scenario and 0.445 (0.032-0.944) for the no restoration scenario, providing further evidence that the panther population would have faced a

  2. Insights into the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Costa Rica

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    Jennifer Rebecca Kelly, Ph.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has given the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Mexico as well as Central and South America little attention. The purpose of this article is to: 1 Begin a dialogue among human dimensions of wildlife scholars about the economic and cultural values of feline derivatives throughout Mexico, Central and South America; 2 Present the range of economic values that emerged in my interview and participant observation data from Costa Rica; 3 Offer an explanation of how sociological concepts influence the buying and selling of dead jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Costa Rica. The principal results are: 1 The sociological concepts of social status and masculine identity interlace with and motivate the illegal trade; 2 The value of feline parts in Costa Rica ranges from $25 to $5000; 3 This value differs by culture and geographic residency of the seller (urban versus rural and diverged from values discovered in other countries; 4 The men who adorn their homes with illegal trophies are not necessarily the poachers. The value of jaguar skin has been recorded for as little as $100 in a 1983 study conducted in Belize and for as high as $600 in a study done in Venezuela in approximately 2011. Because of cultural differences, Cabécar sell a feline skin for as little as $25 and up to $400 if it includes teeth and nails, but Ticos, who are non-indigenous Costa Ricans, sell the skins from $500-$5000. Non-indigenous, wealthy urban men indicate prestige by the display of feline parts. My findings align with existing research that jaguar skins are sold to people in larger cities and that adornment of feline derivatives is a masculine tradition that can be linked with Amerindian cultures and ancient times. Historically jaguars have been associated with elitist symbolism and evidence in this study suggests this continues in today's culture as a sign of social status. Results suggest that money alone does not

  3. Composição e caracterização da fauna de mamíferos de médio e grande porte em uma pequena reserva de cerrado em Mato Grosso, Brasil Composition and characterization of the medium and large size mammal fauna in a small cerrado reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Nova Xavantina, MT, objetivando inventariar e avaliar a abundância e diversidade de mamíferos terrestres de médio e grande porte. Para tanto, foram realizadas duas visitas mensais a um transecto com 2.820 m de extensão, durante todo o ano de 2001, para o levantamento de pegadas (rastreamentos e outras evidências de mamíferos. Um total de 29 espécies foram registradas na área de estudo, sendo que 22 ocorreram no transecto e tiveram suas seqüências individuais de pegadas quantificadas para realização do cálculo dos índices de abundância e de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H'. De acordo com seus índices de abundância, as espécies foram classificadas em raras, comuns e abundantes. Dentre outras, onça-parda (Puma concolor - Linnaeus, 1771 e tatu-canastra (Priodontes maximus - Keer, 1792 mostraram-se raras; jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis - Linnaeus, 1758, e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla - Linnaeus, 1758, comuns; e cutia (Dasyprocta azarae - Lichtenstein, 1823 e tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis - Linnaeus, 1758, abundantes. O H' encontrado foi 2,40, sendo considerado significativo. O presente trabalho apontou que, apesar de pequena (470 ha, a área de estudo desempenha importante papel para a conservação da mastofauna da região de Nova Xavantina, MT.This study was carried out at the 'Mario Viana' Municipal Biological Reserve in Nova Xavantina, MT, aiming to make an inventory and evaluate the abundance and diversity of terrestrial mammals of medium and large size. Thus, two monthly visits were made to a 2.820 m long transect throughout 2001 to assess tracking and other evidences of mammals. Twenty-nine species were recorded in the study area, with 22 in the transect and two individual tracking sequences being quantified for calculation of the Shannon-Wiener (H' abundance and diversity indices. According to the abundance indices, the species were

  4. Using fecal profiles of bile acids to assess habitat use by threatened carnivores in the Maulino forest of central Chile Empleo del perfil de ácidos biliares fecales para evaluar uso del hábitat por carnívoros amenazados en el bosque maulino de Chile central

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    CARLA GUERRERO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and habitat use by carnivores can be assessed by studying their tracks or feces. If these methods are to be used confidently, they should not only unequivocally discriminate among species, but should also render the same patterns of spatial distributions. We assessed the fulfillment of these requirements with five carnivores inhabiting the Maulino forest of central Chile: Galictis cuja, Oncifelis guigna, Pseudalopex culpaeus, Pseudalopex griseus, and Puma concolor. Fecal bile acid thin layer chromatographic profiles were assessed, and shown to be species-specific, invariant within samples of a given individual and among individuals of a given species, but consistently different across species. The spatial distribution of feces in mixed stands of native forests and exotic pine plantations in the coastal Maule region of central Chile was compared with the expected distribution according to habitat offer, and also with the expected distribution based on earlier track records. The results revealed that Pseudalopex culpaeus makes extensive use of pine plantations; Oncifelis guigna prefers native forests, and Pseudalopex griseus thrives in pine plantations, native forests, and patches of native forest, in proportion to habitat availability. Results from scat distribution were similar to those obtained by tracks records. Feces and tracks were thus useful indicators of habitat use by carnivores, and could be used complementarily to study species with conservation problemsEl uso del hábitat por carnívoros puede ser examinado a partir de la distribución de sus huellas y fecas. Para que ambas aproximaciones sean usadas en forma segura y complementaria, ellas deberían no solamente discriminar inequívocamente entre especies, sino que también deberían entregar la misma información sobre los patrones de distribución espacial. Analizamos el cumplimiento de estos requisitos con cinco especies de carnívoros en el bosque maulino de Chile

  5. Estimativas de parâmetros populacionais e demográficos de Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae em Piraí do Sul, Paraná, sul do Brasil Estimates of population and demographic parameters of Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae in Piraí do Sul, Paraná, southern Brazil

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    Fernanda G. Braga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado em duas propriedades particulares, situadas no município de Piraí do Sul, sul do Brasil. Foram realizadas 16 fases de campo mensais, com três dias de duração, no período compreendido entre fevereiro de 2001 e maio de 2002, com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a biologia do veado-campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758 e identificar os principais fatores de impacto sobre o mesmo. Foram computadas 1.065 observações, estimando-se 71,45 indivíduos na população, sendo o tamanho médio dos grupos de 2,29 (DV ± 0,55, e a razão sexual de 0,83. Indivíduos isolados corresponderam a 40% das observações, sendo o maior grupo composto por 10 indivíduos. Registrou-se um pico de nascimentos entre setembro e novembro, embora esses tenham acontecido ao longo de todo o estudo. Foram registrados 34 óbitos, correspondendo a uma mortalidade de 47,6%, sendo as principais causas a predação por Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, a caça e os atropelamentos. A população estudada encontra-se severamente ameaçada, e não sobreviverá por muito tempo a menos que políticas que garantam a sua conservação sejam adotadas. Estas políticas devem incluir o manejo adequado das áreas e o controle dos vetores de pressão.This study was conducted in two private properties in the municipality of Piraí do Sul (Paraná state, southern Brazil. Sixteen monthly visits were made each one lasting three days between February 2001 and May 2002. The study aimed at the observation of pampas deer biology (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758, and the evaluation of main impacts to this population. We computed 1,065 observations of estimated 71.45 individuals. The average size of the groups was 2.29 (SD ± 0.55 animals, and the sexual ratio was 0.83. Isolated deer accounted for 40% of the observations, whereas the largest group comprised 10 individuals. It was recorded a peack period of births between September and November, although

  6. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

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    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  7. Variable terrestrial GPS telemetry detection rates: Addressing the probability of successful acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Kirsten E.; Mattson, David J.; Choate, David; Stoner, David; Arundel, Terry; Hansen, Jered R.; Theimer, Tad; Holton, Brandon; Jansen, Brian; Sexton, Joseph O.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Peters, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Studies using global positioning system (GPS) telemetry rarely result in 100% fix success rates (FSR), which may bias datasets because data loss is systematic rather than a random process. Previous spatially explicit models developed to correct for sampling bias have been limited to small study areas, a small range of data loss, or were study-area specific. We modeled environmental effects on FSR from desert to alpine biomes, investigated the full range of potential data loss (0–100% FSR), and evaluated whether animal body position can contribute to lower FSR because of changes in antenna orientation based on GPS detection rates for 4 focal species: cougars (Puma concolor), desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Terrain exposure and height of over story vegetation were the most influential factors affecting FSR. Model evaluation showed a strong correlation (0.88) between observed and predicted FSR and no significant differences between predicted and observed FSRs using 2 independent validation datasets. We found that cougars and canyon-dwelling bighorn sheep may select for environmental features that influence their detectability by GPS technology, mule deer may select against these features, and elk appear to be nonselective. We observed temporal patterns in missed fixes only for cougars. We provide a model for cougars, predicting fix success by time of day that is likely due to circadian changes in collar orientation and selection of daybed sites. We also provide a model predicting the probability of GPS fix acquisitions given environmental conditions, which had a strong relationship (r 2 = 0.82) with deployed collar FSRs across species.

  8. Troublemaking carnivores: conflicts with humans in a diverse assemblage of large carnivores

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    Andrea T. Morehouse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global conservation and management challenge. Multipredator systems present added complexity to the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts because mitigation strategies often are species-specific. Documenting the type and distribution of such conflicts is an important first step toward ensuring that subsequent management and mitigation efforts are appropriately targeted. We reviewed 16 years of records of complaints about two species of strict carnivores, wolves (Canis lupus and cougars (Puma concolor, and two species of omnivores, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in southwestern Alberta and evaluated the temporal and spatial distribution of these complaints. Conflicts were most frequently associated with bears (68.7% of complaint records, reflecting a diversity of conflict types attributable to their omnivorous diets. Although grizzly bears killed and injured livestock, the majority of conflicts with bears were attributable to attractants (grain and dead livestock for grizzly bears, garbage for black bears. In contrast, wolf and cougar incidents were almost exclusively related to killing or injury of livestock. Complaints for both bear species have increased over the past 16 years while cougar and wolf complaints have remained relatively constant. Grizzly bear and cougar conflicts have been expanding into private lands used for agriculture. Although community driven, targeted mitigation measures have helped reduce conflicts with grizzly bears at the site level, conflicts at the broader scale have continued to increase and continued work is necessary. Long-term human-carnivore coexistence clearly is possible, facilitated by continued monitoring and local efforts to mitigate conflicts.

  9. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

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    Anthony P. Clevenger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS

  10. Distinguishing values from science in decision making: Setting harvest quotas for mountain lions in Montana

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    Mitchell, Michael S.; Cooley, Hilary; Gude, Justin A.; Kolbe, Jay; Nowak, J. Joshua; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Sells, Sarah N.; Thompson, Mike

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of science and human values can be difficult to distinguish when informal processes are used to make complex and contentious decisions in wildlife management. Structured Decision Making (SDM) offers a formal process for making such decisions, where scientific results and concepts can be disentangled from the values of differing stakeholders. We used SDM to formally integrate science and human values for a citizen working group of ungulate hunting advocates, lion hunting advocates, and outfitters convened to address the contentious allocation of harvest quotas for mountain lions (Puma concolor) in west‐central Montana, USA, during 2014. A science team consisting of mountain lion biologists and population ecologists convened to support the working group. The science team used integrated population models that incorporated 4 estimates of mountain lion density to estimate population trajectories for 5 alternative harvest quotas developed by the working group. Results of the modeling predicted that effects of each harvest quota were consistent across the 4 density estimates; harvest quotas affected predicted population trajectories for 5 years after implementation but differences were not strong. Based on these results, the focus of the working group changed to differences in values among stakeholders that were the true impediment to allocating harvest quotas. By distinguishing roles of science and human values in this process, the working group was able to collaboratively recommend a compromise solution. This solution differed little from the status quo that had been the focus of debate, but the SDM process produced understanding and buy‐in among stakeholders involved, reducing disagreements, misunderstanding, and unproductive arguments founded on informal application of scientific data and concepts. Whereas investments involved in conducting SDM may be unnecessary for many decisions in wildlife management, the investment may be beneficial for

  11. Ticks and rickettsiae from wildlife in Belize, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos G; May Junior, Joares; Foster, Rebecca J; Harmsen, Bart J; Sanchez, Emma; Martins, Thiago F; Quigley, Howard; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-02-02

    The agents of spotted fevers in Latin America are Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and R. massiliae. In Continental Central America, R. rickettsii remains the only known pathogenic tick-borne rickettsia. In the present study, ticks were collected from wild mammals in natural areas of Belize. Besides providing new data of ticks from Belize, we investigated rickettsial infection in some of these ticks. Our results provide ticks harboring rickettsial agents for the first time in Central America. Between 2010 and 2015, wild mammals were lived-trapped in the tropical broadleaf moist forests of central and southern Belize. Ticks were collected from the animals and identified to species by morphological and molecular analysis (DNA sequence of the tick mitochondrial 16S RNA gene). Some of the ticks were tested for rickettsial infection by molecular methods (DNA sequences of the rickettsial gltA and ompA genes). A total of 84 ticks were collected from 8 individual hosts, as follows: Amblyomma pacae from 3 Cuniculus paca; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma coelebs from a Nasua narica; A. ovale from an Eira Barbara; A. ovale, Amblyomma cf. oblongoguttatum, and Ixodes affinis from a Puma concolor; and A. ovale, A. coelebs, A. cf. oblongoguttatum, and I. affinis from two Panthera onca. Three rickettsial agents were detected: Rickettsia amblyommii in A. pacae, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale, and Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont in Ixodes affinis. The present study provides unprecedented records of ticks harboring rickettsial agents in the New World. An emerging rickettsial pathogen of South America, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, is reported for the first time in Central America. Besides expanding the distribution of 3 rickettsial agents in Central America, our results highlight the possible occurrence of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest-caused spotted fever human cases in Belize, since its possible

  12. Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.

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    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus and moose (Alces alces than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, 3 distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4 steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3 distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection.

  13. Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    A major objective of the 1995 Florida Panther (Puma concolor cory) Recovery Plan is the establishment of 2 additional panther populations within the historic range. Our goal was to identify prospective sites for Florida panther reintroduction within the historic range based on quantitative landscape assessments. First, we delineated 86 panther home ranges using telemetry data collected from 1981 to 2001 in south Florida to develop a Mahalanobis distance (D2) habitat model, using 4 anthropogenic variables and 3 landscape variables mapped at a 500-m resolution. From that analysis, we identified 9 potential reintroduction sites of sufficient size to support a panther population. We then developed a similar D2 model at a higher spatial resolution to quantify the area of favorable panther habitat at each site. To address potential for the population to expand, we calculated the amount of favorable habitat adjacent to each prospective reintroduction site within a range of dispersal distances of female panthers. We then added those totals to the contiguous patches to estimate the total amount of effective panther habitat at each site. Finally, we developed an expert-assisted model to rank and incorporate potentially important habitat variables that were not appropriate for our empirical analysis (e.g., area of public lands, livestock density). Anthropogenic factors heavily influenced both the landscape and the expert-assisted models. Of the 9 areas we identified, the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Ozark National Forest, and Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge regions had the highest combination of effective habitat area and expert opinion scores. Sensitivity analyses indicated that variability among key model parameters did not affect the high ranking of those sites. Those sites should be considered as starting points for the field evaluation of potential reintroduction sites.

  14. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  15. Genetic Predictions of Prion Disease Susceptibility in Carnivore Species Based on Variability of the Prion Gene Coding Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W.; Tranulis, Michael A.; Goldmann, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrPC protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter. PMID:23236380

  16. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  17. Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Stewart

    Full Text Available Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo and pine marten (Martes martes were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus and mountain lion (Puma concolor from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter.

  18. Cougar survival and source-sink structure on Greater Yellowstone's Northern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.K.; Haroldson, M.A.; Murphy, K.M.; Buotte, P.C.; Hornocker, M.G.; Quigley, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    We studied survival and causes of mortality of radiocollared cougars (Puma concolor) on the Greater Yellowstone Northern Range (GYNR) prior to (1987–1994) and after wolf (Canis lupus) reintroduction (1998–2005) and evaluated temporal, spatial, and environmental factors that explain variation in adult, subadult, and kitten survival. Using Program MARK and multimodel inference, we modeled cougar survival based on demographic status, season, and landscape attributes. Our best models for adult and independent subadults indicated that females survived better than males and survival increased with age until cougars reached older ages. Lower elevations and increasing density of roads, particularly in areas open to cougar hunting north of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), increased mortality risks for cougars on the GYNR. Indices of ungulate biomass, cougar and wolf population size, winter severity, rainfall, and individual characteristics such as the presence of dependent young, age class, and use of Park or Wilderness were not important predictors of survival. Kitten survival increased with age, was lower during winter, increased with increasing minimum estimates of elk calf biomass, and increased with increasing density of adult male cougars. Using our best model, we mapped adult cougar survival on the GYNR landscape. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated a good model fit for both female (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.92, n = 35 locations) and male cougars (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74–0.94, n = 49 locations) relative to hunter harvest locations in our study area. Using minimum estimates of survival necessary to sustain the study population, we developed a source-sink surface and we identify several measures that resource management agencies can take to enhance cougar population management based on a source-sink strategy.

  19. Area Handbook Series: Bolivia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    sightseeing on the national railroad, and the Indian cultures. The government’s Boliv- ian Institute of Tourism (Instituto Boliviano de Turismo ...Colegio de Mexico, 1979. Zavaleta Mercado, Ren6 (ed.). Bolivia, hoy. Mexico City: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1983. -. Las masas en Novienbre. La Paz...123 Bel6im (Brazil), 148 Bolivian Institute of Tourism (Instituto Brz6 Hum~ez, Manuel Isidoro, xxviis, Boliviano de Turismo ), 149 20, 164 Bolivian

  20. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tage S.; Borritz, Marianne; Villadsen, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity......Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity...

  1. Adidas ja Nike - nina vastu nina / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Spordikaupade tootja Adidas ostab Reeboki 3 miljardi euro eest. Adidase ja Reeboki ühinemisse suhtub skeptiliselt Puma, selle tegevjuht Jochen Zeitz lükkab tagasi kuuldused Nike'i ja Puma võimaliku ühinemise kohta

  2. Alexela välisomanik plaanib lisaraha kaasamist. Eesti on suure raha jaoks ebahuvitav / Hannes Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    Alexela Logisticsi omanikeringi kuuluv Puma Energy plaanib minna börsile. Puma Energy äripartneri Heiti Hääle sõnul Puma oma tegevust Eestis laiendama ei tõtta, sest siin pole kuhugi investeerida. Raivo Vare kommentaare

  3. Radiation levels of radon gas and its progeny in labor activities of mine interior and their effects in the Bolivian workers to 4000 m; Niveles de radiacion de gas radon y su progenie en actividades laborales de interior mina y sus efectos en los trabajadores bolivianos a 4000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani M, R.; Claros J, J. T.; Vasquez A, R.; Chirveches, H. [Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias, Villa Imperial de Potosi (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Weyer, J.; Arnold, D., E-mail: raulm2k13@hotmail.com [Universidad Tecnica de Freiberg, Academia de Minas, Akademiestrabe 6, 09599 Freiberg (Georgia)

    2014-08-15

    The objectives of this study are guided to determine the radiation charges to those that the mining workers are exposed, in order to assume the appropriate protection measures. The first phase of this study begun in March of 2009, with the support of the Freiberg University (Germany), has been preceded of different scientific events and preparatory measurements in the Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias (UATF) and Cerro Rico de Potosi. Experimentally the presence of radon gas has been quantified by means of measurements in 7 mines of Cerro Rico de Potosi, the COMSUR mines (today SINCHY WAYRA) and the state mining company COMIBOL (Oruro-Huanuni), using the measurement equipment Alpha Zaeller-2 (AZ-2). The Radon-222 that emerges of the interior of the fractured rocks and/or loose rocks, with more intensity if they are fresh, is inhaled by the mining worker. Considering the breathing parameters (1, 2 m{sup 3}/h), recommended by the ICRP, was observed that the miners breathing of the region is more bigger, due to the high effort that they develop in the work. Therefore, the calculation results of the concentration of the radiation activity of Radon, allow assuming that this is the causing of the damage to the lungs in the human body. Outdoor or in superficial tunnels, the impact is low or imperceptible. But when the process is verified to more depths in an underground mine, or not properly ventilated, the concentration as well as the exposure dose to the radiation of radon gas is increased to amazing values. Assuming that the maximum permissible limit is of 20 mSv, the study has established some values that exceeded this limit in the Bolivian mining, not controlled in this field until now. The component of the medical study, through exams: hematology and spirometric, notes that, by the complex inhalation of: air + powders + Radon gas and others in his working environment, contribute strongly to the generation of lethal illnesses in the mining worker, as the Poliglobulia, Silicosis and the Lung Cancer. (Author)

  4. Evaluación estacional de la riqueza y abundancia de especies de mamíferos en la Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la fauna de mamíferos terrestres medianos y grandes, tomando en cuenta la riqueza y abundancia de las especies y la cantidad de individuos, en la Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Hicimos dos visitas mensuales durante todo el año 2001 en un transecto de 2 820 m de extensión, previamente preparado para la identificación de huellas. Identificamos 22 especies en la estación lluviosa y 18 de ellas también en la seca. Registramos Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842 (zorro, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758 (hurón, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (puma e Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (capiguara durante la estación de lluvias. Según el procedimiento Jackknife, la riqueza de especies durante la estación seca (19.83, con intervalo de confianza (IC = 2.73 fue menor que durante la estación lluviosa (25.67, con IC= 3.43. Solamente cuatro mostraron índices de abundancia significativamente diferentes entre estaciones: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (armadillo de nueve bandas, Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758 (armadillo de seis bandas, Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (agutí y Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 (tapir. Por otro lado, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792 (armadillo gigante y Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 (ocelote se destacaron por presentar un índice de abundancia idéntico entre las estaciones. La distribución de la abundancia de las especies en el área de muestreo, siguió más o menos el patrón esperado para las comunidades en equilibrio, especialmente en la estación lluviosa, evidenciando que el ambiente aún mantiene una buena calidad para la conservación de los mamíferos. El presente estudio mostró que la RBMMV, a pesar de ser pequeña (con aproximadamente 470 ha, desempeña un papel importante para la conservación de la mastofauna de la región, siendo un área de refugio en un ambiente con mucha influencia antrópica, principalmente por la cr

  5. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os zoológicos modernos são instituições destinadas à manutenção da fauna selvagem com o objetivo de promover a conservação, pesquisa científica, lazer, recreação e educação ambiental. A ampla variedade de espécies selvagens, vivendo em condições diferentes do seu habitat natural, representa um ambiente propício à disseminação de doenças, muitas delas zoonóticas. Devido à escassez de dados e à relevância dos mamíferos selvagens neste contexto epidemiológico, tanto na toxoplasmose, quanto na leptospirose, foi efetuado o inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 32 animais, adultos, de ambos os sexos incluindo: 14 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus, quatro macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus xanthosternus, três onças-suçuaranas (Puma concolor, uma onça-pintada (Pantheraonca, uma raposa (Cerdocyon thous, seis guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, dois quatis (Nasua nasua e um papa-mel (Eira barbara. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi utilizado o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT ³"1:25 e para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. foi utilizado o teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (ponto de corte ³1:100 com uma coleção de antígenos vivos que incluiu 24 variantes sorológicas de leptospiras patogênicas e duas leptospiras saprófitas. Dentre os 32 mamíferos, 17 (53,1% apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii e quatro (12,5% foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. De acordo com o sexo, 60% (9/15 dos machos e 47,1% (8/17 das fêmeas foram soropositivos para T. gondii e 26,7% (4/15 dos machos apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. Dos mamíferos que apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, 47% (8/17 nasceram no zoológico, 41,2% (7/17 foram oriundos de outras instituições e dois (11,8% foram provenientes da natureza. Em rela

  6. Panthers and Forests in South Florida: an Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jane Comiskey

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi survives in an area of pronounced habitat diversity in southern Florida, occupying extensive home ranges that encompass a mosaic of habitats. Twenty-one years of daytime monitoring via radiotelemetry have provided substantial but incomplete information about panther ecology, mainly because this method fails to capture movement and habitat use between dusk and dawn, when panthers are most active. Broad characterizations of panther habitat suitability have nonetheless been derived from telemetry-based habitat selection studies, focusing narrowly on forests where daytime resting sites are often located. The resulting forest-centered view of panthers attributed their restricted distribution and absence of population growth in the mid-1990s to a scarcity of unfragmented forest for expansion. However, the panther population has doubled since the beginning of genetic restoration in 1995, increasing five-fold in public areas described as unsuitable based on forest criteria. Although the forest-centered view no longer explains panther distribution, it continues to shape management decisions and habitat conservation policies. The assumptions and limitations of this view therefore merit critical examination. We analyze the role of forests in the ecology of the Florida panther. To address the absence of nighttime telemetry data, we use innovative telemetry mapping techniques and incorporate information from field observations indicating habitat use during active hours (e.g., tracks, scats, urine markers, and kill sites. We consider daytime telemetry data in the context of panther home ranges and breeding units. We analyze home range size in relation to the amount of forest within each range, concluding that percent forest cover is a poor predictor of size. We apply fractal analysis techniques to characterize the relative density of forest cover associated with daytime locations and interpret the results in

  7. Parasitic infections of anurans from an urbanized rainforest biotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasitic infections of anurans in an urbanized rainforest biotope in the Diobu, Port Harcourt area of Rivers State were investigated. The few anuran species encountered included Afrixalus fulvovittatus, Amietophrynus regularis, A. cameroonensis, Hyperolius concolor phase B, Hyperolius concolor phase C, ...

  8. 78 FR 62560 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Agave eggersiana and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., 1980, Agave eggersiana, Gonocalyx concolor, and Varronia rupicola (as Cordia rupicola) were identified... Federal Register a CNOR (64 FR 57535) that added Gonocalyx concolor and Varronia rupicola (as Cordia... rupicola (as Cordia rupicola) was assigned an LPN of 2 because it faced threats of a high magnitude that...

  9. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  10. Cougar space use and movements in the wildland-urban landscape of western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertson, B.N.; Spencer, R.D.; Marzluff, J.M.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, Jeffrey; Grue, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface lies at the confluence of human-dominated and wild landscapes, creating a number of management and conservation challenges. Because wildlife ecology, behavior, and evolution at this interface are shaped by both natural and human phenomena, this requires greater understanding of how diverse factors affect ecosystem and population processes. We illustrate the challenge of understanding and managing a frequent and often undesired inhabitant of the wildland-urban landscape, the cougar (Puma concolor). In wildland and residential areas of western Washington State, USA, we captured and radiotracked 27 cougars to model space use and understand the role of landscape features in interactions (sightings, encounters, and depredations) between cougars and humans. Resource utilization functions (RUFs) identified cougar use of areas with features that were probably attractive to prey, influential on prey vulnerability, and associated with limited or no residential development. Early-successional forest (+), conifer forest (+), distance to road (-), residential density (-), and elevation (-) were significant positive and negative predictors of use for the population, whereas use of other landscape features was highly variable. Space use and movement rates in wildland and residential areas were similar because cougars used wildland-like forest patches, reserves, and corridors in residential portions of their home range. The population RUF was a good predictor of confirmed cougar interactions, with 72% of confirmed reports occurring in the 50% of the landscape predicted to be medium-high and high cougar use areas. We believe that there is a threshold residential density at which the level of development modifies the habitat but maintains enough wildland characteristics to encourage moderate levels of cougar use and maximize the probability of interaction. Wildlife managers trying to reduce interactions between cougars and people should incorporate

  11. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sharleen T; Arsznov, Bradley M; Hristova, Ani E; Yoon, Elise J; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions ( Panthera leo ), leopards ( Panthera pardus ), cougars ( Puma concolor ), and cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls ( n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC

  12. Annual elk calf survival in a multiple carnivore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacker, Daniel R.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Jimenez, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Robinson, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    The realized effect of multiple carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment may depend on the carnivore assemblage as well as compensation from forage and winter weather severity, which may mediate juvenile vulnerability to predation in ungulates. We used a time-to-event approach to test for the effects of risk factors on annual elk (Cervus canadensis) calf survival and to estimate cause-specific mortality rates for 2 elk populations in adjacent study areas in the southern Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA, during 2011–2014. We captured and radio-tagged 286 elk calves: 226 neonates, and 60 6-month-old calves. Summer survival probability was less variable than winter (P = 0.12) and averaged 0.55 (95% CI = 0.47–0.63), whereas winter survival varied more than summer and significantly across study years (P = 0.003) and averaged 0.73 (95% CI = 0.64–0.81). During summer, elk calf survival increased with biomass of preferred forage biomass, and was slightly lower following winters with high precipitation; exposure to mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation risk was unimportant. In contrast, during winter, we found that exposure to mountain lion predation risk influenced survival, with a weak negative effect of winter precipitation. We found no evidence that forage availability or winter weather severity mediated vulnerability to mountain lion predation risk in summer or winter (e.g., an interaction), indicating that the effect of mountain lion predation was constant regardless of spatial variation in forage or weather. Mountain lions dominated known causes of elk calf mortality in summer and winter, with estimated cause-specific mortality rates of 0.14 (95% CI = 0.09–0.20) and 0.12 (95% CI = 0.07–0.18), respectively. The effect of carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment varies across ecological systems depending on relative carnivore densities. Mountain lions may be the most important carnivore for ungulates, especially where grizzly

  13. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  14. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Caitlin E; Main, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr) and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the landscape. We

  15. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  16. Medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve (San Juan, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jorge; Campos, Claudia M; Borghi, Carlos E

    2015-01-21

    Wild and domestic animals and their by-products are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective and preventive medicines. Despite the medicinal use of animals worldwide, this topic has received less attention than the use of medicinal plants. This study assessed the medicinal use of animals by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo MaB Reserve by addressing the following questions: What animal species and body parts are used? What ailments or diseases are treated with remedies from these species? To what extent do mestizo people use animals as a source of medicine? Is the use related to people's age? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 171 inhabitants (15-93 years old) of four villages close to the Reserve: Tudcúm, Angualasto, Malimán and Colangüil. We calculated the informant consensus factor and fidelity level to test homogeneity of knowledge and to know the importance of different medicinal uses for a given species. The medicinal use of animals was reported by 57% of the surveyed people. Seven species were mentioned: Rhea pennata, Lama guanicoe, Puma concolor, Pseudalopex sp., Lama vicugna, Lepus europaeus and Conepatus chinga. Several body parts were used: fat, leg, bezoar-stone, stomach, feather, meat, blood, feces, wool, and liver. The fat of R. pennata was the most frequently used animal part, followed by the bezoar stone and the leg of L. guanicoe. Animals were used to treat 22 ailments, with respiratory and nervous system disorders being the most frequently treated diseases with a high degree of consensus. Old people used animals as remedies more frequently than young residents, showing some differences among villages. A low number of animal species was mentioned as used for medicinal purposes, which could be explained by the perception of strong control related the legislation that bans hunting and the erosion of traditional knowledge produced by mestizaje. However, the presence of a traditional medicine is deeply

  17. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not

  18. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  19. Sporta preču zīmolu komunikācijas vērtējums sociālo mediju lietotāju auditorijā: "Nike", "Adidas", "Puma" gadījums

    OpenAIRE

    Mačane, Ieva

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Sporta preču zīmolu komunikācijas vērtējums sociālo mediju lietotāju auditorijā: „Nike”, „Adidas”, „Puma” gadījums” mērķis ir noskaidrot un analizēt zīmolu komunikācijas paradumus un nozīmi, kā arī novērtēt auditorijas attieksmi par zīmolu īstenoto komunikāciju. Darba ietvaros tika analizēta zīmolu komunikācija sociālajos medijos facebook.com, instagram.com un twitter.com laika posmā no 2015.gada 1.janvāra līdz 31.martam. Darbā apkopota teorijas par zīmola un zīmolvedības...

  20. Circuitos de la economía urbana en la ciudad de Buenos Aires: el comercio étnico de la colectividad boliviana en el barrio de Liniers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Escobar Basavilbaso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las divisiones territoriales del trabajo coexistentes en las ciudades pueden ser estudiadas como un circuito superior y un circuito inferior de la economía. El objetivo de este trabajo es comprender la convivencia de dichos circuitos en el barrio de Liniers (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires para analizar los rasgos que toma el circuito inferior y en particular, el comercio étnico boliviano. Las características del medio construido de Liniers y su situación de encrucijada y nudo del transporte de pasajeros lo convierten en un distrito comercial privilegiado con un enorme y fluido mercado. Sobresale allí el circuito inferior y en particular el comercio étnico boliviano. Para tal fin hemos utilizado estrategias cualitativas, tales como recorridos de visu, entrevistas a comerciantes argentinos y bolivianos.

  1. A new UV-curing elastomeric substrate for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping in the design cycle of new microfluidic devices is very important for shortening time-to-market. Researchers are facing the challenge to explore new and suitable substrates with simple and efficient microfabrication techniques. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a UV-curing elastomeric polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. The swelling and solubility of PUMA in different chemicals is determined. Time-dependent measurements of water contact angle show that the native PUMA is hydrophilic without surface treatment. The current monitoring method is used for measurement of the electroosmotic flow mobility in the microchannels made from PUMA. The optical, physical, thermal and mechanical properties of PUMA are evaluated. The UV-lithography and molding process is used for making micropillars and deep channel microfluidic structures integrated to the supporting base layer. Spin coating is characterized for producing different layer thicknesses of PUMA resin. A device is fabricated and tested for examining the strength of different bonding techniques such as conformal, corona treating and semi-curing of two PUMA layers in microfluidic application and the results show that the bonding strengths are comparable to that of PDMS. We also report fabrication and testing of a three-layer multi inlet/outlet microfluidic device including a very effective fluidic interconnect for application demonstration of PUMA as a promising new substrate. A simple micro-device is developed and employed for observing the pressure deflection of membrane made from PUMA as a very effective elastomeric valve in microfluidic devices.

  2. Boliivia kihutab vaesuse pärast võõrad gaasifirmad riigist välja / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Boliivia president Evo Morales teatas 1. mail otsusest võtta gaasitööstus riigi kontrolli alla: Boliivias gaasi tootvad välisfirmad peavad kuue kuu jooksul loovutama kontrolli tootmise üle riiklikule energiafirmale Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos. Kaart: Boliivia energiatüli

  3. Investment opportunities with YPFB capitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors' incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development

  4. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. V. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of macrolichens of the Colombian Paramos: 1. Cladonia subgenus Cladina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.; Cleef, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of 6 species of Cladonia subgenus Cladina (Lichenes) from the Colombian paramos are described: C. arcuata Ahti, C. boliviano Ahti, C. confusa Sant., C. polia Sant., C. rangiferina (L.) Wigg. var. abbayesii Ahti, and C. colombiana spec. Nov. C. bicolor

  5. Estimating seed crops of conifer and hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Cone, acorn, and berry crops of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), California white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gord...

  6. Crotoxin: Structural Studies, Mechanism of Action and Cloning of Its Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    with these same antisera, while cross-reactivity with B3-bungarotoxin was very slight. Neurophysin and phospholipase A2 from N. n. atra and honey bee ...toxin from Cror alus viridis concolor, and monoclonal antibodies to czotoxin. We have used these to search for cross-reactive, homologoiis proteins in...concolor, and monoclonal antibodies to crotoxin. We have used these to search for cross-reactive, homclogous proteins in other venoms and examine their

  7. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte e sua relação com o mosaico de habitats na cuesta de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A região da cuesta de Botucatu caracteriza-se por um gradiente topográfico contendo um mosaico de ambientes com diferentes formações de vegetação natural (floresta estacional semidecidual, cerrado e matas ciliares, além de áreas antropizadas com a predominância de pastagens, plantações de cana-de-açúcar, laranja, e reflorestamentos de eucalipto, com paisagem fragmentada. Inserida nesta região, a Fazenda Experimental Edgardia, pertencente à Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu, representa uma amostra desta heterogeneidade ambiental, tendo grande importância para a conservação da biodiversidade, tanto de flora como fauna. Entretanto, poucos são os estudos sobre a sua fauna, principalmente de mamíferos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a fauna de mamíferos de médio e grande porte nesta área, e sua relação com o mosaico de habitats. Foram obtidos registros indiretos da presença de mamíferos através de vestígios (pegadas e fezes em transectos (trilhas pré-existentes, ao longo de um ano. De março de 2004 a março de 2005 foram registradas 18 espécies de mamíferos silvestres de médio e grande porte. Quanto à ocorrência destacou-se Mazama sp., presente em todos os ambientes, com maior abundância relativa no ambiente de transição de floresta/Cerradão. Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798 e Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758 também foram encontradas em praticamente todos os ambientes, e espécies como Chironectes minimus (Zimmermann, 1780, Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758 e uma espécie do gênero Conepatus Gray, 1837 estiveram restritas a ambientes específicos. A análise de correspondência mostrou oito espécies com ocorrência em todos os ambientes: sete mais associadas aos ambientes de várzea, floresta e pastagem e três aos ambientes de cultura de arroz

  8. Analisis de la microbiota en suelos cultivados del Altiplano central

    OpenAIRE

    Sivila, R.; Hervé, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    Se estudio la poblacion microbina en una rotacion de cultivos con descanso, comun en el Altiplano Central boliviano. Se determino la presencia y densidad de cuatro grupos taxonomicos de microorganismos: bacterias; hongos, actinomicetos y esporas de las micorrizas arbusculares en el suelo rizosferico de cuatro cultivos de la rotacion (papa, quinua, cebada y avena); en las principales especies silvestres perennes (#Stipa ichu, Festuca dolichophylla, Baccharis incarum$) que colonizan las parcela...

  9. Société civile et pouvoirs publics : Partenaires pour une économie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Studies. Estudio de casos brasileños : la dinámica de relaciones entre los foros de economía solidaria y las políticas públicas para la economía solidaria en Brasil. Download PDF. Studies. Estudio de casos bolivianos : las políticas públicas de economía social y el diálogo entre los poderes públicos y la sociedad civil.

  10. Société civile et pouvoirs publics : Partenaires pour une économie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada case study : co-construction of public policy for the social economy. Études. Estudio de casos brasileños : la dinámica de relaciones entre los foros de economía solidaria y las políticas públicas para la economía solidaria en Brasil. Études. Estudio de casos bolivianos : las políticas públicas de economía social y el ...

  11. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm

  12. Migração boliviana e doença de Chagas: limites na atuação do Sistema Único de Saúde brasileiro (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Carneiro Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migrações acarretam mudanças nos perfis epidemiológicos, impactando sistemas de saúde dos países receptores. O Brasil atrai imigrantes que se inserem precariamente nas metrópoles. Na Bolívia, a doença de Chagas é endêmica, fato relevante para o SUS brasileiro.O texto analisa a atuação e os limites dos profissionais de saúde no atendimento aos bolivianos no SUS, enfocando a doença de Chagas, por meio de entrevistas aplicadas nos serviços primário, secundário e terciário na região central da cidade de São Paulo, principal destino dos imigrantes bolivianos. As precárias condições de vida dos bolivianos caracterizam iniquidades em saúde. Idioma e cultura limitam a compreensão sobre o cuidado. Constata-se desconhecimento da clínica e epidemiologia da doença de Chagas entre os profissionais que atendem esses imigrantes. Faz-se necessária a revisão de estratégias assistenciais e de controle da doença de Chagas.

  13. Toidupoolis Säästumarketist, riided Kreisimarketist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    2005. a. alguses tekkis Eestisse uus riiete säästukauplus, kus müüakse tuntud kaubamärkide nagu Puma, Nike, Adidas jt. tooteid umbes poole odavamalt kui tavakauplustes. Vt. samas: Hinnapommi juhtum

  14. Differences Between Distributed and Parallel Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, R.; Maccabe, A.B.; Rissen, R.

    1998-10-01

    Distributed systems have been studied for twenty years and are now coming into wider use as fast networks and powerful workstations become more readily available. In many respects a massively parallel computer resembles a network of workstations and it is tempting to port a distributed operating system to such a machine. However, there are significant differences between these two environments and a parallel operating system is needed to get the best performance out of a massively parallel system. This report characterizes the differences between distributed systems, networks of workstations, and massively parallel systems and analyzes the impact of these differences on operating system design. In the second part of the report, we introduce Puma, an operating system specifically developed for massively parallel systems. We describe Puma portals, the basic building blocks for message passing paradigms implemented on top of Puma, and show how the differences observed in the first part of the report have influenced the design and implementation of Puma.

  15. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an im- ... Similar approach was performed for sub critical fast reactor core with Pu/MA .... The same might be addressed to masses of nuclei (the use of experimental values.

  16. Modulation of the Proliferation and Metastasis of Human Breast Tumor Cells by SLUG (IDEA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    .... They include cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, E-cadherin, occludin, Na/K ATPase, vitamin D receptor, integrin alpha 3, PUMA, BRCA2, claudins 5, 3, 7, 11, 1, 14, and 16, desmoglein 1, and 2, PCNA, PGDH...

  17. Scaling for integral simulation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in SBWR during LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R [Purdue Univ., West Layfayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A scaling study has been conducted for simulation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) during a loss of coolant accident. The scaling method consists of a three-level scaling approach. The integral system scaling (global scaling or top down approach) consists of two levels, the integral response function scaling which forms the first level, and the control volume and boundary flow scaling which forms the second level. The bottom up approach is carried out by local phenomena scaling which forms the third level scaling. Based on this scaling study the design of the model facility called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) has been carried out. The PUMA facility has 1/4 height and 1/100 area ratio scaling, corresponding to the volume scaling of 1/400. The PUMA power scaling based on the integral scaling is 1/200. The present scaling method predicts that PUMA time scale will be one-half that of the SBWR. The system pressure for PUMA is full scale, therefore, a prototypic pressure is maintained. PUMA is designed to operate at and below 1.03 MPa (150 psi), which allows it to simulate the prototypic SBWR accident conditions below 1.03 MPa (150 psi). The facility includes models for all components of importance.

  18. Investigating The Kinematics of Canids and Felids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.

    2016-12-01

    For all organisms, metabolic energy is critical for survival. While moving efficiently is a necessity for large carnivores, the influence of kinematics on energy demand remains poorly understood. We measured the kinematics of dogs, wolves, and pumas to detect any differences in their respective energy expenditures. Using 22 kinematic parameters measured on 78 videos, we used one-way ANOVAs and paired T-tests to compare 5 experimental treatments among gaits in dogs (n=11 in 3 breed groups), wolves (n=2), and pumas (n=2). Across the measured parameters, we found greater kinematic similarity than expected among dog breeds and no trend in any of the 22 parameters regarding the effect of steepness on locomotion mechanics. Similarly, treadmill kinematics were nearly identical to those measured during outdoor movement. However, in 3 inches of snow, we observed significant differences (pwolf. When comparing canids (wolves and dogs) to a felid (pumas), we found that pumas and dogs are the most kinematically distinct (differing in 13 of 22 parameters, compared with 5 of 22 for wolves and pumas). Lastly, compared with wolves, walking pumas had larger head angles (p=0.0025), forelimb excursion angles (p=0.0045), and hindlimb excursion angles (p=0.0327). After comparing the energetics of pumas and dogs with their respective kinematics, we noted that less dynamic kinematics result in energy savings. Through tracking the locations and gait behavior of large carnivores, novel sensor technology can reveal how indoor kinematics applies to wild animals and improve the conservation of these species.

  19. Population dynamics of dwarf mistletoe on young true firs in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E Scharpf; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

    1982-01-01

    Young red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white firs (A. concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl. ex Hildebr.) on the Stanislaus National Forest, California, were inoculated with seeds of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum) for 5 successive years. Only 3 to 4 percent of about 7000 seeds placed on branches...

  20. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to the fir engraver and its fungal symbiont in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina

    1996-01-01

    The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeC., attacks white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl., and other true firs, Abies spp., in western North America. The biology, attack behavior, and ecology of this bark beetle were recently summarized by Berryman and Ferrell (1988). During the summer flight season, the attacking beetles bore into the cambial zone of...

  1. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  2. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  3. Predicting mortality for five California conifers following wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hood; Sheri L. Smith; Daniel R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Fire injury was characterized and survival monitored for 5677 trees >25cm DBH from five wildfires in California that occurred between 2000 and 2004. Logistic regression models for predicting the probability of mortality 5-years after fire were developed for incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin), white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex...

  4. Anuran parasites from three biotopes in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for Nigeria and a multi-host parasite. We suspect Hyperolius concolor to be a paratenic rather than a definitive host for the immature Camallanus sp. recovered from the frog. Other parasites using anurans as paratenic hosts were also encountered. Keywords: Anurans, parasites, ecological biotopes, Rivers State, Nigeria ...

  5. Dwarf mistletoe in red and white firs in California–23 to 28 years after inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Parmeter Jr.; Robert F. Scharpf

    1989-01-01

    Spread and buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum, was studied on inoculated white fir, Abies concolor, and red fir, A. magnifica, in northern California for 23 to 28 years. At the end of these studies (1986), and in the absence of overstory infection, 13 of 23 trees had dwarf mistletoe populations...

  6. Fir dwarf mistletoe (FIDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Jerome S. Beatty; Robert L. Mathiasen

    2000-01-01

    Fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelmann ex Munz) is a common and damaging parasite of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), and California red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr.) in the western...

  7. Interactions between western gall rust and its Pinus hosts, P. jeffreyi and P. contorta, in Sierra De San Pedro Martir National Park, Northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    The Sierra de San Pedro Martir is a mountain range in north-central Baja that comprises the southern-most extension of the Californian coniferous flora, including Pinus jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, Abies concolor, and Calocedrus decurrens. These forests are similar...

  8. On the genus Galidia and its species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1879-01-01

    In the year 1839 Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire ¹) described and figured three species of his new genus Galidia, viz: elegans, concolor and olivacea, all natives of Madagascar. It seems that Galidia olivacea has not been captured by the travellers who visited Madagascar after Bernier and Goudot: the only

  9. Valor monetario de la leche materna en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Aguayo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Estimar el volumen de leche materna consumido por los niños bolivianos de < 36 meses de edad y el valor monetario de la sustitución de dicho volumen de leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales. Métodos. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta la distribución de la población infantil por grupos de edad, la prevalencia de las diferentes prácticas de lactancia materna (exclusiva o parcial en cada grupo de edad, el volumen promedio de leche materna consumido por los lactantes de un grupo de edad determinado y el costo de la producción y sustitución de la leche materna. Resultados. Los lactantes bolivianos consumen anualmente más de 161 millones de litros de leche materna, lo que representa un volumen promedio de 573 mL/día por cada lactante menor de un año. El valor monetario de la leche materna consumida por los lactantes bolivianos asciende a US$ 274 millones anuales. El costo promedio de sustituir la leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales en un lactante amamantado adecuadamente el primer año de vida asciende a US$ 407. Discusión. Para que la formulación y consolidación de políticas y programas de protección, promoción y apoyo a la lactancia materna sean una realidad, los líderes políticos de Bolivia han de tomar conciencia del enorme valor monetario de la leche materna.

  10. A INSERÇÃO DOS MOVIMENTOS INDÍGENAS NA ARENA POLÍTICA BOLIVIANA: NOVOS E VELHOS DILEMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO SIQUEIRA ABE SABER MIGUEL

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Considering the Bolivian indigenous movements, the article explores the unification made by these groups between the symbolic and the instrumental universe - according to the concepts of Alain Touraine -, analyzing questions related to their historical exclusion and how this situation reflects in the Bolivian political scene, also examining the conditions that had enabled the current political emergence of the indigenous movements. Although the projection acquired by the indigenous movements, the persistence of a governmentstandard that doesn’t prioritize the constitution of public spaces to deep democracy and the presence of obstacles as the regional divisions still impose serious risks for the consolidation ofthe democracy in the country.RESUMO: Tendo como objeto os movimentos indígenas bolivianos, o trabalho explora a articulação feita por esses grupos entre o universo simbólico e o universo instrumental, conforme concepção de Alain Touraine, abordando questões relacionadas à problemáticahistórica de sua exclusão e a forma pela qual este quadro se refletiu no cenário político boliviano, analisando as condições que propiciaram a atual ascensão política dos movimentos indígenas. Como será visto, apesar de os movimentos indígenas terem adquirido certa projeção política no cenário boliviano, a persistência de um padrão de governo que não contempla e formação de espaços públicos de aprofundamento da democracia e a presença de obstáculos como as divisões regionais ainda impõem sérios riscos para a consolidação da democracia no país.

  11. La construcción del sujeto migrante en las políticas públicas. Estudio en dos municipios del este de la provincia de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ataide

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En Salta, como en otras provincias de nuestro país, los inmigrantes bolivianos, se han insertado fuertemente en la actividad hortícola, para consumo en fresco y con destino al mercado interno. Particularmente en algunas zonas de la provincia se reconoce su presencia en las distintas etapas de la producción. Algunos son actualmente productores (propietarios y arrendatarios y dentro de este grupo, existen quienes han logrado capitalizar la explotación, incorporando módulos o invernaderos, riego de precisión presurizado y semillas híbridas. Nos referimos a todo un paquete tecnológico que los diferencia de otro grupo de productores que producen “a campo”. A su vez, articulándose con ambos grupos de productores, encontramos trabajadores medieros y peones, también de procedencia boliviana. En este escenario, indagamos en la forma en que distintas políticas públicas de escala nacional, provincial y local, orientadas a la actividad hortícola, construyen al sujeto inmigrante, focalizando en dos municipios del este salteño. Para ello analizamos la agenda política de diferentes instituciones públicas; las acciones realizadas, pero también los textos y discursos de sus funcionarios; la representatividad de los diversos actores, en los espacios donde se modelan las políticas; y la percepción que se tiene del trabajador inmigrante. Observamos que en general se tiende a invisibilizar la heterogeneidad de roles de los sujetos de origen boliviano en la actividad. Es decir las diferencias de clase y especialmente la condición laboral precaria en que trabajan los medieros y peones bolivianos, en estos territorios productivos.

  12. ENTRE LA COSTA DE COBIJA Y TIERRAS ALTAS: EL TRÁFICO ARRIERO A INICIOS DE LA REPÚBLICA BOLIVIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Letelier Cosmelli, Javiera

    2016-01-01

    Desde la configuración del Puerto de Cobija hasta la guerra del Pacífico, tanto indígenas como bolivianos y extranjeros establecieron relaciones en el marco de un contexto cambiante y complejo tanto a nivel nacional como internacional en donde se introduce la economía capitalista industrial. Es en ese marco que los arrieros y la movilidad entre costa y tierras altas se constituyeron en piezas claves para dar vida a Cobija y resto de Atacama. A partir de este escenario realizamos una revisión ...

  13. Civil Society and Public Powers : Partners for Social Economy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Études. Estudio de casos brasileños : la dinámica de relaciones entre los foros de economía solidaria y las políticas públicas para la economía solidaria en Brasil. Téléchargez le PDF. Études. Estudio de casos bolivianos : las políticas públicas de economía social y el diálogo entre los poderes públicos y la sociedad civil.

  14. Pilar García Jordán, El Estado propone, los c

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Rodolfo de

    2016-01-01

    La autora, catedrática de historia de América en la Universidad de Barcelona, es una autoridad reconocida del mundo guarayo, al que ya ha dedicado cinco libros. En el último, que aquí reseñamos, reconstruye lo sucedido en quince años decisivos tanto para los guarayos como para la historia de la actual provincia de Guarayos, en el departamento boliviano de Santa Cruz. Pilar García comienza recordando que, en el contexto del surgimiento y desarrollo de Bolivia como Estado-nación, uno de los ret...

  15. Proceso histórico de reconocimiento de los derechos sociales en Bolivia: derecho a la educación

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Dorado, Roberto Arturo

    2015-01-01

    La tesis tiene como temática central el lugar esencial que ocupa el derecho a la educación en el sistema constitucional boliviano de derechos fundamentales, con atención especial a los derechos sociales y, desde esta perspectiva, a la faceta prestacional del derecho a la educación. Sin lugar a dudas, de entrada, debe destacarse la actualidad permanente del tema elegido pues, en efecto, el conocimiento del ordenamiento constitucional, sea en términos de suscitar adhesión a los valores demo...

  16. La indiferencia ante los derechos humanos y la educación moderno en un régimen populista. La ideología de la descolonización Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    H. C. F., Mansilla

    2013-01-01

    La ideología de la descolonización es sostenida por el gobierno boliviano como parte de plan- teamientos de origen indianista e indigenista. El argumento de la descolonización sostiene que la sociedad indígena precolonial fue igualitaria y solidaria. Por otra parte, ha desarrollado una visión negativa de la modernidad. Un aspecto principal de la sociedad boliviana ha sido la tra- dición autoritaria que es ignorada por indianistas e indigenistas.

  17. Alfonso Gumucio-Dagron : más allá de la euforia tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, José Marques de

    2011-01-01

    El autor presenta una síntesis del pensamiento del comunicador boliviano y su propuesta acerca de la comunicación para el cambio social, partiendo de la historia del pensamiento comunicacional latinoamericano y ubicando al autor en la línea de tiempo de influencia y de evolución académica e investigativa en América Latina. O autor apresenta uma síntese da pensamento e propostas sobre a comunicacão para a mudança social, do Alfonso Gumucio Dagron, baseada na história do pensamento latino-am...

  18. Patrones reproductivos en la altura: ¿hipoxia o regulación cultural?

    OpenAIRE

    Crognier, Emile; Villena, M.; Vargas, E.

    2001-01-01

    Descripción de las características reproductivas en la altura basada en los datos recogidos en 1988-99 en 10 comunidades Aymará que viven a una altura promedio de 4000m en el Altiplano Boliviano. Se registraron las historias reproductivas de 868 mujeres casadas, la población femenina total, de las cuales 359 tenían entre 45 años y mas. El modelo reproductivo se presenta con un comienzo tardío de la fertilidad, y un comienzo tardío de los embarazos, asociado con un corto periodo reproductivo y...

  19. Los medios de comunicación masiva en conflicto: Reflexiones sobre el papel del periodismo en la situación boliviana / Mass media in conflict. Thoughts on the role of journalism in the bolivian situation

    OpenAIRE

    Torrico-Villanueva, Erick R.; Universidad Simón Bolívar (Bolivia)

    2009-01-01

    Los medios masivos bolivianos atraviesan una crisis de credibilidad atribuible a su politización, su frecuente recurso al sensacionalismo y sus errores profesiona les. Estos rasgos se han enfatizado en la actual situación de reordenamiento democrático que se caracteriza por una intensa conflictividad. Los medios han pasado de ser narra dores a ser verdaderos actores de los conflictos, pero esta condición, debido al estado de polarización social y política que vive el país, también está convir...

  20. La economía política de reformas institucionales en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    George Gray-Molina; Ernesto Perez de Rada; Ernesto Yáñez

    1999-01-01

    En este estudio analizamos el caso boliviano de reformas institucionales durante el periodo 1993-1997. Centramos la atención sobre tres reformas en particular: la Reforma de Participación Popular, la Reforma Educativa y la Reforma del Sistema de Pensiones. Cada una ejemplifica características singulares de cambio institucional tanto por el proceso como por los resultados de la adopción. La Participación Popular constituye uno de los intentos más ambiciosos de descentralización de los últimos ...

  1. Glass fiber sensors for detecting special nuclear materials at portal and monitor stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.D.; Seymour, R.; Crawford, T.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards and Security Systems LLC (NucSafe) participated in the Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program (ITRAP) recently conducted by the Austrian Research Center, Seibersdorf (ARCS) for IAEA, INTERPOL, and the World Customs Organization (IAEA, in press). This presentation reviews ITRAP test results of NucSafe instrumentation. NucSafe produces stationary, mobile, and hand-held systems that use neutron and gamma ray sensors to detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Neutron sensors are comprised of scintillating glass fibers (trade name 'PUMA' for Pu Materials Analysis), which provide several advantages over 3 He and 10 BF 3 tubes. PUMA 6 Li glass fiber sensors offer greater neutron sensitivity and dynamic counting range with significantly less microphonic susceptibility than tubes, while eliminating transport and operational hazards. PUMA sensors also cost less per active area than gas tubes, which is important since rapid neutron detection at passenger, freight, and vehicle portals require large sensor areas to provide the required sensitivity

  2. Development of a facility using robotics for testing automation of inertial instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Joy Y.; Lamont, Gary B.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Lewantowicz, Zdsislaw H.; Greig, Joy Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrated Robotics System Simulation (ROBSIM) was used to evaluate the performance of the PUMA 560 arm as applied to testing of inertial sensors. Results of this effort were used in the design and development of a feasibility test environment using a PUMA 560 arm. The implemented facility demonstrated the ability to perform conventional static inertial instrument tests (rotation and tumble). The facility included an efficient data acquisitions capability along with a precision test servomechanism function resulting in various data presentations which are included in the paper. Analysis of inertial instrument testing accuracy, repeatability and noise characteristics are provided for the PUMA 560 as well as for other possible commercial arm configurations. Another integral aspect of the effort was an in-depth economic analysis and comparison of robot arm testing versus use of contemporary precision test equipment.

  3. Evolutionary and functional mitogenomics associated with the genetic restoration of the Florida panther

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Onorato, David P.; Fitak, Robert R.; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Culver, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Florida panthers are endangered pumas that currently persist in reduced patches of habitat in South Florida, USA. We performed mitogenome reference-based assemblies for most parental lines of the admixed Florida panthers that resulted from the introduction of female Texas pumas into South Florida in 1995. With the addition of 2 puma mitogenomes, we characterized 174 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 12 individuals. We defined 5 haplotypes (Pco1–Pco5), one of which (Pco1) had a geographic origin exclusive to Costa Rica and Panama and was possibly introduced into the Everglades National Park, Florida, prior to 1995. Haplotype Pco2 was native to Florida. Haplotypes Pco3 and Pco4 were exclusive to Texas, whereas haplotype Pco5 had an undetermined geographic origin. Phylogenetic inference suggests that haplotypes Pco1–Pco4 diverged ~202000 (95% HPDI = 83000–345000) years ago and that haplotypes Pco2–Pco4 diverged ~61000 (95% HPDI = 9000–127000) years ago. These results are congruent with a south-to-north continental expansion and with a recent North American colonization by pumas. Furthermore, pumas may have migrated from Texas to Florida no earlier than ~44000 (95% HPDI = 2000–98000) years ago. Synonymous mutations presented a greater mean substitution rate than other mitochondrial functional regions: nonsynonymous mutations, tRNAs, rRNAs, and control region. Similarly, all protein-coding genes were under predominant negative selection constraints. We directly and indirectly assessed the presence of potential deleterious SNPs in the ND2 and ND5 genes in Florida panthers prior to and as a consequence of the introduction of Texas pumas. Screenings for such variants are recommended in extant Florida panthers.

  4. Kaolin clays from Patagonia - Argentina. Relationship between the mineralogy and ceramic properties; Arcillas caolinicas de la Patagonia argentina. Relacion entre la mineralogia y las propiedades ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Factorovich, J.C.; Badino, D. [Piedra Grande S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cravero, F.; Dominguez, E. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    The mineralogy, grain size distribution, chemical composition, S and C contents, plasticity, and cationic exchange capacity are determined in the sedimentary kaolinitic clays from the clay pits Puma Negra, Puma Gris, Tincar Super; and Chenque and Cardenal located in Santa Cruz and Chubut Provinces. Mineralogy and Particle size distribution of > 5, 5-2 and <2{mu} fractions are determined. Modulus of rupture, 1100 and 1250 deg C shrinkage and water absorption and whiteness are found. It is accomplished a statistics correlation between the characteristics of grain size distribution, mineralogy, and other physical properties with the main ceramic properties to understand its influence in the ceramic process. (author) 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Kaolin clays from Patagonia - Argentina. Relationship between the mineralogy and ceramic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factorovich, J.C.; Badino, D.; Cravero, F.; Dominguez, E.

    1997-01-01

    The mineralogy, grain size distribution, chemical composition, S and C contents, plasticity, and cationic exchange capacity are determined in the sedimentary kaolinitic clays from the clay pits Puma Negra, Puma Gris, Tincar Super; and Chenque and Cardenal located in Santa Cruz and Chubut Provinces. Mineralogy and Particle size distribution of > 5, 5-2 and <2μ fractions are determined. Modulus of rupture, 1100 and 1250 deg C shrinkage and water absorption and whiteness are found. It is accomplished a statistics correlation between the characteristics of grain size distribution, mineralogy, and other physical properties with the main ceramic properties to understand its influence in the ceramic process. (author)

  6. Descolonización y colonialismo interno: Lugar y función de lo colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Iturralde

    2016-03-01

    El siguiente artículo tiene como propósito indagar en la comprensión de aquello que es designado por el término “colonial” en tres intelectuales bolivianos: René Zavaleta Mercado, Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui y H.C.F. Mansilla. Encontramos, en los escritos de los tres, signos que nos permiten percibir una comprensión similar (aunque no la misma de lo que entienden por herencia colonial. En los tres casos, esa herencia es vista de forma peyorativa, es decir, como un rasgo que habría que poner de lado y finalmente erradicar. A partir de un análisis textual tratamos de comprender en qué consiste ese concepto o ese remanente colonial en estos tres autores. Una vez que logramos averiguar a qué se podrían referir estos autores cuando manejan la idea de una herencia colonial, analizamos y cuestionamos estas ideas a partir de la concepción que la teoría mimética tiene de conceptos similares. En otras palabras, buscamos traducir los conceptos de los pensadores bolivianos en términos de la teoría mimética, ya sea para comprenderlos mejor, ya sea para verificar si tienen una significación en el contexto de esa teoría.

  7. Orígenes de un desencuentro: El Partido Comunista de Chile ante el Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario y la dictadura de Villarroel en Bolivia (1943-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Fernández Abara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la interpretación del Partido Comunista de Chile sobre la Dictadura de Gualberto Villarroel en Bolivia y la actuación que tuvo en ella el Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, entre los años 1943 y 1946. El autor sostiene que dicha interpretación estuvo marcada por el antifascismo y por una lectura de la historia boliviana teñida de tópicos liberales. Así, el nacionalismo del MNR y los militares bolivianos  fue representado como una forma de fascismo y su actuación en el concierto latinoamericano fue interpretada bajo una óptica panamericanista, considerándola como parte de un plan del Eje para dificultar la labor de los aliados en América. En esta línea, los comunistas chilenos pugnaron por que la Cancillería chilena negara el reconocimiento al gobierno boliviano y entraron en pugna con actores políticos y sindicales chilenos proclives a conceder el reconocimiento a dicho régimen.

  8. RHOEO SPATHACEA: A CYTOGENETICAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Datta Animesh K.; Mandal Aninda; Bhattacharya Arnab; Saha Aditi; Paul Rita

    2012-01-01

    A cytogenetical review is conducted on Rhoeo spathacea (Swartz) Stearn (monotypic genus of the family Commelinaceae) including conventional heterozygote (var. bicolor) form (2n=12) and a rare bivalent forming clone of var. concolor (2n=12) with an objective to provide cytological configurations explaining some of the important cytogenetical aspects, which is rather difficult in sexually propagated plant species due to sterility barriers. Cytological configurations documented may generate inte...

  9. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of Facilities in Support of the 343d Training Squadron, 37th Training Group, Security Forces Apprentice Course at JBSA-Camp Bullis, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    territorial seas . Jurisdictional boundaries for waters of the U.S. are defined in the field as the ordinary high water mark, which is that line on...Lynx rufus), gray fox, coyote, and occasionally mountain lion (Felis concolor) (U.S. Army 2007). The northern cardinal (Cardinal cardinalis) and... parasitism . Surveys have been conducted for golden-cheeked warbler on JBSA-Camp Bullis since 1991, and individuals have been detected in every training

  10. Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Initial Operational Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    shrub layer. White fir (Abies concolor) occurs at elevations above approximately 8,000 feet, with single leaf pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) and limber...pine ( Pinus flexilis). The South Range lies in the northeastern portion of the Mojave Desert. Creosote bush, white bursage, and saltbush...pools of water, of sufficient extent, to sustain populations during drought . Wildlife species associated with Mojave Desert habitats found in the

  11. Perforated ray cells in the wood of roots and branches of cerrado species from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sonsin, Julia Oliveira [UNESP; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues [UNESP; Marcati, Carmen Regina [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Perforated ray cells (PRCs) are recorded here for the first time in the roots and branches of Schefflera vinosa, Caryocar brasiliense, Acosmium subelegans, Byrsonima basiloba, B. coccolobifolia, B. verbascifolia and Alibertia concolor which occur in Pratania's cerrado (SP, Brazil). PRCs are larger than normal ray cells, occurring isolated or in groups of two or more in the same ray, and are present predominantly in the uniseriate portion of multiseriate rays in all species studied. In the roo...

  12. Spatial elements of mortality risk in old-growth forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian; Battles, John; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2008-01-01

    For many species of long-lived organisms, such as trees, survival appears to be the most critical vital rate affecting population persistence. However, methods commonly used to quantify tree death, such as relating tree mortality risk solely to diameter growth, almost certainly do not account for important spatial processes. Our goal in this study was to detect and, if present, to quantify the relevance of such processes. For this purpose, we examined purely spatial aspects of mortality for four species, Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, and Pinus lambertiana, in an old-growth conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. The analysis was performed using data from nine fully mapped long-term monitoring plots.In three cases, the results unequivocally supported the inclusion of spatial information in models used to predict mortality. For Abies concolor, our results suggested that growth rate may not always adequately capture increased mortality risk due to competition. We also found evidence of a facilitative effect for this species, with mortality risk decreasing with proximity to conspecific neighbors. For Pinus lambertiana, mortality risk increased with density of conspecific neighbors, in keeping with a mechanism of increased pathogen or insect pressure (i.e., a Janzen-Connell type effect). Finally, we found that models estimating risk of being crushed were strongly improved by the inclusion of a simple index of spatial proximity.Not only did spatial indices improve models, those improvements were relevant for mortality prediction. For P. lambertiana, spatial factors were important for estimation of mortality risk regardless of growth rate. For A. concolor, although most of the population fell within spatial conditions in which mortality risk was well described by growth, trees that died occurred outside those conditions in a disproportionate fashion. Furthermore, as stands of A. concolor become increasingly dense, such spatial

  13. Visual cryptography for image processing and security theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This unique book describes the fundamental concepts, theories and practice of visual cryptography. The design, construction, analysis, and application of visual cryptography schemes (VCSs) are discussed in detail. Original, cutting-edge research is presented on probabilistic, size invariant, threshold, concolorous, and cheating immune VCS. Features: provides a thorough introduction to the field; examines various common problems in visual cryptography, including the alignment, flipping, cheating, distortion, and thin line problems; reviews a range of VCSs, including XOR-based visual cryptograph

  14. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  15. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  16. Decreased expression of MUC1 induces apoptosis and inhibits migration in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells via regulation of Slug pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Meng, Meng; Xu, Bin; Dong, Aiping; Ni, Guangzhen; Lu, Lianfang

    2017-12-06

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed in > 60% of human pancreatic cancers (PCs), and is associated with poor prognosis and enhanced metastasis. Here, we report the effect of silencing MUC1 expression on the growth, migration and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells, and explored its mechanisms. We observed that siRNA mediated suppression of the MUC1 expression significantly reduced invasive and migrative capability and induced apoptosis of the pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. We found that Slug was inhibited in the MUC1 siRNA transfected PANC-1 cells (MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells). Expression of PUMA and E-cadherin was increased in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. PANC-1 cells overexpressing full long Slug gene (when transfected with Slug cDNA plasmid) significantly inhibited PUMA and E-cadherin expression in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. Silencing PUMA expression inhibited apoptosis in the MUC1 siRNA transfected PANC-1 cells (MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells). Silencing E-cadherin expression restored the invasion and migration ability in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. We therefore concluded that silencing MUC1 expression inhibited migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of PANC-1 cells via downregulation of Slug and upregulation of Slug dependent PUMA and E-cadherin expression. MUC1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

  17. Constitutively active ErbB2 regulates cisplatin-induced cell death in breast cancer cells via pro- and antiapoptotic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurðsson, Haraldur H; Olesen, Christina Wilkens; Dybboe, Rie

    2015-01-01

    cancer cell death, and determine how NHE1 regulates this process. Cisplatin treatment elicited apoptosis, ATM phosphorylation, upregulation of p53, Noxa (PMAIP1), and PUMA (BBC3), and cleavage of caspase-9, -7, fodrin, and PARP-1 in MCF-7 cells. Inducible ΔNErbB2 expression strongly reduced cisplatin...

  18. Princeton University Materials Academy for underrepresented students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daniel; Rodriguez Martinez, Sara; Cody, Linda

    Summer 2016 gave underrepresented high school students from Trenton New Jersey the opportunity to learn materials science, sustainability and the physics and chemistry of energy storage from Princeton University professors. New efforts to place this curriculum online so that teachers across the United States can teach materials science as a tool to teach ``real'' interdisciplinary science and meet the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Princeton University Materials Academy (PUMA) is an education outreach program for underrepresented high school students. It is part of the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (PCCM), a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Materials Research Engineering and Science Center (MRSEC). PUMA has been serving the community of Trenton New Jersey which is only eight miles from the Princeton University campus. We reached over 250 students from 2003-2016 with many students repeating for multiple years. 100% of our PUMA students have graduated high school and 98% have gone on for college. This is compared with overall Trenton district graduation rate of 48% and a free and reduced lunch of 83%. We discuss initiatives to share the curriculum online to enhance the reach of PCCM' PUMA and to help teachers use materials science to meet NGSS and give their students opportunities to learn interdisciplinary science. MRSEC, NSF (DMR-1420541).

  19. Wild felids as hosts for human plague, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S.N.; Tracey, J.A.; Franklin, S.P.; Schmit, V.L.; MacMillan, M.L.; Gage, K.L.; Schriefer, M.E.; Logan, K.A.; Sweanor, L.L.; Alldredge, M.W.; Krumm, C.; Boyce, W.M.; Vickers, W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Roelke, M.E.; Salman, M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.

  20. Roving UAV IED Interdiction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    UAVs (Raven, Wasp, and Puma) do not advertise any payload capability, the Tier I operators that Team Bravo contacted claimed small payload...www.ncca.navy.mil/services/inflation.cfm (accessed February 2011). Net Resources International. "Javelin Anti- Armour Missile." Army-Technology.com. 2011. http

  1. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  2. Soccer jersey sponsors and the world cup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J.

    2014-01-01

    The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments,

  3. Use of robotics in a Radwaste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 762 Unimate Puma, clean room standard Robot has been installed and commissioned in the Radwaste Treatment Plant at the Winfrith Technology Centre. The robot interacts with a variety of purpose designed tools and proprietary welding equipment. It performs 13 dedicated tasks in the final closure and health physics operations, before the 500 litre waste drum is despatched from the plant. (author)

  4. Equivalence of velocity-level and acceleration-level redundancy-resolution of manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Binghuang; Zhang Yunong

    2009-01-01

    The equivalence of velocity-level and acceleration-level redundancy resolution of robot manipulators is investigated in this Letter. Theoretical analysis based on gradient-descent method and computer simulations based on PUMA560 robot manipulator both demonstrate the equivalence of redundancy-resolution schemes at different levels.

  5. Exclusory and Transformative Dimensions of Adult Environmental Education in Two Brazilian Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Mayla Willik; de Oliveira, Haydée Torres; Logarezzi, Amadeu José Montagnini

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the limitations and potential for the development of an adult environmental education program in two protected areas in Brazil. The investigation was based on critical communicative methodology and involved 25 people variously related to puma conservation and environmental education. We found that the staff of protected areas…

  6. 78 FR 54623 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... the foreign status inputs noted below and in the existing scope of authority. Customs duties also..., 2013. Puma Energy already has authority to conduct certain standard refinery operations involving crude... to the scope of authority. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), additional FTZ authority would be limited to...

  7. Second Generation Dutch Pulsar Machine - PuMa-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Stappers, Ben; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Klis, Michiel

    2004-01-01

    The Second Generation Pulsar Machine (PuMa- II) is under development for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. This is a summary of th e system design and architecture. We show that state of the art pulsar research is possible with commercially available hardware components. This approach

  8. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-04-01

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  9. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.

  10. Critical role of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis in benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptotic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lue Antony

    Full Text Available Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, a constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables, decreases viability of cancer cells by causing apoptosis but the mechanism of cell death is not fully understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in BITC-induced apoptosis using MDA-MB-231 (breast, MCF-7 (breast, and HCT-116 (colon human cancer cells. The B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim protein was dispensable for proapoptotic response to BITC in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as judged by RNA interference studies. Instead, the BITC-treated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited upregulation of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA protein. The BITC-mediated induction of PUMA was relatively more pronounced in MCF-7 cells due to the presence of wild-type p53 compared with MDA-MB-231 with mutant p53. The BITC-induced apoptosis was partially but significantly attenuated by RNA interference of PUMA in MCF-7 cells. The PUMA knockout variant of HCT-116 cells exhibited significant resistance towards BITC-induced apoptosis compared with wild-type HCT-116 cells. Attenuation of BITC-induced apoptosis in PUMA knockout HCT-116 cells was accompanied by enhanced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest due to induction of p21 and down regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 protein. The BITC treatment caused a decrease in protein levels of Bcl-xL (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and Bcl-2 (MCF-7 cells. Ectopic expression of Bcl-xL in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and that of Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells conferred protection against proapoptotic response to BITC. Interestingly, the BITC-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited induction of Bcl-2 protein expression, and RNA interference of Bcl-2 in this cell line resulted in augmentation of BITC-induced apoptosis. The BITC-mediated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth in vivo was associated with the induction of PUMA protein in the tumor. In conclusion, the results of the present study

  11. NF-kappaB and p53 are the dominant apoptosis-inducing transcription factors elicited by the HIV-1 envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Roumier, Thomas; Castedo, Maria; Larochette, Nathanael; Boya, Patricia; Raynal, Brigitte; Lazar, Vladimir; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Nardacci, Roberta; Penninger, Josef; Piacentini, Mauro; Kroemer, Guido

    2004-03-01

    The coculture of cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) with cells expressing CD4 results into cell fusion, deregulated mitosis, and subsequent cell death. Here, we show that NF-kappaB, p53, and AP1 are activated in Env-elicited apoptosis. The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) super repressor had an antimitotic and antiapoptotic effect and prevented the Env-elicited phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 and 46, as well as the activation of AP1. Transfection with dominant-negative p53 abolished apoptosis and AP1 activation. Signs of NF-kappaB and p53 activation were also detected in lymph node biopsies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Microarrays revealed that most (85%) of the transcriptional effects of HIV-1 Env were blocked by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha. Macroarrays led to the identification of several Env-elicited, p53-dependent proapoptotic transcripts, in particular Puma, a proapoptotic "BH3-only" protein from the Bcl-2 family known to activate Bax/Bak. Down modulation of Puma by antisense oligonucleotides, as well as RNA interference of Bax and Bak, prevented Env-induced apoptosis. HIV-1-infected primary lymphoblasts up-regulated Puma in vitro. Moreover, circulating CD4+ lymphocytes from untreated, HIV-1-infected donors contained enhanced amounts of Puma protein, and these elevated Puma levels dropped upon antiretroviral therapy. Altogether, these data indicate that NF-kappaB and p53 cooperate as the dominant proapoptotic transcription factors participating in HIV-1 infection.

  12. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2014 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2015-05-12

    statewide database. No field surveys were conducted this year for sensitive plants on the NNSS due to poor growing conditions. Surveys of sensitive and protected/regulated animals during 2014 focused on winter raptors, bats, wild horses (Equus caballus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), desert bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis nelsoni), and mountain lions (Puma concolor). Two permanent, long-term winter raptor survey routes were established and sampled in January and February. A total of 27 raptors representing 4 species were observed. The wild horse population increased from 30 to 41, with several yearlings recruiting into the population, possibly due to the death of a mountain lion known to prey on horse foals. Mule deer abundance and density measured with standardized deer surveys was similar to 2013 and appears to be stable. Desert bighorn sheep, including rams, ewes, and lambs, were detected using motion-activated cameras at four water sources. There are plans to conduct helicopter surveys to census the population during September 2015 and then capture and radio-collar up to 20 sheep during November 2015. Over 150 sheep scat samples have been collected for genetic analysis to try to determine how sheep on the NNSS are related to surrounding sheep populations. Information is presented about bird mortalities, Migratory Bird Treaty Act compliance, and a summary of nuisance animals and their control on the NNSS. A total of 93 mountain lion images (i.e., photographs or video clips) were taken during 220,379 camera hours at 16 of 32 sites sampled and another 11,946 images of at least 29 species other than mountain lions were taken as well. A mountain lion telemetry study continued in 2014. NNSS7 was tracked from January 1 to November 15 using a global positioning system satellite transmitter. He consumed 21 mule deer, 17 desert bighorn sheep, 1 juvenile bobcat, and 3 coyotes. Mule deer were primarily taken in the summer and fall. No new mountain lions were captured. A minimum

  13. Una base impermeabilizante de los populismos: Bolivia y su historia reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Pinto Ocampo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la idea de la presencia de líderes populistas exitosos en Bolivia en años recientes. Desarrolla la idea de que en Bolivia no hay incentivos estructurales para que se desarrolle un líder populista debido al hecho de que los populistas no crecen en un contexto de extrema organización popular independiente. En la primera parte presenta una discusión sobre el marco teórico de la noción de populismo y de la definición del autor; la segunda parte presenta el caso del populismo boliviano analizando los elementos históricos que contribuyen a la ausencia del mismo hoy (especialmente el tipo de

  14. Gumucio-Dagron: más allá de la euforia tecnológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marques de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Gumucio-Dagron se destaca en la comunidad de las ciencias de la comunicación por su fidelidad orgánica al pensamiento latinoamericano, reconocido mundialmente por el compromiso que tiene con el cambio social. Navegando contra viento y marea, este ícono boliviano protagonizó recientemente un hecho que tiene significado histórico: lideró el proceso de difusión del pensamiento crítico en esta coyuntura de euforia tecnológica y de olvido de la memoria popular. Estos y otros aportes al campo de la comunicación han sido importantes para fortalecer la mística latinoamericana en este cruce de signos ultraglobalizantes y de planteos neonacionalistas.

  15. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project

  16. Spatial Causality. An application to the Deforestation Process in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aliaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las causas de la deforestación para un conjunto representativo de municipios bolivianos. La literatura sobre economía ambiental insiste en la importancia de los factores físicos y sociales. Nos centramos en el último grupo de variables. Nuestro objetivo es identificar los mecanismos causales entre estos factores de riesgo y el problema de la deforestación. Con este fin, se presenta una estrategia de análisis para identificar mecanismos de causalidad espacial, basada en una secuencia de los multiplicadores de Lagrange. Los resultados que obtenemos para el caso de Bolivia confirman sólo parcialmente la visión tradicional del problema de la deforestación. De hecho, sólo encontramos signos inequívocos de causalidad en relación con la estructura de los derechos de propiedad.

  17. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  18. Tráfico de Pessoas para fins de exploração do trabalho na cidade de São Paulo Human trafficking for labour exploitation in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Illes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca contextualizar, em linhas gerais, o fluxo de imigrantes bolivianos para fins de trabalho nas oficinas de costura da cidade de São Paulo, demonstrando a interface dessa imigração com o tráfico de migrantes e o tráfico de pessoas. Por meio de depoimentos, são apresentadas as recorrentes dificuldades enfrentadas pelas trabalhadoras imigrantes.This article seeks to contextualize, along general lines, the Bolivian migratory flow towards sweatshops in the city of São Paulo, showing the interaction between this migratory flow, migrant smuggling and human trafficking. The most frequent problems faced by the migrant women are presented in testimonials.

  19. RELIGIOSIDAD POPULAR: EL CASO DE LA VIRGEN DE URKUPIÑA EN SAN CARLOS DE BARILOCHE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Inés Barelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, la migración limítrofe en la Argentina no sólo se profundiza sino que inicia un proceso de visibilización social, dónde los aportes culturales y religiosos son percibidos y compartidos por toda la sociedad. La afluencia de estos grupos migratorios, en la Patagonia, dio lugar a un aporte cultural y religioso particular. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo, poner en discusión el concepto de “religiosidad popular”, a la luz del caso de la devoción a la Virgen de Urkupiña de la comunidad boliviana en San Carlos de Bariloche. Analizaremos cómo las actividades religiosas y festivas de los migrantes bolivianos irrumpen en el espacio público generando nuevas adaptaciones devocionales, creando estrategias identitarias, y formulando nuevas territorialidades.

  20. The MAS Six Years in Power in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay of:– The Rise of Evo Morales and the MAS, by Sven Harten. London/New York: Zed Books, 2011.– Evo Morales and the Movimiento al Socialismo in Bolivia; The First Term in Context, edited by Adrian J. Pearce. London, Institute for the Study of the Americas, 2011.– El estado de derecho como tiranía, by Luis Tapia. La Paz: CIDES/UMSA, 2011.– From Rebellion to Reform in Bolivia: Class Struggle, Indigenous Liberation and the Politics of Evo Morales, by Jeffery R. Webber. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2011.– La democracia desde los márgenes: Transformaciones en el campo político boliviano, by María Teresa Zegada, with Claudia Arce, Gabriela Canedo and Alber Quispe. La Paz: Muela del Diablo Editores/CLACSO, 2011.

  1. Residential Segregation and Adequate Housing among Migrants from Bolivia and Peru in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia MOLINATTI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En gran parte de América Latina la segregación residencial ha sido abordada casi exclusivamente desde una perspectiva socioeconómica, siendo mucho menos frecuente su abordaje étnico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la segregación de los migrantes bolivianos y peruanos que residen en la ciudad de Córdoba y su vinculación con el acceso a una vivienda adecuada, a partir de datos del Censo de 2010. Ambos grupos se encuentran segregados y en condiciones residenciales deficientes. Aunque el colectivo más segregado no presenta los peores indicadores habitacionales, es una paradoja que evidencia la compleja relación entre segregación y acceso a una vivienda adecuada.

  2. Rethinking the recent past: Policies of the difference and interculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Garcés V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde la década del noventa del siglo pasado se hicieron explícitas unas políticas de la diferencia en los espacios estatales bolivianos (Postero, 2005;Paz, 2005a, 2006.1 Cuando hablamos de políticas de la diferencia nos referimos a la implementación de mecanismos de reconocimiento y tolerancia de la diversidad, cada vez más frecuentes al interior de los Estados del ámbito andino. Estos mecanismos de reconocimiento y tolerancia de la diversidad pueden esconder sutiles mecanismos de dominación bajo un discurso y unas prácticas incorporadoras y asimiladoras de lo diverso en el aparato estatal y en los circuitos de acumulación del capital.2 Se trata de unas políticas que pueden ser encontradas no sólo en declaraciones

  3. Família e inserção laboral de jovens migrantes na indústria de confecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tavares de Freitas

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, abordamos os percursos sociais de jovens bolivianos e bolivianas que, em algum momento de suas vidas, migraram para se inserir em pequenas oficinas de costura de seus compatriotas, nas cidades de São Paulo, no Brasil, e Buenos Aires, na Argentina. A análise, baseada em pesquisa de doutorado intitulada "Projeto costura", busca abordar os vários sentidos atribuídos ao papel da família em suas formas de inserção, circulação e saída dessa atividade nas cidades de destino e na própria Bolívia.

  4. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassame, Somboon; Griffiths, Matthew; Yang, Jun; Lee, Doo Yong; Ju, Peng; Choi, Sung Won; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  5. Contra-reforma y des-constitucionalización estatal en Bolivia: Del horizonte plurinacional a la restauración neocolonial del Estado-nación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabel Camilo López Flores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sentidos y contenidos transformadores del actual texto Constitucional boliviano, como resultado de un polémico proceso constituyente que se realizó en la década pasada con la densidad de una ‘coyuntura fundante’, a pesar de haber sido objeto de negociaciones y modificaciones por actores del poder constituido, resulto en un texto que representaba un horizonte de cambio en torno a la construcción de un Estado Plurinacional. Sin embargo, luego de su aprobación y promulgación, normas sucesivas y políticas estatales y gubernamentales que tiene lugar en la realidad del país apuntarían a un retroceso de los horizontes de transformación estatal de la Constitución y a un evidente proceso de contra-reforma y des-constitucionalización, lo que alejarían cada vez más la construcción plurinacional del Estado y, por el contrario, reproducen y acentúan una faceta monológica del Estado-nación en Bolivia. En este breve texto se propone un abordaje al actual contexto sociopolítico del proceso post-constituyente boliviano en la década actual y una mirada crítica a la situación del horizonte de construcción del Estado plurinacional a través de las orientaciones e implicaciones de las políticas del gobierno del MAS en lo últimos años de manejo estatal, que expresarían, entre otros aspectos, un proceso de des-constitucionalizacion, una tendencia de desplurinacionalizacion del Estado con efectos en la relación del Estado con las organizaciones sociales comunitarias, los pueblos indígenas y con sus reivindicaciones.

  6. CRUZANDO LOS MALLKUS. LAS MIGRACIONES BOLIVIANAS PENDULARES DURANTE LAS GRANDES CRISIS SALITRERAS (1914 - 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González Miranda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proceso migratorio pendular de la población boliviana (especialmente indígena hacia las salitreras de Tarapacá; destacándose la “gran crisis” de 1930 y años siguientes, analizando el desarraigo del retorno a Bolivia. Se sostiene que a partir del término de la Primera Guerra Mundial se inicia la decadencia del ciclo de expansión del salitre, generando procesos migratorios de atracción y expulsión de mano de obra, donde el drama social producto de la cesantía fue el factor común. En otras palabras, se plantea que la crisis del salitre no surgió en la década de los años treinta, como suele reconocerse en la literatura especializada sobre la industria salitrera, sino a partir de la primera guerra mundial se inicia el proceso de decadencia del mercado mundial del nitrato, siendo la década de los años veinte cuando se define el futuro de esta industria. Se estudia, especialmente a través de la prensa y archivos oficiales, los sistemas de enganche, los flujos de ida y venida de trabajadores bolivianos con sus familias, especialmente durante los años de crisis entre 1914 y 1933, donde el drama de la cesantía afectó a miles de bolivianos que debieron regresar a sus comunidades de origen. Este artículo se enmarca dentro de un análisis histórico que rescata la importancia de la sociedad civil en las relaciones entre países fronterizos, como Bolivia y Chile, fenómeno que la disciplina de las relaciones internacionales denomina acertadamente “paradiplomacia”.

  7. Culture-bound syndromes in migratory contexts: the case of Bolivian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Chicano, María Teresa; Fernández-Rufete, José; Hueso-Montoro, César; García-López, María Del Mar; Rodríguez-Tello, Javier; Flores-Bienert, María Dolores

    2017-07-10

    to describe the culture-bound syndromes maintained by Bolivian immigrants in the new migratory context and analyze the care processes of these health problems. qualitative research with an ethnographic methodological approach. Sample: 27 Bolivian immigrants. In-depth interviews and participatory observation were the strategies used for data collection. Data were classified and categorized into logical schemes manually and using the ATLAS-ti program v.5. susto, "wayras", amartelo, pasmo de sol, pasmo de luna and pasmo de sereno are some of the folk illnesses that affect the Bolivian immigrants and that they have to treat in the new migratory context. in the new environment, the group under study preserves culture-bound syndromes that are common in their country of origin. The care strategies used for these health problems are adapted to the resources of the new context and based on interactions with the domestic environment, biomedicine and traditional medicine. It was observed the need for the health professionals to realize that the efficacy of certain therapies occurs within the scope of cultural beliefs and not in that of the scientific evidence. descrever as síndromes vinculadas à cultura mantidas pelos imigrantes bolivianos no novo contexto migratório e analisar os processos de cuidado para esses problemas de saúde. projeto de pesquisa de natureza qualitativa e com abordagem metodológica etnográfica. Amostra: 27 imigrantes bolivianos. As estratégias para a coleta de dados foram as entrevistas em profundidade e a observação participativa. Os dados foram classificados e categorizados em esquemas lógicos manualmente e por meio do programa ATLAS-ti v.5. o susto, os "wayras", o amartelo (tristeza), o pasmo de sol, o pasmo de lua e o pasmo de sereno são algumas das síndromes de caráter popular que acometem os imigrantes bolivianos, e que eles tratam no novo contexto migratório. no novo ambiente, as síndromes vinculadas à cultura, comuns em seu pa

  8. Telerobotics in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, R.; Glennie, D.; Ow, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A bilateral force reflecting telerobotic system has been developed that allows the slave robot to be operated either manually, as in a conventional teleoperator system, or autonomously as a sensor driven robot. The implementation of shared control provides additional functionality which permits the operator to manually control the position (and/or velocity) of selected axes, whilst the remaining axes are controlled autonomously, using active force control. The force control scheme utilizes an active compliance algorithm to maintain the slave end-effector in contact with the workpiece at a prescribed force (or torque) along selected axes. The control system architecture is based on a network of parallel processors. A Puma 260 robot has been adapted as a force reflecting generalised manual input device and a Puma 760 robot has been configured to operate using force control as the slave robot. (UK)

  9. Data of expression status of miR- 29a and its putative target mitochondrial apoptosis regulatory gene DRP1 upon miR-15a and miR-214 inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishtiaq Jan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Data is about the mitochondrial apoptosis regulatory framework genes PUMA, DRP1 (apoptotic, and ARC (anti-apoptotic analysis after the employment of their controlling miRNAs inhibitors. The data represents putative conserved targeting of seed regions of miR-15a, miR-29a, and miR-214 with respective target genes PUMA, DRP1, and ARC. Data is of cross interference in expression levels of one miRNA family, miR-29a and its putative target DRP1 upon the inhibitory treatment of other miRNAs 15a and 214. Keywords: DRP1, miR-15a, Apoptosis, miRNAs inhibition

  10. Comparing the personality of three well-known sporting brands in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmood Mohammadian; Hamidreza Asgari Dehabadi

    2012-01-01

    A significant amount of literature specifies that there are benefits for having a favorable brand personality, such as purchase intentions and enhanced brand attitudes and higher degrees of consumer trust and loyalty. Brand differentiation is one of most important issues to handle competition in the hostile marketplace. A reliable solution for establishing the distinctiveness of a brand is through brand personality. This study analyzes the personality of Adidas, Nike and Puma brands in Iran u...

  11. Mineralizations of the Lavalleja Group (Uruguay), a Probable Neoproterozoic Volcano-sedimentary Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Loureiro, J.; Basei, M.; Ramos, V.; Preciozzi, F.; Basei, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Lavalleja Group is located in the southern extreme of the Dom Feliciano Belt, being tentatively correlated with the Porongos and Brusque Groups of Brazil. The basement of the Lavalleja Group is probably represented by granitic gneissic rocks of the Campanero Unit with ages, in the southern portion, ranging from 1.75 to 2.1 Ga (U-Pb in zircon). The Lavalleja Group is characterized by narrow bands of meta sedimentary and meta volcanic rocks and it is separated in three formations, namely (from base to top): Zanja del Tigre, Fuente del Puma and Minas. Outcrops assigned to the Minas Formation have been recently correlated with the Arroyo del Soldado Group. Only the Fuente del Puma formation hosts base metals, Au and Ag occurrences. The Fuente del Puma formation is divided into three informal units: sedimentary, volcanic and hornblenditic gabbros. The sedimentary unit is characterized by an important amount of carbonates. Syn collisional to pos tectonic granitic bodies (Carapé Complex) intrudes the Lavalleja Group and the Campanero Unit. Several mineralizations are located in the Fuente del Puma Formation, those associated to Arrospide, Ramallo-Reus, Chape, Valencia, La Oriental, Apolonia, Redondo Hill, La China and La Paloma mines are the most important. In addition, many occurrences of Cu-Zn-Pb were recognized in the region. The Cu-Zn-Pb mineralization includes massive sulfides with pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-galena-pyrrothyte, arsenopyrite-hematite into small bodies with lenticular shape. The host rock shows frequently hydrothermal alteration. The geochemistry and the geological features of the mineralizations suggest Besshi Massive Sulphide Zn-Cu-Pb and SEDEX Zn-Pb as most probably genetic models for the deposits related to the Neoproterozoic orogeny. Early mineralizations are syngenetic and were formed on the sea floor, although the main mineralizations are related to remobilization during syn- to late-metamorphic events and thrusting

  12. Non-volant mammals in a protected area on the Central Andes of Colombia: new records for the Caldas department and the Chinchiná River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Mejía, Andrés; Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The Chinchiná River basin is located on the western slope of the Colombian Central Andes. This basin provides ecosystem services such as water provision for >500,000 people, but has suffered considerable ecosystem degradation, and the information on its biodiversity is limited. We inventoried the non-volant mammals in the Caldas' Central Hydroelectric (CHEC) Reserve in the Chinchiná River basin, in the Caldas department. We detected 18 species of mammals, present the first record of Puma ya...

  13. Point kinetics improvements to evaluate three-dimensional effects in transients calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellotti, U.

    1987-01-01

    A calculation method, which considers the flux axial perturbations in the parameters related to the reactivity within a point kinetics model, is described. The method considered uses axial factors of consideration which act on the thermohydraulic variables included in the reactivity calculation. The PUMA three-dimensional code as reference model for the comparisons, is used. The limitations inherent to the reactivity balance of the point models used in the transients calculation, are given. (Author)

  14. Courant Mathematics and Computing Laboratory, New York University. Progress report No. 54, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Work is reported in the following areas: applied mathematics (computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis), computational magnetohydrodynamics, computational physics and chemistry (materials science, quantum many-body systems, chemistry), computer science (CIMS PL/I, Version II; distributed systems and resource sharing, computer design - PUMA; SETL; algorithmic combinatorics), systems programing and user services. The relationship to other projects, list of seminars, and list of publications are also included. The research descriptions are administrative in nature, usually less than a page in length

  15. BAX/BAK–Independent Mitoptosis during Cell Death Induced by Proteasome Inhibition?

    OpenAIRE

    Lomonosova, Elena; Ryerse, Jan; Chinnadurai, G.

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors induce rapid death of cancer cells. We show that in epithelial cancer cells, such death is associated with dramatic and simultaneous up-regulation of several BH3-only proteins, including BIK, BIM, MCL-1S, NOXA, and PUMA, as well as p53. Elevated levels of these proteins seem to be the result of direct inhibition of their proteasomal degradation, induction of transcription, and active translation. Subsequent cell death is independent of BAX, and probably BAK, and proceeds...

  16. Operation of Atucha I nuclear power plant with 25 cooling channels without fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.A.; Sidelnik, J.I.; Salom, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the need of removing the irradiation probes from the reactor of Atucha I nuclear power plant, a study about the consequences of operating with 25 channels without their respective fuel elements was performed. This condition was simulated by means of the code PUMA symmetry I and the consequences were analyzed. From the study resulted a program of stepped power reduction of the nuclear plant that would take place during the process of channel emptying. (Author)

  17. FOXO3a Provides a Quickstep from Autophagy Inhibition to Apoptosis in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codogno, Patrice; Morel, Etienne

    2018-03-12

    FOXO3a, a member of the Forkhead transcription factor family, has roles in apoptosis and autophagy. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Fitzwalter et al. (2018) describe how the blockade of FOXO3a turnover, which normally occurs through autophagy, sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis through FOXO3a-mediated stimulation of pro-apoptotic PUMA/BBC3 expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of BRCA1 Domains and Motifs in Tumor Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    George C. Prendergast Thomas Jefferson University Carol Prives Columbia University Martin Raff University College London E. Premkumar Reddy Temple...71] Taron, M.; Rosell, R.; Felip, E.; Mendez , P.; Souglakos, J.; Ronco, M.S.; Queralt, C.; Majo, J.; Sanchez, J.M.; Sanchez, J.J.; Maestre, J...Skrzypski, M.; Jassem, E.; Taron, M.; Bartolucci, R.; Sanchez, J.J.; Mendez , P.; Chaib, I.; Perez-Roca, L.; Szymanowska, A.; Rzyman, W.; Puma, F

  19. A new species of deep-water Holothuroidea (Echinodermata of the genus Synallactes from off western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Massin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An undescribed species of Synallactes was collected during a deep-water benthic fauna survey off the Pacific coast of Mexico in the East Pacific, with the R/V El Puma. This new species differs from all the other known Synallactes by the presence of huge massive rods in the tube feet, some of them club-shaped. The later ossicle shape is unique among Holothuroidea. This is the first record of a Synallactes in the Gulf of California.

  20. Control of Randomly Sampled Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    task is so cumbersome and complicated that we would not be able to do without lots of mistakes. To avoid this formidable business , a Lisp program is...Artificial Inteligence Laboratory, 1972. PumA26O.c Ned Mar 8 17:51:04 1989 1 #include <rnath.h> #define real float #define mm 6 #define G 9.83. #define M6

  1. Circadian transitions in radiation dose-dependent augmentation of mRNA levels for DNA damage-induced genes elicited by accurate real-time RT-PCR quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of intracellular response after DNA-damage by exposure to ionizing radiation have been studied. In the case of cells isolated from living body of human and experimental animals, alteration of the responsiveness by physiological oscillation such as circadian rhythm must be considered. To examine the circadian variation in the response of p53-responsible genes p21, mdm2, bax, and puma, we established a method to quantitate their mRNA levels with high reproducibility and accuracy based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and compared the levels of responsiveness in mouse hemocytes after diurnal irradiation to that after nocturnal irradiation. Augmentations of p21 and mdm2 mRNA levels with growth-arrest and of puma mRNA before apoptosis were confirmed by time-course experiment in RAW264.7, and dose-dependent increases in the peak levels of all the RNA were shown. Similarly, the relative RNA levels of p21, mdm2, bax, and puma per glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) also increased dose-dependently in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells isolated from whole-body-irradiated mice. Induction levels of all messages reduced by half after nighttime irradiation as compared with daytime irradiation in blood cells. In marrow cells, nighttime irradiation enhanced the p21 and mdm2 mRNA levels than daytime irradiation. No significant difference in bax or puma mRNA levels was observed between nighttime and daytime irradiation in marrow cells. This suggests that early-stage cellular responsiveness in DNA damage-induced genes is modulated between diurnal and nocturnal irradiation. (author)

  2. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-01

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35–40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our “gene therapy” approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce ∼ 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by ∼ 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  3. General Use of UAS in EW Environment-EW Concepts and Tactics for Single or Multiple UAS Over the Net-Centric Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    By Tiger and Flight Plan ..........................................193 Figure 124. Patriot to Be Destroyed By Puma and Flight Plan...systems, and its effectiveness depends on its ability to lock onto the heat source of low-flying fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft targets [33...different types of engines for different types of UAS: turbofans, two stroke , piston, rotary, turboprop, push and pull, electric. The lighter, smaller

  4. FORRAJE Y GRANO DE HÍBRIDOS DE MAÍZ AMARILLOS PARA VALLES ALTOS DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Tadeo-Robledo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la producción de grano y de forraje en híbridos trilineales amarillos. Se establecieron en el año 2009 tres experimentos, comparando híbridos trilineales amarillos con híbridos comerciales blancos y el híbrido Búho de Asgrow; dos experimentos en el Campo Experimental de Valle de México del INIFAP, donde se evaluó la productividad de grano y otro en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, para evaluación de forraje a una densidad de 70 000 plantas/ha. El análisis combinado para rendimiento detectó diferencias altamente significativas para híbridos, sitios y la interacción híbridos x sitios. El coeficiente de variación fue de 17,7% y la media general de 7113 kg/ha. La comparación de medias ubicó en el primer grupo de significancia a los híbridos de grano blanco comerciales Puma 1167 y Puma 1163 con 9549 kg/ha y 8748 kg/ha, respectivamente. Los híbridos amarillos 501X497 y 501X555 fueron superiores 36,0% y 12,4% con respecto a H-48 y el híbrido testigo. Búho presentó similar rendimiento en materia verde, que Puma 1163 y fue superior (P<0,05 a los otros híbridos evaluados. El híbrido Puma 1163 por su buen rendimiento de grano, materia verde y materia seca se sugiere validarlo a nivel comercial en doble propósito.

  5. Study of Helicopter Performance and Terminal Instrument Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    possible employment of decelerating or other innovative approaches to be discussed in Section 3 and may be employed to advantage in reviewing missed...330J Puma is a 19 passenger medium helicopter manufactured by Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane, France and marketed in the...for use by the French and British armed forces. It is manufactured by the Helicopter Divison of Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane

  6. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumov, Inna [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Kazanov, Dina [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Lisiansky, Victoria [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Starr, Alex [Lung and Allergy Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Arber, Nadir, E-mail: narber@post.tau.ac.il [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Gastroenterology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  7. The effects of demographic, social, and environmental characteristics on pathogen prevalence in wild felids across a gradient of urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S Lewis

    Full Text Available Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma, Bartonella spp. (Bartonella, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, and feline calicivirus (FCV in bobcat and puma populations across wildland-urban interface (WUI, low-density exurban development, and wildland habitat on the Western Slope (WS and Front Range (FR of Colorado during 2009-2011. Samples were collected from 37 bobcats and 29 pumas on the WS and FR. As predicted, age appeared to be positively related to the exposure to pathogens that are both environmentally transmitted (Toxoplasma and directly transmitted between animals (FIV. In addition, WS bobcats appeared more likely to be exposed to Toxoplasma with increasing intraspecific space-use overlap. However, counter to our predictions, exposure to directly-transmitted pathogens (FCV and FIV was more likely with decreasing space-use overlap (FCV: WS bobcats and potential intraspecific contacts (FIV: FR pumas. Environmental factors, including urbanization and landscape covariates, were generally unsupported in our models. This study is an approximation of how pathogens can be evaluated in relation to demographic, social, and environmental factors to understand pathogen exposure in wild animal populations.

  8. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  9. Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid induces p53-dependent apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-gang ZHUANG; Fei FEI; Ying CHEN; Wei JIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, on the apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Meth-ods: Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells induced by SBHA was demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis, morphological observation, and DNA ladder. Mitochondrial membrane potential (△ψm) was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. The expressions of p53, p21, Bax, and PUMA were determined using RT-PCR or Western blotting analysis after the MCF-7 cells were treated with SBHA or p53 siRNA. Results: SBHA induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. The expressions of p53, p21, Bax, and PUMA were induced, and △ψm collapsed after treatment with SBHA. p53 siRNA abrogated the SBHA-induced apoptosis and the expressions of p53, p21, Bax, and PUMA. Conclusion: The activation of the p53 pathway is involved in SBHA-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  10. Nerve growth factor reduces apoptotic cell death in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lian; Yuan, Jing; Ren, Zhong; Jiang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor neurons after induction of a facial nerve lesion, and to compare the effects of different routes of NGF injection on motor neuron survival. This study was carried out in the Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, China Medical University, Liaoning, China from October 2012 to March 2013. Male Wistar rats (n = 65) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: A) healthy controls; B) facial nerve lesion model + normal saline injection; C) facial nerve lesion model + NGF injection through the stylomastoid foramen; D) facial nerve lesion model + intraperitoneal injection of NGF. Apoptotic cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Expression of caspase-3 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was determined by immunohistochemistry. Injection of NGF significantly reduced cell apoptosis, and also greatly decreased caspase-3 and PUMA expression in injured motor neurons. Group C exhibited better efficacy for preventing cellular apoptosis and decreasing caspase-3 and PUMA expression compared with group D (pfacial nerve injury in rats. The NGF injected through the stylomastoid foramen demonstrated better protective efficacy than when injected intraperitoneally.

  11. A review of the albidohirta group of Ptilothrix (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Emphorini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo ROIG ALSINA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El grupo albidohirta de Ptilothrix Smith incluye tres especies: Ptilothrix albidohirta Brèthes, P. concolor sp. nov. y P. nemoralis sp. nov. Este grupo se conoce del oeste y norte de la Argentina y del centro de Bolivia. Una de sus especies, P. albidohirta, llega hasta los 3.600 m s.n.m. en la cordillera de los Andes, en tanto que las otras dos especies habitan en el llano. Se caracteriza el grupo y se describen e ilustran las especies.

  12. Respiratory adaptations to oxygen lack in three species of Glossiphoniidae (Hirudinea) in Lake Esrom, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohle, B. D.; Hamburger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The weight-specific respiration rate (µl O2 mg-1 AFDW h-1) of three species of leech from Lake Esrom, Denmark, Glossiphonia concolor, G. complanata and Helobdella stagnalis was measured in a closed stirred chamber with a micro electrode. At declining oxygen concentration (mg O2 l-1) all three spe...... at 10 and 20 °C, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to habitat and spatial distribution of the three species in the lake....

  13. A review of the albidohirta group of Ptilothrix (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Emphorini Revisión del grupo albidohirta de Ptilothrix (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Emphorini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Roig Alsina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The albidohirta group of Ptilothrix Smith includes three species: Ptilothrix albidohirta Brèthes, P. concolor sp. nov., and P. nemoralis sp. nov. The group is known from northern and western Argentina and from central Bolivia. One of its species, P. albidohirta, reaches high altitudes in the Andes mountains, up to 3600 m a.s.l., while the other two species occur in the lowlands. A characterization of the group, descriptions of the species, and illustrations are provided.El grupo albidohirta de Ptilothrix Smith incluye tres especies: Ptilothrix albidohirta Brèthes, P. concolor sp. nov. y P. nemoralis sp. nov. Este grupo se conoce del oeste y norte de la Argentina y del centro de Bolivia. Una de sus especies, P. albidohirta, llega hasta los 3.600 m s.n.m. en la cordillera de los Andes, en tanto que las otras dos especies habitan en el llano. Se caracteriza el grupo y se describen e ilustran las especies.

  14. Mechanical vs. Beetle-mediated Self-pollination in (Malvaceae, an Endangered Shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra N. Krakos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental hand pollinations of the endangered, Hawaiian, endemic, Gossypium tomentosum Nutt. Ex. (Malvaceae showed that it was self-compatible, but self-pollination resulted in reduced reproductive output. Field observations and pollen tube analyses using fluorescence microscopy showed that mechanical self-pollination in this species included a mechanism known as bending stigmas. A receptive stigma bent backwards and contacted dehiscent anthers in 7% of flowers found on 17 G. tomentosum plants. The yellow flowers were nectarless and were not visited by most anthophilous insects in situ except for the introduced, nitidulid beetle, Aethina concolor Macleay. Collections and insect GI-tract dissections showed that A. concolor carried and ate the pollen of the host flower. Field observations recorded regular contact between beetles and stigma lobes as these insects exited the flowers effecting self-pollination. Behavioral experiments showed that the beetles responded positively to a yellow visual cue. Under some circumstances, an introduced pollen vector may help maintain a low level of reproductive success in an insular endemic.

  15. Muscle fiber type distribution in climbing Hawaiian gobioid fishes: ontogeny and correlations with locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Roberto A; Blob, Richard W; Schrank, Gordon D; Plourde, Robert C; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Hawaiian amphidromous gobioid fishes are remarkable in their ability to climb waterfalls up to several hundred meters tall. Juvenile Lentipes concolor and Awaous guamensis climb using rapid bursts of axial undulation, whereas juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni climb using much slower movements, alternately attaching oral and pelvic sucking disks to the substrate during prolonged bouts of several cycles. Based on these differing climbing styles, we hypothesized that propulsive musculature in juvenile L. concolor and A. guamensis would be dominated by white muscle fibers, whereas S. stimpsoni would exhibit a greater proportion of red muscle fibers than other climbing species. We further predicted that, because adults of these species shift from climbing to burst swimming as their main locomotor behavior, muscle from adult fish of all three species would be dominated by white fibers. To test these hypotheses, we used ATPase assays to evaluate muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian climbing gobies for three anatomical regions (midbody, anal, and tail). Axial musculature was dominated by white muscle fibers in juveniles of all three species, but juvenile S. stimpsoni had a significantly greater proportion of red fibers than the other two species. Fiber type proportions of adult fishes did not differ significantly from those of juveniles. Thus, muscle fiber type proportions in juveniles appear to help accommodate differences in locomotor demands among these species, indicating that they overcome the common challenge of waterfall climbing through both diverse behaviors and physiological specializations.

  16. Estudo das representações sociais sobre gestação em mulheres bolivianas no contexto da atenção básica em saúde na área central da cidade de São Paulo Study on social representations of pregnancy in bolivian women in the context of primary health care in the central area of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina C. Madi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo imigratório dos bolivianos para o Brasil vem trazendo muitos questionamentos e necessidades de intervenção pelos serviços de saúde na cidade de São Paulo. As barreiras impostas pela cultura boliviana (como a linguagem e o receio que os bolivianos têm pela situação de ilegalidade no país colocam aos serviços obstáculos no acesso à população. O objetivo dessa pesquisa é a compreensão das concepções das mulheres imigrantes bolivianas - que frequentam o Centro de Saúde Escola Barra Funda "Dr. Alexandre Vranjac" (CSEBF, na região central de São Paulo - sobre gestação, nos contextos: familiar, de adaptação como imigrantes e de espaço de construção da vida pessoal. Realizou-se uma análise qualitativa de entrevistas que incluíram mulheres bolivianas gestantes maiores de 18 anos, matriculadas no CSEBF. Foram realizadas algumas visitas domiciliares junto às agentes comunitárias. Como resultado, obteve-se que as bolivianas praticam endogamia e seus parceiros são fixos. Na Bolívia, não procuravam o serviço de saúde. Notou-se um paradoxo no que diz respeito à gravidez e ao trabalho, pois dizem ter planejado a primeira gestação, embora concordem que o trabalho - principal motivo da imigração - seja prejudicado pela gestação, parto e maternidade. Quanto à prática de parto, as bolivianas desejam e acreditam que o parto normal seja melhor que a cesárea, o que diverge do posicionamento comum das mulheres brasileiras. Este estudo poderá contribuir com conhecimentos sobre as concepções de saúde, particularmente sobre a gravidez, e acredita-se que as práticas dos serviços possam ser melhoradas, ampliando-se a capacidade de organização para receber imigrantes bolivianos.The process of Bolivian immigration to Brazil has been bringing questions and the necessity of intervention through the Health Services in the city of São Paulo. The barriers that come with the Bolivian culture (like the language and

  17. Collas e cambas do outro lado da fronteira: aspectos da distribuição diferenciada da imigração boliviana em Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul Collas y cambas del otro lado de la frontera: aspectos de la distribución diferenciada de la inmigración boliviana en Corumbá, Mato Grosso del Sur Collas and cambas from the other side of the border: factors of the unusual distribution of Bolivian immigration in Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Souchaud

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca apresentar os resultados da pesquisa de campo acerca dos bolivianos residentes na cidade de Corumbá-MS, destacando suas características. Procurou-se captar os diferenciais da imigração boliviana para a cidade de Corumbá, identificando aspectos culturais, territoriais e etno-lingüísticos das áreas de origem que se refletem nos diferenciais sociodemográficos existentes - entre um mesmo contingente imigrante - no lugar de destino: Corumbá/Brasil. Tais aspectos constituem fatores importantes para a leitura da própria configuração urbana da localização da imigração boliviana em Corumbá.Este estudio busca presentar los resultados de la investigación de campo acerca de los bolivianos residentes en la ciudad de Corumbá - MS, destacando sus características. Se procuró captar las diferencias de la inmigración boliviana a la ciudad de Corumbá, identificando aspectos culturales, territoriales y étnico-lingüísticos de las áreas de origen que se reflejan en las diferencias socio-demográficas existentes - entre un mismo contingente inmigrante - en el lugar de destino: Corumbá/Brasil. Tales aspectos constituyen factores importantes para la lectura de la propia configuración urbana de la localización de la inmigración boliviana en Corumbá.This study discusses the findings of field research on Bolivian residents living in the city of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with special emphasis on their characteristics. The research was aimed at detecting the unusual aspects of Bolivian immigration to the city of Corumbá, identifying cultural, territorial and ethno-linguistic aspects of the areas of origin, which are reflected in the sociodemographic differences that exist within the same contingent of immigrants in their place of destination: Corumbá, Brazil. These factors are important for a reading of the urban characterization of Bolivian immigration in Corumbá.

  18. El regreso de Túpac Katari. Bolivia y los procesos de transformación global del capitalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Errejón Galván

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La victoria electoral en diciembre de 2005 del Movimiento al socialismo encabezado por Evo Morales tuvo una significación mundial. En este artículo defenderemos que los acontecimientos políticos bolivianos de los últimos tiempos deben ser interpretados como algo más que un mero recambio en las elites políticas del país. Lo que está ocurriendo en Bolivia es, a nuestro juicio, la cristalización institucional de un conjunto de procesos que convergieron en la apertura de un ciclo de luchas anti-neoliberales iniciado en el año 2000. Los orígenes y efectos de este «ciclo rebelde» trascienden la escala estatal aún cuando ésta represente su espacio de materialización más visible. Een primer lugar, usando la perspectiva del «sistema-mundo» de Wallerstein, llevaremos a cabo una explicación de las tendencias históricas de transformación en la distribución geopolítica del poder y en las dinámicas de integración del Capitalismo. Prestaremos particular atención a los efectos de reordenación sistémica de la globalización neoliberal desde los años 70. segundo lugar, examinaremos los efectos del Neoliberalismo en la situación geopolítica de Bolivia y su influencia determinante en la emergencia de las identidades políticas indígenas, así como en la crisis de protagonismo político del proletariado minero boliviano, en el marco de procesos de impugnación de la «colonialidad». Een tercer lugar, analizaremos algunos aspectos de la influencia de los elementos anteriores —dinámicas sistémicas globales y transformación de la estructura de clases— en el proceso constituyente actualmente abierto en Bolivia. Intentaremos describir las interacciones entre los actores políticos que intervienen en el proceso constituyente prestando especial atención al papel de los movimientos sociales

  19. Consecuencias del retroceso glaciar en la Cordillera boliviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, D.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers have proven to be an excellent indicator of climate variations throughout the Holocene there are a number of studies on the recent trend towards disappearance of Bolivian glaciers. But at present, practically no research has been carried out on the consequences the melting and eventual disappearance of the country’s glaciers has and might have on the economic and social situation of its population. Thus, this country study on socio-economic impacts of glacier retreat is a first approach to get an overview of what and where might be expected in the future. Bolivian glaciers represent around 20% of the world’s tropical glacier area (Jordan 1991. The increased melting and disappearance started at the beginning of the 80s, with another increase during the last 5-10 years. Thus it is probable that most of the smaller glaciers which have not already vanished will have completely disappeared within 10 to 20 years from today. Impacts of glacier retreat are most likely to be mainly local, in some cases regional, which means that local authorities must play a vital role in this context. The supply of (drinking water for the growing urban conglomeration La Paz – El Alto, is the main issue with shrinking glaciers in Bolivia.

    A la fecha existe un importante número de estudios que demuestran la tendencia actual hacia la desaparición de los glaciares bolivianos. El presente estudio del impacto socio-económico del retroceso de los glaciares es un primer intento de obtener un panorama sobre dónde y qué cambios se podría esperar en un futuro cercano. Aproximadamente el 80% de los glaciares bolivianos tienen una superficie menor a 0,5 km²; por lo tanto, es muy probable que la mayoría de ellos hayan desaparecido completamente durante los próximos 10 a 15 años. Los impactos socio-económicos se harán notar sobre todo en un nivel local, y los elementos más preocupantes son, por un lado, la falta de investigación sobre el

  20. Shawarmas contra Macdonald’s. Shawarmas contra Mcdonald’s. Globalização e homogeneização à prova de contestações identitárias (Bolívia Shawarmas versus Macdonald’s. Identities contesting food globalization and standardization (Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Édouard de Suremain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, a partir de la alimentación, se aborda las interrogantes de las identidades locales y de su articulación a la globalización y a la estandarización. Después de haber presentado los lugares donde es posible comer fuera de casa en La Paz, me detendré en las particularidades del McDonald boliviano. Estos datos permitirán seguir la génesis de un antimodelo alimentario, el shawarma, el cual conoció su apogeo durante “la Tercera Guerra Mundial”, el periodo iniciado con el paso de los atentados del 11 de septiembre de 2001. La hipótesis es que las protestas identitarias en la esfera alimenticia pueden apoyarse en la lógica de la globalización alimentaria y erigirse contra ella, evitando los embrollos de la estandarización alimentaria.Neste artigo, sob a perspectiva da alimentação, será abordada as questões de identidades locais e sua articulação à globalização e homogeneização. Após descrever os espaços do comer fora de casa na cidade de La Paz, Bolívia, o artigo irá explorar as particularidades do caso do McDonald’s boliviano. Esses dados permitirão seguir a gênese de um anti-modelo alimentar, o shawarma, que conheceu seu apogeu ao longo da “3ª Guerra mundial”, período iniciado em seguida aos atentados do 11 de setembro de 2001. A hipótese é que as contestações identitarias da esfera alimentar podem se apoiar na lógica da globalização e constituir-se contra ela, evitando as armadilhas da homogeneização.Local identities and their tendency toward globalization and standardization is analyzed here with food as an example. After briefly reviewing the different places where one can eat out in La Paz, the particularities of the Bolivian McDonald’s are outlined. These data allow us to witness the birth of a food anti-model, the shawarma, which reached its pinnacle during the so-called ‘Third World War’, the period following September 11, 2001. The hypothesis is that identity

  1. Conexões e entrecruzamentos: configurações culturais e direitos em um circuito migratório entre La Paz e Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Caggiano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de um conflito entre imigrantes bolivianos em Buenos Aires em torno do “trabalho escravo” nas oficinas de costura da cidade, o artigo trata da relação entre direitos (“ocidentais” e formas culturais aymaras ou andinas. Como são qualificadas essas relações de trabalho quando envolvem trabalhadores e proprietários (ou administradores bolivianos/andinos? A cultura aymara problematiza a ideia de exploração laboral e a exploração laboral problematiza a cultura aymara. O artigo foca o circuito migratório transnacional e a circulação heterogênea que o conforma (pessoas, dinheiro, objetos, saberes e práticas culturais para tentar compreender aquele conflito. Com base na análise da convivência enredada de direitos e traços culturais aymaras, proponho que o cruzamento e a sobreposição de instituições e de “lógicas” culturais, sociais, econômicas e políticas são um componente constitutivo desses processos de circulação.Based upon the study of a conflict that erupted between Bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires over the concept of “slave labor” in the city’s sweatshops, the present article deals with the relationship between (western rights and Aymara or Andean cultural forms. How are these work relations qualified when they involve Bolivian/Andeanworkers and owners (or administrators? Aymara culture problematizes the concept of labor exploitation and vice versa. The present article focuses on the transnational migratory circuit and heterogeneous circulations (of people, money, objects, knowledge and practices that it contains in order to better comprehend this conflict. Based upon an analysis of the lived, networked experience of rights and Aymara cultural traces, I propose to interlink and juxtapose the social, cultural economic and political logics and institutuions that are constituitive components of these processes of circulation.

  2. Java interface for asserting interactive telerobotic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Peter; Lewis, John; Stein, Matthew R.

    1997-12-01

    Many current web-based telerobotic interfaces use HyperText Markup Language (HTML) forms to assert user control on a robot. While acceptable for some tasks, a Java interface can provide better client-server interaction. The Puma Paint project is a joint effort between the Department of Computing Sciences at Villanova University and the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Wilkes University. THe project utilizes a Java applet to control a Unimation Puma 1760 robot during the task of painting on a canvas. The interface allows the user to control the paint strokes as well as the pressure of a brush on the canvas and how deep the brush is dipped into a paint jar. To provide immediate feedback, a virtual canvas models the effects of the controls as the artist paints. Live color video feedback is provided, allowing the user to view the actual results of the robot's motions. Unlike the step-at-a-time model of many web forms, the application permits the user to assert interactive control. The greater the complexity of the interaction between the robot and its environment, the greater the need for high quality information presentation to the user. The use of Java allows the sophistication of the user interface to be raised to the level required for satisfactory control. This paper describes the Puma Paint project, including the interface and communications model. It also examines the challenges of using the Internet as the medium of communications and the challenges of encoding free ranging motions for transmission from the client to the robot.

  3. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line XWLC-05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Yao, Qian; Li, Yan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Chuan-Qiong; Fan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China, especially among non-smoking women. Cruciferous vegetables can reduce lung cancer risk by prompting a protective mechanism against respiratory tract inflammation caused by air pollution, and are rich in sulforaphane, which can induce changes in gene expression. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line (XWCL-05) to explore the value of sulforaphane in lung cancer prevention and treatment. Cell growth inhibition was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay; cell morphology and apoptosis were observed under transmission electron microscope; cell cycle and apoptosis rates were detected using flow cytometry; B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) messenger RNA expression were determined by quantitative PCR; and p53, p73, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. Sulforaphane inhibited XWLC-05 cell growth with inhibitory concentration (IC) 50 of 4.04, 3.38, and 3.02 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Sulforaphane affected the XWLC-05 cell cycle as cells accumulated in the G2/M phase. The proportion of apoptotic cells observed was 27.6%. Compared with the control, the sulforaphane group showed decreased Bcl-2 and p53 expression, and significantly increased p73, PUMA, Bax, and caspase-9 protein expression (P cell apoptosis. Its possible mechanism may involve the upregulation of p73 expression and its effector target genes PUMA and Bax in lung cancer cells, downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene B cl -2, and activation of caspase-9. It may also involve downregulation of the mutant p53 protein. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Cruzando la línea

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Zárate, Álvaro Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Arte, deporte y performance son tres conceptos que se cruzan en un mundo alejado del Olimpo glorioso, el cual creyó recuperar el Barón de Coubertin. Lance, Ben Johnson y Maradona son algunos ejemplos del asenso y caída de los ídolos deportivos que tanto acapararon los encabezados de los medios de comunicación. Nike, Puma, Reebok y Adidas, son las principales multinacionales del deporte, que se pelean medalla a medalla, el triunfo en los Olímpicos, importando cada vez menos, las...

  5. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  6. RENDIMIENTO DE HÍBRIDOS DE MAÍZ BAJO DIFERENTES COMBINACIONES DE SEMILLA ANDROESTERIL Y FÉRTIL EN MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Espinosa-Calder\\u00F3n; Margarita Tadeo-Robledo; Mauro Sierra-Mac\\u00EDas; Antonio Turrent-Fern\\u00E1ndez; Roberto Valdivia-Bernal; Benjam\\u00EDn Zamudio-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad productiva de los híbridos comerciales H-48 y Puma 1076 en diferentes mezclas de semilla androesteril y fértil: 1) 100 % semilla androesteril; 2) 90 % semilla androesteril más 10 % semilla fértil; 3) 80 % semilla androesteril más 20 % semilla fértil; 4) 60 % semilla androesteril más 40 % semilla fértil; 5) 40 % semilla androesteril más 60 % semilla fértil; 6) 100 % semilla fértil. Estas combinaciones fueron evaluadas en el ciclo primaver...

  7. Inverse kinematic solution for near-simple robots and its application to robot calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Samad A.; Roston, Gerald P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides an inverse kinematic solution for a class of robot manipulators called near-simple manipulators. The kinematics of these manipulators differ from those of simple-robots by small parameter variations. Although most robots are by design simple, in practice, due to manufacturing tolerances, every robot is near-simple. The method in this paper gives an approximate inverse kinematics solution for real time applications based on the nominal solution for these robots. The validity of the results are tested both by a simulation study and by applying the algorithm to a PUMA robot.

  8. Enormously varying utilization as a demand. An underfloor heating system for the fashion hotspot 'label Berlin 2'; Stark variierende Auslastung als Herausforderung. Ein Flaechentemperiersystem fuer den Mode-Hotspot ''Labels Berlin 2''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, Peter [Viega GmbH und Co. KG, Attendorn (Germany). Flaechentemperiersysteme

    2011-07-01

    Hugo Boss, Esprit, Brax, Puma, Comma or more s.Oliver - 'the labels Berlin 1 and 2 ' became a hotspot of the international world of fashion in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) within a few years. However, the concept to combine high-quality brands and their large showrooms under one roof was a challenge not only for architects. Also in the building services and especially in keeping rooms with their strongly varying extent of utilization at a moderate temperature all the stops had to be pulled out.

  9. Modeling of the core of Atucha II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    This work is part of a Nuclear Engineer degree thesis of the Instituto Balseiro and it is carried out under the development of an Argentinean Nuclear Power Plant Simulator. To obtain the best representation of the reactor physical behavior using the state of the art tools this Simulator should couple a 3D neutronics core calculation code with a thermal-hydraulics system code. Focused in the neutronic nature of this job, using PARCS, we modeled and performed calculations of the nuclear power plant Atucha 2 core. Whenever it is possible, we compare our results against results obtained with PUMA (the official core code for Atucha 2). (author) [es

  10. Neutronic parameters calculations of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamonsky, G.

    1991-01-01

    Neutronic calculations that reproduce in a simplified way some aspects of a CANDU reactor design were performed. Starting from some prefixed reactor parameters, cylindrical and uniform iron adjuster rods were designed. An appropriate refueling scheme was established, defininig in a 2 zones model their dimensions and exit burnups. The calculations have been done using the codes WIMS-D4 (cell), SNOD (reactivity device simulations) and PUMA (reactor). Comparing with similar calculations done with codes and models usually employed for CANDU design, it is concluded that the models and methods used are appropriate. (Author) [es

  11. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.

    2013-01-01

    The PUMA project - the acronym stands for “Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors” - was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the Euratom 6th Framework (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO2-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR designs and their ability to accept a variety

  12. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Chauvet, V.; Cerullo, N.; Cetnar, J.; Abram, T.; Bakker, K.; Bomboni, E.; Bernnat, W.; Domanska, J.G.; Girardi, E.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hesketh, K.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hossain, K.; Jonnet, J.; Kim, Y.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Kopec, M.; Murgatroyd, J.; Millington, D.; Lecarpentier, D.; Lomonaco, G.; McEachern, D.; Meier, A.; Mignanelli, M.; Nabielek, H.; Oppe, J.; Petrov, B.Y.; Pohl, C.; Ruetten, H.J.; Schihab, S.; Toury, G.; Trakas, C.; Venneri, F.; Verfondern, K.; Werner, H.; Wiss, T.; Zakova, J.

    2010-11-01

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO 2 -free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR designs and their ability to accept a

  13. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the neutron polarization analyzer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, the small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1/-2, the very-small-angle neutron diffractometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  14. The response matrix method for the representation of the border conditions in the three-dimensional difussion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    It could take a considerable amount of memory and processing time to represent a reactor in its simulation by means of a diffusion code and considering areas in which nuclear and geometrical properties are invariant, such as reflector, water columns, etc. To avoid an explicit representation of these zones, a method employing a matrix was developed consisting in expressing the net currents of each group as a function of the total flux. Estimates are made for different geometries, introducing the PUMA difussion code of materials. Several tests made proved a very sound reliability of the results obtained in 2 and 5 groups. (author) [es

  15. Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.

  16. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C., E-mail: kuijper@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Somers, J; Van Den Durpel, L; Chauvet, V; Cerullo, N; Cetnar, J; Abram, T; Bakker, K; Bomboni, E; Bernnat, W; Domanska, J G; Girardi, E; De Haas, J B.M.; Hesketh, K; Hiernaut, J P; Hossain, K; Jonnet, J; Kim, Y; Kloosterman, J L; Kopec, M; Murgatroyd, J; Millington, D; Lecarpentier, D; Lomonaco, G; McEachern, D; Meier, A; Mignanelli, M; Nabielek, H; Oppe, J; Petrov, B Y; Pohl, C; Ruetten, H J; Schihab, S; Toury, G; Trakas, C; Venneri, F; Verfondern, K; Werner, H; Wiss, T; Zakova, J

    2010-11-15

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO{sub 2}-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR designs and their ability to accept a

  17. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  18. Autobiografía de Juan Miguel Acevedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Acevedo

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro años ha que había empezado a escribir esta obra, cuando llegó a mis manos la filosófica carta que en junio de 72 dirige el sabio y erudito doctor Ricardo de la Parra al señor José Caicedo Rojas. La lectura de esta carta hizo caer la puma de mis manos y destruyó mis borrados. Me encontraba con un hombre sumamente estudioso, que se me había adelantado en sus dudas y en sus estudios sobre religión.

  19. Adidas Suomi Oy: Brändikuvan rakentaminen markkinoinnin keinoin

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Miira

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona Adidas Suomi Oy:lle syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää muotialan mielipidevaikuttajien mielikuvat Adidaksesta ja sen merkittävimmistä kilpailijoista. Vertailtaviksi brändeiksi valittiin kuusi tärkeintä kilpailijaa, jotka ovat Converse, Karhu, New Balance, Nike, Puma ja Reebok. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja Adidas Suomi Oy on osa kansainvälistä Adidas Group konsernia. Yritys on yksi maailman tunnetuimmista urheilumerkeistä ja toim...

  20. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C., E-mail: kuijper@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Chauvet, V.; Cerullo, N.; Cetnar, J.; Abram, T.; Bakker, K.; Bomboni, E.; Bernnat, W.; Domanska, J.G.; Girardi, E.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hesketh, K.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hossain, K.; Jonnet, J.; Kim, Y.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Kopec, M.; Murgatroyd, J.; Millington, D.; Lecarpentier, D.; Lomonaco, G.; McEachern, D.; Meier, A.; Mignanelli, M.; Nabielek, H.; Oppe, J.; Petrov, B.Y.; Pohl, C.; Ruetten, H.J.; Schihab, S.; Toury, G.; Trakas, C.; Venneri, F.; Verfondern, K.; Werner, H.; Wiss, T.; Zakova, J.

    2010-11-15

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO{sub 2}-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR