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Sample records for bolivian high plateau

  1. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  2. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E; Aguilera, J [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  3. Anthropometric survey of high-altitude Bolivian porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, T L; Thomas, R B; Greksa, L P; Haas, J D

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey of 138 rural Aymaran high-altitude males who were working as porters in La Paz, Bolivia (3700 m). All subjects were measured for stature, weight, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds. The body size and composition of the porters were then compared to an Aymaran rural population from the Bolivian highlands, and urban mestizo labourers from La Paz. The porters were smaller than the urban sample, but appeared to be generally representative of rural Aymaran natives with respect to body size and composition, and nutritional status. It is suggested that towards one extreme of nutritional variability, some degree of undernutrition may be indicated, which should be considered in future studies of adaptation to hypoxia among these Andean highlanders.

  4. On the Origin of the Bolivian High and Related Circulation Features of the South American Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, J. D.; Cook, K. H.

    1997-03-01

    The climatological structure in the upper-tropospheric summertime circulation over South America is diagnosed using a GCM (with and without South American topography), a linear model, and observational data. Emphasis is placed on understanding the origin of observed features such as the Bolivian high and the accompanying `Nordeste low' to the east. Results from the linear model indicate that these two features are generated in response to precipitation over the Amazon basin, central Andes, and South Atlantic convergence zone, with African precipitation also playing a crucial role in the formation of the Nordeste low. The direct mechanical and sensible heating effects of the Andes are minimal, acting only to induce a weak lee trough in midlatitudes and a shallow monsoonal circulation over the central Andes. In the GCM, the effects of the Andes include a strengthening of the Bolivian high and northward shift of the Nordeste low, primarily through changes in the precipitation field. The position of the Bolivian high is primarily determined by Amazonian precipitation and is little affected by the removal of the Andes. Strong subsidence to the west of the high is found to be important for the maintenance of the high's warm core, while large-scale convective overshooting to the east is responsible for a layer of cold air above the high.

  5. Characterization of cyanobacterial communities from high-elevation lakes in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erich D.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie

    2010-06-01

    The Bolivian Altiplano is a harsh environment for life with high solar irradiation (visible and UVR), below freezing temperatures, and some of the lowest precipitation rates on the planet. However, microbial life is visibly abundant in small isolated refugia of spring or snowmelt-fed lakes. In this study, we characterized the cyanobacterial composition of a variety of microbial mats present in three lake systems: Laguna Blanca, Laguna Verde (elevation 4300 m), and a summit lake in the Licancabur Volcano cone (elevation 5970 m). These lakes and their adjacent geothermal springs present an interesting diversity of environments within a geographically small region (5 km2). From these sites, 78 cyanobacterial cultures were isolated in addition to ˜400 cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from environmental genomic DNA. Based on microscopy, cultivation, and molecular analyses, these communities contained many heterocytous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (e.g., Calothrix, Nostoc, Nodularia) as well as a large number of cyanobacteria belonging to the form-genus Leptolyngbya. More than a third (37%) of all taxa in this study were new species (≤96% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity), and 11% represented new and novel taxa distantly related (≤93% identity) to any known cyanobacteria. This is one of the few studies to characterize cyanobacterial communities based on both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent analyses.

  6. Geo-Spatial Characterization of Soil Mercury and Arsenic at a High-Altitude Bolivian Gold Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glen D; Pavilonis, Brian; Caravanos, Jack; Grassman, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Soil mercury concentrations at a typical small-scale mine site in the Bolivian Andes were elevated (28-737 mg/kg or ppm) in localized areas where mercury amalgams were either formed or vaporized to release gold, but was not detectable beyond approximately 10 m from its sources. Arsenic was measurable, exceeding known background levels throughout the mine site (77-137,022 ppm), and was also measurable through the local village of Ingenio (36-1803 ppm). Although arsenic levels were high at all surveyed locations, its spatial pattern followed mercury, being highest where mercury was high.

  7. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2016-01-01

    in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...... variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full...

  8. High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined.

  9. Effects of changes in fallow length on soil organic C due to climate change and socioeconomic factors in potato-based cropping systems in the Bolivian Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Motavalli, Peter P.; Aguilera, Javier; Jintaridth, B.; Valdivia, Corinne; Gonzáles, M.; Chambilla, Carola

    2009-01-01

    The Bolivian highland plateau region (Altiplano) is a semi-arid region in the Andes Mountains that occupies approximately 27% of the area of Bolivia and has a range in elevation of between 3600 and 4300 m above sea level. The region's climate is characterized by high diurnal temperature variations, frost risks, low and irregular precipitation and high risks of drought during the growing season (Garcia et al., 2007). Potato-based cropping systems and livestock rearing of cows, sheep and cameli...

  10. Management of organic and inorganic soil fertility inputs in indigenous agricultural communities in the Bolivian Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Javier; Miranda, R.; Motavalli, Peter P.; Tangara, E.; Herrera, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Bolivian highland plateau region (Altiplano) is a semi-arid region in the Andes Mountains that has a range in elevation of between 3600 and 4300 m above sea level. The region's climate is characterized by high diurnal temperature variations, frost risks, low and irregular precipitation and high risks of drought during the growing season (Garcia et al., 2007). Recent research has indicated that the Andes region will experience temperature increases of up to 6 degrees C by the end of the ce...

  11. Mercury exposure in a high fish eating Bolivian Amazonian population with intense small-scale gold-mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Gardon, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Methylmercury exposure in Amazonian communities through fish consumption has been widely documented in Brazil. There is still a lack of data in other Amazonian countries, which is why we conducted this study in the Bolivian Amazon basin. Simple random sampling was used from a small village located in the lower Beni River, where there is intense gold mining and high fish consumption. All participants were interviewed and hair samples were taken to measure total mercury concentrations. The hair mercury geometric mean in the general population was 3.02 microg/g (CI: 2.69-3.37; range: 0.42-15.65). Age and gender were not directly associated with mercury levels. Fish consumption showed a positive relation and so did occupation, especially small-scale gold mining. Hair mercury levels were lower than those found in Brazilian studies, but still higher than in non-exposed populations. It is necessary to assess mercury exposure in the Amazonian regions where data is still lacking, using a standardized indicator.

  12. Diurnal variability and biogeochemical reactivity of mercury species in an extreme high-altitude lake ecosystem of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanoca, L; Amouroux, D; Monperrus, M; Tessier, E; Goni, M; Guyoneaud, R; Acha, D; Gassie, C; Audry, S; Garcia, M E; Quintanilla, J; Point, D

    2016-04-01

    Methylation and demethylation represent major transformation pathways regulating the net production of methylmercury (MMHg). Very few studies have documented Hg reactivity and transformation in extreme high-altitude lake ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) species concentrations (IHg, MMHg, Hg°, and DMHg) and in situ Hg methylation (M) and MMHg demethylation (D) potentials were determined in water, sediment, floating organic aggregates, and periphyton compartments of a shallow productive Lake of the Bolivian Altiplano (Uru Uru Lake, 3686 m). Samples were collected during late dry season (October 2010) and late wet season (May 2011) at a north (NS) and a south (SS) site of the lake, respectively. Mercury species concentrations exhibited significant diurnal variability as influenced by the strong diurnal biogeochemical gradients. Particularly high methylated mercury concentrations (0.2 to 4.5 ng L(-1) for MMHgT) were determined in the water column evidencing important Hg methylation in this ecosystem. Methylation and D potentials range were, respectively, production in both water (up to 0.45 ng MMHg L(-1) day(-1)) and sediment compartments (2.0 to 19.7 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)). While the sediment compartment appears to represent a major source of MMHg in this shallow ecosystem, floating organic aggregates (dry season, SS) and Totora's periphyton (wet season, NS) were found to act as a significant source (5.8 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) and a sink (-2.1 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) of MMHg, respectively. This work demonstrates that high-altitude productive lake ecosystems can promote MMHg formation in various compartments supporting recent observations of high Hg contents in fish and water birds.

  13. Maintenance of Austral Summertime Upper-Tropospheric Circulation over Tropical South America: The Bolivian High-Nordeste Low System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Weng, Shu-Ping; Schubert, Siegfried

    1999-07-01

    Using the NASA/GEOS reanalysis data for 1980-95, the austral-summer stationary eddies in the tropical-subtropical Southern Hemisphere are examined in two wave regimes: long and short wave (wave 1 and waves 2-6, respectively). The basic structure of the Bolivian high-Nordeste low (BH-NL) system is formed by a short-wave train across South America but modulated by the long-wave regime. The short-wave train exhibits a monsoonlike vertical phase reversal in the midtroposphere and a quarter-wave phase shift relative to the divergent circulation. As inferred from (a) the spatial relationship between the streamfunction and velocity potential and (b) the structure of the divergent circulation, the short-wave train forming the BH-NL system is maintained by South American local heating and remote African heating, while the long-wave regime is maintained by western tropical Pacific heating.The maintenance of the stationary waves in the two wave regimes is further illustrated by a simple diagnostic scheme that includes the velocity-potential maintenance equation (which links velocity potential and diabatic heating) and the streamfunction budget (which is the inverse Laplacian transform of the vorticity equation). Some simple relationships between streamfunction and velocity potential for both wave regimes are established to substantiate the links between diabatic heating and streamfunction; of particular interest is a Sverdrup balance in the short-wave regime. This simplified vorticity equation explains the vertical structure of the short-wave train associated with the BH-NL system and its spatial relationship with the divergent circulation.Based upon the diagnostic analysis of its maintenance a simple forced barotropic model is adopted to simulate the BH-NL system with idealized forcings, which imitates the real 200-mb divergence centers over South America, Africa, and the tropical Pacific. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the formation of the BH-NL system is affected

  14. Snow surface microbiome on the High Antarctic Plateau (DOME C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Mysara, Mohamed; Monsieurs, Pieter; Raffa, Carmela; Leys, Natalie; Amalfitano, Stefano; Van Houdt, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system and one of the major habitable ecosystems of Earth's biosphere. These permanently frozen environments harbor diverse, viable and metabolically active microbial populations that represent almost all the major phylogenetic groups. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity in the surface snow surrounding the Concordia Research Station on the High Antarctic Plateau through a polyphasic approach, including direct prokaryotic quantification by flow cytometry and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), and phylogenetic identification by 16S RNA gene clone library sequencing and 454 16S amplicon pyrosequencing. Although the microbial abundance was low (<10(3) cells/ml of snowmelt), concordant results were obtained with the different techniques. The microbial community was mainly composed of members of the Alpha-proteobacteria class (e.g. Kiloniellaceae and Rhodobacteraceae), which is one of the most well-represented bacterial groups in marine habitats, Bacteroidetes (e.g. Cryomorphaceae and Flavobacteriaceae) and Cyanobacteria. Based on our results, polar microorganisms could not only be considered as deposited airborne particles, but as an active component of the snowpack ecology of the High Antarctic Plateau.

  15. Snow surface microbiome on the High Antarctic Plateau (DOME C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Michaud

    Full Text Available The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system and one of the major habitable ecosystems of Earth's biosphere. These permanently frozen environments harbor diverse, viable and metabolically active microbial populations that represent almost all the major phylogenetic groups. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity in the surface snow surrounding the Concordia Research Station on the High Antarctic Plateau through a polyphasic approach, including direct prokaryotic quantification by flow cytometry and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH, and phylogenetic identification by 16S RNA gene clone library sequencing and 454 16S amplicon pyrosequencing. Although the microbial abundance was low (<10(3 cells/ml of snowmelt, concordant results were obtained with the different techniques. The microbial community was mainly composed of members of the Alpha-proteobacteria class (e.g. Kiloniellaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, which is one of the most well-represented bacterial groups in marine habitats, Bacteroidetes (e.g. Cryomorphaceae and Flavobacteriaceae and Cyanobacteria. Based on our results, polar microorganisms could not only be considered as deposited airborne particles, but as an active component of the snowpack ecology of the High Antarctic Plateau.

  16. An Introduction to Spoken Bolivian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Garland D.; And Others

    This text is intended for use in a college-level course in Bolivian Quechua for speakers of English. It is divided into thirty units and is specifically designed for a two-semester academic year of fifteen weeks a semester. The entire text is highly structured, carefully graded, and organized on the principles of the audiolingual approach to…

  17. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  18. Salinity drives archaeal distribution patterns in high altitude lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Priscu, John C; Xiong, Jinbo; Conrad, Ralf; Vick-Majors, Trista; Chu, Haiyan; Hou, Juzhi

    2016-03-01

    Archaeal communities and the factors regulating their diversity in high altitude lakes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first high-throughput sequencing study of Archaea from Tibetan Plateau lake sediments. We analyzed twenty lake sediments from the world's highest and largest plateau and found diverse archaeal assemblages that clustered into groups dominated by methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Halobacteria/mixed euryarchaeal phylotypes. Statistical analysis inferred that salinity was the major driver of community composition, and that archaeal diversity increased with salinity. Sediments with the highest salinities were mostly dominated by Halobacteria. Crenarchaeota dominated at intermediate salinities, and methanogens were present in all lake sediments, albeit most abundant at low salinities. The distribution patterns of the three functional types of methanogens (hydrogenotrophic, acetotrophic and methylotrophic) were also related to changes in salinity. Our results show that salinity is a key factor controlling archaeal community diversity and composition in lake sediments on a spatial scale that spans nearly 2000 km on the Tibetan Plateau. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Strontium isotope evidence for a highly mobile population on the Pamir Plateau 2500 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueye; Tang, Zihua; Wu, Jing; Wu, Xinhua; Wu, Yiqun; Zhou, Xinying

    2016-10-01

    Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0.710296-0.710572 defined by 12 ovicaprine bones. Comparison of the proportion (10/34) with the regional census data completed in 1909 A.D. (3% non-locals) suggests a highly migratory behavior on the plateau 2500 years ago. Furthermore, exotic mortuary objects, such as silk fabrics from eastern China and angular harp originated from the Near East, clearly demonstrate an interaction between different cultures on the plateau before the establishment of the Silk Road.

  20. Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Giménez, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis. TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active. High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Characterization and speciation of mercury in mosses and lichens from the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Juan; Liu, Cheng-Bin; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Fu, Jian-Jie; Yang, Rui-Qiang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2017-06-01

    The accumulation and species of mercury (Hg) in mosses and lichens collected from high-altitude Tibetan Plateau were studied. The altitudes of the sampling sites spanned from 1983 to 5147 m, and a total of 130 mosses and 52 lichens were analyzed. The total mercury (THg) contents in mosses and lichens were in the ranges of 13.1-273.0 and 20.2-345.9 ng/g, respectively. The average ratios of methylmercury (MeHg) in THg in mosses and lichens were 2.4 % (0.3-11.1 %) and 2.7 % (0.4-9.6 %), respectively, which were higher than those values reported in other regions. The contents of THg in both mosses and lichens were not correlated with the THg in soils (p > 0.05). The lipid contents displayed a significantly positive correlation with concentrations of MeHg in mosses (r = 0.461, p Tibetan Plateau.

  2. The plateau zokors' learning and memory ability is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ben-Yuan; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2014-04-25

    Plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) is a subterranean mammal. Plateau zokor has high learning and memory ability, and can determine the location of blocking obstacles in their tunnels. Forkhead box p2 (FOXP2) is a transcription factor implicated in the neural control of orofacial coordination and sensory-motor integration, particularly with respect to learning, memory and vocalization. To explore the association of foxP2 with the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor, the cDNA of foxP2 of plateau zokor was sequenced; by using plateau pika as control, the expression levels of foxP2 mRNA and FOXP2 protein in brain of plateau zokor were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively; and the location of FOXP2 protein in the brain of plateau zokor was determined by immunohistochemistry. The result showed that the cDNA sequence of plateau zokor foxP2 was similar to that of other mammals and the amino acid sequences showed a relatively high degree of conservation, with the exception of two particular amino acid substitutions [a Gln (Q)-to-His (H) change at position 231 and a Ser (S)-to-Ile (I) change at position 235]. Higher expression levels of foxP2 mRNA (3-fold higher) and FOXP2 protein (>2-fold higher) were detected in plateau zokor brain relative to plateau pika brain. In plateau zokor brain, FOXP2 protein was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and the striatum (a basal ganglia brain region). The results suggest that the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

  3. Development of nuclear counting system for plateau high voltage scintillation detector test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarizah Mohamed Nor; Siti Hawa Md Zain; Muhd Izham Ahmad; Izuhan Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear counter system is a system monitoring and analysis of radioactivity used in scientific and technical research and development in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. It consists of three basic parts, namely sensors, signal conditioning and monitoring. Nuclear counter system set up for use in the testing of nuclear detectors using radioactive sources such as 60 Co and 137 Cs and other radioactive sources. It can determine the types of scintillation detectors and the equivalent function properly, always operate in the range plateau high voltage and meet the specifications. Hence, it should be implemented on all systems in the Nuclear Nuclear counter Malaysia and documented as Standard Working Procedure (SWP) is a reference to the technicians, trainees IPTA / IPTS and related workers. (author)

  4. Barrier effects of remote high mountain on atmospheric metal transport in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Haijian; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Luo, Xiaosan; Xiang, Zhongxiang; Sun, Hongyang; Wang, Jipeng; Zhu, He

    2018-07-01

    Anthropogenic metals adsorbed on suspended fine particles can be deposited on remote and inaccessible high mountains by long-range atmospheric transport. In this study, we investigated the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the soils, mosses and rainfall of three transects on the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau, to understand the mountain interception effects on their atmospheric transport. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soils and mosses displayed a pattern of eastern transect>northern transect>western transect. The distribution of Cd and Pb on the eastern transect increased from 2000 to 2900m a.s.l. (above sea level), decreased toward the timberline, and increased again with altitude; on the northern transect, it generally decreased with altitude whereas a distribution trend was not clearly observed on the western transect. The Cd and Pb concentrations in the rainfall of the eastern transect generally decreased with altitude, and they were higher inside forests than outside forests and temporally higher in the winter than the summer. The Pb isotopic ratios coupled with moss bio-monitoring distinguished anthropogenic sources of Cd and Pb on the eastern and northern transects, whereas bedrock weathering was the main source of Cd and Pb on the western transect. We proposed a conceptual model to delineate the effects of terrain, local climate and vegetation on the transport of atmospheric metals. Our results highlighted the high mountains in the eastern Tibetan Plateau as an effective natural barrier limiting atmospheric metal transport. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A canine purgation study and risk factor analysis for echinococcosis in a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budke, C.M.; Campos Ponce, M.; Qian, B.F.; Torgerson, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan plateau of western China has been shown to have a very high prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. The domestic dog is suspected to be the primary definitive host for

  6. Bacterioplankton community composition along a salinity gradient of sixteen high-mountain lakes located on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.L.; Zwart, G.; Schauer, M.; Kamst-van Agterveld, M.P.; Hahn, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of altitude and salinity on bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in 16 high-mountain lakes located at altitudes of 2,817 to 5,134 m on the Eastern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau, China, spanning a salinity gradient from 0.02% (freshwater) to 22.3% (hypersaline), was

  7. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  8. Analysis of genetic diversity in Bolivian llama populations using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Romero, F; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Rodríguez, T; Arranz, J J

    2013-08-01

    South American camelids (SACs) have a major role in the maintenance and potential future of rural Andean human populations. More than 60% of the 3.7 million llamas living worldwide are found in Bolivia. Due to the lack of studies focusing on genetic diversity in Bolivian llamas, this analysis investigates both the genetic diversity and structure of 12 regional groups of llamas that span the greater part of the range of distribution for this species in Bolivia. The analysis of 42 microsatellite markers in the considered regional groups showed that, in general, there were high levels of polymorphism (a total of 506 detected alleles; average PIC across per marker: 0.66), which are comparable with those reported for other populations of domestic SACs. The estimated diversity parameters indicated that there was high intrapopulational genetic variation (average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity per marker: 12.04 and 0.68, respectively) and weak genetic differentiation among populations (FST range: 0.003-0.052). In agreement with these estimates, Bolivian llamas showed a weak genetic structure and an intense gene flow between all the studied regional groups, which is due to the exchange of reproductive males between the different flocks. Interestingly, the groups for which the largest pairwise FST estimates were observed, Sud Lípez and Nor Lípez, showed a certain level of genetic differentiation that is probably due to the pattern of geographic isolation and limited communication infrastructures of these southern localities. Overall, the population parameters reported here may serve as a reference when establishing conservation policies that address Bolivian llama populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. What is safe and clean water in rural Bolivian communities? A preliminary investigation of heavy metal contamination in rural community water systems in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, M.; Guido, Z.; Borella, P.; Ketron, T.

    2009-12-01

    A proliferation of potable water systems utilizing groundwater is currently underway in the Lake Titicaca region of the Bolivian Altiplano. With the aid of national and international organizations, rural communities are developing groundwater sources because the region’s surface water is highly contaminated with waterborne pathogens—the primary factor contributing to high child mortality rates in developing nations. According to UNICEF, 86 percent of Bolivian families have access to “improved” water systems, which predominantly take the form of deep groundwater wells or contained natural springs. While the water systems have worked well to reduce pathogens in drinking water systems that cause illnesses such as dysentery, the water is rarely tested for heavy metal contamination, such as arsenic and lead. While bacteria analysis is essential, it is not the only component of healthy drinking water. Testing for heavy metals is especially important in the Bolivian Altiplano because abundant volcanic deposits and massive sulfide deposits suggest that in some areas it is likely that the water contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, Terra Resource Development International, A California-based 502(c)3 nonprofit organization, partnered with Stanford University, the Technical University of Bolivia, and the Bolivian Geologic and Mining Survey to collect water samples in 36 rural community situated in four watersheds feeding into Lake Titicaca. Water was collected from shallow, hand dug wells, deep groundwater wells, springs, and small rivers in the Tiwanku, Laja, Batallas, Achacachi watersheds and were analyzed for inorganic contaminants. Samples were analyzed at Stanford’s Environmental Measurements Facility using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrometer for major ions and heavy metals. Results will help determine which, if any, community water systems are at risk of heavy metal contamination, where more comprehensive sampling is

  10. Decolonising Bolivian education: ideology versus reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Griffiths, T.G.; Millei, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006, Bolivia’s ‘politics of change’ of president Evo Morales includes a new ‘decolonising’ education reform called Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez (ASEP). This ‘revolutionary reform’ envisions a radical restructuring of Bolivian society

  11. Agronomic Evaluation of Bunching Onion in the Colombian Cundiboyacense High Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Galeano Mendoza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. is a strategic crop for Colombia due to its economic relevance within fresh and processed food markets, and therefore, there is a demand for high yielding genotypes adapted to specific regions. For this reason, after carrying out a clonal selection process including 62 genotypes, ten of these, including a regional control, were evaluated for six different traits in Boyacá (Colombia during 2012 and 2013. These traits were grouped into agronomic, yield, and processing categories. In general, these showed significant differences (p≤0.01 for genotypes, location, and genotypes × location interaction. Compared with the regional control and based on the multienvironmental analysis the genotypes Clone 30 and Clone 38 were the most promising new cultivars identified in this study. These two clones showed comparative advantages on earliness and yield, and they moreover showed some level of resistance to downy mildew and root rot, the most limiting diseases for Boyacá’s bunch onion farmers. Therefore, Clone 30 and Clone 38 were registered as new bunching onion cultivars for the Cundiboyacense High Plateau region under the names Corpoica Aquitania-1 and Corpoica Tota-1, respectively. Finally, further approaches and initiatives on bunching onion breeding are discussed.

  12. Impact of Ozone Valley over the Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian High in CAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local climate effects of Tibetan Plateau Ozone Valley (OVTP were investigated by numerical simulations using Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1 (CAM5. After a 20-year spin-up period, two additional 10-year experiments were conducted. CAM5 was driven by monthly mean climatological ozone in control experiment (CE and OVTP in the sensitivity experiment (SE was removed from May to September. After the removal of OVTP, South Asian High (SAH becomes more robust and colder from June to August, especially in June. The reason for enhancement of SAH is that removal of OVTP increasing ozone in 200–30 hPa leads to significant enhancement of longwave and shortwave radiative heating rate in SAH region in June, and then enhancement of horizontal divergence resulting from the radiative warming leads to strengthening of SAH influenced by the Coriolis force, while the colder SAH is primarily caused by dynamic processes. Adiabatic expansion and ascending movement mainly bring about temperature decrease in SAH after OVTP removal, but the thermodynamic process related to radiative heating offsets part of the cooling response.

  13. Chemical Records in Snowpits from High Altitude Glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Gao, Tanguang; Guo, Junming; Grigholm, Bjorn; Huang, Jie; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Xiaofei; Du, Wentao; Li, Yang; Ge, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Glaciochemistry can provide important information about climatic change and environmental conditions, as well as for testing regional and global atmospheric trace transport models. In this study, δ18O and selected chemical constituents records in snowpits collected from eight glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas have been investigated. Drawing on the integrated data, our study summarized the seasonal and spatial characteristics of snow chemistry, and their potential sources. Distinct seasonal patterns of δ18O values in snowpits indicated more negative in the south TP controlled by Indian monsoon, and less negative in the north TP and Tien Shan. Overall increasing concentrations of microparticles and crustal ions from south to north indicated a strength of dust deposition on glaciers from semi-arid and arid regions. Principal component analysis and air mass trajectories suggested that chemical constituents were mainly attributable to crustal sources as demonstrated by the high concentrations of ions occurring during the non-monsoon seasons. Nevertheless, other sources, such as anthropogenic pollution, played an important role on chemical variations of glaciers near the human activity centers. This study concluded that air mass transport from different sources played important roles on the spatial distributions and seasonality of glaciochemistry. PMID:27186638

  14. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  15. Chemical Records in Snowpits from High Altitude Glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surroundings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Zhang

    Full Text Available Glaciochemistry can provide important information about climatic change and environmental conditions, as well as for testing regional and global atmospheric trace transport models. In this study, δ18O and selected chemical constituents records in snowpits collected from eight glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas have been investigated. Drawing on the integrated data, our study summarized the seasonal and spatial characteristics of snow chemistry, and their potential sources. Distinct seasonal patterns of δ18O values in snowpits indicated more negative in the south TP controlled by Indian monsoon, and less negative in the north TP and Tien Shan. Overall increasing concentrations of microparticles and crustal ions from south to north indicated a strength of dust deposition on glaciers from semi-arid and arid regions. Principal component analysis and air mass trajectories suggested that chemical constituents were mainly attributable to crustal sources as demonstrated by the high concentrations of ions occurring during the non-monsoon seasons. Nevertheless, other sources, such as anthropogenic pollution, played an important role on chemical variations of glaciers near the human activity centers. This study concluded that air mass transport from different sources played important roles on the spatial distributions and seasonality of glaciochemistry.

  16. Chemical Records in Snowpits from High Altitude Glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and Its Surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Gao, Tanguang; Guo, Junming; Grigholm, Bjorn; Huang, Jie; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Xiaofei; Du, Wentao; Li, Yang; Ge, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Glaciochemistry can provide important information about climatic change and environmental conditions, as well as for testing regional and global atmospheric trace transport models. In this study, δ18O and selected chemical constituents records in snowpits collected from eight glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas have been investigated. Drawing on the integrated data, our study summarized the seasonal and spatial characteristics of snow chemistry, and their potential sources. Distinct seasonal patterns of δ18O values in snowpits indicated more negative in the south TP controlled by Indian monsoon, and less negative in the north TP and Tien Shan. Overall increasing concentrations of microparticles and crustal ions from south to north indicated a strength of dust deposition on glaciers from semi-arid and arid regions. Principal component analysis and air mass trajectories suggested that chemical constituents were mainly attributable to crustal sources as demonstrated by the high concentrations of ions occurring during the non-monsoon seasons. Nevertheless, other sources, such as anthropogenic pollution, played an important role on chemical variations of glaciers near the human activity centers. This study concluded that air mass transport from different sources played important roles on the spatial distributions and seasonality of glaciochemistry.

  17. Morphotectonics of a high plateau on the northwestern flank of the Continental Rift of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi-Gauttieri, May Christine; Takashi Hiruma, Silvio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2002-03-01

    Integration of landform and structural analysis allowed the identification of Late Pleistocene-Holocene pulses of tectonic activity in the Campos do Jordão Plateau with ages and regimes similar to the ones from the continental rift. Fault reactivation along Precambrian shear zones give rise to a series of conspicuous morphotectonic features, determine the formation of stream piracy phenomena, and divide the plateau into smaller blocks. Recognition of these tectonic pulses as well as of their effects in landform development—particularly clear on the Campos de São Francisco at the highest area of the SE edge of the plateau—show that besides the climate-related Quaternary environmental changes significant neotectonic instability should be considered in the geomorphic evolution of the Campos do Jordão Plateau.

  18. SHOCK BREAKOUT IN TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE: PROSPECTS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, N.; Morokuma, T.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Nomoto, K.; Baklanov, P.; Sorokina, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    Shock breakout is the brightest radiative phenomenon in a supernova (SN) but is difficult to be observed owing to the short duration and X-ray/ultraviolet (UV)-peaked spectra. After the first observation from the rising phase reported in 2008, its observability at high redshift is attracting enormous attention. We perform multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculations of explosions for evolutionary presupernova models with various main-sequence masses M MS , metallicities Z, and explosion energies E. We present multicolor light curves of shock breakouts in Type II plateau SNe, being the most frequent core-collapse SNe, and predict apparent multicolor light curves of shock breakout at various redshifts z. We derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter x and limiting magnitude m x,lim by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. We propose a realistic survey strategy optimized for shock breakout. For example, the g'-band observable SN rate for m g',lim = 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg -2 day -1 and half of them are located at z ≥ 1.2. It is clear that the shock breakout is a beneficial clue for probing high-z core-collapse SNe. We also establish ways to identify shock breakout and constrain SN properties from the observations of shock breakout, brightness, timescale, and color. We emphasize that the multicolor observations in blue optical bands with ∼hour intervals, preferably over ≥2 continuous nights, are essential to efficiently detect, identify, and interpret shock breakout.

  19. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    crustal structure or sediment thickness across much of the Iranian plateau. The lone exception is the region between the central Zagros and the Lut block...L11303, 2007. Meunier, P., N. Hovius, and J. A. Haines, Topographic site effects and the location of earthquake induced landslides, Earth Planet . Sci

  20. Characteristics of the aerial regime of an aridisol at the central high plateau of Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsag, V.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, the aerial regime of an aridisol with a loam clay-sandy texture of the central area of the high plateau of Bolivia, was determined as a function of the monthly volumetric moisture (using mean values) and the total porosity of the horizons Ap (0-19 cm), Bt (19-49 cm) and Cca (49-70 cm), Bt (19-49 cm) and Cca (49-70 cm). Values of moisture were determined during three year: 1983-84, 1984-5 and 1985-86 with the neutron probe. Fluctuations of the soil air content during the research period in the Ap and Bt horizons were strictly dependant on the precipitations and their seasonal variations due to porosity which was considered constant. Because this work was made in a soil with natural vegetation cover and without physical changes produced by tillage. The soil air content in the sandy Ap horizon showed higher values and greater difference (4-27%) than inferior horizons rich in clay (2-14%). The results were compared with quotes from the Czechoslovakian literature on the requirement of soil air content for certain crops: 15-35% for potatoes, 10-15% for cereals and 5-10% for pastures. This aridisol showing certain properties as clay horizons from 20 cm depth, unstable structure and insufficient air contents, can only be used for cereals and pastures. The use of these soils could be extended to crops with greater air requirements, if the water and aerial regimes are improved with the help of subsoilers, deepening the top soil and incorporating manure and green manure for improving the soil structure and porosity

  1. Genetic convergence in the adaptation of dogs and humans to the high-altitude environment of the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Zhai, Weiwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, He-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yan; Gao, Yun; Ge, Ri-Li; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. 77 FR 74546 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8118] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including that set forth in the ``International... for assistance for Bolivian military and police are in the national security interest of the United...

  3. KARSTIC GEOMORPHOSITES WITH HIGH TOURISTIC VALUE IN MEHEDINȚI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ioana IAMANDEI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Mehedinţi Plateau area, there is a great number of karsts complexes, also named geomorphosites, created by the action of water in the massive calcareous rocks. Some of these, such as Izverna and Topolnita karsts complexes, are suitable to speleological tourism, cave diving, tourist and scientific explorations, underground and underwater photography and filming. Tourists come here from all over the world and this is a place where special camps for cave diving the fans are organized. This study presents especially the types of geomorphosites generated by water, the touristic offer in this area and the analysis of indicators representing the global value of one of the main geomorphosites. This global value increased in particular due to their scientific, cultural and aesthetic values which makes them suitable to ecotourism. The economic value is also an important indicator for the touristic activities in Mehedinți Plateau.

  4. KARSTIC GEOMORPHOSITES WITH HIGH TOURISTIC VALUE IN MEHEDINȚI PLATEAU

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Ioana IAMANDEI

    2017-01-01

    In the Mehedinţi Plateau area, there is a great number of karsts complexes, also named geomorphosites, created by the action of water in the massive calcareous rocks. Some of these, such as Izverna and Topolnita karsts complexes, are suitable to speleological tourism, cave diving, tourist and scientific explorations, underground and underwater photography and filming. Tourists come here from all over the world and this is a place where special camps for cave diving the fans are organized. ...

  5. Ornithological monitoring of the wind farms of the Garrigue high plateau (Aude)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the monitoring of the premarital migration 2001 in the wind farm of Corbieres-Maritime on the Garrigue Haute plateau. It aims to study the wind turbines impacts and risks on the migration. In spite of a weak mortality, the number of observed modifications in the birds habits at the approach of the wind turbines confirms the necessity of taking into account the migration phenomena in the wind farms projects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Liu, Hua; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; He, Zeng; Gangla, Meiduo; Zhang, Jingdan; Han, Dingding; Liu, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs) obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP), which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50) in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  7. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; He, Zeng; Gangla, Meiduo; Zhang, Jingdan; Han, Dingding; Liu, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs) obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP), which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50) in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated. PMID:26637115

  8. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhong

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct, which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP, which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50 in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  9. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus, and Helicobacter pylori in Rural Communities of the Bolivian Chaco, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolmi, Irene; Spinicci, Michele; Mayaregua, David Rojo; Barahona, Herlan Gamboa; Mantella, Antonia; Lara, Yunni; Roselli, Mimmo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Corti, Giampaolo; Tolari, Francesco; Pinckert, Joaquín Monasterio; Dalton, Harry R; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    In the Bolivian Chaco, south-east of Bolivia, studies conducted over the past three decades reported hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Helicobacter pylori seroprevalences above 90% and 60%, respectively. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) prevalence was previously found to be 6-7% but is probably an underestimate because of the poor sensitivity of the assays used. In November 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 263 healthy volunteers from two rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco, aiming to reassess HAV, HEV, and H. pylori seroprevalence 10-20 years following the previous surveys. Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence was 95%, with universal exposure after the first decade of life; HEV seroprevalence was considerably higher (31-35%) than that previously reported; H. pylori seroprevalence was 59%, with an age-dependent distribution. The high prevalence of these infections suggests that major efforts are still needed to reduce fecal-oral transmission and to improve human health in the Bolivian Chaco.

  10. Ornithological monitoring of the wind farms of the Garrigue high plateau (Aude); Suivi ornithologique des parcs eoliens du Plateau de Garrigue Haute (Aude)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the monitoring of the premarital migration 2001 in the wind farm of Corbieres-Maritime on the Garrigue Haute plateau. It aims to study the wind turbines impacts and risks on the migration. In spite of a weak mortality, the number of observed modifications in the birds habits at the approach of the wind turbines confirms the necessity of taking into account the migration phenomena in the wind farms projects. (A.L.B.)

  11. Investigation on the possible interconnection between Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and springs of Argos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontiadis, I.; Dimitroulas, C.; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, A.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    /sup 51/Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of possible interconnection between the sinkhole Kanata, on the high Plateau of Tripolis, and springs of the areas of Argos, Achladokambos and Kinouria. By this experiment, the interconnection between the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios Achladokambos river, is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc., have been calculated.

  12. Ecophysiological Responses of Three Tree Species to a High-Altitude Environment in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirui Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper measured the ecophysiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehd., Salix longistamina C. Wang et P. Y. Fu., and Ulmus pumila L. to high altitude in the Tibetan Plateau based on changes in water relations, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence. P. cathayana and U. pumila have higher survival rates than S. longistamina, but the latter has highest biomass. S. longistamina has higher water-use efficiency (WUE, lower transpiration rates (E, higher water potential (Ψ, highest light saturation point (LSP and higher photosystem II (PSII photochemistry efficiency (Fv’/Fm’ and non-photochemistry quenching (NPQ than the other species, and is thus adapted to its habitat for afforestation. U. pumila has lower E, light compensation point (LCP, dark respiration (Rd, Fv’/Fm’ and electron transport rate (ETR, with higher Ψ, apparent quantum yield (AQY, net photosynthetic rate (Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, which helps it maintain water balance and utilize weak light to survive at high altitude. Relative low WUE, Ψ, Rd, NPQ, with high E, Pn, Fv’/Fm’ and biomass, imply that P. cathayana is more suitable for shelterbelt forests than for a semi-arid habitat. These three species can adapt to high-altitude conditions by different physiological mechanisms and morphological characteristics, which can provide a theoretical basis for afforestation and forest management in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants at two remote locations: The Canadian High Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hang; Shen Li; Su, Yushan; Barresi, Enzo; DeJong, Maryl; Hung, Hayley; Lei, Ying-Duan; Wania, Frank; Reiner, Eric J.; Sverko, Ed; Kang, Shi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants (FRs) were monitored for approximately one year at two remote stations, namely Nam Co on the Tibetan Plateau and Alert in the Canadian High Arctic. BDE-47 and 99 were the dominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners at both sites. Atmospheric PBDE concentrations in Nam Co were generally lower than those at Alert. While significant seasonal variations were observed for PBDEs at Alert, the FR concentrations at Nam Co showed no significant seasonality, even though air masses originated from distinctly different regions during different seasons. This suggests that FRs in Tibet do not have regional sources, but are reflective of truly global background contamination. Three new FRs, namely 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), 2-ethyl-1-hexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTeBB) and bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) were detected at relatively high concentrations at both sites. This is the first report of these FRs in the remote global atmosphere and suggests significant potential for long-range atmospheric transport. - Highlights: ► First year-round measurements of FRs in the atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau. ► PBDEs in Tibet are reflective of truly global background levels. ► Orographic precipitation limits the transport of particle-bound chemicals. ► First study of BTBPE, EHTeBB and TBPH in the Arctic and Tibetan air. ► These new FRs may have significant long-range atmospheric transport potential. - Several brominated flame retardants (BTBPE, EHTeBB, TBPH) were present in the atmosphere of the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau at levels similar to those of the PBDEs.

  14. Black Carbon Concentrations from ~1850-1980 from a High-Resolution Ice Core from Geladandong, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-fuels, is estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming behind CO2; when deposited on snow and ice BC reduces albedos, potentially enhancing surface melt and glacial retreat. The study of BC's past and present variability is imperative in order to better understand and estimate its potential impact on climate and water resources. This is especially important in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, a region that provides fresh water to over a billion people and where BC's climatic effects are estimated to be the largest (Flanner et al., 2007; Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). To more accurately constrain BC's past variability in this sensitive region, an ice core recovered in 2005 from Mt. Geladandong (5800 m a.s.l.) on the central Tibetan Plateau was analyzed for BC at high resolution using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Results indicate that 1) average BC concentrations at this location are higher than at other locations closer to BC sources and analyzed by the same method (Mt. Everest by Kaspari et al., 2011 and Muztagh Ata by Wang et al., in prep), and 2) BC exists in peak concentrations high enough (>10 μg/L) to cause a >1% reduction in surface albedo at the sampling location (Ming et al., 2009; Hadley et al., 2010). Potential causes of the higher BC concentrations at the Geladandong site include lower annual precipitation and the mechanical trapping and concentration of BC caused by surface melt and/or sublimation (Conway et al., 1996; Huang et al., 2011). Preliminary dating (Grigholm et al., in prep) has dated the top of the core to ~1980, suggesting that annual mass loss at the site has removed the upper portion of the record. This supports the findings of Kehrwald et al. (2008) who reported that glaciers below ~6050 m a.s.l. in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau are losing mass annually. Presented here is the record of BC on the central Tibetan Plateau over the time

  15. Why Bolivians are talking about gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen, A

    1998-01-01

    The first hospital to offer no-scalpel vasectomy services in La Paz, Bolivia, introduced its program in 1996. However, over the course of 2 years, only 1 vasectomy was performed. Vasectomy services in La Paz are underutilized due to inadequate counseling, outreach, and use of educational materials. While the national health and population policy mandates the provision of comprehensive reproductive health care for both men and women, Bolivian men rarely seek health care services of any kind because most services are designed mainly for women and children. The only services offered to men are urology related, which focus upon screening for STDs, and workplace-related services, such as for factory workers and miners. Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) are exploring how to increase men's involvement in health care and family planning services. Men need to be made aware of gender issues related to reproductive and sexual health. The Centro de Investigacion Social Tecnologia Apropriada y Capacitacion (CISTAC), a Bolivian NGO which focuses upon research and training in health and social issues, plans to use research, training, and information dissemination to broaden the male role and identity in Bolivia, which will also affect men's access to and receipt of health care services. Toward that end, CISTAC and AVSC co-sponsored a workshop to teach health care program managers about the relationship between gender issues and men's involvement in reproductive health care.

  16. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  17. Impact of diurnal temperature range on mortality in a high plateau area in southwest China: A time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zan; Guo, Pi; Xie, Fang; Chu, Huifang; Li, Kun; Pu, Jingbo; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Hongli; Liu, Yahui; Pi, Fuhua; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-09-01

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator that reflects weather stability and is associated with global climate change and urbanization. Previous studies have explored the effect of DTR on human health in coastal cities with small daily temperature variations, but we have little evidence for high plateau regions where large DTRs usually occur. Using daily mortality data (2007-2013), we conducted a time-series analysis to assess the effect of DTR on daily mortality in Yuxi, a high plateau city in southwest China. Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate DTR effects on daily mortality, controlling for daily mean temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, day of the week, and seasonal and long-term trends. The cumulative effects of DTR were J-shaped curves for non-accidental, cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular mortality, with a U-shaped curve for respiratory mortality. Risk assessments showed strong monotonic increases in mortality starting at a DTR of approximately 16 °C. The relative risk of non-accidental morality with extreme high DTR at lag 0 and 0-21 days was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.11) and 1.33 (0.94-1.89), respectively. The risk of mortality with extreme high DTR was greater for males and age <75 years than females and age ≥75 years. The effect of DTR on mortality was non-linear, with high DTR associated with increased mortality. A DTR of 16 °C may be a cut-off point for mortality prognosis and has implications for developing intervention strategies to address high DTR exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thin Crust and High Crustal Vp/Vs beneath the Central Armenia Plateau of the Lesser Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, T. L.; Lin, C. M.; Huang, B. S.; Karakhanyan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Armenia volcanic highland is part of the Lesser Caucasus directly connected with the East Anatolian Plateau to the west and Iranian Plateau to the east. Abundant Quaternary volcanoes in Armenia are the youngest among those associated with post-collision of Arabia-Eurasian since Miocene ( 11 Ma). In this study, teleseismic receiver functions were analyzed from a temporary array to constrain the crustal structures under Armenia and the vicinity. The results show that the Moho depth is shallowest beneath central Armenia where the estimated crustal thickness is 32 km with high averaged crustal Vp/Vs of 1.8-2.0 using H-κ technique. The high crustal Vp/Vs is distributed in a wider area but thin crust is confined more locally around stratovolcano Aragats, whose last eruption was about 0.5 Ma. High crustal Vp/Vs value approaching to 2.1 is found near East of volcano Ghegam complex and NW of volcano Ararat with last dated ages of 0.5 and <0.1 Ma, respectively. Such high Vp/Vs (2.0) cannot be explained without high mafic content and the presence of partial melt in the crust. The 1-D velocity models inverted demonstrate that the partial melt is more likely in the low-velocity layer of the lower crust. To support the unusually thin crust in central Armenia, it requires additional thermal buoyancy in the uppermost mantle which is consistent with regionally low Pn velocity found in previous studies. We propose that the volcanism here is facilitated by the stretches of lithosphere.

  19. Atmospheric circulation over the Bolivian Altiplano during dry and wet periods and extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuille, M.

    1999-11-01

    The atmospheric circulation over the Bolivian Altiplano during composite WET and DRY periods and during HIGH and LOW index phases of the Southern Oscillation was investigated using daily radiosonde data from Antofagasta (Chile), Salta (Argentina), Lima (Peru) and La Paz (Bolivia), daily precipitation data from the Bolivian/Chilean border between 18° and 19°S and monthly NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis data between 1960 and 1998. In austral summer (DJF) the atmosphere during WET periods is characterized by easterly wind anomalies in the middle and upper troposphere over the Altiplano, resulting in increased moisture influx from the interior of the continent near the Altiplano surface. The Bolivian High is intensified and displaced southward. On the other hand, westerly winds usually prevail during DRY summer periods, preventing the moisture transport from the east from reaching the western Altiplano. Precipitation tends to be deficient over the western Bolivian Altiplano during LOW index summers and above average during HIGH and LOW+1 summers, but the relation is weak and statistically insignificant. LOW summers feature broadly similar atmospheric circulation anomalies as DRY periods and can be regarded as an extended DRY period or as a summer with increased occurrence of DRY episodes. HIGH summers, and to a lesser degree LOW+1 summers, are characterized by broadly opposite atmospheric characteristics, featuring a more pronounced Bolivian High located significantly further south, and easterly wind anomalies over the Altiplano. In winter (JJA) precipitation events are rare; these are associated with increased northerly and westerly wind components, reduced pressure and temperature, and increased specific humidity over the entire Altiplano. Atmospheric circulation anomalies during LOW periods are less pronounced in austral winter (JJA) than in summer, but generally feature similar changes (increased temperatures and a vertically

  20. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  1. Extraction of Terraces on the Loess Plateau from High-Resolution DEMs and Imagery Utilizing Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Terraces are typical artificial landforms on the Loess Plateau, with ecological functions in water and soil conservation, agricultural production, and biodiversity. Recording the spatial distribution of terraces is the basis of monitoring their extent and understanding their ecological effects. The current terrace extraction method mainly relies on high-resolution imagery, but its accuracy is limited due to vegetation coverage distorting the features of terraces in imagery. High-resolution topographic data reflecting the morphology of true terrace surfaces are needed. Terraces extraction on the Loess Plateau is challenging because of the complex terrain and diverse vegetation after the implementation of “vegetation recovery”. This study presents an automatic method of extracting terraces based on 1 m resolution digital elevation models (DEMs and 0.3 m resolution Worldview-3 imagery as auxiliary information used for object-based image analysis (OBIA. A multi-resolution segmentation method was used where slope, positive and negative terrain index (PN, accumulative curvature slope (AC, and slope of slope (SOS were determined as input layers for image segmentation by correlation analysis and Sheffield entropy method. The main classification features based on DEMs were chosen from the terrain features derived from terrain factors and texture features by gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM analysis; subsequently, these features were determined by the importance analysis on classification and regression tree (CART analysis. Extraction rules based on DEMs were generated from the classification features with a total classification accuracy of 89.96%. The red band and near-infrared band of images were used to exclude construction land, which is easily confused with small-size terraces. As a result, the total classification accuracy was increased to 94%. The proposed method ensures comprehensive consideration of terrain, texture, shape, and

  2. Changes in Moisture Flux over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yongxin; Cuo, Lan

    2015-05-15

    Net precipitation (precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P-E) changes between 1979 and 2011 from a high resolution regional climate simulation and its reanalysis forcing are analyzed over the Tibet Plateau (TP) and compared to the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) product. The high resolution simulation better resolves precipitation changes than its coarse resolution forcing, which contributes dominantly to the improved P-E change in the regional simulation compared to the global reanalysis. Hence, the former may provide better insights about the drivers of P-E changes. The mechanism behind the P-E changes is explored by decomposing the column integrated moisture flux convergence into thermodynamic, dynamic, and transient eddy components. High-resolution climate simulation improves the spatial pattern of P-E changes over the best available global reanalysis. High-resolution climate simulation also facilitates new and substantial findings regarding the role of thermodynamics and transient eddies in P-E changes reflected in observed changes in major river basins fed by runoff from the TP. The analysis revealed the contrasting convergence/divergence changes between the northwestern and southeastern TP and feedback through latent heat release as an important mechanism leading to the mean P-E changes in the TP.

  3. Changes in Moisture Flux Over the Tibetan Plateau During 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yongxin; Cuo, Lan

    2015-05-01

    Net precipitation (precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P-E) changes from a high resolution regional climate simulation and its reanalysis forcing are analyzed over the Tibet Plateau (TP) and compared to the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) product. The mechanism behind the P-E changes is explored by decomposing the column integrated moisture flux convergence into thermodynamic, dynamic, and transient eddy components. High-resolution climate simulation improves the spatial pattern of P-E changes over the best available global reanalysis. Improvement in simulating precipitation changes at high elevations contributes dominantly to the improved P-E changes. High-resolution climate simulation also facilitates new and substantial findings regarding the role of thermodynamics and transient eddies in P-E changes reflected in observed changes in major river basins fed by runoff from the TP. The analysis revealed the contrasting convergence/divergence changes between the northwestern and southeastern TP and feedback through latent heat release as an important mechanism leading to the mean P-E changes in the TP.

  4. Deforestation scenarios for the Bolivian lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests in South America play a key role in the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sinks, biodiversity conservation, and global climate regulation. In previous decades, Bolivian forests have mainly been deforested by the expansion of agricultural frontier development, driven by the growing demands for beef and other productions. In the mid-2000s the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party rose to power in Bolivia with the promise of promoting an alternative development model that would respect the environment. The party passed the world's first laws granting rights to the environment, which they termed Mother Earth (Law No. 300 of 2012), and proposed an innovative framework that was expected to develop radical new conservation policies. The MAS conservationist discourse, policies, and productive practices, however, have since been in permanent tension. The government continues to guarantee food production through neo-extractivist methods by promoting the notion to expand agriculture from 3 to 13 million ha, risking the tropical forests and their ecosystem services. These actions raise major environmental and social concerns, as the potential impacts of such interventions are still unknown. The objective of this study is to explore an innovative land use modeling approach to simulate how the growing demand for land could affect future deforestation trends in Bolivia. We use the LuccME framework to create a spatially-explicit land cover change model and run it under three different deforestation scenarios, spanning from the present-2050. In the Sustainability scenario, deforestation reaches 17,703,786 ha, notably in previously deforested or degraded areas, while leaving forest extensions intact. In the Middle of the road scenario, deforestation and degradation move toward new or paved roads spreading across 25,698,327 ha in 2050, while intact forests are located in Protected Areas (PAs). In the Fragmentation scenario, deforestation expands to almost

  5. A model for the “quasi” 60 K plateau in the YBa2Cu3O6+x high-Tc compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matic, V.M.; Lazarov, N.Dj.; Milic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A theoretical model for the chain-to-plane charge transfer process in YBCO has been expounded. ► Explained how the critical chain length parameter influences the behaviour of p(x) and T c (x) characteristics. ► The origin of the classic (horizontal) 60 K plateau in T c (x) is explained. ► The “quasi” 60 K plateau is explained in terms of increased orthorhombicity in recently produced YBCO samples. - Abstract: The 60 K plateau of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x high-T c superconducting compound has traditionally been known as a horizontal section in its T c (x) characteristics within which the critical temperature maintains at a constant level T c ≈ 60 K. However, recent experiments on a series of high quality single crystals samples of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x compound (produced by improved techniques of sample preparation) have shown the 60 K plateau does not manifest itself anymore as a horizontal section of the T c (x), but emerges as a section over which T c (x) keeps on continuously rising (the “quasi” 60 K plateau). Here we propose a theoretical model that explains how the classical (horizontal) 60 K plateau naturally evolves into the “quasi” 60 K plateau, due to the improved orthorhombicity in the high quality single crystal material accompanied by longer CuO chains. The model assumes that short CuO chains do not contribute to the hole transfer from chains to CuO 2 layers, but only chains whose length is greater than, or equal to, a certain threshold length l cr . Our calculations point to a conclusion that this minimal number of oxygen atoms in a CuO chain, that is required to trigger the hole transfer, is equal to four. The calculated values for T c (x) are in a very good correlation with the corresponding experimentally obtained results.

  6. Gene Flow Results in High Genetic Similarity Between Sibiraea (Rosaceae species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying closely related species and divergent populations provides insight into the process of speciation. Previous studies showed that the Sibiraea complex's evolutionary history on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP was confusing and could not be distinguishable on the molecular level. In this study, the genetic structure and gene flow of S. laevigata and S. angustata on the QTP was examined across 45 populations using 8 microsatellite loci. Microsatellites revealed high genetic diversity in Sibiraea populations. Most of the variance was detected within populations (87.45% rather than between species (4.39%. We found no significant correlations between genetic and geographical distances among populations. Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all individuals in the sympatric area of Sibiraea into one cluster and other individuals of S. angustata into another. Divergence history analysis based on the approximate Bayesian computation method indicated that the populations of S. angustata at the sympatric area derived from the admixture of 2 species. The assignment test assigned all individuals to populations of their own species rather than its congeneric species. Consistently, intraspecies were detected rather than interspecies first-generation migrants. The bidirectional gene flow in long-term patterns between the 2 species was asymmetric, with more from S. angustata to S. laevigata. In conclusion, the Sibiraea complex was distinguishable on the molecular level using microsatellite loci. We found that the high genetic similarity of these 2 species resulted from huge bidirectional gene flow, especially on the sympatric area where population admixtures between the species occurred.

  7. An EPAS1 haplotype is associated with high altitude polycythemia in male Han Chinese at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Chunhua; Luo, Yongjun; Liu, Fuyu; Gao, Yuqi

    2014-12-01

    Hemoglobin concentration at high altitude is considered an important marker of high altitude adaptation, and native Tibetans in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau show lower hemoglobin concentrations than Han people who have emigrated from plains areas. Genetic studies revealed that EPAS1 plays a key role in high altitude adaptation and is associated with the low hemoglobin concentration in Tibetans. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs13419896, rs4953354, rs1868092) of noncoding regions in EPAS1 exhibited significantly different allele frequencies in the Tibetan and Han populations and were associated with low hemoglobin concentrations in Tibetans. To explore the hereditary basis of high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) and investigate the association between EPAS1 and HAPC in the Han population, these 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed in 318 male Han Chinese HAPC patients and 316 control subjects. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting curve analysis. The G-G-G haplotype of rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092 was significantly more frequent in HAPC patients than in control subjects, whereas no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found between HAPC patients and control subjects. Moreover, genotypes of rs1868092 (AA) and rs4953354 (GG) that were not observed in the Chinese Han in the Beijing population were found at frequencies of 1.6% and 0.9%, respectively, in our study population of HAPC patients and control subjects. Carriers of this EPAS1 haplotype (G-G-G, rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092) may have a higher risk for HAPC. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HAPC in the Han population. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress analysis of the tibial plateau according to the difference of blade path entry in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Woo; Xin, YuanZhu; Yang, Seok Jo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Jong Hun; Panchal, Karnav; Kwon, Oh Soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been used to successfully treat patients with genu varus deformities that can improve mechanical function and condition in the knee joint. Clinical studies have reported that bow legs often occur with a concentrated load on the varus of the tibia. This study aimed to analyze and verify the clinical test data result by utilizing the three-dimensional (3D) static finite element method (FEM). The 3D model of lower extremities, which include the femur, tibia, meniscus, and knee articular cartilage, was created using the images from a computer tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. In this report, we compared changes in stress distribution and force reaction on the tibial plateau because of critical problems caused by unexpected changes in the tibial posterior-slope angle because of HTO. The results showed that the 5 .deg. wedge-angle virtual opening wedge HTO without and with the posterior-slope angle shows has a load concentration of approximately 60% and 45% in the medial region, respectively.

  9. Generation of µW level plateau harmonics at high repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädrich, S; Krebs, M; Rothhardt, J; Carstens, H; Demmler, S; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2011-09-26

    The process of high harmonic generation allows for coherent transfer of infrared laser light to the extreme ultraviolet spectral range opening a variety of applications. The low conversion efficiency of this process calls for optimization or higher repetition rate intense ultrashort pulse lasers. Here we present state-of-the-art fiber laser systems for the generation of high harmonics up to 1 MHz repetition rate. We perform measurements of the average power with a calibrated spectrometer and achieved µW harmonics between 45 nm and 61 nm (H23-H17) at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. Additionally, we show the potential for few-cycle pulses at high average power and repetition rate that may enable water-window harmonics at unprecedented repetition rate. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Plant recolonization in the Himalaya from the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Geographical isolation contributed to high population differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2010-09-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region (HHM) in the southern and southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is considered an important reservoir and a differentiation center for temperate and alpine plants in the Cenozoic. To reveal how plants responded to the Quaternary climatic oscillations in the QTP, the phylogeographical histories of a few subalpine and alpine plants have been investigated, but nearly all studies used only uniparentally inherited cytoplasmic DNA markers, and only a couple of them included sampling from the Himalaya. In this study, range-wide genetic variation of the Himalayan hemlock (Tsuga dumosa), an important forest species in the HHM, was surveyed using DNA markers from three genomes. All markers revealed genetic depauperation in the Himalaya and richness in the Hengduan Mountains populations. Surprisingly, population differentiation of this wind-pollinated conifer is very high in all three genomes, with few common and many private nuclear gene alleles. These results, together with fossil evidence, clearly indicate that T. dumosa recolonized the Himalaya from the Hengduan Mountains before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), accompanied with strong founder effects, and the influence of the earlier glaciations on demographic histories of the QTP plants could be much stronger than that of the LGM. The strong population differentiation in T. dumosa could be attributed to restricted gene flow caused by the complicated topography in the HHM that formed during the uplift of the QTP, and thus sheds lights on the importance of geographical isolation in the development of high plant species diversity in this biodiversity hotspot. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intensive precipitation observation greatly improves hydrological modelling of the poorly gauged high mountain Mabengnong catchment in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Hongbo; Scott, Christopher A.; Zeng, Chen; Shi, Xiaonan

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is one of the most critical inputs for models used to improve understanding of hydrological processes. In high mountain areas, it is challenging to generate a reliable precipitation data set capturing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity due to the harsh climate, extreme terrain and the lack of observations. This study conducts intensive observation of precipitation in the Mabengnong catchment in the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau during July to August 2013. Because precipitation is greatly influenced by altitude, the observed data are used to characterize the precipitation gradient (PG) and hourly distribution (HD), showing that the average PG is 0.10, 0.28 and 0.26 mm/d/100 m and the average duration is around 0.1, 0.8 and 5.2 h for trace, light and moderate rain, respectively. A distributed biosphere hydrological model based on water and energy budgets with improved physical process for snow (WEB-DHM-S) is applied to simulate the hydrological processes with gridded precipitation data derived from a lower altitude meteorological station and the PG and HD characterized for the study area. The observed runoff, MODIS/Terra snow cover area (SCA) data, and MODIS/Terra land surface temperature (LST) data are used for model calibration and validation. Runoff, SCA and LST simulations all show reasonable results. Sensitivity analyses illustrate that runoff is largely underestimated without considering PG, indicating that short-term intensive precipitation observation has the potential to greatly improve hydrological modelling of poorly gauged high mountain catchments.

  12. Relict Mountain Permafrost Area (Loess Plateau, China) Exhibits High Ecosystem Respiration Rates and Accelerating Rates in Response to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cuicui; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qian; Smoak, Joseph M.; Yang, Yulong; Hu, Lian; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Guimin; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tingjun

    2017-10-01

    Relict permafrost regions are characterized by thin permafrost and relatively high temperatures. Understanding the ecosystem respiration rate (ERR) and its relationship with soil hydrothermal conditions in these areas can provide knowledge regarding the permafrost carbon cycle in a warming world. In this study, we examined a permafrost area, a boundary area, and a seasonally frozen ground area within a relict permafrost region on the east edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Measurements from July 2015 to September 2016 showed that the mean annual ecosystem CO2 emissions for the boundary area were greater than the permafrost area. The Q10 value of the ERRs in the seasonally frozen ground area was greater than the permafrost area, indicating that the carbon emissions in the nonpermafrost areas were more sensitive to warming. The 1 year open-top chamber (OTC) warming increased soil temperatures in both the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas throughout the year, and the warming increased the ERRs by 1.18 (0.99-1.38, with interquartile range) and 1.13 (0.75-1.54, with interquartile range) μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas, respectively. The OTC warming increased annual ERRs by approximately 50% for both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas with half the increase occurring during the nongrowing seasons. These results suggest that the ERRs in relict permafrost are high in comparison with arctic regions, and the carbon balance in relict permafrost areas could be greatly changed by climate warming.

  13. Millimeter and submillimeter observations from the Atacama plateau and high altitude balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Mark

    2002-05-01

    A new generation of ground-based and sub-orbital platforms will be operational in the next few years. These telescopes will operate from high sites in Chile and Antarctica, and airborne platforms where the atmosphere is transparent enough to allow sensitive measurements in the millimeter and submillimeter bands. The telescopes will employ state-of-the-art instrumentation including large format bolometer arrays and spectrometers. I will discuss the results of our observations in the Atacama region of Chile (MAT/TOCO), our future observations on the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) now under construction, and our proposed Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). .

  14. Tuberculosis screening among Bolivian sex workers and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S. Chiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian sex workers were more likely than other employed women to report tuberculosis screening only if they reported HIV screening. Of all women with household tuberculosis exposure, <40% reported screening for themselves or their children. Coupling tuberculosis screening with sex workers’ mandatory HIV screenings may be a cost-efficient disease-control strategy.

  15. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  16. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly; Monrad, Jesper

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalences and intensities of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites in lamas in the Bolivian Andes. A quantitative and qualitative necro-copro-parasitlogical study was performed on 33 lamas between October and December 2007. At the time of necropsy t...

  18. High resolution bathymetric and sonar images of a ridge southeast of Terceira Island (Azores plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, N.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J.; Silva, I.; Goslin, J.; Ligi, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Terceira rift is a oblique ultra-slow spreading system where a transtensive regime results from differential movement between Eurasian and African plates. So far no classical ridge segmentation pattern has here been observed. The predominant morphological features are fault controlled rhombic shaped basins and volcanism related morphologies like circular seamounts and volcanic ridges. We present SIMRAD EM300 (bathymetry + backscatter) images acquired over one of these ridges located SE of Terceira Island, during the SIRENA cruise (PI J. Goslin), which complements previous TOBI mosaics performed over the same area during the AZZORRE99 cruise (PI M. Ligi). The ridge presents a NW-SE orientation, it is seismically active (a seismic crisis was documented in 1997) and corresponds to the southern branch of a V shape bathymetric feature enclosing the Terceira Island and which tip is located west of the Island near the 1998 Serreta ridge eruption site. NE of the ridge, the core of the V, corresponds to the North Hirondelle basin. All this area corresponds mainly to Brunhes magnetic epoch. The new bathymetry maps reveal a partition between tectonic processes, centred in the ridge, and volcanism present at the bottom of the North Hirondelle basin. The ridge high backscatter surface is cut by a set of sub-parallel anastomosed normal faults striking between N130º and N150º. Some faults present horse-tail terminations. Fault splays sometimes link to neighbour faults defining extensional duplexes and fault wedge basins and highs of rhombic shape. The faulting geometry suggests that a left-lateral strike slip component should be present. The top of the ridge consists on an arched demi-.horst, and it is probably a volcanic structure remnant (caldera system?), existing prior to onset of the tectonic stage in the ridge. Both ridge flanks display gullies and mass wasting fans at the base of the slope. The ridge vicinities are almost exclusively composed of a grayish homogeneous

  19. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants along a high-altitude aquatic food chain in the Tibetan Plateau: Processes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Chuanfei; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiruo; Yao, Tandong

    2017-01-01

    Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic. The composition profiles of POPs in the fish were different from that in the water, but similar to their food. DDEs, DDDs, PCB 138, 153 and 180 displayed significant positive correlations with trophic levels, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged between 1.5 and 4.2, implying these chemicals can undergo final biomagnification along food chain. A fugacity-based dynamic bioaccumulation model was applied to the fish with localized parameters, by which the simulated concentrations were comparable to the measured data. Modeling results showed that most compounds underwent net gill loss and net gut uptake; only when the net result of the combined gut and gill fluxes would be positive, bioaccumulation could eventually occur. The net accumulation flux increased with fish age, which was caused by the continuous increase of gut uptake by aged fish. Due to the oligotrophic condition, efficient food absorption is likely the key factor that influences the gut POPs uptake. Long residence times with half-lives up to two decades were found for the higher chlorinated PCBs in Gymnocypris namensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of altitude on the protein metabolism of Bolivian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Miguel Simron, J.L.; Berger, J.; Spielvogel, H.; Tellez Castellon, W.; Lujan Medina, C.; Caceres, E.

    1996-01-01

    The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and 13 CO 2 excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO 2 measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Effect of altitude on the protein metabolism of Bolivian children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel Simron, J L; Berger, J; Spielvogel, H; Tellez Castellon, W; Lujan Medina, C; Caceres, E [Instituto Boliviano de Boliviano de Biologia de Altura, La Paz (Bolivia). Dept. de Nutricion; Beaufrere, B; Gachons, P; Coudert, J [Laboratoire de Nutrition Humaine, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    1997-12-31

    The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO{sub 2} measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Autosomal and X chromosome Alu insertions in Bolivian Aymaras and Quechuas: two languages and one genetic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Esteban, Esther; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Rodríguez, Armando; Villena, Mercedes; Vasquez, René; Moral, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-two polymorphic Alu insertions (18 autosomal and 14 from the X chromosome) were studied in 192 individuals from two Amerindian populations of the Bolivian Altiplano (Aymara and Quechua speakers: the two main Andean linguistic groups), to provide relevant information about their genetic relationships and demographic processes. The main objective was to determine from genetic data whether the expansion of the Quechua language into Bolivia could be associated with demographic (Inca migration of Quechua-speakers from Peru into Bolivia) or cultural (language imposition by the Inca Empire) processes. Allele frequencies were used to assess the genetic relationships between these two linguistic groups. Our results indicated that the two Bolivian samples showed a high genetic similarity for both sets of markers and were clearly differentiated from the two Peruvian Quechua samples available in the literature. Additionally, our data were compared with the available literature to determine the genetic and linguistic structure, and East-West differentiation in South America. The close genetic relationship between the two Bolivian samples and their differentiation from the Quechua-speakers from Peru suggests that the Quechua language expansion in Bolivia took place without any important demographic contribution. Moreover, no clear geographical or linguistic structure was found for the Alu variation among South Amerindians. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Institutional violence towards Bolivian migrant woman. Marianism and mobility restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Maria Fuentes Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline some of the research results of a larger work which studies the Bolivian migration from a gender perspective, as well as the impact of the institutional practices that determine the transnational experience. In a global scene of restrictive rules concerning the human mobility, we notice how control and dominance strategies are present in ideologies and symbolic mechanisms. Women options in the migration process are trapped through them. We propose to recognize the symbolic and institutional violence that pressures migrants during their migration journey, focusing on understanding the ideological content — sexism and marianism — in which they are based on. We present an analysis of the instrumented ways of applying violence against Bolivian migrant women and its families from the social action practices implemented at origin and destination (transnational perspective.

  4. Tuberculosis screening among Bolivian sex workers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Silvia S; Paulus, Jessica K; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Newby, P K; Castellón Quiroga, Dora; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Antkowiak, Lara

    2015-06-01

    Bolivian sex workers were more likely than other employed women to report tuberculosis screening only if they reported HIV screening. Of all women with household tuberculosis exposure, <40% reported screening for themselves or their children. Coupling tuberculosis screening with sex workers' mandatory HIV screenings may be a cost-efficient disease-control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation on the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of Argos areas (Peloponnese, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, Ioannis L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, Athanasios; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of the Argos areas Achladokampos and Kinouria. By this experiment the interconnection of the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios river (Achladokampos) is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc. have been calculated. (author)

  6. Electrical conductivity of the plagioclase-NaCl-water system and its implication for the high conductivity anomalies in the mid-lower crust of Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Guo, Xinzhuan; Chen, Sibo; Wang, Chao; Yang, Junlong; Zhou, Xingfan

    2018-02-01

    In order to investigate the origin of the high conductivity anomalies geophysically observed in the mid-lower crust of Tibet Plateau, the electrical conductivity of plagioclase-NaCl-water system was measured at 1.2 GPa and 400-900 K. The relationship between electrical conductivity and temperature follows the Arrhenius law. The bulk conductivity increases with the fluid fraction and salinity, but is almost independent of temperature (activation enthalpy less than 0.1 eV). The conductivity of plagioclase-NaCl-water system is much lower than that of albite-NaCl-water system with similar fluid fraction and salinity, indicating a strong effect of the major mineral phase on the bulk conductivity of the brine-bearing system. The high conductivity anomalies of 10-1 and 100 S/m observed in the mid-lower crust of Tibet Plateau can be explained by the aqueous fluid with a volume fraction of 1 and 9%, respectively, if the fluid salinity is 25%. The anomaly value of 10-1 S/m can be explained by the aqueous fluid with a volume fraction of 6% if the salinity is 10%. In case of Southern Tibet where the heat flow is high, the model of a thin layer of brine-bearing aqueous fluid with a high salinity overlying a thick layer of partial melt is most likely to prevail.

  7. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Characterizations of wet mercury deposition on a remote high-elevation site in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Yongjie; Sun, Shiwei; Sun, Xuejun; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurements of wet mercury (Hg) deposition are critically important for the assessment of ecological responses to pollutant loading. The Hg in wet deposition was measured over a 3-year period in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) total Hg (HgT) concentration was somewhat lower than those reported in other regions of the Tibetan Plateau, but the VWM methyl-Hg concentration and deposition flux were among the highest globally reported values. The VWM HgT concentration was higher in non-monsoon season than in monsoon season, and wet HgT deposition was dominated by the precipitation amount rather than the scavenging of atmospheric Hg by precipitation. The dominant Hg species in precipitation was mainly in the form of dissolved Hg, which indicates the pivotal role of reactive gaseous Hg within-cloud scavenging to wet Hg deposition. Moreover, an increasing trend in precipitation Hg concentrations was synchronous with the recent economic development in South Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizations of wet mercury deposition on a remote high-elevation site in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Yongjie; Sun, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of wet mercury (Hg) deposition are critically important for the assessment of ecological responses to pollutant loading. The Hg in wet deposition was measured over a 3-year period in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) total Hg (Hg_T) concentration was somewhat lower than those reported in other regions of the Tibetan Plateau, but the VWM methyl-Hg concentration and deposition flux were among the highest globally reported values. The VWM Hg_T concentration was higher in non-monsoon season than in monsoon season, and wet Hg_T deposition was dominated by the precipitation amount rather than the scavenging of atmospheric Hg by precipitation. The dominant Hg species in precipitation was mainly in the form of dissolved Hg, which indicates the pivotal role of reactive gaseous Hg within-cloud scavenging to wet Hg deposition. Moreover, an increasing trend in precipitation Hg concentrations was synchronous with the recent economic development in South Asia. - Highlights: • The lowest Hg_T concentration in precipitation was found at Southeast Tibet Station. • MeHg concentration and wet deposition flux were among the highest at our study site. • Hg_D dominated the concentration and flux of Hg_T in wet Hg deposition. • A long-term increasing trend in the Hg_T concentration was found at our study site. - An increasing trend in the precipitation Hg concentrations was synchronous with the recent economic development in South Asia.

  10. Snow cover volumes dynamic monitoring during melting season using high topographic accuracy approach for a Lebanese high plateau witness sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Charbel; Somma, Janine; Elali, Taha; Drapeau, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and its negative impact on water resource is well described. For countries like Lebanon, undergoing major population's rise and already decreasing precipitations issues, effective water resources management is crucial. Their continuous and systematic monitoring overs long period of time is therefore an important activity to investigate drought risk scenarios for the Lebanese territory. Snow cover on Lebanese mountains is the most important water resources reserve. Consequently, systematic observation of snow cover dynamic plays a major role in order to support hydrologic research with accurate data on snow cover volumes over the melting season. For the last 20 years few studies have been conducted for Lebanese snow cover. They were focusing on estimating the snow cover surface using remote sensing and terrestrial measurement without obtaining accurate maps for the sampled locations. Indeed, estimations of both snow cover area and volumes are difficult due to snow accumulation very high variability and Lebanese mountains chains slopes topographic heterogeneity. Therefore, the snow cover relief measurement in its three-dimensional aspect and its Digital Elevation Model computation is essential to estimate snow cover volume. Despite the need to cover the all lebanese territory, we favored experimental terrestrial topographic site approaches due to high resolution satellite imagery cost, its limited accessibility and its acquisition restrictions. It is also most challenging to modelise snow cover at national scale. We therefore, selected a representative witness sinkhole located at Ouyoun el Siman to undertake systematic and continuous observations based on topographic approach using a total station. After four years of continuous observations, we acknowledged the relation between snow melt rate, date of total melting and neighboring springs discharges. Consequently, we are able to forecast, early in the season, dates of total snowmelt and springs low

  11. High-resolution OSL chronology of a sediment core from Lake Nam Co on the southern Tibetan Plateau: Comparison with radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Haberzettl, Torsten; Fuchs, Markus; Frechen, Manfred; Wang, Junbo

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies on lake sediment cores from the Tibetan Plateau aimed to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes of the late Glacial and Holocene monsoon variations, which are characterized by fluctuations in precipitation and expansion of monsoonal air masses across the Plateau. Accurate and reliable dating of lacustrine deposits is of crucial importance in both the reconstruction of palaeolake and palaeoclimate evolution and the understanding of the mechanisms for climate changes, especially abrupt changes of regional-hemispheric hydrological circulation. Radiocarbon dating is the most commonly used method for establishing chronologies of lake sediments. However, 14C dating of such sediments could be problematic due to the lack of organic matter or a reservoir effect, which appears common in radiocarbon dating of lacustrine sediments from the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, ca. 10.5 m long core (NC core) was retrieved from the water depth of 93 m at Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest saline lake in China, located on the southern Tibetan Plateau. For this core, high-resolution samples (23 samples) were obtained for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Quartz of fine-grain (4-11 μm) fraction were extracted from this samples for OSL dating, which is compared with the 14C chronology of NC core based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of bulk organic matter of 22 samples. The sample from the top of NC core was dated to approximate zero age, indicating the sediments bleached well before deposition. Luminescence behaviors of the study samples further confirmed the robustness of OSL ages. Comparison between OSL and 14C ages suggested that: (1) two kinds of ages are in agreement within error from top to 1.8 m, (2) from 1.8 m to the base of NC core, the 14C ages show a general trend to ca. 4 ka higher ages than the OSL ages. Although 14C dating overestimate the ages from 1.8 m to base, they still show the general trend in sedimentation rate

  12. Chagas disease study using satellite image processing: A Bolivian case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia I.; Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Mantari, Alicia Alva; Muñoz, Luis AnthonyAucapuma

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing is the technology that has enabled us to obtain information about the Earth's surface without directly contacting it. For this reason, currently, the Bolivian state has considered a list of interesting applications of remote sensing in the country, including the following: biodiversity and environment monitoring, mining and geology, epidemiology, agriculture, water resources and land use planning. The use of satellite images has become a great tool for epidemiology because with this technological advance we can determine the environment in which transmission occurs, the distribution of the disease and its evolution over time. In that context, one of the important diseases related to public health in Bolivia is Chagas disease, also known as South American Trypanosomiasis. Chagas is caused by a blood-sucking bug or Vinchuca, which causes serious intestinal and heart long term problems and affects 33.4% of the Bolivian population. This disease affects mostly humble people, so the Bolivian state invests millions of dollars to acquire medicine and distribute it for free. Due to the above reasons, the present research aims to analyze some areas of Bolivia using satellite images for developing an epidemiology study. The primary objective is to understand the environment in which the transmission of the disease happens, and the climatic conditions under which occurs, observe the behavior of the blood-sucking bug, identify in which months occur higher outbreaks, in which months the bug leaves its eggs, and under which weather conditions this happens. All this information would be contrasted with information extracted from the satellite images and data from the Ministry of Health, and the Institute of Meteorology in Bolivia. All this data will allow us to have a more integrated understanding of this disease and promote new possibilities to prevent and control it.

  13. Effect of altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufrere, B.; Gachon, P.; Boirie, Y.; San Miguel, J.L.; Maubois, J.L.; Coudert, J.

    1994-01-01

    Protein utilization during feeding is difficult to assess by classical tracer methodology, particularly under field conditions. We propose a new approach using the measurement of tracer recovery (expired 13 CO 2 ) after the ingestion of a single oral dose of a 13 C-leucine labelled milk protein. Protein will be obtained by infusing a cow with 13 C-leucine. The difference between the amounts of tracer given and recovered should be an index of protein utilization. Since altitude might influence protein absorption, this non-invasive method will be used in Bolivian children, living either at 3600 m (La Paz) or at sea level. (author). 14 refs

  14. Ecclesiastical architecture, topography, and religious communication in the Bolivian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Windus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the role of architecture, topography, and space for the religious communication and the creation of sacred space in the colonial Bolivian altiplano. It scrutinizes different forms and techniques of representation of Christian and Andean concepts in religious architectures, like churches and churchyards. Moreover, taking into account the case of the Andean town of Carabuco, its topographical characteristics, architectural artifacts and the representation of both in a visual source of the 17th century, it sheds new light on the processes of communication and appropriation of religious knowledge in a colonial contact zone.

  15. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano - linking geomorphology, erosion and spatial production patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia's Salar region with the intention to push agricultural development - with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production. Using Landsat images, SRTM elevations and field survey data, we investigate the relationship of field areas to erosion patterns and large-scale geomorphology. The soils of the southern Bolivian Altiplano are highly susceptible to particle entrainment due to a loose and sandy substrate, strong winds, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase in field density. Locally, this implied a reduction of fallowing length and the incorporation of marginal lands. The almost complete removal of natural (i.e. protecting) vegetation over large and continuous areas, results in increased wind erosion and partial crop failure. While production extended by approx. 1,6 % per year between 1985 and 2003, an average annual increase of 8,4 % could be observed for the last decade, when many new fields were established at lower elevations

  16. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  17. Quantifying modern erosion rates and river-sediment contamination in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ghielmi, Giacomo; Mondaca, Gonzalo; Resentini, Alberto; Villarroel, Elena Katia; Padoan, Marta; Gentile, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    We use petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical data on modern river sediments of the Tupiza basin in the Bolivian Andes to investigate the relationships among human activity, heavy-metal contamination of sediments and modern erosion rates in mountain fluvial systems. Forward mixing model was used to quantify the relative contributions from each main tributary to total sediment load of the Tupiza River. The absolute sediment load was estimated by using the Pacific Southwest Inter Agency Committee model (PSIAC, 1968) after two years of geological field surveys (2009; 2010), together with data obtained from the Instituto Nacional del Agua public authority (INA, 2007), and suspended-load data from Aalto et al. (2006). Our results indicate that the sediment yield in the drainage basin is 910 ± 752 ton/km2year and the mean erosion rate is 0.40 ± 0.33 mm/year. These values compare well with erosion rates measured by Insel et al. (2010) using 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bolivian river sediments. More than 40% of the Tupiza river load is produced in the upper part of the catchment, where highly tectonized and weathered rocks are exposed and coupled with sporadic land cover and intense human activity (mines). In the Rio Chilco basin strong erosion of upland valleys produce an increase of erosion (˜10 mm/year) and the influx of large amounts of sediment by mass wasting processes. The main floodplain of the Tupiza catchment represents a significant storage site for the heavy metals (˜657 ton/year). Fluvial sediments contain zinc, lead, vanadium, chromium, arsenic and nickel. Since the residence time of these contaminants in the alluvial plain may be more than 100 years, they may represent a potential source of pollution for human health.

  18. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...

  19. A 130 ka reconstruction of rainfall on the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C. J.; Quade, J.; Patchett, P. J.

    2013-02-01

    New efforts to link climate reconstructions from shoreline deposits and sediment cores yield an improved and more detailed lake history from the Bolivian Altiplano. On the Southern Altiplano, 10 lake oscillations have been identified from this new unified chronology, each coincident with North Atlantic cold events such as Heinrich Events H5, H2, H1, and the Younger Dryas. By coupling this new lake history to a hydrologic budget model we are able to evaluate precipitation variability on the Southern Bolivian Altiplano over the last 130 ka. These modeling efforts underscore the relative aridity of the Altiplano during the rare and small lake cycles occurring between 80 and 20 ka, when colder temperatures combined with little or no change in rainfall produced smaller paleolakes. Relative aridity between 80 and 20 ka contrasts with the immense Tauca lake cycle (18.1-14.1 ka), which was six times larger than modern Lake Titicaca and coincided with Heinrich Event 1. This improved paleolake record from the Southern Altiplano reveals a strong link between central Andean climate and Atlantic sea-surface temperature gradients during the late Pleistocene, even though today rainfall variability is driven mostly by Pacific sea-surface temperature anomalies associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. However, not all Heinrich Events appear to result in lake expansions, most conspicuously during the global cold interval between 80 and 20 ka when the Altiplano and Amazon Basin were relatively arid.

  20. Eastern Turkish high plateau as a small Turkic-type orogen: Implications for post-collisional crust-forming processes in Turkic-type orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Özeren, Mehmet Sinan; Keskin, Mehmet; Sakınç, Mehmet; Özbakır, Ali Değer; Kayan, İlhan

    Post-collisional magmatism may be generated by extensive crustal melting in Tibet-type collisional environments or by falling out of slabs from under giant subduction-accretion complexes in Turkic-type collisional orogens giving rise to decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle replacing the removed oceanic lithosphere. In Turkic-type post-collisional magmatism, the magmatic products are dominantly alkalic to peralkalic and greatly resemble those of extensional regions giving rise to much confusion especially in interpreting old collisional orogenic belts. Such magmatic regions are also host to a variety of economically valuable ore deposits, including gold. One place in the world where today active, Turkic-type post-collisional magmatism is present is the eastern Anatolian high plateau, produced after the terminal Arabia/Eurasia collision in the late Miocene. The plateau is mostly underlain by the late Cretaceous to Oligocene East Anatolian Accretionary Complex, which formed south of the Rhodope-Pontide magmatic arc. This subduction-accretion complex has been further shortening since the collision, but it has also since been domed and became almost entirely covered by at least 15,000 km 3 of volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkalic in the north, transitional in the middle, and alkalic in the south of the plateau. Where the crust is thinnest today (less than 38 km), the volcanics are derived almost entirely from an enriched mantle. The ages of the volcanics also become younger from north to south, from about 11 Ma to possibly 17th century AD. We interpret the origin of the magmatic rocks as the result of decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle sucked towards the exposed base of the East Anatolian Accretionary Complex as the oceanic lithosphere beneath it fell out. The lower density of the hot asthospheric material was the cause of the doming. We believe that similar processes dominated the post-collisional tectonics of such vast

  1. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  2. High-resolution Mapping of Permafrost and Soil Freeze/thaw Dynamics in the Tibetan Plateau Based on Multi-sensor Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Yi, Y.; Yang, K.; Kimball, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is underlain by the world's largest extent of alpine permafrost ( 2.5×106 km2), dominated by sporadic and discontinuous permafrost with strong sensitivity to climate warming. Detailed permafrost distributions and patterns in most of the TP region are still unknown due to extremely sparse in-situ observations in this region characterized by heterogeneous land cover and large temporal dynamics in surface soil moisture conditions. Therefore, satellite-based temperature and moisture observations are essential for high-resolution mapping of permafrost distribution and soil active layer changes in the TP region. In this study, we quantify the TP regional permafrost distribution at 1-km resolution using a detailed satellite data-driven soil thermal process model (GIPL2). The soil thermal model is calibrated and validated using in-situ soil temperature/moisture observations from the CAMP/Tibet field campaign (9 sites: 0-300 cm soil depth sampling from 1997-2007), a multi-scale soil moisture and temperature monitoring network in the central TP (CTP-SMTMN, 57 sites: 5-40 cm, 2010-2014) and across the whole plateau (China Meteorology Administration, 98 sites: 0-320 cm, 2000-2015). Our preliminary results using the CAMP/Tibet and CTP-SMTMN network observations indicate strong controls of surface thermal and soil moisture conditions on soil freeze/thaw dynamics, which vary greatly with underlying topography, soil texture and vegetation cover. For regional mapping of soil freeze/thaw and permafrost dynamics, we use the most recent soil moisture retrievals from the NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) sensor to account for the effects of temporal soil moisture dynamics on soil thermal heat transfer, with surface thermal conditions defined by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land surface temperature records. Our study provides the first 1-km map of spatial patterns and recent changes of permafrost conditions in the TP.

  3. Greenland plateau jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William Kent Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.

  4. The Pajarito Plateau: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.

    1993-01-01

    Pajarito Plateau is described as the high tableland that lies between the Jemez Mountains on the west and the Rio Grande on the east. From north to south, it extends from the Chama Valley to La Cañada de Cochiti (Hewett 1906:14)(Figure 1). Because human activity rarely stops at such definite boundaries, major ethnographic studies of Tewa (San Ildefonso and Santa Clara) and Keres (Cochiti) linguistic groups are included. (Even though most of the historic pueblos occupied by the Tewa and Keres are not located on the Pajarito Plateau, oral traditions and archaeological data suggest that these groups once occupied sites on the plateau.) Towa studies are not included because Steen believed Towa ancestors were not involved in major cultural developments of the Pajarito Plateau. In addition, a bibliography of the Jemez area (home of Towa people) has been prepared by Michael Elliott (1982) and included with his nomination of large Pueblo sites near Jemez Springs to the National Register of Historic Places that is on file at the Museum of New Mexico, Laboratory of Anthropology, in Santa Fe. Both Steen and Mathien included references to geographically and historically related material that does not focus on the Pajarito Plateau but, nonetheless, is important to understanding the area's archaeology and physical environment, for example, lithic resources available from Cerro Pedernal or in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

  5. Administration of triclabendazole is safe and effective in controlling fascioliasis in an endemic community of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fidel; Angles, René; Barrientos, René; Barrios, Gary; Valero, María Adela; Hamed, Kamal; Grueninger, Heiner; Ault, Steven K; Montresor, Antonio; Engels, Dirk; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. Schoolchildren from an endemic community were screened for fascioliasis and treated with a single administration of triclabendazole (10 mg/kg). Interviews to assess the occurrence of adverse events were conducted on treatment day, one week later, and one month after treatment. Further parasitological screenings were performed three months after treatment and again two months later (following a further treatment) in order to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Ninety infected children were administered triclabendazole. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. No serious adverse events were reported. Observed cure rates were 77.8% after one treatment and 97.8% after two treatments, while egg reduction rates ranged between 74% and 90.3% after one treatment, and between 84.2% and 99.9% after two treatments. The proportion of high-intensity infections (≥ 400 epg) decreased from 7.8% to 1.1% after one treatment and to 0% after two treatments. Administration of triclabendazole is a feasible, safe and efficacious public health intervention in an endemic community in the Bolivian Altiplano, suggesting that preventive chemotherapy can be applied to control of fascioliasis. Further investigations are needed to define the most appropriate frequency of treatment.

  6. Antagonism and Imaginaries of Plurality in Bolivian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Canelas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Bolivian cinema is living a period of great activity in a unstable identitarian landscape, wherein negotiations and conflicts between the different national subjectivities are no longer able to be represented within antagonistic patterns producing uniformity. Firstly, this article deals with Jorge Sanjinés’ Filmography in order to offer an explanatory hypothesis to answer why his last productions seem to have been less engaging for national identitarian dynamics. Secondly, an analysis of a series of short films by the Socavón Cine Collective will take place, so as to underline the most important political gestures displayed by their novel audiovisual rhetoric, which have managed to devise a language capable of a more acute examination of the identitarian plurality present in Bolivia.

  7. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity.A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity.Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet

  8. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and

  9. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-04-07

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport.

  10. [Mediator effect analysis of the trait coping style on job stress and fatigue of the military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Jia, J M; Tao, N; Song, Z X; Ge, H; Jiang, Y; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Tang, J H; Liu, J W

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) . Results: According to the information of different population characteristics, mean rank of physical fatigue about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-2.200, P fatigue scores about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-3.026, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-4.045, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-2.879, P fatigue scores about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-3.647, P fatigue scores were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group ( F =14.711, P fatigue ( r (s)=0.129) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.123) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.149) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.174) respectively, the score of organizational support lack strength were positively correlated with the score of physical fatigue ( r (s)=0.090) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.098) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.099) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.130) respectively. The mediator effect of negative coping style on the job stress and fatigue was 0.013 ( P fatigue statuses of the urban (town) group and the up or equal 20-years old age group are poor, and the negative coping style

  11. Climatology of Tibetan Plateau Vortices and connection to upper-level flow in reanalysis data and a high-resolution model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curio, Julia; Schiemann, Reinhard; Hodges, Kevin; Turner, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) and surrounding high mountain ranges constitute an important forcing of the atmospheric circulation over Asia due to their height and extent. Therefore, the TP impacts weather and climate in downstream regions of East Asia, especially precipitation. Mesoscale Tibetan Plateau Vortices (TPVs) are known to be one of the major precipitation-bearing systems on the TP. They are mainly present at the 500 hPa level and have a vertical extent of 2-3 km while their horizontal scale is around 500 km. Their average lifetime is 18 hours. There are two types of TPVs: the largest number originating and staying on the TP, while a smaller number is able to move off the plateau to the east. The latter category can cause extreme precipitation events and severe flooding in large parts of eastern and southern China downstream of the TP, e.g. the Yangtze River valley. The first aim of the study is to identify and track TPVs in reanalysis data and to connect the TPV activity to the position and strength of the upper-level subtropical jet stream, and to determine favourable conditions for TPV development and maintenance. We identify and track TPVs using the TRACK algorithm developed by Hodges et al. (1994). Relative vorticity at the 500 hPa level from the ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses are used as input data. TPVs are retained which originate on the TP and which persist for at least two days, since these are more likely to move off the TP to the East. The second aim is to identify TPVs in a high-resolution, present-day climate model simulation of the MetOffice Unified Model (UPSCALE, HadGEM3 GA3.0) to assess how well the model represents the TPV climatology and variability. We find that the reanalysis data sets and the model show similar results for the statistical measures of TPVs (genesis, track, and lysis density). The TPV genesis region is small and stable at a specific region of the TP throughout the year. The reason for this seems to be the convergence

  12. Impact of surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau on the western Pacific subtropical high: A land-air-sea interaction perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Sun, Ruizao; He, Jinhai

    2017-02-01

    The impact of surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau (SHTP) on the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) with and without air-sea interaction was investigated in this study. Data analysis indicated that SHTP acts as a relatively independent factor in modulating the WPSH anomaly compared with ENSO events. Stronger spring SHTP is usually followed by an enhanced and westward extension of the WPSH in summer, and vice versa. Numerical experiments using both an AGCM and a CGCM confirmed that SHTP influences the large-scale circulation anomaly over the Pacific, which features a barotropic anticyclonic response over the northwestern Pacific and a cyclonic response to the south. Owing to different background circulation in spring and summer, such a response facilitates a subdued WPSH in spring but an enhanced WPSH in summer. Moreover, the CGCM results showed that the equatorial low-level westerly at the south edge of the cyclonic anomaly brings about a warm SST anomaly (SSTA) in the equatorial central Pacific via surface warm advection. Subsequently, an atmospheric Rossby wave is stimulated to the northwest of the warm SSTA, which in turn enhances the atmospheric dipole anomalies over the western Pacific. Therefore, the air-sea feedbacks involved tend to reinforce the effect of SHTP on the WPSH anomaly, and the role of SHTP on general circulation needs to be considered in a land-air-sea interaction framework.

  13. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  14. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  15. Vertebrate Fossils Imply Paleo-elevations of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Wu, F.; Wang, S.; Hou, S.

    2017-12-01

    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau remains unclear, and its paleo-elevation reconstructions are crucial to interpret the geodynamic evolution and to understand the climatic changes in Asia. Uplift histories of the Tibetan Plateau based on different proxies differ considerably, and two viewpoints are pointedly opposing on the paleo-elevation estimations of the Tibetan Plateau. One viewpoint is that the Tibetan Plateau did not strongly uplift to reach its modern elevation until the Late Miocene, but another one, mainly based on stable isotopes, argues that the Tibetan Plateau formed early during the Indo-Asian collision and reached its modern elevation in the Paleogene or by the Middle Miocene. In 1839, Hugh Falconer firstly reported some rhinocerotid fossils collected from the Zanda Basin in Tibet, China and indicated that the Himalayas have uplifted by more than 2,000 m since several million years ago. In recent years, the vertebrate fossils discovered from the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas implied a high plateau since the late Early Miocene. During the Oligocene, giant rhinos lived in northwestern China to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, while they were also distributed in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent to the south of this plateau, which indicates that the elevation of the Tibetan Plateau was not too high to prevent exchanges of large mammals; giant rhinos, the rhinocerotid Aprotodon, and chalicotheres still dispersed north and south of "Tibetan Plateau". A tropical-subtropical lowland fish fauna was also present in the central part of this plateau during the Late Oligocene, in which Eoanabas thibetana was inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, during the Middle Miocene, the shovel-tusked elephant Platybelodon was found from many localities north of the Tibetan Plateau, while its trace was absent in the Siwaliks of the subcontinent, which implies that the Tibetan Plateau had

  16. Pre-Columbian Agriculture: Construction history of raised fields in Bermeo, in the Bolivian Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous

  17. Genetic diversity and sex-bias dispersal of plateau pika in Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Kexin; Li, Wenjing; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yanming

    2017-10-01

    Dispersal is an important aspect in organism's life history which could influence the rate and outcome of evolution of organism. Plateau pika is the keystone species in community of grasslands in Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we combine genetic and field data to character the population genetic pattern and dispersal dynamics in plateau pika ( Ochotona curzoniae ). Totally, 1,352 individual samples were collected, and 10 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Results revealed that plateau pika possessed high genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficient in a fine-scale population. Dispersal distance is short and restricted in about 20 m. An effective sex-biased dispersal strategy is employed by plateau pika: males disperse in breeding period for mating while females do it after reproduction for offspring and resource. Inbreeding avoiding was shown as the common driving force of dispersal, together with the other two factors, environment and resource. In addition, natal dispersal is female biased. More detailed genetic analyzes are needed to confirm the role of inbreeding avoidance and resource competition as ultimate cause of dispersal patterns in plateau pika.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Jha, S. W.; McCully, C.; Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II λ6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II λ6355 HVF fades by phase –5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of ∼12,000 km s –1 until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v ≈ 12,000 km s –1 with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v ≈ 31,000 km s –1 two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  19. Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N.N.; Farai, I.P.; Alausa, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to 226 Ra and 232 Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 μSv, 8.1 μSv and 8.8 μSv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 μSv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

  20. New law puts Bolivian biodiversity hotspot on road to deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Helle, Joose; Eklund, Johanna; Balmford, Andrew; Mónica Moraes, R; Reyes-García, Victoria; Cabeza, Mar

    2018-01-08

    In August 2017, the Bolivian government passed a contentious law downgrading the legal protection of the Isiboro-Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory (TIPNIS, for its Spanish acronym), the ancestral homeland of four lowland indigenous groups and one of Bolivia's most iconic protected areas. Due to its strategic position straddling the Andes and Amazonia, TIPNIS represents not only a key biodiversity hotspot in Bolivia, but one of the most biodiverse regions on Earth, harboring exceptional levels of endemism and globally important populations of megafauna, as well as protecting substantial topographic complexity likely to support both wildlife migration and species range shifts in response to climate change [1]. The new law, set to authorize the construction of a deeply-contested road through the core of the park, has reopened one of the highest profile socio-environmental conflicts in Latin America. Roads in tropical forests often lead to habitat conversion, and indeed within TIPNIS more than 58% of deforestation is concentrated 5 km or less away from existing roads. It, therefore, seems very likely that the planned road will magnify the current scale and pace of deforestation in TIPNIS, underscoring the urgent need for revisiting the road plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A population-based coprological study of human fascioliasis in a hyperendemic area of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Angles, R; Strauss, W; Aguirre, C; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-07-01

    The community of Chijipata Alta, at an altitude of 3850 m, near the southern coast of Lake Titicaca in the northern Altiplano of Bolivia, was surveyed for human fascioliasis. The global prevalence (66.7%) and intensity (eggs per gram of faeces--epg: range: 24-4440; arithmetic mean: 1001; geometric mean: 390) proved to be the highest known in the world by means of coprological techniques. These results suggest the existence of highly hyperendemic subzones among the large human fascioliasis-endemic zone of the Bolivian northern Altiplano. Despite the decrease in prevalence and intensity from children (75.0%, 24-4440 epg) to adults (41.7%, 144-864 epg), our findings show that in an hyperendemic zone adult subjects either maintain the parasites acquired when young or are newly infected as the consequence of inhabiting a zone of high infection risk.

  2. Interaction of CARD14, SENP1 and VEGFA polymorphisms on susceptibility to high altitude polycythemia in the Han Chinese population at the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Chunhua; Luo, Yongjun; Liu, Fuyu; Gao, Yuqi

    2016-03-01

    High altitude polycythemia (HAPC) is a serious public health problem among Han Chinese immigrants to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This study aims to explore the genetic basis of HAPC in the Han Chinese population. 484 male subjects (234 patients and 250 controls) were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was performed for polymorphisms of I/D in ACE, C1772T and G1790A in exon 12 of HIF-1α, rs2567206 in CYP1B1, rs726354 in SENP1, rs3025033 in VEGFA, rs7251432 in HAMP, rs2075800 in HSPA1L and rs8065364 in CARD14. Gene-gene interaction was assessed by multifactor dimensionality reduction. A significant association was seen between CARD14 polymorphism rs8065364 and risk of HAPC development in male Han Chinese, and the C allele of rs8065364 was a risk factor (odds ratio (OR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.21-2.08). Gene-gene interaction analysis indicated that a synergistic relationship existed between rs3025033 and rs8065364 (1.00%), rs3025033 and rs726354 (0.18%), and rs726354 and rs8065364 (0.17%). The combination of rs8065364 in CARD14, rs3025033 in VEGFA and rs726354 in SENP1 was the best model to predict HAPC development in this study (testing accuracy=0.6183, p=0.0010, cross-validated consistency=10/10). Genetic interactions of SNPs in CARD14, SENP1 and VEGFA might represent a functional mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding Sociocultural Factors Contributing to HIV Risk Among Ayoreo Bolivian Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Granero-Molina, José; Hernández-Padilla, Jose; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    2015-01-01

    The Bolivian indigenous Ayoreo ethnic people are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Ayoreo women who also work in sex trades belong to an extremely high-risk group, and prevention programs are not delivering effective outcomes for them. The aim of our study was to explore, describe, and understand behavioral and cultural patterns related to sexual and reproductive health in Ayoreo sex workers. A qualitative-ethnographic study was designed; data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with sex workers and key informants. Two fundamental themes contributing to HIV risk for female Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia emerged: reproductive/sexual freedom and sociocultural risk determinants. We concluded that the in-depth examination of the sexual-reproductive culture amongst the Ayoreo has provided useful information, which might contribute to the cultural adaptation and design of future policies and prevention programs for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in this group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  5. Loess Thickness Variations Across the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan

    2018-01-01

    The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.

  6. OPTIMAL SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VELOCITY POSTERIOR TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURE SUBLUXATIONS (DUPARC, REVISED CLASSIFICATION, GROUP – V: POSTERO - MEDIAL FRACTURE BY DIRECT, DORSAL APPROACH – A CHANGING TREND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhasaradhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : High - energy tibial plateau fractures are infrequent and technically demanding to treat especially if those are shearing type, coronal plane, displaced fractures. The most widely used the Schatzker system of classification , [1] ( B ased on the AP radiograph is more than likely to miss postero - medial and postero - lateral shear fractures, best visible on the lateral, than the AP radiograph. These fractures have recently been characterised by two studies, highlighti ng their clinical relevance [ 2,3] and showing that less invasive surgery and indirect reduction techniques are often inadequate. Hohl described unicondylar c oronal plane splitting fractures of the medial tibial plateau, noted that these injuries be considered as fracture - dislocations. Connolly and others have suggested that the mechanism involved in this fracture pattern is one of knee flexion, varus, and inter nal rotation of the medial femoral condyle . [4,5,6 ] Consistent among these and other authors is that the occurrence of this fragment is relatively unusual and that the use of a posteriorly based exposure with direct fracture visualization, anatomic reductio n and absolute stability appears to result in satisfactory outcomes. Though variations of a postero - medial approach been previously described ( by Trickey et al and also by Burks et al.,, more recently, Lobenhoffer et al described direct posterior exposure , Wang et al described postero - medial approach and Luo et al. described the approach for the management of posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures . [7,8] These approaches have been used in isolation or as a dual - incision approach for treating tibial plateau fractures . [9,10,11,12,13,14, 15] PURPOSE : The purpose of this study is to describe this unfamiliar direct posterior surgical (Medial Gastrocnemius approach to a general orthopod, highlighting the relevant anatomy and presenting our experience using this approach in treating a

  7. Soil formation in high elevation and permafrost areas in the Qinghai Plateau (China Edafogénesis en zonas elevadas y con permafrost en el Plateau Qunghai (China Formação do solo em áreas de elevada altitude e em ambientes"permafrost" do planalto de Qinghai Plateau (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Arocena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Soil systems continuously gain and lose matter and energy even in areas where climate is too harsh to support the higher plants such as in high elevations and in permafrost environments. The purpose of this paper was to elucidate soil formation at 4 700 m asl in the Kunlun Mountains of the Qinghai (Tibet Plateau, China. We collected twenty-six samples from three pedons developed on carbonate-rich slate and quartzitic-sandstone materials. The samples were analyzed for routine physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Our results indicate that soil-forming processes are barely taking place in the study site as shown by pH > 7.0 reflecting limited decarbonation, biological activity (< 1.0% total C and < 0.05% total N, podzolization (<1 g Fep+Alp kg-1 soil and lessivage. The relative amounts of mica and kaolinite show no apparent change with depth suggesting minimal transformation and translocation of phyllosilicates. The most noticeable mineral transformation resulted in micaceous “flakes” and feldspathic “fragments” possibly due to thermal stress. Calcite is also observed coating the slate fragments. The soils are classified as Cryosols in the World Reference Base system and Gelisols in the Soil Taxonomy with ochric epipedon as the only diagnostic horizon indicating recent development of soils due to cold and arid environment. The results of this study show that soil-forming processes in harsh environments are manifested in the mechanical breakdown of minerals such as mica and feldspars.

    Los sistemas edáficos ganan y pierden continuamente materia y energía incluso en zonas donde el clima es demasiado severo como para permitir el desarrollo de plantas superiores, como son las zonas de elevada altitud o los ambientes con permafrost. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la formación del suelo a una altitud de 4 700 m en las Monta

  8. Administration of Triclabendazole Is Safe and Effective in Controlling Fascioliasis in an Endemic Community of the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fidel; Angles, René; Barrientos, René; Barrios, Gary; Valero, María Adela; Hamed, Kamal; Grueninger, Heiner; Ault, Steven K.; Montresor, Antonio; Engels, Dirk; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. Materials and Methods Schoolchildren from an endemic community were screened for fascioliasis and treated with a single administration of triclabendazole (10 mg/kg). Interviews to assess the occurrence of adverse events were conducted on treatment day, one week later, and one month after treatment. Further parasitological screenings were performed three months after treatment and again two months later (following a further treatment) in order to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Results Ninety infected children were administered triclabendazole. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. No serious adverse events were reported. Observed cure rates were 77.8% after one treatment and 97.8% after two treatments, while egg reduction rates ranged between 74% and 90.3% after one treatment, and between 84.2% and 99.9% after two treatments. The proportion of high-intensity infections (≥400 epg) decreased from 7.8% to 1.1% after one treatment and to 0% after two treatments. Conclusion Administration of triclabendazole is a feasible, safe and efficacious public health intervention in an endemic community in the Bolivian Altiplano, suggesting that preventive chemotherapy can be applied to control of fascioliasis. Further investigations are needed to define the most appropriate frequency of treatment. PMID:22880138

  9. 75 FR 60159 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7189] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010... investigating, prosecuting, and punishing military and police personnel who have been credibly alleged to have...

  10. Teachers in a Bolivian Context of Conflict: Potential Actors for or against Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2009-01-01

    In response to exclusionary globalisation processes, Bolivia forms part of a wider Latin American return to regionalism and nationalism. With the indigenous president Morales, Bolivia distances itself from "imposed" neoliberal policies, aiming instead for "dignity and decolonisation". The Bolivian conflict is characterised by…

  11. Learning from the past: Trends and dynamics in livelihoods of Bolivian forest communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenteno, M.; Jong, de W.; Boot, R.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    We use social ecological systems theory (SES) to analyse change in forest communities in the northern Bolivian Amazon. SES characterizes interdependent dynamics of social and ecological systems and we hypothesized it to be a useful frame to grasp dynamics of forest communities affected by changes in

  12. Using Soil and Water Conservation Contests for Extension: Experiences from the Bolivian Mountain Valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) contests among farmer groups were organized in five rural villages in the Bolivian mountain valleys. The contests were aimed at quickly achieving widespread sustainable results. This article analyzes the effectiveness of these contests as an extension tool. Mixed

  13. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought

  14. "We Understand Better Because We Have Been Mothers": Teaching, Maternalism, and Gender Equality in Bolivian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender equality and…

  15. Boys Meet Girls' Rights: Bolivian Adolescent Males' Claims of Commitment to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study exploring the effects of community-based human rights and pro-equality education on Bolivian adolescent boys. By privileging the boys' own voices, the study examines how the boys' sense of solidarity toward others, derived from the citizenship duties and collegiality emphasised in non-governmental…

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized patients from the Bolivian Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bartoloni

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Overall, MRSA colonization in inpatients from the Bolivian Chaco was low. However, USA300-LV-related isolates were detected in colonization and infections, emphasizing the importance of implementing control measures to limit their further dissemination in this resource-limited area.

  17. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  18. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    Full Text Available Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can

  19. Collision-induced post-plateau volcanism: Evidence from a seamount on Ontong Java Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Takeshi; Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Shimizu, Kenji; Ishizuka, Osamu; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing; Senda, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hirahara, Yuka; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Goto, Kosuke T.; Ishikawa, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Many seamounts on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) occur near the Stewart Arch, a topographic high that extends parallel to the North Solomon Trench along the southern margins of the plateau. Despite the thick sediment cover, several volcanic cones with strong acoustic reflection were discovered on the submarine flank of the Nuugurigia Seamount. From such volcanic cones, basalts were successfully sampled by dredging. Radiometric dating of basalts and ferromanganese encrustation indicate eruption age of 20-25 Ma, significantly younger than the 122 Ma main OJP plateau and post-plateau basalts. The age range coincides with the collision of the OJP with the Solomon Arc. The Nuugurigia basalts geochemically differ from any other rocks sampled on the OJP so far. They are alkali basalts with elevated Sr, low Zr and Hf, and Enriched Mantle-I (EMI)-like isotopic composition. Parental magmas of these alkali basalts may have formed by small-degree melting of peridotitic mantle impregnated with recycled pyroxenite material having enriched geochemical composition in the OJP's mantle root. We conclude that small-volume alkali basalts from the enriched mantle root migrated through faults or fractures caused by the collision along the Stewart Arch to form the seamount. Our results suggest that the collision of the OJP with the Solomon arc played an important role in the origin of similar post-plateau seamounts along the Stewart Arch.

  20. Community exposure and vulnerability to water quality and availability: a case study in the mining-affected Pazña Municipality, Lake Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    French, Megan; Alem, Natalie; Edwards, Stephen J.; Blanco Coariti, Efraín; Cauthin, Helga; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Luyckx, Karen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Sánchez Miranda, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed t...

  1. Eocene Unification of Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano Basin Depocenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Sundell, K. E.; Perez, N.; Karsky, N.; Lapen, T. J.; Cárdenas, J.

    2017-12-01

    Paleogene evolution of the Altiplano basin has been characterized as a flexural foreland basin which developed in response to magmatic and thrust loading along its western margin. Research focused in southern Peru and Bolivia points to broadly synchronous foredeep deposition in a basin assumed to be have been contiguous from at least 14°-23°S. We investigated Paleogene strata exposed on the southwestern margin of Lake Titicaca near the Peru/Bolivia border in order to establish sediment dispersal systems, sediment sources, and the chronology of deposition. A data set of >1,000 paleocurrent measurements throughout the section consistently indicates a western sediment source. The results of detrital zircon mixture modeling are consistent with derivation from Cretaceous volcanic sources, and Cretaceous and Ordovician sedimentary strata exposed in the Western Cordillera. These results confirm previous models in which sedimentary sources for the Altiplano basin are dominated by the Western Cordillera throughout the Paleogene. The detrital zircon signatures from strata in this stratigraphic section where paleocurrent orientation is well constrained provide a benchmark for future research seeking to determine sediment sources for the Altiplano basin. However, refined chronologies based on detrital zircon U-Pb maximum depositional ages (MDAs) point to development of at least two Paleocene depocenters in Peru and Bolivia separated by a zone of nondeposition or erosion in southern Peru. The basal Muñani Formation in southern Peru yields MDAs of 36.9-40.2 Ma, which requires revision of the previously determined middle Paleocene onset of deposition. The Muñani Formation overlies the Vilquechico Group which has been biostratigraphically determined to range from Campanian-Maastrichtian (or possibly Paleocene, 60 Ma). The revised chronology for the Muñani Formation requires a disconformity of at least 20 Myr during which deposition continued in both the Peruvian and Bolivian

  2. From geopolitical borders to social boundaries. Bolivian migration through the Tarapacá press (1990-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Liberona Concha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationships between national and Bolivian populations in the Tarapacá border region from the perspective of interethnic relations. Our interest in these interactions is based on both the historical bond between the two populations and the conflict between the countries on each side of the Chilean-Bolivian border. The image of Bolivian immigration and media accounts of trends on the subject during the last 17 years as presented by La Estrella de Iquique newspaper are studied through a qualitative content analysis. Consequently, a permanent stigmatization of immigration in general and Bolivian immigration in particular was identified on the part of both the authorities and civil society. Nonetheless, a call for solidarity toward immigration and the need to understand the phenomenon is raised in opposition to the need for a new immigration law.

  3. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  4. Preisocalamendiol, Shyobunol and Related Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes from Bolivian Schinus molle Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Alexis; Mathieu, Michel; Levasseur, Virginie; Ovando, Jesús Flores; Escamilla, Ruben; Marceau, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Five batches of Bolivian Schinus molle essential oils were obtained from pilot and industrial-scale hydrodiffusions. They were analyzed by gas chromatography to find 80 known compounds and two unknown molecules. In particular, preisocalamendiol (5.6-11.0 %) was found to be an important constituent of these oils, along with shyobunol (0.6-3.2 %) and several other related oxygenated sesquiterpenes. These compounds, usually found in Acorus calamus, had not been reported altogether in S. molle essential oils previously. These findings, in light of the GABAA positive modulating effect of shyobunone and preisocalamendiol, along with some traditional uses of S. molle, suggest that further investigation of the tranquilizing properties of these Bolivian oils would be of interest.

  5. [Farmer's perception and adaptation intention for climate change in high-cold eco-fragile region: A case of Gannan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Yan; Xue, Bing

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide reference for formulating the effective policies of climate change, we selected Ganan Plateau located in the eastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as the study area, and used the farmer's investigation data to analyze the impact of the farmers' perception of climate change on their adaptation indention. The results showed that the farmer's severity perception of climate change declined from the pure agriculture household to the household with combined occupation, and to the non-agriculture household, but the farmer's adaptation efficacy perception was vice versa. Moreover, all of the perceived probability, self-efficacy and adaptation cost of the household with combined occupation were highest, those of the non-agriculture household were the second place and those of the pure agriculture household were the lowest. The farmer's positive adaptation indention of climate change increased from the pure agriculture household to the household with combined occupation, and to the non-agriculture household. Increasing the perceived risk and adaptation efficacy would promote the farmer's positive adaptation intention, but increasing the perceived adaptation cost would promote the farmers' passive adaptation intention. Meanwhile, the more the farmer's agricultural acreage, livestock, income and optimistic degree were, the stronger the farmer's positive adaptation intention was; But the more the farmers' fixed capital, unpaid cash assistance opportunities, relative number and the number of people offering help were, the weaker the farmers' positive adaptation intention was. Finally, we pointed out the measures of promoting the positive adaptation intention and the problems on which we should focus in the future research.

  6. Culture-bound syndromes in migratory contexts: the case of Bolivian immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Roldán-Chicano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the culture-bound syndromes maintained by Bolivian immigrants in the new migratory context and analyze the care processes of these health problems. Method: qualitative research with an ethnographic methodological approach. Sample: 27 Bolivian immigrants. In-depth interviews and participatory observation were the strategies used for data collection. Data were classified and categorized into logical schemes manually and using the ATLAS-ti program v.5. Results: susto, “wayras”, amartelo, pasmo de sol, pasmo de luna and pasmo de sereno are some of the folk illnesses that affect the Bolivian immigrants and that they have to treat in the new migratory context. Conclusions: in the new environment, the group under study preserves culture-bound syndromes that are common in their country of origin. The care strategies used for these health problems are adapted to the resources of the new context and based on interactions with the domestic environment, biomedicine and traditional medicine. It was observed the need for the health professionals to realize that the efficacy of certain therapies occurs within the scope of cultural beliefs and not in that of the scientific evidence.

  7. Changing Precipitation Patterns or Waning Glaciers? Identifying Water Supply Vulnerabilities to Climate Change in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z. S.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Bolivian Andes have become an iconic example for the impacts of climate change. Glaciers are rapidly melting and some have already completely disappeared. More than 75 percent of the water consumed by 2 million people living on the flanks of the Bolivian Andes comes from mountains and it is often cited that the dwindling ice threatens the water supply of the expanding and destitute population living in the twin cities of La Paz and El Alto. However, the wet and the warm seasons and the cold and dry seasons coincide, causing high precipitation and ice melt—and therefore high streamflows—to occur only in the austral summer (October-March); during the austral winter, cold conditions limit glacier melt. This suggests that reductions in the water supply could be influenced more by changing precipitation amounts than continued glacial mass-wasting. We hypothesize that precipitation is the principal component of groundwater recharge for the aquifers at the base of the central Cordillera Real. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from rivers partially fed by glaciers, groundwater, and glacial melt water can help determine the relative contribution of precipitation and glacial melt to important water supplies. During the dry season in August 2010, we sampled 23 sites that follow the flow path of water in the Condiriri watershed, beginning in the glacial headwaters and ending several kilometers upriver from Lake Titicaca. We collected five samples at the toe of the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier and four samples from three tributary rivers that drain glaciated headwaters, which include meltwater from the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier. W also collected 14 water samples from shallow and deep wells in rural communities within 40 kilometers of the glaciers. If the isotopic values of groundwater are similar to rain values, as we suspect, precipitation is likely the largest contributor to groundwater resources in the region and will suggest that changing precipitation patterns present the

  8. Paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Bolivian Andes from oxygen isotope analysis of lake sediment cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.B.; Aravena, R.; Gibson, J.J.; Abbott, M.B.; Seltzer, G.O.

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose-inferred lake water δ 18 O (δ 18 O lw ) records from Lago Potosi, a seasonally-closed lake in a watershed that is not currently glaciated, and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota, an overflowing lake in a glaciated watershed, provide the basis for late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Bolivian Andes. Deconvolution of the histories of changing evaporative isotopic enrichment from source water δ 18 O in the lake sediment records is constrained by comparison to the Sajama ice core oxygen isotope profile. At Lago Potosi, the δ 18 O lw record appears to be dominantly controlled by evaporative 18 O-enrichment, reflecting shifts in local effective moisture. Using an isotope-mass balance model, a preliminary quantitative reconstruction of summer relative humidity spanning the past 11,500 cal yr is derived from the Lago Potosi Π 18 O lw record. Results indicate that the late Pleistocene was moist with summer relative humidity values estimated at 10-20% greater than present. Increasing aridity developed in the early Holocene with maximum prolonged dryness spanning 7500 to 6000 cal yr BP at Lago Potosi, an interval characterized by summer relative humidity values that may have been 20% lower than present. Highly variable but dominantly arid conditions persist in the mid- to late Holocene, with average summer relative humidity values estimated at 15% below present, which then increase to about 10-20% greater than present by 2000 cal yr BP. Slightly more arid conditions characterize the last millennium with summer relative humidity values ranging from 5-10% lower than present. Similar long-term variations are evident in the Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota δ 18 O lw profile, except during the early Holocene when lake water evaporative 18 Oenrichment in response to low relative humidity appears to have been offset by enhanced inflow from 18 O-depleted snowmelt or groundwater from the large catchment. Close correspondence occurs between the isotope

  9. Organizational restructuring and career plateauing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Paffen; Hans Timmermans

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a flexibility program for plateaued professionals in a technical Dutch firm operating in the consultancy sector we will refer to with the pseudonym Greentree Corp. First, we will discuss the impact reorganization had on job-requirements and career opportunities for technical

  10. Unraveling the microRNA of Caragana korshinskii along a precipitation gradient on the Loess Plateau, China, using high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Ning

    Full Text Available Drought remains one of the main factors that negatively affect plant growth and development. Caragana korshinskii is widely distributed on the Loess Plateau, China, where it mediates soil and water loss and helps prevent desertification. However, little is known about the stress response mechanisms of C. korshinskii in water-starved environments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several types of biotic and abiotic stress. Here, we describe the miRNAs of wild C. korshinskii from Huangling, Yulin, and Dalad Banner, which occur along a precipitation gradient. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we obtained a total of 13 710 681, 15 048 945, and 15 198 442 reads for each location, respectively; after filtering and BLAST analysis, 490 conserved miRNAs and 96 novel miRNAs were characterized from the sRNAome data, with key functions determined using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses. We also designed stem-loop qRT-PCR to validate the expression patterns of 5 conserved miRNAs (miR390, miR398, miR530, miR2119, and miR5559 that obviously responded to water stress in plants grown both under natural and experimental water stress conditions and found that the expression levels of miR2119 and miR5559 were negatively correlated with their predicted target genes. This study is the first to identify miRNAs from wild C. korshinskii and provides a basis for future studies of miRNA-mediated gene regulation of stress responses in C. korshinskii.

  11. Hexabromocyclododecane in alpine fish from the Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Nali; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) has just been listed into Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant recently. This paper studied the HBCDs in 79 wild fish from high mountain lakes and rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. The ∑HBCDs in fish muscles ranged from non detectable levels to 13.7 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (mean value of 2.12 ng/g lw) with a high detection frequency of 65.8%. α-HBCD dominated among the isomers and accounted for 78.2% of the total burden. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs in the fish were significantly correlated with the lipid content . A decreasing trend was observed between α-HBCD and trophic level. Positive correlation was also noted between the HBCD levels in fish from lakes and the annual precipitation, and this implied the long-range atmospheric transport of HBCDs to the Tibet Plateau. This was the first work to widely explore HBCDs contamination in the aquatic ecosystems of the Tibetan Plateau. -- Highlights: •HBCDs were ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau. •α-HBCD showed a negative correlation with TL in the Lhasa River aquatic food web. •Concentrations of ∑HBCD were significantly correlated with lipid contents of fish. -- HBCD was ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau, and its concentration was significantly correlated with lipid content

  12. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  13. Malnutrition-related early childhood exposures and enamel defects in the permanent dentition: A longitudinal study from the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Erin E; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Conde, Esther; Hujoel, Philippe P

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between early childhood malnutrition-related measures and subsequent enamel defects in the permanent dentition. This cohort study included 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years, 52% male) from the Bolivian Amazon. Exposures included: stunted growth (height-for-age z-scores), underweight (weight-for-age z-scores), anemia (hemoglobin), acute inflammation (C-reactive protein) and parasitic infection (hookworm). We measured the occurrence (no/yes) and extent (2/3) of enamel defects. We estimated associations between childhood exposures and enamel defect measures using log-binomial and multinomial logistic regression. The prevalence of an enamel defect characterized by an orange peel texture on a large central depression on the labial surface of the central maxillary incisors was 92.3%. During childhood (1-4 years), participants had a high prevalence of stunted growth (75.2%), anemia (56.9%), acute inflammation (39.1%), and hookworm infection (49.6%). We observed associations between childhood height-for-age (OR = 0.65; P = 0.028 for >2/3 extent vs. no EH) and gastrointestinal hookworm infection (OR = 3.43; P = 0.035 for >2/3 extent vs. no defects or malnutrition-related measures in early childhood, including stunted growth and parasitic helminth infection, with the observed enamel defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Origin of Bolivian Quechua Amerindians: their relationship with other American Indians and Asians according to HLA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Siles, Nancy; Moscoso, Juan; Zamora, Jorge; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; R-A-Cachafeiro, Juan I; Castro, Maria J; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The Incas were Quechua-speaking people who settled down near Cuzco (Peru). They had an empire ranging from Ecuador to Chile, when Spanish conquerors seized their kingdom around 1532 AD. Nowadays, Quechua-speaking people inhabits Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina; however, Quechua language was imposed by both Incas and Spaniards to many non-Quechua speaking communities. We have taken a sample of Quechuan Bolivian blood donors from La Paz (Titicaca Lake region) where Inca-Quechuas themselves believed that came from. This group was compared with 6892 individuals from 68 different world populations regarding HLA/DNA allele frequencies distribution. Genetic distances, dendrograms and correspondence analyses were carried out in order to establish relationships among populations. The main conclusions are: (1) DRB1 and -DQB1 haplotypes shared with Asians are found in Quechuas and are not observed in other (Mesoamerican) Amerindians. (2) Aymara-speaking people from the same Titicaca Lake (La Paz) area shows close genetic distances with Quechuas in one dimension results (genetic distances); however, their HLA gene frequency distribution differs according to Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees and correspondence analysis (multidimensional and more reliable analyses). Also, the common high frequency Asian and Athabascan HLA-DRB1*0901 allele is found in Quechuas in a significant frequency. Quechuas are clearly included within the Amerindian group.

  15. [Immigrants from across the border in Tandil: Chileans and Bolivians in the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M G

    1997-12-01

    "This article deals with [the] settlement of immigrants from Chile and Bolivia in a town in the province of Buenos Aires [Argentina], far away from the borders and from the metropolitan area. Although underrepresented when compared with the overall percentage of immigrants from those two countries in Argentina, the interest of this case lies in the possibility of understanding settlement of new immigrants in dynamic areas of the country. Chilean immigrants live in Tandil in greater number than Bolivian immigrants, but are also older. Though a certain mobility is not unknown, they usually hold low skilled jobs and are only by exception granted social security and medical insurance." (EXCERPT)

  16. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  17. Mineralogy and geochemistry of vanadium in the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, A.D.

    1961-01-01

    The chief domestic source of vanadium is uraniferous sandstone in the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium is 3-, 4-, or 5-valent in nature and, as oxides or combined with other elements, it forms more than 40 minerals in the Plateau ores. These ores have been studied with regard to the relative amounts of vanadium silicates and oxide-vanadates, uranium-vanadium ratios, the progressive oxidation of black low-valent ores to high-valent carnotite-type ores, and theories of origin. ?? 1961.

  18. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  19. Fire, climate and vegetation linkages in the Bolivian Chiquitano seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M J; Whitney, B S; Mayle, F E; Neves, D M; de Boer, E J; Maclean, K S

    2016-06-05

    South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are critically endangered, with only a small proportion of their original distribution remaining. This paper presents a 12 000 year reconstruction of climate change, fire and vegetation dynamics in the Bolivian Chiquitano SDTF, based upon pollen and charcoal analysis, to examine the resilience of this ecosystem to drought and fire. Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between climate, fire and floristic composition over multi-millennial time scales, and reveals that moisture variability is the dominant control upon community turnover in this ecosystem. Maximum drought during the Early Holocene, consistent with regional drought reconstructions, correlates with a period of significant fire activity between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP which resulted in a decrease in SDTF diversity. As fire activity declined but severe regional droughts persisted through the Middle Holocene, SDTFs, including Anadenanthera and Astronium, became firmly established in the Bolivian lowlands. The trend of decreasing fire activity during the last two millennia promotes the idea among forest ecologists that SDTFs are threatened by fire. Our analysis shows that the Chiquitano seasonally dry biome has been more resilient to Holocene changes in climate and fire regime than previously assumed, but raises questions over whether this resilience will continue in the future under increased temperatures and drought coupled with a higher frequency anthropogenic fire regime.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. The Wiphala Genomics: the deployment of molecular markers in small-scale potato crop systems in the Bolivian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente, D.

    2008-01-01

    The deployment of molecular markers in the small-scale potato systems in the Bolivian Andes takes place within two contradictory understandings of potato biodiversity. On the one hand, biodiversity is understood as raw material; farmers' varieties have no intrinsic value, value is added by breeders

  1. Machismo and Mamitas at school: exploring the agency of teachers for social gender justice in Bolivian education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Sawyer, J.; Talavera Simoni, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Bolivia’s society and education system have been characterised by marginalisation based on poverty, ethnicity and gender. The central objective of the Morales government is to redress this imbalance and create a society inclusive of all Bolivians so that they can ‘live well’. Our

  2. Associations of maternal o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE levels with birth outcomes in a Bolivian cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrebola, Juan P.; Cuellar, Miriam; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential association of maternal serum levels of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with gestation time and with anthropometric measurements and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of newborns in a Bolivian birth cohort. Two hundred mothers were consecutively recruited between Ja...

  3. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  4. Threshold friction velocity of soils within the Columbia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion only occurs when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (TFV) of the surface. The TFV of loessial soils commonly found across the Columbia Plateau region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is virtually unknown even though these soils are highly erodible and a source of...

  5. PLATEAU IRIS SYNDROME--CASE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  6. Functional-trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew T; Badingqiuying; Wilson, Maxwell C; Hogan, Brigitte W

    2018-01-09

    Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems. Plateau pikas have been poisoned over a significant part of their original geographic distribution across the QTP, allowing comparison of ecological communities with and without pikas. Nearly all mammalian and avian carnivores, most of which are obligate predators on pikas, have been lost in regions where pikas have been poisoned. Most endemic birds on the QTP nest in pika burrows; when pikas are poisoned, burrows collapse, and these birds are greatly reduced in number. Due to the biopedturbation resulting from their burrows, regional plant species richness is higher in areas with pikas than without. The presence of pika burrows allows higher rates of infiltration during heavy monsoon rains compared to poisoned areas, possibly mitigating runoff and the potential for serious downslope erosion and flooding. Thus the functional traits of plateau pikas enhance native biodiversity and other important ecosystem functions; these traits are irreplaceable. As plateau pikas are not natural colonizers, active re-introduction programs are needed to restore pikas to areas from which they have been poisoned to restore the important functional ecological traits of pikas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Iceberg incursions across Campbell Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcote, L.; Neil, H.; Carter, L.

    1999-01-01

    The last reported sighting of icebergs off eastern New Zealand was on 28th October, 1892, at the Chatham Islands. Prior to that time, the SW Pacific Ocean periodically hosted flotillas of icebergs, as revealed by a palaeoceanographic analysis of 8 cores from the Campbell Plateau. Stable isotope stratigraphy, coupled with down-core measurements of magnetic susceptibility, grain size, calcium carbonate and ice-rafted debris, highlight climate-related fluctuations in iceberg activity back to at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 - our longest complete record. (author)

  8. The genetic legacy of the pre-colonial period in contemporary Bolivians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Heinz, Tanja; Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Pastoriza, Ana; Carracedo, Angel; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs). Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4%) were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%), with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]). Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ∼21.4 thousand years ago [kya]), A2ah (∼5.2 kya), and B2o (∼2.6 kya). The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded), moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ∼15.2 kya), and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) reveal a higher (although geographically variable) European introgression in Bolivians (25%). Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to the

  9. The genetic legacy of the pre-colonial period in contemporary Bolivians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Taboada-Echalar

    Full Text Available Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (prehistorical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs. Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4% were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%, with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]. Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ∼21.4 thousand years ago [kya], A2ah (∼5.2 kya, and B2o (∼2.6 kya. The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded, moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ∼15.2 kya, and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs reveal a higher (although geographically variable European introgression in Bolivians (25%. Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to

  10. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  11. Uranium indicator plants of the Colorado plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massingill, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods of botanical prospecting for uranium deposits have been applied on the Colorado Plateau. The first, based on a chemical analysis of deep-rooted plants that absorb uranium from ore bodies, detects small but measurable amounts of the element in plants rooted in ore. A second method involves mapping the distribution of indicator plants because these plants are dependent--either directly or indirectly--upon the presence of abnormally high levels of elements in the parent soil or rock. Botanical prospecting studies made in ten districts have been productive. In the Thompson district, Grand County, Utah, five ore bodies were found solely on the basis of indicator plant data. 15 refs

  12. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Satellite precipitation estimation over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, F.; Gjoka, U.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau are very little known, given the scarcity of reliable and widely distributed ground observation, thus the satellite approach is a valuable choice for large scale precipitation analysis and hydrological cycle studies. However,the satellite perspective undergoes various shortcomings at the different wavelengths used in atmospheric remote sensing. In the microwave spectrum often the high soil emissivity masks or hides the atmospheric signal upwelling from light-moderate precipitation layers, while low and relatively thin precipitating clouds are not well detected in the visible-infrared, because of their low contrast with cold and bright (if snow covered) background. In this work an IR-based, statistical rainfall estimation technique is trained and applied over the Tibetan Plateau hydrological basin to retrive precipitation intensity at different spatial and temporal scales. The technique is based on a simple artificial neural network scheme trained with two supervised training sets assembled for monsoon season and for the rest of the year. For the monsoon season (estimated from June to September), the ground radar precipitation data for few case studies are used to build the training set: four days in summer 2009 are considered. For the rest of the year, CloudSat-CPR derived snowfall rate has been used as reference precipitation data, following the Kulie and Bennartz (2009) algorithm. METEOSAT-7 infrared channels radiance (at 6.7 and 11 micometers) and derived local variability features (such as local standard deviation and local average) are used as input and the actual rainrate is obtained as output for each satellite slot, every 30 minutes on the satellite grid. The satellite rainrate maps for three years (2008-2010) are computed and compared with available global precipitation products (such as C-MORPH and TMPA products) and with other techniques applied to the Plateau area: similarities and differences are

  14. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O.; Romero Bolaños, L.E.; Ramírez Ávila, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests

  15. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O. [Centro de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Nucleares (CIAN-Viacha), Viacha (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Romero Bolaños, L.E. [Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnología Nuclear Av. 6 de Agosto 2905, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Ramírez Ávila, G.M., E-mail: gramirez@ulb.ac.be [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Campus Universitario Cota Cota, Casilla 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-06-15

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  16. Exploring perceptions and experiences of Bolivian health researchers with research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Aalborg, Annette; Basagoitia, Armando; Cortes, Jacqueline; Lanza, Oscar; Schwind, Jessica S

    2015-04-01

    In Bolivia, there is increasing interest in incorporating research ethics into study procedures, but there have been inconsistent application of research ethics practices. Minimal data exist regarding the experiences of researchers concerning the ethical conduct of research. A cross-sectional study was administered to Bolivian health leaders with research experience (n = 82) to document their knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of research ethics committees and infrastructure support for research ethics. Results showed that 16% of respondents reported not using ethical guidelines to conduct their research and 66% indicated their institutions did not consistently require ethics approval for research. Barriers and facilitators to incorporate research ethics into practice were outlined. These findings will help inform a comprehensive rights-based research ethics education program in Bolivia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Indigenous Tourism and Social Entrepreneurship in the Bolivian Amazon: Lessons from San Miguel del Bala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Peredo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of community-based ecotourism is contingent upon the community’s involvement in the development and management of activities, as well as their access to and the comprehensiveness of benefits. The ecotourism business owned by the Tacana Indigenous community of San Miguel in the Bolivian Amazon provides a model as to how Indigenous communities can harness social entrepreneurship to address economic, social, and environmental challenges. This article reviews the origins and development of this business, and draws on participant observation research, interviews, surveys, and economic analysis to illustrate the lessons learned and challenges faced. The findings are presented to inform existing and new Indigenous tourism ventures, policy considerations, and future research.

  18. Bolivian Rhinotragini IV: Paraeclipta gen. nov. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, new species and new combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraeclipta gen. nov. is described to allocate five new species, and ten transferred from Eclipta Bates, 1873: P. cabrujai sp. nov.; P. clementecruzi sp. nov.; P. melgarae sp. nov.; P. tomhacketti sp. nov.; P. moscosoi sp. nov.; P. bicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. croceicornis (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. flavipes (Melzer, 1922, comb. nov.; P. jejuna (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. kawensis (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004, comb. nov.; P. longipennis (Fisher, 1947, comb. nov.; P. rectipennis (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. soumourouensis (Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2003, comb. nov.; P. tenuis (Burmeister, 1865, comb. nov.; and P. unicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov. The Bolivian species are illustrated. A key to their identification and host flower records are provided.

  19. PLATEAU IRIS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Systematic review methodology: Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Conclusions: Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty PMID:27373109

  20. PLATEAU IRIS--DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.

  1. Barriers to hospital births: why do many Bolivian women give birth at home?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Otis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the low rates of hospital/health center births recorded in Yapacaní, Bolivia, that persist despite the national maternal-infant insurance program designed to ensure equitable access to free center-based health care services for pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to identify the multilevel factors inhibiting access to and utilization of public health centers for labor and delivery. METHODS: Qualitative research methods were used, including participant observation, semistructured interviews of 62 community members, and key informant interviews with eight regional experts. Data were coded and analyzed using the grounded theory approach. RESULTS: From the semistructured interview data, five reasons for the low rate of institutional births and their frequency were identified: (1 fear or embarrassment related to receiving care at a public health care center (37%; (2 poor quality of care available at the health care centers (22%; (3 distance from or other geographic issues preventing timely travel to health care services (21%; (4 economic constraints preventing travel to or utilization of health care services (14%; and (5 the perception that health care services are not necessary due to the experience of "easy birth" (6%. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for the low rate of births in public health centers exist within the context of deficient resources, politics, and cultural differences that all influence the experience of women and their partners at the time of birth. These large scale, contextual issues must be taken into account to improve access to quality health care services for all Bolivian women at the time of birth. Resources at the national level must be carefully targeted to ensure that governmental services will successfully instill confidence in Bolivian women and facilitate their overcoming the cultural, geographic, economic, and logistical barriers to accessing "free" services.

  2. Greenhouse gases emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Aho, Kelly Sue; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Sillanpää, Mika; Yan, Fangping; Raymond, Peter A

    2017-11-29

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from streams are important to regional biogeochemical budgets. This study is one of the first to incorporate stream GHGs (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) concentrations and emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. With one-time sampling from 32 sites in rivers of the plateau, we found that most of the rivers were supersaturated with CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O during the study period. Medians of partial pressures of CO 2 (pCO 2 ), pCH 4 and pN 2 O were presented 864 μatm, 6.3 μatm, and 0.25 μatm respectively. Based on a scaling model of the flux of gas, the calculated fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O (3,452 mg-C m 2 d -1 , 26.7 mg-C m 2 d -1 and 0.18 mg-N m 2 d -1 , respectively) in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau were found comparable with most other rivers in the world; and it was revealed that the evasion rates of CO 2 and CH 4 in tributaries of the rivers of the plateau were higher than those in the mainstream despite its high altitude. Furthermore, concentrations of GHGs in the studied rivers were related to dissolved carbon and nitrogen, indicating that riverine dissolved components could be used to scale GHGs envision in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Integrated geophysical study of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Meng, X.; Guo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Tibetan Plateau, the so-called "Roof of the World", is a direct consequence of collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate starting in the early Cenozoic time. The continent-continent collision is still going on. The northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau is the front part of the Tibetan Plateau extends to mainland and favorable area for studying uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau. In the past decades, a variety of geophysical methods were conducted to study geodynamics and geological tectonics of this region. We assembled satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies with a resolution of one arc-minute from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and reduced them to obtain Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies. Then we gridded Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies on a regular grid, and subsequently processed them with the preferential continuation method to attenuate high-frequency noise and analyzed regional and residual anomalies. We also calculated tilt-angle derivative of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies to derive clearer geological structures with more details. Then we calculated the depth distribution of the Moho discontinuity surface in this area by 3D density interface inversion. From the results of preliminary processing, we analyzed the main deep faults and geological tectonics in this region. We extracted seven important profiles' data of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this area, and then did forward modeling and inversion on each profile with constraints of geological information and other geophysical data. In the future, we will perform 3D constrained inversion of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this region for better understanding deep structure and tectonics of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the SinoProbe project (201011039), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2010ZY26 2011PY0184), and the National Natural Science Foundation

  4. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Susana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a one of the most common nutritional disorder worldwide, clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome, condition with implications for the development of many chronic diseases. In the poorest countries of Latin America, malnourishment is still the most prevalent nutritional problem, but obesity is emerging in alarming rates over the last 10 years without a predictable association with metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the association between insulin-resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of Bolivian obese children and adolescents. The second objective was determining the relation of acanthosis nigricans and insulin-resistance. Methods We studied 61 obese children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years old. All children underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and fasting blood sample was also obtained to measure insulin, HDL, LDL and triglycerides serum level. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria adapted for children. Results Metabolic syndrome was found in 36% of the children, with a higher rate among males (40% than females (32.2% (p = 0.599. The prevalence of each of the components was 8.2% in impaired glucose tolerance, 42.6% for high triglyceride level, 55.7% for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 24.5% for high blood pressure. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.5 was found in 39.4% of the children, with a higher rate in males (50% than females (29%. A strong correlation was found between insulin resistance and high blood pressure (p = 0.0148 and high triglycerides (p = 0.002. No statistical significance was found between the presence of acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome has a prevalence of 36% in children and adolescent population in the study. Insulin resistance was very common among

  5. Overcoming the response plateau in multiple myeloma: a novel bortezomib-based strategy for secondary induction and high-yield CD34+ stem cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesvizky, Ruben; Mark, Tomer M; Ward, Maureen; Jayabalan, David S; Pearse, Roger N; Manco, Megan; Stern, Jessica; Christos, Paul J; Mathews, Lena; Shore, Tsiporah B; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Xiang, Zhaoying; Ely, Scott; Skerret, Donna; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Coleman, Morton; Lane, Maureen E

    2013-03-15

    This phase II study evaluated bortezomib-based secondary induction and stem cell mobilization in 38 transplant-eligible patients with myeloma who had an incomplete and stalled response to, or had relapsed after, previous immunomodulatory drug-based induction. Patients received up to six 21-day cycles of bortezomib plus dexamethasone, with added liposomal doxorubicin for patients not achieving partial response or better by cycle 2 or very good partial response or better (≥VGPR) by cycle 4 (DoVeD), followed by bortezomib, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and filgrastim mobilization. Gene expression/signaling pathway analyses were conducted in purified CD34+ cells after bortezomib-based mobilization and compared against patients who received only filgrastim ± cyclophosphamide. Plasma samples were similarly analyzed for quantification of associated protein markers. The response rate to DoVeD relative to the pre-DoVeD baseline was 61%, including 39% ≥ VGPR. Deeper responses were achieved in 10 of 27 patients who received bortezomib-based mobilization; postmobilization response rate was 96%, including 48% ≥ VGPR, relative to the pre-DoVeD baseline. Median CD34+ cell yield was 23.2 × 10(6) cells/kg (median of 1 apheresis session). After a median follow-up of 46.6 months, median progression-free survival was 47.1 months from DoVeD initiation; 5-year overall survival rate was 76.4%. Grade ≥ 3 adverse events included thrombocytopenia (13%), hand-foot syndrome (11%), peripheral neuropathy (8%), and neutropenia (5%). Bortezomib-based mobilization was associated with modulated expression of genes involved in stem cell migration. Bortezomib-based secondary induction and mobilization could represent an alternative strategy for elimination of tumor burden in immunomodulatory drug-resistant patients that does not impact stem cell yield.

  6. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  7. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product based on turning points (TPs, which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost

  8. "No queremos vender oxígeno" : the implementation of a REDD pilot project in the Bolivian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Bardalen, Ingunn

    2011-01-01

    Based on a six month fieldwork in an indigenous community in an indigenous territory, TCO, this thesis explore the initial stages of the implementation of a REDD pilot project in the northern Bolivian amazon. Since the establishment of the indigenous territory, there has been increasing pressure from logging companies and illegal logging, which has caused forest degradation in these areas. The REDD pilot project seek to reduce forest degradation in this area, and through monitoring this reduc...

  9. Factors That Affect the Attitudes of the Bolivian Population in Spain With Regard to Organ Donation for Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcó, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Bolivian population is an emerging Latin American immigrant group in Spain, several of whom have been transplanted or are awaiting transplant. We aimed to assess attitudes toward organ donation among Bolivians currently residing in Spain. The population screened was born in Bolivia but living in Spain, stratified by gender and age. The appraisal tool used was a questionnaire that assesses attitudes toward organ donation for transplant ("PCID-DTO Ríos"). Support from immigration associations in Spain was needed for advice on locations of potential respondents. Survey participation was anonymized and the questionnaire was self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained before participation. There were 206 respondents: 49% (n = 101) in favor of donating their organs after death; 21% (n = 44) against donation; and 30% (n = 61) undecided. Their attitudes were found to be associated with level of education (P = .008), previous experience with donation and transplant (P = .011), concern regarding mutilation after donation (P = .002), knowing the attitude of their religion toward transplant (P = .001), the opinion of their partner (P organ donation (odds ratio = 16.129; P = .003). Attitudes toward organ donation among Bolivians residing in Spain are far more negative compared with rest of the Spanish population, due to various factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuebin; Cui, Chaoying; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Kun; Cao, Xiangyu; Wang, Yi; Ouzhuluobu; Basang; Ciwangsangbu; Bianba; Gonggalanzi; Wu, Tianyi; Chen, Hua; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n = 2,354) and maternal (n = 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic.

  11. Exploring the undulating plateau: the future of global oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price

  12. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO 3 type or the Ca–Na–HCO 3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed

  13. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio, E-mail: ormachea@kth.se [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sracek, Ondra [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Thunvik, Roger [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Quintanilla, Jorge [Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Bundschuh, Jochen [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO{sub 3} type or the Ca–Na–HCO{sub 3} type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and

  14. Air–surface exchange of gaseous mercury over permafrost soil: an investigation at a high-altitude (4700 m a.s.l. and remote site in the central Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of air–surface gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0 exchange in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP may be unique because this region is characterized by low temperature, great temperature variation, intensive solar radiation, and pronounced freeze–thaw process of permafrost soils. However, the air–surface Hg(0 flux in the QTP is poorly investigated. In this study, we performed field measurements and controlled field experiments with dynamic flux chambers technique to examine the flux, temporal variation and influencing factors of air–surface Hg(0 exchange at a high-altitude (4700 m a.s.l. and remote site in the central QTP. The results of field measurements showed that surface soils were the net emission source of Hg(0 in the entire study (2.86 ng m−2 h−1 or 25.05 µg m−2 yr−1. Hg(0 flux showed remarkable seasonality with net high emission in the warm campaigns (June 2014: 4.95 ng m−2 h−1; September 2014: 5.16 ng m−2 h−1; and May–June 2015: 1.95 ng m−2 h−1 and net low deposition in the winter campaign (December 2014: −0.62 ng m−2 h−1 and also showed a diurnal pattern with emission in the daytime and deposition in nighttime, especially on days without precipitation. Rainfall events on the dry soils induced a large and immediate increase in Hg(0 emission. Snowfall events did not induce the pulse of Hg(0 emission, but snowmelt resulted in the immediate increase in Hg(0 emission. Daily Hg(0 fluxes on rainy or snowy days were higher than those of days without precipitation. Controlled field experiments suggested that water addition to dry soils significantly increased Hg(0 emission both on short (minutes and relatively long (hours timescales, and they also showed that UV radiation was primarily attributed to Hg(0 emission in the daytime. Our findings imply that a warm climate and environmental change could facilitate Hg release from the permafrost terrestrial ecosystem

  15. The transformation of the myth of Wari in crossbreed parties of Oruro and Puno in the Peruvian-Bolivian Plateau: the Diablada and the construction of new identities

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Max

    2011-01-01

    Feasts are one of the forms of aesthetic expression and communication, not written, most striking of all the inhabitants of the Andean highlands. This essay will focus on two feasts of the urban environment: the Carnival of Oruro in Bolivia and the Feast of the Virgin of Candelaria in Puno, Peru. The analysis of historical and current developments in the feasts is one of the main bases for understanding both indigenous Andean cultures as mestizo and hence its positioning in the world. This ar...

  16. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  17. Neglected, semimembranosus osteochondral avulsion fracture of the posteromedial tibial plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh John

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Semimembranosus avulsion fracture is infrequently reported and is easy to miss on plain radiographs; the mechanism of injury is highly controversial. Initial reports linked it to anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscal tears. We report an osteochondral semimembranosus avulsion fracture of the posteromedial tibial plateau with associated posterior cruciate ligament rupture. Also described is a novel surgical fixation technique for such osteochondral fractures where the surgical exposure is limited due to the obliquity of the fracture line resulting in a greater involvement of the articular cartilage than the small bony component. The fixation technique described may be used for osteochondral fractures where the application of a conventional compression screw may not be feasible. Keywords: Osteochondral fracture, Semimembranosus avulsion fracture, Posteromedial tibial plateau, Neglected, Nonunion

  18. Active shortening, intermontane basin formation, and geomorphic evolution in an orogenic plateau: Central Puna Plateau, NW Argentina (24°37'S, 67°03'W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Manfred R.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Freymark, Jessica; Pingel, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    The high-elevation Andean Plateau (Altiplano-Puna; 4km) is a first-order morphotectonic province of the Central Andes and constitutes the world's second largest orogenic plateau. While there are many unifying basin characteristics in this region, including internal drainage, semi-arid to arid climate and associated deposition of evaporites, there are notable differences between the northern and southern parts of the plateau. In contrast to the vast basins of the Altiplano (north) and incipient establishment of fluvial connectivity and sediment transport to the foreland, the Puna (south) comprises numerous smaller basins, bordered by reverse-fault bounded ranges up to 6 km high. The plateau is internally drained and fluvial connectivity with the foreland does not exist leading to thick sedimentary basin fills that comprise continental evaporites, volcanic and clastic deposits, typically between 3 and 5 km thick. However, repeated impacts of climate change and superposed tectonic activity in the southern plateau have resulted in further basin differentiation, abandonment or re-arrangement of fluvial networks and impacts on sediment transport. Here we report evidence for sustained contractional tectonic activity in the Pocitos Basin in the southern plateau. On the western margin of the basin fanning of dipping strata and regraded, steeply inclined gravel-covered pediment surfaces and wind gaps associated with gravel derived from distant sources in the west document late Tertiary to Pleistocene growth of an approximately N-S oriented and N plunging anticline. The growth of the eastern limb of this anticline has caused the isolation of a formerly more extensive basin. In addition, Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake shorelines and lacustrine deposits are tilted eastward along the same structure and InSAR measurements of deformed lake terraces document that the fold is growing. Despite widely reported extensional faulting in the southern Puna, we conclude (1) that the

  19. Preference for women's body mass and waist-to-hip ratio in Tsimane' men of the Bolivian Amazon: biological and cultural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Kościński, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N = 66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation.

  20. Isotopic tracers of paleohydrologic change in large lakes of the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Christa J.; Quade, Jay; Patchett, P. Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an 87Sr/ 86Sr, 234U/ 238U, and δ 18O data set from carbonates associated with late Quaternary paleolake cycles on the southern Bolivian Altiplano as a tool for tracking and understanding the causes of lake-level fluctuations. Distinctive groupings of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are observed. Ratios are highest for the Ouki lake cycle (120-95 ka) at 0.70932, lowest for Coipasa lake cycle (12.8-11.4 ka) at 0.70853, and intermediate at 0.70881 to 0.70884 for the Salinas (95-80 ka), Inca Huasi (~ 45 ka), Sajsi (24-20.5 ka), and Tauca (18.1-14.1 ka) lake cycles. These Sr ratios reflect variable contributions from the eastern and western Cordilleras. The Laca hydrologic divide exerts a primary influence on modern and paleolake 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios; waters show higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios north of this divide. Most lake cycles were sustained by slightly more rainfall north of this divide but with minimal input from Lake Titicaca. The Coipasa lake cycle appears to have been sustained mainly by rainfall south of this divide. In contrast, the Ouki lake cycle was an expansive lake, deepest in the northern (Poópo) basin, and spilling southward. These results indicate that regional variability in central Andean wet events can be reconstructed using geochemical patterns from this lake system.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Liden, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 deg. C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m -3 d -1 . Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process

  2. Extensive and every day risk in the Bolivian Chaco: Sources of crisis and disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Reyes Pando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk comprises a continuum, ranging from primary-structural (pre-impact, through contingent (resulting from impact to future or reconstructed risk (resulting from inadequate recovery or reconstruction practices. At the same time these categories are many times constructed on the basis of existing chronic risk. These different categories are employed to demonstrate how the 2009-2011 disasters associated with the drought and freezing that affected the Bolivian Chaco region evolved and were perpetuated in cyclical manner. Additionally, the article demonstrates how preconceived notions of causal factors and post impact needs analysis, associated with large scale, rapid onset hazards, belies an understanding of the needs in slow onset and lifestyle based extensive risk crises. It also reveals how any attempt to deal with the successive, apparently sequenced categories of risk, using independent mechanisms and institutional frameworks is doomed to failure due to the relations that exist between primary, contingent and future risk and the disaster risk management and development mechanisms required to reduce them.

  3. MIGRATION POLICIES AND STATE CONTROL IN ARGENTINA: EXPERIENCES OF VULNERABLE BOLIVIAN WOMEN WHO CROSS THE BORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the way in which migration policies impact in the trajectories of Bolivian women who live and work in the outskirts of the main cities of Argentina. It focuses on three cases representative of the experiences of women laborers who, coming from the poorest rural areas of Bolivia, crossed the international border when Argentine migration policy was very restrictive. It shows that symbolic and socio-economic borders keep on excluding them, as well as other labor migrants, within the Argentine territory even when the current Migration Law enacted in 2004 is more inclusive, since it grants human and social rights to the migrants. It highlights the way in which particular state control mechanisms operate nowadays both at the international border and within the Argentine territory, and analyses the difficulties that these women experience due to their positions of class, ethnic, gender, nationality and migratory status. It remarks that despite the changes in the immigration policy of Argentina, state policies keep on controlling labor migrations in accordance with the paradigm of the governance of migration. It also analyses the strategies that these women develop in order to sort out state control policies. Therefore, it considers that they are active agents even though they still have feelings of fear and trauma associated with the crossing of borders.

  4. Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Rachel E.; Mayle, Francis E.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests. Lowered atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in combination with a longer dry season, caused expansion of dry forests and savannas during the last glacial period, especially at the last glacial maximum. These ecosystems persisted until the mid-Holocene, although they underwent significant species reassortment. Forest communities containing a mixture of evergreen and semideciduous species began to expand between 6000 and 3000 14C yr B.P. Humid evergreen rain forests expanded to cover most of the area within the past 2000 14C yr B.P., coincident with a reduction in fire frequencies. Comparisons between modern pollen spectra and vegetation reveal that the Moraceae-dominated rain forest pollen spectra likely have a regional source area at least 2-3 km beyond the lake shore, whereas the grass- and sedge-dominated savanna pollen spectra likely have a predominantly local source area. The Holocene vegetation changes are consistent with independent paleoprecipitation records from the Bolivian Altiplano and paleovegetation records from other parts of southwestern Amazonia. The progressive expansion in rain forests through the Holocene can be largely attributed to enhanced convective activity over Amazonia, due to greater seasonality of insolation in the Southern Hemisphere tropics driven by the precession cycle according to the Milankovitch Astronomical Theory.

  5. Assessment of PM10 concentrations from domestic biomass fuel combustion in two rural Bolivian highland villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albalak, R.; Haber, M.

    1999-01-01

    PM 10 concentrations were measured in two contrasting rural Bolivian villages that cook with biomass fuels. In one of the villages, cooking was done exclusively indoors, and in the other, it was done primarily outdoors. Concentrations in all potential microenvironments of exposure (i.e., home, kitchen, and outdoors) were measured for a total of 621 samples. Geometric mean kitchen PM 10 concentrations were 1830 and 280 microg/m 3 and geometric mean home concentrations were 280 and 440 microg/m 3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. An analysis of pollutant concentrations using generalized estimating equation techniques showed significant effects of village location, and interaction of village and location on log-transformed PM 10 concentrations. Pollutant concentrations and activity pattern data were used to estimate total exposure using the indirect method of exposure assessment. Daily exposure for women during the nonwork season was 15 120 and 6240 microg h -1 m -3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Differences in exposure to pollution between the villages were not as great as might be expected based on kitchen concentration alone. This study underscores the importance of measuring pollutant concentrations in all microenvironments where people spend time and of shifting the focus of air pollution studies to include rural populations in developing countries

  6. Internal tides and vertical mixing over the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Hyang; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Durand, Isabelle; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.

    2008-03-01

    Within the context of the natural iron-fertilization study KEOPS, time series measurements of CTD and LADCP profiles at a site (50.6°S, 72°E; 528 m) coinciding with an annual phytoplankton bloom over the Kerguelen Plateau were made during the January-February 2005 KEOPS cruise. An important activity of highly nonlinear semidiurnal internal tides having peak-to-peak isopycnal displacements of up to 80 m is identified. These internal tides appear to be a principal agent for promoting elevated vertical mixing indispensable for upward transfer of iron within the seasonal thermocline. We estimate local vertical eddy diffusivities of the order of 4×10 -4 m 2 s -1 using a Thorpe scale analysis. Although this estimate is higher by an order of magnitude than the canonical value O (0.1×10 -4 m 2 s -1) in the open ocean away from boundaries, it is consistent with nonlinear internal wave/wave interaction theories, as verified by independent diffusivity estimates using the vertical wavenumber spectral methods for shear and strain. It is also suggested that the general ocean circulation may play an important role in preconditioning the bloom in that the relatively sluggish circulation over the shallow plateau (compared to the much more dynamic neighbouring deep ocean) may foster the bloom's observed annual recurrence over the plateau.

  7. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Dong, G.; Xia, H.

    2017-12-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By redating the age of hand- and footprints in Chusang site in Tibet, Meyer et al. (2017) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene (before 7.4 ka) without the help of agriculture. Except for the possible problem of dating, however, the limited hand- and footprints could only indicate the presence of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene, unable to support the permanent inhabitation assertion (Zhang et al., 2017). To better understand how human spread to, settle on and adapt to the Tibetan Plateau, we are closely working together with anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists to do system Paleolithic surveys, full excavations, and genetic analysis of ancient and modern human, animals and plants. Our preliminary study show that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) with different adaptation strategies, including microlithic technology, millet and barley farming, and sheep herding and so on (Zhang et al., 2016). In addition, our new finds in Tibet indicate that there are probably more migration routes from southeast and southwest Tibetan Plateau in the late Pleistocene or

  8. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  9. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Marlene; Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  10. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  11. Computed tomography of tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Golimbu, C.; Bonamo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms

  12. Obstacles and Opportunities for Diffusion of Integrated Pest Management Strategies Reported by Bolivian Small-Scale Farmers and Agronomists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Aramayo, Antonio; Huici, Omar

    2017-01-01

    and others, it has not spread readily in low-income countries. This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices...... without expensive investments needed, and a higher quality of the products. A healthy and sustainable agricultural production should be promoted by support to farmers through IPM training, a certification, and better prices. Finding allies to such a promotion is not easy, though, according to both farmers...

  13. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  14. Plateau iris secondary to iridociliary cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of temperature anisotropy on neoclassical transport in the plateau and banana-plateau regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Masayoshi

    1999-01-01

    The neoclassical transport theory in a presence of temperature anisotropy is investigated in the low to the intermediate collision frequency regimes for a large aspect-ratio tokamak plasma. The standard procedure for an isotropic plasma in the plateau regime is extended to an anisotropic plasma, and the neoclassical transport coefficients in this regime are explicitly calculated. By interpolating the results in the plateau regime and the previously obtained ones in the banana regime, the expressions for the neoclassical transport coefficients which are continuously valid from the banana to the plateau regimes are presented. (author)

  16. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Aguirre

    Full Text Available Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups. Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for

  17. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis F; Montaño-Centellas, Flavia A; Gavilanez, M Mercedes; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups). Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement) was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia) create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for patterns of functional

  18. Predictors of Inflammation in a Cohort of Bolivian Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M.; Revollo, Rita; Iñiguez, Volga; Klein, Mitchel; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Leon, Juan S.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation has been associated with cardiovascular disease and other health outcomes in children and adults, yet few longitudinal data are available on prevalence and predictors of inflammation in infants. We aimed to identify the prevalence of inflammation in a cohort of Bolivian infants and estimate its association with acute (recent illnesses) and chronic (overweight, stunting) morbidities and potential pathogen exposure (represented by water, sanitation, and hygiene [WASH] resources). We measured plasma concentrations of two acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein [CRP], marking acute inflammation, and alpha(1)-acid-glycoprotein [AGP], marking chronic inflammation) at three time points (target 2, 6–8, and 12–18 months). Of 451 singleton infants enrolled in the parent study, 272 had the first blood draw and complete data. Anthropometry and sociodemographic and recent illness data (2-week recall of cough, diarrhea, and fever) were collected at each visit. Inflammation was defined as CRP > 5 mg/L or AGP > 1 g/L. The prevalence of inflammation increased from early infancy (3% at first blood draw) to later infancy (15–22% at later blood draws). Recent cough, recent fever, and age in months were significantly associated with relative increases in CRP (7–44%) and AGP (5–23%), whereas recent diarrhea was only significantly associated with an increase in CRP (48%). Neither anthropometry nor WASH was significantly associated with inflammation. Results confirm the role of recent acute illness in inflammation in infants, and indicate that adiposity and WASH are not as important to inflammation in this age category. PMID:27527627

  19. Long-term forest-savannah dynamics in the Bolivian Amazon: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, Francis E; Langstroth, Robert P; Fisher, Rosie A; Meir, Patrick

    2007-02-28

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the respective roles of past changes in climate, geomorphology and human activities in shaping the present-day forest-savannah mosaic of the Bolivian Amazon, and consider how this palaeoecological perspective may help inform conservation strategies for the future. To this end, we review a suite of palaeoecological and archaeological data from two distinct forest-savannah environments in lowland Bolivia: Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NKMNP) on the Precambrian Shield and the 'Llanos de Moxos' in the Beni basin. We show that they contain markedly contrasting legacies of past climatic, geomorphic and anthropogenic influences between the last glacial period and the Spanish Conquest. In NKMNP, increasing precipitation caused evergreen rainforest expansion, at the expense of semi-deciduous dry forest and savannahs, over the last three millennia. In contrast, pre-Hispanic indigenous cultures were instrumental in facilitating recent forest expansion in the Llanos de Moxos by building a vast network of earthworks. Insights from Mid-Holocene palaeodata, together with ecological observations and modelling studies, suggest that there will be progressive replacement of rainforest by dry forest and savannah in NKMNP over the twenty-first century in response to the increased drought predicted by general circulation models. Protection of the latitudinal landscape corridors may be needed to facilitate these future species reassortments. However, devising appropriate conservation strategies for the Llanos de Moxos will be more difficult due to its complex legacy of Palaeo-Indian impact. Without fully understanding the degree to which its current biota has been influenced by past native cultures, the type and intensity of human land use appropriate for this landscape in the future will be difficult to ascertain.

  20. Growth references for Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Urlacher, Samuel S; Beheim, Bret; von Rueden, Christopher; Jaeggi, Adrian; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin C; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard

    2017-03-01

    Growth standards and references currently used to assess population and individual health are derived primarily from urban populations, including few individuals from indigenous or subsistence groups. Given environmental and genetic differences, growth may vary in these populations. Thus, there is a need to assess whether international standards are appropriate for all populations, and to produce population specific references if growth differs. Here we present and assess growth references for the Tsimane, an indigenous population of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal anthropometrics (9,614 individuals; 30,118 observations; ages 0-29 years) were used to generate centile curves and Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) tables for height-for-age, weight-for-age, body mass index (BMI)-for-age, and weight-for-height (WFH) using Generalized Additive Models for Location Shape and Scale (GAMLSS). Velocity curves were generated using SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR). Tsimane ≤5 years were compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standards while those >5 years were compared to WHO school age references. All ages were compared to published references for Shuar forager-horticulturalists of the Ecuadorian Amazon. Tsimane growth differs from WHO values in height and weight, but is similar for BMI and WFH. Tsimane growth is characterized by slow height velocity in childhood and early adolescent peak height velocity at 11.3 and 13.2 years for girls and boys. Tsimane growth patterns are similar to Shuar, suggesting shared features of growth among indigenous South Americans. International references for BMI-for-age and WFH are likely appropriate for Tsimane, but differences in height-for-age and weight-for-age suggest Tsimane specific references may be useful for these measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characteristics and sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in lakes of the Yungui Plateau, China, differing in trophic state and altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, E.; Yin, Y.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Feng, L.; Shi, Z.; Liu, M.; Qina, B.

    2010-01-01

    The high-mountain lakes on the Yungui Plateau in China are exposed to high-intensity ultraviolet radiation, and contain low concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). We determined CDOM absorption, fluorescence, composition, and source in 38 lakes on the Yungui Plateau at

  2. Culture-bound syndromes in migratory contexts: the case of Bolivian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Chicano, María Teresa; Fernández-Rufete, José; Hueso-Montoro, César; García-López, María Del Mar; Rodríguez-Tello, Javier; Flores-Bienert, María Dolores

    2017-07-10

    to describe the culture-bound syndromes maintained by Bolivian immigrants in the new migratory context and analyze the care processes of these health problems. qualitative research with an ethnographic methodological approach. Sample: 27 Bolivian immigrants. In-depth interviews and participatory observation were the strategies used for data collection. Data were classified and categorized into logical schemes manually and using the ATLAS-ti program v.5. susto, "wayras", amartelo, pasmo de sol, pasmo de luna and pasmo de sereno are some of the folk illnesses that affect the Bolivian immigrants and that they have to treat in the new migratory context. in the new environment, the group under study preserves culture-bound syndromes that are common in their country of origin. The care strategies used for these health problems are adapted to the resources of the new context and based on interactions with the domestic environment, biomedicine and traditional medicine. It was observed the need for the health professionals to realize that the efficacy of certain therapies occurs within the scope of cultural beliefs and not in that of the scientific evidence. descrever as síndromes vinculadas à cultura mantidas pelos imigrantes bolivianos no novo contexto migratório e analisar os processos de cuidado para esses problemas de saúde. projeto de pesquisa de natureza qualitativa e com abordagem metodológica etnográfica. Amostra: 27 imigrantes bolivianos. As estratégias para a coleta de dados foram as entrevistas em profundidade e a observação participativa. Os dados foram classificados e categorizados em esquemas lógicos manualmente e por meio do programa ATLAS-ti v.5. o susto, os "wayras", o amartelo (tristeza), o pasmo de sol, o pasmo de lua e o pasmo de sereno são algumas das síndromes de caráter popular que acometem os imigrantes bolivianos, e que eles tratam no novo contexto migratório. no novo ambiente, as síndromes vinculadas à cultura, comuns em seu pa

  3. Aged dissolved organic carbon exported from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Stubbins, Aron; Yan, Fangping; Aho, Kelly Sue; Zhou, Feng; Raymond, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon cycle is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine carbon pools, there remain large regions such as the climate-sensitive Tibetan Plateau for which no data are available. Here we provide new 14C data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three large Asian rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze and Yarlung Tsangpo Rivers) running on the Tibetan Plateau and present the carbon transportation pattern in rivers of the plateau versus other river system in the world. Despite higher discharge rates during the high flow season, the DOC yield of Tibetan Plateau rivers (0.41 gC m-2 yr-1) was lower than most other rivers due to lower concentrations. Radiocarbon ages of the DOC were older/more depleted (511±294 years before present, yr BP) in the Tibetan rivers than those in Arctic and tropical rivers. A positive correlation between radiocarbon age and permafrost watershed coverage was observed, indicating that 14C-deplted/old carbon is exported from permafrost regions of the Tibetan Plateau during periods of high flow. This is in sharp contrast to permafrost regions of the Arctic which export 14C-enriched carbon during high discharge periods.

  4. (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, as it represents a unique bovine species adapted to ..... al., 1993; Udina et al., 2003), mastitis caused by. Staphylococcus sp. ... for prevention and treatment in many cases (Gerald et al., 2003). But in ...

  5. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  6. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  7. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito JA Luna

    Full Text Available With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil. Infection was detected by two different ELISA assays with epimastigote antigens, followed by an immunoblot with trypomastigote antigens as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of the infection was 4.4%. Risk factors independently associated with the infection were: a history of rural jobs in Bolivia, knowledge of the vector involved in transmission, and having relatives with Chagas disease. Brazil has successfully eliminated household vector transmission of T. cruzi, as well as its transmission by blood transfusion. The arrival of infected immigrants represents an additional challenge to primary care clinics to manage chronic Chagas disease, its vertical transmission, and the blood derivatives and organ transplant programs.

  8. Diameter Growth of Juvenile Trees after Gap Formation in a Bolivian Rain Forest: Responses are Strongly Species-specific and Size-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliz-Gamboa, C.C.; Sandbrink, A.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated growth responses to gap formation for juvenile individuals of three canopy rain forest species: Peltogyne cf. heterophylla, Clarisia racemosa and Cedrelinga catenaeformis. Gaps were formed during selective logging operations 7 yr before sampling in a Bolivian rain forest. We collected

  9. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiufeng; Kang, Shichang; de Foy, Benjamin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Luo, Jiali; Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Zhang, Qianggong

    2017-09-01

    Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of ˜ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015), which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation) was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau. This work may provide a

  10. The Evolution of Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy

  11. Quantifying the Plutonic to Volcanic Relationship Along the Puna Plateau: Implications for Cordilleran Plateau Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Delph, J. R.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ducea, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying well constrained plutonic to volcanic (P:V) ratios is inherently difficult because the tectonic processes that exhume intrusive bodies rarely preserve their extrusive equivalents. Conversely, active magmatic systems that have well-preserved volcanic deposits require sophisticated geophysical or geochemical approaches to estimate their plutonic roots and even when these sophisticated approaches are available, it is not always clear what constitutes a plutonic volume. Further complicating the enigmatic plutonic to volcanic relationship is the highly episodic nature of pluton emplacement where magmatic flare-ups produce several orders of magnitude more magmatism when compared against magmatic lulls. Despite this inherent difficulty, a growing body of independently measured P:V ratios (e.g. seismic tomography, geomorphic modeling, geological mapping/dating, and Zircon age spectra modeling) suggests the contribution of magmatic addition as an uplift mechanism in Cordilleran systems is much larger than is currently accepted. However, it remains unclear if these studies can be generalized to represent type behavior in Cordilleran systems or result from the non-uniform sampling imposed by the ability to measure large P:V ratios in only a few select and potentially anomalous regions of the American Cordillera. To better examine the role of magmatic processes in building Cordilleran high plateaus, we image the crustal seismic shear-wave velocity for an 800 km section (20.5°-28°S) of the active South American Cordillera (Puna Plateau). When placed in the context of existing geological and geophysical datasets, our seismic model reveals numerous mid-crustal low-velocity zones that we unambiguously interpret as the plutonic underpinnings associated with the voluminous silicic volcanics of the Puna Plateau. These larger P:V ratios are consistent with recent thermomechanical modeling of granitic magma intrusions that support the existence of long-lived, partially

  12. Remote sensing of severe convective storms over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liu, J. M.; Tsao, D. Y.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The American satellite, GOES-1 was moved to the Indian Ocean at 58 deg E during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE). The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau significantly affects the initiation and development of heavy rainfall and severe storms in China, just as the Rocky Mountains influence the local storms in the United States. Satelite remote sensing of short-lived, meso-scale convective storms is particularly important for covering a huge area of a high elevation with a low population density, such as the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Results of this study show that a high growth rate of the convective clouds, followed by a rapid collapse of the cloud top, is associated with heavy rainfall in the area. The tops of the convective clouds developed over the Plateau lie between the altitudes of the two tropopauses, while the tops of convective clouds associated with severe storms in the United States usually extend much above the tropopause.

  13. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of stable isotopes in meteoric waters on the Tibetan Plateau: Implications for paleoelevation reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Garzione, Carmala N.

    2017-02-01

    Debates persist about the interpretations of stable isotope based proxies for the surface uplift of the central-northern Tibetan Plateau. These disputes arise from the uncertain relationship between elevation and the δ18 O values of meteoric waters, based on modern patterns of isotopes in precipitation and surface waters. We present a large river water data set (1,340 samples) covering most parts of the Tibetan Plateau to characterize the spatial variability and controlling factors of their isotopic compositions. Compared with the amount-weighted mean annual oxygen isotopic values of precipitation, we conclude that river water is a good substitute for isotopic studies of precipitation in the high flat (e.g., elevation >3,300 m) interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the mean annual timescale. We construct, for the first time based on field data, contour maps of isotopic variations of meteoric waters (δ18 O, δD and d-excess) on the Tibetan Plateau. In the marginal mountainous regions of the Plateau, especially the southern through eastern margins, the δ18 O and δD values of river waters decrease with increasing mean catchment elevation, which can be modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process. However, in the interior of the Plateau, northward increasing trends in δ18 O and δD values are pronounced and present robust linear relations; d-excess values are lower than the marginal regions and exhibit distinct contrasts between the eastern (8 ‰- 12 ‰) and western (Asian monsoon and Westerly winds; 2) contribution of moisture from recycled surface water; and 3) sub-cloud evaporation. We further provide a sub-cloud evaporation modified Rayleigh distillation and mixing model to simulate the isotopic variations in the western Plateau. Results of this work suggest that stable isotope-based paleoaltimetry studies are reliable in the southern through eastern Plateau margins; towards the central-northern Plateau, this method cannot be applied without additional

  14. Soil moisture decline due to afforestation across the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhu, Yuanjun; Luo, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The Loess Plateau of China is a region with one of the most severe cases of soil erosion in the world. Since the 1950s, there has been afforestation measure to control soil erosion and improve ecosystem services on the plateau. However, the introduction of exotic tree species (e.g., R. pseudoacacia, P. tabulaeformis and C. korshinskii) and high-density planting has had a negative effect on soil moisture content (SMC) in the region. Any decrease in SMC could worsen soil water shortage in both the top and deep soil layers, further endangering the sustainability of the fragile ecosystem. This study analyzed the variations in SMC following the conversion of croplands into forests in the Loess Plateau. SMC data within the 5-m soil profile were collected at 50 sites in the plateau region via field survey, long-term in-situ observations and documented literature. The study showed that for the 50 sites, the depth-averaged SMC was much lower under forest than under cropland. Based on in-situ measurements of SMC in agricultural plots and C. korshinskii plots in 2004-2014, SMC in the 0-4 m soil profile in both plots declined significantly (p resources demands in the Loess Plateau.

  15. Thorium abundances on the aristarchus plateau: Insights into the composition of the aristarchus pyroclastic glass deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.; Gaddis, Lisa R.

    2009-01-01

    Thorium (Th) data from the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer (LP-GRS) are used to constrain the composition of lunar pyroclastic glass deposits on top of the Aristarchus plateau. Our goal is to use forward modeling of LP-GRS Th data to measure the Th abundances on the plateau and then to determine if the elevated Th abundances on the plateau are associated with the pyroclastic deposits or with thorium-rich ejecta from Aristarchus crater. We use a variety of remote sensing data to show that there is a large, homogenous portion of the pyroclastics on the plateau that has seen little or no contamination from the Th-rich ejecta of Aristarchus crater. Our results show that the uncontaminated pyroclastic glasses on Aristarchus plateau have an average Th content of 6.7 ppm and ???7 wt % TiO2. These Th and Ti values are consistent with Th-rich, intermediate-Ti yellow glasses from the lunar sample suite. On the basis of this information, we use petrologic equations and interelement correlations for the Moon to estimate the composition of the source region from which the Aristarchus glasses were derived. We find that the source region for the Aristarchus glasses contained high abundances of heat-producing elements, which most likely served as a thermal driver for the prolonged volcanic activity in this region of the Moon. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  17. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FINAL FRONTIER AT HANFORD TACKLING THE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER MS

    2008-01-01

    The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the plateau'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central Plateau, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central Plateau. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central Plateau waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central Plateau during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are among the required steps in the Comprehensive

  19. Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Barichivich, Jonathan; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Pongratz, Julia; Viovy, Nicolas; Trudinger, Cathy M.

    2016-09-01

    The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940-1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940-1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr-1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr-1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940-1942 El Niño on the

  20. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  1. Plateau's problem an invitation to varifold geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Frederick J Almgren, Jr

    2001-01-01

    There have been many wonderful developments in the theory of minimal surfaces and geometric measure theory in the past 25 to 30 years. Many of the researchers who have produced these excellent results were inspired by this little book--or by Fred Almgren himself. The book is indeed a delightful invitation to the world of variational geometry. A central topic is Plateau's Problem, which is concerned with surfaces that model the behavior of soap films. When trying to resolve the problem, however, one soon finds that smooth surfaces are insufficient: Varifolds are needed. With varifolds, one can obtain geometrically meaningful solutions without having to know in advance all their possible singularities. This new tool makes possible much exciting new analysis and many new results. Plateau's problem and varifolds live in the world of geometric measure theory, where differential geometry and measure theory combine to solve problems which have variational aspects. The author's hope in writing this book was to encour...

  2. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  3. A longitudinal cline characterizes the genetic structure of human populations in the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Benjamin M.; Basnyat, Buddha; Neupane, Maniraj; Beall, Cynthia M.; Childs, Geoff; Craig, Sienna R.; Novembre, John; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous populations of the Tibetan plateau have attracted much attention for their good performance at extreme high altitude. Most genetic studies of Tibetan adaptations have used genetic variation data at the genome scale, while genetic inferences about their demography and population structure are largely based on uniparental markers. To provide genome-wide information on population structure, we analyzed new and published data of 338 individuals from indigenous populations across the plateau in conjunction with worldwide genetic variation data. We found a clear signal of genetic stratification across the east-west axis within Tibetan samples. Samples from more eastern locations tend to have higher genetic affinity with lowland East Asians, which can be explained by more gene flow from lowland East Asia onto the plateau. Our findings corroborate a previous report of admixture signals in Tibetans, which were based on a subset of the samples analyzed here, but add evidence for isolation by distance in a broader geospatial context. PMID:28448508

  4. Aerosol vertical distribution characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z Q; Han, Y X; Zhao, Q; Li, J

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products are widely used in climatic characteristic studies and stratospheric aerosol pattern research. Some SAGE II products, e.g., temperature, aerosol surface area density, 1020 nm aerosol extinction coefficient and dust storm frequency, from ground-based observations were analysed from 1984 to 2005. This analysis explored the time and spatial variations of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols on the Tibet Plateau. The stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient increased more than two orders of magnitude because of a large volcanic eruption. However, the tropospheric aerosol extinction coefficient decreased over the same period. Removing the volcanic eruption effect, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and tropospheric AOD was 0.197. Moreover, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD and dust storm frequency was 0.315. The maximum stratospheric AOD was attained in January, the same month as the tropospheric AOD, when the Qaidam Basin was the centre of low tropospheric AOD and the large mountains coincided with high stratospheric AOD. The vertical structure generated by westerly jet adjustment and the high altitude of the underlying surface of the Tibetan Plateau were important factors affecting winter stratospheric aerosols

  5. Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari

    2017-06-01

    This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2 σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted 2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC 14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.

  6. Drainage - Structure Correlation in tectonically active Regions: Case studies in the Bolivian and Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Parra, Mauricio; Kober, Florian

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted, that drainage patterns are often controlled by tectonics/climate and geology/rheology. Classical drainage patterns can be found 1) in fault-and-thrust belt, where rives follow the valleys parallel or cut perpendicular to strike trough the ridges, forming a trellis pattern, 2) at dome structures where the drainage form a radial pattern or 3) rectangular patterns in strongly fractured regions. In this study, we focus on fault-and-thrust belts, that undergone different phases of tectonic activity. According to classical models, the deformation is propagating into the foreland, hence being youngest at the frontal part and getting successively older towards the axis of the orogen. Drainage patterns in the more interior parts of the orogenic wedge should be then less influenced by the direction of structures, as landscape evolution is changing to a tectonic passive stage. This relationship might represent the transience and maturity of drainage pattern evolution. Here we study drainage patterns of the Bolivian and the eastern Colombian Andes by comparing the relative orientation of the drainage network with the orogen structural grain. The drainage is extracted from Digital Elevation Models (SRTM 30 m) and indexed by their Strahler Order. Order 1 channels have an upstream area of 1 km2. The direction of all segments is analyzed by linear directional mean function that results in the mean orientation of input channels with approx. 500 m average length. The orientation of structures for different structural domains is calculated using the same function on digitized faults and fold-axis. Rose diagrams show the length-weighted directional distribution of structures, of higher (>= 4) and of lower order (<= 3) channels. The structural trend in the Bolivian Andes is controlled by the orocline, where a predominant NW-SE trend turns into an N-S trend at 18°S and where the eastern orogen comprise from west to east, the Eastern Cordillera (EC), the

  7. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul; Liden, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg. C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 2 4-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 - bar C was between 6.4 and 33.6lCH 4 kg -1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg. C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 11 deg. C and between 35.6 and 84.1lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 35 deg. C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid-higher than has been previously reported for most manures-and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content

  8. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaruseviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to

  9. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Arnold Hagens, Salazar; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents' sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14-18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future

  10. Lens autofluorescence is not increased at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    in Denmark. RESULTS: No significant differences in lens fluorescence or transmittance were found between Bolivian and Danish volunteers. CONCLUSION: Age-corrected lens fluorescence and transmittance were comparable for healthy participants living at high altitude near the equator and healthy volunteers...

  11. Fraturas do planalto tibial Tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Kfuri Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas do planalto tibial são lesões articulares cujos princípios de tratamento envolvem a redução anatômica da superfície articular e a restauração funcional do eixo mecânico do membro inferior. Contribuem para a tomada de decisões no tratamento dessas fraturas o perfil do paciente, as condições do envelope de tecidos moles, a existência de outros traumatismos associados e a infraestrutura disponível para abordagens cirúrgicas. Para as fraturas de alta energia, o tratamento estagiado, seguindo o princípio do controle de danos, tem como prioridade a manutenção do alinhamento do membro enquanto se aguarda a resolução das más condições de tecidos moles. Já nos traumas de baixa energia, desde que os tecidos moles não sejam um fator adverso, o tratamento deve ser realizado em tempo único, com osteossíntese definitiva. Fixação estável e movimento precoce são variáveis diretamente relacionadas com os melhores prognósticos. Desenvolvimentos recentes, como os implantes com estabilidade angular, substitutos ósseos e imagens tridimensionais para controle intraoperatório, deverão contribuir para cirurgias menos invasivas e melhores resultados.Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a single-stage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal f-ixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint

  12. Deformation of the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.R.; Camp, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Four structural elements north of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau (Washington, Idaho, and Oregon) are (1) the offlap of progressively younger basalt units from prebasalt topographic highs; (2) east-west open folds associated with reverse faulting; (3) northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south faults with predominantly vertical displacement; and (4) vertical north-northwest-south-southeast feeder dikes. These may be explained by (1) a regional east to west tilting of the plateau caused by the isostatic rise of older rocks on the eastern margin; (2) a stress regime with a horizontal maximum principal stress in a north-northwest-south-southeast direction, and a horizontal minimum principal stress in a west-southwest-east-northeast direction; and (3) reactivation of an older northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south structural grain in the pre-Miocene basement. The stress regime is similar to that envisaged for the area southwest of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, and the difference in the type of deformation on either side of that feature may be attributed to differences in the thickness of the crust across the ancient boundary

  13. [Tibial plateau fractures in winter sports. Current treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, V

    2014-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures overall and especially in winter sports are rare. However, the incidence in recent years is increasing. In a retrospective study from 2009-2012, we found 52 injuries affiliated with winter sports. Noticeable was the high rate of severe injury patterns. In 20 of the 52 cases, there were complete articular or bicondylar fractures (38 %). In 25 cases (48 %), fragment dislocation corresponding to the Moore classification was observed. The operative algorithm was based on the initial soft tissue damage and the type of fracture. A two or more stage procedure with first line soft tissue management and temporary external fixation stabilization was performed 12 times. The final internal osteosynthesis was based on the morphology of the fracture, i.e., direct exposition and stabilization of relevant fracture patterns. In 24 cases (46 %), there was a need for two (or more) approaches. In the anterior aspect of the tibial head, customary implants were used; posterior pathologies were stabilized with low-dimension implants. Summarizing with regard to the literature, there is a more discriminating view of tibial plateau fractures, regarding all relevant fracture patterns. Thus, different options in operative access and choice of implants can be made.

  14. Climate and soils of the South Kinangop Plateau of Kenya : their limitations on land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyandat, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    In the Kinangop Plateau of Kenya where small holder farmers have been settled, varied climate and soils occur and the level of land use and management is not as high as may be expected. The climate and soils were therefore studied with a view to identity the constraints they present to land use and

  15. The burden of pediatric diarrhea: a cross-sectional study of incurred costs and perceptions of cost among Bolivian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Embrey, Sally R; Wagner, Laura Danielle; Cowden, Carter L; Kelly, Fiona M; Smith, Emily R; Iñiguez, Volga; Leon, Juan S

    2013-08-02

    Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis represents an enormous public health threat to children under five years of age, causing one billion episodes and 1.9 to 3.2 million deaths per year. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, an estimated 15% of under-five deaths are caused by diarrhea. Bolivian caregiver expenses related to diarrhea are believed to be minimal, as citizens benefit from universal health insurance for children under five. The goals of this report were to describe total incurred costs and cost burden associated with caregivers seeking treatment for pediatric gastroenteritis, and to quantify relationships among costs, cost burden, treatment setting, and perceptions of costs. From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n=1,107) of pediatric patients (costs (e.g. medication, consult fees) and indirect costs (e.g. lost wages). Patient populations were similar across cities in terms of gender, duration of illness, and age, but familial income varied significantly (pcosts to families were significantly higher for inpatients as compared to outpatients of urban (pcosts made up a large proportion of total costs. Forty-five percent of patients' families paid ≥1% of their annual household income for this single diarrheal episode. The perception that cost was affecting family finances was more frequent among those with higher actual cost burden. This study demonstrated that indirect costs due to acute pediatric diarrhea were a large component of total incurred familial costs. Additionally, familial costs associated with a single diarrheal episode affected the actual and perceived financial situation of a large number of caregivers. These data serve as a baseline for societal diarrheal costs before and immediately following the implementation of the rotavirus vaccine and highlight the serious economic importance of a diarrheal episode to Bolivian caregivers.

  16. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  17. Combining CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Data to Invert the Lithospheric Magnetic Field in the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yaodong; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhang, Bingbing; Li, Fupeng; Guo, Fei

    2017-01-26

    CHAMP and Swarm satellite magnetic data are combined to establish the lithospheric magnetic field over the Tibetan Plateau at satellite altitude by using zonal revised spherical cap harmonic analysis (R-SCHA). These data are integrated with geological structures data to analyze the relationship between magnetic anomaly signals and large-scale geological tectonic over the Tibetan Plateau and to explore the active tectonic region based on the angle of the magnetic anomaly. Results show that the model fitting error is small for a layer 250-500 km high, and the RMSE of the horizontal and radial geomagnetic components is better than 0.3 nT. The proposed model can accurately describe medium- to long-scale lithospheric magnetic anomalies. Analysis indicates that a negative magnetic anomaly in the Tibetan Plateau significantly differs with a positive magnetic anomaly in the surrounding area, and the boundary of the positive and negative regions is generally consistent with the geological tectonic boundary in the plateau region. Significant differences exist between the basement structures of the hinterland of the plateau and the surrounding area. The magnetic anomaly in the Central and Western Tibetan Plateau shows an east-west trend, which is identical to the direction of the geological structures. The magnetic anomaly in the eastern part is arc-shaped and extends along the northeast direction. Its direction is significantly different from the trend of the geological structures. The strongest negative anomaly is located in the Himalaya block, with a central strength of up to -9 nT at a height of 300 km. The presence of a strong negative anomaly implies that the Curie isotherm in this area is relatively shallow and deep geological tectonic activity may exist.

  18. Cenozoic Uplift and Climate Change of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from Leaf Wax Stable Isotopic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.; Zhuang, G.; Wu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Topics about the deformation history and uplift mechanism of Tibetan Plateau have been largely debated in the past few decades. Different geodynamic models present different predictions on the mountain building processes and hence the surface uplift history. For example, one tectonic model suggests a rapid uplift (>1.0 to 2.0 km) of the Tibetan Plateau in the period of ca. 10 to 8 Ma as result of isostatic rebound due to the removal of over-thickened mental lithosphere beneath. Whilst the stepwise uplift model infers that the high topography was growing progressively from south to north with the Northeast Tibetan Plateau being built in the Pliocene to present. In this case, the timing of Cenozoic uplift of Northeast Tibetan Plateau would provide information for distinguishing competing geodynamic processes. The stable isotope based paleoaltimetry holds the key to answering when the high topography was built. Additionally, the evolution of Cenozoic Asian climate was argued to be closely related to the high topography built up on the Tibetan Plateau since the India-Asian collision and/or impacted by the global change. To understand when the high topography was built and how the growth of Tibetan Plateau impacted the climate, we reconstructed the long-term histories of paleohydrology from hinterland and foreland basins in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We applied the compound-specific isotope hydrogen analysis to leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alk) that are preserved in well-dated stratigraphic series (ca. 24 Ma to the present) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. The newly reconstructed δ2Hn-alk supports the inference of high topography on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau was built during the middle to late Miocene. Our inference is consistent with sedimentary and basement rock studies that show fundamental changes in facies and provenance and exhumation history. The new δ2Hn-alk record also reveals that the regional climate became drier since the middle Miocene following the

  19. Chemical erosion and hydrologic budget for the Susure karst plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karst plateau of Susure, about 4.5 km2 in surface area, is situated on the Jadovnik eastern offset, western Serbia. The plateau is a morphologic unit higher 15 m to 30 m than the surrounding terrain. The unit consists of crushed and karstified Middle Triassic limestones. Numerous hydrogeological and geomorphologic features of the plateau are attractive for visitors in this economically underdeveloped country. Rocks building up the surrounding terrain are largely peridotites. Surface streams flow neither into nor off the plateau. Atmospheric precipitations discharge to evapotanspiration and filtration underground. More than eighteen constant springs at the limestone/peridotite tectonic contact drain fracture aquifers on the karst plateau border. Measured precipitations and springflows were the input and output data for accounting water budget of an aquifer of Middle Triassic limestones in the Susure plateau.

  20. Norhla: Restoring the glory of khullu wool for social development and environmental protection in the High Tibetan Plateau Norhla : la laine de yak (khullu comme vecteur de développement social et de protection environnementale sur le haut plateau du Tibet Norlha, o cómo recuperar la gloria de la lana de Kullu para fomentar el desarrollo social y la protección medioambiental del altiplano tibetano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marc Guesné

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the local communities of yaks’ transhumant cattle farmers of the Tibetan High plateau have lived on their yak breeding activity, providing them with all they need: milk, a source of butter and cheese, and hair, which they weave into the heavy black tents that characterize the nomadic population. In the last decade, however, changes occurred that have destabilized this activity. The changes are three-fold: (1 increasing economic difficulty to live from this activity (Melvyn et al., 1990, and its two corollaries: (2 rural desertification (Yang, 1992 and (3 increasing herds’ sizes, threatening the environment (Wu, 1999. Norlha, meaning “wealth of the Gods”, proposes an alternative to remedy these problems. By improving the value added cattle that farmers derive from the yaks, Norlha’s social business model suggests that selling extremely high range products to luxury houses can be a way out of poverty and rural desertification for these communities.Pendant des siècles, les communautés locales d’éleveurs transhumants de yaks du haut plateau du Tibet ont vécu de leurs élevages qui leur fournissaient tout ce dont ils avaient besoin pour vivre : du lait, pour faire du beurre et du fromage, et de la laine, qu'ils tissaient pour fabriquer les épaisses tentes noires utilisées par les populations nomades. Toutefois, au cours des dix dernières années, l’élevage de yaks a été déstabilisé par certains  changements : (1 la difficulté de plus en plus grande à vivre de l’élevage (Melvyn et al., 1990, et ses deux corollaires, (2 la désertification rurale (Yang, 1992 et (3 des troupeaux de plus en plus importants qui menacent l’environnement (Wu, 1999. Norlha, qui signifie “richesses des Dieux”, propose une alternative à ces problèmes. En améliorant la valeur ajoutée que les éleveurs dégagent des yaks, le modèle d’entreprise social de Norlha montre que la vente de produits très haut de gamme à des

  1. Biogeographical affinities and species richness of copronecrophagous beetles (Scarabaeoidea in the southeastern Mexican High Plateau Afinidades biogeográficas y riqueza de especies de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Scarabaeoidea en el sureste del altiplano mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Arriaga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we establish the biogeographical affinities of the Scarabaeoidea dung beetle fauna in the dry southeast of the Mexican Plateau and analyze species diversity and how it changes with site, soil and vegetation type. Beetles were systematically captured in 6 windows in the region between Perote, Veracruz and El Seco, Puebla. A total of 9 species and 960 beetles belonging to Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae and Trogidae were captured. Canthon humectus humectus and Phanaeus quadridens were found in greater abundance in cattle pastures. Trox plicatus is the only species captured in the badlands. The beetle fauna of this landscape is poor owing to a combination of circumstances, mainly the soil, recent volcanic activity and limited food availability. The results obtained are compared with those of 2 other dry landscapes in central Mexico (Metztitlán and Tehuacán. Our landscape shares 50% of its species with Metztitlán and 37.5% with Tehuacán. The species shared between all 3 landscapes are Canthon (B. puncticollis, Onthophagus lecontei and Labarrus pseudolividus. The fauna was characteristic of the southern Mexican Plateau, but poorer in both the number of species and individuals; some species-expected from a biogeographic perspective-were missing.Establecemos las afinidades biogeográficas de los Scarabaeoidea copronecrófagos del sureste seco del altiplano mexicano, así como la diversidad de especies y sus cambios en diferentes sitios, tipos de vegetación y suelos. Se recolectó en 6 diferentes ventanas entre Perote, Veracruz y El Seco, Puebla, obteniéndose un total de 9 especies y 960 individuos de Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae y Trogidae. Canthon humectus humectus y Phanaeus quadridens fueron más abundantes en las áreas de pastoreo de ganado. Trox plicatus fue la única especie capturada en la zona de malpaís. En conjunto, la fauna de este paisaje es pobre debido a una combinación de circunstancias, principalmente la naturaleza del suelo

  2. Happily Ever After: Plateauing as a Means for Long-Term Career Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Denise L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses plateauing as a means for long-term career satisfaction, Highlights include a literature review; what plateauing is and why it occurs, including career-based plateauing and life plateauing; some solutions to plateauing for librarians, including management changes and individual changes; and personal examples. (LRW)

  3. Quartz OSL Dating of the loess deposit in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and its environment implications since the Last Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Cheng, T.; Liu, W.; Fang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Loess deposit is widespread in the Chuanxi Plateau, the eastern Tibetan Plateau, which is a critical archive for understanding the aeolian process, the evolution of the westerly and the environment changes on the Plateau. Previous studies have shown its aeolian origin, and mainly transported by wind from the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. However, the aeolian processes of the loess and its environment implications are not well understood mainly due to lack of detailed age controls. We carry out a combined quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS 14-C) for the loess deposits in Garzê and Jinchuan. The results indicate that the quartz OSL dating can provide reliable age controls for the loess-paleosol sequences from the Chuanxi Plateau, showing the potential of OSL to date loess in the high altitude region. The results indicate that the OSL ages are in agreement with the observed stratigraphy in the field. The constructed OSL and AMS 14-C chronology of the Garzê loess reveals that the widespread loess in Ganzi Region deposited since the Last Glacial. The dust accumulation is rapid during marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 and 2, and a relative low accumulation rate in the Holocene, which may related with the desertification processes of the inner Tibetan Plateau.

  4. [Simulation of Stipa purpurea distribution pattern on Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin

    2015-02-01

    The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Therapeutical Management of the Tibial Plateau Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obada B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to identify the role of surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures, its functional outcome and complications. Demographic data for the patients and details of current clinical and radiological follow-up findings were obtained to assess range of motion, clinical stability, alignment of the knee, and posttraumatic arthrosis (Kellgren/Lawrence score. 64 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by different surgical methods and variuos implants type were studied from 2013 to 2015 and followed-up for minimum period of 6 months. The systematisation of the casuitry was made using Schatzker and AO classifications. The treatment methods consist of: percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, ORIF with buttress plate with or without bone grafting, locking or nonlocking plates, external fixator. As complications we found: redepression 4 case, malunion 2 cases, knee stiffness 9, wound dehiscence in 1 cases and non-union or infection in none of our cases. The average flexion of the injured knee was significantly lower in comparison with the contralateral side (124.9°/135.2°. Knee stability did not differ statistically significantly. There were no signs of posttraumatic arthrosis in 45% of cases, mild signs in 30%, clear signs in 18%, and severe signs in 7%. As conclusion we found that surgical management of tibial plateau fractures will give excellent anatomical reduction and rigid fixation to restore articular congruity, facilitate early motion and reduce arthrosis risk and hence to achieve optimal knee function. The choice of optimal surgical methods, proper approach and implant is made in relation to fracture type according Schatzker and AO classification.

  6. Late Quaternary Soil Development Enhances Aeolian Landform Stability, Moenkopi Plateau, Southern Colorado Plateau, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Ellwein

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moenkopi dune field in northeastern Arizona covers roughly 1250 km2, but most of the field is inactive. Dune deposits on the Moenkopi Plateau (MP have remained inactive throughout the Holocene despite periods of elevated aridity or historical reductions of vegetation cover by livestock grazing. We argue that this inactivity is not because of any diminishment of driving forces in the aeolian system (e.g., insufficient winds, but rather because of increased cohesion due to soil development that enhances resistance to wind erosion. Abundant aeolian sediments were supplied to the Black Mesa region by the Little Colorado River and its tributaries during the late Pleistocene (MIS 2 and 3, which enabled the development of climbing dunes and transport of sand over the Adeii Eechii Cliffs and onto the MP. These deposits (Qe1 stabilized during the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition (~12–7.5 ka because of reduced sediment supply and high dust flux which resulted in rapid soil formation. Erosion of climbing dunes/sand ramps from the Adeii Eechii Cliffs eliminated delivery of large quantities of new sand to the MP during the mid to late Holocene. Soil development within the Qe1 mantle increased sediment cohesion and prevented widespread aeolian reactivation during the Holocene, despite the occurrence of conditions (wind speed, climate, etc. under which dune reactivation would be expected. Drylands comprise roughly 40% of the land cover of earth and climate models predict their expansion. Pedogenic stability is not commonly considered in climate-based models used to predict aeolian activity. To improve predictions of future dune activity in drylands, the degree of soil development in aeolian deposits should be considered when evaluating sediment availability in aeolian systems.

  7. The chromium in timberline forests in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; She, Jia; Chen, Youchao; Gong, Yiwen; Zhou, Jun; Yu, Dong

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the regional distribution, trait and possible source of chromium in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, we collected samples of xylem, bark, leaves and twigs in two parallel northwest-southeast belt transects (TA and TB) from the Hengduan Mountains. According to the Cr mean concentration, organ/tissue was split into two groups: the high-level organ/tissue (twigs: 1.476 mg kg(-1)) and the low-level organ/tissue (bark: 0.413 mg kg(-1), leaves: 0.340 mg kg(-1) and xylem: 0.194 mg kg(-1)). The mean Cr concentrations of twigs and leaves in TB samples were higher than those in the TA samples, and the mean Cr concentration in both sites gradually reduced from southeast to northwest. Both the southeasterly and southwesterly monsoons could be significant, influential factors in this connection. The top three mean Cr concentrations were S7, S1 and S8, which were closer to the developed city. Mean Cr concentrations in S3, S4 and S5, (remote, high mountains) were relatively low. The high mountains acting as a barrier to the monsoon and the distance from the big city may play important roles in the distribution of Chromium. Furthermore, the relationship between the mean Cr concentration and precipitation, timberline trees as bio-monitors of chromium pollution in polluted areas and the possible source of Cr in the eastern Tibetan Plateau are also discussed. This study may provide reliable proof of Cr contamination processes, and so help in future to prevent further Cr pollution, and also be helpful in understanding the important function of forest ecosystems in relation to atmospheric pollution and global change. To better understand the characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of Cr concentration, we found that tree ring, fine roots and soil samples are good choices.

  8. IODP Expedition 324: Ocean Drilling at Shatsky Rise Gives Clues about Oceanic Plateau Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Geldmacher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 324 cored Shatsky Rise at five sites (U1346–U1350 to study processes of oceanic plateau formation and evolution. Site penetrations ranged from 191.8 m to 324.1 m with coring of 52.6 m to 172.7 m into igneous basement at four of the sites. Average recovery in basement was 38.7%–67.4%. Cored igneous sections consist mainly of variably evolved tholeiiticbasalts emplaced as pillows or massive flows. Massive flows are thickest and make up the largest percentage of section on the largest and oldest volcano, late Jurassic age Tamu Massif; thus, it may have formed at high effusion rates. Such massive flows are characteristic of flood basalts, and similar flows were cored at Ontong Java Plateau. Indeed, the similarity of igneous sections at Site U1347 with that cored on Ontong Java Plateau implies similar volcanic styles for these two plateaus. On younger, smaller Shatsky Rise volcanoes, pillow flows are common and massive flows thinner andfewer, which might mean volcanism waned with time. Cored sediments from summit sites contain fossils and structures implying shallow water depths or emergence at the time of eruption and normal subsidence since. Summit sites also show pervasive alteration that could be due to high fluid fluxes. A thick section of volcaniclastics cored on Tamu Massif suggests that shallow, explosive submarine volcanism played a significant role in the geologic development of the plateau summit. Expedition 324 results imply that Shatsky Risebegan with massive eruptions forming a huge volcano and that subsequent eruptions waned in intensity, forming volcanoes that are large, but which did not erupt with unusually high effusionrates. Similarities of cored sections on Tamu Massif with those ofOntong Java Plateau indicate that these oceanic plateaus formed insimilar fashion.

  9. Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica Genetic characterization of the Bolivian Andean puma (Puma concolor at the Sajama National Park (SNP and relationships with other north-western South American puma populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RUIZ-GARCÍA

    2009-03-01

    Bolivian pumas were detected and together with three skins of animals hunted completed eight Andean Bolivian pumas studied here. Additionally, 45 DNA samples from wild pumas from Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela and western Brazilian Amazon were analyzed by means of hair with roots, little pieces of skins, muscle tissues and teeth. All these 53 puma DNA were genotypified for seven microsatellites (Fca 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 and 391. The levels of gene diversity were very high in both sample groups (H = 0.942 and 0.845, respectively, with values considerably higher than those found in the North American pumas. Diverse population assignment analyses showed that the Bolivian Andean pumas did not form a different significant cluster from the other puma group studied. Only Fca 96 showed significant heterogeneity between both groups. Nevertheless, globally, this heterogeneity was very small (F ST, G ST, R ST. On the contrary, the gene flow estimates between both groups were very elevated for all the procedures performed. The estimation of the parameter θ (= 4Neμ, by means of the maximum likelihood procedure of Nielsen (1997, showed that the Bolivian sample is a similar extension of the puma population of the other Latin American countries analyzed. Therefore, this study yielded strong results in favor of an unique gene pool of pumas in north western South America, in contrast with the traditional morphology and morphometric classifications which had identified a considerable number of puma subspecies in this region of Latin America.

  10. Geochemical characteristics of the Jos-Plateau Basalts, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jos Plateau basalts, present Zr/Nb ratios (2.4-3.0) comparable to those of the alkali basalts of the lower Benue valley, and of the Cameroon volcanic line, suggesting that they were possibly derived from the same mantle source. Keywords: Jos Plateau, alkali basalt, mantle, partial melting, incompatible elements.

  11. [Coupling coordinated development of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Feng; Wu, Fa-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Jian

    2011-06-01

    Based on system theory, a coupling coordinated development model of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was established, and the evaluation criteria and basic types of the coordinated development of the ecological-economic system were proposed. The county-level coupling coordinated development of the ecological-economic system was also discussed, based on the local characteristics. The interactions between the ecological and economic systems in Loess Plateau could be divided into four stages, i.e., seriously disordered development stage, mild-disordered development stage, low-level coordinated development stage, and high level well-coordinated development stage. At each stage, there existed a cyclic process of profit and loss-antagonist-running-dominant-synchronous development. The coupling development degree of the ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was overall at a lower level, being about 62.7% of the counties at serious disorder, 30.1% of the counties at mild disorder, and 7.1% of the counties at low but coordinated level. The coupling development degree based on the model established in this study could better reflect the current social-economic and ecological environment situations, especially the status of coordination. To fully understand the coupling of ecological-economic system and to adopt appropriate development mode would be of significance to promote the county-level coordinated development in Loess Plateau.

  12. Water chemistry in the rives of the permafrost regions on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ma, X.; Ye, L.; Liu, G.

    2017-12-01

    Qinghai-Tibetan is the largest middle-low latitude permafrost areas on the world. There are several large rivers in the plateau, and the changes of the water resources of these rivers are associated with the water resource security of more than 1.35 billion people. Due to the high gradients, these rivers have a tremendous amount of potential energy for electricity output. To promote economic and social development and provide clean energy, hydropower development has taken place on several rivers which originate on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Since dam construction affect the flow velocity, water temperature, sediments delivery as well as organic matter and nitrogen, it is important to investigate the river chemistry in the head rivers of the reservoirs. We examined the water physio-chemical characteristics in the rivers under the typical vegetation types in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and further analyzed their relationship to vegetation. The results showed that the total suspended sediment in the rivers were higher within the catchment of alpine steppe, with the lowest dissolved organic carbon content. In contrast, the rivers within the meadow had the highest dissolved organic carbon and lowest total suspension sediment. The dissolved organic carbon significantly positively correlated with the proportions of the meadow and wet meadow in the catchment. The pH, turbidity, and SUVA254 and dissolved organic carbon also correlated with each other. The results suggest that the vegetation type strongly affect the water chemistry in the permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Growing season carries stronger contributions to albedo dynamics on the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Chen, Jiquan; Zhang, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced higher-than-global-average climate warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them is albedo, which bridges the causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. The plateau is covered by snow/ice and vegetation in the non-growing season (nGS) and growing season (GS), respectively. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated snow/ice cover and vegetation greenness in relation to the spatiotemporal changes of albedo on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 through 2013. A synchronous relationship was found between the change in GSNDVI and GSalbedo over time and across the Tibetan landscapes. We found that the annual average albedo had a decreasing trend, but that the albedo had slightly increased during the nGS and decreased during the GS. Across the landscapes, the nGSalbedo fluctuated in a synchronous pattern with snow/ice cover. Temporally, monthly snow/ice coverage also had a high correspondence with albedo, except in April and October. We detected clear dependencies of albedo on elevation. With the rise in altitude, the nGSalbedo decreased below 4000 m, but increased for elevations of 4500-5500 m. Above 5500 m, the nGSalbedo decreased, which was in accordance with the decreased amount of snow/ice coverage and the increased soil moisture on the plateau. More importantly, the decreasing albedo in the most recent decade appeared to be caused primarily by lowered growing season albedo.

  14. A Mechanism of Land Degradation in Turf-Mantled Slopes of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Gregory S.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Liu, Jianquan

    2018-05-01

    Kobresia pygmaea meadows are typical of Tibetan Plateau landscapes in the 3,000 to 5,500 m elevation range and constitute the most extensive alpine ecosystem in the world. Kobresia pygmaea forms turf mats that stabilize the surface and shelter the underlying soils from water erosion. Large tracts of the Plateau, however, exhibit signs of ongoing degradation of the turf and erosion of the underlying soil. Despite the crucial role played by K. pygmaea turf mats in the stabilization of the headwaters of major Asian rivers, the mechanisms responsible for their degradation remain poorly investigated. Here we develop a process-based model of land degradation of Tibetan Plateau slopes, which accounts for (i) turf cracking, (ii) water flow concentration in the cracks, (iii) crack widening by scouring, and (iv) sheet-flow erosion. As expected, soil erosion increases with the slope and drainage area (hence the observation of stronger erosion in relatively steep downhill sites). Model simulations indicate that with a sensible set of parameters representative of soil and hydrologic conditions in the region, Tibetan Plateau landscapes are vulnerable to turf mat degradation and soil erosion. As soon as polygonal cracks develop, water flow widens them until the landscape is completely barren. At this point sheet flow eventually erodes the mineral soil leaving behind a highly degraded landscape.

  15. Tibetan Plateau glacier and hydrological change under stratospheric aerosol injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, D.

    2017-12-01

    As an important inland freshwater resource, mountain glaciers are highly related to human life, they provide water for many large rivers and play a very important role in regional water cycles. The response of mountain glaciers to future climate change is a topic of concern especially to the many people who rely on glacier-fed rivers for purposes such as irrigation. Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection is a method of offsetting the global temperature rise from greenhouse gases. How the geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection affects the mass balance of mountain glaciers and adjacent river discharge is little understood. In this study, we use regional climate model WRF and catchment-based river model CaMa-Flood to study the impacts of stratospheric aerosol injection to Tibetan Plateau glacier mass balance and adjacent river discharge. To facilitate mountain glacier mass balance study, we improve the description of mountain glacier in the land surface scheme of WRF. The improvements include: (1) a fine mesh nested in WRF horizontal grid to match the highly non-uniform spatial distribution of the mountain glaciers, (2) revising the radiation flux at the glacier surface considering the surrounding terrain. We use the projections of five Earth system models for CMIP5 rcp45 and GeoMIP G4 scenarios to drive the WRF and CaMa-Flood models. The G4 scenario, which uses stratospheric aerosols to reduce the incoming shortwave while applying the rcp4.5 greenhouse gas forcing, starts stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection at a rate of 5 Tg per year over the period 2020-2069. The ensemble projections suggest relatively slower glacier mass loss rates and reduced river discharge at Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions under geoengineering scenario by stratospheric aerosol injection.

  16. Progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are believed to be red supergiant (RSG) stars, but there is much disparity in the literature concerning their mass at core collapse and therefore on the main sequence. Here, we model the SN radiation arising from the low-energy explosion of RSG stars of 12, 25 and 27 M⊙ on the main sequence and formed through single star evolution. Despite the narrow range in ejecta kinetic energy (2.5-4.2 × 1050 erg) in our model set, the SN observables from our three models are significantly distinct, reflecting the differences in progenitor structure (e.g. surface radius, H-rich envelope mass and He-core mass). Our higher mass RSG stars give rise to Type II SNe that tend to have bluer colours at early times, a shorter photospheric phase, and a faster declining V-band light curve (LC) more typical of Type II-linear SNe, in conflict with the LC plateau observed for low-luminosity SNe II. The complete fallback of the CO core in the low-energy explosions of our high-mass RSG stars prevents the ejection of any 56Ni (nor any core O or Si), in contrast to low-luminosity SNe II-P, which eject at least 0.001 M⊙ of 56Ni. In contrast to observations, Type II SN models from higher mass RSGs tend to show an H α absorption that remains broad at late times (due to a larger velocity at the base of the H-rich envelope). In agreement with the analyses of pre-explosion photometry, we conclude that low-luminosity SNe II-P likely arise from low-mass rather than high-mass RSG stars.

  17. The Climate Effect of the Topographies at the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Y.; Shi, Z.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau play a crucial role in the formation and evolution of the Asian monsoon-interior aridity climate system. However, the climate effect of other relatively smaller topographies receives less attention. Based on high-resolved general circulation models, we conducted a series of sensitive experiments as with/without mountains, which include the Mongolian Plateau and the Tian Shan Mountains. The numerical simulations reveal the important impacts of the mountain ranges at the northern margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Compared to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau, the uplift of the Mongolian Plateau is essential for the establishment of the strong Siberian High. The East Asian winter monsoon and the westerly jet over the North Pacific Ocean are also significantly strengthened. At present, the Tian Shan Mountains geographically separate the arid interior Asia to the west and east sub-regions. However, the arid west sub-region (Central Asia) and the east sub-region (arid northwestern China) was connected as one large arid region before the uplift of the Tian Shan Mountains. The large arid interior land shares the same precipitation seasonality, with most rains fall in spring and winter while lowest precipitation in summer. After the uplift of the Tian Shan, the large arid region is divided into the west and east sub-regions by the wetter uplifted mountain ranges. More importantly, the precipitation seasonality in the east of the Tian Shan is reversed to be the summer-peak type, which is opposite to that in the Central Asia. The precipitation alteration corresponds well with the change of vertical motion. By the conservation of potential vorticity, the atmosphere stationary waves are modulated. Thus, the remote East Asian monsoon is also modulated. Though enhanced southerly wind blows over East Asia, the monsoon precipitation over the east coast of China and subtropical western Pacific Ocean is significantly reduced as an anticyclonic circulation appears

  18. Patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yujing; Yang, Xian; Tang, Zhiyao

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness and the underlying mechanisms regulating these patterns have long been the central issues in biogeography and macroecology. Phylogenetic community structure is a result of combined effects of contemporary ecological interactions, environmental filtering, and evolutionary history, and it links community ecology with biogeography and trait evolution. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provides a good opportunity to test the influence of contemporary climate on shaping species richness because of its unique geological history, cold climate, and high biodiversity. In this study, based on high-resolution distributions of ˜9000 vascular plant species, we explored how species richness and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants correlate with climates on the highest (and species rich) plateau on the Earth. The results showed that most of the vascular plants were distributed on the eastern part of the plateau; there was a strong association between species richness and climate, even after the effects of habitat heterogeneity were controlled. However, the responses of richness to climate remarkably depended on life-forms. Richness of woody plants showed stronger climatic associations than that of herbaceous plants; energy and water availability together regulated richness pattern of woody plants; whereas water availability predominantly regulated richness pattern of herbaceous plants. The phylogenetic structure of vascular species clustered in most areas of the plateau, suggesting that rapid speciation and environment filtering dominated the assembly of communities on the plateau. We further propose that biodiversity conservation in this area should better take into account ecological features for different life-forms and phylogenetic lineages.

  19. Aeolian processes during the Holocene in Gannan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Cheng, T.; Li, S.; Liang, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian desertification occurring in the Tibetan Plateau has received attention recently for it has become a severe environmental problem by accelerating the grassland degradation and eco-environment damage. The Gannan Region is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau with a mean altitude of 3500m. It is highly sensitive to global environmental change and human disturbance. Serious soil erosion and desertification and extensive land degradation have caused heavy eco-environmental impacts. To investigate the evolution of the desertification in Holocene in the Plateau is of great importance for understanding the desertification trend under the global changes in the Tibetan Plateau. Loess and aeolian sands is a key geological archive related to desertification processes and the past environment changes. In this study a typical 8.5m-thick loess-sands profile named MQQ, was selected at the Maqu city. It is situated on the first terrace (T1) of the Yellow River. Detailed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of bulk organic matter content has shown the Aeolian sediments of the MQQ section occurring since the early Holocene. the mass-specific frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd) and grainsize records show a clear upward increase in the contents of superparamagnetic grains and fine fractions in grain size, which indicates a gradual wetting trend during the Holocene.The sediment rates change from very high in the early Holocene to low values after 8.2 ka. The wetting process can be divided into three steps: 10.0-8.2 ka, 8.2-3.0 ka and 3.0-present. It indicates that the climate in the eastern Tibetan Plateau was dry during the early Holocene. After that the climate was getting wet gradually. The variations of the westerlies and the Asian monsoon may cause the environmental change in this region.

  20. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  1. Perfluorinated carboxylic and sulphonic acids in surface water media from the regions of Tibetan Plateau: Indirect evidence on photochemical degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Falandysz, Jerzy; Taniyasu, Sachi; Hui, Ge; Jurkiewicz, Gabriela; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lam, Paul K S

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated surfactants and repellents are synthetic substances that have found numerous industrial and customer applications. Due to their persistence, at least two groups of these substances-perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs)-are diffused widely in the environment. It is hypothesized that the Tibetan Plateau, is one of few unique places on the Earth, due to its topography, specifically the vast space and high elevation above sea level, geographic location, climate, high solar radiation, lack of industry, little urbanization and general lack of significant direct sources of pollution. There it is believed possible to gain an insight into atmospheric fate (possible photochemical degradation of higher molecular mass and formation of lower molecular mass PFCAs and PFSAs) of PFASs under un-disturbed environmental conditions. Ultratrace analytical method for PFCAs and PFSAs and use of transportation and field blanks, laboratory blanks and isotopically labelled surrogates for recovery control has allowed the determination of nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids and six perfluorinated sulfonic acids at ultra-trace levels in water based samples from the alpine dimension regions of the Tibetan Plateau, the eastern slope of Minya Konka peak at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and also from the city of Chengdu from the lowland of the Sichuan Province in China. The specific compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs and low levels of pollution with those compounds were observed in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The fingerprint of the compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs in water samples in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the alpine region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau may be explained by the result of photochemical degradation with dealkylation of longer chain

  2. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago

  3. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of  ∼ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015, which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau

  4. Relationship between gullying and landslides within the Barlad Plateau, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2016-04-01

    Located in the eastern Romania and extending on 8200 km2 the Barlad Plateau is considered the most typical subunit of the Moldavian Plateau. The sedimentary Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers, inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone are gently dipping toward S-SE as homoclinal structure. Land degradation through soil erosion, gullying and landslides represent the most important environmental threat in the region. By using both the classical research methods such as repeated field surveys and mapping, mathematical-statistical processing as well as the present-day methods based on the GIS software it was possible to precisely measure and evaluate the gully erosion rates and triggered landslides during the last two centuries, especially with a very high accuracy since 1960. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by gullying. Generally, by combining the areal growth of both gullying and new landslides within the selected study catchments, it is noticeable that 62 % of the total recent land degradation occurred during the last 55 years, with the remainder pre-1960. In addition, half of the gully areal growth occurred since 1961 but the new triggered landslides amount over three-quarters of the total area under landslides. This asymmetrical distribution reveals that usually a preparing time lag of tens of years is required for triggering landslides by gullying and this pattern depicts the common mechanism for landslide development. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNDI-UEFISCDI, Project number PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-0975.

  5. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Chakravarty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU(2 Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  6. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng

    2017-01-15

    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg -1 dw) and HCHs (393ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg -1 ) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Colorado Plateau III: integrating research and resources management for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.

  9. Phased uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau inferred from a pollen record from Yinchuan Basin, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinling; Hao, Qingzhen; Wei, Mingjian; Andreev, Andrei A; Wang, Junping; Tian, Yanyan; Li, Xiaolei; Cai, Maotang; Hu, Jianmin; Shi, Wei

    2017-12-21

    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) significantly affected both regional and global climates. Although there is evidence that the Tibetan Plateau experienced uplift during the Quaternary, the timing and amplitude are poorly constrained. However, the increased availability of long sedimentary records of vegetation change provides an opportunity to reconstruct the timing of the uplift. Here, we present a well-dated, high-resolution pollen record for the last 2.6 Ma from the Yinchuan Basin, which was incised by the Yellow River with its source in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Variations in the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio of the reveal changes in moisture conditions in the Yinchuan Basin during glacial-interglacial cycles, as well as a gradual long-term aridification trend which is consistent with progressive global cooling. However, fluctuations in the percentages of Picea and Abies differ from those of the A/C ratio and we propose that they reflect changes in the vegetation and environment of high elevation areas. The Picea and Abies records reveal two phases of increased representation, at 2.1 and 1.2 Ma, which may indicate phases in the uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Thus, they provide independent evidence for the timing of the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during the Quaternary.

  10. Radiation levels of radon gas and its progeny in labor activities of mine interior and their effects in the Bolivian workers to 4000 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani M, R.; Claros J, J. T.; Vasquez A, R.; Chirveches, H.; Weyer, J.; Arnold, D.

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study are guided to determine the radiation charges to those that the mining workers are exposed, in order to assume the appropriate protection measures. The first phase of this study begun in March of 2009, with the support of the Freiberg University (Germany), has been preceded of different scientific events and preparatory measurements in the Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias (UATF) and Cerro Rico de Potosi. Experimentally the presence of radon gas has been quantified by means of measurements in 7 mines of Cerro Rico de Potosi, the COMSUR mines (today SINCHY WAYRA) and the state mining company COMIBOL (Oruro-Huanuni), using the measurement equipment Alpha Zaeller-2 (AZ-2). The Radon-222 that emerges of the interior of the fractured rocks and/or loose rocks, with more intensity if they are fresh, is inhaled by the mining worker. Considering the breathing parameters (1, 2 m 3 /h), recommended by the ICRP, was observed that the miners breathing of the region is more bigger, due to the high effort that they develop in the work. Therefore, the calculation results of the concentration of the radiation activity of Radon, allow assuming that this is the causing of the damage to the lungs in the human body. Outdoor or in superficial tunnels, the impact is low or imperceptible. But when the process is verified to more depths in an underground mine, or not properly ventilated, the concentration as well as the exposure dose to the radiation of radon gas is increased to amazing values. Assuming that the maximum permissible limit is of 20 mSv, the study has established some values that exceeded this limit in the Bolivian mining, not controlled in this field until now. The component of the medical study, through exams: hematology and spirometric, notes that, by the complex inhalation of: air + powders + Radon gas and others in his working environment, contribute strongly to the generation of lethal illnesses in the mining worker, as the Poliglobulia

  11. Tectonic History and Deep Structure of the Demerara Plateau from Combined Wide-Angle and Reflection Seismic Data and Plate Kinematic Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Museur, T.; Roest, W. R.; Graindorge, D.; Chauvet, F.; Loncke, L.; Basile, C.; Poetisi, E.; Deverchere, J.; Lebrun, J. F.; Perrot, J.; Heuret, A.

    2017-12-01

    Many transform margins have associated intermediate depth marginal plateaus, which are commonly located between two oceanic basins. The Demerara plateau is located offshore Surinam and French Guiana. Plate kinematic reconstructions show that the plateau is located between the central and equatorial Atlantic in a position conjugate to the Guinean Plateau. In the fall of 2016, the MARGATS cruise acquired geophysical data along the 400 km wide Demerara plateau. The main objective of the cruise was to image the deep structure of the Demerara plateau and to study its tectonic history. A set of 4 combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles was acquired along the plateau, using 80 ocean-bottom seismometers, a 3 km long seismic streamer and a 8000 cu inch tuned airgun array. Forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data on a profile, located in the eastern part of the plateau and oriented in a NE-SW direction, images the crustal structure of the plateau, the transition zone and the neighbouring crust of oceanic origin, up to a depth of 40 km. The plateau itself is characterised by a crust of 30 km thickness, subdivided into three distinct layers. However, the velocities and velocity gradients do not fit typical continental crust, with a lower crustal layer showing untypically high velocities and an upper layer having a steep velocity gradient. From this model we propose that the lowermost layer is probably formed from volcanic underplated material and that the upper crustal layer likely consists of the corresponding extrusive volcanic material, forming thick seaward-dipping reflector sequences on the plateau. A basement high is imaged at the foot of the slope and forms the ocean-continent transition zone. Further oceanward, a 5-6 km thick crust is imaged with velocities and velocity gradients corresponding to a thin oceanic crust. A compilation of magnetic data from the MARGATS and 3 previous cruises shows a high amplitude magnetic anomaly along the northern

  12. A study of cloud microphysics and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau by radar observations and cloud-resolving model simulations: Cloud Microphysics over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenhua [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sui, Chung-Hsiung [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei Taiwan; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hu, Zhiqun [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhong, Lingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China

    2016-11-27

    Cloud microphysical properties and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique because of the high terrains, clean atmosphere, and sufficient water vapor. With dual-polarization precipitation radar and cloud radar measurements during the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III), the simulated microphysics and precipitation by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) microphysics and other microphysical schemes are investigated through a typical plateau rainfall event on 22 July 2014. Results show that the WRF-CAMS simulation reasonably reproduces the spatial distribution of 24-h accumulated precipitation, but has limitations in simulating time evolution of precipitation rates. The model-calculated polarimetric radar variables have biases as well, suggesting bias in modeled hydrometeor types. The raindrop sizes in convective region are larger than those in stratiform region indicated by the small intercept of raindrop size distribution in the former. The sensitivity experiments show that precipitation processes are sensitive to the changes of warm rain processes in condensation and nucleated droplet size (but less sensitive to evaporation process). Increasing droplet condensation produces the best area-averaged rain rate during weak convection period compared with the observation, suggesting a considerable bias in thermodynamics in the baseline simulation. Increasing the initial cloud droplet size causes the rain rate reduced by half, an opposite effect to that of increasing droplet condensation.

  13. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  14. Control of electron localization to isolate and enhance molecular harmonic plateau in asymmetric HeH2+ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ruifeng; Yu, Chao; Wang, Yunhui; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation from the asymmetric molecular ion HeH 2+ exposed to intense laser fields was investigated by quantum wave packet calculations in which the initial wave packet of HeH 2+ was prepared in the first excited 2pσ state. The calculated molecular harmonic plateau at low frequencies was effectively isolated and enhanced by adjusting the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the laser field. Furthermore, double-well model, time-dependent electronic density, electronic state population, and time-frequency analyses were presented to explain the underlying mechanism of the efficient isolated molecular plateau. By taking advantage of the CEP effect to control the electronic dynamics, this isolated molecular plateau can be used to generate high-intensity single attosecond pulses.

  15. Bed-material entrainment and associated transportation infrastructure problems in streams of the Edwards Plateau, central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation commonly builds and maintains low-water crossings (LWCs) over streams in the Edwards Plateau in Central Texas. LWCs are low-height structures, typically constructed of concrete and asphalt, that provide acceptable passage over seasonal rivers or streams with relatively low normal-depth flow. They are designed to accommodate flow by roadway overtopping during high-flow events. The streams of the Edwards Plateau are characterized by cobble- and gravel-sized bed material and highly variable flow regimes. Low base flows that occur most of the time occasionally are interrupted by severe floods. The floods entrain and transport substantial loads of bed material in the stream channels. As a result, LWCs over streams in the Edwards Plateau are bombarded and abraded by bed material during floods and periodically must be maintained or even replaced.

  16. The genomes of four novel begomoviruses and a new Sida micrantha mosaic virus strain from Bolivian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Patrícia Soares; Gotthardt, Diether; Schäfer, Benjamin; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Begomovirus is the largest genus within the family Geminiviridae and includes economically important plant DNA viruses infecting a broad range of plant species and causing devastating crop diseases, mainly in subtropical and tropical countries. Besides cultivated plants, many weeds act as virus reservoirs. Eight begomovirus isolates from Bolivian weeds were examined using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). An efficient, novel cloning strategy using limited Sau3A digestion to obtain tandem-repeat inserts allowed the sequencing of the complete genomes. The viruses were classified by phylogenetic analysis as typical bipartite New World begomoviruses. Four of them represented distinct new virus species, for which the names Solanum mosaic Bolivia virus, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2, and Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus are proposed. Three were variants of a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus (SimMV), SimMV-rho[BoVi07], SimMV-rho[Bo:CF1:07] and SimMV-rho[Bo:CF2:07], and one was a new variant of a previously described SimMV, SimMV-MGS2:07-Bo.

  17. The effects of community income inequality on health: Evidence from a randomized control trial in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Leonard, William R; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that poorer people have worse health than the better-off and, more controversially, that income inequality harms health. But causal interpretations suffer from endogeneity. We addressed the gap by using a randomized control trial among a society of forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Treatments included one-time unconditional income transfers (T1) to all households and (T2) only to the poorest 20% of households, with other villages as controls. We assessed the effects of income inequality, absolute income, and spillovers within villages on self-reported health, objective indicators of health and nutrition, and adults' substance consumption. Most effects came from relative income. Targeted transfers increased the perceived stress of participants in better-off households. Evidence suggests increased work efforts among better-off households when the lot of the poor improved, possibly due to a preference for rank preservation. The study points to new paths by which inequality might affect health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relating tree growth to rainfall in Bolivian rain forests: a test for six species using tree ring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2005-11-01

    Many tropical regions show one distinct dry season. Often, this seasonality induces cambial dormancy of trees, particularly if these belong to deciduous species. This will often lead to the formation of annual rings. The aim of this study was to determine whether tree species in the Bolivian Amazon region form annual rings and to study the influence of the total amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall on diameter growth. Ring widths were measured on stem discs of a total of 154 trees belonging to six rain forest species. By correlating ring width and monthly rainfall data we proved the annual character of the tree rings for four of our study species. For two other species the annual character was proved by counting rings on trees of known age and by radiocarbon dating. The results of the climate-growth analysis show a positive relationship between tree growth and rainfall in certain periods of the year, indicating that rainfall plays a major role in tree growth. Three species showed a strong relationship with rainfall at the beginning of the rainy season, while one species is most sensitive to the rainfall at the end of the previous growing season. These results clearly demonstrate that tree ring analysis can be successfully applied in the tropics and that it is a promising method for various research disciplines.

  19. Raman Identification of Pigments in Wall Paintings of the Colonial Period from Bolivian Churches in the Ruta De La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rúa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze and identify pigments and determine the palette of color in wall paintings from four churches of the Colonial Period, in the Bolivian highlands. The ancient churches Santiago de Callapa, Curahuara de Carangas, NuestraSeñora de Copacabana de Andamarca and San José de Soracachi were constructed during the 17th and 18th centuries, around the important colonial Ruta de la Plata, between Potosí city and Arica harbor on the Pacific coast of South America. Most pigments used in the wall paintings correspond to inorganic minerals as well as to organic colorants. Fully chlorinated copper phthalocyanine (green, copper phthalocyanine (blue, β-naphthol (yellow and benzoimidazolone (red, were identified in the corresponding colored areas suggesting subsequent recent interventions or restorations. Ground layer materials were also characterized. The present results allow for discussion of the pictorial techniques used in the Andean highland during the colonial period and allow conservators and restorers to make important decisions regarding the type of intervention to perform in the case of these important historical and patrimonial monuments.

  20. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  1. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

  2. Are ecologically important tree species the most useful? A case study from indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have argued that indigenous peoples preferably use the most apparent plant species, particularly for medicinal uses. However, the association between the ecological importance of a species and its usefulness remains unclear. In this paper we quantify such association for six use categories (firewood, construction, materials, food, medicines and other uses). We collected data on the uses of 58 tree species, as reported by 93 informants in 22 villages in the Tsimane' territory (Bolivian Amazon). We calculated the ecological importance of the same species by deriving their importance value index (IVI) in 48 0.1-ha old-growth forest plots. Matching both data sets, we found a positive relation between the IVI of a species and its overall use value (UV) as well as with its UV for construction and materials. We found a negative relation between IVI and UV for species that were reportedly used for medicine and food uses, and no clear pattern for the other categories. We hypothesize that species used for construction or crafting purposes because of their physical properties are more easily substitutable than species used for medicinal or edible purposes because of their chemical properties.

  3. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

  4. The socioeconomic factors that facilitate or constrain restoration management: Watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow (bofedal) restoration in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brett D; Cleveland, David A

    2018-03-01

    Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration. The study area is a successful watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow restoration project in the Bolivian Andes that began in 1992. We used household survey methods (n = 237) to compare the communities that had conducted the most restoration management with those that had conducted the least. Results suggest that several factors facilitate investments in land restoration, including aligning restoration objectives with local motives and perceived benefits, ensuring incentives are in place to stimulate long-term investments, conflict resolution, private land tenancy, and accessibility. However, higher levels of organization and active leadership can facilitate land restoration on communal lands. Increased livelihood benefits from land restoration helped slow the rate of rural to urban migration, with 24.5% outmigration in the highest restoration management communities compared to 62.1% in the lowest restoration management communities. Results suggest that land restoration projects that integrate community development into project planning and implementation will achieve greater success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study Among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife populations. This paper explores the relationship between cultural change, or detachment from traditional culture, and hunting behaviour among the Tsimane', an indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. We interviewed 344 hunters in 39 villages to estimate their hunting activity and the degree of cultural change among them. We used multilevel analyses to assess the relationships between three different proxies for cultural change at the individual level (schooling, visits to a market town, and detachment from tradition, and the following two independent variables: 1 probability of engaging in hunting (i.e., hunting activity and 2 hunting efficiency with catch per unit effort (CPUE. We found a statistically significant negative association between schooling and hunting activity. Hunting efficiency (CPUE biomass/km was positively associated with visits to a market town, when holding other co-variates in the model constant. Other than biophysical factors, such as game abundance, hunting is also conditioned by social factors (e.g., schooling that shape the hunters' cultural system and impel them to engage in hunting or deter them from doing so.

  6. Predicting and setting conservation priorities for Bolivian mammals based on biological correlates of the risk of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda, Diego A; Simonetti, Javier A

    2015-06-01

    The recognition that growing proportions of species worldwide are endangered has led to the development of comparative analyses to elucidate why some species are more prone to extinction than others. Understanding factors and patterns of species vulnerability might provide an opportunity to develop proactive conservation strategies. Such comparative analyses are of special concern at national scales because this is the scale at which most conservation initiatives take place. We applied powerful ensemble learning models to test for biological correlates of the risk of decline among the Bolivian mammals to understand species vulnerability at a national scale and to predict the population trend for poorly known species. Risk of decline was nonrandomly distributed: higher proportions of large-sized taxa were under decline, whereas small-sized taxa were less vulnerable. Body mass, mode of life (i.e., aquatic, terrestrial, volant), geographic range size, litter size, home range, niche specialization, and reproductive potential were strongly associated with species vulnerability. Moreover, we found interacting and nonlinear effects of key traits on the risk of decline of mammals at a national scale. Our model predicted 35 data-deficient species in decline on the basis of their biological vulnerability, which should receive more attention in order to prevent their decline. Our results highlight the relevance of comparative analysis at relatively narrow geographical scales, reveal previously unknown factors related to species vulnerability, and offer species-by-species outcomes that can be used to identify targets for conservation, especially for insufficiently known species. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Olfaction and environment: Tsimane' of Bolivian rainforest have lower threshold of odor detection than industrialized German people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensitivity varies between individuals. However, data regarding cross-cultural and inter-group differences are scarce. We compared the thresholds of odor detection of the traditional society of Tsimane' (native Amazonians of the Bolivian rainforest; n = 151 and people living in Dresden (Germany; n = 286 using "Sniffin' Sticks" threshold subtest. Tsimane' detected n-butanol at significantly lower concentrations than the German subjects. The distribution of thresholds of the Tsimane' was very specific, with 25% of Tsimane' obtaining better results in the olfactory test than any member of the German group. These data suggest that differences in olfactory sensitivity seem to be especially salient between industrialized and non-industrialized populations inhabiting different environmental conditions. We hypothesize that the possible sources of such differences are: (i the impact of pollution which impairs the olfactory abilities of people from industrialized countries; (ii better training of olfaction because of the higher importance of smell in traditional populations; (iii environmental pressures shaping olfactory abilities in these populations.

  8. Health and adult productivity: the relation between adult nutrition, helminths, and agricultural, hunting, and fishing yields in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S; Rosinger, A; Leonard, W R; Reyes-García, V

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease and nutritional stress have both been associated with reductions in adult work productivity and work capacity in the context of wage labor, but less research has investigated their effects among groups relying on more traditional subsistence practices of horticulture and foraging. In this article, we examine the relations among measures of adult nutritional status (BMI, skinfold measurements, and fat-free mass) and infection (presence of soil transmitted helminth infections) and measures of adult work productivity. As part of a larger panel study among Tsimane', a foraging-horticulturalist group in the Bolivian Amazon, health surveys, anthropometric information, and the quantity of products (both crops and game) brought into the household were collected for 320 Tsimane' adults over a four-month period in 2003. In addition, a single fecal sample was collected for a sub-sample of 86 adults. Our analysis shows mixed associations between either BMI or the presence of parasitism and reported adult productivity. Muscularity was not clearly related to adult productivity. In contrast, body fatness (Skinfold z-score) was inversely associated with the average quantity of fish and game brought into the household, especially for men. These findings suggest that the effects of adult infection and nutritional stress may be less clearly identified outside of the context of wage labor. Further research linking adult physical activity levels and metabolic rates to productivity in diverse contexts is needed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  10. Importance of dynamic topography in Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region has the highest topography in the world. Various studies have been done to understand the mechanisms responsible for sustaining this high topography. However, the existence of dynamic topography in this region is still uncertain, though there have been some studies exploring the role of channel flow in lower crust leading to some topography. We investigated the role of radial mantle flow in this region by studying the relationship between geoid and topography. High geoid-to-topography ratios (GTR) were observed along the Himalayas suggesting deeper compensation mechanisms. However, further north, the geoid and topography relationship became a lot more complex as high as well as low GTR values were observed. The high GTR regions also coincided with area of high filtered free air gravity anomalies, indicating dynamic support. We also looked at the spectral components of gravity, geoid and topography, and calculated response functions to distinguish between different compensation mechanisms. We estimated the average elastic thickness of the whole region to be around 40 km from coherence and admittance studies. The GTR and admittance-coherence studies suggest deeper mass anomalies playing a role in supporting the topography along Himalayas and the area between Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements recorded in snow from the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region, southern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2013-08-01

    In May 2009, snowpit samples were collected from a high-elevation glacier in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region on the southern Tibetan Plateau. A set of elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was analyzed to investigate the concentrations, deposition fluxes of trace elements, and the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources deposited on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Concentrations of most of the trace elements in snowpit samples from the Zhadang glacier are significantly lower than those examined from central Asia (e.g., eastern Tien Shan), with higher concentrations during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. The elements of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni display low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), while Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb show high EF values in the snow samples, suggesting anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote, high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Together with the fact that the concentration levels of such elements in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region are significantly higher than those observed on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, our results suggest that the high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau may be more sensitive to variations in the anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric trace elements than that in the central Himalayas. Moreover, the major difference between deposition fluxes estimated in our snow samples and those recently measured at Nam Co Station for elements such as Cr and Cu may suggest that atmospheric deposition of some of trace elements reconstructed from snowpits and ice cores could be grossly underestimated on the Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the distribution of Stipa purpurea across the Tibetan Plateau via the MaxEnt model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baibing; Sun, Jian

    2018-02-21

    The ecosystems across Tibetan Plateau are changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, which has caused substantial changes in spatial and temporal environmental patterns. Stipa purpurea, as a dominant herbsage resource in alpine steppe, has a great influence on animal husbandry in the Tibetan Plateau. Global warming has been forecasted to continue in the future (2050s, 2070s), questioning the future distribution of S. purpurea and its response to climate change. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling, due to its multiple advantages (e.g. uses presence-only data, performs well with incomplete data, and requires small sample sizes and gaps), has been used to understand species environment relationships and predict species distributions across locations that have not been sampled. Annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, temperature seasonality, altitude, and precipitation during the driest month, significantly affected the distribution of S. purpurea. Only 0.70% of the Tibetan Plateau area included a very highly suitable habitat (habitat suitability [HS] = 0.8-1.0). Highly suitable habitat (HS = 0.6-0.8), moderately suitable habitat (HS = 0.4-0.6), and unsuitable habitat (HS = 0.2-0.4) occupied 6.20, 14.30 and 22.40% of the Tibetan Plateau area, respectively, and the majority (56.40%) of the Tibetan Plateau area constituted a highly unsuitable habitat (HS = 0-0.2). In addition, the response curves of species ecological suitability simulated by generalized additive model nearly corresponded with the response curves generated by the MaxEnt model. At a temporal scale, the habitat suitability of S. purpurea tends to increase from the 1990s to 2050s, but decline from the 2050s to 2070s. At a spatial scale, the future distribution of S. purpurea will not exhibit sweeping changes and will remain in the central and southeastern regions of the Tibetan Plateau. These results benefit the local animal husbandry and provide evidence for establishing

  13. Land–biosphere–atmosphere interactions over the Tibetan plateau from MODIS observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Menglin S; Mullens, Terrence J

    2012-01-01

    Eleven years (2000–10) of monthly observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show the diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations of skin temperature over the Tibetan plateau (75–100°E, 27–45°N) at 0.05° × 0.05° resolution. A slight warming trend is observed during this period of time, although the relatively short duration of the observation makes such a trend uncertain. More importantly, using the most recent climatology of land skin temperature, spatially high correlation coefficients are found among normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), water vapor and cloud relations, indicating that the land surface, vegetation and atmosphere influence one another. Such a quantitative understanding of these relationships at high spatial resolution would be helpful for modeling the biosphere–atmosphere–land surface interaction processes over the Tibetan plateau. (letter)

  14. Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau: Metal contents of four selected rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiang; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Duo Bu; Gjessing, Egil T.

    2008-01-01

    The water used by 85% of the Asian population originates in Tibetan Plateau. During April and May of 2006, water samples were collected from four major Asian rivers in the Plateau (i.e. the Salween, Mekong, Yangtze River and Yarlung Tsangpo) and analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Li, Mn, Al, Fe, Mg and Hg. The results showed that elements such as Mg were rather high in Tibetan rivers, giving a mean electrical conductance of 36 mS/m. In a few locations, the results also showed relatively high concentrations of Al and Fe (>1 mg/L). However, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Cr were generally low. Contamination with Pb was identified at a few locations in the Salween and Ni at a few sites in the Yangtze River. - For the first time, total dissolved metal contents in source water of four major Asian rivers were evaluated at the same time

  15. Quantum critical behaviour of the plateau-insulator transition in the quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A de; Ponomarenko, L A; Galistu, G; Lang, D T N de; Pruisken, A M M; Zeitler, U; Maude, D

    2006-01-01

    High-field magnetotransport experiments provide an excellent tool to investigate the plateau-insulator phase transition in the integral quantum Hall effect. Here we review recent low-temperature high-field magnetotransport studies carried out on several InGaAs/InP heterostructures and an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. We find that the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx near the critical filling factor ν c ∼ 0.5 follows the universal scaling law ρ xx (ν, T) ∝ exp(-Δν/(T/T 0 ) κ ), where Δν = ν-ν c . The critical exponent κ equals 0.56 ± 0.02, which indicates that the plateau-insulator transition falls in a non-Fermi liquid universality class

  16. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Gregory S; Graves, Patricia M; Sallau, Adamu; Eigege, Abel; Emukah, Emmanuel; Patterson, Amy E; Ajiji, Joseph; Okorofor, Iheanyichi; Oji, Oji Uka; Umar, Mary; Alphonsus, Kal; Damen, James; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ozaki, Masayo; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Obiezu, Josephine; Eneiramo, Solomon; Okoro, Chinyere; McClintic-Doyle, Renn; Oresanya, Olusola; Miri, Emmanuel; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O

    2014-03-26

    Nigeria suffers the world's largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country's aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%-40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%-42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%-81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%-63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%-13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%-3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%-20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use-especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden.

  17. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of Sette Comuni Plateau aquifer (Veneto Region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Franco; Franceschini, Giuliana; Zini, Luca; Aurighi, Marina

    2008-09-01

    Maps illustrating the different degrees of vulnerability within a given area are integral to environmental protection and management policies. The assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas is difficult since the type and stage of karst development and the related underground discharge behavior are difficult to determine and quantify. Geographic Information Systems techniques are applied to the evaluation of the vulnerability of an aquifer in the alpine karst area of the Sette Comuni Plateau, in the Veneto Region of northern Italy. The water resources of the studied aquifer are of particular importance to the local communities. This aquifer must therefore be protected from both inappropriate use as well as possible pollution. The SINTACS and SINTACS P(RO) K(ARST) vulnerability assessment methods have been utilized here to create the vulnerability map. SINTACS P(RO) K(ARST) is an adaptation of the parametric managerial model (SINTACS) to karst hydrostructures. The vulnerability map reveals vast zones (81% of the analyzed areas) with a high degree of vulnerability. The presence of well-developed karst structures in these highly vulnerable areas facilitate water percolation, thereby enhancing the groundwater vulnerability risk. Only 1.5 of the studied aquifer have extremely high-vulnerability levels, however these areas include all of the major springs utilized for human consumption. This vulnerability map of the Sette Comuni Plateau aquifer is an indispensable tool for both the effective management of water resources and as support to environmental planning in the Sette Comuni Plateau area.

  18. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau crustal thickness derived from EGM2008 and CRSUT2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most complex region for crustal thickness inversion, while high-resolution earth gravity model (EGM makes it possible to obtain high precision gravity anomaly, which is a key parameter to depict the Earth’s inner structure in geodesy domain. On the basis of this principle, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with EGM2008 and SRTM6. 0 by efficient high-degree spherical harmonic synthesis algorithm. In order to obtain the gravity anomaly caused by Moho density mutant, the noises caused by the topography was removed by wavelet details. Then, the crustal thickness was corrected on the basis of CRUST 2. 0 with the deep-large-scale single density interface formula. The inversion result indicates that the crustal thickness in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is between 50 km and 75 km, which is in correspondence with the recent science research result. Compared with the 2 degree CRUST 2. 0 model, the spatial resolution of crustal thickness in our research can reach 40 arc minutes. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the inversed crustal thickness and topography, which can prove the effectiveness of Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model in gravity reduction.

  19. “Our Grandparents Used to Say That We Are Certainly Ancient People, We Come From the Chullpas”: The Bolivian Chipayas’ Mythistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Sáenz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chipaya people live in the Bolivian Altiplano. Their ecological, economic, and social isolation forms the basis of a strong ethnic consciousness present in their mythistory. This consciousness is closely related to the present, explaining and justifying their way of life and their tense relationship with their Aymara neighbors. In the story, mythic and historical discourse is fused into “mythistory” in order to construct their “ethnic identity,” concepts that provide the article’s theoretical framework.

  20. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  1. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang

    2015-09-02

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998-2013 (0.25 °C decade(-1)), compared with that during 1980-1997 (0.21 °C decade(-1)). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud-radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud-radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Fate of Glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau by 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, K.

    2017-12-01

    As the third polar on the Earth, the Tibetan plateau holds more than 40,000 glaciers which have experienced a rapid retreat in recent decades. The variability of equilibrium line altitude (ELA) indicates expansion and wastage of glacier directly. Here we simulated the ELA variability in the Tibetan Plateau based on a full surface energy and mass balance model. The simulation results are agreement with the observations. The ELAs have risen at a rate of 2-8m/a since 1970 throughout the Plateau, especially in the eastern Plateau where the ELAs have risen to or over the top altitude of glacier, indicating the glaciers are accelerating to melting over there. Two glaciers, XD glacier in the center of the Plateau and Qiyi glacier in the Qilian Mountain, are chosen to simulate its future ELA variability in the scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 given by IPCC. The results show the ELAs will arrive to its maximum in around 2040 in RCP2.6, while the ELAs will be over the top altitude of glaciers in 2035-2045 in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, suggesting the glaciers in the eastern Plateau will be melting until the disappear of the glaciers by the end of 2100.

  3. Summer rainfall over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau controlled by deep convection over the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenhao; Lin, Yanluan; Wright, Jonathon S.; Ming, Yi; Xie, Yuanyu; Wang, Bin; Luo, Yong; Huang, Wenyu; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Lide; Peng, Yiran; Xu, Fanghua

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of precipitation and moisture transport over the Tibetan Plateau for glacier mass balance, river runoff and local ecology, changes in these quantities remain highly uncertain and poorly understood. Here we use observational data and model simulations to explore the close relationship between summer rainfall variability over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau (SWTP) and that over central-eastern India (CEI), which exists despite the separation of these two regions by the Himalayas. We show that this relationship is maintained primarily by ‘up-and-over' moisture transport, in which hydrometeors and moisture are lifted by convective storms over CEI and the Himalayan foothills and then swept over the SWTP by the mid-tropospheric circulation, rather than by upslope flow over the Himalayas. Sensitivity simulations confirm the importance of up-and-over transport at event scales, and an objective storm classification indicates that this pathway accounts for approximately half of total summer rainfall over the SWTP. PMID:26948491

  4. Pseudoarthrosis of medial tibial plateau fracture-role of alignment procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devgan Ashish

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Nonunion in tibial plateau fractures is very rare. Limited literature is available on Pubmed search on intraarticular tibial nonunion. Most of the cases reported have been following failed surgical treatment and none was neglected fractures. Three patients of isolated and neglected medial tibial plateau nonunion with almost similar demo-graphic profile are reported in this paper. All the three pa-tients were managed by minimally invasive compression fixation using lag screws supplemented with limb realign-ment procedure of high tibial osteotomy. We discussed the injury mechanism, management and rehabilitation in such cases and reviewed the available literature regarding such a presentation. Key words: Fracture healing; Tibial fractures; Frac-ture fixation; Osteotomy

  5. Radiocarbon reservoir between charred seeds and fish bone in Neolithic sites, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, A.; Dong, G.; Ren, L.

    2017-12-01

    Many efforts have been done to understand the reservoir effect of Qinghai Lake, yet no agreement has been reached. Five archaeological sites, located around the junction between the estuary of Rivers and Qinghai Lake, are the earliest Neolithic Age sites in the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau (QTP), which is critical for understanding patterns of prehistoric human inhabitation in the high plateau extreme environments. This study compares radiocarbon dates of fish bones and terrestrial plant remains uncovered from the same archaeological strata to see whether there was reservoir effect reference to reliable data. Results demonstrate that there were reservoir effects ranging from 300 to 600 years back to 3600 years ago, nevertheless, no reservoir was observed of the modern fish. Besides, stable isotopic analysis illustrated that modern fish consumed similar food to those of millennias ago.

  6. Climatic Changes on Tibetan Plateau Based on Ice Core Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, T.

    2008-12-01

    Climatic changes have been reconstructed for the Tibetan Plateau based on ice core records. The Guliya ice core on the Tibetan Plateau presents climatic changes in the past 100,000 years, thus is comparative with that from Vostok ice core in Antarctica and GISP2 record in Arctic. These three records share an important common feature, i.e., our climate is not stable. It is also evident that the major patterns of climatic changes are similar on the earth. Why does climatic change over the earth follow a same pattern? It might be attributed to solar radiation. We found that the cold periods correspond to low insolation periods, and warm periods to high insolation periods. We found abrupt climatic change in the ice core climatic records, which presented dramatic temperature variation of as much as 10 °C in 50 or 60 years. Our major challenge in the study of both climate and environment is that greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 are possibly amplifying global warming, though at what degree remains unclear. One of the ways to understand the role of greenhouse gases is to reconstruct the past greenhouse gases recorded in ice. In 1997, we drilled an ice core from 7100 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas to reconstruct methane record. Based on the record, we found seasonal cycles in methane variation. In particular, the methane concentration is high in summer, suggestiing active methane emission from wet land in summer. Based on the seasonal cycle, we can reconstruct the methane fluctuation history in the past 500 years. The most prominent feature of the methane record in the Himalayan ice core is the abrupt increase since 1850 A.D.. This is closely related to the industrial revolution worldwide. We can also observe sudden decrease in methane concentration during the World War I and World War II. It implies that the industrial revolution has dominated the atmospheric greenhouse gas emission for about 100 years. Besides, the average methane concentration in the Himalayan ice core is

  7. Relationships between climate and growth of Gymnocypris selincuoensis in the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Juan; Chen, Yifeng; He, Dekui; Ding, Chengzhi

    2015-04-01

    The consequences of climate change are becoming increasingly evident in the Tibetan Plateau, represented by glaciers retreating and lakes expanding, but the biological response to climate change by plateau-lake ecosystems is poorly known. In this study, we applied dendrochronology methods to develop a growth index chronology with otolith increment widths of Selincuo naked carp (Gymnocypris selincuoensis), which is an endemic species in Lake Selincuo (4530 m), and investigated the relationships between fish growth and climate variables (regional and global) in the last three decades. A correlation analysis and principle component regression analysis between regional climate factors and the growth index chronology indicated that the growth of G. selincuoensis was significantly and positively correlated with length of the growing season and temperature-related variables, particularly during the growing season. Most of global climate variables, which are relevant to the Asian monsoon and the midlatitude westerlies, such as El Nino Southern Oscillation Index, the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and North America Pattern, showed negative but not significant correlations with the annual growth of Selincuo naked carp. This may have resulted from the high elevation of the Tibetan Plateau and the high mountains surrounding this area. In comparison, the Pacific Decade Oscillation (PDO) negatively affected the growth of G. selincuoensis. The reason maybe that enhancement of the PDO can lead to cold conditions in this area. Taken together, the results indicate that the Tibetan Plateau fish has been affected by global climate change, particularly during the growing season, and global climate change likely has important effects on productivity of aquatic ecosystems in this area.

  8. Dendrochronological potential of the alpine shrub Rhododendron nivale on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Eckstein, Dieter

    2009-09-01

    Shrubs and dwarf shrubs are wider spread on the Tibetan Plateau than trees and hence offer a unique opportunity to expand the present dendrochronological network into extreme environments beyond the survival limit of trees. Alpine shrublands on the Tibetan Plateau are characterized by rhododendron species. The dendrochronological potential of one alpine rhododendron species and its growth response to the extreme environment on the south-east Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Twenty stem discs of the alpine snowy rhododendron (Rhododendron nivale) were collected close to the tongue of the Zuoqiupu Glacier in south-east Tibet, China. The skeleton plot technique was used for inter-comparison between samples to detect the growth pattern of each stem section. The ring-width chronology was developed by fitting a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope. Bootstrapping correlations were calculated between the standard chronology and monthly climate data. The wood of snowy rhododendron is diffuse-porous with evenly distributed small-diameter vessels. It has well-defined growth rings. Most stem sections can be visually and statistically cross-dated. The resulting 75-year-long standard ring-width chronology is highly correlated with a timberline fir chronology about 200 km apart, providing a high degree of confidence in the cross-dating. The climate/growth association of alpine snowy rhododendron and of this timberline fir is similar, reflecting an impact of monthly mean minimum temperatures in November of the previous year and in July during the year of ring formation. The alpine snowy rhododendron offers new research directions to investigate the environmental history of the Tibetan Plateau in those regions where up to now there was no chance of applying dendrochronology.

  9. Modern limnology of two lakes in the Tibetan Plateau - evidence from in-situ monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Li, X.; Lei, L.; He, Y.; Hou, J.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau, known as the Third Pole, receive more and more attention due to its unique geographic location and the influence of multiple climate systems. Among the paleoclimate archives, widespread lakes provide abundant information on past climate changes and have been investigated for decades. Though many high-quality paleolimnological records have been reported in the Tibetan Plateau, little is known about the modern limnological processes in most Tibetan lakes as most lakes are difficult to access and not ready for long-term monitoring. We have installed a series of temperature data logger at different water levels in two Tibetan lakes, Bangong Co and Dagze Co in July 2012 to monitor hourly variability of temperature profile. Bangong Co (33.5°N, 79.8°E, 4245 m asl) is a freshwater lake (salinity ~0.5 g/L) in the westernmost Tibetan Plateau, receiving melt water from mountain glaciers in the basin. Dagze Co (31.9°N, 87.5°E, 4470 m asl) is saline lake (salinity ~15 g/L) in the central Tibetan Plateau, mostly fed by precipitation. In combination with the climate data in the nearby weather stations, we wish to understand the modern limnological processes in the two lakes and their potential effect on the lake biology, sedimentation, and sedimentary biomarkers. Based on the data collected for the first calendar year (Jul 2012 ~ Aug 2013), we anticipate to understand: 1) the influence of climate on the hydrological processes in high elevation lakes; 2) the difference in the metalimnion in meltwater-fed lake (Bangong Co) and precipitation-fed lake (Dagze Co) and their potential effect on the lake biology; 3) the difference in the spring turnover and fall turnover and the effect of meltwater and salinity.

  10. Observation and calculation of the solar radiation on the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiandong; Liu Jingmiao; Linderholm, Hans W.; Chen Deliang; Yu Qiang; Wu Dingrong; Haginoya, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five years of continuous solar-radiation observations on the Tibetan Plateau were analyzed. ► Eight solar models were calibrated and validated in this highland region. ► A strategy for calculating solar radiation on the Tibetan Plateau was presented. - Abstract: Distribution of solar radiation is vital to locate the most suitable regions for harvesting solar energy, but solar radiation is only observed at few stations due to high costs and difficult maintenance. From 2001 to 2005, a set of pyranometer instruments were set up in Gaize, on the Tibetan Plateau, to test the hypothesis of high solar-radiation levels in this region, and find a suitable method for estimating the radiation. Over the 5-year observation period, the average daily radiation was 21 MJ m −2 day −1 with maximum daily values of 27 MJ m −2 day −1 occurring in June and minimum values of 14 MJ m −2 day −1 in December, which is much higher than those measured in other regions at similar latitudes. The observational data were used to validate a set of radiation models: five sunshine based and three temperature based. The results showed that of the five sunshine-based models, a newly developed “comprehensive” model performed the best, but that the “vapor revised Angstrom model” was recommended to use for its simplicity and easy operation. The temperature-based models performed worse than the sunshine-based ones, where the Wu model is to be preferred if a temperature-based model is the only option. Moreover, it was shown that when estimating the solar radiation based on time-dependent coefficients, consideration of the seasonal variation of the coefficients has little predictive value and is thus unnecessary. Based on the results of this study, a strategy for the calculation of solar radiation on the Tibetan Plateau was made for potential users.

  11. 3-D mechanical modeling of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Since the last 50 million years, 2500km shorting of Indian Plate moving north collided with the Eurasian Plate has resulted in rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau shaped into the most intensive and extensive orogen on earth (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Li et al., 2013). Based on previous geological and geophysical investigations (Royden et al., 1997; Clark and Royden, 2000), two end-member models of the entire Tibetan Plateau are proposed: thin visous sheet model and lateral escape model. However, when we scope into a special local area, for example, Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, end-member models could change to lower crustal flow model and upper crust shorting model. Recently, with vigorous geophysical observations, more data such as differential traveltime tomography and seismic velocity structure in the Tibetan Plateau actually reveal that the eastward crustal flow from the central Tibetan plateau is expected to divert north-eastward and south-eastward around the rigid Sichuan basin (Royden et al., 1997, 2008; Clark and Royden, 2000). Moreover, both the P-wave polarization tomography and gravitational anomaly and the GPS data from the intensive crustal movement monitoring network in China show that the north-eastward crustal flow divide two direction due to the Ordos Block as a barrier with rigid, cold and stable crust. In order to investigate mechanical of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, especially along the Xi'an-Taiyuan-Datong, we construct 3-D geological finite element model with high resolution topography and non-homogeneous strata. For the uncertainties of computational parameters, such as the depth and width and viscosity coefficient of the middle-lower crust, and the pressure differences, several models were tested to analyze the spatial distribution of curst flow and try to known about the uplift of Datong in Shanxi Province.

  12. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years

  13. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  14. Study on Sr-Nd isotopes of mesozoic-cenozoic granites in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ruizhao; Deng Jinfu; Zhou Su; Xiao Qinghui; Cai Zhiyong

    2003-01-01

    Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatic activities were intensive in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of representative granitic plutons in western Qinghai-Tibetan plateau are reported in this paper. Combining with past isotopic data, which has reported in eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and material source and genesis of Mesozoic and Cenozoic granites in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau have been studied. The research result indicates there are three types of granite existing in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, the granites of Late stage of Yanshan Period which distributing on north and south boundary of Gandes block (namely in north and south granitic belts of Dangdes) and cause of oceanic crust subduction, have ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i of 0.7041-0.7064, ε (Nd) t of +2.5 - +5.7 and TDM age of 312-562 Ma, positive ε Nd, low ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio and young Nd model ages suggest relatively high contents of mantle-derived components in their sources, and this type granite might melt from subduction oceanic crust. The granites occurred intra-Gangdes block which were caused by collision of continent and post-collision, have ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i of 0.706-0.719, ε (Nd) t of -5.3 - -8.3 and TDM age of 1323-1496 Ma, negative ε Nd, relative high ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio with an mid-Proterozoic Nd model ages, suggest granite has the mixing genesis of mantle-derived components and old crustal components in their sources. With relatively small variation range in ε (Nd) t and TDM age, it might imply granitic isotopic source in Gandes block to keep relative homogenization in long period. The granites in Himalayan block which there is not oceanic material to join in melting and to cause of intra-continental subduction, has most ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio more than 0.720, ε (Nd) t of -10.3 - -16.3 and TDM age of 1792-2206 Ma, high ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio, low negative ε (Nd)t with old Nd isotopic model ages and consistent with the Sr, Nd isotopic compositions of basement

  15. Hf-Nd isotope constraints on the origin of the Cretaceous Caribbean plateau and its relationship to the Galápagos plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P. M. E.; Kempton, P. D.; White, R. V.; Kerr, A. C.; Tarney, J.; Saunders, A. D.; Fitton, J. G.; McBirney, A.

    2004-01-01

    Formation of the Cretaceous Caribbean plateau, including the komatiites of Gorgona, has been linked to the currently active Galápagos hotspot. We use Hf-Nd isotopes and trace element data to characterise both the Caribbean plateau and the Galápagos hotspot, and to investigate the relationship between them. Four geochemical components are identified in the Galápagos mantle plume: two 'enriched' components with ɛHf and ɛNd similar to enriched components observed in other mantle plumes, one moderately enriched component with high Nb/Y, and a fourth component which most likely represents depleted MORB source mantle. The Caribbean plateau basalt data form a linear array in Hf-Nd isotope space, consistent with mixing between two mantle components. Combined Hf-Nd-Pb-Sr-He isotope and trace element data from this study and the literature suggest that the more enriched Caribbean end member corresponds to one or both of the enriched components identified on Galápagos. Likewise, the depleted end member of the array is geochemically indistinguishable from MORB and corresponds to the depleted component of the Galápagos system. Enriched basalts from Gorgona partially overlap with the Caribbean plateau array in ɛHf vs. ɛNd, whereas depleted basalts, picrites and komatiites from Gorgona have a high ɛHf for a given ɛNd, defining a high- ɛHf depleted end member that is not observed elsewhere within the Caribbean plateau sequences. This component is similar, however, in terms of Hf-Nd-Pb-He isotopes and trace elements to the depleted plume component recognised in basalts from Iceland and along the Reykjanes Ridge. We suggest that the Caribbean plateau represents the initial outpourings of the ancestral Galápagos plume. Absence of a moderately enriched, high Nb/Y component in the older Caribbean plateau (but found today on the island of Floreana) is either due to changing source compositions of the plume over its 90 Ma history, or is an artifact of limited sampling. The

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil across the Tibetan Plateau: Spatial distribution, source and air–soil exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both the atmosphere and soil of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Concentrations of PAHs were therefore measured in 13 XAD resin-based passive air samplers and 41 surface (0–5 cm) soil samples across the TP. The average concentration of atmospheric PAHs was 5.55 ng/m 3 , which was lower than that reported for other background areas, but higher than the Arctic. Concentrations in the soils fell in a wide range from 5.54 to 389 ng/g, with an average of 59.9 ng/g. Elevation was found to play an important role in determining the spatial distribution of soil PAHs. The air–soil exchange state showed that the soils of the TP will likely remain as a sink for high molecular weight PAHs, but may become a potential “secondary source” for low molecular weight PAHs. Highlights: • The levels of PAHs in air and soil of the Tibetan Plateau were relatively lower than other background region of world. • The soil PAHs concentration decreased with the increase of elevation. • The Tibetan Plateau will likely remain as a sink for high molecular weight PAHs. • The Tibetan Plateau may become a potential “secondary source” for low molecular weight PAHs. -- The Tibetan soil will likely remain as a sink for high molecular weight PAHs, but may become a potential “secondary source” for low molecular weight PAHs

  17. Growing season carries stronger contributions to albedo dynamics on the Tibetan plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has experienced higher-than-global-average climate warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them is albedo, which bridges the causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. The plateau is covered by snow/ice and vegetation in the non-growing season (nGS and growing season (GS, respectively. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated snow/ice cover and vegetation greenness in relation to the spatiotemporal changes of albedo on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 through 2013. A synchronous relationship was found between the change in GSNDVI and GSalbedo over time and across the Tibetan landscapes. We found that the annual average albedo had a decreasing trend, but that the albedo had slightly increased during the nGS and decreased during the GS. Across the landscapes, the nGSalbedo fluctuated in a synchronous pattern with snow/ice cover. Temporally, monthly snow/ice coverage also had a high correspondence with albedo, except in April and October. We detected clear dependencies of albedo on elevation. With the rise in altitude, the nGSalbedo decreased below 4000 m, but increased for elevations of 4500-5500 m. Above 5500 m, the nGSalbedo decreased, which was in accordance with the decreased amount of snow/ice coverage and the increased soil moisture on the plateau. More importantly, the decreasing albedo in the most recent decade appeared to be caused primarily by lowered growing season albedo.

  18. Complex responses of spring alpine vegetation phenology to snow cover dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Guangsheng; Yang, Qichun; Wang, Bin; Ma, Yuanxu; Shen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Snow cover dynamics are considered to play a key role on spring phenological shifts in the high-latitude, so investigating responses of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics is becoming an increasingly important way to identify and predict global ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we quantified the temporal trends and spatial variations of spring phenology and snow cover across the Tibetan Plateau by calibrating and analyzing time series of the NOAA AVHRR-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during 1983-2012. We also examined how snow cover dynamics affect the spatio-temporal pattern of spring alpine vegetation phenology over the plateau. Our results indicated that 52.21% of the plateau experienced a significant advancing trend in the beginning of vegetation growing season (BGS) and 34.30% exhibited a delaying trend. Accordingly, the snow cover duration days (SCD) and snow cover melt date (SCM) showed similar patterns with a decreasing trend in the west and an increasing trend in the southeast, but the start date of snow cover (SCS) showed an opposite pattern. Meanwhile, the spatial patterns of the BGS, SCD, SCS and SCM varied in accordance with the gradients of temperature, precipitation and topography across the plateau. The response relationship of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics varied within different climate, terrain and alpine plant community zones, and the spatio-temporal response patterns were primarily controlled by the long-term local heat-water conditions and topographic conditions. Moreover, temperature and precipitation played a profound impact on diverse responses of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainable bioenergy production with little carbon debt in the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Zhifen; Liu, Yue; Yan, Juan; Li, Jianqiang; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As a key strategy for mitigating global climate change, bioenergy production by reducing CO2 emissions plays an important role in ensuring sustainable development. However, land-use change by converting natural ecosystems into energy crop field could create a carbon debt at the beginning. Thus, the potential carbon debt calculation is necessary for determining a promising bioenergy crop production, especially in the region rich of marginal land. Here, we used high-resolution historical land-use data to identify the marginal land available and to evaluate the carbon debt of planting Miscanthus in the Loess Plateau, China. We found that there were 27.6 Mha for energy production and 9.7 Mha for ecological restoration, with total annual production of 0.41 billion tons of biomass. We also found that soil carbon sequestration and total CO2 mitigation were 9.3 Mt C year(-1) and 542 Mt year(-1), respectively. More importantly, the result showed that planting Miscanthus on marginal land in the Loess Plateau only took 0.97 years on average to repay the carbon debt. Our study demonstrated that Miscanthus production in suitable marginal land in the Loess Plateau can offer considerable renewable energy and mitigate climate change with little carbon debt. These results suggested that bioenergy production in the similar arid and semiarid region worldwide would contribute to carbon sequestration in the context of rapid climate change.

  20. Observational Evidence of EHP Effects on the Melting of Snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Maeng-Ki; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Observational evidences are presented showing that the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) regions, bounded by the high altitude Himalayan mountains, are subject to heavy loading of absorbing aerosols, i.e., black carbon and dust, which can lead to widespread enhancement warming over the Tibetan Plateau and accelerated snowmelt in the western Tibetan Plateau (WTP) and Himalayas. The two pre-monsoon seasons of 2004 and 2005 were strikingly contrasting in terms of the aerosol loading over IGP. The warming of the TP in 2004 relative to 2005 was widespread, covering most of the WTP and Himalayas. This warming is closely linked to patterns of the snow melt. Consistent with the Elevated Heat Pump hypothesis, we find that increased loading of absorbing aerosols over IGP in the pre-monsoon season is associated with increased heating of the upper troposphere by dynamical feedback induced by aerosol heating, and enhances the rate of snowmelt over Himalayas and the WTP in April-May. Composite analysis with more contrasting years also shows that the heating of the troposphere by elevated dust and black carbon aerosols in the boreal spring can lead to widespread enhanced land-atmosphere warming, and accelerated snow melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Modeling and Mapping Soil Moisture of Plateau Pasture Using RADARSAT-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Chai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate soil moisture retrieval of a large area in high resolution is significant for plateau pasture. The object of this paper is to investigate the estimation of volumetric soil moisture in vegetated areas of plateau pasture using fully polarimetric C-band RADARSAT-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images. Based on the water cloud model, Chen model, and Dubois model, we proposed two developed algorithms for soil moisture retrieval and validated their performance using experimental data. We eliminated the effect of vegetation cover by using the water cloud model and minimized the effect of soil surface roughness by solving the Dubois equations. Two experimental campaigns were conducted in the Qinghai Lake watershed, northeastern Tibetan Plateau in September 2012 and May 2013, respectively, with simultaneous satellite overpass. Compared with the developed Chen model, the predicted soil moisture given by the developed Dubois model agreed better with field measurements in terms of accuracy and stability. The RMSE, R2, and RPD value of the developed Dubois model were (5.4, 0.8, 1.6 and (3.05, 0.78, 1.74 for the two experiments, respectively. Validation results indicated that the developed Dubois model, needing a minimum of prior information, satisfied the requirement for soil moisture inversion in the study region.

  2. Motivating Communities To Go Beyond the Discovery Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.

    2014-12-01

    Years of emphasizing discovery and minimal metadata requirements have resulted in a culture that accepts that metadata are for discovery and complete metadata are too complex or difficult for researchers to understand and create. Evolving the culture past this "data-discovery plateau" requires a multi-faceted approach that addresses the rational and emotional sides of the problem. On the rational side, scientists know that data and results must be well documented in order to be reproducible, re-usable, and trustworthy. We need tools that script critical moves towards well-described destinations and help identify members of the community that are already leading the way towards those destinations. We need mechanisms that help those leaders share their experiences and examples. On the emotional side, we need to emphasize that high-quality metadata makes data trustworthy, divide the improvement process into digestible pieces and create mechanisms for clearly identifying and rewarding progress. We also need to provide clear opportunities for community members to increase their expertise and to share their skills.

  3. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  4. Warming slowdown over the Tibetan plateau in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaojie; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhu, Juntao; Huang, Ke; Zu, Jiaxing; Chen, Ning; Cong, Nan; Stegehuis, Annemiek Irene

    2018-03-01

    As the recent global warming hiatus and the warming on high elevations are attracting worldwide attention, this study examined the robustness of the warming slowdown over the Tibetan plateau (TP) and its related driving forces. By integrating multiple-source data from 1982 to 2015 and using trend analysis, we found that the mean temperature (T mean), maximum temperature (T max) and minimum temperature (T min) showed a slowdown of the warming trend around 1998, during the period of the global warming hiatus. This was found over both the growing season (GS) and non-growing season (NGS) and suggested a robust warming hiatus over the TP. Due to the differences in trends of T max and T min, the trend of diurnal temperature range (DTR) also shifted after 1998, especially during the GS temperature. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) in all seasons from 1982 to 1998, while the pattern was reversed in the period from 1998 to 2015. Water vapour was found to be the main driving force for the trend in T mean and T min by influencing downward long wave radiation. Sunshine duration was the main driving force behind the trend in T max and DTR through a change in downward shortwave radiation that altered the energy source of daytime temperature. Water vapour was the major driving force for temperature change over the NTP, while over the STP, sunshine duration dominated the temperature trend.

  5. Effects of grazing and fire on herbaceous species in the Bolivian Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Lita Beatriz Patty

    2012-01-01

    High mountain rangelands had been under human land use for millennia in most parts of the world. Traditional land care systems led to highly diverse and stable ecosystems. As these traditions fade and population pressure rises, these grassland systems become overgrazed, lose carrying capacity and biodiversity and become eroded. Semi-arid high elevation pastures in tropical and subtropical regions are particularly endangered. This PhD project aimed at assessing the plant invento...

  6. Teaching Rayleigh–Plateau instabilities in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragkopoulos, A A; Ellis, P W; Fernandez-Nieves, A

    2015-01-01

    The breakup of a liquid jet into spherical droplets via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability is a common and fundamental part of fluid mechanics. However, teaching this instability in a laboratory setting is challenging, requiring sophisticated methods to generate and study the jet dynamics. Recently, toroidal droplets were shown to break into one or more spherical droplets in the thin-drop limit via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability. We propose a simple experimental setup to generate toroidal droplets that break up on the order of tens of seconds, allowing for easy video capture using a basic CCD camera. With this setup, it is possible to quantify the Rayleigh–Plateau instability in a pedagogical laboratory setting. In addition, the role of curvature on jet breakup can be explored using thick toroidal droplets. We envision this setup as a powerful teaching tool for one of the most fundamental fluid dynamics processes. (paper)

  7. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  8. Integrated assessment on the vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disasters under climate change in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanqiang; Wang, Shijin; Fang, Yiping; Nawaz, Zain

    2017-10-01

    Animal husbandry is a dominant and traditional source of livelihood and income in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the third largest snow covered area in China and is one of the main snow disaster regions in the world. It is thus imperative to urgently address the issue of vulnerability of the animal husbandry sector to snow disasters for disaster mitigation and adaptation under growing risk of these disasters as a result of future climate change. However, there is very few literature reported on the vulnerability of animal husbandry in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This assessment aims at identifying vulnerability of animal husbandry at spatial scale and to identify the reasons for vulnerability for adaptive planning and disaster mitigation. First, historical snow disaster characteristics have been analyzed and used for the spatial weight for vulnerability assessment. Second, indicator-based vulnerability assessment model and indicator system have been established. We combined risk of snow hazard, sensitivity of livestock to disaster, physical exposure to disaster, and community capacity to adapt to snow disaster in an integrated vulnerability index. Lastly, vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disaster on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been evaluated. Results indicate that high vulnerabilities are mainly concentrated in the eastern and central plateau and that vulnerability decreases gradually from the east to the west. Due to global warming, the vulnerability trend has eased to some extent during the last few decades. High livestock density exposure to blizzard-prone regions and shortages of livestock barn and forage are the main reasons of high vulnerability. The conclusion emphasizes the important role of the local government and community to help local pastoralists for reducing vulnerability to snow disaster and frozen hazard. The approaches presented in this paper can be used for snow disaster mitigation, resilience

  9. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    OpenAIRE

    Anmin Duan; Zhixiang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–ra...

  10. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  11. Plateau onset for correlation dimension: When does it occur?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E.; Sauer, T.; Yorke, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Chaotic experimental systems are often investigated using delay coordinates. Estimated values of the correlation dimension in delay coordinate space typically increase with the number of delays and eventually reach a plateau (on which the dimension estimate is relatively constant) whose value is commonly taken as an estimate of the correlation dimension D 2 of the underlying chaotic attractor. We report a rigorous result which implies that, for long enough data sets, the plateau begins when the number of delay coordinates first exceeds D 2 . Numerical experiments are presented. We also discuss how lack of sufficient data can produce results that seem to be inconsistent with the theoretical prediction

  12. Family fish farming improves quality of life in the Bolivian Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de Piscicultores del Norte Integrado en Yapacaní. (Yapacani ... para la Promoción Agropecuaria Campesina. (Centre for Rural ... inclusion of fish, an affordable source of high quality protein. .... Revista de la Facultad de Medicina. Veterinaria y ...

  13. Gas geochemistry of the hot spring in the Litang fault zone, Southeast Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaocheng; Liu, Lei; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yueju; Du, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    The southeast Tibetan Plateau is a region with high level seismic activity and strong hydrothermal activity. Several large (7.5 > M > 7) historical earthquakes have occurred in the Litang fault zone (LFZ), eastern Tibetan Plateau since 1700. Litang Ms 5.1 earthquake occurred On Sept 23, 2016, indicating the reactivation of the LFZ. This study was undertaken to elucidate spatial-temporal variations of the hot spring gas geochemistry along the LFZ from Jun 2010 to April 2016. The chemical components, He, Ne and C isotropic ratios of bubbling gas samples taken from 18 hot springs along LFZ were investigated. Helium isotope ratios ( 3 He/ 4 He) measured in hot springs varied from 0.06 to 0.93 Ra (Ra = air 3 He/ 4 He = 1.39 × 10 −6 ), with mantle-derivd He up to 11.1% in the LFZ (assuming R/Ra = 8 for mantle) indicated the fault was a crustal-scale feature that acts as a conduit for deep fluid from the mantle. CO 2 concentrations of the majority of hot spring gas samples were ≥80 vol%, CO 2 / 3 He ratios varied from 1.4 to 929.5 × 10 10 , and δ 13 C CO2 values varied from −19.2‰ to −2.3‰ (vs. PDB). The proportions of mantle-derived CO 2 varied from 0 to 1.8%. Crustal marine limestone was the major contributor (>75%) to the carbon inventory of the majority of hot spring gas samples. Before Litang Ms 5.1 earthquake, the 3 He/ 4 He ratios obviously increased in the Heni spring from May 2013 to Apr 2016. The geographical distribution of the mantle-derivd He decreased from east to west along 30°N in the southeast Tibetan Plateau relative to a corresponding increase in the radiogenic component. The gas geochemical data suggested that the upwelling mantle fluids into the crust play an important role in seismic activity in the strike-slip faults along 30°N in the southeast Tibetan Plateau. - Highlights: • Gas geochemistry of hot springs along Litang fault, Southeast Tibetan Plateau were surveyed. • Mantle-derived He decreased from east to

  14. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4 is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4, Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L, LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L, and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L. These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4.

  15. Implications of Zn/Fe ratios for the sources of Colorado Plateau basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis, S.; Reid, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Early Miocene to recent mafic magmatism migrated across the Arizona Transition Zone towards the center of the stable Colorado Plateau at a rate of ~ 3-6 km/Myr (Roy et al., 2009). Present-day volcanic centers are close to a stepwise change in the thickness of the lithosphere between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range. Accordingly, volcanic migration might track progressive thinning of the lithosphere towards the center of the Colorado Plateau. This project aims to determine the conditions of melt generation across the transition zone in order to investigate the temporal/spatial correlation between volcanism and thinning of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere. Pressure and temperature estimates for Colorado Plateau basalts can be obtained from the Mg and Si contents of melts (Lee et al, 2009) but require melting of a peridotitic source. Eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths reported in Colorado Plateau basalts show that melt sources could be olivine-poor. Zn/Fe ratios in melts can help to distinguish contributions from olivine-poor sources because they are sensitive to differences in bulk chemistry and to mineralogy (Le Roux et al., 2010). Specifically, Zn/Fe is not fractionated between melt, olivine, and orthopyroxene, but is highly fractionated when clinopyroxene and garnet are present. Our work to date has focused on laser ablation-IC-PMS analysis of individual olivine grains from high-Mg basalts (>8.0 wt. %) from the San Francisco and Mormon Mountain volcanic fields. Preliminary values of Zn/Fe ratios that represent the averages of multiple analyses of several grains in individual samples range from 7.9 to 9.3 (x10000). Variations of up to 1.7 (x10000) in the ratios exist between individual grains within samples and could be the result of co-crystallization of clinopyroxene with olivine. The lowest values in each sample should approach the Zn/Fe ratios of parental melts, and are, in turn, similar to MORB values and predicted peridotite melts. The results suggest

  16. Detours in long-distance migration across the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: individual consistency and habitat associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongping; Zhang, Guogang; Jiang, Hongxing; Lu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Migratory birds often follow detours when confronted with ecological barriers, and understanding the extent and the underlying drivers of such detours can provide important insights into the associated cost to the annual energy budget and the migration strategies. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most daunting geographical barrier for migratory birds because the partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced and flight costs greatly increase. We analyzed the repeated migration detours and habitat associations of four Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus across the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over 22 migration seasons. Gulls exhibited notable detours, with the maximum distance being more than double that of the expected shortest route, that extended rather than reduced the passage across the plateau. The extent of longitudinal detours significantly increased with latitude, and detours were longer in autumn than in spring. Compared with the expected shortest routes, proximity to water bodies increased along autumn migration routes, but detour-habitat associations were weak along spring migration routes. Thus, habitat availability was likely one, but not the only, factor shaping the extent of detours, and migration routes were determined by different mechanisms between seasons. Significant between-individual variation but high individual consistency in migration timing and routes were revealed in both seasons, indicating a stronger influence of endogenous schedules than local environmental conditions. Gulls may benefit from repeated use of familiar routes and stopover sites, which may be particularly significant in the challenging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  17. Orogenic plateau growth: Expansion of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau across the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. B.; Saville, C.; Blanc, E. J.-P.; Talebian, M.; Nissen, E.

    2013-03-01

    This paper shows how the Turkish-Iranian Plateau grows laterally by incrementally incorporating adjacent parts of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt. The limit of significant, seismogenic, thrusting in the Zagros (Mw > 5) occurs close to the regional 1250 m elevation contour. The seismicity cutoff is not a significant bedrock geology boundary. Elevations increase northward, toward regional plateau elevations of 2 km, implying that another process produced the extra elevation. Between the seismogenic limit of thrusting and the suture, this process is a plausibly ductile thickening of the basement, suggesting depth-dependent strain during compression. Similar depth-dependant crustal strain may explain why the Tibetan plateau has regional elevations 1500 m greater than the elevation limit of seismogenic thrusting at its margins. We estimate 68 km shortening across the Zagros Simply Folded Belt in the Fars region, and 120 km total shortening of the Arabian plate. The Dezful Embayment is a low strain zone in the western Zagros. Deformation is more intense to its northeast, in the Bakhtyari Culmination. The orogenic taper (across strike topographic gradient) across the Dezful Embayment is 0.0004, and across the Bakhtyari Culmination, 0.022. Lateral plateau growth is more pronounced farther east (Fars), where a more uniform structure has a taper of 0.010 up to elevations of 1750 m. A >100 km wide region of the Zagros further northeast has a taper of 0.002 and is effectively part of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Internal drainage enhances plateau development but is not a pre-requisite. Aspects of the seismicity, structure, and geomorphology of the Zagros do not support critical taper models for fold-and-thrust belts.

  18. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations showawinter (November–February) high (413.2 ng m$-$3) and spring (March–June) low(139.1 ng m$-$3) at Ranwu, but in contrast awinter lowand spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6 ng m$-$3, respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that themonthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. Thewinter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwusampling site showed a significant diurnal cyclewith a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct.

  19. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-15

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations show a winter (November-February) high (413.2ngm -3 ) and spring (March-June) low (139.1ngm -3 ) at Ranwu, but in contrast a winter low and spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6ngm -3 , respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that the monthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. The winter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwu sampling site showed a significant diurnal cycle with a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of the Asian Monsoon to the atmospheric boundary layer over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoshan; Su, Zhongbo; Chen, Xuelong; Zheng, Donghai; Sun, Fanglin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong

    2016-04-01

    Modulation of the diurnal variations in the convective activities associated with day-by-day changes of surface flux and soil moisture was observed in the beginning of the monsoon season on the central Tibetan plateau (Sugimoto et al., 2008) which indicates the importance of land-atmosphere interactions in determining convective activities over the Tibetan plateau. Detailed interaction processes need to be studied by experiments designed to evaluate a set of hypotheses on mechanisms and linkages of these interactions. A possible function of vegetation to increase precipitation in cases of Tibetan High type was suggested by Yamada and Uyeda (2006). Use of satellite derived plateau scale soil moisture (Wen et al., 2003) enables the verification of these hypotheses (e.g. Trier et al. 2004). To evaluate these feedbacks, the mesoscale WRF model will be used because several numerical experiments are being conducted to improve the soil physical parameterization in the Noah land surface scheme in WRF so that the extreme conditions on the Tibetan plateau could be adequately represented (Van der Velde et al., 2009) such that the impacts on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer can be assessed and improved. The Tibetan Observational Research Platform (TORP) operated by the Institute of Tibetan Plateau (Ma et al., 2008) will be fully utilized to study the characteristics of the plateau climate and different aspects of the WRF model will be evaluated using this extensive observation platform (e.g. Su et al., 2012). Recently, advanced studies on energy budget have been done by combining field and satellite measurements over the Tibetan Plateau (e.g. Ma et al., 2005). Such studies, however, were based on a single satellite observation and for a few days over an annual cycle, which are insufficient to reveal the relation between the land surface energy budget and the Asian monsoon over the Tibetan plateau. Time series analysis of satellite observations will provide the

  1. Community exposure and vulnerability to water quality and availability: a case study in the mining-affected Pazña Municipality, Lake Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Megan; Alem, Natalie; Edwards, Stephen J; Blanco Coariti, Efraín; Cauthin, Helga; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Luyckx, Karen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Sánchez Miranda, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed to environmental degradation and water issues, which is a situation facing many Altiplano communities. Social data from 72 households and chemical water quality data from 27 surface water and groundwater sites obtained between August 2013 and July 2014 were used to develop locally relevant vulnerability assessment methodologies and ratings with respect to water availability and quality, and Chemical Water Quality Hazard Ratings to assess water quality status. Levels of natural and mining-related contamination in many waters (CWQHR ≥ 6; 78% of assessed sites) mean that effective remediation would be challenging and require substantial investment. Although waters of fair to good chemical quality (CWQHR ≤ 5; 22% of assessed sites) do exist, treatment may still be required depending on use, and access issues remain problematic. There is a need to comply with water quality legislation, improve and maintain basic water supply and storage infrastructure, build and operate water and wastewater treatment plants, and adequately and safely contain and treat mine waste. This study serves as a framework that could be used elsewhere for assessing and mitigating water contamination and availability affecting vulnerable populations.

  2. Community exposure and vulnerability to water quality and availability: a case study in the mining-affected Pazña Municipality, Lake Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Megan; Alem, Natalie; Edwards, Stephen J.; Blanco Coariti, Efraín; Cauthin, Helga; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Luyckx, Karen; Quintanilla, Jorge; Sánchez Miranda, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed to environmental degradation and water issues, which is a situation facing many Altiplano communities. Social data from 72 households and chemical water quality data from 27 surface water and groundwater sites obtained between August 2013 and July 2014 were used to develop locally relevant vulnerability assessment methodologies and ratings with respect to water availability and quality, and Chemical Water Quality Hazard Ratings to assess water quality status. Levels of natural and mining-related contamination in many waters (CWQHR ≥ 6; 78% of assessed sites) mean that effective remediation would be challenging and require substantial investment. Although waters of fair to good chemical quality (CWQHR ≤ 5; 22% of assessed sites) do exist, treatment may still be required depending on use, and access issues remain problematic. There is a need to comply with water quality legislation, improve and maintain basic water supply and storage infrastructure, build and operate water and wastewater treatment plants, and adequately and safely contain and treat mine waste. This study serves as a framework that could be used elsewhere for assessing and mitigating water contamination and availability affecting vulnerable populations.

  3. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fract...

  4. Household water insecurity after a historic flood: Diarrhea and dehydration in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher Y

    2018-01-01

    While 884 million people worldwide lack access to clean water, millions live in flood-prone regions. Unexpected flooding increases risk of diarrheal diseases and is expected to occur with increased frequency in the 21st century. Water insecurity is linked to mental distress in water scarce regions, yet this construct has not been examined closely among populations living in flood-prone regions. This paper examines how differences in water sources and lifestyle among Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists in lowland Bolivia are related to water insecurity after a historic flood in 2014, and in turn, how water insecurity is associated with diarrhea and dehydration. Pre-flood data come from qualitative interviews with 36 household heads, anthropometrics, participant observation, and water quality analysis between September 2013-January 2014 used to create a locally-adapted water insecurity questionnaire. Water insecurity was measured after the historic flood; no pre-flood water insecurity measures are available. Post-flood data were collected through surveys, water quality analysis, and health exams using near-exhaustive sampling in two villages, yielding 118 adults and 115 children (aged 2-12 years) in 62 households between March-April 2014. Overall, 89% of adults reported medium or high water insecurity. Only hand-pumps tested negative for pathogenic bacteria both pre- and post-flood. Tobit regressions suggest that hand-pumps (when available) and adult age were associated with lower water insecurity scores. Multiple logistic regressions suggest that adults with high water insecurity were more likely to report diarrhea than adults with low (Odds Ratio [OR] 9.2; 95% CI: 1.27-67.1). Children from households with medium (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 1.41-32.5) or high (OR: 14.0; 95% CI: 2.40-81.5) water insecurity had significantly higher odds of dehydration than children in households with low water insecurity. Catastrophic flooding may systematically increase dimensions of household

  5. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  6. The Prevalence of Chagas Heart Disease in a Central Bolivian Community Endemic for Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jessica E.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the incidence of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections has decreased significantly in endemic regions in the Americas, medical professionals continue to encounter a high burden of resulting Chagas disease among infected adults. The current prevalence of Chagas heart disease in a community setting is not known; nor is it known how recent insecticide vector control measures may have impacted the progression of cardiac disease in an infected population. Objectives and Methods Nested within a community serosurvey in rural and periurban communities in central Bolivia, we performed a cross-sectional cardiac substudy to evaluate adults for historical, clinical, and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. All adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old with T. cruzi infection and those with a clinical history, physical exam, or ECG consistent with cardiac abnormalities were also scheduled for echocardiography. Results and conclusions Of the 604 cardiac substudy participants with definitive serology results, 183 were seropositive for infection with T. cruzi (30.3%). Participants who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were more likely to have conduction system defects (1.6% versus 0 for complete right bundle branch block and 10.4% versus 1.9% for any bundle branch block; p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bradycardia among seropositive versus seronegative participants. Echocardiogram findings were not consistent with a high burden of Chagas cardiomyopathy: valvulopathies were the most common abnormality, and few participants were found to have low ejection fraction or left ventricular dilatation. No participants had significant heart failure. Though almost one third of adults in the community were seropositive for T. cruzi infection, few had evidence of Chagas heart disease. PMID:26407509

  7. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  8. Behavior of Colorado Plateau uranium minerals during oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Robert Minard; Christ, C.L.

    1956-01-01

    Uranium occurs as U(VI) and U(IV) in minerals of the Colorado Plateau ores. The number of species containing U(VI) is large, but only two U(IV) minerals are known from the Plateau: uraninite, and oxide, and coffinite, a hydroxy-silicate. These oxidize to yield U(VI) before reacting significantly with other mineral constituents. Crystal-structure analysis has shown that U(VI) invariable occurs as uranyl ion, UO2+2. Uranyl ion may form complex carbonate or sulfate ions with resulting soluble compounds, but only in the absence of quinquevalent vanadium, arsenic, or phosphorous. In the presence of these elements in the +5 valence state, the uranyl ion is fixed in insoluble layer compounds formed by union of uranyl ion with orthovanadate, orthophosphate, or orthoarsenate. Under favorable conditions UO2+2 may react to form the relatively insoluble rutherfordine, UO2CO3, or hydrated uranyl hydroxides. These are rarely found on the Colorado Plateau as opposed to their excellent development in other uraniferous areas, a condition which is apparently related to the semiarid climate and low water table of the Plateau. Uranium may also be fixed as uranyl silicate, but little is known about minerals of this kind. In the present study emphasis has been placed on a detailing of the chemical and crystal structural changes which occur in the oxidation paragenetic sequence.

  9. Sensitivity of LUCC on the Surface Temperature of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan Plateau, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan Plateau along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan Plateau were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.

  10. Excessive Afforestation and Soil Drying on China's Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuilei; Yang, Dawen; Yang, Yuting; Piao, Shilong; Yang, Hanbo; Lei, Huimin; Fu, Bojie

    2018-03-01

    Afforestation and deforestation as human disturbances to vegetation have profound impacts on ecohydrological processes influencing both water and carbon cycles and ecosystem sustainability. Since 1999, large-scale revegetation activities such as "Grain-to-Green Program" have been implemented across China's Loess Plateau. However, negative ecohydrological consequences, including streamflow decline and soil drying have emerged. Here we estimate the equilibrium vegetation cover over the Loess Plateau based on an ecohydrological model and assess the water balance under the equilibrium and actual vegetation cover over the past decade. Results show that the current vegetation cover (0.48 on average) has already exceeded the climate-defined equilibrium vegetation cover (0.43 on average) in many parts of the Loess Plateau, especially in the middle-to-east regions. This indicates a widespread overplanting, which is found to primarily responsible for soil drying in the area. Additionally, both the equilibrium vegetation cover and soil moisture tend to decrease under future (i.e., 2011-2050) climate scenarios due to declined atmospheric water supply (i.e., precipitation) and increased atmospheric water demand (i.e., potential evapotranspiration). Our findings suggest that further revegetation on the Loess Plateau should be applied with caution. To maintain a sustainable ecohydrological environment in the region, a revegetation threshold is urgently needed to guide future revegetation activities.

  11. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  12. Protozoan Diversity in a productive fishpond of a tropical plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the Protozoan species diversity in a productive fishpond of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria was investigated at 7 day interval over a period of 11 months. Samples were collected from water column and sediment. Protozoans were found to compose of the flagellates sarcodines and cilliates. There was a significant ...

  13. Les jeux de plateau: une géographie ludique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric BIZET

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Les jeux de plateau utilisent le plus souvent une carte «papier» comme support. Au-delà de l'aspect cartographique, ces jeux intègrent également des notions de territorialité et d'analyse spatiale.

  14. Geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1979-10-01

    The results of recent geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau, with emphasis on work completed under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Rockwell Hanford Operations, are summarized in this report. Geologic studies were performed mostly during the period from 1977 to 1979. The major objective of these studies was to examine the feasibility of using deep underground tunnels mined into Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site for final storage of nuclear waste. The results are presented in four chapters: Introduction; Regional Geology; Pasco Basin Geology; and Seismicity and Tectonics. Results from surface mapping and remote sensing studies in the Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau are presented in the Regional Geology chapter. Results from surface mapping, borehole studies, and geophysical surveys in the Pasco Basin are presented in the Pasco Basin Geology chapter. Results that relate to the tectonic stability of the Pasco Basin and Columbia Plateau and discussion of findings from earthquake monitoring in the region for the past ten years are summarized in the Seismicity and Tectonics chapter. A volume of Appendices is included. This volume contains a description of study tasks, a description of the methodology used in geophysical surveys the geophysical survey results, a summary of earthquake records in eastern Washington, a description of tectonic provinces, and a preliminary description of the regional tectonic setting of the Columbia Plateau

  15. Plateau diffusion coefficient for arbitrary flux surface geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, H.K.; Hirshman, S.P.; Sigmar, D.J.; Lao, L.L.

    1981-03-01

    A relatively simple but accurate representation has been developed for magnetic flux surfaces; it is valid for finite β and it describes configurations with both ellipticity and D-shape. This representation has been applied to the computation of the diffusion coefficient in the plateau regime

  16. Rainfall Erosivity Factor for Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya | Kariaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Runoff plots were established on bare soil classified as Dystric Nitosols (Typic Rhodudults) at Moi University Main Campus, on Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine the best erosivity factor for the area. This was found to be EI30, defined as the product of the rainstorm's kinetic energy and ...

  17. Regional circulation around Heard and McDonald Islands and through the Fawn Trough, central Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Esmee M.; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Ronai, Belinda M.; Williams, Guy D.

    2010-05-01

    The fine-scale circulation around the Heard and McDonald Islands and through the Fawn Trough, Kerguelen Plateau, is described using data from three high-resolution CTD sections, Argo floats and satellite maps of chlorophyll a, sea surface temperature (SST) and absolute sea surface height (SSH). We confirm that the Polar Front (PF) is split into two branches over the Kerguelen Plateau, with the NPF crossing the north-eastern limits of our survey carrying 25 Sv to the southeast. The SPF was associated with a strong eastward-flowing jet carrying 12 Sv of baroclinic transport through the deepest part of Fawn Trough (relative to the bottom). As the section was terminated midway through the trough this estimate is very likely to be a lower bound for the total transport. We demonstrate that the SPF contributes to the Fawn Trough Current identified by previous studies. After exiting the Fawn Trough, the SPF crossed Chun Spur and continued as a strong north-westward flowing jet along the eastern flank of the Kerguelen Plateau before turning offshore between 50°S and 51.5°S. Measured bottom water temperatures suggest a deep water connection between the northern and southern parts of the eastern Kerguelen Plateau indicating that the deep western boundary current continues at least as far north as 50.5°S. Analysis of satellite altimetry derived SSH streamlines demonstrates a southward shift of both the northern and southern branches of the Polar Front from 1994 to 2004. In the direct vicinity of the Heard and McDonald islands, cool waters of southern origin flow along the Heard Island slope and through the Eastern Trough bringing cold Winter Water (WW) onto the plateau. Complex topography funnels flow through canyons, deepens the mixed layer and increases productivity, resulting in this area being the preferred foraging region for a number of satellite-tracked land-based predators.

  18. Phylogeographic investigation and ecological niche modelling of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei revealed multiple refugia in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xie, Feng; Li, Jiannan; Wang, Gang; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The largest plateau Tibetan Plateau supplied an excellent opportunity to investigate the influence of the Pleistocene events on the high-elevation species. To test for the alternative hypotheses of Pleistocene glacial refugia, we used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to examine the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei across its known range in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and conducted species distribution modelling (SDM) to explore changes of its distribution range through current and paleo periods. In all data sets, the species was divided into lineage north occupying open plateau platform and lineage south colonizing the mountainous plateau. The divergence of two major clades was estimated at the early Pleistocene. In mtDNA, lineage north contained northeastern and northwestern sublineages, and lineage south had two overlapping-distributed sublineages. Different lineages possessed distinct demographic characteristics, i.e., subdivision in the northeastern sublineage, historical bottleneck effects and recent expansions in the northwestern sublineage and the southeastern sublineage. SDMs depicted that stable suitable habitats had existed in the upper-middle streams of the Yellow River, Dadu River, Jinsha River and Yalong River. These regions were also recognized as the ancestral areas of different lineages. In conclusion, Nanorana pleskei lineages have probably experienced long-term separations. Stable suitable habitats existing in upper-middle streams of major rivers on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and distinct demographic dynamics of different lineages indicated that the lineages possessed independent evolutionary processes in multiple glacial refugia. The findings verified the profound effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on the plateau endemic species.

  19. Multifractal Downscaling of Rainfall Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Andes Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffaut Espinosa, L A; Posadas, A N; Carbajal, M; Quiroz, R

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multifractal downscaling technique is applied to adequately transformed and lag corrected normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in order to obtain daily estimates of rainfall in an area of the Peruvian Andean high plateau. This downscaling procedure is temporal in nature since the original NDVI information is provided at an irregular temporal sampling period between 8 and 11 days, and the desired final scale is 1 day. The spatial resolution of approximately 1 km remains the same throughout the downscaling process. The results were validated against on-site measurements of meteorological stations distributed in the area under study.

  20. Human mixed infections of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania-Trypanosoma cruzi in a sub Andean Bolivian area: identification by polymerase chain reaction/hybridization and isoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bastrenta

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana complexes and Trypanosoma cruzi (clones 20 and 39 were searched in blood, lesions and strains collected from 28 patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis and one patient with visceral leishmaniasis. PCR-hybridization with specific probes of Leishmania complexes (L. braziliensis, L. donovani and L. mexicana and T. cruzi clones was applied to the different DNA samples. Over 29 patients, 8 (27.6% presented a mixed infection Leishmania complex species, 17 (58.6% a mixed infection Leishmania-T. cruzi, and 4 (13.8% a multi Leishmania-T. cruzi infection. Several patients were infected by the two Bolivian major clones 20 and 39 of T. cruzi (44.8%. The L. braziliensis complex was more frequently detected in lesions than in blood and a reverse result was observed for L. mexicana complex. The polymerase chain reaction-hybridization design offers new arguments supporting the idea of an underestimated rate of visceral leishmanisis in Bolivia. Parasites were isolated by culture from the blood of two patients and lesions of 10 patients. The UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages dendrogram computed from Jaccard's distances obtained from 11 isoenzyme loci data confirmed the presence of the three Leishmania complexes and undoubtedly identified human infections by L. (V. braziliensis, L. (L. chagasi and L. (L. mexicana species. Additional evidence of parasite mixtures was visualized through mixed isoenzyme profiles, L. (V. braziliensis-L. (L. mexicana and Leishmania spp.-T. cruzi.The epidemiological profile in the studied area appeared more complex than currently known. This is the first report of parasitological evidence of Bolivian patients with trypanosomatidae multi infections and consequences on the diseases' control and patient treatments are discussed.

  1. Resilience of Andean urban ethnobotanies: a comparison of medicinal plant use among Bolivian and Peruvian migrants in the United Kingdom and in their countries of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Pieroni, Andrea

    2011-06-14

    Analysing why and how ethnobotanical traditions 'survive' is important for a better understanding of migrants' health care behaviour. This study investigates the use of traditional medicinal plants among first generation migrants from Bolivia and Peru in London, in relation to practices among their peers in their respective home countries in order to assess changes in traditional health care among newcomer communities. A total of 98 semi-structured interviews were conducted in London (UK), Cochabamba (Bolivia) and Lima (Peru). Voucher specimens of all reported species were collected and identified. By comparing data on active plant uses and their applications, overlap and differences between health care practices before and after migration could be outlined. In London, people can rely on more biomedical alternatives and have access to less traditional herbal remedies as compared to their countries of origin. In general, Peruvians and Bolivians in London continued to use traditional medicine for common, self-limiting ailments that were also widespread in their countries of origin. The same widely used (either readily available cosmopolitan or culturally relevant) plant species appeared in the post-migration group. In general, less freshly available medicinal species were used in London and more edible, primary food species were consumed for medicinal purposes after migration. Bolivian and Peruvian migrants in London clearly proved to be resilient in their use of home-remedies when faced with the changes that come with migration. The observed ethnobotanical coping strategies are characterised by: (1) the preservation of culturally salient species (cultural key stone species); (2) a positive influence of the presence of cultural diversity (cultural edge effect), (3) a creative blending of different kinds of knowledge and resources, noticeable in an increased use of dried, processed alternatives and food species; and (4) a reliance on social networks for the exchange

  2. Evaluation of WRF Simulations With Different Selections of Subgrid Orographic Drag Over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Beljaars, A.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Lin, C.; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations with different selections of subgrid orographic drag over the Tibetan Plateau have been evaluated with observation and ERA-Interim reanalysis. Results show that the subgrid orographic drag schemes, especially the turbulent orographic form drag (TOFD) scheme, efficiently reduce the 10 m wind speed bias and RMS error with respect to station measurements. With the combination of gravity wave, flow blocking and TOFD schemes, wind speed is simulated more realistically than with the individual schemes only. Improvements are also seen in the 2 m air temperature and surface pressure. The gravity wave drag, flow blocking drag, and TOFD schemes combined have the smallest station mean bias (-2.05°C in 2 m air temperature and 1.27 hPa in surface pressure) and RMS error (3.59°C in 2 m air temperature and 2.37 hPa in surface pressure). Meanwhile, the TOFD scheme contributes more to the improvements than the gravity wave drag and flow blocking schemes. The improvements are more pronounced at low levels of the atmosphere than at high levels due to the stronger drag enhancement on the low-level flow. The reduced near-surface cold bias and high-pressure bias over the Tibetan Plateau are the result of changes in the low-level wind components associated with the geostrophic balance. The enhanced drag directly leads to weakened westerlies but also enhances the a-geostrophic flow in this case reducing (enhancing) the northerlies (southerlies), which bring more warm air across the Himalaya Mountain ranges from South Asia (bring less cold air from the north) to the interior Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Intracontinental Deformation in the NW Iranian Plateau and Comparisons with the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Jiang, M.; Talebian, M.; Wan, B.; Ai, Y.; Ghods, A.; Sobouti, F.; Xiao, W.; Zhu, R.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the intracontinental deformation and its relationship with the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the NW Iranian plateau by combining new seismic and geological observations, to understand how this part of the plateau deformed to accommodate the Arabia-Eurasia plate collision and how the property of the lithosphere controls the deformation pattern. In contrast to the adjacent Anatolian block that exhibits westward large-scale extrusion, the northwesternmost part of the Iranian plateau shows dispersed intracontinental deformations with the development of numerous small-scale and discontinuous right-lateral strike-slip faults. The dispersed surface structures and deformation pattern correspond well to the active volcanism and seismically slow crust and uppermost mantle, and hence a weak lithosphere of the area. Further to the southeast are the western part of the Alborz Mountains and the southern Caspian Sea, both of which are characterized by stronger and more rigid lithosphere with relatively fast crust and uppermost mantle and absence of Quaternary volcanoes. A sharp Moho offset of 18 km has been imaged at the border of the Alborz and southern Caspian Sea using teleseismic receiver function data from a dense seismic array deployed under a collaborative project named "China-Iran Geological and Geophysical Survey in the Iranian Plateau (CIGSIP)". The sharp Moho offset and the minor undulations of the Moho on both sides indicate insignificant intracrustal deformation but mainly relative crustal movements between the Alborz Mountains and southern Caspian Sea, a behavior consistent with the relatively rigid nature of the lithosphere. Similar Moho offsets and lithospheric structures have been reported at the borders between the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam or Tarim Basins in the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau, suggesting the occurrence of relative crustal movements with the effects of rigid continental lithosphere in the region

  4. Topographic heterogeneity and temperature amplitude explain species richness patterns of birds in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlan; Quan, Qing; Wu, Yongjie; Chen, Youhua; He, Peng; Qu, Yanhua; Lei, Fumin

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness have gained much attention in recent years; however, the factors that drive high species richness are still controversial in local regions, especially in highly diversified montane regions. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the surrounding mountains are biodiversity hot spots due to a high number of endemic montane species. Here, we explored the factors underlying this high level of diversity by studying the relationship between species richness and environmental variables. The richness patterns of 758 resident bird species were summarized at the scale of 1°×1° grid cell at different taxonomic levels (order, family, genus, and species) and in different taxonomic groups (Passeriformes, Galliformes, Falconiformes, and Columbiformes). These richness patterns were subsequently analyzed against habitat heterogeneity (topographical heterogeneity and land cover), temperature amplitude (annual temperature, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, and temperature seasonality) and a vegetation index (net primary productivity). Our results showed that the highest richness was found in the southeastern part of the QTP, the eastern Himalayas. The lowest richness was observed in the central plateau of the QTP. Topographical heterogeneity and temperature amplitude are the primary factors that explain overall patterns of species richness in the QTP, although the specific effect of each environmental variable varies between the different taxonomic groups depending on their own evolutionary histories and ecological requirements. High species richness in the southeastern QTP is mostly due to highly diversified habitat types and temperature zones along elevation gradients, whereas the low species richness in the central plateau of the QTP may be due to environmental and energetic constraints, as the central plateau is harsh environment.

  5. Evaluation and comparison of the processing methods of airborne gravimetry concerning the errors effects on downward continuation results: Case studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qilong; Strykowski, Gabriel; Li, Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method...... in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA......) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic...

  6. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a) and three stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, and stx 2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. Plateau pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This study provides the first report on STEC in plateau pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk.

  7. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-12-01

    Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. The Australians' sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians' sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives.

  8. The long-term trends (1982-2006) in vegetation greenness of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Cuizhen; Ji, Lei; Li, Jing; Wang, Kun; Dai, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The increased rate of annual temperature in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau exceeded all other areas of the same latitude in recent decades. The influence of the warming climate on the alpine ecosystem of the plateau was distinct. An analysis of alpine vegetation under changes in climatic conditions was conducted in this study. This was done through an examination of vegetation greenness and its relationship with climate variability using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite imagery and climate datasets. Vegetation in the plateau experienced a positive trend in greenness, with 18.0 % of the vegetated areas exhibiting significantly positive trends, which were primarily located in the eastern and southwestern parts of the plateau. In grasslands, 25.8 % of meadows and 14.1 % of steppes exhibited significant upward trends. In contrast, the broadleaf forests experienced a trend of degradation. Temperature, particularly summer temperature, was the primary factor promoting the vegetation growth in the plateau. The wetter and warmer climate in the east contributed to the favorable conditions for vegetation. The alpine meadow was mostly sensitive to temperature, while the steppes were sensitive to both temperature and precipitation. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to vegetation growth in the alpine region, the rising temperature coupled with reduced precipitation in the south did not favor vegetation growth due to low humidity and poor soil moisture conditions.

  9. Deformation Mechanism on the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau Inferred from Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Jin, S.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Xie, C.

    2017-12-01

    As a unique geologic unit on the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the Qaidam Basin plays a significant role in constraining the vertical uplift and horizontal expansion of the plateau. However, deformation mechanism of the lithosphere beneath the Qaidam Basin is still highly debated. To better understand the lithospheric electrical structure and deformation mechanism of the Qaidam Basin, A 250 km long, NE-SW directed Magnetotelluric (MT) profile was finished in the northern portion of the Basin, which is roughly perpendicular to the thrust fault systems on the western and eastern margins of the Basin. The profile consists of 20 broad-band MT stations and 5 long-period MT stations. Original time series data is processed with regular robust routines. Dimensionality and regional strike direction are determined for the dataset through data analysis. 2D inversions were performed to produce a preferred model of the lithospheric electrical structure. Uncertainty analysis of the 2D inversion model was also conducted based on a data resampling approach. The outcome 2D electrical model was further used to estimate the distribution of temperature and melt fraction in the upper mantle based on laboratory-determined relationships between the electrical conductivity and temperature of nominally anhydrous minerals and basaltic melt by using the mixing law of Hashin-Shtrikman's bounds. These results suggest that: (1) the crust-mantle boundary is imaged as a conductive layer beneath the western Qaidam Basin, with its temperature estimated to be 1200-1300 ° and melt fraction 5-8%, indicating decoupling deformation of the crust and upper mantle. (2) A large-scale east-dipping conductor is imaged beneath the eastern Qaidam Basin extending from the upper crust to upper mantle, implying vertical coherent deformation of the lithosphere. Melt fraction of this conductive region is estimated to be as high as 10%, which might accommodates a major portion of the thrust deformation on

  10. Deformation Mechanism of the Northern Tibetan Plateau as Revealed by Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Letian; Wei, Wenbo; Jin, Sheng; Ye, Gaofeng; Xie, Chengliang

    2017-04-01

    As a unique geologic unit on the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the Qaidam Basin plays a significant role in constraining the vertical uplift and horizontal expansion of the northern and northeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, due to its complex evolution history and difficult logistic condition, deformation mechanism of the lithosphere beneath the Qaidam Basin is still highly debated. To better understand the lithospheric electrical structure and deformation mechanism of the Qaidam Basin, A 250 km long, NE-SW directed Magnetotelluric (MT) profile was finished in the northern portion of the Basin, which is roughly perpendicular to the thrust fault systems on the western and eastern margins of the Basin, as well as anticlinorium systems within the Basin. The profile consists of 20 broad-band MT stations and 5 long-period MT stations. Original time series data is processed with regular robust routines. Dimensionality and regional strike direction are determined for the dataset through data analysis. Based on the analysis results, 2D inversions were performed to produce a preferred model of the lithospheric electrical structure beneath the northern Qaidam Basin. Uncertainty analysis of the 2D inversion model was also conducted based on a data resampling approach. The outcome 2D electrical model was further used to estimate the distribution of temperature and melt fraction in the upper mantle based on laboratory-determined relationships between the electrical conductivity and temperature of nominally anhydrous minerals and basaltic melt by using the mixing law of Hashin-Shtrikman's bounds. All these results suggest that: (1) the crust-mantle boundary is imaged as a conductive layer beneath the western Qaidam Basin, with its temperature estimated to be 1200-1300 °C and melt fraction 5-8%, indicating decoupling deformation of the crust and upper mantle. (2) A large-scale east-dipping conductor is imaged beneath the eastern Qaidam Basin. This conductor extends

  11. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  12. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  13. Accreted fragments of the Late Cretaceous Caribbean Colombian Plateau in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamberti, Marc; Lapierre, Henriette; Bosch, Delphine; Jaillard, Etienne; Ethien, Raynald; Hernandez, Jean; Polvé, Mireille

    2003-02-01

    The eastern part of the Western Cordillera of Ecuador includes fragments of an Early Cretaceous (≈123 Ma) oceanic plateau accreted around 85-80 Ma (San Juan-unit). West of this unit and in fault contact with it, another oceanic plateau sequence (Guaranda unit) is marked by the occurrence of picrites, ankaramites, basalts, dolerites and shallow level gabbros. A comparable unit is also exposed in northwestern coastal Ecuador (Pedernales unit). Picrites have LREE-depleted patterns, high ɛNd i and very low Pb isotopic ratios, suggesting that they were derived from an extremely depleted source. In contrast, the ankaramites and Mg-rich basalts are LREE-enriched and have radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions similar to the Galápagos HIMU component; their ɛNd i are slightly lower than those of the picrites. Basalts, dolerites and gabbros differ from the picrites and ankaramites by flat rare earth element (REE) patterns and lower ɛNd; their Pb isotopic compositions are intermediate between those of the picrites and ankaramites. The ankaramites, Mg-rich basalts, and picrites differ from the lavas from the San Juan-Multitud Unit by higher Pb ratios and lower ɛNd i. The Ecuadorian and Gorgona 88-86 Ma picrites are geochemically similar. The Ecuadorian ankaramites and Mg-rich basalts share with the 92-86 Ma Mg-rich basalts of the Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau (CCOP) similar trace element and Nd and Pb isotopic chemistry. This suggests that the Pedernales and Guaranda units belong to the Late Cretaceous CCOP. The geochemical diversity of the Guaranda and Pedernales rocks illustrates the heterogeneity of the CCOP plume source and suggests a multi-stage model for the emplacement of these rocks. Stratigraphic and geological relations strongly suggest that the Guaranda unit was accreted in the late Maastrichtian (≈68-65 Ma).

  14. Double subduction of continental lithosphere, a key to form wide plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replumaz, Anne; Funiciello, Francesca; Reitano, Riccardo; Faccenna, Claudio; Balon, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the creation of the high and wide topography, like the Tibetan Plateau, are still controversial. In particular, the behaviour of the indian and asian lower continental lithosphere during the collision is a matter of debate, either thickening, densifying and delaminating, or keeping its rigidity and subducting. But since several decades seismicity, seismic profiles and global tomography highlight the lithospheric structure of the Tibetan Plateau, and make the hypotheses sustaining the models more precise. In particular, in the western syntaxis, it is now clear that the indian lithosphere subducts northward beneath the Hindu Kush down to the transition zone, while the asian one subducts southward beneath Pamir (e.g. Negredo et al., 2007; Kufner et al., 2015). Such double subduction of continental lithospheres with opposite vergence has also been inferred in the early collision time. Cenozoic volcanic rocks between 50 and 30 Ma in the Qiangtang block have been interpreted as related to an asian subduction beneath Qiangtang at that time (De Celles et al., 2011; Guillot and Replumaz, 2013). We present here analogue experiments silicone/honey to explore the subduction of continental lithosphere, using a piston as analogue of far field forces. We explore the parameters that control the subductions dynamics of the 2 continental lithospheres and the thickening of the plates at the surface, and compare with the Tibetan Plateau evolution. We show that a continental lithosphere is able to subduct in a collision context, even lighter than the mantle, if the plate is rigid enough. In that case the horizontal force due to the collision context, modelled by the piston push transmitted by the indenter, is the driving force, not the slab pull which is negative. It is not a subduction driving by the weight of the slab, but a subduction induced by the collision, that we could call "collisional subduction".

  15. Cansiglio Karst Plateau: 10 Years of Geodetic-Hydrological Observations in Seismically Active Northeast Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Barbara; Braitenberg, Carla; Nagy, Ildikó; Devoti, Roberto; Zuliani, David; Fabris, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Ten years' geodetic observations (2006-2016) in a natural cave of the Cansiglio Plateau (Bus de la Genziana), a limestone karstic area in northeastern Italy, are discussed. The area is of medium-high seismic risk: a strong earthquake in 1936 below the plateau (M m = 6.2) and the 1976 disastrous Friuli earthquake (M m = 6.5) are recent events. At the foothills of the karstic massif, three springs emerge, with average flow from 5 to 10 m3/s, and which are the sources of a river. The tiltmeter station is set in a natural cavity that is part of a karstic system. From March 2013, a multiparametric logger (temperature, stage, electrical conductivity) was installed in the siphon at the bottom of the cave to discover the underground hydrodynamics. The tilt records include signals induced by hydrologic and tectonic effects. The tiltmeter signals have a clear correlation to the rainfall, the discharge series of the river and the data recorded by multiparametric loggers. Additionally, the data of a permanent GPS station located on the southern slopes of the Cansiglio Massif (CANV) show also a clear correspondence with the river level. The fast water infiltration into the epikarst, closely related to daily rainfall, is distinguished in the tilt records from the characteristic time evolution of the karstic springs, which have an impulsive level increase with successive exponential decay. It demonstrates the usefulness of geodetic measurements to reveal the hydrological response of the karst. One outcome of the work is that the tiltmeters can be used as proxies for the presence of flow channels and the pressure that builds up due to the water flow. With 10 years of data, a new multidisciplinary frontier was opened between the geodetic studies and the karstic hydrogeology to obtain a more complete geologic description of the karst plateau.

  16. Rates and style of Cenozoic deformation around the Gonghe Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Kirby, Eric; Zhang, Huiping; Clark, Marin K.; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Yuan, Daoyang

    2014-01-01

    The northeastern Tibetan Plateau constitutes a transitional region between the low-relief physiographic plateau to the south and the high-relief ranges of the Qilian Shan to the north. Cenozoic deformation across this margin of the plateau is associated with localized growth of fault-cored mountain ranges and associated basins. Herein, we combine detailed structural analysis of the geometry of range-bounding faults and deformation of foreland basin strata with geomorphic and exhumational records of erosion in hanging-wall ranges in order to investigate the magnitude, timing, and style of deformation along the two primary fault systems, the Qinghai Nan Shan and the Gonghe Nan Shan. Structural mapping shows that both ranges have developed above imbricate fans of listric thrust faults, which sole into décollements in the middle crust. Restoration of shortening along balanced cross sections suggests a minimum of 0.8–2.2 km and 5.1–6.9 km of shortening, respectively. Growth strata in the associated foreland basin record the onset of deformation on the two fault systems at ca. 6–10 Ma and ca. 7–10 Ma, respectively, and thus our analysis suggests late Cenozoic shortening rates of 0.2 +0.2/–0.1 km/m.y. and 0.7 +0.3/–0.2 km/m.y. along the north and south sides of Gonghe Basin. Along the Qinghai Nan Shan, these rates are similar to late Pleistocene slip rates of ∼0.10 ± 0.04 mm/yr, derived from restoration and dating of a deformed alluvial-fan surface. Collectively, our results imply that deformation along both flanks of the doubly vergent Qilian Shan–Nan Shan initiated by ca. 10 Ma and that subsequent shortening has been relatively steady since that time.

  17. Population Spatial Dynamics of Larix potaninii in Alpine Treeline Ecotone in the Eastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia’nan Cui; Jihong Qin; Hui Sun

    2017-01-01

    The high-altitude treeline is known to be sensitive to climate variability, and is thus considered as a bio-monitoring indicator of climate change. However, our understanding of the population dynamics and the cumulative climate-change effects on the alpine treeline ecotone in recent decades is limited. Here, we investigated the population dynamics of Larix potainii on the south- and north-facing slopes in the alpine treeline ecotone in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China, includ...

  18. Reassessment of soil erosion on the Chinese loess plateau: were rates overestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have estimated regional soil erosion rates (rill and interrill erosion) on the Chinese loess plateau using an erosion model such as the RUSLE (e.g. Fu et al., 2011; Sun et al., 2013). However, the question may be asked whether such estimates are realistic: studies have shown that the use of models for large areas may lead to significant overestimations (Quinton et al., 2010). In this study, soil erosion rates on the Chinese loess plateau were reevaluated by using field measured soil erosion data from erosion plots (216 plots and 1380 plot years) in combination with a careful extrapolation procedure. Data analysis showed that the relationship between slope and erosion rate on arable land could be well described by erosion-slope relationships reported in the literature (Nearing, 1997). The increase of average erosion rate with slope length was clearly degressive, as could be expected from earlier research. However, for plots with permanent vegetation (grassland, shrub, forest) no relationship was found between erosion rates and slope gradient and/or slope length. This is important, as it implies that spatial variations of erosion on permanently vegetated areas cannot be modeled using topographical functions derived from observations on arable land. Application of relationships developed for arable land will lead to a significant overestimation of soil erosion rates. Based on our analysis we estimate the total soil erosion rate in the Chinese Loess plateau averages ca. 6.78 t ha-1 yr-1 for the whole loess plateau, resulting in a total sediment mobilisation of ca. 0.38 Gt yr-1. Erosion rates on arable land average ca. 15.10 t ha-1 yr-1. These estimates are 2 to 3 times lower than previously published estimates. The main reason why previous estimates are likely to be too high is that the values of (R)USLE parameters such as K, P and LS factor were overestimated. Overestimations of the K factor are due to the reliance of nomograph calculations, resulting

  19. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most direct consequences of the collision of two buoyant continents is large-scale crustal thickening that results in the upward and outward growth of high terrain. As the stronger Indian continent has collided with weaker Asia over at least the past 50 Myr, widespread crustal thickening has occurred over an area that is approximately 2.5 million km^2 at present. The resultant Tibetan crust is the thickest observed on Earth today with an average thickness of 65 km and a maximum that may reach 90 km in places. The mechanisms by which Tibetan crust has thickened, however, as well as the timing and distribution of these mechanisms across the plateau, remain debatable. Two of the most popular mechanisms for thickening the crust beneath the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are: 1) pure shear with faulting and folding in the upper crust and horizontal shortening below; and 2) flow and inflation of lower or middle crust without significant shortening of the upper crust. To help discriminate between the relative contributions of these two mechanisms, well-constrained estimates of upper crustal shortening are needed. Here we document the Cenozoic shortening budget across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin near 36°N 102.5°E with several 100- to 145-km-long balanced cross sections. Thermochronological and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that modest NNE-SSW shortening began in middle Eocene time, shortly after initial India-Asia collision. Accelerated east-west shortening, however, did not commence until ~35 Myr later. A five-fold acceleration in shortening rates in middle Miocene-to-Recent time accounts for more than half of the total Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening in this region. Overall, the balanced cross sections indicate 11 ± 2 % east-west shortening since middle Miocene time, and ~9 ± 2 % NNE-SSW shortening between middle Eocene and middle Miocene times. Given the present-day crustal thickness of 56 ± 4 km in northeastern Tibet, crustal

  20. Neoclassical kinetic theory near an X point: Plateau regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, E.R.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, neoclassical transport calculations ignore poloidal variation of the poloidal magnetic field. Near an X point of the confining field of a diverted plasma, the poloidal field is small, causing guiding centers to linger at that poloidal position. A study of how neoclassical transport is affected by this differential shaping is presented. The problem is solved in general in the plateau regime, and a model poloidal flux function with an X point is utilized as an analytic example to show that the plateau diffusion coefficient can change considerably (factor of 2 reduction). Ion poloidal rotation is proportional to the local value of B pol but otherwise it is not strongly affected by shaping. The usual favorable scaling of neoclassical confinement time with plasma current is unaffected by the X point

  1. Minimal surfaces, stratified multivarifolds, and the plateau problem

    CERN Document Server

    Thi, Dao Trong; Primrose, E J F; Silver, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Plateau's problem is a scientific trend in modern mathematics that unites several different problems connected with the study of minimal surfaces. In its simplest version, Plateau's problem is concerned with finding a surface of least area that spans a given fixed one-dimensional contour in three-dimensional space--perhaps the best-known example of such surfaces is provided by soap films. From the mathematical point of view, such films are described as solutions of a second-order partial differential equation, so their behavior is quite complicated and has still not been thoroughly studied. Soap films, or, more generally, interfaces between physical media in equilibrium, arise in many applied problems in chemistry, physics, and also in nature. In applications, one finds not only two-dimensional but also multidimensional minimal surfaces that span fixed closed "contours" in some multidimensional Riemannian space. An exact mathematical statement of the problem of finding a surface of least area or volume requir...

  2. [Dynamic changes of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem service value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Lü, Xian-Guo; Shen, Song-Ping

    2009-05-01

    Based on the satellite remote sensing data acquired in 1975 and 2006, and by using the assessment method of ecosystem service value, the dynamic changes of physical production value, gas regulation value, and water storage value of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem in 1975-2006 were studied. During study period, the total value of the three services decreased from 19.59 billion RMB Yuan to 12.38 billion Yuan RMB, among which, physical production value increased by 0.302 billion RMB Yuan, while the gas regulation and water storage value decreased by 7.507 billion RMB Yuan. The benefit from the increase of physical production was much less than the loss of ecosystem degradation. Overgrazing induced the biomass reduction and soil deterioration, resulting in the decline of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem service value and service capacity.

  3. Photochemical modelling of photo-oxidant levels over the Swiss plateau and emission reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselet, C.M.; Kerr, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    During summertime high pressure conditions, high photo-oxidant (O 3 , H 2 O 2 , PAN and others) levels are frequently observed in the planetary boundary layer in central Europe. It is well known that close to the earth's surface ozone is formed by complex reactions involving VOC, NO x , and sunlight. Substantial reductions of both precursors are needed to reduce photo-oxidant levels. In this context the reductions of the abundance of the precursors and the variation of their ratios is of great importance. Here we report model calculations from the Harwell Photochemical Trajectory Model of the levels of O 3 , H 2 O 2 and PAN along a trajectory over the Swiss Plateau from Lake Constance to Lake Geneva. These calculations are in satisfactory agreement with measurements made during the intensive observation period of the research program POLLUMET (Pollution and Meteorology in Switzerland). Sensitivity calculations of emission reduction scenarios indicate that on the Swiss Plateau the ozone production may be mainly NO x -limited; under conditions where the CO levels are closer to the upper limit within the range (120-600 ppbv). The calculated peak ozone level reduction caused by an exclusive NO x -emission reduction is about three times larger than that caused by an exclusive VOC reduction. The combined reduction of all precursor compounds is the most efficient strategy, although it is only marginally more efficient than the NO x -reduction scenario alone. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  4. Paleocene Pacific Plate reorganization mirrored in formation of the Suvarov Trough, Manihiki Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Ricarda; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    The Suvarov Trough is a graben structure that deviates from the Danger Islands Troughs within the Manihiki Plateau, a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. New high-resolution seismic reflection data provide evidence that the graben formed in two phases during the Paleocene (65-45 Ma). In a first phase extension occurred in southwestward direction, pulling apart the northern part of the Suvarov Trough and a parallel trending unnamed trough. In a second phase a change of extensional force direction occurred from southwest to west-northwest, forming the southern part of the Suvarov Trough that extends onto the High Plateau. The formation of the Suvarov Trough is accompanied by a series of normal fault systems that apparently formed simultaneously. Comparing the seismic results to existing Pacific paleo strain reconstructions, the timing of increased strain and local deformation direction fits well to our findings. We thus suggest that the multiple strike directions of the Suvarov Trough represent an extensional structure that was caused by the major, stepwise Pacific Plate reorganization during the Paleocene.

  5. Religious Burning as a Major Source of Atmospheric Fine Aerosols in Lhasa city in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Cui, Y.; Zhixuan, B.; Bian, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Watts, L. A.; Ciciora, S. J.; Gao, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of aerosols in the Tibetan Plateau are scant due to the high altitude and harsh climate. To bridge this gap, we carried out the first field measurements of aerosol size distributions in Lhasa, a major city in the Tibetan Plateau that has been experiencing fast urbanization and reduced air quality. Aerosol number size distribution was continuously measured using an optical particle size spectrometer near the center of Lhasa city during the Asian summer monsoon season in 2016. The mass concentration of fine particles was modulated by boundary layer dynamics, with an average of 11 µg m-3 and the high values exceeding 50 µg m-3 during religious holidays. Daytime high concentration coincided with the religious burning of biomass and incense in the temples during morning hours, which produced heavy smoke. Factor analysis revealed a factor that is likely induced by religious burning. The factor contributed 34% of the campaign-average fine particle mass and the contribution reached up to 80% during religious holidays. The mass size distribution of aerosols produced from religious burnings peaked at 500 nm, indicating that these particles could efficiently decrease visibility and promote health risk. Because of its significance, our results suggest that more attention should be paid to religious burning, a currently under-studied source, in the Tibetan Plateau and in other regions of the world where religious burnings are frequently practiced.

  6. Multilayer densities using a wavelet-based gravity method and their tectonic implications beneath the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Luo, Zhicai; Sun, Rong; Zhou, Hao; Wu, Yihao

    2018-06-01

    Determining density structure of the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in better understanding of tectonic structure and development. Seismic method, as traditional approach obtaining a large number of achievements of density structure in the Tibetan Plateau except in the centre and west, is primarily inhibited by the poor seismic station coverage. As the implementation of satellite gravity missions, gravity method is more competitive because of global homogeneous gravity coverage. In this paper, a novel wavelet-based gravity method with high computation efficiency and excellent local identification capability is developed to determine multilayer densities beneath the Tibetan Plateau. The inverted six-layer densities from 0 to 150 km depth can reveal rich tectonic structure and development of study area: (1) The densities present a clockwise pattern, nearly east-west high-low alternating pattern in the west and nearly south-north high-low alternating pattern in the east, which is almost perpendicular to surface movement direction relative to the stable Eurasia from the Global Positioning System velocity field; (2) Apparent fold structure approximately from 10 to 110 km depth can be inferred from the multilayer densities, the deformational direction of which is nearly south-north in the west and east-west in the east; (3) Possible channel flows approximately from 30 to 110 km depth can also be observed clearly during the multilayer densities. Moreover, the inverted multilayer densities are in agreement with previous studies, which verify the correctness and effectiveness of our method.

  7. Multilayer Densities Using a Wavelet-based Gravity Method and Their Tectonic Implications beneath the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Luo, Zhicai; Sun, Rong; Zhou, Hao; Wu, Yihao

    2018-03-01

    Determining density structure of the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in better understanding tectonic structure and development. Seismic method, as traditional approach obtaining a large number of achievements of density structure in the Tibetan Plateau except in the center and west, is primarily inhibited by the poor seismic station coverage. As the implementation of satellite gravity missions, gravity method is more competitive because of global homogeneous gravity coverage. In this paper, a novel wavelet-based gravity method with high computation efficiency and excellent local identification capability is developed to determine multilayer densities beneath the Tibetan Plateau. The inverted 6-layer densities from 0 km to 150 km depth can reveal rich tectonic structure and development of study area: (1) The densities present a clockwise pattern, nearly east-west high-low alternating pattern in the west and nearly south-north high-low alternating pattern in the east, which is almost perpendicular to surface movement direction relative to the stable Eurasia from the Global Positioning System velocity field; (2) Apparent fold structure approximately from 10 km to 110 km depth can be inferred from the multilayer densities, the deformational direction of which is nearly south-north in the west and east-west in the east; (3) Possible channel flows approximately from 30 km to 110 km depth can be also observed clearly during the multilayer densities. Moreover, the inverted multilayer densities are in agreement with previous studies, which verify the correctness and effectiveness of our method.

  8. Water mass distribution in Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels

    Full Text Available The water mass distribution in northern Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997 is described using CTD data from two cruises in the area. The West Spitsbergen Current was found to split, one part recirculated towards the west, while the other part, on entering the Arctic Ocean separated into two branches. The main inflow of Atlantic Water followed the Svalbard continental slope eastward, while a second, narrower, branch stayed west and north of the Yermak Plateau. The water column above the southeastern flank of the Yermak Plateau was distinctly colder and less saline than the two inflow branches. Immediately west of the outer inflow branch comparatively high temperatures in the Atlantic Layer suggested that a part of the extraordinarily warm Atlantic Water, observed in the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin in the early 1990s, was now returning, within the Eurasian Basin, toward Fram Strait. The upper layer west of the Yermak Plateau was cold, deep and comparably saline, similar to what has recently been observed in the interior Eurasian Basin. Closer to the Greenland continental slope the salinity of the upper layer became much lower, and the temperature maximum of the Atlantic Layer was occasionally below 
    0.5 °C, indicating water masses mainly derived from the Canadian Basin. This implies that the warm pulse of Atlantic Water had not yet made a complete circuit around the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic Water of the West Spitsbergen Current recirculating within the strait did not extend as far towards Greenland as in the 1980s, leaving a broader passage for waters from the Atlantic and intermediate layers, exiting the Arctic Ocean. A possible interpretation is that the circulation pattern alternates between a strong recirculation of the West Spitsbergen Current in the strait, and a larger exchange of Atlantic Water between the Nordic Seas and the inner parts of the Arctic Ocean.

    Key words: Oceanography: general

  9. Interactions between ecosystems and hydrology in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Loess Plateau is located in the arid and semi-arid temperate continental monsoon climatic zone. Large-scale "Grain-for-Green" project has been implemented in the since 1999, which has made remarkable contribution to the soil and water control, but also has led to some negative ecological effects. Understanding the interactions between ecosystems and hydrology is significant for the vegetation carrying capacity assessment and guiding the vegetation restoration. We observed the soil moisture at multiple scales including slope, catchment and transect across Loess Plateau to analyze the effects of land use change and its trend along the precipitation gradient. Remote sensing data also used to capture the spatiotemporal variance of soil moisture in the Loess Plateau, as well as the in-situ measured soil moisture decrease following the massive re-vegetation. We found soil moisture decrease in response to the massive re-vegetation occurred in a transition zone of grass-forest ecosystems with annual precipitation between 450-550 mm. The average runoff in the Loess Plateau also decreased continuously during the period 1961-2009 (average rate of -0.9 mm yr-1, P < 0.001). Human intervention played a dominant role in creating the transition points, Water yield (i.e., the ratio of runoff to precipitation) decreased following each anthropogenic transition, causing a 56% reduction in available freshwater resources during the period 1961-2009. From currently revegetated areas and human water demand, we estimate a threshold of NPP of 400±5 g C m-2 yr-1 above which the population will suffer water shortages. NPP in this region is found to be already close to this limit.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau area constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Mixing on the Heard Island Plateau during HEOBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R.

    2016-12-01

    On the plateau near Heard and McDonald Islands, the water column was nearly always well mixed. Typically, temperature differences between the surface and the bottom, 100-200 m, were less than 0.2oC and often less that 0.1oC. Surface stratification developed through insolation and deep primarily through a combination of upwelling from canyons and over the edge of the plateau and tidal advection. This stratification was primarily removed by a combination of wind and tidal mixing. Persistent winds of 30 knots mixed the upper 20-50 m. Strong wind events, 40-60 knots, mixed the water column to 100-200 m depth, which over the plateau, was often the entire water column. Benthic tidal friction mixed the bottom 30-50 m. Although the water column was unstratified at the two plume sites intensively investigated, tidal velocities were baroclinic, probably due to topographic controls. Tidal advection changed the bottom temperatures by 0.5oC within 8 hours, more than doubling the prior stratification. Wind mixing quickly homogenized the water column, resulting in the surface often showing the deeper upwelling and advective events. Although acoustic plumes with bubbles were observed in the water column, there was no evidence of geothermal vents or geothermal influence on temperatures. Mixing by bubbles rising in the water column was indistinguishable from the wind and tidal mixing, although the strongest upward vertical velocities were observed at the sites of these acoustic/bubble plumes.

  12. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  13. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  14. The medicinal plants of Frangensko Plateau (Northeastern Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho; Kacheva, Cvetelina

    2015-12-01

    The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).

  15. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  16. Plateau inflation in R-parity violating MSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Chakravarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflation with plateau potentials give the best fit to the CMB observables as they predict tensor to scalar ratio stringently bounded by the observations from Planck and BICEP2/Keck. In supergravity models it is possible to obtain plateau potentials for scalar fields in the Einstein frame which can serve as the inflation potential by considering higher dimensional Planck suppressed operators and by the choice of non-canonical Kähler potentials. We construct a plateau inflation model in MSSM where the inflation occurs along a sneutrino-Higgs flat direction. A hidden sector Polonyi field is used for the breaking of supersymmetry after the end of the inflation. The proper choice of superpotential leads to strong stabilization of the Polonyi field, mZ2≫m3/22, which is required to solve the cosmological moduli problem. Also, the SUSY breaking results in a TeV scale gravitino mass and scalar masses and gives rise to bilinear and trilinear couplings of scalars which can be tested at the LHC. The sneutrino inflation field can be observed at the LHC as a TeV scale diphoton resonance like the one reported by CMS and ATLAS.

  17. Diversity and Ecology of Dendrobiums (Orchidaceae in Chotanagpur Plateau, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of All India Coordinated Research Project on Taxonomy of orchids (AICOPTAX Chotanagpur Plateau was surveyed extensively for documentation of orchid species and distribution during 2002 -2006. Sixty three species were collected from the study area with Dendrobium as one of the largest group of epiphytic orchids comprising of 11 species, namely, Dendrobium aphyllum, D. bicameratum, D. cucullatum, D. crepidatum, D. formosum, D. fimbriatum, D. herbaceum, D. moschatum, D. peguanum, D. regium and D. transparens. Most of the species were found in the Sal (Shorea robusta dominated forests. Stratified Random Sampling was used for ecological studies in the forested regions on the plateau. Results show that D. aphyllum was the most common amongst 11 species and it was distributed through out the altitudinal gradient, whereas, rest of the orchid species were found to be localised at comparatively higher altitudes. D. herbaceum was always found on the upper areas of the plateaus between 900-1000 m asl. D. crepidatum was seen in both epiphytic as well as lithophytic conditions, whereas D. moschatum were found growing as lithophytes along the streams. Rest of the species were epithytic. The paper also deals some microhabitat features governing the distribution of these orchids on the plateau along with their key for identification.

  18. Human Adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-12

    as an etiologic for the exaggerated hypoxemla characteristic of this disorder. factor (3, 4); however, others have con- AM REV REqPIR DIS 1990; 142...incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH; syn. toxemia, preeclampsia ) and low birth weight (LBW) are increased at high versus low altitude. PIH and

  19. Influence of Western Tibetan Plateau Summer Snow Cover on East Asian Summer Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng; Huang, Gang; Liu, Ge; Zhu, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    The influence of boreal winter-spring eastern Tibetan Plateau snow anomalies on the East Asian summer rainfall variability has been the focus of previous studies. The present study documents the impacts of boreal summer western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies on summer rainfall over East Asia. Analysis shows that more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau induces anomalous cooling in the overlying atmospheric column. The induced atmospheric circulation changes are different corresponding to more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau. The atmospheric circulation changes accompanying the western Plateau snow cover anomalies are more obvious over the midlatitude Asia, whereas those corresponding to the southern Plateau snow cover anomalies are more prominent over the tropics. As such, the western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies influence the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation through different pathways. Nevertheless, the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation anomalies induced by the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies tend to display similar distribution so that they are more pronounced when the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies work in coherence. Analysis indicates that the summer snow cover anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau may be related to late spring snow anomalies due to the persistence. The late spring snow anomalies are related to an obvious wave train originating from the western North Atlantic that may be partly associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  1. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  2. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  3. Individual particles of cryoconite deposited on the mountain glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau: Insights into chemical composition and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Yajun; Li, Yang; Huang, Jie; Qin, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    influenced by large deserts in central Asia. Therefore, the transport and deposition of cryoconite is of great significance for understanding regional atmospheric environment and circulation. Large amounts of biological, NaCl and MCS particles were observed in the cryoconite, implying that in addition to dust and BC, many types of light absorbing impurities (LAI) together could influence the glacier albedo change and induce ice melting in the mountain glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau. Moreover, a high BC concentration in the south (e.g., YL and ZD) could significantly change the albedo of snow and ice, at a greater rate than dust, causing significant melting of the glaciers under global warming.

  4. MARGATS cruise: investigation of the deep internal structure and the heterogeneous margins of the Demerara plateau reveals a polyphased volcanic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, D.; Museur, T.; Roest, W. R.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Loncke, L.; Basile, C.; Poetisi, E.; Deverchere, J.; Heuret, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Perrot, J.

    2017-12-01

    The MARGATS scientific cruise was carried out from October 20th to November 16th 2016 on board the R/V L'Atalante, offshore Suriname and French Guiana. This cruise is part of a program dedicated to the geological investigation of the continental margin, including the Demerara plateau, following the GUYAPLAC (2003), IGUANES (2013) and DRADEM (2016) cruises. The aim of MARGATS was to image the internal structure of the Demerara plateau and its different margins using coincident deep penetrating wide angle refraction and multi channel reflection seismic (MCS) methods. During the MARGATS experiment 171 OBS deployments were distributed along 4 wide-angle lines. Along each wide-angle line we also recorded coincident MCS data using a 3 km long 480 channel streamer. The dataset was completed by three MCS lines along the eastern part of the Demerara plateau. MCS MAR007 line which is coincident with line OBS MAR-3 was extended on land by 13 land stations deployed along the Maroni River. This line, together with MCS MAR001 and the coincident OBS MAR-1 line reveal the highly homogeneous deep structure of the internal part of the plateau. MCS MAR005 line, which is coincident with OBS MAR-2, MCS MAR006 line coincident with OBS MAR-4, MCS MAR002, MCS MAR003 and MCS MAR004 helps to elucidate the structural complexity of the northern transform margin and the eastern divergent margin of the plateau. These new datasets are highly complementary to the DRADEM dredge results which provide evidence for mid Jurassic volcanic rocks along the plateau and significant vertical displacements along the transform margin. These results allow to interpret the plateau as the remains of a huge jurassic volcanic divergent margin along the Central Atlantic ocean to the west, possibly remobilized during the cretaceous opening of the Equatorial Atlantic ocean as an highly oblique margin to the north and a divergent margin to the east in persistent presence of volcanism. This AGU session will be a great

  5. Magnetic record of Mio-Pliocene red clay and Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence in the Chinese Loess Plateau

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    Yougui Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents magnetic data of a 300-m-thick Mio-Pliocene red clay and Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence near Chaona town in the Central Chinese Loess Plateau. Detailed magnetostratigraphy shows that the aeolian red clay began to accumulate at ca. 8.1 Ma. Here, we presented a high-resolution rock magnetic data at 20–40 cm intervals within 4.5–8 ka span per sample of this section, which has been published in Song et al. (2014 [1] and (2017 [2]. The dataset including the following magnetic parameters: mass magnetic susceptibility (χ, frequency-dependent susceptibility (χfd, saturation magnetization (Ms, saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs, coercive force (Bc, remanent coercivity (Bcr, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM and S-ratio. Magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis parameters were measured at Lanzhou University and Kyoto University, respectively. This data provides a high-resolution rock magnetic evidences for understanding East Asia Monsoon change, Asian interior aridification and tectonic effect of the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since middle Miocene period. Keywords: Rock magnetic record, Late Miocene and Pliocene red clay, Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence, Chinese Loess Plateau

  6. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.

  7. Annual increments of juniper dwarf shrubs above the tree line on the central Tibetan Plateau: a useful climatic proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Lu, Xiaoming; Ren, Ping; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Liping; Eckstein, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Dendroclimatology is playing an important role in understanding past climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Forests, however, are mainly confined to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. On the central Tibetan Plateau, in contrast, shrubs and dwarf shrubs need to be studied instead of trees as a source of climate information. The objectives of this study were to check the dendrochronological potential of the dwarf shrub Wilson juniper (Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii) growing from 4740 to 4780 m a.s.l. and to identify the climatic factors controlling its radial growth. Methods Forty-three discs from 33 stems of Wilson juniper were sampled near the north-eastern shore of the Nam Co (Heavenly Lake). Cross-dating was performed along two directions of each stem, avoiding the compression-wood side as far as possible. A ring-width chronology was developed after a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope had been fit to the raw measurements. Then, correlations were calculated between the standard ring-width chronology and monthly climate data recorded by a weather station around 100 km away. Key Results Our study has shown high dendrochronological potential of Wilson juniper, based on its longevity (one individual was 324 years old), well-defined growth rings, reliable cross-dating between individuals and distinct climatic signals reflected by the ring-width variability. Unlike dwarf shrubs in the circum-arctic tundra ecosystem which positively responded to above-average temperature in the growing season, moisture turned out to be growth limiting for Wilson juniper, particularly the loss of moisture caused by high maximum temperatures in May–June. Conclusions Because of the wide distribution of shrub and dwarf shrub species on the central Tibetan Plateau, an exciting prospect was opened up to extend the presently existing tree-ring networks far up into one of the largest tundra regions of the world. PMID:22210848

  8. Annual increments of juniper dwarf shrubs above the tree line on the central Tibetan Plateau: a useful climatic proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Lu, Xiaoming; Ren, Ping; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Liping; Eckstein, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Dendroclimatology is playing an important role in understanding past climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Forests, however, are mainly confined to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. On the central Tibetan Plateau, in contrast, shrubs and dwarf shrubs need to be studied instead of trees as a source of climate information. The objectives of this study were to check the dendrochronological potential of the dwarf shrub Wilson juniper (Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii) growing from 4740 to 4780 m a.s.l. and to identify the climatic factors controlling its radial growth. Forty-three discs from 33 stems of Wilson juniper were sampled near the north-eastern shore of the Nam Co (Heavenly Lake). Cross-dating was performed along two directions of each stem, avoiding the compression-wood side as far as possible. A ring-width chronology was developed after a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope had been fit to the raw measurements. Then, correlations were calculated between the standard ring-width chronology and monthly climate data recorded by a weather station around 100 km away. Our study has shown high dendrochronological potential of Wilson juniper, based on its longevity (one individual was 324 years old), well-defined growth rings, reliable cross-dating between individuals and distinct climatic signals reflected by the ring-width variability. Unlike dwarf shrubs in the circum-arctic tundra ecosystem which positively responded to above-average temperature in the growing season, moisture turned out to be growth limiting for Wilson juniper, particularly the loss of moisture caused by high maximum temperatures in May-June. Because of the wide distribution of shrub and dwarf shrub species on the central Tibetan Plateau, an exciting prospect was opened up to extend the presently existing tree-ring networks far up into one of the largest tundra regions of the world.

  9. Geochip-based analysis of microbial communities in alpine meadow soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Lu, Zhenmei; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Ren, Zuohua; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2013-03-29

    GeoChip 3.0, a microbial functional gene array, containing ~28,000 oligonucleotide probes and targeting ~57,000 sequences from 292 functional gene families, provided a powerful tool for researching microbial community structure in natural environments. The alpine meadow is a dominant plant community in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, hence it is important to profile the unique geographical flora and assess the response of the microbial communities to environmental variables. In this study, Geochip 3.0 was employed to understand the microbial functional gene diversity and structure, and metabolic potential and the major environmental factors in shaping microbial communities structure of alpine meadow soil in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A total of 6143 microbial functional genes involved in carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane oxidation and production, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulphur cycling, organic remediation, metal resistance, energy process and other category were detected in six soil samples and high diversity was observed. Interestingly, most of the detected genes associated with carbon degradation were derived from cultivated organisms. To identify major environmental factors in shaping microbial communities, Mantel test and CCA Statistical analyses were performed. The results indicated that altitude, C/N, pH and soil organic carbon were significantly (P the microbial functional structure and a total of 80.97% of the variation was significantly explained by altitude, C/N and pH. The C/N contributed 38.2% to microbial functional gene variation, which is in accordance with the hierarchical clustering of overall microbial functional genes. High overall functional genes and phylogenetic diversity of the alpine meadow soil microbial communities existed in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most of the genes involved in carbon degradation were derived from characterized microbial groups. Microbial composition and structures variation were

  10. Plateau iris Íris em platô

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    Alberto Diniz Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao

  11. A programme evaluation of pre-primary education reform, and policy, in Plateau State, Nigeria

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    Sumaye Fadimatu Hamza

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This paper presents a brief overview of the educational system in Nigeria with an emphasis on the pre-primary education level. It addresses the international literature on early childhood pedagogy and assesses to what extent pre-primary education policy in Nigeria is inspired by this literature. The paper will pay special attention to the shortcomings and obstacles encountered in trying to implement the pre-primary education policy of Plateau State in Nigeria Abstract: The current study is an evaluation of the pre-primary education policy in Plateau State in Nigeria. It was inspired by my own experience as a school teacher/principal who has seen the effects on primary schools and the results of a lack of government investment in the sector, itself leading to a proliferation of ‘private owners’. Because of these circumstances the implementation of central policy is highly dependent on the varying understanding of these owners. The study will employ both qualitative and quantitative techniques in data collection through the use of questionnaire, interviews, classroom observation and use of documents. The data will be analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results will hopefully be used, not only to add to existing literature, but also to improve the system serving as a basis for further research in the area.

  12. Crustal deformation mechanism in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Asian collision developed the complicated crustal deformation around the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Numerous models have proposed to explain the crustal deformation, but the mechanism remains controversial, especially the increasing multi-geophysics data, which demonstrate the existence of lower velocity, lower resistivity and high conductivity, implying that lower crustal flow is responsible for the crustal deformation, arguing for the lower crust flow model. To address the relations between the crust flow and the surface deformation, we employ a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite model to investigate the possible influence on the surface deformation, and discuss the stress field distribution under the model. Our preliminary results suggest that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in southeastern Tibetan plateau. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation, when the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa.s, respectively; the predicted match observations well, especially for the magnitude within the South China block. The maximum principal stress field exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  13. Niche conservatism in Gynandropaa frogs on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Wang, Bin; Huang, Yan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-09-07

    The role of ecological niche in lineage diversification has been the subject of long-standing interest of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Gynandropaa frogs diversified into three independent clades endemic to the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Here, we address the question whether these clades kept the same niche after separation, and what it tells us about possible diversification processes. We applied predictions in geographical (G)-space and tests of niche conservatism in environmental (E)-space. Niche models in G-space indicate separate regions with high suitability for the different clades, with some potential areas of sympatry. While the pair of central and eastern clades displayed the largest niche overlap for most variables, and strict niche equivalency was rejected for all clade-pairs, we found no strong evidence for niche divergence, but rather the signature of niche conservatism compared to null models in E-space. These results suggest a common ancestral ecological niche, and as such give good support to divergence through allopatric speciation, but alternative explanations are also possible. Our findings illustrate how testing for niche conservatism in lineage diversification can provide insights into underlying speciation processes, and how this information may guide further research and conservation practices, as illustrated here for amphibians on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Snow effects on alpine vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Yubao; Ji, Lei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Cuizhen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between snow and vegetation is important for interpretation of the responses of alpine ecosystems to climate changes. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as an ideal area due to its undisturbed features with low population and relatively high snow cover. We used 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets during 2001–2010 to examine the snow–vegetation relationships, specifically, (1) the influence of snow melting date on vegetation green-up date and (2) the effects of snow cover duration on vegetation greenness. The results showed that the alpine vegetation responded strongly to snow phenology (i.e., snow melting date and snow cover duration) over large areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Snow melting date and vegetation green-up date were significantly correlated (p growth was influenced by different seasonal snow cover durations (SCDs) in different regions. Generally, the December–February and March–May SCDs played a significantly role in vegetation growth, both positively and negatively, depending on different water source regions. Snow's positive impact on vegetation was larger than the negative impact.

  15. Dynamic recycling of gaseous elemental mercury in the boundary layer of the Antarctic Plateau

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    A. Dommergue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 was investigated in the troposphere and in the interstitial air extracted from the snow at Dome Concordia station (alt. 3320 m on the Antarctic Plateau during January 2009. Measurements and modeling studies showed evidence of a very dynamic and daily cycling of Hg0 inside the mixing layer with a range of values from 0.2 ng m−3 up to 2.3 ng m−3. During low solar irradiation periods, fast Hg0 oxidation processes in a confined layer were suspected. Unexpectedly high Hg0 concentrations for such a remote place were measured under higher solar irradiation due to snow photochemistry. We suggest that a daily cycling of reemission/oxidation occurs during summer within the mixing layer at Dome Concordia. Hg0 concentrations showed a negative correlation with ozone mixing ratios, which contrasts with atmospheric mercury depletion events observed during the Arctic spring. Unlike previous Antarctic studies, we think that atmospheric Hg0 removal may not be the result of advection processes. The daily and dramatic Hg0 losses could be a consequence of surface or snow induced oxidation pathways. It remains however unclear whether halogens are involved. The cycling of other oxidants should be investigated together with Hg species in order to clarify the complex reactivity on the Antarctic plateau.

  16. Present-day crustal deformation and strain transfer in northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional present-day crustal deformation and strain partitioning in northeastern Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using available GPS and precise leveling data. We used the multi-scale wavelet method to analyze strain rates, and the elastic block model to estimate slip rates on the major faults and internal strain within each block. Our results show that shear strain is strongly localized along major strike-slip faults, as expected in the tectonic extrusion model. However, extrusion ends and transfers to crustal contraction near the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The strain transfer is abrupt along the Haiyuan Fault and diffusive along the East Kunlun Fault. Crustal contraction is spatially correlated with active uplifting. The present-day strain is concentrated along major fault zones; however, within many terranes bounded by these faults, intra-block strain is detectable. Terranes having high intra-block strain rates also show strong seismicity. On average the Ordos and Sichuan blocks show no intra-block strain, but localized strain on the southwestern corner of the Ordos block indicates tectonic encroachment.

  17. Characteristics of black carbon in snow from Laohugou No. 12 glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Gao, Tanguang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sprenger, Michael; Liu, Yajun; Li, Xiaofei; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Kun; Chen, Jizu; Li, Yang; Sun, Shiwei

    2017-12-31

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere. Also, unlike black carbon particles in the atmosphere, the particles deposited in snow did not exhibit highly fractal morphology by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. Footprint analysis indicated BC deposited on the glacier in summer originated mainly from Central Asia; in winter, the depositing air masses generally originated from Central Asia and Pakistan. Anthropogenic emissions play an important role on black carbon deposition in glacial snow, especially in winter. The mass absorption efficiency of BC in snow at 632nm exhibited significantly seasonality, with higher values in summer and lower values in winter. The information on black carbon deposition in glacial snow provided in this study could be used to help mitigate the impacts of BC on glacier melting on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated risk governance in the Yungui Plateau, China: The 2008 ice-snow storm disaster

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    Qian Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Yungui Plateau in Southwestern China is regarded as one of the major bio- and cultural diversity centers in the world because it contains a remarkable variety of ecological niches and ethnic groups. Due to its unique mountain geographic landscape and domination by a monsoon climate, it has high vulnerabilities and is frequently hit by various climatic and geological hazards such as droughts, floods, earthquakes, and landslides. In the past two decades, while the region has enjoyed rapid social and economic development, vegetation degradation, water pollution and soil loss, as well as other environmental problems, have become major concerns in the region. In January 2008, nearly half of China was hit by an unprecedented series of hazards of low temperature, persistent rain, snow, and a series of ice storms with South China suffering the most. In this paper, with a comprehensive overview of the causes and consequences of the disaster, a disaster chain in Yungui Plateau is identified and environmental, social, economic and political factors are analyzed under a framework of integrated risk governance.

  19. Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.

  20. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaoliu; Kang Shichang; Zhang Qianggong

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical 'pollution' elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles <20 μm are transportable as long distances, elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP. - High concentrations of some elements of the Tibetan soils can cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements during aerosol related study.

  1. Multiscale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Economic Development in an Interprovincial Boundary Region: Junction Area of Tibetan Plateau, Hengduan Mountain, Yungui Plateau and Sichuan Basin, Southwestern China Case

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    Jifei Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An interprovincial boundary region is a new subject of economic disparity study in China. This study explored the multi-scale spatio-temporal dynamics of economic development from 1995 to 2010 in the interprovincial boundary region of Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou, a mountain area and also the junction area of Tibetan Plateau, Hengduan Mountain, Yungui Plateau and Sichuan Basin in southwestern China. A quantitative study on county GDP per capita for different scales of administrative regions was conducted using the Theil index, Markov chains, a geographic information system and exploratory spatial data analysis. Results indicated that the economic disparity was closely related with geographical unit scale in the study area: the smaller the unit, the bigger the disparity, and the regional inequality gradually weakened over time. Moreover, significant positive spatial autocorrelation and clustering of economic development were also found. The spatial pattern of economic development presented approximate circle structure with two cores in the southwest and northeast. The Panxi region in the southwest core and a part of Hilly Sichuan Basin in the northeast core were considered to be hot spots of economic development. Most areas in the east and central region were persistently trapped in the low level of a balanced development state, with a poverty trap being formed in the central and south part. Geographical conditions and location, administrative barriers and the lack of effective growth poles may be the main reasons for the entire low level of balanced development. Our findings suggest that in order to achieve a high level of balanced development, attention should be paid beyond developing transportation and other infrastructure. Breaking down the rigid shackles of administrative districts that hinder trans-provincial cooperation and promoting new regional poles in the Yunnan-Guizhou region may have great significance for the study area.

  2. Evidence for Adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau Inferred from Tibetan Loach Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Liandong; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yanping; Song, Zhaobin; He, Shunping

    2015-10-09

    Triplophysa fishes are the primary component of the fish fauna on the Tibetan Plateau and are well adapted to the high-altitude environment. Despite the importance of Triplophysa fishes on the plateau, the genetic mechanisms of the adaptations of these fishes to this high-altitude environment remain poorly understood. In this study, we generated the transcriptome sequences for three Triplophysa fishes, that is, Triplophysa siluroides, Triplophysa scleroptera, and Triplophysa dalaica, and used these and the previously available transcriptome and genome sequences from fishes living at low altitudes to identify potential genetic mechanisms for the high-altitude adaptations in Triplophysa fishes. An analysis of 2,269 orthologous genes among cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus), and Triplophysa fishes revealed that each of the terminal branches of the Triplophysa fishes had a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than that of the branches of the fishes from low altitudes, which provided consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in the Triplophysa genus. Many of the GO (Gene Ontology) categories associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia response exhibited accelerated evolution in the Triplophysa fishes compared with the large-scale loach. The genes that exhibited signs of positive selection and rapid evolution in the Triplophysa fishes were also significantly enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories. Our analysis identified widespread Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the fast evolving genes and positively selected genes. Moreover, we detected significant evidence of positive selection in the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1A and HIF-2B genes in Triplophysa fishes and found that the Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the HIF-1A and HIF-2B genes were associated with functional changes. Overall, our study provides

  3. Conservation Tillage on the Loess Plateau, China: Food security, Yes; Carbon sequestration, No?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Hu, Yaxian; Xiao, Liangang; Greenwood, Phil; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect food security globally and increase the variability in food supply. At the same time, agricultural practices offer a great potential for mitigating and adapting to climate change. In China, food security has increased in the last decades with the number of undernourished people declining from 21% in 1990 to 12% today. However, the limited relative amount of arable land and scarce water supplies will remain a challenge. The Loess Plateau of China, located in the mid-upper reaches of the Yellow River and has an area of some 630000 km2 with a high agricultural potential. However, due to heavy summer rainstorms, steep slopes, low vegetation cover, and highly erodible soils, the Loess Plateau has become one of the most severely eroded areas in the world. Up to 70% of arable land is affected by an annual soil loss of 20-25 ton ha-1, far exceeding the threshold for sustainable use (10 ton ha-1). Rainfed farming systems are dominant on the Loess Plateau, and the farmers in this area have been exposed to a steadily increasing temperature as well as an erratic, but slightly decreasing rainfall since 1970. Therefore, adaptation of the regional agriculture is required to adapt to climate change and may be even engaged in mitigation. This study analyzed the potential contribution of conservation tillage to adaptation and mitigation of climate change on the Loess Plateau. In total, 15 papers published in English were reviewed, comparing two tillage practices, conventional tillage (CT) and conservation tillage typically represented by no-tillage (NT). Soil organic carbon (SOC) stock across soil depths as well yields and the inter-annual variations with regards to and their annual rainfall precipitation were compared for NT and CT. Our results show that: 1) The benefit of NT compared to CT in terms of increasing total SOC stocks diminishes with soil depth, questioning the use of average SOC stocks observed in topsoil to estimate the potential

  4. Timing and mechanism of the rise of the Shillong Plateau in the Himalayan foreland.

    OpenAIRE

    Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Copley, Alex; Millar, Ian; Van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Grujic, Djordje; Davenport, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Shillong Plateau (northeastern India) constitutes the only significant topography in the Himalayan foreland. Knowledge of its surface uplift history is key to understanding topographic development and unraveling tectonic–climate–topographic coupling in the eastern Himalaya. We use the sedimentary record of the Himalayan foreland basin north of the Shillong Plateau to show that the paleo-Brahmaputra river was redirected north and west by the rising plateau at 5.2–4.9 Ma. We suggest that on...

  5. A preliminary study of the heating effect of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Yao

    Full Text Available The immense and towering Tibetan Plateau acts as a heating source and, thus, deeply shapes the climate of the Eurasian continent and even the whole world. However, due to the scarcity of meteorological observation stations and very limited climatic data, little is quantitatively known about the heating effect of the plateau and its implications. This paper firstly collects climate data (2001-2007 from 109 observation stations and MODIS-based estimated monthly mean temperature data in the plateau and the neighboring Sichuan Basin, and conducts correlation and simple linear regression to reveal the altitudinal pattern of temperature. Then, according to the linear relationships of temperature and altitude for each month, it compares air temperature differences on the same elevation between the main plateau and surrounding mountains and the Sichuan Basin so as to quantify the heating effect and discuss its implication on timberline of the plateau. The results show that: 1 the heating effect of the plateau is significant. The temperature of the main plateau area was higher than that of free air on the same elevation above the neighboring areas; on the elevation of 4500 m (the main plateau, temperature is 1-6°C higher in the main Plateau than over the Sichuan Basin for different months and 5.9-10.7°C higher than in the Qilian Mountains in the northeastern corner of the plateau. 2 Even at altitudes of 5000-6000 m in the main Plateau, there are 4 months with a mean temperature above 0°C. The mean temperature of the warmest month (July can reach 10°C at about 4600-4700 m. This may help explain why the highest timberline in the northern hemisphere is on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Eutrophication in the Yunnan Plateau lakes: the influence of lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhi; Li, Siyue; Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Quanfa; Liu, Guihua

    2012-03-01

    Lakes play an important role in socioeconomic development and ecological balance in China, but their water quality has deteriorated considerably in recent decades. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal variations of eutrophication parameters (secchi depth, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, trophic level index, and trophic state index) and their relationships with lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors in the Yunnan Plateau lakes. Results indicated that about 77.8% of lakes were eutrophic according to trophic state index. The plateau lakes showed spatial variations in water quality and could be classified into high-nutrient and low-nutrient groups. However, because watersheds were dominated by vegetation, all eutrophication parameters except chlorophyll-a showed no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons. Lake depth, water residence time, volume, and percentage of built-up land were significantly related to several eutrophication parameters. Agricultural land use and social-economic factors had no significant correlation with all eutrophication parameters. Stepwise regression analyses demonstrated that lake depth and water residence time accounted for 73.8% to 87.6% of the spatial variation of single water quality variables, respectively. Redundancy analyses indicated that lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors together explained 74.3% of the spatial variation in overall water quality. The results imply that water quality degradation in the plateau lakes may be mainly due to the domestic and industrial wastewaters. This study will improve our understanding of the determinants of lake water quality and help to design efficient strategies for controlling eutrophication in the plateau region.

  7. Assessing the permafrost temperature and thickness conditions favorable for the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qingbai; Jiang Guanli; Zhang Peng

    2010-01-01

    Permafrost accounts for about 52% of the total area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the permafrost area is about 140 x 10 4 km 2 . The mean annual ground temperature of permafrost ranges from -0.1 to -5 deg. C, and lower than -5 deg. C at extreme high-mountains. Permafrost thickness ranges from 10 to 139.4 m by borehole data, and more than 200 m by geothermal gradients. The permafrost geothermal gradient ranges from 1.1 deg. C/100 m to 8.0 deg. C/100 m with an average of 2.9 deg. C/100 m, and the geothermal gradient of the soil beneath permafrost is about 2.8-8.5 deg. C/100 m with an average of 6.0 deg. C/100 m in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For a minimum of permafrost geothermal gradients of 1.1 deg. C/100 m, the areas of the potential occurrence of methane hydrate (sI) is approximately estimated to be about 27.5% of the total area of permafrost regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For an average of permafrost geothermal gradients of 2.9 deg. C/100 m, the areas of the potential occurrence of methane hydrate (sI) is approximately estimated about 14% of the total area of permafrost regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For the sII hydrate, the areas of the potential occurrence of sII hydrate are more than that of sI methane hydrate.

  8. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

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    Zheming Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  9. Characteristics of Water Vapor in the UTLS over the Tibetan Plateau Based on AURA/MLS Observations

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    Yi Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor (WV has a vital effect on global climate change. Using satellite data observed by AURA/MLS and ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets, the spatial distributions and temporal variations of WV were analyzed. It was found that high WV content in the UTLS over the southern Tibetan Plateau is more apparent in summer, due to monsoon-induced strong upward motions. The WV content showed the opposite distribution at 100 hPa, though, during spring and winter. And a different distribution at 121 hPa indicated that the difference in WV content between the northern and southern plateau occurs between 121 and 100 hPa in spring and between 147 and 121 hPa in winter. In the UTLS, it diminishes rapidly with increase in altitude in these two seasons, and it shows a “V” structure in winter. There has been a weak increasing trend in WV at 100 hPa, but a downtrend at 147 and 215 hPa, during the past 12 years. At the latter two heights, the WV content in summer has been much higher than in other seasons. Furthermore, WV variation showed a rough wave structure in spring and autumn at 215 hPa. The variation of WV over the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE and climate change.

  10. Summary of the mineralogy of the Colorado Plateau uranium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alice D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Thompson, Mary E.

    1956-01-01

    In the Colorado Plateau uranium has been produced chiefly from very shallow mines in carnotite ores (oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores) until recent deeper mining penetrated black unoxidized ores in water-saturated rocks and extensive exploration has discovered many deposits of low to nonvanadiferous ores. The uranium ores include a wide range from highly vanadiferous and from as much as one percent to a trace of copper, and contain a small amount of iron and traces of lead, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, silver, manganese, and other metals. Recent investigation indicates that the carnotite ores have been derived by progressive oxidation of primary (unoxidized) black ores that contain low-valent uranium and vanadium oxides and silicates. The uranium minerals, uraninite and coffinite, are associated with coalified wood or other carbonaceous material. The vanadium minerals, chiefly montroseite, roscoelite, and other vanadium silicates, occur in the interstices of the sandstone and in siltstone and clay pellets as well as associated with fossil wood. Calcite, dolomite, barite and minor amounts of sulfides, arsenides, and selenides occur in the unoxidized ore. Partially oxidized vanadiferous ore is blue black, purplish brown, or greenish black in contrast to the black or dark gray unoxidized ore. Vanadium combines with uranium to form rauvite. The excess vanadium is present in corvusite, fernandinite, melanovanadite and many other quadrivalent and quinquevalent vanadium minerals as well as in vanadium silicates. Pyrite and part or all of the calcite are replaced by iron oxides and gypsum. In oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores the uranium is fixed in the relatively insoluble minerals carnotite and tyuyamunite, and the excess vanadium commonly combines with one or more of the following: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, manganese, or barium, or rarely it forms the hydrated pentoxide. The relatively stable vanadium silicates are little

  11. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  12. Posterior Slope of the Tibia Plateau in Malaysian Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement

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    R Yoga

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior slope of the tibial plateau is an important feature to preserve during knee replacement. The correct slope aids in the amount of flexion and determines if the knee will be loose on flexion. This is a study on the posterior tibial plateau slope based on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 100 consecutive patients who had total knee replacements. The average posterior slope of the tibia plateau was 10.1 degrees. There is a tendency for patients with higher pre-operative posterior tibial plateau slope to have higher post-operative posterior tibial plate slope.

  13. The dating and interpretation of Chusang indicates permanent human occupation of the interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael; Aldenderfer, Mark; Wang, Zhijun; Hoffmann, Dirk; Dahl, Jenny; Degering, Detlev; Haas, Randy; Schlütz, Frank; Gliganic, Luke; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    The nature and timing of a permanent human settlement on the Tibetan Plateau and the accompanying cultural and physiological responses, including genetic high-altitude adaptations, are subject to ongoing debate (1-3). The latest genetic data (based on extensive analysis of the modern Tibetan genome) suggest a main wave of human migration onto the plateau between 15 and 8 ka but genetic traces that hint to an even earlier initial occupation (dating to 65 ka) have to be considered too (4, 5). The archaeological record against which these genetic data can be compared to remains scant. The few archaeological sites with a chronometric age are all located on the northeastern margin of the plateau and range in date from 9 to 15 ka. These sites typically are at medium to low elevations (≤ 3300 masl) and are believed to have been short-term, seasonal occupations monitored from lower-elevation base camps (1). It is widely believed that permanent peopling of the interior (higher-elevation zones) of the Tibetan Plateau was only facilitated by an agricultural lifeway at 3.6 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present (2). The climatic and paleoenvironmental constraints on this colonization process are poorly understood (1-3). Here we report a reanalysis of the chronology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Chusang site, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at an elevation of 4270 meters above sea level (3). The site is known for its hot springs and extensive hydrothermal carbonate (travertine) formations and also preserves 19 human hand- and footprints on the surface of a fossil travertine sheet. The minimum age of the site is fixed at 7.4 thousand years (thorium-230/uranium dating), with a maximum age between 8.20 and 12.67 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present based on radiocarbon and OSL single-grain dating. Travel cost modeling and archaeological data suggest that the site was part of an annual, permanent, preagricultural occupation of the

  14. Risks for cancer induction by pion radiation in the peak- and plateau region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottier, H.; Fritz-Niggli, H.; Froehlich, E.; Heinzell, F.; Nichel, C.; Rao, K.

    In the foreground of an evaluation of the suitability of negative protons for cancer therapy there is, beside the analysis of pion effect on malignant cells, also the reaction of healthy tissue. The observation that neutrons at the lowest dose-rate can induce breast cancer and our own results after pion radiation in the peak-region necessitate a broadly planned, urgent investigation of these delayed damages. We will consider radiations at the plateau- and peak-region, the results of which should be of utmost interest for the comparison of neutron- and pion therapy. There are indications that the RBE of a high LET radiation is extremely large for the tumor induction. We will investigate especially the development of mammary cancers in variously aged mice with a low spontaneous tumor rate and C 3 H mice with a high cancer expectancy

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in rural villages of the Bolivian Amazon Prevalência da infecção pelo papilomavirus humano nas aldeias rurais do Amazonas Boliviano

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    Jorge Cervantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer constitutes a major health problem in developing countries like Bolivia. The roles of certain genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer is well established. The prevalence of HPV infection among sexually active women varies greatly. Information regarding HPV infection in Bolivia is very much scarce, specially in regions like the Amazonian lowland. We studied 135 healthy women living in four rural localities of the Bolivian Amazon. Presence of HPV in DNA extracted from cervical swabs was analyzed using a reverse line hybridization assay. The estimated overall HPV infection prevalence among the studied rural localities was 5.9% (ranging from 0-16.6%. These values were unexpectedly low considering Bolivia has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The fact that Amazonian people seem to be less exposed to HPV, makes it likely that some other risk factors including host lifestyle behaviors and genetic background may be involved in the development of cervical cancer in this population.O câncer cervical constitui problema de saúde da maior importância nos países em desenvolvimento tais como a Bolívia. O papel de certos genótipos de papilomavirus humano (HPVs na patologia do câncer cervical está bem estabelecido. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV nas mulheres sexualmente ativas varia amplamente. Contudo, as informações existentes acerca da infecção pelo HPV na Bolivia são muito escassas, especialmente nas zonas rurais, nomeadamente na região amazônica do país. Foram estudadas 135 mulheres saudáveis, residentes em quatro localidades do Amazonas Boliviano. Foi detectada a presença de HPV no DNA extraído de esfregaços cervicais, utilizando o método de hibridização em linha reversa. A prevalência da infecção por HVP, encontrada nas localidades rurais, foi de 5,9% (variação entre 0-16,6%. Estes valores foram inesperadamente baixos, uma vez que a Bolívia é um país com alta

  16. Hypoxia adaptations in the grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Fan, Zhenxin; Han, Eunjung; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Galaverni, Marco; Huang, Jie; Liu, Hong; Silva, Pedro; Li, Peng; Pollinger, John P; Du, Lianming; Zhang, XiuyYue; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K; Zhang, Zhihe

    2014-07-01

    The Tibetan grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) occupies habitats on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a high altitude (>3000 m) environment where low oxygen tension exerts unique selection pressure on individuals to adapt to hypoxic conditions. To identify genes involved in hypoxia adaptation, we generated complete genome sequences of nine Chinese wolves from high and low altitude populations at an average coverage of 25× coverage. We found that, beginning about 55,000 years ago, the highland Tibetan grey wolf suffered a more substantial population decline than lowland wolves. Positively selected hypoxia-related genes in highland wolves are enriched in the HIF signaling pathway (P = 1.57E-6), ATP binding (P = 5.62E-5), and response to an oxygen-containing compound (P≤5.30E-4). Of these positively selected hypoxia-related genes, three genes (EPAS1, ANGPT1, and RYR2) had at least one specific fixed non-synonymous SNP in highland wolves based on the nine genome data. Our re-sequencing studies on a large panel of individuals showed a frequency difference greater than 58% between highland and lowland wolves for these specific fixed non-synonymous SNPs and a high degree of LD surrounding the three genes, which imply strong selection. Past studies have shown that EPAS1 and ANGPT1 are important in the response to hypoxic stress, and RYR2 is involved in heart function. These three genes also exhibited significant signals of natural selection in high altitude human populations, which suggest similar evolutionary constraints on natural selection in wolves and humans of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  17. Reconstructing plateau icefields: Evaluating empirical and modelled approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Barr, Iestyn

    2013-04-01

    Glacial landforms are widely utilised to reconstruct former glacier geometries with a common aim to estimate the Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) and from these, infer palaeoclimatic conditions. Such inferences may be studied on a regional scale and used to correlate climatic gradients across large distances (e.g., Europe). In Britain, the traditional approach uses geomorphological mapping with hand contouring to derive the palaeo-ice surface. Recently, ice surface modelling enables an equilibrium profile reconstruction tuned using the geomorphology. Both methods permit derivation of palaeo-climate but no study has compared the two methods for the same ice-mass. This is important because either approach may result in differences in glacier limits, ELAs and palaeo-climate. This research uses both methods to reconstruct a plateau icefield and quantifies the results from a cartographic and geometrical aspect. Detailed geomorphological mapping of the Tweedsmuir Hills in the Southern Uplands, Scotland (c. 320 km2) was conducted to examine the extent of Younger Dryas (YD; 12.9 -11.7 cal. ka BP) glaciation. Landform evidence indicates a plateau icefield configuration of two separate ice-masses during the YD covering an area c. 45 km2 and 25 km2. The interpreted age is supported by new radiocarbon dating of basal stratigraphies and Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide Analysis (TCNA) of in situ boulders. Both techniques produce similar configurations however; the model results in a coarser resolution requiring further processing if a cartographic map is required. When landforms are absent or fragmentary (e.g., trimlines and lateral moraines), like in many accumulation zones on plateau icefields, the geomorphological approach increasingly relies on extrapolation between lines of evidence and on the individual's perception of how the ice-mass ought to look. In some locations this results in an underestimation of the ice surface compared to the modelled surface most likely due to

  18. The Role of Traditional Knowledge and Crop Varieties in Adaptation to Climate Change and Food Security in SW China, Bolivian Andes and coastal Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah; Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong; Mutta, Doris; Ongugo, Paul; Pakia, Mohamed; Oros, Rolando; Barriga, Sandra

    2011-09-15

    Paper prepared for the UNU-IAS workshop on Indigenous Peoples, Marginalised Populations and Climate Change: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Traditional Knowledge, Mexico, July 2011. Indigenous peoples and local communities often live in harsh natural environments, and have had to cope with extreme weather and adapt to environmental change for centuries in order to survive. They have done this using long standing traditions and practices – or traditional knowledge (TK) – relating to adaptive ecosystem management and sustainable use of natural resources. The three case studies presented provide evidence of the crucial role of traditional crop varieties, knowledge and practices in enabling adaption to changes in climate. The question is whether the climatic changes observed in these cases are human induced climate change or just natural changes. The findings show that indigenous farmers in SW China, coastal Kenya and the Bolivian Andes are already severely impacted by changes in climate, including drought, with serious consequences for crop production and food security. The scale of the changes, and the fact that they have occurred quite recently (in the last 10 or 20 years), suggests that they may be the result of human induced climate change.

  19. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "grain for green" project in Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Fu, B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The “Grain for Green” project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this “Grain for Green” project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the “Grain for Green” project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau

  20. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this r