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Sample records for bolivian adolescent percentile

  1. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB del estudio MESA

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    A. Baya Botti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP and Charts(BAC where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.La antropometría es una herramienta clínica importante para el seguimiento individual de los pacientes así como para la planificación de políticas públicas. En Bolivia no existen referencias antropométricas nacionales para adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue de desarrollar percentiles y diagramas de crecimiento para peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, circunferencia de muñeca, brazo y abdominal de adolescentes bolivianos. Los datos antropométricos en el estudio MESA (Síndrome metabólico en adolescentes bolivianos fueron obtenidos a partir de 32 unidades muestrales, considerando proporcionalidad muestral con reposición. Fueron evaluados 3445 adolescentes de 12 a 18, 45% hombres; 55% mujeres, de colegios de

  2. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

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    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  3. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

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    Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both pobesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.

  4. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

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    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  5. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014

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    Sarikhani, Yaser; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Reza; Karimpour, Saeed; Kalateh sadati, Ahmad; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6–151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3–105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:28191019

  6. Body Mass Index Percentile Curves for 7 To 18 Year Old Children and Adolescents; are the Sample Populations from Tehran Nationally Representative?

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    Mostafa Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The children’s body composition status is an important indicator of health condition evaluated through their body mass index (BMI. We aimed to provide standardized percentile curves of BMI in a population of Iranian children and adolescents. We assessed the nationally representative of sample populations from Tehran. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 14,865 children aged 7-18 years was gathered. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma method was used to derive sex-specific smoothed centiles for age via the Lambda-Mu-Sigma Chart Maker Program. Finally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated. Results: BMI percentiles obtained from Tehran’s population, except for the 10th percentile, seem to be very slightly greater than the urban boys from all over Iran. BMI percentiles have an increasing trend by age that is S-shaped with a slight slope. Only in the 90th and 97th percentiles of BMI for girls, this rising trend seems to stop. Boys generally have higher BMIs than girls. The exceptions are younger ages of 90th and 97th percentiles and older ages of 3rd and 10th percentiles. A total number of 1,008 (13.20%; 95% CI: 12.46-13.98 boys and 603 (8.34%; 95% CI: 7.72-9.00 girls were categorized as overweight and obese. Obesity were observed in 402 (5.27%; 95% CI: 4.79-5.79 boys and 274 (3.76%; 95% CI: 3.35-4.22 girls. Conclusion: We construct BMI percentile curves by age and gender for 7 to 18 years Iranian children and adolescents. It can be concluded that sample populations from Tehran are nationally representative.

  7. Body Fat Percentile Curves for Korean Children and Adolescents: A Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-01-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...

  8. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

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    Jason Jiunshiou Lee

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10 students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989 were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857 and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795. The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile. Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17 compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  9. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

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    Lina Jaruseviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to

  10. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity

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    Rodriguez Susana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a one of the most common nutritional disorder worldwide, clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome, condition with implications for the development of many chronic diseases. In the poorest countries of Latin America, malnourishment is still the most prevalent nutritional problem, but obesity is emerging in alarming rates over the last 10 years without a predictable association with metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the association between insulin-resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of Bolivian obese children and adolescents. The second objective was determining the relation of acanthosis nigricans and insulin-resistance. Methods We studied 61 obese children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years old. All children underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and fasting blood sample was also obtained to measure insulin, HDL, LDL and triglycerides serum level. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria adapted for children. Results Metabolic syndrome was found in 36% of the children, with a higher rate among males (40% than females (32.2% (p = 0.599. The prevalence of each of the components was 8.2% in impaired glucose tolerance, 42.6% for high triglyceride level, 55.7% for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 24.5% for high blood pressure. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.5 was found in 39.4% of the children, with a higher rate in males (50% than females (29%. A strong correlation was found between insulin resistance and high blood pressure (p = 0.0148 and high triglycerides (p = 0.002. No statistical significance was found between the presence of acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome has a prevalence of 36% in children and adolescent population in the study. Insulin resistance was very common among

  11. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

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    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  12. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation, M (median, and S (coefficient of variation tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years. Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001. The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  13. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

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    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  14. International BMI-for-age references underestimate thinness and overestimate overweigth and obesity in Bolivian adolescents Las referencias internacionales de IMC por edad subestiman delgadez y sobreestiman sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes bolivianos

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    A. Baya Botti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since no growth standards for adolescents exist and a single reference applicable everywhere is still in debate, it is recognized that the best reference should be derived from the growth pattern of the healthy population that will use it. In 2007 a study developed references for body mass index for 12th to 18th y Bolivian school adolescent (BAP. Objectives: To compare nutritional status outcomes applying BMI references from the BAP, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 2000, the International Task Force (IOTF, and the 2007 WHO, to determine appropriateness of use in Bolivian adolescents. Subjects/methods: References were applied in 3306 adolescents, 45.0% male, 55% female, 12th to 18th y selected from a nationally representative sample. Results: Main findings reveal that the CDC and the 2007 WHO underestimate underweight (p Introducción: Puesto que no existen estándares de crecimiento para adolescentes y la aplicación de una sola referencia a nivel mundial es aún debatible, se reconoce que la mejor referencia es aquella derivada del patrón de crecimiento de la población saludable en la que será posteriormente utilizada. Por ello en 2007 se efectuó un estudio para desarrollar la Referencia Boliviana de IMC poredad (BAP para adolescentes entre 12 a 18 años. Objetivos: Comparar la clasificación de adolescentes por categorías nutricionales, aplicando las referencias de IMC boliviano (BAP, la referencia CDC 2000, los puntosde corte de IOTF y de la OMS, 2007. Métodos y población: Las referencias se aplicaron a los datos medidos de peso y talla de 3.306 adolescentes, 45% varones y 55% mujeres seleccionados de una muestrarepresentativa de la población boliviana. Resultados: Se observa que CDC y OMS 2007 subestiman la prevalencia de delgadez (P < 0,001 mientras que las tres referencias internacionales sobreestiman el sobrepeso(p < 0,001 con variaciones por edad y género. Conclusión: Se recomienda al personal de

  15. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

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    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  16. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

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    Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

  17. 上海市儿童青少年腰围百分位数值及曲线%Waist circumference and waist circumference percentile curves for children and adolescents in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳强; 杨漾; 彭宁宁; 洪茯园; 严卫丽; 周国耀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To construct the age-and gender-specific waist circumference and waist-height-ratio percentile curves for children and adolescents in Shanghai and to provide data for the study of excess central adiposity in the group. Methods With stratified cluster sampling method, 14 301 students aged 7-18 years in Shanghai were selected as research subjects, LMS method was used to establish the centile curves. Results Age- and gender-specific percentiles of P5, P10, P15; P50;, P85; P90 and P95 of waist circumference and waist-height-ratio and curves were accessed. Conclusion The centiles of waist circumference and waist-height-ratio percentile curves for children and adolescents in Shanghai have area and gender differences, and these data will provide a point of reference for the prevention of abdominal obesity.%目的 建立适合上海市儿童青少年生长发育特点的年龄别腰围、腰围指数的百分位数及曲线,为科学评价儿童青少年生长发育水平及中心性肥胖的防治提供参考.方法 以2010年上海市学生体质健康调研的7 ~18岁中小学生14 301名为样本,应用国际通用的LMS法分性别建立年龄别腰围、腰围指数正常值及百分位数曲线.结果 腰围百分位数曲线随年龄增长呈递增趋势,符合儿童青少年生长发育规律;腰围指数的P50百分位数曲线具有明显性别差异,7 ~12岁男生逐年上升,且高于女生,自13岁开始经交叉后低于女生.获得上海市7 ~18岁儿童青少年男女年龄别腰围、腰围指数百分位数(P5,P10,P15,P50,P85,P95,P95)及曲线.结论 儿童青少年年龄别腰围、腰围指数百分位数存在地区、性别差异.本研究所获得的百分位数及曲线可为进一步研究儿童青少年中心性肥胖提供基本数据.

  18. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

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    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  19. EJSCREEN States Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Intranet

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The States table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the state...

  20. EJSCREEN Regions Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Intranet

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regions table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the EPA...

  1. EJSCREEN National Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Intranet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USA table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the national...

  2. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

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    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on…

  3. Multiplicative models for survival percentiles: estimating percentile ratios and multiplicative interaction in the metric of time

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    Andrea Bellavia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating percentiles of survival was proposed as a possible method to analyze time-to-event outcomes. This approach sets the cumulative risk of the event of interest to a specific proportion and evaluates the time by which this proportion is attainedIn this context, exposure-outcome associations can be expressed in terms of differences in survival percentiles, expressing the difference in survival time by which different subgroups of the study population experience the same proportion of events, or in terms of percentile ratios, expressing the strength of the exposure in accelerating the time to the event. Additive models for conditional survival percentiles have been introduced, and their use to estimate multivariable-adjusted percentile differences, and additive interaction on the metric of time has been described. On the other hand, the percentile ratio has never been fully described, neither statistical methods have been presented for its models-based estimation. To bridge this gap, we provide a detailed presentation of the percentile ratio as a relative measure to assess exposure-outcome associations in the context of time-to-event analysis, discussing its interpretation and advantages. We then introduce multiplicative statistical models for conditional survival percentiles, and present their use in estimating percentile ratios and multiplicative interactions in the metric of time. The introduction of multiplicative models for survival percentiles allows researchers to apply this approach in a large variety of context where multivariable adjustment is required, enriching the potentials of the percentile approach as a flexible and valuable tool to evaluate time-to-event outcomes in medical research.

  4. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  5. Valoración de la aptitud física en niños y adolescentes: construcción de cartas percentílicas para la región central del Perú Evaluation of physical fitness levels in children and adolescents: establishing percentile charts for the central region of Peru

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    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Establecer cartas percentílicas y valores de referencia estratificada por edad y sexo de los niveles de aptitud física (AF en niños y adolescentes de la región central del Perú. Materiales y métodos. El tamaño de la muestra comprendió a 7843 escolares (4155 mujeres y 3688 varones entre los seis y los diecisiete años de edad. Los niveles de aptitud física fueron evaluados mediante el uso de seis pruebas motoras provenientes de las baterías EUROFIT, FITNESSGRAM y AAPHERD. Las cartas percentílicas fueron construidas por separado para cada sexo, utilizando el método matemático LMS implementado en el programa LMSchartmaker. Resultados. Se verifica valores superiores de AF en los varones, a excepción de la prueba de flexibilidad; la AF incrementa con la edad. Conclusiones. Existe variabilidad interindividual en ambos sexos. Los valores de referencia específicos por edad y sexo pueden utilizarse para la evaluación e interpretación de los niveles de AF de niños y adolescentes de la región central del Perú. Estos hallazgos pueden ayudar en la evaluación de programas de educación física en las escuelas.Objectives. Construct percentile charts and physical fitness (PF reference values stratified by age and sex of children and adolescents from Peru’s central region. Materials and methods. The sample was comprised of 7,843 subjects (4,155 females and 3,688 males between the ages of 6 to 17 years old. Physical fitness was assessed using six tests developed by EUROFIT, FITNESSGRAM and AAPHERD. Percentile charts were developed separately for males and females using the LMS method calculated with LMSchartmaker software. Results. Males showed higher PF values with the exception of flexibility; a clear increase in PF with increasing age was verified. Conclusions. Inter-individual variability in both sexes is substantial. Charts and specific reference values by age and sex may be used for the assessment and interpretation of

  6. EJSCREEN National Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USA table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the national...

  7. EJSCREEN States Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The States table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the state...

  8. EJSCREEN Regions Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regions table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the EPA...

  9. Why Bolivians are talking about gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen, A

    1998-01-01

    The first hospital to offer no-scalpel vasectomy services in La Paz, Bolivia, introduced its program in 1996. However, over the course of 2 years, only 1 vasectomy was performed. Vasectomy services in La Paz are underutilized due to inadequate counseling, outreach, and use of educational materials. While the national health and population policy mandates the provision of comprehensive reproductive health care for both men and women, Bolivian men rarely seek health care services of any kind because most services are designed mainly for women and children. The only services offered to men are urology related, which focus upon screening for STDs, and workplace-related services, such as for factory workers and miners. Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) are exploring how to increase men's involvement in health care and family planning services. Men need to be made aware of gender issues related to reproductive and sexual health. The Centro de Investigacion Social Tecnologia Apropriada y Capacitacion (CISTAC), a Bolivian NGO which focuses upon research and training in health and social issues, plans to use research, training, and information dissemination to broaden the male role and identity in Bolivia, which will also affect men's access to and receipt of health care services. Toward that end, CISTAC and AVSC co-sponsored a workshop to teach health care program managers about the relationship between gender issues and men's involvement in reproductive health care.

  10. On the calculation of percentile-based bibliometric indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Waltman, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    A percentile-based bibliometric indicator is an indicator that values publications based on their position within the citation distribution of their field. The most straightforward percentile-based indicator is the proportion of frequently cited publications, for instance the proportion of publications that belong to the top 10% most frequently cited of their field. Recently, more complex percentile-based indicators were proposed. A difficulty in the calculation of percentile-based indicators is caused by the discrete nature of citation distributions combined with the presence of many publications with the same number of citations. We introduce an approach to calculating percentile-based indicators that deals with this difficulty in a more satisfactory way than earlier approaches suggested in the literature. We show in a formal mathematical framework that our approach leads to indicators that do not suffer from biases in favor of or against particular fields of science.

  11. The use of percentiles and percentile rank classes in the analysis of bibliometric data: Opportunities and limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.; Mutz, R.

    2013-01-01

    Percentiles have been established in bibliometrics as an important alternative to mean-based indicators for obtaining a normalized citation impact of publications. Percentiles have a number of advantages over standard bibliometric indicators used frequently: for example, their calculation is not bas

  12. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  13. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  14. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  15. Characterization of bathtub distributions via percentile residual life functions

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M.; Lillo, Rosa E.; Romo, Juan

    2010-01-01

    In reliability theory and survival analysis, many set of data are generated by distributions with bathtub shaped hazard rate functions. Launer (1993) established several relations between the behaviour of the hazard rate function and the percentile residual life function. In particular, necessary conditions were given for a special type of bathtub distributions in terms of percentile residual life functions. The purpose of this paper is to complete the study initiated by Launer...

  16. Motor performance reference values: Percentile charts based on Cole and Green LMS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nichele de Chaves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to construct reference standards for physical fitness (PF values, and to graphically highlight differences between Vouzela children and adolescents’ PF levels with those from other national and international references samples. Sample comprised 1920 children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years. PF was assessed by five tests: handgrip, standing jump, shuttle run, 50-yard dash and 1-mile walk/run. Centile charts were constructed using the LMS method using the LMSchartmarker Pro software. Results suggest pervasive interindividual differences in motor performance. Boys showed higher values than girls for all tests, mainly during the pubertal period. Vouzela children and adolescents had similar performance to other samples in handgrip test, while the 50th percentile values from US sample were higher in standing jump, shuttle run, 50-yard dash tests. Vouzela performance in one mile walk/run was better than Azores and US samples.

  17. Deforestation scenarios for the Bolivian lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests in South America play a key role in the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sinks, biodiversity conservation, and global climate regulation. In previous decades, Bolivian forests have mainly been deforested by the expansion of agricultural frontier development, driven by the growing demands for beef and other productions. In the mid-2000s the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party rose to power in Bolivia with the promise of promoting an alternative development model that would respect the environment. The party passed the world's first laws granting rights to the environment, which they termed Mother Earth (Law No. 300 of 2012), and proposed an innovative framework that was expected to develop radical new conservation policies. The MAS conservationist discourse, policies, and productive practices, however, have since been in permanent tension. The government continues to guarantee food production through neo-extractivist methods by promoting the notion to expand agriculture from 3 to 13 million ha, risking the tropical forests and their ecosystem services. These actions raise major environmental and social concerns, as the potential impacts of such interventions are still unknown. The objective of this study is to explore an innovative land use modeling approach to simulate how the growing demand for land could affect future deforestation trends in Bolivia. We use the LuccME framework to create a spatially-explicit land cover change model and run it under three different deforestation scenarios, spanning from the present-2050. In the Sustainability scenario, deforestation reaches 17,703,786 ha, notably in previously deforested or degraded areas, while leaving forest extensions intact. In the Middle of the road scenario, deforestation and degradation move toward new or paved roads spreading across 25,698,327 ha in 2050, while intact forests are located in Protected Areas (PAs). In the Fragmentation scenario, deforestation expands to almost

  18. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions.

  19. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region......, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase...

  20. I Can Do Maths: Changing Children's Mathematics Percentile Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Bonny; Mabin, Tony; Graham, Sue

    Three groups of children aged 8-10 who scored below the 22nd percentile on the PATests were taught basic math skills for 16 hours. One group received individual instruction using Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction, the second group received group instruction using Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction, and the third group received group…

  1. 77 FR 74546 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... police are in the national security interest of the United States. This Determination shall...

  2. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  3. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  4. Accounting for the Uncertainty in the Evaluation of Percentile Ranks

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper entitled "Inconsistencies of Recently Proposed Citation Impact Indicators and how to Avoid Them," Schreiber (2012, at arXiv:1202.3861) proposed (i) a method to assess tied ranks consistently and (ii) fractional attribution to percentile ranks in the case of relatively small samples (e.g., for n < 100). Schreiber's solution to the problem of how to handle tied ranks is convincing, in my opinion (cf. Pudovkin & Garfield, 2009). The fractional attribution, however, is computationally intensive and cannot be done manually for even moderately large batches of documents. Schreiber attributed scores fractionally to the six percentile rank classes used in the Science and Engineering Indicators of the U.S. National Science Board, and thus missed, in my opinion, the point that fractional attribution at the level of hundred percentiles-or equivalently quantiles as the continuous random variable-is only a linear, and therefore much less complex problem. Given the quantile-values, the non-linear a...

  5. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions...... like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region...... with the intention to push agricultural development – with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production...

  6. Institutional violence towards Bolivian migrant woman. Marianism and mobility restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Maria Fuentes Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline some of the research results of a larger work which studies the Bolivian migration from a gender perspective, as well as the impact of the institutional practices that determine the transnational experience. In a global scene of restrictive rules concerning the human mobility, we notice how control and dominance strategies are present in ideologies and symbolic mechanisms. Women options in the migration process are trapped through them. We propose to recognize the symbolic and institutional violence that pressures migrants during their migration journey, focusing on understanding the ideological content — sexism and marianism — in which they are based on. We present an analysis of the instrumented ways of applying violence against Bolivian migrant women and its families from the social action practices implemented at origin and destination (transnational perspective.

  7. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, de la, Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the calls. Two phenograms based on the characteristics of the mating calls are constructed, the first one using a traditional multivariate technique (UPGMA) and the second one using audiospectrogram c...

  8. Escala Argentina de Inteligencia Sensorio-motriz (EAIS: Percentiles nacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICIA OIBERMAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del desarrollo psicomotor de niños menores de 3 años permite observar que algunas veces, el área intelectual no es considerada en su real dimensión, como un logro específico de los niños en ese período. La Escala Argentina de Inteligencia Sensorio-motriz (EAIS es el primer instrumento creado en Argentina para la evolución del desarrollo cognitivo en bebés de 6 a 30 mese. Dado que no se contaba con percentiles nacionales en niños argentinos, se propuso como objetivo la realización de una validación nacional de la EAIS. La muestra estuvo conformada por niños nacidos a término, sin patología y con desarrollo psicomotor normal, provenientes de 10 provincias argentinas. Se conformaron grupos interdisciplinarios de trabajo en las provincias participantes para la evaluación del desarrollo congnitivo mediante la administración de las EAIS. Se logró una muestra total de 800 niños. Se contruyeron tablas de percentiles nacionales para la EASIS a partir del estadío mediano obtenido en la prueba y para cada una de las series que ña conforman...

  9. Analysis of genetic diversity in Bolivian llama populations using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Romero, F; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Rodríguez, T; Arranz, J J

    2013-08-01

    South American camelids (SACs) have a major role in the maintenance and potential future of rural Andean human populations. More than 60% of the 3.7 million llamas living worldwide are found in Bolivia. Due to the lack of studies focusing on genetic diversity in Bolivian llamas, this analysis investigates both the genetic diversity and structure of 12 regional groups of llamas that span the greater part of the range of distribution for this species in Bolivia. The analysis of 42 microsatellite markers in the considered regional groups showed that, in general, there were high levels of polymorphism (a total of 506 detected alleles; average PIC across per marker: 0.66), which are comparable with those reported for other populations of domestic SACs. The estimated diversity parameters indicated that there was high intrapopulational genetic variation (average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity per marker: 12.04 and 0.68, respectively) and weak genetic differentiation among populations (FST range: 0.003-0.052). In agreement with these estimates, Bolivian llamas showed a weak genetic structure and an intense gene flow between all the studied regional groups, which is due to the exchange of reproductive males between the different flocks. Interestingly, the groups for which the largest pairwise FST estimates were observed, Sud Lípez and Nor Lípez, showed a certain level of genetic differentiation that is probably due to the pattern of geographic isolation and limited communication infrastructures of these southern localities. Overall, the population parameters reported here may serve as a reference when establishing conservation policies that address Bolivian llama populations.

  10. History of Bolivian Archaeology: Geraldine Byrne de Caballero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Today the principal archaeological museum of Cochabamba, Bolivia is called the Museo Geraldine Byrne de Caballero. Yet there is surprisingly little information on Byrne de Caballero at the museum, or elsewhere in Bolivian sources. Fortunately, Walter Sánchez Canedo (2006 has written a brief article, providing some more information about her career. Byrne de Caballero investigated and wrote articles on Cochabamba sites, from the formative period up through historical periods. I knew most of the eight journal articles cited for her, but she wrote another five dozen articles for local newspapers. All of these publications, however, were written when she was director of the museum in Cochabamba, from 1972 to 1986, so we lack information on her earlier archaeological contributions. Although publishing in special supplemental newspaper sections has been a well-accepted practice or tradition for informing the public and specialists about Bolivian archaeology, it obviously makes it difficult for the non-Cochabambinos to track down her publications. But at least now with title, newspaper, and date, it may be possible to go back into old local archives and retrieve some of these articles.

  11. Early metabolic improvement following bariatric surgery in morbidly obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, E A; Teich, S; Schuster, D P; Michalsky, M P

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery results in durable weight loss and improved comorbidities. The objectives of this study were to examine the efficacy of gastric bypass in reducing comorbid burden and improving metabolic status among morbidly obese adolescents. The medical records of 15 gastric bypass patients were retrospectively reviewed. Changes in metabolic markers were determined at baseline, 1 and 2 years post-operatively. Comparative analysis demonstrated significant improvement in weight, BMI, insulin, HbA1C, C-peptide, %B, %S, IR, cholesterol, percentile cholesterol, TG, percentile TG, HDL, percentile HDL, LDL, percentile LDL, and VLDL. Results support bariatric surgery as a treatment for morbidly obese adolescents with comorbidities.

  12. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly; Monrad, Jesper

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalences and intensities of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites in lamas in the Bolivian Andes. A quantitative and qualitative necro-copro-parasitlogical study was performed on 33 lamas between October and December 2007. At the time of necropsy the......  lamas were aged 1½  to >4 years. They originated from 14 different farms in the most lama dense areas of Bolivia: Oruro, Potosi, La Paz and the highlands above Cochabamba. In total 16 different species of nematodes, one cestode species, one trematode species, and one coccidian genus were detected...... %); in the liver: Fasciola hepatica (12 %); in faeces Eimeria spp. (82 %). Pathological changes in the liver were ascribed to be most probably caused by L. chavezi larva migration. The latter species, considered to be the very most pathogenic of all lama GIT nematode species, was also the species detected...

  14. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  15. Balantidiasis in Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Angles, R; Ash, L R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-12-01

    Balantidium coli infection was coprologically studied in 2,124 Aymara children 5-19 years of age from the schools of 22 communities of the northern Bolivian Altiplano over a five-year period. Infection with B. coli was found in 11 of the communities surveyed, with prevalences of 1.0-5.3% (overall prevalence=1.2%). The prevalences observed are some of the highest reported and did not differ significantly among the various age groups or between boys and girls. These prevalences, the apparent absence of symptoms or signs of illness due to this parasite in the schoolchildren surveyed at the time of stool sampling, and the consistency of stool samples of the infected students suggest that they are apparently asymptomatic carriers. Infection with B. coli must be considered as an endemic anthropozoonosis in the area studied. A relationship between B. coli infection and Altiplanic pigs is suggested.

  16. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  17. Percentile distribution of blood pressure readings in relation to body mass index: a populationbased cross-sectional study ADOPOLNOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżaniak Alicja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent upward trends toward elevated blood pressure and increased weight expressed in terms of body mass index in children and adolescents call for regular monitoring of their physical growth and age-related changes in blood pressure. This requires adequate tools - reference values of a normal blood pressure range. The main objective of this study was to provide sex- and BMI-specific percentile reference values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure based on the adolescent Polish population, participants in the ADOPOLNOR study. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative, randomly selected cohort of 4,941; 2,451 male and 2,490 female students aged 10-18 years, residents in Wielkopolska province and its capital, the city of Poznań. All examinations were performed in school nursery rooms during morning hours according to standard procedures. Body height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure was measured twice on each occasion on the right arm using a fully calibrated TECH MED TM-Z mercury gauge sphygmomanometer with sets of exchangeable cuffs and a clinical stethoscope. The blood pressure classification was determined using the surveillance method. For each participant, the mean of measurements taken on each of the three occasions was calculated and served as his/her final blood pressure value. Using the LMS method, fitted percentile curves were created for BMI-related systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The findings revealed that age related blood pressure pattern was similar in boys and girls. It showed a steady increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure with age. There was a positive correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicating that when systolic blood pressure increased so diastolic did (r=0.61 at p<0.01. Boys were likely to have relatively higher mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and steeper slope for BMI-related change in blood pressure

  18. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  19. Blast Mitigation Sea Analysis - Evaluation of Lumbar Compression Data Trends in 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device Performance Compared to 50th Percentile Male Anthropomorphic Test Device in Drop Tower Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-21

    in 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device Performance Compared to 50th Percentile Male Anthropomorphic Test Device in Drop Tower Testing ...for advertising or product endorsement purposes. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED • Baseline drop tower data collected from Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs...development • Testing completed with: – 5th Percentile Female ATDs and 50th Percentile Male Hybrid III ATDs – 200 g or 350 g pulse • ATD data quality

  20. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a mix

  1. Characteristics of Deep Neck Infection in Children According to Weight Percentile

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of weight percentile on deep neck infections in children. Methods A retrospective evaluation of 79 patients who were treated for deep neck infections. The patients were divided into six groups according to weight percentile. Patients who had systemic and/or congenital disease were excluded. Their demographics, etiology, localization, laboratory, and treatment results were reviewed. Results In total, 79 pediatric patients were recorded: 48.1% were females and ...

  2. Modified Moment, Maximum Likelihood and Percentile Estimators for the Parameters of the Power Function Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Zaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications of maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators of the two parameter Power function distribution. Sampling behavior of the estimators is indicated by Monte Carlo simulation. For some combinations of parameter values, some of the modified estimators appear better than the traditional maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators with respect to bias, mean square error and total deviation.

  3. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  4. Climate change and water resources in arid mountains: an example from the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Magrath, John; Castel, Ana Paola; Pacheco, Paula

    2013-11-01

    Climate change is projected to have a strongly negative effect on water supplies in the arid mountains of South America, significantly impacting millions of people. As one of the poorest countries in the region, Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to such changes due to its limited capacity to adapt. Water security is threatened further by glacial recession with Bolivian glaciers losing nearly half their ice mass over the past 50 years raising serious water management concerns. This review examines current trends in water availability and glacier melt in the Bolivian Andes, assesses the driving factors of reduced water availability and identifies key gaps in our knowledge of the Andean cryosphere. The lack of research regarding permafrost water sources in the Bolivian Andes is addressed, with focus on the potential contribution to mountain water supplies provided by rock glaciers.

  5. THE INSERTION OF THE INDIGENOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE BOLIVIAN POLITICAL ARENA: NEW AND OLD CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Siqueira Abe Saber Miguel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the Bolivian indigenous movements, the article explores the unification made by these groups between the symbolic and the instrumental universe - according to the concepts of Alain Touraine -, analyzing questions related to their historical exclusion and how this situation reflects in the Bolivian political scene, also examining the conditions that had enabled the current political emergence of the indigenous movements. Although the projection acquired by the indigenous movements, the persistence of a government standard that doesn’t prioritize the constitution of public spaces to deep democracy and the presence of obstacles as the regional divisions still impose serious risks for the consolidation of the democracy in the country.

  6. Sensitivity analysis for high percentiles of ochratoxim-a exposure distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, I.; Gauchi, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    High percentile estimations of the exposure to the mycotoxin Ochratoxin-A (OTA) in food, for the French population, were calculated in a previous study by a Monte Carlo type simulation method from real consumption and contamination data. In this paper, from the same data (but only for the children class), we focus on sensitivity analysis (SA) of the high 95 th and 99 th percentiles (the simulation outputs), relatively to the variation of the parameters of the fitted probability density functions (the simulation inputs), necessary for having a relevant and stable estimation of these percentiles. After some preliminary trials, we postulated a quadratic polynomial model and we used an experimental design approach depending on a resolution-V fractional factorial design of 6561 experiments to lead to an optimal estimation of the polynomial model parameters. The factors ranges were established by bootstrap sampling taking into account the consumption dependencies by the Iman and Conover method and, eventually, taking into account the parameter correlation of the fitted probability densities. Finally, we have validated and useful parsimonious polynomial models for each desired percentile showing a major influence of the distribution parameters of the two foods Cereals and Pork, and eventually three with Fruit Juices in the sensitivity of the percentiles. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one.

  8. How much do different ways of calculating percentiles influence the derived performance indicators? - A case study

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bibliometric indicators can be determined by comparing specific citation records with the percentiles of a reference set. However, there exists an ambiguity in the computation of percentiles because usually a significant number of papers with the same citation count are found at the border between percentile rank classes. The present case study of the citations to the journal Europhysics Letters (EPL) in comparison with all physics papers from the Web of Science shows the deviations which occur due to the different ways of treating the tied papers in the evaluation of the percentage of highly cited publications. A strong bias can occur, if the papers tied at the threshold number of citations are all considered as highly cited or all considered as not highly cited.

  9. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boëlle Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany. Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients.

  10. Learning from the past: Trends and dynamics in livelihoods of Bolivian forest communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenteno, M.; Jong, de W.; Boot, R.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    We use social ecological systems theory (SES) to analyse change in forest communities in the northern Bolivian Amazon. SES characterizes interdependent dynamics of social and ecological systems and we hypothesized it to be a useful frame to grasp dynamics of forest communities affected by changes in

  11. Getting the Mixture Right: Nonformal Education through Community Radio in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrates on the work of Community Education through Radio (ECORA), a Bolivian organization that planned and implemented the nonformal education component of a project that included school construction, teacher training, bilingual education, and administrative reforms within the Ministry of Education and Culture. (JOW)

  12. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought resp

  13. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in

  14. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  15. A Percentile Regression Model for the Number of Errors in Group Conversation Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liski, Erkki P.; Puntanen, Simo

    A statistical model is presented for analyzing the results of group conversation tests in English, developed in a Finnish university study from 1977 to 1981. The model is illustrated with the findings from the study. In this study, estimates of percentile curves for the number of errors are of greater interest than the mean regression line. It was…

  16. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican Hispanic children.

  17. Population-referenced percentiles for waist-worn accelerometer-derived total activity counts in U.S. youth: 2003 - 2006 NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Wolff-Hughes

    Full Text Available The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 - 19 y.Data from the 2003 - 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 - 19 years with at least 4 d of ≥ 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N = 3698. MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ≥4 metabolic equivalents (METs for youth 6 - 17 y or minutes with ≥2020 counts for youth 18 - 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days.For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA.Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents.

  18. The substantive and practical significance of citation impact differences between institutions: Guidelines for the analysis of percentiles using effect sizes and confidence intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Richard; Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    In our chapter we address the statistical analysis of percentiles: How should the citation impact of institutions be compared? In educational and psychological testing, percentiles are already used widely as a standard to evaluate an individual's test scores - intelligence tests for example - by comparing them with the percentiles of a calibrated sample. Percentiles, or percentile rank classes, are also a very suitable method for bibliometrics to normalize citations of publications in terms o...

  19. Statewide analysis of the drainage-area ratio method for 34 streamflow percentile ranges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  20. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lelia Pochettino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”, where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas.

  1. Preisocalamendiol, Shyobunol and Related Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes from Bolivian Schinus molle Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Alexis; Mathieu, Michel; Levasseur, Virginie; Ovando, Jesús Flores; Escamilla, Ruben; Marceau, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Five batches of Bolivian Schinus molle essential oils were obtained from pilot and industrial-scale hydrodiffusions. They were analyzed by gas chromatography to find 80 known compounds and two unknown molecules. In particular, preisocalamendiol (5.6-11.0 %) was found to be an important constituent of these oils, along with shyobunol (0.6-3.2 %) and several other related oxygenated sesquiterpenes. These compounds, usually found in Acorus calamus, had not been reported altogether in S. molle essential oils previously. These findings, in light of the GABAA positive modulating effect of shyobunone and preisocalamendiol, along with some traditional uses of S. molle, suggest that further investigation of the tranquilizing properties of these Bolivian oils would be of interest.

  2. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas.

  3. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  4. Estimated Financial Impact of Trypanosoma vivax on the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian Lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Seidl

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial impact of the first outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland is estimated. Results are extended to include outbreaks in the Bolivian lowlands providing a notion of the potential influence of the disease and an analytical basis. More than 11 million head of cattle, valued at more than US$3 billion are found in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. The total estimated cost of the 1995 outbreak of T. vivax is the sum of the present values of mortality, abortion, and productivity losses and treatment costs, or about 4% of total brood cow value on affected ranches. Had the outbreak gone untreated, the estimated losses would have exceeded 17% of total brood cow value.

  5. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  6. Intercultural journalism: Peruvian and Bolivian representation in the Chilean daily press news

    OpenAIRE

    Browne-Sartori, Rodrigo-Francisco; Baessolo-Stiven, Ricardo-Alberto; Silva-Echeto, Víctor-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians. The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for intercultural exchange as much in the media as in the soc...

  7. Ancestry analysis reveals a predominant Native American component with moderate European admixture in Bolivians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Tanja; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Carracedo, Angel; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We have genotyped 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) in two of the most populated areas in Bolivia, namely, La Paz (Andean region; n=105), and Chuquisaca (Sub-Andean region; n=73). Using different analytical tools, we inferred admixture proportions of these two American communities by comparing the genetic profiles with those publicly available from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) panel representing three main continental groups (Africa, Europe, and America). By way of simulations, we first evaluated the minimum sample size needed in order to obtain accurate estimates of ancestry proportions. The results indicated that sample sizes above 30 individuals could be large enough to estimate main continental ancestry proportions using the 46 AIMs panel. With the exception of a few individuals, the results also indicated that Bolivians showed a predominantly Native American ancestry with variable levels of European admixture. The proportions of ancestry were statistically different in La Paz and Chuquisaca: the Native American component was 86% and 77% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=2.1×10(-5)), while the European ancestry was 13% and 21% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=3.6×10(-5)), respectively. The African ancestry in Bolivians captured by the AIMs analyzed in the present study was below 2%. The inferred ancestry of Bolivians fits well with previous studies undertaken on haplotype data, indicating a major proportion of Native American lineages. The genetic differences observed in these two groups suggest that forensic genetic analysis should be better performed based on local databases built in the main Bolivian areas.

  8. Climate Change and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Bolivian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Maria Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is causing many tropical glaciers to retreat, creating dangerous glacier lakes with risks of outbursts. Although it is a growing hazard in many countries, glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have not been studied much in the Bolivian Andes. Through this literature review, the risks of GLOFs has been researched by looking into temperature, precipitation and glacier retreat trends in the Altiplano, Cordillera Real and Cordillera Apolobamba, as well as the vulnerability of mounta...

  9. Reduced quality of life in very overweight Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A; Fullerton, Ginny; Foreyt, John P

    2007-04-01

    Quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL) was assessed for 175 Mexican American adolescents with measured height and weight used to determine body mass index (BMI) percentile/weight classification. Main effects for weight classification were detected using One-way ANOVAs (p < .05 for total, physical, and psychosocial), with the heaviest adolescents demonstrating the lowest ratings.

  10. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  11. Glacier change and glacial lake outburst flood risk in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Simon J.; Kougkoulos, Ioannis; Edwards, Laura A.; Dortch, Jason; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Glaciers of the Bolivian Andes represent an important water resource for Andean cities and mountain communities, yet relatively little work has assessed changes in their extent over recent decades. In many mountain regions, glacier recession has been accompanied by the development of proglacial lakes, which can pose a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard. However, no studies have assessed the development of such lakes in Bolivia despite recent GLOF incidents here. Our mapping from satellite imagery reveals an overall areal shrinkage of 228.1 ± 22.8 km2 (43.1 %) across the Bolivian Cordillera Oriental between 1986 and 2014. Shrinkage was greatest in the Tres Cruces region (47.3 %), followed by the Cordillera Apolobamba (43.1 %) and Cordillera Real (41.9 %). A growing number of proglacial lakes have developed as glaciers have receded, in accordance with trends in most other deglaciating mountain ranges, although the number of ice-contact lakes has decreased. The reasons for this are unclear, but the pattern of lake change has varied significantly throughout the study period, suggesting that monitoring of future lake development is required as ice continues to recede. Ultimately, we use our 2014 database of proglacial lakes to assess GLOF risk across the Bolivian Andes. We identify 25 lakes that pose a potential GLOF threat to downstream communities and infrastructure. We suggest that further studies of potential GLOF impacts are urgently required.

  12. Impact of Chagas Disease in Bolivian Immigrants Living in Europe and the Risk of Stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Ortí-Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of Chagas disease in endemic countries varies with the kind of vector involved and the socioeconomic conditions of the population of origin. Due to recent immigration it is an emerging public health problem in Europe, especially in those countries which receive immigrant populations with a high prevalence of carriers. The study reviews the impact of the disease on Bolivian immigrants living in Europe, the preventive measures and regulations applied in European countries, and their repercussion on possible stigmatization of certain population groups. Methods. The Bolivian immigrant population resident in 2012 was estimated and the affected population in different European countries was calculated with data on carrier prevalence that were recently published. The preventive measures and regulations available in Europe were also reviewed. MEDLINE-PubMed, GoPubMed, and Embase were consulted for the literature review. Results. The Bolivian immigrant population has the highest prevalence of Chagas carriers (6.7%–25% compared to the overall Latin American population (1.3%–2.4%. Only in Spain, France, Belgium, UK, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Germany, preventive measures are applied to this population. The established regulations are insufficient and completely different criteria are applied in the different countries and this could reflect a certain degree of stigmatization.

  13. Impact of Chagas Disease in Bolivian Immigrants Living in Europe and the Risk of Stigmatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortí-Lucas, Rafael M.; Parada-Barba, María C.; de la Rubia-Ortí, José E.; Carrillo-Ruiz, Alejandra; Beso-Delgado, María; Boone, An L. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of Chagas disease in endemic countries varies with the kind of vector involved and the socioeconomic conditions of the population of origin. Due to recent immigration it is an emerging public health problem in Europe, especially in those countries which receive immigrant populations with a high prevalence of carriers. The study reviews the impact of the disease on Bolivian immigrants living in Europe, the preventive measures and regulations applied in European countries, and their repercussion on possible stigmatization of certain population groups. Methods. The Bolivian immigrant population resident in 2012 was estimated and the affected population in different European countries was calculated with data on carrier prevalence that were recently published. The preventive measures and regulations available in Europe were also reviewed. MEDLINE-PubMed, GoPubMed, and Embase were consulted for the literature review. Results. The Bolivian immigrant population has the highest prevalence of Chagas carriers (6.7%–25%) compared to the overall Latin American population (1.3%–2.4%). Only in Spain, France, Belgium, UK, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Germany, preventive measures are applied to this population. The established regulations are insufficient and completely different criteria are applied in the different countries and this could reflect a certain degree of stigmatization. PMID:24719753

  14. Economic Reliability Acceptance Sampling Plans from Truncated Life Tests based on the Burr Type XII Percentiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaque Mughal (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, economic reliability acceptance sampling plan (ERASP is developed for the Burr type XII distribution when the life test is truncated at pre-specified designed parameters. The minimum termination time is necessary to ensure that the specified life percentile is found under a given producer’s risk. The operating characteristic values of the proposed plan are presented for various parameters. A comparative study of proposedplan and existing plan developed by Lio et al. (2010 is also discussed. The result is illustrated by a real dataset example.

  15. Growth patterns of adolescents in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mater, A M; Alekri, S A; Mahdi, A R; Musaiger, A O

    1990-10-01

    Weight and height of adolescents in Bahrain (15.5-19.5 years) was measured to evaluate their growth patterns. A cross-sectional survey was done on 825 students that represented 5% of total secondary students. The results showed that median height and weight of Bahraini adolescents were below the 50th percentiles of the Western standard. However, when compared with earlier surveys in Bahrain, the growth pattern has improved. This is because of improvement in health and in the environment.

  16. Ensemble hydrological prediction of streamflow percentile at ungauged basins in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-06-01

    Streamflow records with sufficient spatial and temporal coverage at the site of interest are usually scarce in Pakistan. As an alternative, various regional methods have been frequently adopted to derive hydrological information, which in essence attempt to transfer hydrological information from gauged to ungauged catchments. In this study, a new concept of ensemble hydrological prediction (EHP) was introduced which is an improved regional method for hydrological prediction at ungauged sites. It was mainly based on the performance weights (triple-connection weights (TCW)) derived from Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and hydrological variable (here percentiles) calculated from three traditional regional transfer methods (RTMs) with suitable modification (i.e., three-step drainage area ratio (DAR) method, inverse distance weighting (IDW) method, and three-step regional regression analysis (RRA)). The overall results indicated that the proposed EHP method was robust for estimating hydrological percentiles at ungauged sites as compared to traditional individual RTMs. The comparative study based on NSE, percent bias (PBIAS) and the relative error (RE) as performance criteria resulted that the EHP is a constructive alternative for hydrological prediction of ungauged basins.

  17. Climate Change and Water Resources in Arid Mountains: An Example from the Bolivian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Rangecroft, Sally; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Magrath, John; Castel, Ana Paola; Pacheco, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have a strongly negative effect on water supplies in the arid mountains of South America, significantly impacting millions of people. As one of the poorest countries in the region, Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to such changes due to its limited capacity to adapt. Water security is threatened further by glacial recession with Bolivian glaciers losing nearly half their ice mass over the past 50 years raising serious water management concerns. This review exa...

  18. Toxic trace elements in maternal and cord blood and social determinants in a Bolivian mining city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V, Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p toxic elements in maternal blood were associated with maternal smoking, low educational level, and partner involved in mining.

  19. Percentile values for aerobic performance running/walking field tests in children aged 6 to 17 years: influence of weight status Valores de percentiles de los tests de campo de capacidad aeróbica en niños de 6 a 17 años: influencia del peso corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castro-Piñero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide percentiles values for four different aerobic performance tests in 2752 (1,261 girls Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9 years. Aerobic performance was assessed by the shuttle run test (20mSRT, 1-mile, 1/2-mile and 1/4-mile run/walk tests. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Boys had significantly better score than girls in the studied tests in all age groups, except in 1/4-mile test in 6-7 year old children. Underweight children had similar performance than their normalweight counterparts, and underweight boys had better performance than their obese counterparts. Overweight and obese children had lower performance than their normalweight counterparts. Having percentile values of the most used field tests to measure aerobic performance in youth may help to identify children and adolescents at risk for the major chronic diseases, as well as to evaluate the effects of alternative interventions.El propósito de este estudio fue proporcionar los valores de percentiles para cuatro pruebas de rendimiento aeróbico en 2752 (1261 chicas niños españoles con edades de 6 a 17,9 años. El rendimiento aeróbico se evalúo mediante la carrera durante 20 minutos (20mSRT, y las pruebas de correr / caminar 1 milla, ½ milla y ¼ de milla. Se midieron el peso y la talla y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Los chicos tuvieron puntuaciones significativamente mejores que las chicas en las pruebas evaluadas y para todos los grupos de edad, excepto en la prueba de ¼ de milla en el grupo de 6-7 años. Los niños con peso bajo mostraron un rendimiento similar a sus homólogos con peso normal y los primeros tuvieron un rendimiento mejor que sus homólogos obesos. Los niños obesos y con sobrepeso tuvieron un menor rendimiento que sus homólogos con peso normal. El disponer de valores de percentiles para las pruebas empleadas más habitualmente para evaluar el rendimiento aeróbico en los j

  20. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-01-01

    A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

  1. Intralesional Pentamidine: A Novel Therapy for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization-recommended therapy, for single Bolivian Leishmania braziliensis lesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm(2)lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain-ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm(2)[ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm(2)lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for Bolivian L. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days.

  2. Diameter growth rates in tropical dry forests: contributions to the sustainable management of forests in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth ring variations were used to provide the rates in diameter growth for seven tree species in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province. Ten to 50 trees were measured per species. Ring width measurements provided accurate data on the rates of tree growth. Variations in growth rates were det

  3. Words Spoken with Insistence: "Wak'as" and the Limits of the Bolivian Multi-Institutional Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuelenaere, Laurence Janine

    2009-01-01

    Building on 18 months of fieldwork in the Bolivian highlands, this dissertation examines how traversing landscapes, through the mediation of spatial practices and spoken words, are embedded in systems of belief. By focusing on "wak'as" (i.e. sacred objects) and on how the inhabitants of the Altiplano relate to the Andean deities known as "wak'as,"…

  4. Machismo and Mamitas at school: exploring the agency of teachers for social gender justice in Bolivian education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Sawyer, J.; Talavera Simoni, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Bolivia’s society and education system have been characterised by marginalisation based on poverty, ethnicity and gender. The central objective of the Morales government is to redress this imbalance and create a society inclusive of all Bolivians so that they can ‘live well’. Our artic

  5. Adolescent Summer Care Arrangements and Risk for Obesity the Following School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study identified common summer care arrangements for adolescents and examined whether those arrangements predicted risk for obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile for age and gender) the following school year. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1766 adolescents ages 10-18…

  6. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Erlend K.F. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V. [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Sundfor, Kolbein [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Gunnar B. [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Lyng, Heidi [Department of Radiation Biology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Malinen, Eirik, E-mail: eirik.malinen@fys.uio.no [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  7. The genetic legacy of the pre-colonial period in contemporary Bolivians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Taboada-Echalar

    Full Text Available Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (prehistorical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs. Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4% were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%, with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]. Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ∼21.4 thousand years ago [kya], A2ah (∼5.2 kya, and B2o (∼2.6 kya. The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded, moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ∼15.2 kya, and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs reveal a higher (although geographically variable European introgression in Bolivians (25%. Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to

  8. The genetic legacy of the pre-colonial period in contemporary Bolivians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Heinz, Tanja; Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Pastoriza, Ana; Carracedo, Angel; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs). Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4%) were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%), with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]). Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ∼21.4 thousand years ago [kya]), A2ah (∼5.2 kya), and B2o (∼2.6 kya). The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded), moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ∼15.2 kya), and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) reveal a higher (although geographically variable) European introgression in Bolivians (25%). Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to the

  9. The Genetic Legacy of the Pre-Colonial Period in Contemporary Bolivians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Pastoriza, Ana; Carracedo, Ángel; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Vullo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs). Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4%) were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%), with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]). Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ∼21.4 thousand years ago [kya]), A2ah (∼5.2 kya), and B2o (∼2.6 kya). The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded), moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ∼15.2 kya), and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) reveal a higher (although geographically variable) European introgression in Bolivians (25%). Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to the

  10. The Bolivian Orocline and its implications for the origin of the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, C.

    2015-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Central Andes includes a complex combination of thrusting, wrenching and block rotation leading progressively to the curvature of the orogenic system of the South American continental margin at 18ºS (Bolivian Orocline). Tectonic deformation in the Bolivian Orocline cannot be realistically restored using information from balanced cross sections alone, as the deformation includes an important component of block rotation, associated to counterclockwise block rotation in southern Peru and clockwise rotation in northern Chile. Recent work shows that block rotations in the forearc are essentially pre-early Miocene, predating the onset of Neogene shortening in the Sub Andean zone. Most rotations in the forearc of northern Chile where acquired through a single tectonic event during the Paleogene-early Miocene which probably coincides with the Eocene orogen-wide Incaic event which affected large regions of the central Andes between ca. 50 and 40 Ma. Results from 2D restoration experiments support the hypothesis of the Paleogene formation of the Bolivian Orocline, as a consequence of differential shortening, concentrated in the Eastern Cordillera of Bolivia, southern Peru and northwestern Argentina. Within the southern central Andes four additional curvatures including striking changes in the pattern of rotations have been discovered. From north to south these are the Antofagasta-Calama Lineament, Vallenar, Maipo and Arauco oroclines. However, an important part of rotation needs to be balanced, in the forearc region, by two major conjugate oblique shear zones (Abancay Deflection and Antofagasta-Calama Lineament). These structural features are probably related to inherited lithospheric discontinuities associated with the accretion of basement terranes which could be responsible for producing and delimitating significant and abrupt changes in the magnitude of the Central Andean Rotation Pattern along the margin. While shortening and crustal

  11. Serum Fatty Acid Reference Ranges: Percentiles from a New Zealand National Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum fatty acids are increasingly used in cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies as biomarkers of dietary fat intake; however, it is currently difficult to judge whether an individual has low or high fatty acid status, or whether the distribution of fatty acids of a group of people is low or high due to a lack of appropriate reference values. In the absence of interpretive criteria, the distribution of serum fatty acids from a suitable reference population can be used as an alternative. We describe the distribution of the fatty acid composition of the three most commonly reported lipid classes in serum; cholesterol ester, phospholipid and triacylgycerol. Results for each serum lipid class are presented as means (SD and percentiles (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95 of serum fatty acids in non-fasting blood samples collected from a population based cross-sectional survey of New Zealand adults (n = 2793. These serum fatty acid reference ranges are applicable and relevant to Australia, United Kingdom, and United States as well as other countries where fat intakes are similar to New Zealand.

  12. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano - linking geomorphology, erosion and spatial production patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia's Salar region with the intention to push agricultural development - with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production. Using Landsat images, SRTM elevations and field survey data, we investigate the relationship of field areas to erosion patterns and large-scale geomorphology. The soils of the southern Bolivian Altiplano are highly susceptible to particle entrainment due to a loose and sandy substrate, strong winds, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase in field density. Locally, this implied a reduction of fallowing length and the incorporation of marginal lands. The almost complete removal of natural (i.e. protecting) vegetation over large and continuous areas, results in increased wind erosion and partial crop failure. While production extended by approx. 1,6 % per year between 1985 and 2003, an average annual increase of 8,4 % could be observed for the last decade, when many new fields were established at lower elevations

  13. Not in the eyes of the beholder: envy among Bolivian migrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias, Maria; Escandell, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    This article explores a culturally sensitive topic, envy, among Bolivian migrants in Spain. Following a constructivist approach to emotions, we examine discourses of envy, as they are shaped by the cultural contexts in which they emerge. Our study uses a sample of 30 transnational households and multi-sited ethnography to illustrate the ways emotions and their effects on sociality serve as a mechanism of social control, especially when the boundaries of such a community have been stretched transnationally. Envy is an important component of a belief system central to understanding the emergence, or lack thereof, of trust and solidarity among migrants and can shape the types of social relations and conflicts between migrants and non-migrant households back in Bolivia. These conflicts have been exacerbated by economic instability, high unemployment rates and precarious wages especially for the undocumented migrant community in Spain.

  14. High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined.

  15. Ethnobotany and exchange of traditional medicines on the Southern Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkink, L

    2000-01-01

    Research conducted on the collection, use, and vending of traditional medicines by rural Bolivian women indicates that it is an important economic activity as well as having a place in the health system of high altitude inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to discuss the intersection of an approach that focuses on the exchange of traditional medicines with an ethnobotanical perspective that considers the medicines themselves. Women are the focus of this intersection because they are central to the enterprise of collecting and selling traditional medicines, which is an expanding business opportunity due in part to demands by urban consumers. In moving toward an ethnobotanical analysis of the plants themselves, it is important to consider how this focus will enhance our understanding of the marketing and use of traditional medicines and women's roles therein, but researchers must also understand the problems related to the potential use of ethnobotanical data to create new pharmaceuticals.

  16. Indigenous Tourism and Social Entrepreneurship in the Bolivian Amazon: Lessons from San Miguel del Bala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Peredo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of community-based ecotourism is contingent upon the community’s involvement in the development and management of activities, as well as their access to and the comprehensiveness of benefits. The ecotourism business owned by the Tacana Indigenous community of San Miguel in the Bolivian Amazon provides a model as to how Indigenous communities can harness social entrepreneurship to address economic, social, and environmental challenges. This article reviews the origins and development of this business, and draws on participant observation research, interviews, surveys, and economic analysis to illustrate the lessons learned and challenges faced. The findings are presented to inform existing and new Indigenous tourism ventures, policy considerations, and future research.

  17. Bolivian Rhinotragini IV: Paraeclipta gen. nov. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, new species and new combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraeclipta gen. nov. is described to allocate five new species, and ten transferred from Eclipta Bates, 1873: P. cabrujai sp. nov.; P. clementecruzi sp. nov.; P. melgarae sp. nov.; P. tomhacketti sp. nov.; P. moscosoi sp. nov.; P. bicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. croceicornis (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. flavipes (Melzer, 1922, comb. nov.; P. jejuna (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. kawensis (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004, comb. nov.; P. longipennis (Fisher, 1947, comb. nov.; P. rectipennis (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. soumourouensis (Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2003, comb. nov.; P. tenuis (Burmeister, 1865, comb. nov.; and P. unicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov. The Bolivian species are illustrated. A key to their identification and host flower records are provided.

  18. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg;

    2016-01-01

    variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full......Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected...... in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...

  19. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O. [Centro de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Nucleares (CIAN-Viacha), Viacha (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Romero Bolaños, L.E. [Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnología Nuclear Av. 6 de Agosto 2905, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Ramírez Ávila, G.M., E-mail: gramirez@ulb.ac.be [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Campus Universitario Cota Cota, Casilla 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-06-15

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  20. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2016-01-01

    in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...... in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß......-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of -0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 % and 7.2 % of community...

  1. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents.

  2. An outbreak of acute fascioliasis among Aymara Indians in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorland, J; Bryan, R T; Strauss, W; Hillyer, G V; McAuley, J B

    1995-11-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a common and important parasite of sheep, cattle, and other ruminants. In May 1991, 30 persons with possible acute fascioliasis were identified by health care providers at a district hospital in the Bolivian Altiplano, and two deaths were associated with this illness. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 30 (20%) of the 148 households in the community and a case-control study were performed to determine the extent of the outbreak and the vehicle of transmission. Ninety-one members from 23 of the 30 selected families participated in the cross-sectional survey. Twenty-one of the 91 members met the case definition for acute fascioliasis (illness since 16 February 1991 that was characterized by fever and abdominal pain plus serum IgG antibodies to F. hepatica), and 38 (49%) of 78 members had serum IgG antibodies to F. hepatica. If this rate is extrapolated to the entire community, an estimated 116 individuals (23% of 504) would have acute fascioliasis and 247 individuals (49% of 504) would have evidence of current or previous infection. Case-control analysis indicated that the only factor associated with illness was eating kjosco (an aquatic plant) while tending animals in the fields; 27 (52%) of the 52 case-patients vs. 9 (14%) of the 66 controls ate kjosco (OR = 6.84; 95% CI = 2.60, 18.44). The cause of the two deaths attributed to fascioliasis could not be firmly established. Fascioliasis is a significant human health problem and is highly endemic in the Aymara Indian community in the Bolivian Altiplano. Efforts to prevent fascioliasis should include educating people to avoid eating uncooked aquatic plants such as kjosco.

  3. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  4. Percentile Data Analysis of Snowfall in J&K and Saichen Glaciers Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Shrivastava

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Himalayas are located between eastings 72° to 96° and the northings 26° to 37°stretching to about 43000 km2 area. There are five major ranges in this region, ie, Pir Panjal,Greater Himalayas, Zanskar, Laddakh, and Karakoram. Saltoro range is the major branch ofwidespread Karakoram ranges which falls in Indian territory. Saichen glaciers are located inSaltoro range. Percentile data of snowfall gives first-hand information about the snowfall patternin Jammu and Kashmir and Saichen glaciers, the two distinguished areas of Indian Himalayaswhich would help in prediction of avalanche activity in these areas. Western disturbanceoriginating from Caspian sea basically dictates the weather condition in this region. Westerndisturbance approaches from western side and hits Pir Panjal range and Greater Himalayan rangefirst, and then either it moves to further north or towards north-eastern region. Westerndisturbance yields maximum precipitation during winter season over north-west Himalayas, butas it moves further, it looses the moisture content, hence reducing the solid snowfall quantitybut stays for a longer duration due to extremely low temperatures observed in the region ofSaichen glaciers. The data analysis shows that the snowfall takes place in Saichen glacierthroughout the year whereas in Jammu and Kashmir area, snowfall takes place only during winterseason. Change in snowfall pattern in these two regions is attributed to the variation intemperature in these regions, movement of weather system, and the difference in altitude. In thepresent study, four locations at varied altitudes from Jammu and Kashmir area and the completeSaichen glaciers region have been covered to analyse the snowfall pattern for the period from1995-2000.

  5. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Erkelenz, Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Clemens Drenowatz, Jürgen M. Steinacker and the Research Group "Join the Healthy Boat - Primary School"

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively. There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively. Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children.

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle using five loci related to milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirón J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.

  7. THE BOLIVIAN NARRATIVE OF THE XXI CENTURY. LECTURES CONCERNING LA TOMA DEL MANUSCRITO BY SEBASTIÁN ANTEZANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena González Almada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the literary contemporary production of Bolivia, it takes place a phenomenon in which the works decouple of the literary tradition of the XX century and then, they leave the genres that, during at least the first half of the last century, were characterizing the Bolivian narrative. This way the indigenismo and the costumbrism are set aside to pass, in the first decade of the XXI century, to other genres that convey better the worries and the inquiries that the youngest writers face at the beginning of the present century. In the work La Toma del Manuscrito (2008, Sebastián Antezana checks and retakes the literary universal tradition to overcome the literary Bolivian tradition. Meanwhile, in La fotografía y la traducción, there is personified a process of unfolding and concealment of the artist – behind a camera, behind a language - contributing to the Bolivian narrative with a novel written from places hardly visited in this narrative of the XX century.

  8. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  9. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  10. Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Rachel E.; Mayle, Francis E.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests. Lowered atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in combination with a longer dry season, caused expansion of dry forests and savannas during the last glacial period, especially at the last glacial maximum. These ecosystems persisted until the mid-Holocene, although they underwent significant species reassortment. Forest communities containing a mixture of evergreen and semideciduous species began to expand between 6000 and 3000 14C yr B.P. Humid evergreen rain forests expanded to cover most of the area within the past 2000 14C yr B.P., coincident with a reduction in fire frequencies. Comparisons between modern pollen spectra and vegetation reveal that the Moraceae-dominated rain forest pollen spectra likely have a regional source area at least 2-3 km beyond the lake shore, whereas the grass- and sedge-dominated savanna pollen spectra likely have a predominantly local source area. The Holocene vegetation changes are consistent with independent paleoprecipitation records from the Bolivian Altiplano and paleovegetation records from other parts of southwestern Amazonia. The progressive expansion in rain forests through the Holocene can be largely attributed to enhanced convective activity over Amazonia, due to greater seasonality of insolation in the Southern Hemisphere tropics driven by the precession cycle according to the Milankovitch Astronomical Theory.

  11. Using soil and water conservation contests for extension: experiences from the Bolivian mountain valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Aad; de Graaff, Jan

    2007-12-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) contests among farmer groups were organized in five rural villages in the Bolivian mountain valleys. The contests were aimed at quickly achieving widespread sustainable results. This article analyzes the effectiveness of these contests as an extension tool. Mixed results were obtained. In three villages, participation rates in the SWC activities introduced in the contests were still high even 2 years after project withdrawal. These were all villages where a solid foundation for sustainable development had been laid before the contests were held. Two years later, most families were still involved in maintenance of the SWC practices introduced in the contests, and many farmers had started to experiment with different soil management practices. However, replications of these SWC practices were not widespread, Conservation Leaders did not continue with their training activities, and the quality of maintenance of the practices was often not satisfactory. In order to become a more effective extension tool and achieve widespread impact, SWC contests must receive continued support by a catalyst agency. Moreover, other SWC contests should also be organized in which practices are not predefined. Given that SWC contests are a low-budget extension tool, local municipalities could become more actively involved.

  12. Parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E

    2006-06-01

    Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores.

  13. Cultural change and traditional ecological knowledge. An empirical analysis from the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Luz, Ana C; Gueze, Maximilien; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Among the different factors associated to change in traditional ecological knowledge, the study of the relations between cultural change and traditional ecological knowledge has received scan and inadequate scholarly attention. Using data from indigenous peoples of an Amazonian society facing increasing exposure to the mainstream Bolivian society, we analyzed the relation between traditional ecological knowledge, proxied with individual plant use knowledge (n=484), and cultural change, proxied with individual- and village-level (n=47) measures of attachment to traditional beliefs and values. We found that both the individual level of detachment to traditional values and the village level of agreement in detachment to traditional values were associated with individual levels of plant use knowledge, irrespective of other proxy measures for cultural change. Because both the individual- and the village-level variables bear statistically significant associations with plant use knowledge, our results suggest that both the individual- and the supra-individual level processes of cultural change are related to the erosion of plant use knowledge. Results from our work highlight the importance of analyzing processes that happen at intermediary social units -the village in our case study- to explain changes in traditional ecological knowledge.

  14. Climatic and tectonic implications of the late Miocene Jakokkota flora, Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory-Wodzicki, Kathryn M.; McIntosh, W. C.; Velasquez, Kattia

    1998-12-01

    When compared to a database of modern foliar physiognomy and climate, the physiognomy of a new collection of dicotyledonous leaves from the 10.66±0.06 Ma Jakokkota flora, Bolivian Altiplano, implies a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 18.6-21.0±2.5°C. Similarly, a literature-derived sample of the early-middle Miocene Potosı´flora, Cordillera Oriental, implies a MAT of 21.5-21.7±2.1°C. We estimate that both floras experienced a growing season precipitation of 50±40 cm. The paleoclimate thus appears considerably warmer than the current highland climate, with MATs of 8-9°C; the paleoprecipitation is indistinguishable from modern levels. A comparison of the Miocene MATs with the modern MATs, with the effects of latitudinal continental drift and global climate change subtracted, suggests that the Jakokkota flora grew at an elevation of 590-1610±1000 m, and the Potosı´flora grew at an elevation of 0-1320±1000 m. Both paleoelevation estimates are significantly lower than the present elevations of 3940 and 4300 m, respectively, requiring a substantial component of Andean uplift since 10.7 Ma. This uplift history is consistent with two-stage tectonic models of Andean orogeny.

  15. Pupillary Light Reflexes are Associated with Autonomic Dysfunction in Bolivian Diabetics But Not Chagas Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Anthony; Pajuelo, Monica; Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Vu, Nancy; Carnero, Andrés M; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Camacho, Marilyn; Justiniano, Juan; Colanzi, Rony; Bowman, Natalie M; Morris, Tiffany; MacDougall, Hamish; Bern, Caryn; Moore, Steven T; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-06-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is common in Chagas disease and diabetes. Patients with either condition complicated by cardiac autonomic dysfunction face increased mortality, but no clinical predictors of autonomic dysfunction exist. Pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) may identify such patients early, allowing for intensified treatment. To evaluate the significance of PLRs, adults were recruited from the outpatient endocrine, cardiology, and surgical clinics at a Bolivian teaching hospital. After testing for Chagas disease and diabetes, participants completed conventional autonomic testing (CAT) evaluating their cardiovascular responses to Valsalva, deep breathing, and orthostatic changes. PLRs were measured using specially designed goggles, then CAT and PLRs were compared as measures of autonomic dysfunction. This study analyzed 163 adults, including 96 with Chagas disease, 35 patients with diabetes, and 32 controls. PLRs were not significantly different between Chagas disease patients and controls. Patients with diabetes had longer latency to onset of pupil constriction, slower maximum constriction velocities, and smaller orthostatic ratios than nonpatients with diabetes. PLRs correlated poorly with CAT results. A PLR-based clinical risk score demonstrated a 2.27-fold increased likelihood of diabetes complicated by autonomic dysfunction compared with the combination of blood tests, CAT, and PLRs (sensitivity 87.9%, specificity 61.3%). PLRs represent a promising tool for evaluating subclinical neuropathy in patients with diabetes without symptomatic autonomic dysfunction. Pupillometry does not have a role in the evaluation of Chagas disease patients.

  16. [Breastfeeding, complimentary feeding practices and childhood malnutrition in the Bolivian Andes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Agudo, Yesmina; Jones, Andrew D; Berti, Peter R; Larrea Macías, Sergio

    2010-03-01

    Northern Potosi is one of the poorest parts of Bolivia with the highest indicators of rural poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity in the Bolivian Andes. The objective of this research was to characterize the levels of malnutrition and describe infant feeding practices in Potosi, Bolivia and use this information to develop an effective, gender sensitive and culturally relevant intervention encouraging good infant feeding practices. Standard methods were used to collect anthropometric data. Weight and height data were collected for 400 children under five years of age from 30 communities. In six of these communities, interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 33 mothers and other families in addition to household observational data that were collected to describe infant feeding practices. Nearly 20% of children were underweight; stunting was widespread as well. 38% of mothers initiated breastfeeding 12 hours or more after birth. 39% of mothers initiated complementary feeding in the first three months following birth. The type of complementary food given to children was usually inadequate. With this research we could see that nutritional deficiencies often begin when the mother starts breastfeeding and when first introduced complementary feeding. Interventions aimed at improving maternal and child nutrition will require changes in parents' behavior, greater recognition and community support of the importance of child feeding, and the inclusion of strategies to reach young people, involve men, and make high quality nutrition promotion more widely available in the communities.

  17. Tropical climate changes at millennial and orbital timescales on the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P A; Rigsby, C A; Seltzer, G O; Fritz, S C; Lowenstein, T K; Bacher, N P; Veliz, C

    2001-02-01

    Tropical South America is one of the three main centres of the global, zonal overturning circulation of the equatorial atmosphere (generally termed the 'Walker' circulation). Although this area plays a key role in global climate cycles, little is known about South American climate history. Here we describe sediment cores and down-hole logging results of deep drilling in the Salar de Uyuni, on the Bolivian Altiplano, located in the tropical Andes. We demonstrate that during the past 50,000 years the Altiplano underwent important changes in effective moisture at both orbital (20,000-year) and millennial timescales. Long-duration wet periods, such as the Last Glacial Maximum--marked in the drill core by continuous deposition of lacustrine sediments--appear to have occurred in phase with summer insolation maxima produced by the Earth's precessional cycle. Short-duration, millennial events correlate well with North Atlantic cold events, including Heinrich events 1 and 2, as well as the Younger Dryas episode. At both millennial and orbital timescales, cold sea surface temperatures in the high-latitude North Atlantic were coeval with wet conditions in tropical South America, suggesting a common forcing.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, René; Lidén, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 degrees C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process.

  19. Hair trace elements concentration to describe polymetallic mining waste exposure in Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo; Bénéfice, Eric; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Severe polymetallic contamination is frequently observed in the mining communities of Bolivian Altiplano. We evaluated hair trace elements concentrations at the population level to characterise exposure profile in different contexts of contact with mining and metallurgical pollution. We sampled 242 children aged 7 to 12 years in schools from five Oruro districts located in different contexts of potential contamination. Hair trace elements concentrations were measured using ICP-MS (Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Sn, Bi, Ag, Ni, Se, Cu, Cr, Mn, Co and Zn). We compared concentration according to school areas and gender. Concentrations were markedly different depending on school areas. Children from schools near industrial areas were far more exposed to non essential elements than children from downtown and suburban schools, as well as the rural school. The most concentrated non-essential element was Pb (geometric means (SD): 1.6 (1.3) µg/g in rural school; 2.0 (2.3) µg/g in suburban school; 2.3 (3.0) µg/g in downtown school; 14.1 (2.7) µg/g in the mine school and 21.2 (3.3) µg/g in the smelter school). Boys showed higher levels for all non-essential elements while girls had higher levels of Zn. Hair trace elements concentrations highlighted the heterogeneity of exposure profiles, identifying the most contaminated districts.

  20. [Intestinal parasitoses in children of an Indian community of Bolivian altiplano].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, D; Gaumerais, H; Basset-Pougnet, A

    1986-01-01

    A survey about motion parasitosis has been carried out on one hundred Indians (Quechua ethnic group) living in a hamlet called Amarete located in the Bolivian Altiplano. This community is living in a place difficult to reach (11,100 feet) where many pre-Colombian traditions are still alive. All children were parasitized, 75% of them were carrier of 3 to 5 parasites. Infestation with ascaris (91%) is the most frequent and the risks of getting amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica 41%) and balantidial (Balantidium coli 8%) are high. Many other parasites (8 kinds of protozoa , 5 kinds of helminths) can be observed; more especially, we noticed that 20% of the pupils used to be carrier operculated eggs. Tenia embryophores (more probably Taenia solium found in 2 children) made us aware of possibilities of cysticercosis. An other problem lays on general hygiene and hygiene of the water since feces danger is responsible of important parasitologic loads. Results are compared with a fecal study carried out on a population from the Altiplano region but living now in the plain. Amazonian Indian population in previous or recent contact with occidental civilization show the same variations of parasitologic repartition between Amarete hamlet and the transplanted population of Altiplano region. The role played by the acculturation could be discussed.

  1. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  2. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  3. Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-06-24

    Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca.

  4. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae) from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Nee, Michael H; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-01-01

    Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  5. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Filipowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic B. uniflora (Pohl D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and B. uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  6. Constraining age and rate of deformation in the northern Bolivian Andes from cross sections, cooling ages, and thermokinematic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Ehlers, T. A.; Rak, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A critical component in assessing the viability of proposed plate tectonic or geodynamic processes in regions of convergence is the expected or predicted age and rate of deformation in the overriding plate. Commonly, age of deformation is inferred through geochronology of foreland basin and wedge-top sedimentary rocks and bedrock thermochronometer cooling signals. In Bolivia the original pulse of deformation of the fold-thrust belt is argue to be as young as 38-25 Ma based on the age of synorogenic strata or as old as 65-45 Ma due to proposed foreland basin rocks deposited in the Bolivian Altiplano. The large discrepancies in proposed age, rate and magnitude of deformation through the Bolivian Andes limit our ability to relate age and rate of shortening to internal geodynamic or external plate tectonic processes. We evaluate permissible ranges in age of initiation and rate of deformation through a forward kinematic model of the northern Bolivian fold-thrust belt. Each step of deformation accounts for isostatic loading from thrust faults and subsequent erosional of structural highs. The kinematic model predicts an evolution of flexural basins into which synorogenic sediments are deposited allowing us to fully integrate age of exhumation and deposition to age and magnitude of deformation. By assigning an age to each deformation step, we create a range of velocity vectors that are input into the thermokinematic model Pecube, which predicts thermochronometer cooling histories based on kinematics, topography, thermal parameters and shortening rates. We match the pattern of predicted ages with the across strike pattern of measured zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/ He cooling ages. The sensitivity of modeled thermochronologic data to the age at which deformation initiates indicate that northern Bolivian EC started deforming at 50 Ma and may have begun as early as 55 Ma. The acceptable velocity envelope for the modeled section permits either a

  7. Reference Curves for the Gross Motor Function Measure: Percentiles for Clinical Description and Tracking Over Time Among Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven E.; Bartlett, Doreen J; Rivard, Lisa M; Russell, Dianne J

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists frequently use the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to examine gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, reference percentiles for this measure were not available. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical utility of this gross motor measure by developing cross-sectional reference percentiles for the GMFM-66 within levels of the GMFCS.

  8. 感度分布的分位点估计%Percentiles Estimation for a Response Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉斌; 牟可典

    2002-01-01

    在对数Logistic模型下,将Wetherill变换响应方法和Robbins-Monro序贯试验设计相结合,给出了模型参数的极大似然估计存在唯一的充分必要条件和极大似然估计的计算公式.在对该方法进行模拟研究的基础上,将其应用于65#雷管.模拟和实例结果表明,在无感度分布模型的信息时,使用该方法所得分位点的估计是稳健的.%To estimate percentiles of a response distribution, the transformed response rule of Wetherill and Robbins-Monro sequential design were proposed under Log-Logistic model. Based on responses data, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of maximum likelihood estimators and then the calculating formula were presented. After a simulation study, the proposed approach was applied to 65# detonator. Numerical results showed that estimators of percentiles from the proposed approach are robust to the parametric models lacking information on the original response distribution.

  9. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for ‘extensive cattle ranching’, ‘agro-silvopastoral use’ and ‘intensive cattle ranching and agriculture’. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire

  10. Modernization, sexual risk-taking, and gynecological morbidity among Bolivian Forager-horticulturalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Stieglitz

    Full Text Available Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM, and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002-2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men's infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377; 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis. Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase

  11. Epidemiology of and Impact of Insecticide Spraying on Chagas Disease in Communities in the Bolivian Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Menacho, Silvio; Gil, Jose; Spicer, Jennifer; Budde, Julia; Levy, Michael Z.; Bozo, Ricardo W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease control campaigns relying upon residual insecticide spraying have been successful in many Southern American countries. However, in some areas, rapid reinfestation and recrudescence of transmission have occurred. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey in the Bolivian Chaco to evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for T. cruzi infection 11 years after two rounds of blanket insecticide application. We used a cubic B-spline model to estimate change in force of infection over time based on age-specific seroprevalence data. Overall T. cruzi seroprevalence was 51.7%. The prevalence was 19.8% among children 2–15, 72.7% among those 15–30 and 97.1% among participants older than 30 years. Based on the model, the estimated annual force of infection was 4.3% over the two years before the first blanket spray in 2000 and fell to 0.4% for 2001–2002. The estimated annual force of infection for 2004–2005, the 2 year period following the second blanket spray, was 4.6%. However, the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals overlap for all of these estimates. In a multivariable model, only sleeping in a structure with cracks in the walls (aOR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.15–4.78), age and village of residence were associated with infection. Conclusions/Significance As in other areas in the Chaco, we found an extremely high prevalence of Chagas disease. Despite evidence that blanket insecticide application in 2000 may have decreased the force of infection, active transmission is ongoing. Continued spraying vigilance, infestation surveillance, and systematic household improvements are necessary to disrupt and sustain interruption of infection transmission. PMID:23936581

  12. Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in Bolivian migrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Molina, José A; Poveda, Cristina; Martinez-Perez, Angela; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Velez, Rogelio; Ramírez, Juan D; Girones, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite is transmitted to humans mainly through the faeces of infected triatomine "kissing" bugs, by blood transfusions or organ donation from infected donors, and can be transmitted from mother to child. This disease is endemic in the Americas, where Bolivia has up to 28.8% prevalence in general population. Increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second country in number of patients after the United States. T. cruzi is an organism with a rich genetic diversity, what has been grouped into six discrete typing units (DTUs). Some authors have linked these DTUs either to specific geographical distribution or to the different clinical presentations. Nevertheless little is known about its distribution in migrant populations. Our aim was to describe the T. cruzi strains isolated from a population of chronically infected Bolivian patients attending our clinic in Madrid. Thirty-three consecutive patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between epidemiological/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. Twenty-seven out of thirty-three patients had their DTU detected. Mean age was 36 years (IQR 31-43.3) and 23 were women (76.7%). The median time since arrival to Spain was 60 months (IQR 43-81). The most common DTU were TcV, TcIV and TcI. Four patients had cardiac involvement: 2 had TcV and 2 could not have their DTU determined. TcIII was not isolated from any patient. DTUs distribution in migrant population seems to be similar to that observed in the patients' countries of origin.

  13. Seasonal and Circadian Variation in Salivary Testosterone in Rural Bolivian Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J.; Worthman, Carol M.; Beall, Cynthia M.; Thornburg, Jonathan; Vargas, Enrique; Villena, Mercedes; Soria, Rudy; Caceres, Esperanza; Spielvogel, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone (T) plays a key role in the increase and maintenance of muscle mass and bone density in adult men. Life history theory predicts that environmental stress may prompt a reallocation of such investments to those functions critical to survival. We tested this hypothesis in two studies of rural Bolivian adult men by comparing free T levels and circadian rhythms during late winter, which is especially severe, to those in less arduous seasons. For each pair of salivary TAM/TPM samples (collected in a ~12-hour period), circadian rhythm was considered classic (CCLASSIC) if TAM>110%TPM, reverse (CREVERSE) if TPM>110%TAM, and flat (CFLAT) otherwise. We tested the hypotheses that mean TAM>mean TPM and that mean TLWseasons). In Study A, of 115 TPM-TAM pairs, 51%=CCLASSIC, 39%=CREVERSE, 10%=CFLAT; in Study B, of 184 TAM-TPM pairs, 55%=CCLASSIC, 33%=CREVERSE, 12%=CFLAT. Based on fitting linear mixed models, in both studies TOTHER-AM>TOTHER-PM (A: p=0.035, B: p=0.0005) and TOTHER-AM>TLW-AM (A: p=0.054, B: p=0.007); TPM did not vary seasonally, and T diurnality was not significant during late winter. T diurnality varied substantially between days within an individual, between individuals and between seasons, but neither T levels nor diurnality varied with age. These patterns may reflect the seasonally varying but unscheduled, life-long, strenuous physical labor that typifies many non-industrialized economies. These results also suggest that single morning samples may substantially underestimate peak circulating T for an individual and, most importantly, that exogenous signals may moderate diurnality and the trajectory of age-related change in the male gonadal axis. PMID:19367574

  14. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis F.; Montaño-Centellas, Flavia A.; Gavilanez, M. Mercedes; Stevens, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups). Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement) was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia) create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for patterns of functional

  15. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Aguirre

    Full Text Available Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups. Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for

  16. Unexpectedly High Beta-Diversity of Root-Associated Fungal Communities in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Maldonado, Carla; Frøslev, Tobias G.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of −0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 and 7.2% of community variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's “hidden biodiversity.” PMID:27630629

  17. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  18. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (2)Verification of BMI Classification Reference for Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To verify Working Group for Obesity in China (WGOC) recommended body mass index (BMI) classification reference for overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents using the data of 2002 China Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey. Methods Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormality of each risk factor for MetS were defined using the criteria for US adolescents. Definition of hyper-TC, LDL, and dyslipidemia in adults was applied as well. The average level and abnormality rate of the metabolic indicators were described by BMI percentiles and compared with general linear model analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to summarize the potential of BMI to discriminate between thepresence and absence of the abnormality of these indicators. Results There was neither significantly increasing nor significantly decreasing trend of biochemical parameter levels in low BMI percentile range (<65th). Slight increasing trend from the 75th and a significant increase were found when BMI≥85th percentile. In general, the prevalence of the examined risk factors varied slightly when BMI percentile<75th, and substantial increases were consistently seen when BMI percentile≥75th. As an indicator of hyper-TG, hypertension and MetS, the sensitivity and specificity were equal at the point of BMI<75th percentile, and the Youden's index of risk factors also reached peak point before 75th percentile except for MetS. When the BMI percentile was used as the screening indicator of MetS, Youden's index reached peak point at 85th percentile, just the point in the ROC graph that was nearest to the upper left corner. Conclusion The BMI classification reference for overweight and obesity recommended by WGOC is rational to predict and prevent health risks in Chinese children and adolescents. Lower screening cut-off points, such as 83th percentile or 80th percentile, should not be excluded when they are considered as overweight criteria in

  19. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (Pschizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  20. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Expedito Ja; Furucho, Celia R; Silva, Rubens A; Wanderley, Dalva M; Carvalho, Noemia B; Satolo, Camila G; Leite, Ruth M; Silveira, Cassio; Silva, Lia Mb; Aith, Fernando M; Carneiro, Nivaldo; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria A

    2017-01-01

    With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil. Infection was detected by two different ELISA assays with epimastigote antigens, followed by an immunoblot with trypomastigote antigens as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of the infection was 4.4%. Risk factors independently associated with the infection were: a history of rural jobs in Bolivia, knowledge of the vector involved in transmission, and having relatives with Chagas disease. Brazil has successfully eliminated household vector transmission of T. cruzi, as well as its transmission by blood transfusion. The arrival of infected immigrants represents an additional challenge to primary care clinics to manage chronic Chagas disease, its vertical transmission, and the blood derivatives and organ transplant programs.

  1. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state at 5,260 m in high-altitude Bolivians and acclimatized lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Araoz, Mauricio; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state were compared in nine Danish lowlanders (L) acclimatized to 5,260 m for 9 wk and seven native Bolivian residents (N) of La Paz (altitude 3,600-4,100 m) brought acutely to this altitude. We evaluated normalcy of arterial pH and assessed pulmonary gas exch...

  2. Phylogeography and genetic divergence of some lymnaeid snails, intermediate hosts of human and animal fascioliasis with special reference to lymnaeids from the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour-Zahab, R; Pointier, J P; Jourdane, J; Jarne, P; Oviedo, J A; Bargues, M D; Mas-Coma, S; Anglés, R; Perera, G; Balzan, C; Khallayoune, K; Renaud, F

    1997-04-15

    A population genetic study using starch gel electrophoresis was performed on populations of several species of lymnaeid snails acting as intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Plathyhelminth). Lymnaea viatrix was collected in 16 sites from the Bolivian Northern Altiplano. L. cubensis were obtained in one site from Venezuela, one site from Guadeloupe, three sites from Cuba and one site from the Dominican Republic. L. truncatula were collected in one site from France, one from Portugal and one from Morocco. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) were determined for 282 snails at 18 loci. A complete monomorphism was encountered at each geographic site. However, among these 18 loci, 13 are polymorphic and low and high levels of genetic divergence were observed between samples. Two genotypic groups can be differentiated by their multilocus genotypes. The western genotypic group associates together samples from Venezuela, Guadeloupe, Cuba and Dominican Republic (L. cubensis) while samples from France, Portugal and Morocco (L. truncatula) belong to the eastern genotypic group. Surprisingly, the Northern Bolivian Altiplano populations (L. viatrix) do not present any genetic divergence with the Portuguese sample. Therefore, the Bolivian snails belong entirely to the eastern genetic group. Within each group slight genetic divergences were observed. These results strongly support the European origin of the lymnaeid snails from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

  3. Diameter Growth of Juvenile Trees after Gap Formation in a Bolivian Rain Forest: Responses are Strongly Species-specific and Size-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliz-Gamboa, C.C.; Sandbrink, A.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated growth responses to gap formation for juvenile individuals of three canopy rain forest species: Peltogyne cf. heterophylla, Clarisia racemosa and Cedrelinga catenaeformis. Gaps were formed during selective logging operations 7 yr before sampling in a Bolivian rain forest. We collected w

  4. Intercultural Bilingual Educational Policies for Transnational Indigenous Communities: School Experiences of the Wichí-Weenhayek People on the Argentinean-Bolivian Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Zaynab; Román, Diego X.; del Rosal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing Ruiz's (1984, 1995) language orientation and language policy work, this ethnographic study compared two intercultural bilingual education (IBE) schools located in two Wichí-Weenhayek communities on both sides of the Argentinean-Bolivian border. We examined Wichí-Weenhayek and non-Indigenous teachers' profiles, teacher-student…

  5. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Susana; Teran Carlos G; Caceres Margoth; Medina Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a one of the most common nutritional disorder worldwide, clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome, condition with implications for the development of many chronic diseases. In the poorest countries of Latin America, malnourishment is still the most prevalent nutritional problem, but obesity is emerging in alarming rates over the last 10 years without a predictable association with metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the associat...

  6. (1)H MRS assessment of hepatic steatosis in overweight children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S; Thisted, Ebbe;

    2012-01-01

    children and adolescents up to 20 years of age with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and gender. Proton MRS for each patient was performed in both 1T and 3T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence in a single volume positioned in the right liver lobe. RESULTS: Average T2...

  7. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  8. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.

  9. Maize production as affected by sowing date, plant density and row spacing in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional cropping system widespread in the Department of Pando (Bolivian Amazon is the slash and burn methodology. The main crops sowed soon after the slash are maize, rice, cassava and common beans. Two separate field experiments (carried out in 2008-2009 were carried out to determine the agronomic responses of maize to sowing date, plant population and row width. For the first experiment a split-plot design was used. Maize cultivar (Bayo Blando and Perla Pandino was considered as main plots and the date of sowing as subplots. For the second experiment a split-split-plot design was used. Row spacing (0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m was considered as main plot, maize cultivar (Cubano Amrarillo and Perla Pandino as subplots, and plant density (5.0, 7.5 and 10 plant m-2 as sub-subplots. A significant reduction of grain yield was observed as the date of sowing (DS delayied. Yield reduction of the second DS compared to the first, was 85 and 45% for Perla Pandino and Bayo Blando. The importance of plant density as a function of the correct row spacing is clearly shown. With the row spacing in use in the considered area (0.9 m and with the narrowest (0.5 m, the best yields were obtained with 10 plants m-2 (5.5 t ha-1. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study: 1. A delay in the sowing date for maize by 15-20 days (compared to sowing ??immediately after the cutting of the virgin forest or the secondary forest strongly reduces grain production. The cultivar Perla Pandino was the most susceptible with a reduction of 85%. Late sowing of maize (mais de socorro, is suitable only if intercropped with other crops in order to protect the soil from erosion. Traditionally, rice and cassava are intercropped with maize, even if common beans or a legume cover crop would be more advisable. 2. The density of maize may be increased up until 10 m-2 in order to achieve the most productive results by using row spacings of 0.5 e 0.9 m, respectively

  10. Lateglacial climate reconstruction on the Bolivian Altiplano inferred from paleoglaciers and paleolakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Léo; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Lavé, Jérôme; Prémaillon, Mélody; Jomelli, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Lupker, Maarten; Charreau, Julien; Mariotti, Véronique; Condom, Thomas; Bourles, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Recent insights shed light on the global mechanisms involved in the abrupt oscillations of the Earth climate for the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Holocene period (Zhang et al., 2014; Banderas et al., 2015). Yet the concomitant patterns of regional climate reorganization on continental areas are for now poorly documented. Particularly, few attempts have been made to propose temporal reconstructions of the regional climate variables in the High Tropical Andes, a region under the influence of multiple global climate forcings (Jomelli et al., 2014). We present new glacial chronologies from four sites of the Bolivian Altiplano: the Wara-Wara valley (17.3°S - 66.1°W), the Zongo valley (16.3°S - 68.1°W), the Cerro Tunupa (19.8°S - 67.6°W) and the Nevado Sajama (18.1°S 68.9°W). These chronologies are based on Cosmic Ray Exposure dating (CRE) from an exceptional suite of recessive moraines. These new data permitted to refine existing chronologies of Smith et al., 2005; Zech et al., 2010 and Blard et al., 2009. In both sites, glaciers recorded stillstand episodes synchronous with cold events such as the Henrich 1 event, the Younger Dryas and the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Since the nearby Altiplano basin registered lake level variations over the same period, we were able to apply a joint modelling of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and lake budget. This method permits to derive a temporal evolution of temperature and precipitation for the four sites. These new reconstructions show for all sites that glaciers of the Tropical Andes were influenced by the major climatic events of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Furthermore, the temperature variability observed at high latitudes results in these tropical latitudes in major precipitation variability whereas the lateglacial temperature patterns remain globally monotonic. This conversion of global temperature variability into regional precipitation variability support the idea that North Hemisphere cold

  11. An ecological perspective of the energy basis of sustainable Bolivian natural resources: Forests and natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis

    Bolivia, traditionally known for being a country rich in natural resources, has suffered from a constant exploitation of its natural resources benefiting only small groups in and outside the country. The devastation of natural resources that occurred for many years was of concern to the latest government, rural communities and indigenous groups. As a result, Bolivia has a more sustainability-oriented forest law that has a strong orientation towards the utilization of natural resources at a national level and encompasses a fast-growing forestry industry than in previous years. In this dissertation, the wealth of Bolivia's national system was evaluated using solar emergy. Emergy (spelled with "m") is the sum of all energy of one form needed to develop a flow of energy of another form, over a period of time. The basic idea is that solar energy is our ultimate energy source and by expressing the value of products in solar emergy units, it becomes possible to compare different kinds of energy, allowing to express the value for the natural resources in Emergy Dollars. It was found out that Bolivia relies heavily in its natural resources and that its emergy exchange ratio with its international trading partners changed from 12.2 to 1 in 2001 to 6.2 to 1 in 2005. This means that Bolivia went from export 12.2 emdollars of goods for each 1 it received in 2001 to export 6.2 emdollars of products for each 1 it received in 2005. The study also showed that under forest certification practices less emergy is removed from forests (1.49E+19 sej/yr) compared to the amount of emergy removed (2.36E+19 sej/yr) under traditional uncertified practices, reflecting that forest ecology does better under certification. The "Ecologically-based Development for the Bolivian Industrial Forestry System" (DEBBIF) simulation model constructed during this study, compared four different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Increased Export Scenario, the Increased Domestic Use Scenario and the

  12. C-reactive protein and its relation to high blood pressure in overweight or obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andreia F. Noronha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP and high blood pressure (BP in overweight or obese children and adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 184 overweight or obese children and adolescents aged from two to 18 years old, from April, 2009 to April, 2010. The classification of nutritional status used the body mass index (BMI. Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention curve, individuals were classified as: overweight (BMI between the 85th-95th percentiles, obesity (BMI between 95th-97th percentiles and severe obesity (BMI >97th percentile. Abnormal values were considered for systolic BP (SBP and/or diastolic (DBP if ≥90th percentile of the BP curve recommended for children and adolescents in the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension, for waist circumference (WC if ≥90th percentile of the curve established by the National Cholesterol Education Program, and for high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP if >3mg/dL. To evaluate the association of inadequate values of CRP and the studied groups, chi-square test and analysis of variance were applied, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the evaluated sample, 66.3% were female, 63.5%, non-white, 64.1% had severe obesity, 78.3% had altered WC and 70.6% presented high BP. There was a significant association of CRP high levels with altered WC and BMI ≥97th percentile. In adolescents, high CRP was related to high SBP. CRP mean values were higher in individuals with elevated SBP. CONCLUSIONS Inadequate values of hs-CRP were associated with severe obesity and high SBP in the studied population. These markers can be used to identify children and adolescents at higher risk for developing atherosclerosis.

  13. Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Orden DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Magnani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Orden DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA.

  14. Misperceptions of weight status among adolescents: sociodemographic and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodde AE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Bodde,1 Timothy J Beebe,1 Laura P Chen,2 Sarah Jenkins,3 Kelly Perez-Vergara,4 Lila J Finney Rutten,5 Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss6 1Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN USA; 6HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods: Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results: While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual's BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent's self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight

  15. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  16. Associations of maternal o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE levels with birth outcomes in a Bolivian cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrebola, Juan P.; Cuellar, Miriam; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential association of maternal serum levels of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with gestation time and with anthropometric measurements and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of newborns in a Bolivian birth cohort. Two hundred mothers were consecutively recruited between...... January and March 2013 at the "Hospital de la Mujer Dr. Percy Boland" in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Potential confounders were derived from an ad hoc questionnaire. o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were quantified in cord serum by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear...... regression analyses were performed, with POP concentrations as independent variables and log-transformed newborn birth outcomes (newborn weight, gestational age, head circumference, birth height, ponderal index, and TSH levels) as dependent variables. o,p'-DDT was detected in 82.5% of samples at median...

  17. Biological and chemical studies of Pera benensis, a Bolivian plant used in folk medicine as a treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, A; Angelo, A; Muñoz, V; Roblot, F; Hocquemiller, R; Cavé, A

    1992-09-01

    The stem barks of Pera benensis are employed by the Chimane Indians in the Bolivian Amazonia as treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan Leishmania braziliensis. The chloroform extracts containing quinones were found active against the promastigote forms of Leishmania and the epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi at 10 micrograms ml-1. The activity guided fractionation of the extract by chromatography afforded active compounds. Their structures were elucidated, by spectral and chemical studies, as known naphthoquinones, plumbagin, 3,3'-biplumbagin, 8-8'-biplumbagin, and triterpene, lupeol. The activity in vitro of each compound was evaluated against 5 strains of Leishmania (promastigote), 6 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (epimastigote) and the intracellular form (amastigote) of Leishmania amazonensis. The baseline drugs used were Glucantime and pentamidine (Leishmania spp.), nifurtimox and benznidazole (T. cruzi). Plumbagin was the most active compound in vitro. This study has demonstrated that Pera benensis, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine, is an efficient treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  18. A population-based coprological study of human fascioliasis in a hyperendemic area of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Angles, R; Strauss, W; Aguirre, C; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-07-01

    The community of Chijipata Alta, at an altitude of 3850 m, near the southern coast of Lake Titicaca in the northern Altiplano of Bolivia, was surveyed for human fascioliasis. The global prevalence (66.7%) and intensity (eggs per gram of faeces--epg: range: 24-4440; arithmetic mean: 1001; geometric mean: 390) proved to be the highest known in the world by means of coprological techniques. These results suggest the existence of highly hyperendemic subzones among the large human fascioliasis-endemic zone of the Bolivian northern Altiplano. Despite the decrease in prevalence and intensity from children (75.0%, 24-4440 epg) to adults (41.7%, 144-864 epg), our findings show that in an hyperendemic zone adult subjects either maintain the parasites acquired when young or are newly infected as the consequence of inhabiting a zone of high infection risk.

  19. Administration of Triclabendazole Is Safe and Effective in Controlling Fascioliasis in an Endemic Community of the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fidel; Angles, René; Barrientos, René; Barrios, Gary; Valero, María Adela; Hamed, Kamal; Grueninger, Heiner; Ault, Steven K.; Montresor, Antonio; Engels, Dirk; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. Materials and Methods Schoolchildren from an endemic community were screened for fascioliasis and treated with a single administration of triclabendazole (10 mg/kg). Interviews to assess the occurrence of adverse events were conducted on treatment day, one week later, and one month after treatment. Further parasitological screenings were performed three months after treatment and again two months later (following a further treatment) in order to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Results Ninety infected children were administered triclabendazole. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. No serious adverse events were reported. Observed cure rates were 77.8% after one treatment and 97.8% after two treatments, while egg reduction rates ranged between 74% and 90.3% after one treatment, and between 84.2% and 99.9% after two treatments. The proportion of high-intensity infections (≥400 epg) decreased from 7.8% to 1.1% after one treatment and to 0% after two treatments. Conclusion Administration of triclabendazole is a feasible, safe and efficacious public health intervention in an endemic community in the Bolivian Altiplano, suggesting that preventive chemotherapy can be applied to control of fascioliasis. Further investigations are needed to define the most appropriate frequency of treatment. PMID:22880138

  20. CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and TP53 Polymorphisms and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer in Bolivians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuaki; Loza, Ernesto; Roig, Guido Villa-Gomez; Nozaki, Ryoko; Asai, Takao; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Plurinational State of Bolivia (Bolivia) has a high incidence rate of gallbladder cancer (GBC). However, the genetic and environmental risk factors for GBC development are not well understood. We aimed to assess whether or not cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), theta 1 (GSTT1) and tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) genetic polymorphisms modulate GBC susceptibility in Bolivians. This case-control study covered 32 patients with GBC and 86 healthy subjects. GBC was diagnosed on the basis of histological analysis of tissues at the Instituto de Gastroenterologia Boliviano-Japones (IGBJ); the healthy subjects were members of the staff at the IGBJ. Distributions of the CYP1A1 rs1048943 and TP53 rs1042522 polymorphisms were assayed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms were detected by a multiplex PCR assay. The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher in GBC patients than in the healthy subjects (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.37; age-adjusted OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.29-9.66; age- and sex-adjusted OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.24-9.34). No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of CYP1A1, GSTT1, or TP53 polymorphisms between the two groups. The GSTM1 null genotype was associated with increased GBC risk in Bolivians. Additional studies with larger control and case populations are warranted to confirm the association between the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism and GBC risk suggested in the present study.

  1. Relationships between host species and morphometric patterns in Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs from the northern Bolivian Altiplano hyperendemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M A; Darce, N A; Panova, M; Mas-Coma, S

    2001-12-01

    The highest prevalences and intensities of human fasciolosis by Fasciola hepatica are found in the northern Bolivian Altiplano, where sheep and cattle are the main reservoir host species and pigs and donkeys the secondary ones. Morphometric comparisons of many linear measurements, areas and ratios of F. hepatica adults (from sheep, cattle and pigs) and eggs (from sheep, cattle, pigs and donkeys) in natural liver fluke populations of the Bolivian Altiplano, as well as of F. hepatica adults and eggs experimentally obtained in Wistar rats infected with Altiplanic sheep, cattle and pig isolates, were made using computer image analysis and an allometric model. Although morphometric values of adult flukes from natural populations of sheep, cattle, and pigs showed great overlap, there were clear differences in allometric growth. The allometries analyzed were: body area (BA) versus body length (BL), BA versus body width (BW), BA versus perimeter (Pe), BA versus distance between posterior end of body and ventral sucker (P-VS), BL versus BW, BL versus Pe, and BL versus P-VS. These allometries show a good fit in the seven pairs of variables in all the populations examined. Comparative statistical analysis of the allometries shows that fluke adult populations from sheep, cattle and pigs significantly differ in BL versus BW and BL versus P-VS functions. Statistical analysis of F. hepatica egg size shows characteristic morphometric traits in each definitive host species. In experimentally infected rats, fluke adult allometry and egg morphometry do not vary depending on the Altiplanic definitive host species isolate. Our study reveals that the definitive host species decisively influences the size of F. hepatica adults and eggs, and these influences do not persist in a rodent definitive host model.

  2. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents of a Brazilian University: a case-control study Factores de riesgo para el sobrepeso y a obesidad en adolescentes de una Universidad de Brasil: un estudio de casos-control

    OpenAIRE

    I. H. Carvalho Francescantonio Menezes; M. Borges Neutzling; J. A. de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the risk factors associated to overweight and obesity in freshmen of a public university in the Center-West region of Brazil. Methods: A case-control study comprising 1,465 adolescents, identifying 106 cases (Body Mass Index (BMI)> = 85th percentile of National Center for Health Statistics -NCHS) and 233 controls (BMI > 5th and < 85th percentile of NCHS). Interviews were made to collect information on socioeconomic data, eating habits, physical activity and health habits....

  3. Mathematical Model for the Optimal Utilization Percentile in M/M/1 Systems: A Contribution about Knees in Performance Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Horta, Francisco A; Ramirez-Cortes, Juan M; Martinez-Carballido, Jorge; Buenfil-Alpuche, Eldamira

    2011-01-01

    Performance curves of queueing systems can be analyzed by separating them into three regions: the flat region, the knee region, and the exponential region. Practical considerations, usually locate the knee region between 70-90% of the theoretical maximum utilization. However, there is not a clear agreement about where the boundaries between regions are, and where exactly the utilization knee is located. An open debate about knees in performance curves was undertaken at least 20 years ago. This historical debate is mainly divided between those who claim that a knee in the curve is not a well defined term in mathematics, or it is a subjective and not really meaningful concept, and those who define knees mathematically and consider their relevance and application. In this paper, we present a mathematical model and analysis for identifying the three mentioned regions on performance curves for M/M/1 systems; specifically, we found the knees, or optimal utilization percentiles, at the vertices of the hyperbolas tha...

  4. Frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Kummer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and their parents, in comparison with children and adolescents without developmental disorders. Methods: Anthropometric measures were obtained in 69 outpatients with ASD (8.4±4.2 years old, 23 with ADHD (8.5±2.4 and 19 controls without developmental disorders (8.6±2.9 between August and November 2014. Parents of patients with ASD and ADHD also had their anthropometric parameters taken. Overweight was defined as a percentile ≥85; obesity as a percentile ≥95; and underweight as a percentile ≤5. For adults, overweight was defined as a BMI between 25 and 30kg/m2 and obesity as a BMI higher than 30kg/m2. Results: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD had higher BMI percentile (p<0.01 and z-score (p<0.01 than controls, and increased frequency of overweight and obesity (p=0.04. Patients with ASD and ADHD did not differ between them in these variables, nor regarding abdominal circumference. Parents of children with ASD and ADHD did not differ between themselves. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD are at a higher risk of overweight and obesity than children without developmental problems in the community.

  5. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  6. Parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight: prevalence across sociodemographic characteristics and associations with adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n = 3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n = 2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower socioeconomic status categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically.

  7. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  8. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliye C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference. The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.

  9. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    optimization. RESULTS: In a generalized linear model adjusted for BMI SDS, total serum adiponectin concentrations were correlated to age in girls (psexes combined (psexes was found. Reference intervals were calculated using...... age as a continuous variable. The best fitted reference curve for both sexes was: 50th percentile: Y=-0.1478∗X+6.046; 2.5th percentile: Y=-0.06256∗X+2.34; 97.5th percentile: Y=-0.4086∗X+22.39, where Y=adiponectin in μg/mL and X=years of age (from 6 to 18years). CONCLUSION: We developed a pediatric...... reference levels for total serum adiponectin in a sample of 1193 Danish children and adolescents aged 6-18years. A correlation with age was demonstrated in children, but no significant difference was seen between the sexes....

  10. Deformation in the Bolivian Subandes: a reconstruction of geologic structures along two transects across the Andean Front in Southern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeen, Xennephone; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Bolivian Subandes is a highly tectonically active region in the Andes since deformation began approx. 10 Ma ago. The study area is located in the Southern Bolivian Subandes southwest of Santa Cruz. Observations were taken along two transects with each being around 100 km long. They stretch from the Subandes-Interandean boundary into the Chaco Plain. The northern transect extends from Abapó in the Chaco Plain and it continues west near Vallegrande and ends just west of Pucara near La Higuera. The southern transect initiates near Charagua in the Chaco Plain. Then it continues west through Villa Vaca Guzmán and ends around 25 km west of Monteagudo. Structural and stratigraphic data were collected along the two transects. The locations of major geologic structures such as thrust faults, anticlines and synclines were mapped. The map along with the data from the two cross sections was then used to generate a 3D model of the Subandean fold and thrust belt between Abapó and Monteagudo. The cross sections were than restored to quantify the amount of shortening that had occurred over the past 10 million years. The southern transect has undergone 65 km of shortening while 50 to 80 km of shortening have transpired along the less constrain northern transect. The estimated rate of deformation averages at 8 mm/yr. The timing of deformation may differ between the two transects. Deformation may have initiated earlier or undergone at a faster rate in the northern transect than in the southern transect. It is also possible that the decollement is shallower in the western portion of the northern transect. We observe that the east propagating anticlines verge to the west. This may be due to the anticlines being cut by exposed or blind thrust faults and then rotated counterclockwise. They rotate while piggybacking on younger thrust faults that developed and propagate to the east of the anticlines. We postulate deformation continues to propagate eastward into the Chaco

  11. [Placental weight percentiles and its relationship with fetal weight according to gestational age in an urban area of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Roman, Estela; Dipierri, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El peso placentario (PP) y los índices de su relación con el peso al nacer (PN) (PN/PP, PP/PN) predicen morbi-mortalidad perinatal y resultados alejados de la salud. Objetivos: Calcular percentilos del PP e índices por sexo y edad gestacional correspondientes a 867 RNV de la Maternidad Sardá de Buenos Aires, Argentina y compararlos con referencias internacionales. Material y métodos: Se excluyeron feto muerto, embarazo múltiple, edad gestacional 42 semanas y PP2500g. Características maternas y fetales: edad, educación, tabaco, paridad, diabetes, preeclampsia, corioamnionitis, restricción del crecimiento, malformación congénita y prematurez. Se calcularon estadísticos de resumen y percentilos con el método LMS. Las comparaciones se realizaron con test t-Student, ANOVA y referencias internacionales. Resultados: Edad materna media 24 años, educación 10.1 años, 24.5% primíparas, 12.6% fumadoras, 4.9% presentaron diabetes, 8.7% preeclampsia, 7.9% corioamnionitis y 13.0% restricción del crecimiento fetal. El 55.3% de los RN fueron varones, 51.6% prematuros, 18.9% PEG y 7.1% malformados. El PN y EG promedio fue de 2581g y 35.6 semanas respectivamente. Elevada correlación positiva de la EG con PP y PN/PP y negativa con PP/PN (p%lt;0.001); el peso de la placenta e índices fueron mayores en varones. Se presentan los percentiles de PP, PN/PP y PP/PN. Las diferencias con las referencias oscilaron de 0.46% -13%, 4.91% -12.1% y 5.81% -14% para el PP, PN/PP y PP/PN respectivamente. Conclusiones: los percentilos generados son aplicables en investigaciones sobre la relación de la placenta con resultados perinatales y la salud durante el ciclo vital.

  12. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  13. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  14. Which percentile-based approach should be preferred for calculating normalized citation impact values? An empirical comparison of five approaches including a newly developed citation-rank approach (P100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    For comparisons of citation impacts across fields and over time, bibliometricians normalize the observed citation counts with reference to an expected citation value. Percentile-based approaches have been proposed as a non-parametric alternative to parametric central-tendency statistics. Percentiles

  15. Electrical conductivity beneath the Bolivian Orocline and its relation to subduction processes at the South American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasse, Heinrich; Eydam, Diane

    2008-07-01

    A long-period magnetotelluric data set was obtained during 2002 and 2004 in the central Andes to study the deep electrical conductivity structure in the region of the Bolivian Orocline between latitudes 17°S and 19°S. The profile extends from the Coastal Cordillera in northernmost Chile, crosses the volcanic arc and the Altiplano high plateau in central Bolivia, and ends in the Eastern Cordillera. Two-dimensional inversion revealed several well-defined conductivity anomalies: in upper crustal levels the conductive sedimentary basins of the central Altiplano and the resistive Arequipa block beneath the western Altiplano are imaged. Earlier seismological and magnetotelluric investigations on the southern Altiplano inferred a large, highly conductive (partially molten) body in the mid to deep crust. It was assumed that this structure would be underlying the entire plateau, but this is not the case according to the new models. Instead, the most prominent feature in the new investigation area is a high-conductivity zone at upper mantle depths below the high plateau, which may be interpreted as an image of partial melts and fluids triggered by water supply from the subducting Nazca slab. This conductor would be in accordance with the standard subduction scenario; it is, however, laterally offset by almost 100 km from the volcanic arc. In contrast, the deep crust and upper mantle beneath the arc is moderately resistive. Both observations may hint at an emerging shift of the magmatic/fluid system in the central Andes.

  16. Selection of Trypanosoma cruzi clonal genotypes (clonet 20 and 39) isolated from Bolivian triatomines following subculture in liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosseno, M F; Yacsik, N; Vargas, F; Brenière, S F

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies showed that two groups of Trypanosoma cruzi clonal genotypes named clonet 20 and clonet 39 were predominant in Triatoma infestans, the unique vector of Chagas disease in Bolivia. These groups of clones correspond to distinct genetic clusters. These clonets were detected in T. infestans and Rhodnius pictipes fecal samples before isolation and after culture by kDNA PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and hybridization of the amplified products with clonet specific kDNA probes named 20 and 39 as previously reported. Forty eight T. infestans and three R. pictipes infected insects captured at random in different Bolivian departments were proceeded. As previously reported the direct identification of the two major clonets in fecal samples allowed the detection of abundant mixed infections: 41% in the original sample, however after culture, only 6% of mixed infections were detected. Among the 21 parasite stocks isolated from digestive tracts where mixed infections were initially detected (clonet 20 + 39) clonet 20 alone was detected in 81% of them. This result clearly showed that the culture step selected clonet 20 parasites over those belonging to clonet 39. The taxonomic status of the isolated stocks was also confirmed by isoenzyme typing, and correlation was observed between clustering topology and hybridization patterns with the probes 20 and 39.

  17. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  18. The genomes of four novel begomoviruses and a new Sida micrantha mosaic virus strain from Bolivian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Patrícia Soares; Gotthardt, Diether; Schäfer, Benjamin; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Begomovirus is the largest genus within the family Geminiviridae and includes economically important plant DNA viruses infecting a broad range of plant species and causing devastating crop diseases, mainly in subtropical and tropical countries. Besides cultivated plants, many weeds act as virus reservoirs. Eight begomovirus isolates from Bolivian weeds were examined using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). An efficient, novel cloning strategy using limited Sau3A digestion to obtain tandem-repeat inserts allowed the sequencing of the complete genomes. The viruses were classified by phylogenetic analysis as typical bipartite New World begomoviruses. Four of them represented distinct new virus species, for which the names Solanum mosaic Bolivia virus, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2, and Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus are proposed. Three were variants of a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus (SimMV), SimMV-rho[BoVi07], SimMV-rho[Bo:CF1:07] and SimMV-rho[Bo:CF2:07], and one was a new variant of a previously described SimMV, SimMV-MGS2:07-Bo.

  19. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers: An evaluation by analysis of chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jørs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures.Method: Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76. Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed.Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay.Conclusions: Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

  20. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

  1. Population genetic structure of Cichla pleiozona (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Upper Madera basin (Bolivian Amazon): sex-biased dispersal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Ballivian, J P Torrico; Hubert, Nicolas; Rodríguez, J Nuñez; Berrebi, P; Cornejo, S Sirvas; Renno, J-F

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the population structure of the Tucunaré (Cichla pleiozona) in the Bolivian Amazon (Upper Madera) by using nuclear (EPIC-PCR, 67 individuals) and mitochondrial (Control Region, 41 published and 76 new sequences) DNA analyses, in relation with ecological (water quality: muddy, clear and mix) and geographic factors. Our analyses of both markers showed the highest diversity in clear waters (Yata, Middle and Upper Iténez), and the existence of two populations in muddy waters (Sécure and Ichilo) and one in mix waters (Manuripi). On the other hand, mitochondrial analyses identified three populations in clear waters where nuclear analyses identified a panmictic population. The highest diversity observed in the Yata-Iténez system suggests that an aquatic refuge occurred during the past in this area. The possible explanations for the observed discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial markers are discussed, and a sex-biased dispersal seems to be the most plausible hypothesis in the light of the available information and field observations.

  2. Olfaction and environment: Tsimane' of Bolivian rainforest have lower threshold of odor detection than industrialized German people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensitivity varies between individuals. However, data regarding cross-cultural and inter-group differences are scarce. We compared the thresholds of odor detection of the traditional society of Tsimane' (native Amazonians of the Bolivian rainforest; n = 151 and people living in Dresden (Germany; n = 286 using "Sniffin' Sticks" threshold subtest. Tsimane' detected n-butanol at significantly lower concentrations than the German subjects. The distribution of thresholds of the Tsimane' was very specific, with 25% of Tsimane' obtaining better results in the olfactory test than any member of the German group. These data suggest that differences in olfactory sensitivity seem to be especially salient between industrialized and non-industrialized populations inhabiting different environmental conditions. We hypothesize that the possible sources of such differences are: (i the impact of pollution which impairs the olfactory abilities of people from industrialized countries; (ii better training of olfaction because of the higher importance of smell in traditional populations; (iii environmental pressures shaping olfactory abilities in these populations.

  3. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

  4. Ethnicity and acculturation: do they predict weight status in a longitudinal study among Asain, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White early adolescent females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has increased over the past decade. Prevalence rates are disparate among certain racial and ethnic groups. In this study, the relationship between overweight status (> 85th percentile according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  5. Assessment of nutritional status among adolescents: a hospital based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence, a period of transition between childhood and adulthood, occupies a crucial position in the life of human beings. The primary causes of under nutrition in India are its large population, socio-economic differences and inadequate access to health facilities. Nutritional assessments among adolescents are important as they are the future parents and constitute a potentially susceptible group. Studies on the assessment of nutritional status of adolescents are less in number and a National database has not yet been developed. Methods: The present hospital based cross sectional study was conducted in year 2013 among 344 rural adolescents of 10-19 years age (166 boys and 178 girls attending the outpatient department at rural health training centre (RHTC Dhaura Tanda, district Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, belonging to the Muslim and Hindu caste communities. The nutritional status was assessed in terms of under nutrition (weight-for-age below 3rd percentile, stunting (Height-for-age below 3rd percentile and thinness (BMI-for-age below 5th percentile. Diseases were accepted as such as diagnosed by pediatrician, skin specialist and medical officer. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 32.8%, 19.5% and 26.7% respectively. The maximum prevalence of malnutrition was observed among early adolescents (28%-47% and the most common morbidities were URTI (38.6%, diarrhea (16.8%, carbuncle / furuncle (16% and scabies (9.30%. Conclusion: The study concluded that the most common morbidities among adolescents were related to nutrition and personal hygiene. Regular health programmes should focus to educate and promote health among adolescent. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 620-624

  6. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  7. Emotional Openness, problematic eating behaviours, and overweight in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Overweight, a common health condition in adolescence, has been linked with difficulties in emotional processing. This study investigates associations between emotional processing, conceptualised through the model of Emotional Openness (EO), problematic eating behaviours, including Eating in the Absence of Hunger and disinhibited eating, and overweight in adolescents. Several self-report instruments were completed by 160 youngsters (mean age: 14.36±0.61years) from the community, including 39 overweight and obese adolescents (24.5%). In girls, bootstrap analyses supported a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between three EO dimensions and body mass index percentile, in particular the communication of emotions, the cognitive-conceptual representation of emotions, and the perception of bodily indicator of emotions. No mediating effect was found in boys. These results have important implications for psychological weight management interventions, as they underline the relevance of work on emotional processing in order to reduce problematic eating behaviours.

  8. The Bolivian natural gas crisis and the future of natural gas industry in Brazil; Crise do gas boliviano e o futuro da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar de

    2007-07-01

    The recent Bolivian natural crisis exhibits the worst scenery for the Brazilian natural gas industry. The government and PETROBRAS strategies for guaranteeing the gas supply undoubtedly failed. Independent of the discussion on the existence of other possible strategies, today the distributors and the consumers does not know how the PETROBRAS and government will guarantee the supply for the years to come. An also the agents do not know which will be the gas price in the future, as both the Bolivia but also the Natural Gas Industry in Brazil alternatives will be highly expensive.

  9. Heavy agricultural workloads and low crop diversity are strong barriers to improving child feeding practices in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Cruz Agudo, Yesmina; Galway, Lindsay; Bentley, Jeffery; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-11-01

    Most nutrition initiatives to date aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have emphasized addressing knowledge gaps through behavior change messaging with less focus on addressing the underlying environmental barriers that may shape these behaviors. This research integrates an analysis of longitudinal dietary data with qualitative data on barriers to improved child feeding to identify the nature and extent of the barriers caregivers face to improving IYCF practices in a farming region of the Bolivian Andes, and to determine the relative influence of these barriers on caregivers' abilities to improve IYCF practices. Sixty-nine caregivers were selected from a sample of 331 households that participated in a longitudinal survey assessing changes in IYCF practices among caregivers with children aged 0-36 months from March 2009 to March 2010. Forty-nine barriers within 12 categories of barriers were identified through semi-structured interviews with the 69 caregivers. The most frequently reported barriers were those related to women's time dedicated to agricultural labor, the limited diversity of household agricultural production, and lack of support for child feeding from spouses and mothers-in-law. In multivariate analyses controlling for several variables that could potentially influence IYCF practices, these barriers were negatively associated with changes to the diversity of child diets, child dietary energy intake, and child meal frequency. While knowledge gaps and individual-level influences affected IYCF practices, physical and social caregiving environments in this region of Bolivia were even more important. Behavior change communication alone will likely not address the social and environmental barriers to improved child feeding that often prevent translation of improved knowledge into action. Particularly in rural regions, agriculture may strongly influence child feeding, not only indirectly through household food security, but also directly

  10. Immunodiagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection (fascioliasis) in a human population in the Bolivian Altiplano using purified cathepsin L cysteine proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, S M; Parkinson, M; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Dalton, J P

    1998-04-01

    Cathepsin L1 (CL1), an immunogenic cysteine proteinase secreted by juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica, was assessed for its potential as a diagnostic agent for the serologic detection of human fascioliasis. Using ELISAs, we compared the ability of liver fluke homogenates (LFH), excretory/secretory (ES) products, and CL1 to discriminate between seropositive (infected) and seronegative (noninfected) individuals within a population of 95 patients from the Bolivian Altiplano. A high prevalence of human fascioliasis has been reported in this region. The division between the seropositive and seronegative individuals was poorly defined when LFH was used as the antigen. A greater discrimination between these populations was achieved with both ES and CL1. A K-means cluster analysis using the combined ES and CL1 ELISA data identified a cluster of seropositive individuals. Cathepsin L1 detected a subset (20) of these seropositive individuals while ES detected all 26; however, ES detected nine additional individuals that were in the seronegative cluster. The ratio of the mean absorbance readings between seropositive and seronegative individuals was markedly improved by using conjugated second antibodies to IgG4, the predominant isotype elicited by infection. In these IgG4-ELISAs, CL1 again identified fewer individuals as seropositive than did ES, but improved the discrimination between the seropositive and seronegative individuals and thus provided a more conclusive diagnosis. Sera obtained from patients infected with schistosomiasis mansoni, cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and Chagas' disease were negative in these assays, which demonstrated the specificity of the IgG4-ELISA for detecting fascioliasis. Twenty of the 95 patients (21%) were seropositive for fascioliasis by the CL1 IgG4-ELISA, confirming the earlier reports of the high prevalence of disease in this region. A standardized diagnostic test for human fascioliasis, based on an ELISA that detects IgG4 responses to CL1

  11. Diurnal variability and biogeochemical reactivity of mercury species in an extreme high-altitude lake ecosystem of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanoca, L; Amouroux, D; Monperrus, M; Tessier, E; Goni, M; Guyoneaud, R; Acha, D; Gassie, C; Audry, S; Garcia, M E; Quintanilla, J; Point, D

    2016-04-01

    Methylation and demethylation represent major transformation pathways regulating the net production of methylmercury (MMHg). Very few studies have documented Hg reactivity and transformation in extreme high-altitude lake ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) species concentrations (IHg, MMHg, Hg°, and DMHg) and in situ Hg methylation (M) and MMHg demethylation (D) potentials were determined in water, sediment, floating organic aggregates, and periphyton compartments of a shallow productive Lake of the Bolivian Altiplano (Uru Uru Lake, 3686 m). Samples were collected during late dry season (October 2010) and late wet season (May 2011) at a north (NS) and a south (SS) site of the lake, respectively. Mercury species concentrations exhibited significant diurnal variability as influenced by the strong diurnal biogeochemical gradients. Particularly high methylated mercury concentrations (0.2 to 4.5 ng L(-1) for MMHgT) were determined in the water column evidencing important Hg methylation in this ecosystem. Methylation and D potentials range were, respectively, <0.1-16.5 and <0.2-68.3 % day(-1) and were highly variable among compartments of the lake, but always higher during the dry season. Net Hg M indicates that the influence of urban and mining effluent (NS) promotes MMHg production in both water (up to 0.45 ng MMHg L(-1) day(-1)) and sediment compartments (2.0 to 19.7 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)). While the sediment compartment appears to represent a major source of MMHg in this shallow ecosystem, floating organic aggregates (dry season, SS) and Totora's periphyton (wet season, NS) were found to act as a significant source (5.8 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) and a sink (-2.1 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) of MMHg, respectively. This work demonstrates that high-altitude productive lake ecosystems can promote MMHg formation in various compartments supporting recent observations of high Hg contents in fish and water birds.

  12. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  13. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em adolescentes escolares do município de Fortaleza, Brasil Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent students in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lício de Albuquerque Campos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em adolescentes escolares do Município de Fortaleza, Brasil, e estimar a diferença entre a prevalência nas escolas públicas e privadas segundo sexo e faixa etária (adolescência precoce e tardia. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal realizado no período de março a maio de 2003 com 1158 adolescentes, sendo 571 de escolas públicas e 587 de escolas privadas. Sobrepeso foi definido como indice de massa corporal (IMC igual ou superior ao percentil 85 e inferior ao percentil 95; obesidade, IMC igual ou maior ao percentil 95, ambos para idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: a prevalência total de sobrepeso e obesidade foi 19,5%. Nas escolas privadas, sobrepeso/obesidade alcançou 23,9%, freqüência maior do que nas públicas (18,0% (p = 0,018. A prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade encontrada no sexo masculino (19,6% foi semelhante ao do feminino (19,0% (p = 0,80; na adolescência precoce, a prevalência foi (24,1 % maior do que a encontrada na adolescência tardia (15,0 % (p OBJECTIVES: to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescent students in the Municipality of Fortaleza, Brazil and to estimate prevalence rates of public and private schools according to gender and age group (early and late adolescence. METHODS: a cross sectional study performed in the period of March to May 2003 comprised of 1158 adolescents, 571 from public schools and 587 from private schools. Overweight was defined when body mass index (BMI was determined to be equal or above percentile 85 and under percentile 95; obesity was defined when BMI was determined as equal or over percentile 95, regardless of age and gender. RESULTS: total prevalence of overweight and obesity was of 19.5%. In private schools, overweight/obesity reached 23.9%, a rate higher than in public schools (18.0% (p = 0.018. Overweight/ obesity prevalence in the male gender (19.6% was similar to the female gender (19.0% p = 0.80, in early

  14. Development of transfer zones and location of oil and gas fields in frontal part of Bolivian Andean fold-and-thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baby, P. (Orstom, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)); Mendez, E. (YPFB, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Guillier, B. (IFEA, Santa Cruz (Bolivia))

    1993-02-01

    The frontal part of the Bolivian Andean thrust belt consists of a thick series of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks (5 to 8 km thick) which are folded and thrusted towards the east on a sole thrust at the base of paleozoic series. The front of this tectonic wedge is characterized by transfer zones of various scales and geometries. The main oil and gas fields are located in these transfer zones. A study realized from YPFB (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos) seismic data shows that in all the cases, the deformation is controlled by the geometry and thickness variations of the paleozoic basin. The most spectacular transfer zone appears at the bolivian orocline scale and corresponds to the famous bending of the andean thrust front close to Santa Cruz. More to the south (19 to 22[degrees] S) the southern foreland fold and thrust belt is characterized by a set of local right lateral offset transfer zones ([open quotes]en echellon[close quotes] folds). The difference of geometry and scale of the transfer zones seems to be related to the variation of the angle value between the shortening direction and the direction of the paleozoic basin borders. In order to test our interpretation, to constrain the boundary conditions and to study the thrust propagation sequence, we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  15. [Nutritional status and diet characteristics of a group of adolescents from the rural locality Calama, Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Almanza-López, M J; Pérez-Cueto, J D; Eulert, M E

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 a pilot study was carried out in the rural area of the Bolivian Department of La Paz aiming at the identification of dietary patterns among a group of secondary school adolescents who have little or scarce contact with the urban centres. The study consisted of a food intake survey (24 h recall), the measurement of anthropometrics and sociodemographic information. Nine percent was the global prevalence of overweight, although it was more present in girls. No statistically significant differences were found between nutrients in the diets of boys and girls. The energy intake was distributed in the five usual eating times as follows: 22% breakfast, 20% break time at school, 24% lunch, 12% tea time and 22% dinner. Furthermore, the anthropometric measures of boys were compared with their urban counterparts, where the differences were only significant with students in private schools. The present study can be used for the formulation of nutritional policies in Bolivia.

  16. Adolescent Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Sheila

    Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…

  17. Positively Adolescent!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  18. Punishing adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Should an adolescent offender be punished more leniently than an adult offender? Many theorists believe the answer to be in the affirmative. According to the diminished culpability model, adolescents are less mature than adults and, therefore, less responsible for their wrongdoings and should...

  19. A comparison of the nutritional status of adolescents from selected schools of South India and UAE : A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haboubi Ghalib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescents of Indian origin living in India and the United Arab Emirates to see how variable the prevalence is of stunting and wasting among adolescents of the same ethnic background living in different socio-economic and demographic environments. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Schools in South India and the United Arab Emirates. Participants: A total of 2459 adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 16 years old. Results and Discussion: Anthropometric measurements from 2459 adolescents between the ages of 10-16 years old, 1200 from India and 1259 from UAE, were collected. The subjects were divided into six age groups with 1-year intervals. Adolescents falling below the age and gender-specific 5 th percentile and 3 rd percentile of the WHO recommended standards were defined as having thinness and stunting accordingly. Regardless of gender, the rate of stunting was higher in Indian adolescents from India (25.5-51% when compared with Indian adolescents in UAE (3.1-21%. Thinness was also more in those in India (42-75.4%. When compared with adolescents living in the UAE (4.5-14.4%. The study was done in two groups having a common ethnicity but living in different socio-economic environments. With the results of this study, we can say that improved economic conditions favor better expression of genetic potential for physical growth.

  20. How Can Journal Impact Factors be Normalized across Fields of Science? An Assessment in terms of Percentile Ranks and Fractional Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Using the CD-ROM version of the Science Citation Index 2010 (N = 3,705 journals), we study the (combined) effects of (i) fractional counting on the impact factor (IF) and (ii) transformation of the skewed citation distributions into a distribution of 100 percentiles and six percentile rank classes (top-1%, top-5%, etc.). Do these approaches lead to field-normalized impact measures for journals? In addition to the two-year IF (IF2), we consider the five-year IF (IF5), the respective numerators of these IFs, and the number of Total Cites, counted both as integers and fractionally. These various indicators are tested against the hypothesis that the classification of journals into 11 broad fields by PatentBoard/National Science Foundation provides (statistically) significant between-field effects. Using fractional counting the between-field variance is reduced by 91.7% in the case of IF5, and by 79.2% in the case of IF2. However, the differences in citation counts are not significantly affected by fractional coun...

  1. Breastfeeding Shows a Protective Trend toward Adolescents with Higher Abdominal Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Rousseaux

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The question of whether breastfeeding has a protective effect against the development of overweight or obesity later in life remains controversial, especially during adolescence. The objective was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and adolescents' body composition. Methods: The HELENA study is a cross-sectional study involving 3,528 adolescents from 10 European cities. The outcome measures were body weight and height, subscapular skinfolds as well as waist circumferences. Breastfeeding, smoking status, and parental socioeconomic status were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Dietary intake was recorded using two 24-hour recall surveys. Two adjustment approaches were used: i covariance analysis adjusted for confounding factors (propensity score adjustment and ii multivariate quantile regression. Results: After adjustment, no significant associations were observed between breastfeeding and body composition parameters (BMI Z-score; sum of skinfolds; waist-to-height ratio. An adjusted quantile regression analysis showed a non-significant trend for a protective effect of breastfeeding toward the highest percentiles of adiposity in boys but not in girls. This is of particular interest with respect to the superiority of the waist-to-height ratio over waist circumference and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion: This first European study, including a large set of factors influencing adolescents' body composition, showed a non-significant trend toward a protective effect of breastfeeding on highest percentiles of adolescent's abdominal adiposity.

  2. Genetic Variations in the Kir6.2 Subunit (KCNJ11 of Pancreatic ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Gene Are Associated with Insulin Response to Glucose Loading and Early Onset of Type 2 Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Der Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of E23K polymorphism of the KCNJ11 gene on early onset of type 2 diabetes in school-aged children/adolescents in Taiwan, we recruited 38 subjects with type 2 diabetes (ages 18.6 ± 6.6 years; body mass index percentiles 83.3 ± 15.4 and 69 normal controls (ages 17.3 ± 3.8 years; body mass index percentiles 56.7 ± 29.0 from a national surveillance for childhood/adolescent diabetes in Taiwan. We searched for the E23K polymorphism of the KCNJ11 gene. We found that type 2 diabetic subjects had higher carrier rate of E23K polymorphism of KCNJ11 gene than control subjects (P = 0.044. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index percentiles, and fasting plasma insulin, the E23K polymorphism contributed to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (P = 0.047. K23-allele-containing genotypes conferring increased plasma insulin level during OGTT in normal subjects. However, the diabetic subjects with the K23-allele-containing genotypes had lower fasting plasma insulin levels after adjustment of age and BMI percentiles. In conclusion, the E23K variant of the KCNJ11 gene conferred higher susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in children/adolescents. Furthermore, in normal glucose-tolerant children/adolescents, K23 allele carriers had a higher insulin response to oral glucose loading.

  3. 7th to 9th grade obese adolescents' perceptions about obesity in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Luz Martínez-Aguilar, Ma; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; de las Mercedes Rizo-Baeza, Ma; Aguilar-Hernández, Rosa Ma; Vázquez-Galindo, Laura; Gutiérres-Sánchez, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to explore obese adolescents perceptions about obesity among students in the seventh to ninth grade of a public school in Tamaulipas, Mexico. This is a qualitative study. Participants were 24 adolescents with a body mass index equal to or greater than the 95th percentile. Semistructured interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached and the meaning was understood. The adolescents defined obesity according to standards of measurement. They identified the hereditary factor as the main obesity cause, tended to underestimate obesity and had low self-esteem. They reported problems to do physical exercise and get clothes in order to improve their image, and feel rejected by their peers in school. It was identified that these adolescents have psychological defense mechanisms against obesity and that some of them are making efforts to lose weight. Obesity entails social and psychological health implications for persons suffering from this problem. Interventions should be put in practice.

  4. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  5. Amazonia boliviana: arqueología de los Llanos de Mojos Bolivian Amazonia: archaeology of the Llanos de Mojos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Adolfo Calandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A arqueologia da Amazônia boliviana ou das "Terras Baixas" compreende um imenso território que mostra, a luz da informação disponível, significativas descontinuidades espaço-temporais. A identificação nesta área de sociedades constituindo "cacicados da floresta tropical" a partir de critérios baseados em preconceitos, requer a reavaliação da pré-história regional do ponto de vista causal. A arqueologia beniana (de Llanos de Mojos é conhecida, fundamentalmente, a partir das escavações de Erland Nordenskiöld, que sem dúvida estabeleceu as bases conceituais existentes atualmente. Entre os anos de 1977 e 1981 uma missão do Museu de La Plata (Argentina, sob a direção de B. Dougherty, e em estreita colaboração com o Instituto de Arqueologia de La Paz (Bolívia e com o Amazonian Ecosystem Research (EUA, conduziu pesquisas sistemáticas considerando variados itens antropológicos e produzindo numerosas datações de radiocarbono. Estas contribuições ajudaram a esclarecer, mas não a simplificar o panorama pré-hispânico regional, tão importante na temática arqueológica sul-americana. Complementa este artigo uma exaustiva lista de bibliografias que facilita o acesso ao conhecimento sobre este grande território.The archaeology of the Bolivian Amazonia or "Low lands" comprises a large territory that shows, significant time and spatial discontinuities. The identification of societies in this area constituting "Jefaturas de la Floresta Tropical", from criteria based on preconceptions requires the reassessment of regional prehistory from the causal point of view. Benian archeology (Llanos de Mojos is fundamentally known, from the Erland Nordenskiöld excavations, which undoubtedly sets the conceptual bases existing to date. Between 1977 and 1981 a Mission of Museo de La Plata (Argentina, under the direction of B. Dougherty together with the Instituto Nacional de Arqueología of La Paz (Bolivia and the Amazonian Ecosystem

  6. Cross-sectional, descriptive study of Chagas disease among citizens of Bolivian origin living in Munich, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Miriam; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Hohnerlein, Stefan; Seiringer, Peter; von Saldern, Charlotte; Garcia, Sarah; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Navaza, Bárbara; Shock, Jonathan; Bretzel, Gisela; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Pritsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chagas disease (CD) has become a global health issue mainly due to migration. Germany lacks surveillance data and is home to a large Latin American immigrant population. Recognising that Bolivia is the country with the highest CD prevalence in Latin America, this cross-sectional, descriptive pilot study investigated CD and associated factors among citizens of Bolivian origin living in Munich, Germany. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire in order to collect socioeconomic and health-related data. In addition, serology was performed. In case of positive serological tests, PCR diagnostic and clinical staging together with disease management was initiated. Qualitative research was conducted to identify personal and community barriers as well as strategies to increase CD awareness among the population at risk. Results Between June 2013 and June 2014, 43 people from Bolivia (or descendants) were enrolled. A total of 9.3% (4/43), of whom two women were of childbearing age, tested seropositive (ELISA and IFAT), and one also by PCR. For 2/4 positive participants, clinical evaluation was performed and the indeterminate form of CD was diagnosed. Knowledge about CD symptoms and ways of transmission were completely absent among 55.8% (24/43, 2/4 with CD) and 30.2% (13/43, 1/4 with CD) of participants, respectively. A total of 27.9% (12/43, 0/4 with CD) of participants had donated blood prior to the study, whereas 62.8% (27/43, 3/4 with CD) were motivated to donate blood in the future. The qualitative research identified lack of knowledge as well as stigma and fears related to CD. Conclusions Despite the small number of participants, the prevalence of CD as well as the potential risk of non-vectorial transmission was alarming. Campaigns adapted for Latin American migrants as well as control strategies should be developed and put in place in order to prevent non-vectorial transmission and actively detect cases of CD in Germany. PMID:28093440

  7. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2013-11-15

    Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type or the Ca-Na-HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed. Sequential extractions of the sediments together with the calculation of the mineral saturation indices indicate that iron oxides and hydroxides are the important secondary minerals phases which are important adsorbents for As. High pH values, and the competition of As with HCO3 and dissolved silica for the adsorption sites probably seems to be an

  8. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio, E-mail: ormachea@kth.se [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sracek, Ondra [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Thunvik, Roger [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Quintanilla, Jorge [Laboratorio de Hidroquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 303, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Bundschuh, Jochen [KTH – International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Groundwater used as drinking water has elevated concentrations of arsenic and boron. • Sediments are potential sources of arsenic and boron in shallow groundwater. • Fe-oxides and hydroxides are important absorbents of arsenic. • Multiple geochemical processes drive mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. -- Abstract: Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na–Cl–HCO{sub 3} type or the Ca–Na–HCO{sub 3} type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and

  9. Evolución tectonomagmática de los Andes bolivianos Tectonomagmaticevolution of the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    ó la superficie San Juan del Oro, al mismo tiempo que se iniciaba ladeformación en la región subandina. La actividad magmática de retroarco en lafaja de Huarina fue casi continua desde el Paleozoico hasta el Cuaternario. Encambio el arco volcánico se instaló en la frontera boliviano-chilena sólo en elMioceno Inferior, hace 23-22 Ma. La actividad volcánica de retroarco llegó a suclimax en el Mioceno Superior. Las características químicas de los magmas y lasimultaneidad de las grandes erupciones a lo largo de la faja de Huarina,sugieren que es un solo proceso el que desencadenó este magmatismo de granvolumen. Se sugiere que este proceso es la delaminación litosférica del mantoque provocó el ascenso de la astenosfera hasta la base de la corteza induciendoa su fusión en varios niveles.The Bolivian Andes remained in a retroarc positionalong most of the Phanerozoic. Its evolution can be divided in two majorstages; in the first one, restricted to the early Paleozoic, a voluminoustransfer of sedimentary mass in the upper crust occurred. In the second stage,reciclyng of the crustal mass predominated. In the early Paleozoic, anepicratonic marine basin formed among the Amazonia, Arequipa-Antofalla, and Pampean cratons. This basin changed from aretroarc-type to a foreland-type before it filled in the late Paleozoic. Alongthis interval, three deformation stages came to pass: the areally restrictedOcloyic phase (Ordovician-Silurian boundary, the Eohercinian phase(Devonian-Carboniferous boundary, and the Hercinian phase (Late Carboniferouswhich was also areally restricted. In the Mesozoic, brief marine incursionsocurred before a protocordillera began to build in the Eocene. The generaluplift of the central Andes started in the Late Oligocene involving thepresent Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera. Three stages of uplift, separated byregional erosion surfaces of 18 and 10 Ma, can be recognized. The western sideof the Eastern Cordillera, named the Huarina belt, played an

  10. [WHO child growth standards for children 0-5 years. Percentile charts of length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Barbara; Palczewska, Iwona; Oblacińska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the growth standards for children aged 0-5 years - which is a new tool for the assessment of health, growth and nutritional status recommended by WHO for use all over the world. These standards were elaborated in 2006 on the basis of the results of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (a longitudinal and cross-sectional survey) carried out between 1997-2003 in Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. An innovative approach to developing growth reference was applied. Healthy children living under conditions allowing them to achieve their full genetic potential were the sample of children under study. The results showed that the growth pattern of children in their early childhood in different countries, ethnic groups and of different socioeconomic status was the same when their health and care needs were met. The new standards indicate how children should grow in all countries, rather than merely describing how they grew at a particular place and time. The WHO Child Growth Standards for Children 0-5 years were adapted and used in over 100 countries. Activities designed to adapt WHO standards in Poland were undertaken in 2009. The comparison between the growth reference for Warsaw children and WHO standards showed no differences, or very small ones. Following discussion with the participation of many experts, in 2011 recommendations concerning the implementation of these standards were signed by the Committee of Human Development and the Committee of Anthropology of the Polish Academy of Science, the Main Board of the Polish Anthropological Society, the Institute of Mother and Child, and the Institute of Food and Nutrition. The percentile charts were adapted to the set of percentiles hitherto used in Poland.

  11. Low Birthweight, Rapid Weight Gain and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence: An Illustrative Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old boy whose diabetes mellitus was diagnosed 3 months previously in a private hospital but was not placed on medication. The presenting complaints were fast breathing for 24 hours, weakness for 2 hours, and unresponsiveness to calls for 0.5 hours. His father was obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus and died 8 months earlier from cardiac arrest. His birthweight was low, 2.2kg. At first presentation, his weight, BMI and blood pressure were 60kg (25th-50th percentile, 19.4kg/m2 (25thpercentile and 110/70mmHg (systolic BP 50th percentile, diastolic BP 50th-90th percentile, respectively. He was managed for diabetic ketoacidosis and was discharged on subcutaneous premixed insulin, 1 Unit/kg/day. At point of discharge, weight and BP were 60.5 kg and 120/70 mmHg, respectively. The patient defaulted but presented again 6 months later at the age of 17 years. At second presentation, his weight, BMI and BP were 89 kg (95th percentile, 27.5 kg/m2 (90th-95th percentile and 180/80 mmHg (systolic 99th percentile; diastolic 90th percentile, respectively. His waist circumference was 98.7cm (> 90th percentile. We had no record of previous waist circumference. His lipid profile showed low HDL-cholesterol 0.7252 mmol/L [(28mg/dl; <5thpercentile]. His fasting blood glucose and HbA1C were 6.5 mmol/L (117mg/dl and 34 mol/mol (5.3%, respectively. A diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in a patient with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes was made. He was referred to the pediatric cardiologist for management of his hypertension. He defaulted again and was lost to follow up. Conclusion: This report illustrates the association of low birth weight and rapid weight gain with metabolic syndrome in adolescence.

  12. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  13. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents - criteria for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini Marcio C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the definition chosen as the most appropriate is the one proposed by the IDF, with cut-offs fixed for pressure, lipids and glycemia, and abdominal circumference points assessed by percentile. Although on the one hand this definition could fail to include some children in the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome, on the other hand, it would be of easier acceptance as it does not use multiple tables to assess several anthropometric and metabolic criteria.

  14. Human mixed infections of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania-Trypanosoma cruzi in a sub Andean Bolivian area: identification by polymerase chain reaction/hybridization and isoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bastrenta

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana complexes and Trypanosoma cruzi (clones 20 and 39 were searched in blood, lesions and strains collected from 28 patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis and one patient with visceral leishmaniasis. PCR-hybridization with specific probes of Leishmania complexes (L. braziliensis, L. donovani and L. mexicana and T. cruzi clones was applied to the different DNA samples. Over 29 patients, 8 (27.6% presented a mixed infection Leishmania complex species, 17 (58.6% a mixed infection Leishmania-T. cruzi, and 4 (13.8% a multi Leishmania-T. cruzi infection. Several patients were infected by the two Bolivian major clones 20 and 39 of T. cruzi (44.8%. The L. braziliensis complex was more frequently detected in lesions than in blood and a reverse result was observed for L. mexicana complex. The polymerase chain reaction-hybridization design offers new arguments supporting the idea of an underestimated rate of visceral leishmanisis in Bolivia. Parasites were isolated by culture from the blood of two patients and lesions of 10 patients. The UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages dendrogram computed from Jaccard's distances obtained from 11 isoenzyme loci data confirmed the presence of the three Leishmania complexes and undoubtedly identified human infections by L. (V. braziliensis, L. (L. chagasi and L. (L. mexicana species. Additional evidence of parasite mixtures was visualized through mixed isoenzyme profiles, L. (V. braziliensis-L. (L. mexicana and Leishmania spp.-T. cruzi.The epidemiological profile in the studied area appeared more complex than currently known. This is the first report of parasitological evidence of Bolivian patients with trypanosomatidae multi infections and consequences on the diseases' control and patient treatments are discussed.

  15. Effect of Mass Stool Examination and Mass Treatment For Decreasing Intestinal Helminth and Protozoan Infection Rates in Bolivian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Còrdova Vidal, Claudia; Strauss, Wilma; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the countries with a high intestinal helminth and protozoan infection rate. Despite the high prevalence of the parasitic infection, nationwide preventive measures for Bolivian children have not yet been implemented. We evaluated the effect of mass stool examination and treatment as a strategy for decreasing the infection rate. This study was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in children aged 2–18 years. A total of 2,033 stool samples (575 in 2013, 815 in 2014 and 642 in 2015) were collected and examined using the formalin-ether medical sedimentation method. As an anthelminthic medicine, nitazoxanide was given to all infected children within 2 months post-examination, each year. The effect of mass stool examination and treatment was evaluated based on the changes in the overall or individual parasitic infection rates during the study period. The overall parasitic infection rate decreased significantly from 65.2% in 2013 to 43.0% in 2015; a 22.2 percentage point decrease (PHymenolepis nana, decreased significantly from 9.0% in 2013 to 6.4% in 2014 to 3.4% in 2015 (P<0.001). Prevalence of the most common pathogenic protozoan infection, Entamoeba histolytica, decreased significantly from 19.0% in 2013 to 3.0% in 2015 (P<0.001). Conversely, the rate of Giardia intestinalis increased significantly from 16.5% in 2013 to 21.2% in 2015 (P<0.01). Mass stool examination and treatment for intestinal helminth and protozoan infections was effective for decreasing the overall parasitic infection rate in the study population, excluding Giardia intestinalis. Further studies on the long-term effect of mass stool examination and treatment for decreasing all intestinal parasitic infection rates in Bolivian children are needed. PMID:27923058

  16. Further Studies of Bolivian Crocidolite –Part IV: Fibre Width, Fibre Drift and their relation to Mesothelioma Induction: Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B Ilgren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe hypothesis that fibre width is a major determinant of mesothelioma induction has been examined by comparative studies of two crocidolites from different sources. Fine fibres fromCapesouthAfricaand the thicker fibre found and used similarly inBolivia. It is well established that ‘thin’ fibre crocidolite fromCapeSouth Africais extremely mesotheliomagenic. Bolivian crocidolite has a much wider width distribution and relatively little mesothelioma inducing potential. MethodsWe analysed the mesothelioma demography inBoliviawhere local crocidolite has been used for decades This was compared with the mesothelioma demography in theItalianCityof Casale Monteferrato whereCapecrocidolite was processed for many decades in the Eternit Asbestos Cement plant producing numerous cases of mesothelioma.We also conducted a limited downwind study from the fiberizing part of the historical operating plant where products containing Bolivian crocidolite were made for sale and use inCochabamba. ResultsThe demographic study confirmed the absence of a significant mesothelioma excess inBolivia.Despite the extremely high fibre concentrations measured in the plant, no significant fibre levels were detected 100 meters away. Conclusion These preliminary findings undermine claims such as those made at Casale that crocidolite fibre can drift up to 15 km and remain airborne in quantities sufficient to contribute significantly to mesothelioma induction. We propose the difference in thickness and the attendant reduction in the percentage ofStantonfibres provides an explanation for the difference in mesothelioma patterns found in each city.

  17. School-Based Health Center Intervention Improves Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta S. Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents Committed to Improvement of Nutrition and Physical Activity (ACTION was undertaken to determine feasibility of a school-based health center (SBHC weight management program. Two urban New Mexico SBHCs were randomized to deliver ACTION or standard care. ACTION consisted of eight visits using motivational interviewing to improve eating and physical activity behavior. An educational nutrition and physical activity DVD for students and a clinician toolkit were created for use as menu of options. Standard care consisted of one visit with the SBHC provider who prescribed recommendations for healthy weight. Sixty nondiabetic overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled. Measures included BMI percentile, waist circumference, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels. Pre- to postchanges for participants were compared between groups. Fifty-one students (mean age 15 years, 62% female, 75% Hispanic completed pre- and postmeasures. ACTION students (n=28 had improvements in BMI percentile (P=0.04 and waist circumference (P=0.04 as compared with students receiving standard care (n=23. No differences were found between the two groups in blood pressure, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and HDL-C. The ACTION SBHC weight management program was feasible and demonstrated improved outcomes in BMI percentile and waist circumference.

  18. Plaqueta e leptina em adolescentes com obesidade Platelet and leptin in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a influência de obesidade na contagem de células imunológicas e na concentração dos hormônios cortisol e leptina, a fim de estabelecer uma relação entre as variáveis analisadas. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutados 27 adolescentes obesos [índice de massa corporal (IMC ≥ percentil 95[ e 21 não-obesos (IMC ≤ percentil 75, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 15 e 19 anos, na fase pós-púbere. O IMC foi calculado através da divisão do peso pela altura ao quadrado e a composição corporal foi estimada por pletismografia no sistema Bod PodTM. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise de leucócitos, neutrófilos, linfócitos, monócitos, plaquetas, cortisol e leptina. O teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov foi utilizado, seguido pelo teste t de Student independente supondo distribuição normal. O nível de significância estabelecido foi p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of obesity status on immune cell count and concentration of the hormones cortisol and leptin, in order to establish a relationship among the variables analyzed. METHODS: We recruited 27 obese [body mass index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile[ and 21 non-obese (BMI ≤ 75th percentile adolescent boys and girls, aged 15-19 years at the post-pubertal stage. BMI was calculated as body weight divided by height squared, and body composition was estimated by plethysmography in the Bod PodTM system. Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, cortisol, and leptin. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed, followed by the independent Student t test in case of normal distribution. Significance values were set at p < 0.05 and expressed as means ± standard deviation. The statistical package SPSS for Windows version 12.0 was used. RESULTS: There was no difference between obese and non-obese adolescents in terms of leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and cortisol serum concentrations. The group of obese

  19. Reproductive strategies of two Neotropical killifish, Austrolebias vandenbergi and Neofundulus ornatipinnis (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) in the Bolivian Gran Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Christopher M; Montaña, Carmen G; Libson, Monika E

    2014-03-01

    The dry Chaco, a semiarid thorn forest, is experiencing some of the highest deforestation rates globally, coupled with the fact that small-bodied fish are at the highest risk of extinction, the killifish inhabiting this region may be some of the most threatened taxa. Yet, aspects of ecology and life history for Neotropical killifishes in the Bolivian Gran Chaco region are completely lacking, and basic life-history data is of critical importance for the design and implementation of conservation measures. Collections were conducted during the early (January 2011) and late (March-April 2011) rainy season using an area-based sampler and dip net surveys. Fish standard length and body depth were measured as well as the number of oocytes per size class, mean oocyte diameter per size class, and total fecundity for the females of each species. A total of 490 specimens of rivulids were captured; Austrolebias vandenbergi: 85 females, 105 males and 39 juveniles, and N. ornatipinnis: 62 females, 113 males, 86 juveniles. Sexual size dimorphism, absolute fecundity, oocyte developmental stages, oocyte diameter, and population sex ratios were determined for each species. Both species exhibited sexual size dimorphism. Male A. vandenbergi exhibited longer standard length (mean +/- SD; males: 27.07 +/- 3.89mm, females: 23.6 +/- 2.02mm) and body depth (males: 8.9 +/- 1.7mm, females: 7.2 +/- 1.1 mm) as compared to females. Male N. ornatipinnis had a similar pattern for both standard length (males: 26.0 +/- 7.1mm, females: 19.1 +/- 5.83mm) and body depth (males: 5.6 +/- 1.9mm, females: 4.7 +/- 1.0mm). Austrolebias vandenbergi had fewer and smaller oocytes per female (47 +/- 31.6) than N. ornatipinnis (206 +/- 131.2). There was a positive relationship between fecundity and female body size in both species. The presence of multiple developmental stages of oocytes (immature, maturing, and mature) suggest that both species of rivulids exhibit fractional spawning, a reproductive strategy that

  20. Adolescent loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  1. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  2. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  3. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  4. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents.

  5. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  6. Adolescent growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulani, Veenod L; Gordon, Lonna P

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage defined by physical and psychosocial maturation. This article reviews normal pubertal development and the evaluation and management of adolescents with suspected pubertal abnormalities and provides an overview of adolescent psychosocial development.

  7. Dosimetry of infant exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields: variation of 99th percentile induced electric field value by posture and skin-to-skin contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    Infant exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from power lines was numerically analyzed in this study. Dosimetric variability due to posture and skin-to-skin contact was evaluated using human anatomical models including a recently developed model of a 12-months-old infant. As proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the induced E-field strength (99th percentile value, E99 ) for the central nerve systems (E99_CNS ) and peripheral nerve system (E99_PNS ), were used as metrics. Results showed that the single (free of contact with others) infant model has lower E99 (E99_CNS and E99_PNS inclusive) compared with single adult and child models when exposed to the same power-frequency magnetic field. Also, studied postures of sitting, standing, or arm-up, would not change E99 _PNS . However, skin-to-skin contact with other models could significantly raise induced E-field strength in the infant (e.g., contact on 0.93% of the infant's total surface increased E99_PNS by 213%). Simulations with canonical models were conducted to assess different factors contributing to the E99 enhancement. Results indicated the importance of thoroughly investigating the conservativeness of current safety guidelines in the case of skin-to-skin contact, especially with infants.

  8. Adolescent homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  9. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  10. Pilot using World Wide Web to prevent diabetes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joann D; Armstrong, Myrna L; Amos, Elizabeth; Shriver, Brent; Roman-Shriver, Carmen; Feng, Du; Harrison, Lanell; Luker, Scott; Nash, Anita; Blevins, Monica Witcher

    2006-02-01

    This pilot study tested the effects of an interactive nutrition education Web site on fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption in minority adolescents genetically at risk for Type 2 diabetes. A one-group nonexperimental pretest, posttest focus group design was used. Twenty-one sixth-grade to eighth-grade junior high adolescents who were minorities volunteered to participate. Participants received 5 hours of Web-based nutrition education over 3 weeks. A significant difference in fat consumption was supported from the computerized dietary assessment. No difference was found in fruit or vegetable consumption. Comparative data indicated a rise in body mass index (BMI) percentile from 88.03 (1999) to 88.40 (2002; boys) and 88.25 (1999) to 91.2 (2002; girls). Focus group responses supported the satisfaction of adolescents in the study with the use of the Web-based intervention for nutrition education. Healthy eating interventions using Web-based nutrition education should be further investigated with adolescents.

  11. Errata, nursing homes. Budget percentiles for baseline and redesigned commercial type buildings: cities with try weather tapes; based on resource utilization factors (RUF); based on price weighting factors (PWF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-22

    Corrected data are presented for the P50 Redesign figure for nursing homes in the following documents in the series entitled Budget Percentiles for Baseline and Redesigned Commercial Type Buildings: For Cities with TRY Weather Tapes, Based on Price Weighing Factors (PWF), and Based on Resource Utilization Factors (RUF). (MCW)

  12. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  13. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcicki Janet M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI ≥ 85-94th percentile and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4% were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5% were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3% were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans.

  14. Nutritional Status of Adolescent School Girls in a Rural Area in Sri Lanka; Anthropometric Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.N.T. Adikari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the transition period between childhood and adulthood in where rapid physical, mental, emotional and social development takes place. Adolescence females are at greatest risk for nutrient deficiency and it badly affects to their education and physical development. Nutritional status of female adolescents is important not only for their growth and development, but also for future pregnancies. The objective of this study was assessing the nutritional status of adolescent school girls in a rural area, located in North Western Province in Sri Lanka by using anthropometric measurements. A total number of 110 adolescent school girls, age range of 13 to 15 years, studied schools in Pannala sub-zonal education division were randomly selected after briefly explained the purpose of the study and getting a written consent from their parents. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Epi info version 3.4 was used to generate Z scores and percentiles for weight for age, height for age and Body Mass Index (BMI for age. According to WHO cut off subjects were categorized in to underweight, stunting, overweight and obese. In the study sample 20.7%, 19.8% 19.1%, 9.1%, 0.9% and 52.7% were underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, obese and normal nutritional status, respectively. Since 46 % of the studied subjects were under-nutritional status appropriate intervention should be directed towards adolescent school girls to improve their nutritional status and education for healthy diets.

  15. The genetic legacy of polyploid Bolivian Daphnia: the tropical Andes as a source for the North and South American D. pulicaria complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergeay, Joachim; Aguilera, Ximena; Declerck, Steven; Petrusek, Adam; Huyse, Tine; De Meester, Luc

    2008-04-01

    We investigated genetic variation in asexual polyploid members of the water flea Daphnia pulex complex from a set of 12 Bolivian high-altitude lakes. We used nuclear microsatellite markers to study genetic relationships among all encountered multilocus genotypes, and combined this with a phylogenetic approach using DNA sequence data of three mitochondrial genes. Analyses of mitochondrial gene sequence divergence showed the presence of three very distinct clades that likely represent cryptic undescribed species. Our phylogenetic results suggest that the Daphnia pulicaria group, a complex of predominantly North American species that has diversified rapidly since the Pleistocene, has its origin in South America, as specific tests of topology indicated that all three South American lineages are ancestral to the North American members of this species group. A comparison between variation of nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed that closely related polyploid nuclear genotypes sometimes belonged to very divergent mitochondrial lineages, while distantly related nuclear genotypes often belonged to the same mitochondrial lineage. This discrepancy suggests that these South American water fleas originated through reciprocal hybridization between different endemic, sexually reproducing parental lineages. It is also likely that polyploidy of the investigated lineages resulted from this hybridization. Nevertheless, no putative diploid parental lineages were found in the studied region.

  16. The Role of Traditional Knowledge and Crop Varieties in Adaptation to Climate Change and Food Security in SW China, Bolivian Andes and coastal Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah; Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong; Mutta, Doris; Ongugo, Paul; Pakia, Mohamed; Oros, Rolando; Barriga, Sandra

    2011-09-15

    Paper prepared for the UNU-IAS workshop on Indigenous Peoples, Marginalised Populations and Climate Change: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Traditional Knowledge, Mexico, July 2011. Indigenous peoples and local communities often live in harsh natural environments, and have had to cope with extreme weather and adapt to environmental change for centuries in order to survive. They have done this using long standing traditions and practices – or traditional knowledge (TK) – relating to adaptive ecosystem management and sustainable use of natural resources. The three case studies presented provide evidence of the crucial role of traditional crop varieties, knowledge and practices in enabling adaption to changes in climate. The question is whether the climatic changes observed in these cases are human induced climate change or just natural changes. The findings show that indigenous farmers in SW China, coastal Kenya and the Bolivian Andes are already severely impacted by changes in climate, including drought, with serious consequences for crop production and food security. The scale of the changes, and the fact that they have occurred quite recently (in the last 10 or 20 years), suggests that they may be the result of human induced climate change.

  17. Comparative infectivity of Fasciola hepatica metacercariae from isolates of the main and secondary reservoir animal host species in the Bolivian Altiplano high human endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M A; Mas-Coma, S

    2000-01-01

    Fascioliasis due to Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) is an endemic disease on the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, where human prevalences and intensities are the highest known, sheep and cattle are the main reservoir hosts, and pigs and donkeys the secondary ones. Investigations were carried out to study the viability of metacercariae experimentally obtained from eggs shed by naturally infected Altiplanic sheep, cattle, pigs and donkeys. A total of 157 Wistar rats were infected with doses of 5, 10, 20 and 150 metacercariae. Metacercariae aged for different number of weeks were used to analyse the influence of age on their viability. The number of worms successfully developed in each rat was established by dissection. Results obtained show that metacercarial infectivity is dependent upon storage time, being lower when metacercariae are older. The maximum longevity is 31 weeks using doses of 20 metacercariae per rat and 48 weeks with 150 metacercariae per rat, although in the latter case only a very low percentage of worms is recovered. Age-related infectivity of metacercariae from Altiplanic F. hepatica does not significantly differ from that of the liver fluke in lowlands of other countries. Concerning the influence of the isolate according to host species, results indicate that metacercarial viabilities of pig and donkey isolates are similar to the viabilities of metacercariae of sheep and cattle isolates. Thus, pig and donkey have a high transmission potential capacity concerning this aspect. This fact is of great importance for the control of human and animal fascioliasis in this highly endemic zone.

  18. Mineral mapping on the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano. Following calibration, the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.4-2.4 ??m). Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data, as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets, provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. In particular, high spectral resolution, low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13-channel, low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. However, it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting, and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies.

  19. Osteodensitometry in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease; Osteodensitometrie bei Kindern und Jugendlichen mit chronisch entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, C.; Kahn, T.; Borte, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany); Borte, M.; Richter, T. [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Staedtisches Klinikum ' ' St. Georg' ' Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the quantity and severity of bone disorders in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and to examine the correlation to whole body growth. Materials and methods: in this study 89 bone mineral density measurements were performed and retrospectively analyzed. Results: under consideration of growth retardation, over 65.2% of the patients with Cohn's disease showed a reduced bone mineral density. Osteopenia/Osteoporosis is seldom seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, i.e., only 34.8% showed a reduction in bone mineral density. Growth retardation and reduced bone mineral density are correlated. Patients with cohn's disease and a body length below the 25th height percentile showed a reduced bone mineral density in 78.1% of the cases. Patients with a body length below the 10th height percentile had a reduced bone mineral density in 83.3% of the cases. (orig.)

  20. PS2-07: The Association of Cyberbullying with Cardiovascular Health in Adolescents: A Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea; Johnson, Dayna; Joseph, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims With increasing access to the internet and other technology, adolescents may become victims of online harassment, referred to as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying may cause worry, fear, and distress among youth, all which increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults. To our knowledge, no study has examined the potential association of cyberbullying with CVD risk factors in adolescents. We examined the association of cyberbullying with overweight/obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among healthy adolescents. Methods Adolescents age 14–17 years and parent/guardian were invited to a research visit between November, 2009 and present. Height, weight, and BP were measured by trained staff and internet experiences quantified by questionnaire. Race was defined as African-American or other race. Cyberbullying was defined as self-report in the past year of being worried or threatened because of being bothered or harassed online or of being embarrassed by others online. Overweight/ obesity was defined as BMI >=85th percentile for gender and age. Elevated BP was defined as a SBP or DBP >=90th percentile for gender, age and height. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association of cyberbulling with overweight/obesity or elevated BP. Results As of October, 2010, 190 adolescents with complete data have been recruited into the study. Mean age was 16.5±1.0 years; 76 (40%) were male and 112 (59.0%) were African-American. Mean BMI of adolescents was 24.2±6.4 kg/m^2 and mean SBP and DBP were 117.7±11.3 mmHg and 63.9±7.1mmHg, respectively; 62 (32.6%) were classified as overweight/obese and 28 (14.7%) had an elevated BP. A total of 29 (15.3%) adolescents reported being cyberbullied; older adolescents (P=0.061) were more likely and African-Americans (P=0.040) were less likely to report being cyberbullied. Gender was not associated with cyberbullying (P=0.143). Cyberbullying was not associated with overweight/obesity (P=0.951) or elevated BP

  1. La adopción de los percentiles de riesgo cardiovascular evita la sobreestimación o infraestimación del riesgo cardiovascular calculado con el SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Cuende

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento:La evaluación del riesgo cardiovascular es demáxima importancia para un correcto tratamiento de pacientes conriesgo. Hay varias ecuaciones de riesgo que pueden ser adaptadas auna población para evitar la sobre o infraestimación del riesgo. Seproponen a los percentiles de riesgo como un nuevo método paraadaptar los sistemas de valoración del riesgo a nuestra población.Métodos:Se ha realizado un estudio transversal de factores deriesgo cardiovascular en Palencia (ERVPA: Estudio de Riesgo Vas-cular en PAlencia. Se han registrado las variables edad, sexo, taba-quismo, tensión arterial, diabetes y colesterolemia. Se han estudiado514 sujetos entre 20 y 79 años procedentes de 9 centros de salud delárea sanitaria. Se ha calculado el riesgo cardiovascular fatal segúnlas ecuaciones del proyecto SCORE. Se han calculado y comparadolos percentiles obtenidos con cada ecuación, mediante el cálculo delos coeficientes de Spearman y kappa.Resultados:Los porcentajes de sujetos con riesgo alto varíanentre el 0% en jóvenes hasta el 92% en los varones y el 67% en lasmujeres mayores de 70 años. El coeficiente kappa entre las ecuacio-nes para países de bajo y alto riesgo es de 0.741. Dicha concordanciavaría de forma importante según el sexo y la edad. La concordanciaentre los percentiles es casi total. Conclusiones:Los percentiles de riesgo es un método de eva-luación del riesgo que permite adaptar cualquier ecuación a unapoblación particular evitando la sobre o infraestimación del riesgo ypermiten extrapolar el riesgo a cualquier edad.

  2. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.

  3. Periodismo intercultural: Representación peruana y boliviana en la prensa chilena Intercultural Journalism: Peruvian and Bolivian Representation in the Chilean Daily Press News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Baessolo Stiven

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia los mecanismos por los cuales la prensa masiva genera y representa discursos culturales provenientes de dos de los grupos más polémicos que en la actualidad conviven con lo chileno: peruanos y bolivianos. La representación que hacen los medios de comunicación sobre las culturas estudiadas incide fuertemente en los imaginarios que crean sus audiencias, lo que demanda una preocupación por proponer espacios de interacción intercultural tanto en los medios como en otras instituciones sociales, donde los estudios de la comunicación y el periodismo intercultural se cohesionen para ofrecer alternativas de encuentro y comunicación entre grupos culturalmente distintos. El objetivo central de esta investigación es comprender cómo, en los procesos de construcción social de la realidad a través de los medios de comunicación masivos, son representados los «discursos de la diferencia» peruano y boliviano en Chile. La metodología empleada para validar dicha propuesta es la del análisis crítico del discurso (ACD aplicado en las noticias de los diarios «La Cuarta» y «Las Últimas Noticias», pertenecientes a los grupos periodísticos con mayor tiraje en el país: consorcios «Copesa» y «El Mercurio». Los resultados de la investigación permiten concluir que estos medios de prensa representan realidades que tienden a marginar al «otro migrante», a través del reforzamiento de imaginarios de identidad construidos desde las relaciones fronterizas entre los tres estados-nacionales.This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians. The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for

  4. Contemporary Slavery and the Struggle for Self-Determination: The Case of the Guaraní People from the Bolivian Chaco

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    Aleksandra Bergier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Slavery and the Struggle for Self-Determination: The Case of the Guaraní People from the Bolivian Chaco For over a century, the Bolivian Guaraní people have been subjected to infrahuman treatment which involved practices such as slavery, forced labor and servitude. The new agrarian legislation, aimed at reversing the concentration of the economic and social power in the hands of a small regional elite, represented a shift in a state policy, facilitating the access of indigenous peoples to collective land property and thereby enabling them to break away from the conditions of debt bondage and forced labor. The article examines the current situation of the Guaraní and focuses on the changes and challenges that have been introduced to their way of life due to the implementation of the clearing title process which brought about a partial reconstitution of their territory. It presents the recent data on their struggle to redefine and reconstruct their cultural identity and places emphasis on specific cultural elements considered valuable by the Guaraní society: territorial management, native language, customary law and wider inclusion of women in decision-making structures within the indigenous political organization.   Współczesne niewolnictwo i walka o autodeterminację: casus kultury Guaraní z boliwijskiego Chaco Przez ponad stulecie boliwijscy Indianie Guaraní byli przedmiotem nieludzkiego traktowania z powodu praktyk takich jak niewolnictwo, praca przymusowa oraz poddaństwo. Reformy agrarne, których celem była redystrybucja władzy ekonomicznej i społecznej, skoncentrowanej w rękach niewielkiej regionalnej elity, spowodowały zmianę w polityce rządowej, gwarantując dostęp ludów tubylczych do kolektywnej własności ziemi. Proces ten umożliwił przedstawicielom kultury Guaraní zerwanie zależności wynikających z systemu pracy przymusowej i więzienia za długi. Niniejszy artykuł jest poświęcony obecnej

  5. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50(th) percentile male ATD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag ("airbelt") into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (pbelt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system also significantly reduced the flexion moment in the lower neck (airbelt: 169±3.3 Nm; standard belt: 655±26 Nm; FL+PT belt: 308±19 Nm). Similar

  6. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

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    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  7. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooz A Mendivelso

    Full Text Available A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs. There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  8. Field evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellents and fumigants against the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J; Hill, Nigel; Ruiz, Carmen; Cameron, Mary M

    2007-07-01

    Inexpensive insect repellents may be needed to supplement the use of impregnated bed-nets in the Amazon region, where the primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi (Root), is exophilic and feeds in the early evening. Three plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon, were identified by focus group, and then they were tested against An. darlingi as well as Mansonia indubitans (Dyar & Shannon)/Mansonia titillans (Walker). Cymbopogon citratus (Staph), Guatemalan lemongrass, essential oil at 25% was used as a skin repellent, and it provided 74% protection for 2.5 h against predominantly An. darlingi and 95% protection for 2.5 h against Mansonia spp. Attalea princeps (name not verified) husks, burned on charcoal in the traditional way provided 35 and 51% protection against An. darlingi and Mansonia spp., respectively. Kerosene lamps, often used to light rural homes, were used as a heat source to volatilize 100% Mentha arvensis (Malinv ex. Bailey) essential oil, and they reduced biting by 41% inside traditional homes against Mansonia spp., although they were ineffective outdoors against An. darlingi. All three plant-based repellents provided significant protection compared with controls. Plant-based repellents, although less effective than synthetic alternatives, were shown by focus groups to be more culturally acceptable in this setting, in particular para-menthane-3, 8, idol derived from lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook). Plant-based repellents have the potential to be produced locally and therefore sold more cheaply than synthetic commercial repellents. Importantly, their low cost may encourage user compliance among indigenous and marginalized populations.

  9. Factors Influencing the Use of Biomedical Health Care by Rural Bolivian Anemic Women: Structural Barriers, Reproductive Status, Gender Roles, and Concepts of Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Rebecca M.; Spielvogel, Hilde; Bellido, Diva

    2017-01-01

    The persistently high prevalence of anemia in rural highland Bolivia argues for targeted iron supplementation. We evaluated the cultural, structural and behavioral factors that may facilitate or impede an anemic woman's decision to secure this biomedical treatment from a rural Bolivian health center. Methods Non-pregnant women from a rural town and its surrounding region were tested for anemia. During phase 1 (n = 181), anemic women received a written recommendation for low-cost purchase of iron pills at the nearest health center. They were subsequently interviewed on their actions and experiences. Results Estimated anemia prevalence among these non-pregnant women was 50% higher than the national average. Despite holding conceptualizations of anemia generally aligned with biomedical concepts, only 40% of anemic women attempted to obtain iron supplements from the health center. Town residents were about twice as likely to attempt to purchase pills as outside-town residents. Town women who were concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating, considered anemia most serious for women, and considered family health the shared responsibility of spouses were most likely to decide to purchase iron pills. Age, education, or native language did not negatively influence this health care behavior. Conclusions Securing iron supplements involves individual trade-offs in the allocation of time, cost and effort. Nonetheless, suitably tailored programs can potentially harness local perceptions in the service of reducing anemia. Because of their comparatively high motivation to obtain iron supplements, targeting concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating women could have a positive cascade effect such that these women continue attending to their iron needs once they stop breastfeeding and if they become pregnant again. Because a sense of shared responsibility for family health appears to encourage women to attend to their own health, programs for women could involve their spouses

  10. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

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    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  11. Influence of source distribution and geochemical composition of aerosols on children exposure in the large polymetallic mining region of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goix, Sylvaine; Point, David; Oliva, Priscia; Polve, Mireille; Duprey, Jean Louis; Mazurek, Hubert; Guislain, Ludivine; Huayta, Carlos; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-12-15

    The Bolivian Altiplano (Highlands) region is subject to intense mining, tailing and smelting activities since centuries because of the presence of large and unique polymetallic ore deposits (Ag, Au, Cu, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn). A large scale PM(10), PM(2.5) aerosol monitoring survey was conducted during the dry season in one of the largest mining cities of this region (Oruro, 200,000 inhabitants). Aerosol fractions, source distribution and transport were investigated for 23 elements at approximately 1 km(2) scale resolution, and compared to children exposure data obtained within the same geographical space. As, Cd, Pb, Sb, W and Zn in aerosols are present at relatively high concentrations when compared to studies from other mining regions. Arsenic exceeds the European council PM(10) guide value (6 ng/m(3)) for 90% of the samples, topping 200 ng/m(3). Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb are present at significantly higher levels in the district located in the vicinity of the smelter zone. At the city level, principal component analysis combined with the mapping of factor scores allowed the identification and deconvolution of four individual sources: i) a natural magmatic source (Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and U) originating from soil dust, resuspended by the traffic activity; ii) a natural sedimentary source (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Th) resulting from the suspension of evaporative salt deposits located South; iii) an anthropogenic source specifically enriched in mined elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn) mainly in the smelting district of the city; and iv) a Ni-Cr source homogenously distributed between the different city districts. Enrichment factors for As, Cd and Sb clearly show the impact of smelting activities, particularly in the finest PM(2.5) fraction. Comparison to children's hair metal contents collected in five schools from different districts shows a direct exposure to smelting activity fingerprinted by a unique trace elements pattern (Ag, As, Cu, Pb, Sb).

  12. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  13. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes

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    Jihyun You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES and fruit and vegetable (F/V intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥1 fruit serving and ≥3 vegetable servings per day versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001 and F/V intakes (beta = −0.17, p = 0.038 were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046. Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  14. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

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    Carla Danusa da Luz Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1 or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting.

  15. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-03-09

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥ 1 fruit serving and ≥ 3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  16. Body mass status of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Gan, Chong Ying; Zaleha, Mohd Kassim Siti

    2004-01-01

    Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future.

  17. Adolescent and School Health

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    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... help strengthen their capacity to improve child and adolescent health. More > DASH Home About DASH At A ...

  18. Adolescent health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2002-06-01

    In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.

  19. Treating Children and Adolescents

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    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... side effects. Side effects from sulfasalazine may include headache, sun sensitivity rash, or other signs of sulfa ...

  20. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: the Calcutta childhood obesity study

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    Arnab Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and <95 th percentile and obesity (≥95 th percentile. Multivariate regression analyses (adjusted for age and sex of body mass index (BMI revealed that about 18% (R2 = 0.185 of total variance of BMI could be explained by monthly family income, participants think obese, consumption of too much junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.

  1. Residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation of organophosphates and piriproxifen on the mortality of deltamethrin resistant Triatoma infestans populations in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco region

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    Abraham Gemio Alarico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Chaco is part of the endemic region of Chagas disease and an area where pyrethroid resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae populations has been reported. The World Health Organization identified these resistant populations as an important focus for research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation containing organophosphate active ingredients and a juvenile hormone analogue (Inesfly 5A IGR on the mortality of T. infestans. Studies took place in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco that were treated up to 34 months before and evaluated the susceptibility to pyrethroids of the offspring of field collected insects. Thirty houses were randomly selected within three communities to carry out wall bio-assays with T. infestans nymphs. Mortality was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after wall contact. Eggs laid by females collected in the area were used to obtain first-instar nymphs and carry out pyrethroid susceptibility tests. The wall bio-assays showed that the micro-encapsulated insecticide eliminates T. infestans populations and produces detectable mortality of insects exposed to walls treated 34 months prior to the tests. The discriminant dose of deltamethrin (0.01 mg/mL showed 65% nymph survival, whereas at the highest tested dose (1.0 mg/mL 14% of the nymphs survived. These results show that Inesfly 5A IGR is an appropriate tool for the elimination of intradomestic and peridomestic populations of T. infestans resistant to pyrethroids.

  2. Migración, género y desigualdad social: la migración de mujeres bolivianas hacia Argentina Migration, gender, and social inequality: the migration of Bolivian women to Argentina

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    María José Magliano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar los procesos de reproducción de desigualdades sociales en contextos migratorios a partir de la articulación de las dimensiones de género, etnia y clase social, centrando el estudio en la migración contemporánea de mujeres bolivianas hacia Argentina. Se pretende discutir como aquellas dimensiones condicionan las formas de inserción social y laboral de las mujeres migrantes en la sociedad de destino, partiendo del presupuesto que no pueden analizarse por separado sino conjuntamente, puesto que se refuerzan recíprocamente, profundizando las prácticas y discursos de exclusión que ha enfrentado históricamente un amplio conjunto de las mujeres bolivianas en este país.The aim of this paper is to analyze the processes of reproduction of social inequalities in migratory contexts taking into account the gender, ethnic and social class dimensions, focusing on the study of the current migration of Bolivian women to Argentina. This article will discuss how those dimensions affect the social and economic incorporation of female migrants in the host society. The categories of gender, ethnicity and social class can not be considered separately but all together, because they reinforce reciprocally, intensifying the practices and discourses of exclusion that Bolivian women have historically faced in this country.

  3. Tracking of blood pressure among adolescents and young adults in an urban slum of Puducherry

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    Soudarssanane M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT is an important strategy in its control. Tracking of blood pressure (BP has been found useful in identifying persons with potential HT, particularly in youngsters. A cohort of 756 subjects (with baseline information as a cross-sectional study in 2002 was followed up in 2006 to comment on the distribution of BP and its attributes. Objectives: To track BP distribution in a cohort of adolescents and young adults, and assess the persistence of high/low normotensives; to measure the incidence of HT and study the relationship of BP with age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, physical exercise, salt intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: The baseline study cohort (2002 of 756 subjects (19-24 years in urban field area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, was followed up between May and November 2006 by house visits for measurement of sociodemographic variables, anthropometry, salt intake, physical activity and BP. Results: A total of 555 subjects from the 2002 cohort were contacted (73.4%, in that 54.5% subjects who were below 5 th percentile, 93.6% subjects between 5 th and 95 th percentiles and 72% of those above 95 th percentile previously persisted in the same cut-offs for systolic blood pressure (SBP. The corresponding figures for diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 46.2, 92.2 and 74.1%, respectively. Shift from one cut-off to another was not significant for both SBP and DBP, proving the tracking phenomenon. Annual incidence of HT was 9.8/1000. Baseline BP was the significant predictor of current BP for the entire cohort; BMI and salt intake were significant predictors only in certain sections of the study cohort. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of hypertension even among adolescents/young adults is an important preventive measure, as tracking exists in the population.

  4. Adolescence and Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…

  5. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  6. RE: Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Order DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA ebph 2015; 12 (2 e11167

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    Stefania Boccia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RE: Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Order DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health 2015; 12 (2, e11167

  7. Physical activity is low in obese New Zealand children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Yvonne C.; Wynter, Lisa E.; Grant, Cameron C.; Stewart, Joanna M.; Cave, Tami L.; Wild, Cervantée E. K.; Derraik, José G. B.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Hofman, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to describe physical activity and sedentary behaviour of obese children and adolescents in Taranaki, New Zealand, and to determine how these differ in Māori (indigenous) versus non-indigenous children. Participants (n = 239; 45% Māori, 45% New Zealand European [NZE], 10% other ethnicities) aged 4.8–16.8 years enrolled in a community-based obesity programme from January 2012 to August 2014 who had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 98th percentile (n = 233) or >91st–98th percentile with weight-related comorbidities (n = 6) were assessed. Baseline activity levels were assessed using the children’s physical activity questionnaire (C-PAQ), a fitness test, and ≥3 days of accelerometer wear. Average BMI standard deviation score was 3.09 (SD = 0.60, range 1.52–5.34 SDS). Reported median daily activity was 80 minutes (IQR = 88). Although 44% of the cohort met the national recommended screen time of obese children/adolescents in this cohort had low levels of physical activity. The vast majority are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. PMID:28157185

  8. Examining General versus Condition-Specific Health Related Quality of Life across Weight Categories in an Adolescent Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Autumn G.; Smith, Courtney; Dalton, William T.; Slawson, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) across weight categories in adolescents using both a general and a condition-specific measure sensitive to fatigue symptoms. Participants (N = 918) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory and PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale measures. Actual height and weight were used to calculate body mass index-for-age and-sex percentiles and assign weight categories. No interaction effects between total HRQoL and weight cat...

  9. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  10. Pratiques alimentaires et (reconstruction identitaire chez des migrants boliviens de retour d’Argentine Foodways and identity (reconstruction among Bolivian migrants returning from Argentina

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    Charles-Édouard de Suremain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude anthropologique des pratiques alimentaires de migrants boliviens de retour ayant longuement séjourné en Argentine permet d’aborder la problématique de la migration et de l’identité : la construction sociale, réelle et imaginaire, de la migration ne passe-t-elle pas aussi par l’alimentation ? Ce que l’on mange ici et là-bas éclaire, en creux, le succès ou l’échec donné à la migration par les migrants et aide à comprendre plus finement les significations locales données à la pauvreté et à la richesse, au bien-être et au mal-être. L’observation et les « récits de vie alimentaires » menés dans une perspective intergénérationnelle – sur l’importance de la consommation attribuée au pain, à la viande et au soda– conduisent finalement à s’interroger sur la situation sociale et symbolique des migrants de retour dans leur société d’origine comme dans la société d’accueil. Au-delà, l’étude montre que les pratiques et les représentations alimentaires reflètent et structurent à la fois des relations sociales, des relations de sexe et des rapports au corps, et qu’elles permettent d’induire des processus de construction d’identités complexes.The anthropological study of Bolivian returnees’ food practices, who have spent a long time in Argentina, leads us to deal with the problematic of migration and identity: as a matter of fact, the social construction of migration, either real or imaginary, is also based on alimentation. What is eaten here and there enlightens, in a way, the success or failure of their migration, as perceived from the migrants’ point of view; it helps to deeply understand the local significations given to poverty and wealth, to well-being and discontent. Observation and « intergenerational food life stories », conducted on the importance of consumption of bread, meat and sodas, finally lead to question the social and symbolic situation of returnees

  11. impact of life style on body Weight in adolescents on the basis of questionnaire findings in selected group of youth from rural and urban areas

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    Monika Ścibor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and primary obesity in children and adolescents is a crucial problem in public health. Obese children and adolescents are especially susceptible to obesity in adulthood and consequently exposed to many obesity related diseases. Objective: Evaluation of overweight and primary obesity in urban and rural youth populations and comparison of life style concerning: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits among overweight and obese adolescents and their peers with proper Body Mass Index value. Materials and methods: The study was performed in the group of 136 students from junior high school. The students with BMI value over 85th percentile of sex-specific growth charts were classified as overweight. Research tool was a questionnaire. Results: 15,9% of adolescents were overweight, out of which 4,5% were obese. There was not a significant relation between Body Mass Index and the place of residence. Overweight and obese adolescents revealed lower physical activity and tendency to spend much more time playing computer games. Adolescents with overweight or obesity did not regularly have breakfast at weekends, more often had sweets and sweet drinks and also high energy and very salty snacks instead. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem among students from junior high school population which calls for taking immediate preventive measures to promote healthy lifestyle among children and adolescents.

  12. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

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    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  13. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals.

  14. Effect of a weight loss program in obese adolescents: a long-term follow-up

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    Ilonka Rohm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obesity during adolescence is an increasing health problem in industrial countries. The comorbidities associated with obesity include important metabolic diseases. Methods: To analyze the effect of a weight-loss program, we recruited 12 obese, male adolescents before entering this program. We determined body weight measures at baseline, 6-week and 36-month follow-up. Also, the long-term changes of blood pressure, HbAlc, and CRP were evaluated. Twenty healthy age-matched adolescents served as controls. Results: Within the intervention group ((body mass index [BMI, kg/m²] > 95th percentile for age and sex, age 13-17 years the BMI and BMI-standard deviation score [SDS] were significantly reduced in the 6-week follow-up after completing the weight loss program. However, the significant weight-reduction effect was not persistent until the 36-month follow-up. Conclusion: The 6-week weight-loss program had beneficial short-term effects on body weight, BMI, and BMI-SDS in obese adolescents, but these effects could not be maintained until the 36-month follow-up.

  15. Abdominal Adiposity Correlates with Adenotonsillectomy Outcome in Obese Adolescents with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Gustavo Nino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obese adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA have a unique pathophysiology that combines adenotonsillar hypertrophy and increased visceral fat distribution. We hypothesized that in this population waist circumference (WC, as a clinical marker of abdominal fat distribution, correlates with the likelihood of response to AT. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of obese adolescents ( percentile that underwent AT for therapy of severe OSA (. We contrasted WC and covariates in a group of subjects that had complete resolution of severe OSA after AT ( with those obtained in subjects with residual OSA after AT (. Multivariate linear and logistic models were built to control possible confounders. Results. WC correlated negatively with a positive AT response in young adolescents and the percentage of improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI after AT (. Extended multivariate analysis demonstrated that the link between WC and AT response was independent of demographic variables, OSA severity, clinical upper airway assessment, obesity severity (BMI, and neck circumference (NC. Conclusion. The results suggest that in obese adolescents, abdominal fat distribution determined by WC may be a useful clinical predictor for residual OSA after AT.

  16. Adolescent childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M

    1991-05-01

    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  17. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents.

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    Hae-Jin Hu

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD report (2014, the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile Korean adolescents aged 13-16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005 at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively. We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively. We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate "rules" to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association

  18. Stability of the associations between early life risk indicators and adolescent overweight over the evolving obesity epidemic.

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    Lise Graversen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966 and 5414 children born in 1985-1986 (NFBC1986. In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors, maternal body mass index (BMI, birth weight, infant weight (age 5 months and 1 year, and preschool BMI (age 2-5 years. We used internal references in early childhood to define percentiles of body size (90 and generalized linear models to study the association with overweight, according to the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF definitions, at the ages of 9 and 15 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight at the age of 15 was 9% for children born in 1966 and 16% for children born in 1986. However, medians of infant weight and preschool BMI changed little between the cohorts, and we found similar associations between maternal BMI, infant weight, preschool BMI, and later overweight in the two cohorts. At 5 years, children above the 90th percentile had approximately a 12 times higher risk of being overweight at the age of 15 years compared to children below the 50th percentile in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between early body size and adolescent overweight showed remarkable stability, despite the increase in prevalence of overweight over the 20 years between the cohorts. Using consequently defined internal percentiles may be a valuable tool in clinical practice.

  19. Turkish adolescents' loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Aynur Bütün; Simşek, Sükran; Aral, Neriman; Baran, Gülen

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize loneliness among adolescents with respect to socioeconomic level, sex, and mothers' and fathers' education. General information about the 400 adolescents and their families were obtained. The UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered. Results of a hierarchical multiple regression showed that mothers' educational level explained a slight but statistically significant amount of variance in adolescents' loneliness scores while sex, socioeconomic level and fathers' educational level did not.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Jessica; Hayon, Ronni; Carlson, Jensena

    2014-09-01

    7% of US teen women became pregnant in 2008, totaling 750,000 pregnancies nationwide. For women ages 15 to 19, 82% of pregnancies are unintended. Adolescents have a disproportionate risk of medical complications in pregnancy. Furthermore, adolescent parents and their infants both tend to suffer poor psychosocial outcomes. Preventing unintended and adolescent pregnancies are key public health objectives for Healthy People 2020. Screening for sexual activity and pregnancy risk should be a routine part of all adolescent visits. Proven reductions in unintended pregnancy in teens are attained by providing access to contraception at no cost and promoting the most-effective methods.

  1. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.

  2. Examination of adolescents' screen time and physical fitness as independent correlates of weight status and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah C; Power, Thomas G; Daratha, Kenn B; Bindler, Ruth C; Steele, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Physical fitness performance is an important health correlate yet is often unrelated to sedentary behaviour in early adolescence. In this study, we examined the association of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time) with weight-related health markers and blood pressure, after controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance. American middle school students (N = 153, 56% females) aged 11-15 years (mean 12.6 years, s = 0.5) completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness performance, screen time, weight status (BMI percentile, waist-to-height ratio), and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance, found those who met the daily recommendation of 2 h or less of screen time (n = 36, 23.5%) had significantly lower BMI (p fitness and sedentary behaviours to maximize early adolescent health because these behaviours are likely to have unique and independent effects on youth health markers.

  3. Quality of life improves in children and adolescents during a community-based overweight and obesity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Pernille M; Nielsen, Tenna R H; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The quality of life is compromised in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the quality of life improves during a community-based overweight and obesity treatment, and whether improvements depend on reductions in the degree...... of obesity. METHODS: Quality of life was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 in children and adolescents aged 3-18 years with overweight or obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile] upon entry into a community-based chronic care overweight and obesity treatment based...... upon The Children's Obesity Clinic's Treatment protocol, and upon follow-up after 10-30 months of treatment. Height and weight were measured at each consultation and converted into a BMI standard deviation score (SDS). RESULTS: Upon entry, 477 children (212 boys) completed a PedsQL, and 317 (143 boys...

  4. Use of the Falcon assay screening test--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Rodriguez-Perez, J; Bjorland, J; Silva de Lagrava, M; Ramirez Guzman, S; Bryan, R T

    1992-05-01

    A collaborative study between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, and private voluntary organizations (Foster Parents Plan International and Danchurchaid) working in Bolivia has identified a region in the northwestern Altiplano of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca as harboring the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis in the world reported to date. Two serologic techniques (the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [FAST-ELISA] and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]) were used in the determination of its prevalence. One hundred serum samples and 73 stool samples were obtained from Aymara Indians from Corapata, Bolivia. Antibody absorbance levels to Fasciola hepatica excretion-secretion antigens were compared with EITB banding patterns using the same antigen preparation. A positive FAST-ELISA result was defined as an absorbance value greater than the mean plus three standard deviations of two sets of normal negative controls (Puerto Rican and Bolivian). Using this criterion, 53 of 100 sera tested were found positive by this technique. Within this group, 19 (95%) of 20 individuals who were parasite positive were also positive by FAST-ELISA. An additional 24 individuals who were negative for F. hepatica eggs and 10 individuals for whom no specimens were received were also positive by FAST-ELISA. Among the 53 individuals negative for F. hepatica eggs, 29 were also negative by FAST-ELISA. The EITB analysis of the sera from confirmed infected individuals revealed at least three F. hepatica (Fh) bands with molecular weights of 12, 17, and 63 kD, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Risk factors for obesity: further evidence for stronger effects on overweight children and adolescents compared to normal-weight subjects.

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    Andreas Beyerlein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed that in preschoolers risk factors for overweight show stronger associations with BMI in children with high BMI values. However, it is unclear whether these findings might also pertain to adolescents. METHODS: We extracted data on 3-10 year-old (n = 7,237 and 11-17 year-old (n = 5,986 children from a representative cross-sectional German health survey (KiGGS conducted between 2003 and 2006 and calculated quantile regression models for each age group. We used z-scores of children's body mass index (BMI as outcome variable and maternal BMI, maternal smoking in pregnancy, low parental socioeconomic status, exclusive formula-feeding and high TV viewing time as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In both age groups, the estimated effects of all risk factors except formula-feeding on BMI z-score were greatest for children with the highest BMI z-score. The median BMI z-score of 11-17 year-old children with high TV viewing time, for example, was 0.11 [95% CI: 0.03, 0.19] units higher than the median BMI z-score of teenage children with low TV viewing time. This risk factor was associated with an average difference of 0.18 [0.06, 0.30] units at the 90(th percentile of BMI z-score and of 0.20 [0.07, 0.33] units at the 97(th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that risk factors for childhood overweight are associated with greater shifts in the upper parts of the children's BMI distribution than in the middle and lower parts. These findings pertain also to teenagers and might possibly help to explain the secular shift in the upper BMI percentiles in children and adolescents.

  6. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Taupin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g−1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent

  7. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  8. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  9. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  10. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document comprises two issues of a new UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Both issues contain news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the subject.…

  11. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  12. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  13. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  14. Adolescent Rebellion and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)

  15. Adolescent Development Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizes necessity of reconsideration of adolescent development, for these reasons: the view of childhood has changed; females have not been systematically studied; theories of cognitive development favor mathematical and scientific thinking over the humanities; and because the psychology of adolescence is anchored in separation and independence…

  16. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  17. The Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…

  18. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  19. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  20. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  1. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  2. Strong inverse association between physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a large school-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Robert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and obesity in children have had mixed results despite their interrelationship making intuitive sense. We examined the relationship between physical fitness and overweight and obesity in a large sample of adolescents in the Republic of Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region. Methods All students of four grades of all secondary schools performed nine physical fitness tests. These tests assessed agility, strength and endurance, and included the multistage shuttle run, a validated measure of maximal oxygen uptake. Weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI calculated, and "overweight" and "obesity" were defined based on the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. We defined "lean" weight as age- and sex-specific BMI th percentile. Age- and sex-specific percentiles for each fitness test were calculated. "Good" performance was defined as a result ≥75th percentile. Results Data were available in 2203 boys and 2143 girls from a total of 4599 eligible students aged 12–15 years. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 11.2% (95% confidence interval: 9.9–12.4 in boys and 17.5% (15.9–19.1 in girls. For 7 of the 9 tests, the relationship between BMI and fitness score, as assessed by locally weighted regression, was characterized by a marked inverse J shape. Students with normal body weight achieved "good" performance markedly more often than overweight or obese students on 7 of the 9 tests of fitness and more often than lean children. For example, good performance for the multistage shuttle run was achieved by 25.6% (SE: 2.1 of lean students, 29.6% (0.8 of normal weight students, 7.9% (1.3 of overweight students and 1.2% (0.9 of obese students. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows a strong inverse relationship between fitness and excess body weight in adolescents. Improving fitness in adolescents, likely through increasing

  3. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  4. Teaching adolescents about adolescence: experiences from an interdisciplinary adolescent health course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, Teri

    2006-01-01

    As abstract reasoning increases in complexity, adolescents may face dissonance between new thoughts and prior beliefs. Students in the health professions may be forced to resolve these dissonances in order to execute their professional responsibilities. In developing an undergraduate interdisciplinary course on adolescent health, the authors anticipated challenges in teaching adolescents about adolescence. Over the course of the semester, the anticipated challenges became reality. The author discusses pertinent developmental theories and their application in facilitating late adolescent identity formation and professional role development.

  5. Atopic dermatitis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Ricci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10-20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10- 30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5-15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients’ quality of life (QoL. The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases.

  6. Music Therapy with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukko Tervo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic community described in this paper was situated at the University of Oulu Central Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Finland, during the years 1979-1989. The ward consisted of eight beds, four for boys and four for girls. The basic emphasis in the treatment was laid on psychoanalytic psychotherapy and music and art therapies suitable for the stage of adolescent development. Adolescent community therapy (psychoanalytic psychotherapy, music therapy, art therapy, special school etc. creates an environment which supports individual growth of the adolescent and youth culture. This, in turn, simultaneously supports psychotherapy.

  7. Adolescent Egocentrism in Early and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To assess adolescent egocentrism-sociocentrism, an instrument was devised to measure Elkind's constructs (the imaginary audience, the personal fable, and general self-absorption), plus nonsocial focuses and political focuses. Subjects were ten males and ten females each from three age groups: sixth-grade, eighth-grade, and college. (Author/SJL)

  8. [Adolescence and choice of contraceptive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, L

    1986-11-01

    The majority of books, studies, and publications on adolescence are written by adults, whose frequent focus on unbridled adolescent sexuality, adolescents in crisis, or immature adolescents does not seem to correspond to the self-image of adolescents. All authors agree that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood beginning at puberty, but opinions differ as to the termination of adolescence and entrance into adulthood. The most significant consensus about adolescence is its tendency to become prolonged. The majority of authors regard adolescence as a preparation for adult life and hence as a natural phase necessary and indispensable to human existence. Ethnographic studies of societies that do not acknowledge adolescence demonstrate, however, that it is not a natural phase. It is also evident that comparatively few roles in modern society require lengthy periods of preparation such as adolescence. It is therefore difficult to regard adolescence as a time of preparation for adult life. From a historic perspective, adolescence emerged with the socioeconomic transformations of industrialization. Mechanization and automation excluded numerous types of workers, especially young workers, from the labor force. Adolescence represents marginalization of young people in response to socioeconomic exigencies rather than a period of preparation for a better adult life. The marginalization is internalized in the consciousness of adults and youth alike and in their hierarchical relations. The marginalization of young people is expressed in the domain of sexuality by the fact that, although physiologically mature, adolescents are not viewed as psychologically mature enough to have children. Adolescents have sexual relations at increasingly young ages, but unlike adults they are not permitted by society the choice of having a child. Contraception, an option for adults, becomes obligatory for sexually active adolescents. The refusal of contraception or failure to

  9. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

  10. Social, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity among Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon; Bader, Zahra

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore some of the social, dietary and lifestyle factors that could be related to the risk of obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. A multistage stratified method was used to select secondary school students (15-18years old) from governmental schools in Bahrain. The total sample selected was 735 (339 males and 396 females). A pre-validated self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographics, food and the lifestyle habits of adolescents. Weight and height were taken and percentiles of Body Mass Index for age and gender were used to classify the adolescents as non-obese and obese (overweight and obese), using NHANES-1 growth standard. In general, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.5% and 36.8% among males and females, respectively. The risk of obesity was not consistent among male and female adolescents. Mothers' education was found to be a risk factor for obesity among both males and females (p=0.0167 and p=0.007, respectively). Bringing food from home to school (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.81) was protective factor for obesity among females but not among males. Fathers' education (p=0.0167), rank among siblings (p=0.009), place where breakfast is eaten (p=0.0398), eating between lunch and dinner (p=0.0152), fruit intake (p=0.042), sweet intake (p=0.0192), size of burger (p=0.002) and hours of watching television per day (p=0.004) were significantly associated with the risk of obesity among males, but not among females. Various social, dietary and lifestyle factors were found to contribute to obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. These factors should be considered in school health policy in the country.

  11. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

    2010-02-01

    This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age 95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and status of adolescents.

  12. To be an immigrant: a risk factor for developing overweight and obesity during childhood and adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Schober, Edith

    2006-09-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, especially among migrant children, are current health problems in several European countries. In the present study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among migrant children from Turkey and the former Yugoslavia was documented and compared with that of Austrian children in Vienna. Anthropometric data from 1,786 children were collected at the ages of 6, 10 and 15 years. Body mass was estimated by means of the body mass index and percentile curves were used to determine weight status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be significantly higher among migrant children. Children and adolescents from the former Yugoslavia and Turkish girls exhibited especially high rates of overweight and obesity. Biosocial and cultural factors are discussed as causes of these observations.

  13. [The pregnant adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon-Plante, D

    1982-03-01

    According to the Canadian Association of Family Planning 85% of adolescents are unprotected at their 1st intercourse, and 16% become pregnant; only 20% of those having a regular sex life use contraception. Women below 20 contributed to 17% of births in 1976 in Canada; in the same year 41.5% of all new mothers were unmarried, and only 27.5% of new fathers accepted responsibility for their paternity. These figures give an idea of the extent of the problem of unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, a problem shared by all Western countries. The adolescent mother is too young to know what she wants, not to mention to accept responsibility for the caring of an infant. Risk of maternal mortality is twice as great among teenage mothers, and so is risk of infant death, mostly due to prematurity. Nurses can play a very important role in helping adolescent mothers, and they must never project their moral values on their young patients.

  14. Health counseling of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1991-05-01

    Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.

  15. Abortion in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.

  16. Comparison of Overweight and Obese Military-Dependent and Civilian Adolescent Girls with Loss-of-Control Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvey, Natasha A.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Bryant, Edny J.; Ress, Rachel; Spieker, Elena A.; Conforte, Allison; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Barmine, Marissa; Klein, David; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited data suggest that the children of U.S. service members may be at increased risk for disordered-eating. To date, no study has directly compared adolescent military-dependents to their civilian peers along measures of eating pathology and associated correlates. We, therefore, compared overweight and obese adolescent female military-dependents to their civilian counterparts along measures of eating-related pathology and psychosocial functioning. Method Adolescent females with a BMI between the 85th and 97th percentiles and who reported loss-of-control eating completed interview and questionnaire assessments of eating-related and general psychopathology. Results 23 military-dependents and 105 civilians participated. Controlling for age, race, and BMI-z, military-dependents reported significantly more binge episodes per month (p<.01), as well as greater eating-concern, shape-concern, and weight-concern (p’s<.01) than civilians. Military-dependents also reported more severe depression (p<.05). Discussion Adolescent female military-dependents may be particularly vulnerable to disordered-eating compared to civilian peers. This potential vulnerability should be considered when assessing military-dependents. PMID:25955761

  17. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ≥85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

  18. The role of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides and peripheral signals on quartiles of weight loss in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Carnier, June; de Piano, Aline; Tock, Lian; Sanches, Priscila de Lima; Gomes, Fabíola Alvise Corrêa; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is characterized as an inflammatory state associated with a modification in the pattern of adipokine secretion. The present study aimed to assess the role of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides and peripheral signals in obese adolescents submitted to 1 year of weight loss interdisciplinary therapy and grouped according to quartiles of weight loss. A total of 111 post-puberty adolescents, with a BMI >95th percentile, were included. Glycemia and lipid profiles were analyzed. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR. Cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. The results are presented according to quartiles of weight loss: 1st (14 kg)=massive. The most important finding was that the NPY concentration increased significantly only in the first phase of weight loss. Moreover, α-MSH variation was an independent factor in explaining the NPY changes during the intervention, confirming the role of the α-MSH concentration in the peripheral control of energy balance in obese adolescents. Indeed, BMI reduction was correlated with increased α-MSH (p<0.05). Massive weight loss promoted a significant increase in α-MSH concentration, and hyperleptinemia was reduced after intervention. All together, our findings, which contribute to our understanding of how orexigenic and anorexigenic systems are regulated by weight loss, will provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases, especially in obese adolescents.

  19. The Effects of Fructose-Containing Sugars on Weight, Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors When Consumed at up to the 90th Percentile Population Consumption Level for Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA and World Health Organization (WHO have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010. Sucrose (SUC and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20–60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01, a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05 and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001. However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05, LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05, SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05 and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05 were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05. These data suggest that: (1 when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO; (2 changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest.

  20. Sexting among peruvian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    West, Joshua H.; Lister, Cameron E; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T; Snow, Paola Rivera; Zvietcovich, Maria Elena; West, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexting (sexual messaging via mobile devices) among adolescents may result in increased risky sexual practices, psychological distress and in some cases, suicide. There is very little research on sexting in developing nations, such as Peru. In particular, little is known about gender differences in the correlates of sexting. The purpose of this study was to determine the sexting prevalence and correlates of sexting among adolescent boys and girls in Cusco, Peru. Methods The study s...

  1. Adolescents sexual practices

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Ana; Chora, Antónia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: If teens options are experimenting sexualized practices, we should facilitate their knowledge, make them aware of their choices and help them living their sexuality in a safer mode. Objectives: To identify adolescents sexual practices; characterize the attitudes of teenagers against the use of contraception. Methods: quantitative research with exploratory nature. We studied a convenience sample of 301 adolescents of both sexes whitch attend the 9th grade. Sexual practices and a...

  2. Implants in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohit A; Mitra, Dipika K; Rodrigues, Silvia V; Pathare, Pragalbha N; Podar, Rajesh S; Vijayakar, Harshad N

    2013-07-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  3. Implants in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit A Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  4. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  5. Adolescent and parent perceptions of media influence on adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents and their parents to examine the extent to which adolescents identify--without prompting--media as a source of influence on sexual behavior. Adolescents seemed indifferent to media influence (e.g., media influence was mentioned in only one adolescent focus group), but their parents expressed significant concern about media influence. Future research should investigate the extent to which influences exist outside of adolescents' consciousness. For now, parents and sexuality educators may need to convince adolescents that concerns about the media are valid before trying to change media-influenced behavior.

  6. [Normal values of temporal parameters of ECG in children according to results of clinico-epidemiological study ECG-screening of children and adolescents in Russian federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklashevich, I M; Shkol'nikova, M A; Kalinin, L A; Abdullatipova, I V; Osokina, G G; Deev, A D; Blinova, A V; Drozdova, A I; Lebed'kova, S E; Muratov, R A; Verevkina, O N; Timukova, A K; Lunegova, E V; Kozlova, L V; Svintsova, L I; Khomiakova, O I; Ashcheulova, N L

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable information about time-domain ECG parameters in Russian children and to analyse their links with physiological changes the Project "ECG screening of children and adolescents of the Russian Federation" was carried out in 2003-2008. Time domain ECG parameters were studied in the representative sample of 5387 healthy individuals aged 0 to 18 years. In each age group, lower and upper limits of the norm for heart rate (HR), P wave, PQ and QRS intervals were defined as 2nd and 98th percentiles of their distribution. The equivalent limits of QT interval duration were defined as its 5th and 95th percentiles. Relationship between time domain parameters of pediatric ECG and HR was analyzed as well as relationship of these parameters with sex and age. The most important differences from prior pediatric studies completed 30 years ago were obtained for the heart rate limits. Among children aged 0 to 3, there was a tendency toward lowering of age-specific lower limits and elevation of age-specific upper limits. At ages older than 3 years, there was a tendency toward lowering of both the upper and the lower limits of HR. The newly obtained 2nd percentiles of the heart rate were lower than the known lower limits in nearly all ages. This indicates the necessity for revision of criteria of bradicardia in children. The present study showed that 5th and 95th percentiles of QTc interval (Bazett's formula) varied between 340 ms and 465 ms and were not significantly dependent on children's age and only for ages under 13 also on sex. Results of the study allowed to build age-specific ranges of norm for the time domain ECG parameters presented in a tabular form.

  7. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Spanish children and adolescents. Do we need waist circumference measurements in pediatric practice?

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    Helmut Schröder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC and waist to height ratio (WHtR in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. DESIGN: Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO, sex and age specific WC≥90(th percentile (WC-AO1, and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2. RESULTS: IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO, sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1, and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2. The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls, 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls, and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls, 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls, and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls in adolescents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.

  8. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwas Acharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16.  Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly associated

  9. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  10. Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents No. 63; Updated October 2013 Growing up is a demanding and challenging task for every adolescent. One important aspect is forming one's sexual identity. ...

  11. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  12. Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...

  13. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of different socioeconomic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia Alves Pontes da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade em um grupo de pré-escolares, escolares e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas na cidade do Recife. MÉTODOS: estudo do tipo transversal envolvendo uma amostra de 1616 crianças e adolescentes, escolhida por conveniência. Os indicadores nutricionais foram definidos conforme as recomendações do National Center of Health Statistics 2000, sendo considerado sobrepeso o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 85 e inferior ao percentil 95 e obesidade, o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 95. RESULTADOS: foi identificado sobrepeso em 234 (14,5% indivíduos e obesidade, em 134 (8,3%. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior nos pré-escolares (22,2%, observando-se redução progressiva da freqüência nas faixas etárias de escolar (12,9% e adolescente (10,8%. Constatou-se fato idêntico quanto à obesidade, detectada em 13,8% dos pré-escolares, 8,2% dos escolares e 4,9% dos adolescentes. O sobrepeso e a obesidade foram mais observados entre crianças e adolescentes de melhor condição socioeconômica. CONCLUSÕES: as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade diminuíram à medida que ocorreu aumento da faixa etária. Entre os pré-escolares observou-se prevalência de sobrepeso semelhante, independente das condições socioeconômicas. A prevalência da obesidade foi maior entre escolares de boas condições socioeconômicas e adolescentes de baixa condição socioeconômica.OBJECTIVES: to compare overweight and obesity in preschool children, school children and adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: cross-sectional and based on a 1616 children and adolescents sample. Nutritional indicators were defined according to the National Center of Health Statistics 2000 recommendations, overweight being BMI equal to or above 85 percentile and below percentile 95; obesity indicator being defined with BMI equal to

  14. The influence of physique on dose conversion coefficients for idealised external photon exposures: a comparison of doses for Chinese male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile anthropometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2017-03-22

    For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations. The organ dose conversion coefficients for each phantom were calculated and compared for four idealized external photon exposures from 15 keV to 10 MeV, using the Monte Carlo method. The dosimetric results for the three deformable Chinese reference male phantom (DCRM) phantoms indicated that variations in physique can cause as much as a 20% difference in the organ dose conversion coefficients. When the photon energy was physiques. Hence, it is difficult to predict the conversion coefficients of the phantoms from the anthropometric parameters alone. Nevertheless, the complex organ conversion coefficients presented in this report will be helpful for evaluating the radiation risk for large groups of people with various physiques.

  15. Self constructing in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješević Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore “theories” adolescents have about themselves, i.e. about the changes in the ways they construe themselves in the period of middle adolescence: how they construe changes and estimate them according to some dimensions relevant for change (appreciation of change, its importance, expectancy, timing, comprehensiveness, intensity and visibility in social surroundings. The study was explorative and it was performed on the sample of 96 adolescents aged 15-17 (middle adolescence. Instruments used for the study were: interview and Role Construct Repertory Grid, adjusted to the need of study. The results show that the adolescents’ construct system is highly monolithic and tight in regard to constructs (black and white construing, but at the same time vague and predictively unclear in regard to elements, i. e. the stated changes, meaning that adolescents are not able to construe those changes according to certain constructs. It seems that this study included the beginning of the loosening phase (creativity cycle in which the system is still tight and, therefore, protects from threat and anxiety, while the elements are not predictively (this is what Erikson calls moratorium, i.e. the process of active experimenting. Changes which are fully predictively are those which refer to adults' roles, such as: self confident, experienced, independent and has responsibilities, worries. On the hand, changes which are predictably the most clear to adolescents (and not appreciated are depression and nervousness. Adolescents face an implicative dilemma: positive implications of maturity are not enough, while negative implications, such as nervousness, depression and not trusting people are clear, predictable and negative. This dilemma can be the cause of their ambivalence towards growing-up and accepting the roles of adults.

  16. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  17. Rorschach Evaluation of Adolescent Bulimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jane E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used Rorschach Test to contrast 12 diagnosed female adolescent bulimics with 12 female adolescent controls. Bulimics averaged greater number of aggression responses. Data suggest that adolescent bulimics are more depressed, self-punitive, and negativistic than peers and that they have more disordered thoughts, inaccurate perceptions, and impaired…

  18. Adolescent Pregnancy and Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiow, Nicholas J.

    1983-01-01

    The article discusses the complex set of factors involved in the phenomena associated with adolescent pregnancy and child bearing, particularly the young adolescent's risk in bearing and/or rearing a handicapped child. Programs to reduce adolescent pregnancies, teach about child development, and child care procedures are described. (Author/CL)

  19. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  20. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  1. The adolescent and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, R W; Mcculla, D

    1981-08-01

    Coital activity is often initiated during adolescence, and adolescents, like many adults, do not behave in purely rational ways and frequently fail to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Public attention is focused on adolescent pregnancies because of their increasing number and because the consequences are usually catastrophic. Unplanned pregnancies can have physical, psychosocial, and prenatal effects. It is important from both the individual and societal perspective that high priority be given to the task of preventing adolescent pregnancy. The health care provider, to gain the trust of the adolescent, must be open, honest, and willing to consider the young person's feelings and motivations. In addition to historical data and physical examination, the choice of a contraceptive method is based on individual preferences involving personal, familial, religious, and societal beliefs as well as sexual practice. A decision involving birth control for the adolescent can be complicated by parental influence and involvement. The teenage years are frequently a time of embarrassment about the physical maturation and biological functioning of the body. Birth control methods which require a person to touch himself/herself or to be used at the time of sexual intercourse may be unacceptable to the teenager. Fertility awareness techniques, such as basal body temperature, rhythm, and cervical mucus methods are inexpensive but call for a high degree of personal motivation. The use of a diaphragm requires an office visit and a pelvic examination for fitting and prescription. Contraceptive foam, suppositories, and condoms can be easily obtained over-the-counter for a minimal cost, and a moderate degree of personal motivation is needed for their effective use. Though effective, abortions should not be recommended indiscriminately. Permanent contraceptive methods are not recommended for the adolescent. The IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) are recommended for adolescents

  2. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  3. Adolescent male health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years.

  4. Personality disorders in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  5. Adolescents and their music. Insights into the health of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E F; Hendee, W R

    During adolescence, teenagers are expected to develop standards of behavior and reconcile them with their perceptions of adult standards. In this context, music, a powerful medium in the lives of adolescents, offers conflicting values. The explicit sexual and violent lyrics of some forms of music often clash with the themes of abstinence and rational behavior promoted by adult society. Identification with rock music, particularly those styles that are rejected by adults, functions to separate adolescents from adult society. Some forms of rock music extend well beyond respectability in fulfilling this definitional role. Total immersion into a rock subculture, such as heavy metal, may be both a portrait of adolescent alienation and an unflattering reflection of an adolescent's perception of the moral and ethical duplicity of adult society. Physicians should be aware of the role of music in the lives of adolescents and use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health of adolescents.

  6. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  7. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  8. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ekinci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is called idiopathic when no other underlying disease can be identified. The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is still unknown despite many years of research effort. Theories on AIS's etiology have included mechanical, hormonal, metabolic, neuromuscular, growth, and genetic abnormalities. Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk of curve progression. The adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. Scoliosis in children of school age and above primarily occurs in girls. The therapeutic goal in children is to prevent progression. In children, scoliosis of 20 and deg; or more should be treated with a brace, and scoliosis of 45 and deg; or more with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 174-182

  9. Why are adolescents violent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Garbarino

    Full Text Available This article discusses how adolescents become violent from the perspective of human development, in which the process of formation of the child and the youth depends on diverse biological, psychological e social variables that constitute the context of life of these individuals. The ecological perspective of human development opposes simple cause-effect relations between antisocial adversities and behaviors and believes that factors such as gender, temperament, cognitive ability, age, family, social environment and culture combine in a complex way influencing the behavior of the child and the adolescent. Some conclusions point to the fact that violence in adolescence usually starts from a combination of early difficulties in relationships associated with a combination of temperamental difficulties. It is concluded that the young seem to be as bad as the social environment surrounding them.

  10. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...

  11. Breakfast frequency among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2016-01-01

    , quality of family communication and family support. Further, analyses suggested that the associations were more pronounced among girls, immigrants and adolescents from other family structure than traditional. The study highlights the importance of the family setting in promoting regular breakfast......OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) associations between adolescents' frequency of breakfast and family functioning (close relations to parents, quality of family communication and family support) and (ii) if any observed associations between breakfast frequency and family functioning vary...... (n 3054) from a random sample of forty-one schools. RESULTS: Nearly one-quarter of the adolescents had low breakfast frequency. Low breakfast frequency was associated with low family functioning measured by three dimensions. The OR (95 % CI) of low breakfast frequency was 1·81 (1·40, 2...

  12. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  13. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  14. Analysis of emotion regulation in Spanish adolescents: Validation of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eGómez-Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation (ER is a basic psychological process that has been broadly linked to psychosocial adjustment. Due to its relationship with psychosocial adjustment, a significant number of instruments have been developed to assess emotion regulation in a reliable and valid manner. Among these, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003 is one of the most widely used, having shown good psychometric properties with adult samples from different cultures. Studies of validation in children and adolescents are, however, scarce and have only been developed for the Australian and Portuguese populations. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the ERQ for use in adolescents and determine possible differences according to the gender and age of young people. The sample consisted of 2060 adolescents (52.1% boys. Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA, multi-group analysis and two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were performed and the percentiles calculated. The results of the AFE and CFA corroborated the existence of two factors related to the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, showing acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both factors also showed good criterion validity with personality traits, self-esteem, and social anxiety. Differences in cognitive reappraisal were found with regard to age, with younger students exhibiting the greatest mastery of this strategy. Gender differences were observed regarding the expressive suppression strategy, with boys being more likely to use this strategy than girls. A gender-age interaction effect was also observed, revealing that the use of the expressive suppression strategy did not vary by age in girls, and was more widely used by boys aged 12-14 years than those aged 15-16 years. However, we found evidence of measurement invariance across sex and age groups. The results

  15. Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis: association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wener Barbosa Resende

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis (NAHS, metabolic syndrome (MS and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF in obese adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study with a quantitative approach, carried out from June to August 2011. The volunteers were randomly selected and referred to clinical evaluation in the endocrinology and cardiology units at the clinics hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia, being included 34 adolescents of 14-19 years above the 95th percentile of the growth curve. NAHS was assessed by ultrasonography. The MS and CRF were diagnosed by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: The sample consisted of 14 male and 20 female patients aged 16.8 ± 1.6 and body mass index (BMI of 35.7 ± 3.9. The occurrence of NAHS and MS was 76.5% and 50%, respectively. Males had a higher incidence of NAHS (78.6%, SM (64.3% and association of NAHS with MS (50%. Regarding the CRF, 100% (n=34, 61.8% (n=21 and 52.9% (n=18 of the adolescents had elevated values of waist circumference (WC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and systolic blood pressure (SBP, respectively, and 52.9% (n=18 showed low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. There were correlations between MS and triglycerides; systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C; and between NAHS and BMI and WC. Conclusion: A high occurrence of NAHS, SM and CRF was observed in obese adolescents. A strong correlation was observed between MS and NAHS, and between FRC and NAHS and SM. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p131

  16. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  17. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Email Facebook Twitter Two hour- ... School, in Minneapolis, conducted the trial with 315 adolescent and parent/caregiver pairs. Their findings strengthen evidence, ...

  18. Adolescent Loneliness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Sacchi, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a loneliness scale for adolescents in order to assess their perceptions of the quality of their relationships with parents and peers. The scale was administered to 1,233 Argentine secondary school students, aged 13-16 years. Factor analyses (principal axes, oblimin solution) were conducted. Four factors…

  19. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  20. Governing Adolescent Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…

  1. Moral Development in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  2. Assessments of adolescent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1995-02-01

    I have stressed that language and learning disabilities that are exhibited in the preschool or elementary school years often persist into adolescence but that the characteristics and implications of these disabilities change with the preadolescent and adolescent transitions to metalinguistic maturity. As the student with language disabilities matures and as educational demands increase in complexity and in level of abstractness, the interactions between language and cognition become more apparent. Language disabilities of adolescents are often described in relation to observed deficits in the acquisition of content (semantics), form (morphology and syntax), and use (pragmatics). I have broadened this perspective to consider identification of metalinguistic strengths and/or deficits, deficits in the integration and organization of communication, reasoning and problem solving, and in conceptualization and creativity. Several assessment options were discussed, among them, norm-and criterion- referenced testing, language sample analysis, portfolio assessments of integrated communication, observational checklists and interviews, classroom language probes, and self-assessments. The perspectives taken for assessment have been that no single assessment option can satisfy all assessment objectives and/or constraints. I have also stressed that all tests are subject to measurement error and how to account for this error. Last, but not least, I have shared some of the voices of adolescents which express their perspectives and priorities.

  3. Psychopathological Development across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Daniel Offer's seminal writings in the 1960s led to a realization that normal adolescence was not characterized by turmoil and upheaval, the then prevailing view that derived from studies of clinical samples. In this paper, the research findings that have appeared over the last four decades are reviewed with respect to the overall features of…

  4. The Adolescent Suicide Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The suicide rate of young people in the United States rose 237 percent between 1960 and 1980. This paper addresses three related issues: epidemic versus artifact; stress in adolescence; and the distinctive traits of the lifestyles or careers of a random sample of young Chicago suicides. (Author/BL)

  5. Problems of adolescence

    CERN Multimedia

    Feldmann

    1968-01-01

    Le Prof.Feldmann, Prof. de psychiatrie à l'Université de Genève, donne une suite de la conférence du novembre 1967 en parlant des besoins de l'adolescent et l'aspect pratique, suivi d'une discussion

  6. From birth to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietrobelli, A; Flodmark, C E; Lissau, I

    2005-01-01

    that despite the fact that childhood obesity is a crisis facing worldwide youth, it is necessary that action to control it must be taken now. All the six relevant levels (ie, family, schools, health professionals, government, industry and media) could be involved in prevention of child and adolescent obesity....

  7. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  8. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article.

  9. Adolescent Development: Body Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; Brodkin, Adele M.

    1994-01-01

    When early adolescents equate body image with self-image, they risk eating and exercise disorders, with dangerous results. Interviews with two experts present information to help middle school teachers understand the problem and intervene with students whose preoccupation with appearance or prowess can, taken to the extreme, be fatal. (SM)

  10. Adolescence: Season of Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Delineates Sigmund Freud's theories of symbolic relations, Jean Piaget's theories of cognitive development, and Eric Erickson's concept of identity crisis to analyze and explain the characteristics and phenomena of adolescent development. Suggests roles and tasks for teachers and parents in promoting healthy development. (WL)

  11. Adolescent to Parent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Claire Pedrick; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the extent of violence toward parents by adolescent children in relation to: (1) sex and age of the child; (2) the likelihood that mothers, more than fathers, are victims of children's violence; (3) social factors that may influence child to parent violence; and (4) stress as a factor in family violence. (Author/MJL)

  12. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  13. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school...

  14. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

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    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  15. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Examine Interpersonal and Affective Predictors of Loss of Control Eating in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Engel, Scott G.; Crosby, Ross D.; Anderson, Micheline; Vannucci, Anna; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Cassidy, Omni; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating is predictive of partial- and full-syndrome binge eating disorder. The interpersonal model proposes that LOC eating is used to cope with negative mood states resulting from interpersonal distress, possibly on a momentary level. We therefore examined temporal associations between interpersonal problems, negative affect, and LOC eating among overweight adolescent girls using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Thirty overweight and obese (≥85th body mass index (BMI) percentile; BMI: M = 36.13, SD = 7.49 kg/m2) adolescent females (Age: M = 14.92, SD = 1.54 y; 60.0% African American) who reported at least two LOC episodes in the past month completed self-report momentary ratings of interpersonal problems, state affect, and LOC eating for 2 weeks. A series of 2-level multilevel models with centering within subjects was conducted. Results Between- and within-subjects interpersonal problems (p’s < .05), but not between- (p = .12) or within- (p = .32) subjects negative affect predicted momentary LOC eating. At the between-subjects level, interpersonal problems significantly predicted increases in negative affect (p < 001). Discussion Naturalistic data lend support to the predictive value of interpersonal problems for LOC eating among adolescents. Interventions targeting interpersonal factors on a momentary basis may be useful during this developmental stage. PMID:25046850

  16. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  17. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feliciano Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004 were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL. The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%, without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence.

  18. Estudo das representações sociais sobre gestação em mulheres bolivianas no contexto da atenção básica em saúde na área central da cidade de São Paulo Study on social representations of pregnancy in bolivian women in the context of primary health care in the central area of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina C. Madi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo imigratório dos bolivianos para o Brasil vem trazendo muitos questionamentos e necessidades de intervenção pelos serviços de saúde na cidade de São Paulo. As barreiras impostas pela cultura boliviana (como a linguagem e o receio que os bolivianos têm pela situação de ilegalidade no país colocam aos serviços obstáculos no acesso à população. O objetivo dessa pesquisa é a compreensão das concepções das mulheres imigrantes bolivianas - que frequentam o Centro de Saúde Escola Barra Funda "Dr. Alexandre Vranjac" (CSEBF, na região central de São Paulo - sobre gestação, nos contextos: familiar, de adaptação como imigrantes e de espaço de construção da vida pessoal. Realizou-se uma análise qualitativa de entrevistas que incluíram mulheres bolivianas gestantes maiores de 18 anos, matriculadas no CSEBF. Foram realizadas algumas visitas domiciliares junto às agentes comunitárias. Como resultado, obteve-se que as bolivianas praticam endogamia e seus parceiros são fixos. Na Bolívia, não procuravam o serviço de saúde. Notou-se um paradoxo no que diz respeito à gravidez e ao trabalho, pois dizem ter planejado a primeira gestação, embora concordem que o trabalho - principal motivo da imigração - seja prejudicado pela gestação, parto e maternidade. Quanto à prática de parto, as bolivianas desejam e acreditam que o parto normal seja melhor que a cesárea, o que diverge do posicionamento comum das mulheres brasileiras. Este estudo poderá contribuir com conhecimentos sobre as concepções de saúde, particularmente sobre a gravidez, e acredita-se que as práticas dos serviços possam ser melhoradas, ampliando-se a capacidade de organização para receber imigrantes bolivianos.The process of Bolivian immigration to Brazil has been bringing questions and the necessity of intervention through the Health Services in the city of São Paulo. The barriers that come with the Bolivian culture (like the language and

  19. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome in Italian Obese Children and Adolescents: Stronger Association with Central Fat Depot than with Insulin Sensitivity and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brufani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate whether body fat distribution, birth weight, and family history for diabetes (FHD were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and adolescents. Methods. A total of 439 Italian obese children and adolescents (5–18 years were enrolled. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: prepubertal and pubertal. MetS was diagnosed according to the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Birth weight percentile, central obesity index (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, insulin sensitivity (ISI, and disposition index were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine variables associated with MetS. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 17%, with higher percentage in adolescents than in children (21 versus 12%. In the overall population, central obesity index was a stronger predictor of MetS than insulin sensitivity and low birth weight. When the two groups were considered, central fat depot remained the strongest predictor of MetS, with ISI similarly influencing the probability of MetS in the two groups and birth weight being negatively associated to MetS only in pubertal individuals. Neither FHD nor degree of fatness was a significant predictor of MetS. Conclusion. Simple clinical parameters like increased abdominal adiposity and low birth weight could be useful tools to identify European obese adolescents at risk for metabolic complications.

  1. Diet and physical activity interventions do have effects on body composition and metabolic syndrome parameters in overweight and obese adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nişancı Kılınç, Fatma; Çağdaş, Deniz N

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of lifestyle intervention and diet on body composition, anthropometric measurements, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese and overweight adolescents and their mothers, a diet and lifestyle intervention program was administered for 16 weeks to 19 9-17-year-old (12.52 ± 2.85 years) adolescents (female/male, 8/11) with a body mass index (BMI) value over the 90th percentile; hemoglobin (Hb)A1C, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein levels of the adolescents and anthropometric measurements of the mothers were compared. In some of the anthropometric values (body weight (BW), BMI, waist circumference (WC), skinfold thicknesses, body fat tissue, and lean tissue mass), a statistically significant difference was observed in pre- and post-application measurements (p0.05). MS was observed in 52.6% of the participants at baseline, and this rate was found as 15.8% based on the measurements carried out at week 16, which is a statistically significant decrease (pdiet and lifestyle intervention program for overweight and obese adolescents involving their mothers resulted in significant improvement in obesity and MS treatment.

  2. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  3. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

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    Hayran Osman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI percentiles, 8.3% (52 were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  4. Substantial decline in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among California’s children and adolescents

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    Lu Shi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lu Shi, Jeroen van MeijgaardUCLA Health Forecasting, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USAIntroduction: Few studies have looked at changes among risk factors that might help explain why childhood obesity prevalence in the US has leveled off in recent years. We present an analysis of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS that examines trends in childhood and adolescent obesity as well as trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption.Method: We compared 3 separate cross-sectional samples (2003, 2005, and 2007 from biennial CHIS for 3 age groups, age 2–5, age 6–11 and age 12–17. We calculated the prevalence of high SSB consumption (defined as having more than one SSB during the previous day. 2 measures of obesity were used – weight-for-age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for children aged 2–11, and body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for adolescents aged 12–17. Logistic regression analysis is used to estimate adjusted odds ratios of high SSB consumption in 2005 and 2007 compared with the baseline year of 2003.Results: From 2003 to 2007, each age group experienced a substantial decline in high SSB consumption (16.4%–5.0% for age 2–5, P < 0.001; 22.5%–9.9% for age 6–11, P < 0.001; 35.7%–25.7% for age 12–17, P < 0.001. Declines in the prevalence of children’s obesity were significant among children age 2–5 (P < 0.001 and age 6–11 (P < 0.05 but not among adolescents (P = 0.42. Children and teenagers in 2005 and 2007 were significantly less likely than those surveyed in 2003 to have high SSB consumption after adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, and parental education (P < 0.001.Conclusion: Policy actions may have impacted the prevalence of SSB consumption in the population. Further research is needed to examine the contribution of declining SSB consumption on the leveling off of obesity trends and the

  5. The open scars of Latin America: The Bolivian Orocline as a basament-related hinge, and the influence of accreted terranes on the paleomagnetic rotational patterns of the Chilean forearc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Gomez, M. A.; Arriagada, C.; Gómez, I.; Roperch, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    We made a paleomagnetic study in two separate zones of the Chilean forearc, between 18-22ºS and between 28-32ºS, sampling igneous and sedimentary rocks with ages ranging from Triassic to Miocene. More than 500 samples showed a stable magnetization, with hematite and magnetite being the principal carriers of magnetism. The rotation pattern obtained, added to previously published paleomagnetic data, show a continuous database for the Chilean forearc, between 19 and 35ºS, allowing us to separate distinct patterns in 4 major rotational zones: (1) Between 18-19.5ºS there is a strong anticlockwise rotational pattern, in agreement with the data known in southern Peru. (2) Between 19.5-22.5ºS, there is little to no rotation, with the southern limit being related to a major structural feature: The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament. (3) Between 22.5-29ºS there is a strong clockwise rotation pattern of nearly 30º. (4) Between 29-32ºS there is again a little to non-rotational pattern, in the area of the Pampean flat-slab. Overlapping these zones and the recognized accreted terranes boundaries shows a clear spatial relation between these and the limits of the rotated zones. We propose that the limits of this rotational domains can be linked to basament hinge-like weakness zones that helped to create the margin curvatures observed today. Under this model, the bolivian orocline would be the result of the opening of a hinge, helped by other geodynamics features like sea mountains and ridges, at the limit between the old accreted paleozoic terranes of Antofalla and Arequipa.

  6. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Arte Revolucionária e Independente lançado por André Breton, Diego Rivera e Leon Trotski em 1936, permitindo o surgimento de uma obra original, polêmica e marcante para a História latino-americana.This article intends to evaluate how art and politics are expressed both in the creation and in the action of the Bolivian militant politician Miguel Alandia Pantoja, who was an active participant in decisive moments of his country's history, as the Chaco War, the 1952 Revolution and the Commune of La Paz in 1971. The Andean indigenismo and the Mexican muralist influences seemed to have crossed with Alandia political options and with his enrollment at the proposal made by artists related to the Manifesto for a Revolutionary and Independent Art launched by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotski in 1936, allowing the uprising of an original and controversial artistic creation for Latin American history.

  7. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  8. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  9. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  10. Hiperlordose lombar em crianças e adolescentes de uma escola privada no Sul do Brasil: ocorrência e fatores associados Lumbar hyperlordosis in children and adolescents at a privative school in southern Brazil: occurrence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Torres de Lemos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da postura corporal durante a infância e adolescência permite a detecção de alterações em fases iniciais e a adoção de medidas preventivas. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de hiperlordose lombar e fatores associados em 467 crianças e adolescentes de 10 a 16 anos de idade de uma escola de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A hiperlordose lombar foi definida como aumento da curvatura lombar avaliada por meio de fotografia. Verificou-se 78% de ocorrência da patologia. Os fatores positivamente associados a essa alteração postural foram sexo feminino (RP = 1,08; IC95%: 1,03; 1,13, força/resistência abdominal abaixo do percentil 20 (RP = 1,10; IC95%: 1,05; 1,15 e flexibilidade abaixo do percentil 20 (RP = 1,07; IC95%: 1,01; 1,12. A hiperlordose lombar se associou negativamente à mobilidade lombar (RP = 0,90; IC95%: 0,85; 0,96 e à estatura (RP = 0,995; IC95%: 0,99; 0,999. Estratégias efetivas que melhorem os níveis de aptidão física de escolares são necessárias, tendo em vista que baixos níveis de força e flexibilidade foram associados à hiperlordose lombar.Posture assessment during childhood and adolescence allows early detection of postural disorders and adoption of preventive measures. This study evaluated the occurrence of lumbar hyperlordosis and associated factors in 467 children and adolescents aged 10 to 16 years at a school in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Lumbar hyperlordosis was defined as increased lumbar curvature evaluated by photography. Prevalence of lumbar hyperlordosis was 78%. Factors positively associated with lumbar hyperlordosis were female gender (PR = 1.08; 95%CI: 1.03; 1.13, abdominal strength below the 20th percentile (PR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.05; 1.15, and flexibility below the 20th percentile (PR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01; 1.12. Lumbar hyperlordois was negatively associated with lumbar mobility (PR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.85; 0.96 and height (PR = 0.995; 95%CI: 0.99; 0.999. Effective

  11. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.

  12. The Bolivian Source Rocks. Sub Andean Zone. Madre de Dios. Chaco Les roches mères de Bolivie. Subandin. Madre de Dios. Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Martinez E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete study of source-rock geochemical data has been carried out for the Bolivian foothills and foreland (Sub Andean Zone, Chaco and Madre de Dios in order to quantify the petroleum potential of the area. Overall available data have been compiled in a database, and a synthesis of the results is presented here. Besides the classical mid-Devonian source rocks (Tequeje Fm in the north, Limoncito Fm in the center and Los Monos Fm in the south, others may be just as important : theTomachi Fm (late Devonian in the north of the country and the Copacabana Fm. (late Carboniferous-early Permian in the northern Sub Andean Zone. Both present an excellent potential with S2 up to 40 mg HC/g and average values larger than 10 mg HC/g on few hundred meters. The latest Cretaceous (Flora Fm in the northern Sub Andean Zone also presents locally a high potential but has almost no influence, its thickness being quite reduced. Almost all the source rocks matured during the Neogene due to the subsidence in the Andean foreland and, locally, in the piggyback basins, and are thus involved in the current petroleum system. Silurian and Lower Paleozoic units also contain thick shale beds, but these source rocks were mature before the Jurassic in most of the country, except in the Chaco, the Boomerang and the central Sub Andean Zone, where the Silurian is not nowadays overmature and may play an important role. The different zones are compared based on their Source Potential Index (SPI which indicates that the richest areas are the northern Sub Andean Zone and the Madre de Dios basin with SPI greater than 10 t/m². Since these two areas remain almost unexplored and, at least for the northern Sub Andean zone, present very large structures, these results allow to be optimistic about the possibilities for future exploration. Une base de données géochimiques a été mise en place entre 1994 et 1995 à YPFB (Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos afin de regrouper les

  13. Is adolescent rebellion universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, J; Dullaert, J

    1977-01-01

    Forty volunteer subjects were interviewed in an attempt to determine if indications of adolescent rebellion would be found across the range of disciplinary styles. An analysis of the taped interviews did not support the expectations. Twenty-five percent of the sample manifested high rebelliousness and none of these subjects came from low-control homes. Seveny-five percent of the sample showed little or no rebelliousness at all. Low rebelliousness was evently distributed across the spectrum of disciplinary styles. The twenty per-cent incidence of permissive homes was higher than other research indicated it might be. Authoritarian parents in this sample appeared to be less restricting than would have been expected. A wider range of adolescent behavior was accepted and fewer issues provoked conflict and rebellion as the parents appeared to be responding to a changing society.

  14. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Keijsers, L.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys) th

  15. Socioeconomic and Marital Outcomes of Adolescent Marriage, Adolescent Childbirth, and Their Co-Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M.; Lamb, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    Examined adolescent marriage, adolescent childbirth, and their co-occurrence in adult women. Poorest socioeconomic outcomes were associated with adolescent childbirth regardless of presence or timing of first marriage. Marital instability was associated with both adolescent marriage and adolescent childbirth. Findings suggest that risk associated…

  16. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...... in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated....

  17. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  18. Parental Divorce, Adolescents' Feelings toward Parents and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49

  19. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  20. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  1. Impact of mother tongue and gender on overweight, obesity and extreme obesity in 24,989 Viennese children/adolescents (2-16 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segna, Daniel; Widhalm, Harald; Pandey, Maitrayee P; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Dietrich, Sabine; Widhalm, Kurt

    2012-11-01

    The present survey aims at determining the prevalence of extreme obesity (defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 99.5th percentile) for the first time in Austria and at investigating the relationship between weight status and mother tongue in a representative Viennese sample of 24,989 children and adolescents (2-16 years) with a percentage of approximately 46 % of migration background.Directly measured anthropometric data on body weight and height were collected and BMI was calculated. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity was determined for every subgroup according to mother tongue using the German national reference criteria by Kromeyer-Hauschild et al.In this sample, 2.1 % of all children and adolescents had to be classified as being extremely obese. More boys (2.3 %) than girls (1.9 %) suffered from extreme obesity (p = 0.048). Total 1.7 % of children and adolescents with German as their native language, 2.5 % of Turkish native speakers and 2.9 % of children and adolescents with another mother tongue were extremely obese (p ≤ 0.001). The highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was found in Turkish-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001), whereas the lowest one was found in German-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001).This large study clearly shows that extreme obesity is a common disease and largely neglected. Apparently, another native language than German, as an indicator for a migration background, may be associated with a substantially higher probability for the development of extreme obesity in Vienna, Austria. Thus, effective preventive measures to overcome obesity are urgently needed.

  2. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  3. Media multitasking in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Matthew S; Leonard, Julia A; Gabrieli, John D E; Finn, Amy S

    2016-12-01

    Media use has been on the rise in adolescents overall, and in particular, the amount of media multitasking-multiple media consumed simultaneously, such as having a text message conversation while watching TV-has been increasing. In adults, heavy media multitasking has been linked with poorer performance on a number of laboratory measures of cognition, but no relationship has yet been established between media-multitasking behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across a group of adolescents, we found that more frequent media multitasking in daily life was associated with poorer performance on statewide standardized achievement tests of math and English in the classroom, poorer performance on behavioral measures of executive function (working memory capacity) in the laboratory, and traits of greater impulsivity and lesser growth mindset. Greater media multitasking had a relatively circumscribed set of associations, and was not related to behavioral measures of cognitive processing speed, implicit learning, or manual dexterity, or to traits of grit and conscientiousness. Thus, individual differences in adolescent media multitasking were related to specific differences in executive function and in performance on real-world academic achievement measures: More media multitasking was associated with poorer executive function ability, worse academic achievement, and a reduced growth mindset.

  4. [Adolescent contraception. Current trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthuber, Sabine

    2005-10-01

    Despite easy availability of contraception, Germany is confronted with the problem of increasing rates of pregnancies and abortions in minors. Prescription of contraceptives that do not rely on compliance and are acceptable to adolescents is required in addition to improved counseling. For that purpose, adherence to the guidelines for the use of contraceptives in minors written by the consortium for legislation in medicine (AG Medizinrecht) is essential. Oral contraceptives are the most commonly prescribed form of birth control, advantages include reversibility as well as a good tolerance and safety profile. New developments are low-dose compounds, novel progestins, prevention of ovulation by pure gestagen pills and the long-term use of low-dose monophasic micro pills. Long-term contraceptives like subdermally implantable depot compounds or hormone-releasing pessaries in utero have been used on a regular basis and seem a convenient alternative for birth control for longer periods, also in adolescents. The easy-to-use intravaginal ring and the birth control patch have expanded the spectrum of hormone-releasing contraceptive systems. Studies show improved compliance and a possible reduction of unintentional pregnancies due to application errors. Amelioration of the range of highly effective birth control products different modes of application will hopefully lead to drop in the rate of unplanned pregnancies, especially in adolescents.

  5. Health state preferences associated with weight status in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riera Katherine M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a substantial public health problem. The extent to which health state preferences (utilities are related to a child's weight status has not been reported. The aims of this study were (1 to use a generic health state classification system to measure health related quality of life and calculate health utilities in a convenience sample of children and adolescents and (2 to determine the extent to which these measures are associated with weight status and body mass index (BMI. Methods We enrolled 76 children 5-18 years of age from a primary care clinic and an obesity clinic in Boston MA. We administered the Health Utilities Index (HUI and used the HUI Mark 3 single- and multi-attribute utility functions to calculate health utilities. We determined BMI percentile and weight status based on CDC references. We examined single-attribute and overall utilities in relation to weight status and BMI. Results Mean (range age was 10.8 (5-18 years. Mean (SD BMI percentile was 76 (26; 55% of children were overweight or obese. The mean (SD overall utility was 0.79 (0.17 in the entire sample. For healthy-weight children, the mean overall utility was higher than for overweight or obese children (0.81 vs. 0.78, but the difference was not statistically significant (difference 0.04, 95% CI -0.04, 0.11. Conclusions Our results provide a quantitative estimate of the health utility associated with overweight and obesity in children, and will be helpful to researchers performing cost effectiveness analyses of interventions to prevent and/or treat childhood obesity.

  6. Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica Genetic characterization of the Bolivian Andean puma (Puma concolor at the Sajama National Park (SNP and relationships with other north-western South American puma populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RUIZ-GARCÍA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron originalmente 25 muestras fecales de puma andino boliviano para proceder a su extracción de ADN. De esas 25 muestras, se detectaron cinco pumas diferentes que, junto, a tres de pieles de animales cazados, completaron un total de ocho pumas andinos bolivianos analizados. Igualmente se analizaron 45 muestras de ADN procedentes de pumas silvestres de Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela y Amazonia occidental brasileña obtenidas a partir de mechones de pelos con bulbo, trocitos de pieles, músculo y dientes. Todas ellas se genotipificaron para siete marcadores microsatélites (Fea 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 y 391. Los niveles de diversidad genética resultaron muy elevados en ambas muestras (H = 0,942 y 0,845; respectivamente, con valores muy superiores a los reportados para pumas norteamericanos. Diversos análisis de asignación poblacional mostraron que los pumas andinos bolivianos no formaron un grupo consistentemente diferente del otro grupo de pumas analizado. Únicamente un marcador, Fea 96, mostró heterogeneidad genética significativa entre ambos grupos. Sin embargo, globalmente, esa heterogeneidad fue extremadamente pequeña (F ST, G ST, R ST. Por el contrario, las estimas de flujo génico entre ambas agrupaciones fueron elevadas para toaos los procedimientos empleados. La estimación del parámetro θ (= 4Neμ mediante el método de máxima verosimilitud de Nielsen (1997 mostró que la muestra boliviana es una extensión indiferenciable de la otra agrupación de pumas de otros países latinoamericanos. Por lo tanto, este estudio aporta resultados concluyentes en favor de un único acervo genético de pumas en el nor-occidente de Sudamérica, en contraste con las tradicionales clasificaciones morfológicas y morfométricas que habían identificado un número considerable de subespecies de puma en esta región de Latinoamérica.Twenty-five Andean Bolivian fecal samples were obtained for extracting DNA. Five different Andean

  7. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  8. Risky traffic behaviour among young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Compared with older adolescents (18-24 years old), young adolescents (10-17 years old) exhibit more risky behaviour. Because of their physical and mental development, young adolescents are attracted to risky challenges, they are more suscep

  9. Single Parenting of the Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses issues that are of interest and concern to all parents of adolescents, but that may be particularly difficult for single parents to manage. It also provides a framework for examining the areas of similarity as well as difference between the adolescent and the single parent. Attention is paid to the potential advantages of single-parent status.

  10. Best Practices for Adolescent ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance-Roney, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent English language learners present particular challenges for schools. The population of adolescent ELLs is diverse, and their educational needs are affected by differences in immigration status, quality of educational background, native language, cultural distance from U.S. culture, future plans, and economic status. The article offers…

  11. Cluster Analysis of Adolescent Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Feng-Yi; Peng, Ping-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Emerging web applications and networking systems such as blogs have become popular, and they offer unique opportunities and environments for learners, especially for adolescent learners. This study attempts to explore the writing styles and genres used by adolescents in their blogs by employing content, factor, and cluster analyses. Factor…

  12. Ego and Leadership among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarajathi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The period of adolescence is designated as the period of storm and stress and age of revolt. This is considered as being one of the most difficult stage in the life of any individual. Thus adolescence is the most critical stage with a distinct phase of rapid physical, psychological and social behavioral changes and emotional disturbances. As Ego…

  13. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  14. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  15. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…

  16. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  17. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  18. Narcissism--An Adolescent Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Margot

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the adolescent process needs to be accorded its own particularity of reference, especially where narcissism is concerned. The paper draws on literary and clinical examples to describe what is termed the "adolescent organisation". In many ways, this organisation reflects post-Kleinian theory of what constitutes narcissistic…

  19. A Study of Food Consumption Patterns of and Obesity in Female Adolescents in Khorramshahr High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadinasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background One consequence of an industrial age is overweight and obesity. The accelerating rate of obesity, especially in adolescent girls, has led to growing concern regarding the health of this generation. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the food consumption patterns of and obesity in female adolescents in Khorramshahr high schools. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study involved 200 high school girls from Khorramshahr. The study sample was selected via multistage random sampling. Body weight and height were measured and the body mass index (BMI values were calculated. Underweight, overweight, and obesity were defined as the 5th, 85th, and 95th percentiles, respectively, using the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC BMI-for-age growth charts for girls. More data were collected by using the Food frequency questionnaire. Analysis was done using the SPSS software, Kruskal-Wallis test, and median measures. Results Findings showed that according to their BMI, 3% of the students were underweight, 82% had normal weight, 11% were overweight, and 4% were obese. There were significant relationships between the consumption of bread, dough, and sugar cubes and the BMI (P < 0.05. The highest bread consumption was among overweight students (min 90, max 360, mean 180 palms per month. In addition, students with normal weight had the highest consumption of rice and sugar cubes (160 plates and 360 cubes per month, respectively. Conclusions The findings of this study offer information regarding the current dietary patterns among adolescent girls that can be used to design educational programs to promote healthy eating in this group.

  20. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume......Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...

  1. Adolescents' lived experience of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Pernilla Garmy; Sivberg, Bengt

    2003-02-01

    To improve the well-being of adolescents with epilepsy, research is needed on how adolescents cope. In this study, Lazarus' model of stress and coping and Antonovsky's Theory of Sense of Coherence were used as the theoretical framework. The aim was to describe the lived experience of adolescents with epilepsy and their coping skills. The participants were 13-19 years old with an epilepsy diagnosis but without mental retardation or cerebral palsy. The study was performed in southern Sweden at the pediatric department of a university hospital. Semistructured and open-ended interviews were conducted with 13 adolescents. The transcripts were analyzed with manifest and latent content analysis. All the adolescents had developed strategies to cope with the emotional strains caused by epilepsy. They experienced strains from the seizures, limitation of leisure activities, side effects of medication, and feelings of being different. The coping strategies described were finding support, being in control, and experimenting.

  2. Diagnosis of depression among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavet, Ole Rikard; Christensen, Kaj Aage Sparle; Sirpal, Manjit

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to improve general practitioners' diagnoses of adolescent depression. Major depression is ranked fourth in the worldwide disability impact. METHOD: Validation of 1) three key questions, 2) SCL-dep6, 3) SCL-10, 4) 9 other SCL questions and 5) WHO-5...... in a clinical study among adolescents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) is to be used as the gold standard interview. The project is a GP multicenter study to be conducted in both Norway and Denmark. Inclusion criteria are age (14-16) and fluency in the Norwegian and Danish language....... A number of GPs will be recruited from both countries and at least 162 adolescents will be enrolled in the study from the patient lists of the GPs in each country, giving a total of at least 323 adolescent participants. DISCUSSION: The proportion of adolescents suffering from depressive disorders also...

  3. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  4. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents' Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations with Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc

    2017-03-27

    Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age  = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.

  5. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  6. Metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents from Southern Italy: contribution from the Calabrian Sierras Community Study (CSCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesco; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Colantoni, Chiara; Zanoni, Cristina; Martino, Eliana; Barillà, Francesco

    2014-12-15

    Among 1657 children and adolescents aged 6 to 14 years (787, 47% girls and 870, 53% boys) from primary and secondary schools in a 14-town Southern Italian community, HDL cholesterol (54 ± 15 mg/dl), triglycerides (61 ± 29 mg/dl), blood glucose (78 ± 10 mg/dl), systolic (101 ± 11 mm Hg) and diastolic (62 ± 10 mm Hg) blood pressures, waist circumference (WC) (66 ± 10 cm) and WC/height (0.46 ± 0.006) and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol (1.31 ± 0.99) ratios were measured. The distributions were similar in both genders. Age did not affect triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio, whereas there was a slightly positive correlation (pchildren or adolescents with low HDL cholesterol, 162 (9.77%) with high triglycerides, 178 (10.74%) with high blood glucose, 178 (10.74%) with high WC, 244 (20.76%) with high systolic or diastolic BP and 126 (7.6%) with high systolic and diastolic BP. Abnormally high BP was seen in 470 (28.36%) children or adolescents. Using abnormal percentile values of 3 of 5 of its components, metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed in 70 (4.2%) subjects, similarly in both genders. To assess out-of-limit distributions of all 5 individual MS components in children and adolescents gender- and age-distributions derived from local epidemiological data should be used: these distributions are presented and they might now be used both for comparative and applicative purposes at least in Southern Europe.

  7. Diatom-inferred δ18O of a Bolivian paleolake during the last deglaciation (18.6-11.7 ka): impact of the paleolake evaporation and water recycling on the isotopic composition of Andean glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Benjamin; Sylvestre, Florence; Vimeux, Françoise; Black, Jessica; Paillès, Christine; Sonzogni, Corinne; Alexandre, Anne; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Bruneton, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    During the last deglaciation, on the Bolivian Altiplano (~16°S), a wide paleolake covering at least 51,000 km2, named lake Tauca reached its maximum highstand between 16.5 and 15 ka. Overlooking this site, an ice-core from the Sajama ice-cap (covering the last 25,000 years) evidenced an oxygen 18 isotopic excursion of +7‰ matching with the end of the Tauca phase, and more pronounced by about +5‰ compared with the neighboring Andean ice-cores isotopic records. Here we i) provide a new and original experimental use of lacustrine diatoms (n=21) at medium resolution (~300 years) together with ostracods (n=4) for isotopic δ18O paleolake water reconstruction (δ18Olake), ii) detail a simple hydro-isotopical model with constraints given by literature to explain the strong features in the δ18Olake signal and iii) explore whether the Tauca paleolake could contribute as a moisture source to precipitation at Sajama site when it disappears at 14.2 ka. Based on a new chronostratigraphy, the sedimentary sections cover lake Tauca phase (~18.7-14.1 ka) and lake Coipasa phase (~12.6-11.7 ka). On centuries time scale, strong features consistently appear in δ18Olake: an abrupt decrease during lake filling phases immediately followed by an increase during lake level stable phases. The highest variation occurred at ~15.9 ka with a δ18Olake fall of about ~14‰ concomitant with lake Tauca highstand, and followed by a δ18Olake increase of a similar amplitude four centuries later. We also show that this unexpected re-enrichment of δ18Olake can be partly explained with a simple hydro-isotopic model, based on Craig and Gordon's model, with coherent constraints by a re-equilibration of isotopic fluxes in lake steady-state. Based on an evaporative lake model and a simple water stable isotopic balance between two potential moisture sources for Sajama precipitation (eastward advected moisture and lake evaporation), we show that total or partial (from 5 to 60%) evaporation of the lake

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in rural villages of the Bolivian Amazon Prevalência da infecção pelo papilomavirus humano nas aldeias rurais do Amazonas Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cervantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer constitutes a major health problem in developing countries like Bolivia. The roles of certain genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer is well established. The prevalence of HPV infection among sexually active women varies greatly. Information regarding HPV infection in Bolivia is very much scarce, specially in regions like the Amazonian lowland. We studied 135 healthy women living in four rural localities of the Bolivian Amazon. Presence of HPV in DNA extracted from cervical swabs was analyzed using a reverse line hybridization assay. The estimated overall HPV infection prevalence among the studied rural localities was 5.9% (ranging from 0-16.6%. These values were unexpectedly low considering Bolivia has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The fact that Amazonian people seem to be less exposed to HPV, makes it likely that some other risk factors including host lifestyle behaviors and genetic background may be involved in the development of cervical cancer in this population.O câncer cervical constitui problema de saúde da maior importância nos países em desenvolvimento tais como a Bolívia. O papel de certos genótipos de papilomavirus humano (HPVs na patologia do câncer cervical está bem estabelecido. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV nas mulheres sexualmente ativas varia amplamente. Contudo, as informações existentes acerca da infecção pelo HPV na Bolivia são muito escassas, especialmente nas zonas rurais, nomeadamente na região amazônica do país. Foram estudadas 135 mulheres saudáveis, residentes em quatro localidades do Amazonas Boliviano. Foi detectada a presença de HPV no DNA extraído de esfregaços cervicais, utilizando o método de hibridização em linha reversa. A prevalência da infecção por HVP, encontrada nas localidades rurais, foi de 5,9% (variação entre 0-16,6%. Estes valores foram inesperadamente baixos, uma vez que a Bolívia é um país com alta

  9. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  10. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  11. [Obesity, migration and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise

    2012-06-13

    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  12. [Feeding and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, E

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is a transition period during which young people face many changes. Their desire to assert and differentiate themselves is reflected even in their food choices. These choices may have impacts until their adult lives. Moreover the media affect them in contradictory ways from images of extreme thinnesses to enticing advertisements of calorie food. A lack of self-esteem may appear, and in case of fertile ground may cause either diet, either addiction, or eating disorder. A comforting family as well as empathetic physicians have a main role in the medical care.

  13. Accessibility of adolescent health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Richter

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents represent a large proportion of the population. As they mature and become sexually active, they face more serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility and multiple barriers to accessing health care. A typical descriptive and explanatory design was used to determine what the characteristics of an accessible adolescent health service should be. Important results and conclusions that were reached indicate that the adolescent want a medical doctor and a registered nurse to be part of the health team treating them and they want to be served in the language of their choice. Family planning, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and psychiatric services for the prevention of suicide are services that should be included in an adolescent accessible health service. The provision of health education concerning sexual transmitted diseases and AIDS is a necessity. The service should be available thought out the week (included Saturdays and within easy reach. It is recommended that minor changes in existing services be made, that will contribute towards making a health delivery service an adolescent accessible service. An adolescent accessible health service can in turn make a real contribution to the community’s efforts to improve the health of its adolescents and can prove to be a rewarding professional experience to the health worker.

  14. Contraceptive needs of the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Petrus S; Goldstuck, Norman D

    2014-08-01

    The provision of contraception to adolescents requires specific attention. Adolescents require contraceptive methods which are safe, effective and simple to use. While long-acting reversible contraceptive methods are preferable, they should have a choice and not be forced or mandated especially in situations where this may compromise safety. After counselling they should have the ability to choose any method of contraception. Under the appropriate circumstances, each method of contraception may have a place. This chapter will be devoted to evaluating the most current scientific rationale for the indication for use of each method of contraception in adolescents.

  15. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  16. Systemic hypertension and associated factors in school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma B. Galal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic hypertension is an endemic disease, which causes serious morbidities and mortality in all age groups. Hypertension of adults in Egypt is 26%. It can start in childhood and needs to be assessed in Egyptian children and adolescents.Aim and objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of systemic hypertension in 12-14 year old school children and associated factors. Methods and study design: A cross sectional study was done in some preparatory public and private schools selected from a district of Cairo. The 234 children (167 females, 67males in this study were 12 - 14 year of age. Their weight ranged from 30 – 100 kg Subjects with high blood pressure (BP were identified according to the percentiles of Rosner, et al. Beside characteristics of the sample and blood pressure (BP, associated factors investigated were: - weight and body mass index (BMI, tea / coffee consumption, "added salt before tasting food", sleeping less than 8 hours per day and physical activity. Each student filled out stress and tension level tests. The school health team obtained informed parental consent to include their children in this study. Statistical analysis was done with EPI using chi-square, t-test, odd ratio (OR with 95% confidence limits (Cl and logistic regression with the 5% level for tests. The ethical committee of the faculty approved the study.Results / Finding: The prevalence of systemic hypertension was 10%. Children with high BP (23 were compared to 211 subjects with normotensive BP. High stress and tension score, less sleeping hours / day, adding salt to food and higher BMI were found significantly associated (p<0.05 with high BP. Study limitation: Researchers could assess preparatory schools children. However, primary and secondary school levels are separated in other schools and administrations. We used US standards for hypertension and BMI for children as local standards are not published.Conclusions: One tenth of 12

  17. Relative validation of the KiGGS Food Frequency Questionnaire among adolescents in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truthmann Julia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of the self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ "What do you eat?", which was used in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS 2003-2006. Methods The validation was conducted in the EsKiMo Nutrition Module, a subsample of KiGGS. The study population included 1,213 adolescents aged between 12 and 17. A modified diet history interview DISHES (Dietary Interview Software for Health Examination Studies was used as the reference method. In order to compare the food groups, the data assessed with both instruments were aggregated to 40 similar food groups. The statistical analysis included calculating and comparing Spearman's correlation coefficients, calculating the mean difference between both methods, and ranking participants (quartiles according to food group consumption, including weighted kappa coefficients. Correlations were also evaluated for relative body weight and socioeconomic status subgroups. Results In the total study population the Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from 0.22 for pasta/rice to 0.69 for margarine; most values were 0.50 and higher. The mean difference ranged between 1.4% for milk and 100.3% for pasta/rice. The 2.5 percentiles and 97.5 percentiles indicated a wide range of differences. Classifications in the same and adjacent quartile varied between 70.1% for pasta/rice and 90.8% for coffee. For most groups, Cohen's weighted kappa showed values between 0.21 and 0.60. Only for white bread and pasta/rice were values less than 0.20. Most of the 40 food groups showed acceptable to good correlations in all investigated subgroups concerning age, sex, body weight and socio-economic status. Conclusions The KiGGS FFQ showed fair to moderate ranking validity except for pasta/rice and white bread. However, the ability to assess absolute intakes is limited. The correlation coefficients

  18. Insulin resistance in adolescents with Down syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beserra Izabel CR

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is higher in individuals with Down syndrome (DS than in the general population; it may be due to the high prevalence of obesity presented by many of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insulin resistance (IR using the HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment method, in DS adolescents, describing it according to the sex, body mass index (BMI and pubertal development. Methods 15 adolescents with DS (8 males and 7 females were studied, aged 10 to 18 years, without history of disease or use of medication that could change the suggested laboratory evaluation. On physical examination, the pubertal signs, acanthosis nigricans (AN, weight and height were evaluated. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were analysed by the colorimetric method and RIA-kit LINCO, respectively. IR was calculated using the HOMA method. The patients were grouped into obese, overweight and normal, according to their BMI percentiles. The EPIINFO 2004 software was used to calculate the BMI, its percentile and Z score. Results Five patients were adults (Tanner V or presence of menarche, 9 pubertal (Tanner II – IV and 1 prepubertal (Tanner I. No one had AN. Two were obese, 4 overweight and 9 normal. Considering the total number of patients, HOMA was 1.7 ± 1.0, insulin 9.3 ± 4.8 μU/ml and glucose 74.4 ± 14.8 mg/dl. The HOMA values were 2.0 ± 1.0 in females and 1.5 ± 1.0 in males. Considering the nutritional classification, the values of HOMA and insulin were: HOMA: 3.3 ± 0.6, 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.3 ± 0.6, and insulin: 18.15 ± 1.6 μU/ml, 10.3 ± 3.5 μU/ml and 6.8 ± 2.8 μU/ml, in the obese, overweight and normal groups respectively. Considering puberty, the values of HOMA and insulin were: HOMA: 2.5 ± 1.3, 1.4 ± 0.6 and 0.8 ± 0.0, and insulin: 13.0 ± 5.8 μU/ml, 7.8 ± 2.9 μU/ml and 4.0 ± 0.0 μU/ml, in the adult, pubertal and prepubertal groups respectively. Conclusion The obese and overweight, female and

  19. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School......-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...

  20. Asthma in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hem, Erlend; Stensrud, Trine

    2011-12-01

    Athletes active in endurance sports are at an increased risk of acquiring asthma through their sports activities, especially so for cross-country skiers, biathlon skiers, swimmers and athletes of other endurance sports. Asthma may be present from early childhood or develop while in active sports. This article focuses on the physical activity and sports activities in children and adolescents. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is found in 8-10% of a normal child population of school age and in about 35% of children with current asthma. EIA is caused by the markedly increased ventilation during exercise, with increased heat and water loss through respiration, leading to bronchial constriction. The risk of developing asthma in the young athlete is related to the repeated daily training activity with increased epithelial damage of the airways, delayed repair due to the daily repetition of the training and increased airway mucosal inflammation. The increased environmental exposure through the sports activity to environmental agents, such as cold, dry air in skiers and chlorine compounds in swimmers, increases symptoms and signs of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, either worsening an existing asthma or leading to a novel disease in a previously healthy athlete. Several specific aspects of daily training life, environmental exposure, diagnostic procedures and aspects of treatment related to the regulations of medication use in sports need particular attention when addressing the adolescent athlete with respiratory symptoms.

  1. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  2. Association of Anthropometric Measures with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Normal-Weight Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Qorbani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This nationwide study was conducted to determine the association of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Iranian normal-weight children and adolescents. Methods: We analyzed the data of 3,565 children and adolescents (50.3% boys, aged 10-18 years, with a normal BMI (5th-84th percentile obtained from the third survey of ‘Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Disease' (CASPIAN III study. The diagnostic criteria for MetS were defined by the International Diabetes Federation consensus. Results: The prevalence of MetS for 10- to 13.9-year-old boys, 14- to 18-year-old boys, 10- to 13.9-year-old girls, and 14- to 18-year-old girls were 1.4, 2.8, 2.3, and 3.3%, respectively. After adjustment for age and sex, each unit increase in BMI (within normal range and waist circumference increased the odds of MetS from 6 to 72% and from 1 to 20%, respectively. The dominant pattern of dyslipidemia among the participants was high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: This study complements recent research about the high frequency of metabolic risk factors among normal-weight individuals in the pediatric age group.

  3. Evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in obese adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, L; Larsen, J; Pedersen, P L

    2010-01-01

    and elucidate whether a lower metabolic rate is present. Methods: In a group of 34 obese adolescents (age adolescent, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and basal oxygen consumption were measured...... and mitochondrial function in peripheral blood monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Significant increase in TSH (3.06 +/- 1.56 mU/L vs. 2.33 +/- 0.91 mU/L, p adolescents...... compared with lean adolescents. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated a lower mitochondrial mass (6385 +/- 1962 a.u. vs. 7608 +/- 2328 a.u., p adolescents compared with lean adolescents...

  4. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status among Danish adolescent girls and elderly women: the influence of sun exposure and vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Brot, C; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To determine seasonal variation in vitamin D status in healthy Caucasian adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in Denmark, and to quantify the impact of sun exposure and intake on the seasonal changes in vitamin D status.Subjects/methods:A 1-year...... concentrations (winter, summer, winter) were median (25, 75 percentiles) 23.4 (16.5, 36.4), 60.3 (42.7, 67.7), 29.5 (22.2, 40.4) and 47.2 (27.3, 61.1), 67.3 (35.1, 79.2), 50.5 (32.7, 65.5) nmol/l for girls and women, respectively. The usual sun habits were determinant (P=0.002) for change in vitamin D status...

  5. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  6. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  7. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff training;...

  8. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptom that results from a variety of factors. Adolescents who have difficulty talking about their feelings may show their emotional tension, physical discomfort, pain and low self-esteem with self-injurious behaviors. Although some teenagers may ...

  9. Fear, Fiction, and the Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grixti, Joe

    1982-01-01

    The popularity of horror fiction among adolescents is discussed in terms of the use of grammar for social interaction, personal development, and emotional therapy during a developmental stage characterized by fear and emotional upheaval. (MSE)

  10. Contraceptive care for the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in rates of teen pregnancy, abortion, birth,and contraceptive use, effective contraceptive counseling for adolescents should be a high priority for the primary care provider in the office setting. Adolescent psychosocial risk screening and appropriate counseling about sexual decision-making is necessary. Contraceptive services visits include, relevant history, limited physical examination, provision of information, anticipatory guidance about sexual behaviors, and the provision of contraceptive methods. Teens should always be encouraged to use a male condom during sex to reduce STI risk. A variety of barrier and hormonal contraceptive methods are available for the adolescent population. Education about and provision of EC is effective in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy and abortion in the United States. Contraceptive care for adolescents is a rewarding experience for primary care providers.

  11. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  12. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME IN ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Baptista

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Identification of adolescents at risk for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is critical, not only for an appropriate therapeutic approach, but also to prevent co-morbidities associated with the syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and infertility.

  13. Higher Calorie Diets Increase Rate of Weight Gain and Shorten Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K.; Mauldin, Kasuen; Michihata, Nobuaki; Buckelew, Sara M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current recommendations for refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, beginning around 1,200 calories to avoid refeeding syndrome. We previously showed poor weight gain and long hospital stay using this approach and hypothesized that a higher calorie approach would improve outcomes. Methods Adolescents hospitalized for malnutrition due to AN were included in this quasi-experimental study comparing lower and higher calories during refeeding. Participants enrolled between 2002 and 2012; higher calories were prescribed starting around 2008. Daily prospective measures included weight, heart rate, temperature, hydration markers and serum phosphorus. Participants received formula only to replace refused food. Percent Median Body Mass Index (% MBMI) was calculated using 50th percentile body mass index for age and sex. Unpaired t-tests compared two groups split at 1,200 calories. Results Fifty-six adolescents with mean (±SEM) age 16.2 (±.3) years and admit %MBMI 79.2% (±1.5%) were hospitalized for 14.9 (±.9) days. The only significant difference between groups (N = 28 each) at baseline was starting calories (1,764 [±60] vs. 1,093 [±28], p refeeding syndrome were seen using phosphate supplementation. These findings lend further support to the move toward more aggressive refeeding in AN. PMID:24054812

  14. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.

  15. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl

  16. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME IN ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Baptista; Maria João Vieira; Carla Meireles

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women. The syndrome often presents during adolescence, but the diagnosis in this age group is complicated by the overlap between features of the syndrome and physiologic findings observed during the normal progression of puberty. Objective:To review the diagnosis and treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence. Development:There are no consensual diagnostic criteria o...

  17. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence.

  18. Psychometric properties and clinical relevance of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; van Kampen, R.K.A.; van Kooten, T.; Meijer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated reliability, validity, and clinical relevance of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS) in Dutch adolescents. Methods: The Dutch translation of the ASHS was administered to 186 normal-sleeping adolescents and 112 adolescents with insomnia. Their sleep variables

  19. America's Adolescents: How Healthy Are They? Volume 1. Profiles of Adolescent Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Janet E.; And Others

    Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…

  20. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  1. Adolescents' Emotional Experiences of Mother-Adolescent Conflict Predict Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith L.; Powers, Sally I.

    2008-01-01

    Research on adolescent emotion has generally focused on expressions of emotion; however, there are reasons to believe that adolescents' experiences of emotion may be related to adolescent development in unique and important ways. This study examined the relation of adolescents' emotional experiences of conflict with their mothers to their…

  2. The association between parenting behavior and somatization in adolescents explained by physiological responses in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R.; Baetens, Imke; Vos, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study adds to the knowledge on somatization in adolescents by exploring its relation with parenting behavior and the mediating/moderating role of physiological responses in adolescents to parenting behavior. Method: Eighteen adolescents with high and 18 adolescents with low somati

  3. Never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Gwendolyn D; Knight, Candace; White, Reashanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decrease in adolescent pregnancy rates, rates among African American girls remain higher than other racial/ethnic adolescent groups. This descriptive qualitative study explored never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions about adolescent pregnancy. Sixty-four participants participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interviews examined beliefs about adolescent pregnancy and perceptions of life changes resulting from becoming pregnant during adolescence. Focus groups were held to validate findings from the interviews. Participants agreed that becoming pregnant during adolescence would negatively impact their education, family, and peers. Participants anticipated feelings of shame and embarrassment in the event that they became pregnant.

  4. [Endometriosis and surviving adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch, J; Allart, J-P

    2006-03-01

    Endometriosis is a recurrent and painful disease which sometimes disturbs severely the quality of life of women who suffer from it. It is then logical to include a psychological back-up to its medical and surgical treatment. Nevertheless this support is not often offered to patients. One can hypothesize another and completely different way of seeing the problem: the mood swings and depression of endometriotic patients could possibly be, at least in some of them, the cause of the graft of endometrial cells and not the effect of pain and infertility. The mechanism of the development of endometriotic lesions could be related to a lowering of immune defences due to an alteration of the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunologic network, resulting from difficult life experiences which mostly happen during adolescence. This concept may have beneficial effects for the patient whose case would be more understood in depth. But very few medical teams consider it worthwhile to include in their practices.

  5. Adolescents' information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree

    2014-05-01

    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.

  6. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  7. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  8. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  9. Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children POLICY STATEMENT Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence abstract Despite previous recommendations from the American Academy ... to be a popular activity among children and adolescents. This policy statement is an update to previous ...

  10. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living with Cancer ...

  11. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members of AACAP. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities More... ... More... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement ...

  12. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  13. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...

  14. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December 2015 There is a great ... the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and troubling issue needs to be ...

  15. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  16. Parental divorce, adolescents' feelings toward parents and drunkenness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families.

  17. The Pedestrian Behaviour of Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…

  18. Craving among Polysubstance-Using Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, Paul; Shiozaki, Teisha; Hiraoka, Regina; Tiffany, Stephen; Heavin, Sarah; Hall, Spencer; Teske, Noelle; Clegg, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of drug craving among adolescents with substance use disorders has been largely overlooked by addiction researchers. This study was designed to: (1) assess craving among adolescents with polysubstance use disorders (SUDs); and (2) examine the association between personality traits and craving among adolescents with SUDs. Craving was…

  19. Why adolescents use substances of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhigg, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    In summary, adolescent substance use is associated with a variety of risks. Using a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to treating adolescent substance users can yield positive results. Motivational interviewing and the adolescent community reinforcement approach are evidence-based, nonpharmacologic treatments for teens with substance use disorders.

  20. Literature for Adolescents: Gold or Dross?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Philomena

    1984-01-01

    Considers the differences between adolescent novels and adult novels. Traces the development of adolescent literature, focusing on early adolescent novels; new influences and directions; the "New Realism"; British, Canadian, and Australian writers; science fiction, and historical fiction. Raises questions about reviewing and selecting appropriate…