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Sample records for bolivia

  1. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  2. y El Alto, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Parra Bernal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente caso de estudio se analiza la empresarialidad informal como un reto de política pública y económica. Para ello, se efectuaron 20 entrevistas en profundidad a microempresarios y comerciantes del sector informal en las ciudades de La Paz y El Alto, en Bolivia en 2010, y a 3 funcionarios públicos de instituciones de apoyo al fomento empresarial en el mismo país. La principal reflexión giró en torno al establecimiento de que los empresarios informales poseen un elevado nivel de influencia en la efectividad de las políticas públicas implementadas para su sector, así como en los mecanismos que se han utilizado en Bolivia para incluirlos en el proceso.

  3. Radiation protection in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Cuadros, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

  4. Altiplano Sur de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Flores, Ricardo; Bommel, Pierre; Bourliaud, Jean; Chevarria Lazo, Marco; Cortes, Geneviève; Cruz, Pablo; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, Pierre; Joffre, Richard; Leger, Francois; Nina Laura, Juan Peter; Rambal, Serge; Rivière, Gilles; Tichit, Muriel; Tourrand, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Alimento de base de las poblaciones andinas desde hace milenios, la quinua se ha convertido hoy en un producto apreciado en el mercado internacional de alimentos dietéticos, orgánicos y equitativos. Este cambio lo iniciaron los mismos productores del Altiplano Sur de Bolivia hace aproximadamente unos 40 años. En medio de un desierto de altura, ellos lograron desarrollar una floreciente producción agrícola de exportación. Aunque cuentan con lucrativos nichos de mercado, los productores de quin...

  5. Bolivia: A Gasified Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Assies

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In October 2003 a wave of popular protest  brought down the Sánchez de Lozada government  in Bolivia. The intention to export natural gas to  the United States and Mexico triggered the protests, but actually stood for widespread discontent  with the Sánchez de Lozada government, the  preceding governments and the economic policies  pursued since 1985. The events belie the opinion  of various students of the Latin American democratic transitions who held that Bolivian democracy  was on its way towards consolidation and suggest that the recent inquiries into the quality of Latin  American democracies may point a way ahead in  rethinking democracy in the region. Taking such  assessments as a reference, this article reviews the  ‘gas war’ and looks at the Bolivian political regime as it has functioned over the past decades. It  will be argued that the ‘pacted democracy’, that  until now sustained institutionality, and the economic model adopted in 1985 have excluded an  important part of the population, both in political terms and where poverty alleviation and equity is  concerned. Increasing popular protest has been  met with increasing repression, which gradually  turned Bolivia into a ‘democradura’, or a ‘gasified  democracy’ that relies on teargas and bullets to  uphold itself. At present the country finds itself at  a crossroads. It either may reinvent democracy or  become an institutionalized ‘democradura’. Resumen: Bolivia: una democracia gasificadaEn octubre de 2003 una ola de protesta popular  llevó a la caída del gobierno de Sánchez de Lozada en Bolivia. La intención de exportar gas natural a los Estados Unidos y México gatilló dichas  protestas, aunque en realidad reflejaron un descontento general con el gobierno Sánchez de  Lozada, los gobiernos anteriores y las políticas  económicas implementadas desde 1985. Los  sucesos desmienten la opinión de varios analistas  de las

  6. Bolivia renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  7. Diabetes in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Alberto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, obesity, and related risk factors in major cities in Bolivia Methods. A population-based survey was conducted in four Bolivian cities: La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz, and Cochabamba. The total sample size was chosen to be 2 948 persons. The overall response rate was 86%, with the rate varying somewhat among the four cities. DM was diagnosed through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT 2 hours after an overload of 75 grams of glucose, using World Health Organization criteria. Results. The overall prevalence of DM in the four urban areas combined was 7.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 6.2%-8.3% and of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 7.8%. A total of 73.1% (95% CI: 65.0%-81.0% of those previously diagnosed with DM and 73.7% (95% CI: 61.0%-86.4% of newly diagnosed cases were overweight, according to measurements of body mass index. Hypertension was found in 36.5% (95% CI: 27.6%-45.5% of known diabetics and in 36.6% (95% CI: 23.0%-50.1% of newly diagnosed cases, compared to only 15.9% (95% CI: 14.3%-17.5% among people without DM. The disease was most common among older persons and those with little education. Conclusions. Diabetes is a genuine public health problem in Bolivia. Further, the high prevalence of IGT that was found suggests that diabetes prevalence will increase in the near future in the country unless prevention strategies are implemented.

  8. Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virreira, V.

    1981-01-01

    The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

  9. CAPTURED : evaluación Bolivia : Bolivia Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana Halkyer, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    El presente informe contiene los resultados de la Evaluación en Bolivia y se produce como parte de la evaluación final del proyecto CAPTURED. El equipo AGRUCO logro formular una Programa de Formación Continua intercultural descolonizador, que va desde el técnico operativo, medio y superior,

  10. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  11. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported

  12. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  13. The peanut landraces from Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is reagarded as the probable place of origin of the domesticated peanut, and an important world center of unique peanut diversity. As the first published study of its kind or peanut, this paper identifies and describes the infraspecific diversity of the crop in its country of origin and center of diverstity. 62 distinct landraces of Bolivian peanut were identified and systematically described. 42 landraces belong to Arachis hypogaea L. ssp. hypogaea var. hypogaea; 17 to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata; one to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var.vulgaris; and two to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. peruviana. With very few exceptions, the landraces encountered in Bolivia are almost entirely endemic to that country. The most typical peanuts from Bolivia pertain to the landraces “Crema”, “Colorado San Simón”, “Bayo americano”, “Overo”, and “Overo carenado”, which are widely cultivated throughout the country. A few regions of unusually high peanut diversity can be identified. In the Yungas region of La Paz, 11 landraces were collected, of which three are endemic. In the mountainous regions of Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, 18 landraces were collected, of which six are endemic. The Department of Tarija yielded 14 landraces , of which two are endemic. All of the aforementioned landraces pertain to the botanical  variety hypogaea. In contrast, the subspecies fastigiata has a remarkable center or diversity  in the watershed of the Rio Beni, where 10 landraces were collected in a fairly small area, nine of which  are endemic to that region. This monograph is intended to enhance the knowledge and appreciation of peanut diversity, and facilitate the conservation and use of peanut landraces by scientistis, plant breeders, and farmers

  14. Sistema de salud de Bolivia The health system of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ledo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las características generales del sistema de salud de Bolivia: su organización y cobertura; sus fuentes de financiamiento y gasto en salud; los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone; las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla, y el nivel que ha alcanzado la investigación en salud. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años, incluyendo el Seguro Universal Materno Infantil, el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura a Áreas Rurales, el Modelo de Salud Familiar, Comunitaria e Intercultural y el programa de subsidios monetarios Juana Azurduy, dirigido a fortalecer la atención prenatal y del parto.This paper describes the Bolivian health system, including its structure and organization, its financing sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and humans resources, its stewardship activities and the its health research institutions. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations developed in Bolivia: the Maternal and Child Universal Insurance, the Program for the Extension of Coverage to Rural Areas, the Family, Community and Inter-Cultural Health Model and the cash-transfer program Juana Azurduy intended to strengthen maternal and child care.

  15. Aeromagnetic and Bouger Gravity Data from Bolivia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a two-year assessment of the geology and mineral resources of the Altiplano and Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia, aeromagnetic and gravity data were...

  16. An Energy Overview of Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-08-13

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bolivia.

  17. La democracia directa en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Romero Ballivián

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Inexistente a principios del siglo XXI, el referéndum se ha convertido en Bolivia en un instrumento político de primer orden, lo que no va sin dificultades o contratiempos. El estudio de su importancia así como de los problemas que ha planteado es el objetivo del artículo, para lo cual realiza un análisis del marco legislativo, la estructura institucional, el marco regulador de la Corte Nacional Electoral, financiamiento, rendición de cuentas, dinámica de la campaña, la educación del elector y la actual propuesta de reforma a la legislación que regula esta figura de democracia directa.

  18. New Records of Lecanora for Bolivia. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwa Lucyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the lichen genus Lecanora Ach. are important but still poorly known components of almost all vegetation types in Bolivia. In this paper, seven species new for Bolivia are presented: Lecanora bicincta Ramond, L. fulvastra Kremp., L. hagenii (Ach. Ach., L. muralis (Schreb. Rabenh., L. percrenata H. Magn., L. stramineoalbida Vain. and L. strobilina (Spreng. Kieff. Their distributions are described and information on their diagnostic characters and chemistry is given

  19. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  20. All projects related to bolivia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per day, which is ... Over the past 15 years, the Andean countries - Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and ... Bolivia has gone through a long and conflictive process related to land redistribution.

  1. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Chura, O.; Trujillo, F.; Aguilar, Enric; Martí n-Herná ndez, Natalia; Ló pez-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Morá n-Tejeda, Enrique; Revuelto, Jesú s; Ycaza, P.; Friend, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control

  2. The TIPNIS Conflict in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract Soon after the formation of the Plurinational State of Bolivia in 2009, the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory (TIPNIS became the epicentre of a conflict over the construction of a road, initiated by Evo Morales’s administration, that would run through the park. Initially undertaken by the Brazilian company OAS, and funded by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES, the project was justified on the grounds that it would link the departments of Beni and Cochabamba, and bring development to an isolated locality. However, indigenous peoples from the lowlands opposed the scheme, and, together with their counterparts in the Andean region, organised a march that was violently dispersed by the Bolivian armed forces. In this article, I analyse the political processes in this Andean country, notably the reconfiguration of power from 2011 onwards, in parallel with economic measures adopted by the government. I conclude with observations about the relation between the national and regional spheres, arguing that indigenous repression forms part of a new developmentalist agenda.

  3. Eastern Bolivia: The White Promised Land. IWGIA Document 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman

    The Indians of Bolivia, already exploited by a military dictatorship, will have to take up more of the white man's burden if South Africans and Rhodesians accept an invitation to colonize the country. White South Africans, accustomed to the excesses of their own police, will find much that is familiar in Bolivia. Bolivia is a poor country, its per…

  4. Radiological Protection and Environmental Monitoring in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez Pacheco, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the main activities of the Department of Radiological Protection, Nuclear Energy Commission of Bolivia. The following topics are covered: organization, environmental control of air, water, milk and plants, personal dosimetry, instrumentation and calibration, protection in uranium mines. Standard setting and international cooperation aspects are also presented

  5. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project

  6. All projects related to bolivia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-16

    End Date: March 16, 2018. Topic: LATIN ... Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru. Program: ... Enhancing Women's Economic Empowerment Through Better Policies in Latin America. Project.

  7. Reforming the educated person in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Uski, Juha Janne Olavi

    2011-01-01

    The Bolivian educational reform law nr. 070 was approved in 2010 and its implementation is beginning in 2012. Basing itself on a combination of Marxist and Cultural Studies -influenced theories, the thesis examines the tensions between the vision of Law 070 and the conditions and aspirations of the stakeholders. A central concept in this discussion is ”the cultural production of the educated person”, and the development of the concept of the educated person through the history of Bolivia is d...

  8. Indigenous Competition for Control in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    made in return for their support. Despite this natural affinity, it took time for MNR planning to mature with respect to the Indian population. In...1949, the MNR attempted to seize power through a series of urban uprisings, yet they were soundly defeated. Planning for the uprising revealed the...to take control of Bolivia’s labor unions. This included the Federacion Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia (FSTMB), which had been allowed

  9. Area Handbook Series: Bolivia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    sightseeing on the national railroad, and the Indian cultures. The government’s Boliv- ian Institute of Tourism (Instituto Boliviano de Turismo ...Colegio de Mexico, 1979. Zavaleta Mercado, Ren6 (ed.). Bolivia, hoy. Mexico City: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1983. -. Las masas en Novienbre. La Paz...123 Bel6im (Brazil), 148 Bolivian Institute of Tourism (Instituto Brz6 Hum~ez, Manuel Isidoro, xxviis, Boliviano de Turismo ), 149 20, 164 Bolivian

  10. Predictors of completed childhood vaccination in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osetinsky, Brianna; Gaydos, Laura M; Leon, Juan S

    This project examines how access issues, ethnicity, and geographic region affect vaccination of children by two years of age in Bolivia. Bolivia's rich variation in culture and geography results in unequal healthcare utilization even for basic interventions such as childhood vaccination. This study utilizes secondary data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia to examine predictors of vaccination completion in children by two years of age. Using logistic regression methods, we control for health system variables (difficulty getting to a health center and type of health center as well as demographic and socio-economic covariates). The results indicated that children whose parents reported distance as a problem in obtaining health care were less likely to have completed all vaccinations. Ethnicity was not independently statistically significant, however, in a sub-analysis, people from the Quechua ethnic group were more likely to report 'distance as a problem in obtaining healthcare.' Surprisingly, living in a rural environment has a protective effect on completed vaccinations. However, geographic region did predict significant differences in the probability that children would be fully vaccinated; children in the region with the lowest vaccination completion coverage were 80% less likely to have completed vaccination compared to children in the best performing region, which may indicate unequal access and utilization of health services nationally. Further study of regional differences, urbanicity, and distance as a healthcare access problem will help refine implications for the Bolivian health system.

  11. Surnames in Bolivia: a study of the population of Bolivia through isonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Dipierri, José; Gomez, Emma Alfaro; Scapoli, Chiara; Mamolini, Elisabetta; Salvatorelli, Germano; De Lorenzi, Sonia; Carrieri, Alberto; Barrai, Italo

    2011-02-01

    In Bolivia, the Hispanic dual surname system is used. To describe the isonymic structure of Bolivia, the surname distribution of 12,139,448 persons registered in the 2006 census data was studied in 9 districts and 112 provinces of the nation, for a total of 23,244,064 surnames. The number of different surnames found was 174,922. Matrices of isonymic distances between the administrative units (districts and provinces) were constructed and tested for correlation with geographic distance. In the 112 provinces, isonymic distances were correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.545 ± 0.011 for Euclidean, 0.501 ± 0.012 for Nei's, and 0.556 ± 0.010 for Lasker's distance). The multiple regression of the surname effective number (α), equivalent to the allele effective number in a genetic system, was nonsignificant on latitude and longitude; however, it was highly significant and negative on altitude (r = -0.72). Because the Andes extend from north to south in west-central Bolivia, random inbreeding was lowest in the eastern districts, and highest in mountainous western Bolivia. Average α for the provinces was 122 ± 2; for the districts, it was 216 ± 29, and for the whole of Bolivia it was 213. The geographical distribution of α in the provinces is compatible with the settlement of subsequent groups of migrants moving from east and north toward the center and south of Bolivia. The relative frequency of indigenous surnames is correlated positively with altitude. This suggests that the country was populated by recent low-density demic diffusion over a low-density indigenous population. This may have been a common phenomenon in the immigration to tropical South America. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Additions to the known Vesperidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-nine Cerambycidae and two Vesperidae species not previously recorded from Bolivia are listed along with the department(s) where they were collected, and are thus added to the known fauna. An additional 22 species gleaned from existing publications, but whose Bolivia distribution is not recor...

  13. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  14. [Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydana, Edgar; Serral, Gemma; Borrell, Carme

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities and its relation to infant mortality in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. An ecological study based on data from the 2001 National Census on Population and Housing (Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda) covering the 327 municipalities in Bolivia's nine departments. The dependent variable was the infant mortality rate (IMR); the independent variables were indirect socioeconomic indicators (the percentage of illiterates older than 15 years of age, and the building materials and sanitation features of the houses). The geographic distribution of each indicator was determined and the associations between IMR and each socioeconomic indicator were calculate using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and adjusted with Poisson regression models. The resulting IMR for Bolivia in 2001 was 67 per 1000 live births. Rates ranged from <0.1 per 1000 live births in the Magdalena municipality, Beni department, to 170.0 per 1000 live births in the Caripuyo municipality, Potosí department. The mean rate of illiteracy per municipality was 17.5%; the mean percentage of houses without running water was 90.4%, and for those lacking sanitation services, 67.6%. The IMR was inversely associated with all of the socioeconomic indicators studied. The highest relative risk was found in housing without sanitation services. Multifactorial models adjusted for illiteracy showed that the following indicators were still strongly associated with the IMR: no sanitation services (Relative risk (RR)=1.54; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI)=1.38-1.66); adobe, stone, or mud walls (RR=1.54; 95%CI: 1.43-1.67); and, corrugated metal, straw, or palm branch roof (RR=1.34; 95%CI: 1.26-1.43). A significant association was found between poor socioeconomic status and high IMR in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. The municipalities in the country's central and southeastern areas had lower socioeconomic status and higher IMR. The lack of education, absence of basic sanitation

  15. Estilos estructurales del Subandino Sur de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    El Subandino Sur de Bolivia es una típica faja plegada y corrida de lámina delgada, con una notable regularidad en la geometría de las estructuras. Esta es una característica típica de las fajas plegadas en las que no se involucra el basamento en la deformación. Sin embargo, cuando se analiza en detalle la geometría y evolución de la deformación del Subandino Sur, se verifica que existen numerosas desviaciones de dicha regularidad. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los diferentes procesos ...

  16. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  17. GeoBolivia the initiator Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia's Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Rodriguez, Raul Fernando; Lesage, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Started in 2011, the GeoBolivia project (www.geo.gob.bo)aims at building the Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (IDE-EPB by its Spanish initials), as an effort of the Vice Presidency of the State to give an open access to the public geographic information of Bolivia. The first phase of the project has already been completed. It consisted in implementing an infrastructure and a geoportal for accessing the geographic information through WMS, WFS, WCS and CSW services. The project is currently in its second phase dedicated to decentralizing the structure of IDE-EPB and promoting its use throughout the Bolivian State. The whole platform uses free software and open standards. As a complement, an on-line training module was developed to undertake the transfer of the knowledge the project generated. The main software components used in the SDI are: gvSIG, QGis, uDig as GIS desktop clients; PostGreSQL and PostGIS as geographic database management system; geOrchestra as a framework containing the GeoServer map server, the GeoNetwork catalog server and the OpenLayers and Mapfish GIS webclient; MapServer as a map server for generating OpenStreetMap tiles; Debian as operating system; Apache and Tomcat as web servers. Keywords: SDI, Bolivia, GIS, free software, catalog, gvSIG, QGIS, uDig, geOrchestra, OpenLayers, Mapfish, GeoNetwork, MapServer, GeoServer, OGC, WFS, WMS, WCS, CSW, WMC.

  18. La Política Energética de Bolivia y las Relaciones entre Bolivia y Brasil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2006-01-01

    I artiklen analyseres Bolivias nationalisering af energiforekomster i 2006 i et historisk lys. Med dette udgangspunkt går analysen til sit centrale fokus, nemlig betydningen af nationaliseringen for de bilaterale relationer mellem Bolivia og Brasilien, der er blevet "ramt" af nationaliseringen....... Dette fører til en diskussion af forskellige positioner i den brasilianske interne debat om Brasiliens politik over for Bolivia, hvor regeringen er blevet kritiseret for ikke at forsvare Brasiliens interesser godt nok af ideologiske grunde. I artiklen argumenterer jeg for, at Brasiliens politik på...

  19. Additions and deletions to the known cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the known cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included....

  20. First record of chytridiomycosis in Bolivia (Rhinella quechua; Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Aguayo, Rodrigo; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2008-11-20

    The finding of tadpoles of Rhinella quechua (Huayramayu River, Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, Bolivia) with oral abnormalities caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis constitutes the first record of this fungal infection reported for Bolivian amphibians.

  1. All projects related to bolivia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to bolivia ... Topic: AQUACULTURE, FISH CULTURE, FISH PRODUCTION, FISHERY PRODUCT PROCESSING, FISH UTILIZATION, ... Project. This grant will support a study of the factors (aspects, instruments, sectors and ...

  2. Cinchona anderssonii (Rubiaceae), a new overlooked species from Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Persson, Claes; Albán, Joaquina

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona anderssonii, a new species from the Yungas forests of the Andes in Bolivia, is described and illustrated. It is unique in Cinchona by having the combination of elliptic leaf blades glossy above, distinct circular pit domatia at secondary vein axils, basipetally dehiscent capsules......, and relatively large seeds (8–11 mm long). A taxonomic key for the identification of the Cinchona species occurring in Bolivia is presented....

  3. Market brief : the oil and gas market in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Bolivia and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Bolivia has an estimated 54.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves and 440.5 million barrels of proven oil reserves. The main hope for future economic growth in Bolivia hinges on increasing natural gas exports. Opportunities for Canadian companies exist in exploration, production and pipeline construction. There is also a demand for drilling machinery equipment, pipeline components and services for the expansion of the proposed Bolivia-Brazil pipeline. The largest energy company in Bolivia is Repsol YPF which operates through its subsidiary Empress Petrolera Andina. The largest end-users of oil and gas equipment and services include domestic upstream operators and international oil majors and international exploration and production companies. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth along with the competitive environment, local capabilities, international competition and the Canadian position. Considerations for market-entry in Bolivia were also outlined.

  4. The silurian and devonian vertebrates of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    à quelque Bradyodonte primitif. Les Actinoptérygiens ne sont représentés que par quelques écailles isolées, du Dévonien terminal, et qui évoquent le genre Moythomasia Les restes de Vertébrés les plus abondants dans les nodules du Dévonien de Bolivie sont d'étranges éléments osseux en forme de flûte de Pan qui sont ici attribués au genre Zamponiopteron n.g. Ces éléments, qui n'ont jamais été signalés ailleurs qu'en Bolivie, peuvent être interprétés comme des nageoires paires ankylosées de quelque Chondrichthyen inconnu Trois espèces ont été reconnues dans ce genre, mais elles correspondent seulement à des types morphologiques et il n'y a aucune certitude quant à leur appartenance à des espèces biologiques différentes. Toute conclusion générale d'ordre paléobiogéographique concernant cette faune serait prématurée Cependant, on doit noter qu'elle comprend un mélange de formes à vaste répartition (Rhénanides, quelques Acanthodiens, Actinoptérygiens de type Moythomasia, des formes dont les affinités sont transpacifiques (Acanthodiens proches de Sinacanthus et des formes peut-être endémiques (Pucapampella, Zamponiopteron. Se describen restos de Vertebrados silúricos y devónicos en varias localidades de Bolivia La mayor parte de los especimenes se conservan en concreciones fosfáticas procedentes del Devónico del Altiplano y de la región subandina Algunos especímenes aislados se encontraron en areniscas o lutitas. Los 'Agnathos' se conocen sólo por unas escamas de Thelodontes del final del Silúrico o Devónico inferior de Seripona, Chuquisaca. Todos los demás restos de Vertebrados se atribuyen a Gnathostomos, en particular a Acanthodios, Placodermos, Chondrichthyos y Actinopterygios. Los Acanthodios son representados por algunos huesos dentígeros de mandíbulas de Ischnacanthidos y por espinas y cinturones pectorales de Climatiidos. Son relativamente abundantes y casi no difieren de los restos de Acanthodios conocidos

  5. Diversity of picornaviruses in rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, W. Allan; Khetsuriani, Nino; Peñaranda, Silvia; Maher, Kaija; Venczel, Linda; Cselkó, Zsuzsa; Freire, Maria Cecelia; Cisterna, Daniel; Lema, Cristina L.; Rosales, Patricia; Rodriguez, Jacqueline R.; Rodriguez, Wilma; Halkyer, Percy; Ronveaux, Olivier; Pallansch, Mark A.; Oberste, M. Steven

    2015-01-01

    The family Picornaviridae is a large and diverse group of viruses that infect humans and animals. Picornaviruses are among the most common infections of humans and cause a wide spectrum of acute human disease. This study began as an investigation of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in a small area of eastern Bolivia, where surveillance had identified a persistently high AFP rate in children. Stools were collected and diagnostic studies ruled out poliovirus. We tested stool specimens from 51 AFP cases and 34 healthy household or community contacts collected during 2002–2003 using real-time and semi-nested RT-PCR assays for enterovirus, parechovirus, cardiovirus, kobuvirus, salivirus, and cosavirus. Anecdotal reports suggested a temporal association with neurologic disease in domestic pigs, so six porcine stools were also collected and tested with the same set of assays, with the addition of an assay for porcine teschovirus. A total of 126 picornaviruses were detected in 73 of 85 human individuals, consisting of 53 different picornavirus types encompassing five genera (all except Kobuvirus). All six porcine stools contained porcine and/or human picornaviruses. No single virus, or combination of viruses, specifically correlated with AFP; however, the study revealed a surprising complexity of enteric picornaviruses in a single community. PMID:23804569

  6. El dilema del arte popular en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupe Cajas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda la comunicación desde las tres interpretaciones más importantes: la tradicionalista, la militar y mercantilista y el arte popular tan inestable, cuestionado y cambiante. Canclini cuestiona la compartamentalización de cultura: popular y de medios y esboza los problemas que plantea la tradicional miopía de no reconocer la universalización y ubicuidad de la cultura de masas. Se agregan otros temas como: ¿Re-intelección de los medios? apuntes sobre un libro de los Mattelart, ¿"Ética" o "Deontología" de la comunicación social?, El lenguaje del vestido y de la fiesta,Talleres de cultura Popular en Santiago de Chile, El dilema del arte popular en Bolivia,¿Sobrevivirán las artesanías aborígenes argentinas?, Los tejedores de El Tintorero, Tecnologías de computación y Tercer Mundo, La cobertura del terremoto en México, La comunicación como quehacer y como problema, la comunicación planificada sirve al desarrollo

  7. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The economy of Bolivia is based mainly on agriculture and resource extraction, making Bolivia one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Approximately 14 per cent of exports are hydrocarbons. Starting in 1996, the oil and gas sector was privatised, resulting in the domination of multinational corporations. It is estimated that the natural gas reserves of Bolivia stand in excess of 2.2 trillion cubic metres. Equipment, materials, and services used in all stages of the oil and gas production and distribution chain are all in demand in Bolivia. Over the medium term, it is expected that pipelines and equipment required for gas-fired power plants represent the most important opportunity in the country. Incentives for vehicle and industrial conversion were included in the new domestic energy plan, as well as the extension of the domestic gas distribution system to 250,000 homes. Canadian geomatics capability could fill the requirements concerning the Bolivian oil and gas assets still in the exploration, development, and documentation stages. Companies with exploration and development contracts, companies producing from commercial fields, refinery operators, producers in the liquid propane gas and compressed natural gas sub-sector, as well as pipeline operators are all considered key players, in addition to the Bolivian Chamber of Hydrocarbons. The customers are sophisticated buyers who purchase based on technical specifications and price negotiations. There are no significant non-tariff barriers, and Bolivia has adopted liberal trade policies. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  8. 77 FR 30584 - Notice of Termination of United States-Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... of Termination of United States--Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty AGENCY: Department of State and Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Government of Bolivia has...-9580. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bolivia delivered notice on June 10, 2011, that it was terminating the...

  9. 76 FR 74690 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... and Ethnological Material From Bolivia AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Department of... archaeological and ethnological material from Bolivia. The restrictions, which were originally imposed by... archaeological and ethnological material from Bolivia to which the restrictions apply. DATES: Effective Date...

  10. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  11. Opening up Brazil's hydrocarbon sector - the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline, which transports natural gas more than 3000 km from Bolivia to Brazil, cost US$2.1 billion to construct. Despite the substantial benefits for both Bolivia and Brazil and the involvement of reputable private partners, the perceived risks and complexities of this large project made financing it major challenge. neither of these countries has had a tradition of independent regulation or economic fuel pricing, and the pipeline was the first major gas infrastructure project involving the private sector in Brazil. The presentation explains the historical features of the project and how the project was used to open up Brazilian oil and gas sector to private investment and competition. (author)

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Bolivia has an area of 1,098,580 square kilometers. Its capital is La Paz. The western part of the country is dominated by two ranges of the Andes Mountains, the Cordillera Occidental on the vest flank of the high plateau (Altiplano) and the Cordillera Real (or Oriental) on the east flank. The northern Andes average 5,486 meters in elevation; the southern Andes are not as lofty. The Altiplano is 3,658 to A,267 meters high and 129 km. in average width; it is the largest basin of inland drainage in South America and contains the renowned Lake Titicaca on the Peruvian-Bolivian border. The eastern tropical lowlands or pampas (Oriente) comprise about two-thirds of the country, with rain forest in the northern portion. An intermediate zone of valleys and basins lies between the eastern Andes and Oriente. Bolivia differs from other Andean countries, like Chile, Peru and Ecuador, in having large areas of Preeambrian schists, gneisses, migmatites and granites. These crop out in the eastern part of the country. Parts of these rocks contain banded iron formations (i.e., in the Muttin region) and are probably early Precambrian in age. Little systematic exploration for uranium was undertaken in Bolivia until the late 1960's. In 1967, 1968 and 1969 technical assistance was requested from, and provided by, the IAEA. This work led to evaluation of radioactive anomalies in veins of northeast Bolivia and in sandstones in the extreme southern part of the country. Although no uranium reserves are now credited to Bolivia, the geologic possibilities for several kinds of uranium deposits coupled with the relatively limited work done to date suggest that uranium orebodies will be discovered. It is estimated that the potential resources of Bolivia are in the range of 10,000 to 100,000 tonnes uranium

  13. Bolivia. The new nuclear research center in El Alto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors in Latin America have become a priority in public policy in the last decade. Bolivia wants to become the 8th country to implement peaceful nuclear technology in this area with the new Center for Research and Development in the Nuclear Technology. The Center will be the most advanced in Latin America. It will provide for a wide use of radiation technologies in agriculture, medicine, and industry. After several negotiations Bolivia and the Russian Federation signed the Intergovernmental Agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy and the construction of the Nuclear Research and Technology Center.

  14. Bolivia. The new nuclear research center in El Alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2016-05-15

    Research reactors in Latin America have become a priority in public policy in the last decade. Bolivia wants to become the 8th country to implement peaceful nuclear technology in this area with the new Center for Research and Development in the Nuclear Technology. The Center will be the most advanced in Latin America. It will provide for a wide use of radiation technologies in agriculture, medicine, and industry. After several negotiations Bolivia and the Russian Federation signed the Intergovernmental Agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy and the construction of the Nuclear Research and Technology Center.

  15. Determination of favourable areas for uranium prospecting in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, E.

    1981-01-01

    The most prominent geological, lithological, stratigraphic, orogenic, metallogenetic, palaeogeographic and geochemical features favourable for the concentration of uranium deposits in Bolivia are described. This is a generalized study of the features mentioned above and should provide guidelines for eventual better understanding of the geology of Bolivia in general and that of uranium in particular. The purpose here is to demonstrate rational planning, which should be followed by the determination of favourable areas for uranium exploration, by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN), and to provide basic information for the drawing up of contracts with foreign and/or national organizations interested in investing in uranium exploration. (author)

  16. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    in Bolivia, we had no patients with reactivation or transmission through the graft even though many of the patients and donors were serologically positive for Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Decolonization of Bolivia's Antinarcotics Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Hesselroth

    2016-03-01

    Este artículo sostiene que, en el siglo XX, se desarrolló una forma peculiar de colonización en la política antinarcótica de Bolivia, compuesta por rasgos parecidos a los del colonialismo externo e interno. Por una parte, las instituciones internacionales y los Estados Unidos lograron imponer en el país un sistema de control y prohibición del cultivo y consumo de la hoja de coca. Por otra parte,  la élite gobernante apoyada por los EE.UU. impuso su poder y dominio sobre los cocaleros al introducir esta prohibición  y promover la erradicación forzosa de la coca con el auspicio de EE.UU., poniendo en severo peligro los derechos de los  cocaleros. A diferencia de anteriores gobiernos que aceptaron pasivamente las decisiones tomadas en foros internacionales acerca de la clasificación de la hoja de coca como droga ilegal y siguieron con rigor las instrucciones de los EE.UU. acerca de la erradicación de la coca, el gobierno de Evo Morales está actuando para cambiar la situación  en un doble esfuerzo internacional y nacional. Analizando las políticas de este gobierno entre 2006-2014, este artículo sostiene que en el manejo de la política antinarcótica está siguiendo un proceso particular de descolonización para defender los usos tradicionales de la hoja de coca y proteger los derechos sociales, económicos y culturales de las poblaciones andinas involucradas en su producción y/o consumo, y promover el desarrollo económico de las áreas donde se cultiva.

  18. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Meneses, Lidia; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2012-08-02

    The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be used as a base for subsequent work

  19. Oil and gas market report. Bolivia. Panorama and perspective for business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Mourik, J.A.M.

    1999-10-01

    Bolivia, with its large oil and natural gas potential, is becoming an increasingly important link in South American energy trade. With new fields and pipeline construction, the nation is becoming the natural gas hub for the Southern Cone. In 1998, Bolivia experienced 4,7% GDP growth, the fastest in South America, and Bolivia's best performance since 1988. In addition, Bolivia brought its inflation rate to a 2-decade low of 4,4 %. In addition to tight global capital markets, investments also is expected to decrease due to the completion of the Bolivia to Brazil gas pipeline. This extremely capital-intensive project accounted for a significant portion of Bolivia's investment for 1998 and 1999. Bolivia has made significant economic improvements over the past few years by adopting a series of free market policies. The mayor improvements in economic growth have been made possible primarily through the government's unique capitalization program of key national industries. In addition to the Capitalization Program, Bolivia's economic growth is a result of its involvement in several free trade associations. Bolivia, as well as Chile, is an associate partner of the Mercosur, whose members include Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Bolivia is also member of the Andean Pact, which comprises Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Bolivia's unique involvement in both of these trade groups is allowing it to become an important cornerstone in the integration of the South American continent. Specifically, Bolivia is increasingly becoming an important transport hub within the continent. Energy is one of the main products Bolivia is attempting to transport. According to the government, nearly $5 billion of investment is needed by 2005 so Bolivia can succesfully develop its oil and gas reserves, build pipelines, and construct power plants if it wishes to emerge as the regional hub

  20. New species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2014-11-14

    Five new Elaphidiini species are described from Bolivia including Anelaphus maculatus sp. nov. from Tarija and Mephritus bonasoi sp. nov., M. meyeri, sp. nov., M. punctulatus sp. nov. and M. eleandroi sp. nov. from Santa Cruz. A revised key to all 22 South American Mephritus species is provided.

  1. Poverty and Nutrition in Bolivia. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Judith; Lopez, Cynthia

    In Bolivia, malnutrition afflicts about 25 percent of children under 3 and 12-24 percent of women. It contributes to high death rates, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and low work productivity. Malnutrition and its effects are particularly severe among poor, rural, and indigenous populations. Malnutrition is both caused by and causes…

  2. Education Reform in Bolivia: Transitions towards Which Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrueta, Jose Antonio; Avery, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the impact of educational reforms on young people in Bolivian society as they transition into adulthood, against the backdrop of globalisation and far-reaching structural changes. Ethnicity and cultural capital are linked in complex ways with social stratification in Bolivia. In a pluricultural society, the language of…

  3. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  4. Bilingual Intercultural Teacher Education: "Nuevos Maestros Para Bolivia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Educational reform efforts in Bolivia have created possibilities for teacher-training institutions to focus on bilingual intercultural education. How teacher trainers and future teachers embark upon this endeavor differs somewhat depending on the sociolinguistic, historical, and institutional contexts of each community. This article reports…

  5. Bolivia: descentralización, crisis social y democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Zuazo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los cambios producidos en la situación sociopolítica de Bolivia a partir de las elecciones de junio de 2002, en las que dos partidos (Movimiento al Socialismo, de Evo Morales, y Movimiento Indígena Pachacutí, de Felipe Quispe de corte indigenista alcanzaron 41 representantes en el Congreso Nacional.

  6. American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia. The Ball State Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunworth, John

    Four American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia are surveyed in this document in connection with a project to provide inservice development in the form of graduate courses, workshops, and consultantships. The four schools were 1) the American Cooperative School in La Paz, serving children of all nationalities from prekindergarten through grade 12…

  7. The Miners' Radio Stations in Bolivia: A Culture of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Examines local community radio stations in rural regions of Bolivia. Finds that active miners' radio has flourished as an entertainment and political medium and that, through their radio stations, miners' organizations have played an important role in shaping the political position of the Bolivian union movement. (KEH)

  8. Cultivating fish for better livelihoods in Bolivia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 févr. 2015 ... Bolivia, a country without access to the sea, has one of the lowest rates of fish consumption in the world despite the high potential for fisheries and fish culture in the Amazon. To increase fish consumption and to make better use of the fisheries and aquaculture potential, the Bolivian government created the ...

  9. Melting glaciers signal climate change in Bolivia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-13

    May 13, 2011 ... Melting glaciers signal climate change in Bolivia ... Global warming is occurring faster at high altitudes, causing the ... and how the local environment was going to change in years to come. ... New economic opportunities and better transportation to markets in La Paz have brought migrants to the area.

  10. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be

  11. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga Rodrigo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55% were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25% and dermatological disorders (24%. Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47% and acute diarrheal diseases (37%. The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The

  12. Idiomas, Escuelas y Radios en Bolivia. Cuadernos de Investigacion 3. (Languages, Schools and Radios in Bolivia. Investigative Notes Number 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Javier

    Bolivia has a multilingual population divided among three language families: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara. In practice, however, the country has a monolingual system, since Spanish is the language of government, education, and professional and technical fields, and dominates in urban areas. Quechua and Aymara prevail in rural areas and in native…

  13. The Corrosion control in the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline; O controle da corrosao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the techniques and procedures adopted for the corrosion control of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. In buried pipes, the corrosion process may occur on the external surface in contact with the surrounding soil as well on the internal surface in contact with the conveyed fluid, being necessary the simultaneous mitigation of the both processes. (author)

  14. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  15. The history of neurosurgery in Bolivia and pediatric neurosurgery in Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.

    2013-01-01

    The practice of neurosurgery in Bolivia began thousands of years ago with skull trepanation. This procedure dates from the earliest period of the Tiwanaku culture, a preInca civilization. Neurosurgical development in Bolivia has its origins in the late 19th century and can be divided in two stages. At the beginning, before the advent of neurosurgery as a discipline, some general surgeons performed procedures on the skull and brain. Formal neurosurgery in Bolivia was developed with the arrival...

  16. Bolivia's gas heads for Brazil as Argentina waits - and watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.

    1998-01-01

    The first 1,800 km stretch of a 3,400 km natural gas pipeline from Bolivia to Brazil will start operating in December. First planned 50 years ago, the pipeline has long been expected to result in an immediate surge of gas use in Brazil. However, impending deep recession in Brazil makes this prospect less likely despite the power shortages which indicate the need for considerable gas imports. Initially, most Bolivian gas will flow through Brazil to Argentina. But gas production is expanding rapidly in Argentina and the supply contract with Bolivia ends in 1999. Plans are well advanced to build two gas lines into the south of the Brazil from Argentina. Ultimately, it is anticipated that Argentina, which has abundant reserves and a virtually saturated domestic market, will become the principal source of natural gas for Brazil. (UK)

  17. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2015-02-24

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.

  18. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  19. The MAS Six Years in Power in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay of:– The Rise of Evo Morales and the MAS, by Sven Harten. London/New York: Zed Books, 2011.– Evo Morales and the Movimiento al Socialismo in Bolivia; The First Term in Context, edited by Adrian J. Pearce. London, Institute for the Study of the Americas, 2011.– El estado de derecho como tiranía, by Luis Tapia. La Paz: CIDES/UMSA, 2011.– From Rebellion to Reform in Bolivia: Class Struggle, Indigenous Liberation and the Politics of Evo Morales, by Jeffery R. Webber. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2011.– La democracia desde los márgenes: Transformaciones en el campo político boliviano, by María Teresa Zegada, with Claudia Arce, Gabriela Canedo and Alber Quispe. La Paz: Muela del Diablo Editores/CLACSO, 2011.

  20. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-10

    Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae, Austrophthiracarus longisetosus sp. nov., Phthiracarus allocotos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus amboroensis sp. nov. from Bolivia are described and figured. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Additional descriptions and taxonomical notes for three ptyctimous species: Acrotritia peruensis (Hammer, 1961), Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913), and Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) sedecimus Niedbała, 2004 are added. A list of twenty six ptyctimous species from Bolivia is presented, ten of these species are new records for the fauna of Bolivia. A key to all species of ptyctimous mites of Bolivia is presented.

  1. Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

    2014-11-13

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians.

  2. Social Movement Mobilization and Hydrocarbon Policy in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Pueblos SEMAPA Servicio Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado CIDOB Confederación Indígena del Oriente de Bolivia CPIB Central de Pueblos...construction of the Sica-Sica Arica oil pipeline through Chile .84 Unfortunately, because of declining expertise, YPFB was unable to produce enough oil to...proposed plan to export natural gas through Chile was also a factor in the mobilizing of the gas wars, because it hit a nationalist nerve.125 This

  3. The Nation State v. Indianist Revitalization Dialectic in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early in 2006, the republic of Bolivia has been ruled by the first indigenous president in that country’s history: the Aymara Evo Morales, union leader and first name in the ballot of the so-called “Movement for Socialism” (MAS. His political rise, electoral victory and government program have drawn considerable attention from international mass media and been the subject of valuable political and sociological analyses. From the perspective of comparative anthropology, the process can be understood as an instance, in the Andean cultural context, of what Anthony Wallace called a “revitalization movement,” triggered by the convergence, at a juncture of crisis begun in 1997, of a number of historical conditions of variable duration in Bolivia as a national project.

    Desde comienzos de 2006, la república de Bolivia cuenta con el primer presidente indígena de su historia: el aymara Evo Morales, dirigente sindical y cabeza de lista del llamado “Movimiento al Socialismo” (MAS. Su ascensión política, victoria electoral y programa de gobierno han llamado mucho la atención de los medios informativos internacionales y han sido objeto de valiosos análisis políticos y sociológicos. Desde la perspectiva de una antropología comparada, el proceso se ajusta bien, en el contexto cultural andino, a lo que Anthony Wallace llamara un “movimiento de revitalización”, desencadenado por la convergencia, en un periodo de crisis iniciado en 1997, de varias condiciones estructurales de duración histórica variable en Bolivia como proyecto nacional.

  4. Pragmatic Idealism: Ernesto Che Guevaras Strategic Choice for Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    security could be achieved through a more mature guerrilla movement. B. LITERATURE REVIEW A review of previous analysis and criticism regarding...was, he split his time prior to Bolivia between Tanzania and Czechoslovakia.24 Whether Guevara spent the majority of his time nursing the emotional ...believed it rational to pursue revolution prior to the maturation of a revolutionary movement as long as the objective

  5. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Malm, O.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  6. [Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Navarro-Costa, Dennis; Yucra, Omar; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Moscoso, Manuel; Arteaga, Ricardo; Nakao, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.

  7. Appraisal of snakebite incidence and mortality in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Postigo, Jorge R

    2014-06-01

    No information has been yet published on snakebite in Bolivia. The country includes very different ecological situations leading to various epidemiological risks. A study has been carried out to evaluate the incidence and location of snakebite, particularly in relation with altitude, in order to improve management. Investigations on snakebite epidemiology were based on a) cases treated in health facilities as reported by health authorities and b) household surveys carried out in areas with high variations of altitude, in various regions of Bolivia. An average of 700 bites was treated each year in Bolivia (national annual incidence = 8 bites per 100,000 people) with a great disparity between districts. Household surveys showed annual incidences ranged from 30 to 110 bites per 100,000 inhabitants depending on location. Annual mortality ranged 0.1-3.9 per 100,000 people. A significant and constant inverse correlation was shown between snakebite incidence and altitude, which may be explained by both snake and human distributions and activities. Notification of snakebite is useful for improving patient management and informing antivenom distribution. It should also involve the report of deaths and clinical details of envenomation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The debate on family planning and reproductive rights in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, M

    1991-01-01

    Using Bolivia as the example, the author critiques international organization and health professional emphasis upon providing family planning services as inadequate to meet the needs and interests of poor women. The feminist and women's movements should be expected to fight to regain the right of self-determination, and to demand integral health care for women. Contraception will constitute but a component of this holistic approach. Poverty, natalism, development, and population policies are all interrelated issues in Bolivia as the country proceeds through a period of democratization. Where total fertility averages 5 children/women as it does in Bolivia, women should certainly have the right to choose contraception in the control of fertility. Simple provision of such services and supplies will not, however, suffice to solve more deeply rooted social and economic problems faced by those women. The author further fears that some parts of the feminist movement have forgotten that population and related policies developed and imposed by other cultures have little interest in respecting the self-determination of women as individuals. Support for these policies by movement members only reinforces and helps to reproduce existing conditions of poverty and unequal rights.

  9. Searching for Status: New Elites in the New Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that those strategies enabling the recognition and distinction of the elite in Bolivia have collapsed since Evo Morales assumed the country’s presidency in early 2006. Not only have new political elites taken power, the established and inherited societal stratifications have also been affected. Reviewing three emergent groups potentially occupying new elite positions – the progressive blanco-mestizos, the wealthy urban indigenous sectors, and the social movement leaders with their politicized cadres – it is argued that in today’s Bolivia, the political dimensions of anti-elitism have raided the traditional material and culturalsymbolic domains of elite distinction. The political dimensions of anti-elitism might have altered or even largely disqualified the indicators traditionally considered valid in the material and culturalsymbolic domains. Resumen: A la búsqueda de status: las nuevas élites en la nueva BoliviaEn este ensayo se sostiene que en Bolivia las estrategias que permiten el reconocimiento y prestigio de las élites se han derrumbado desde que Evo Morales asumiera la presidencia del país a principios de 2006. No solamente nuevas élites políticas han asumido el poder, sino además se han visto afectadas las estratificaciones sociales establecidas. En la revisión de tres grupos emergentes que ocuparán potencialmente las posiciones de la nueva élite – los mestizos blancos progresistas, los sectores indígenas urbanos ricos y los líderes de movimientos sociales con sus cuadros politizados –, aquí se sostiene que en la Bolivia de hoy las dimensiones políticas del anti-elitismo se han apropiado del material tradicional y los dominios culturales y simbólicos de las distinciones de élite. Las dimensiones políticas del anti-elitismo pueden haber alterado e incluso descalificado en gran parte los indicadores considerados tradicionalmente válidos en los dominios material y simbólico-cultural.

  10. 75 FR 606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout... Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY...)-- all native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. This...

  11. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered... Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. DATES: This rule...

  12. Desigualdades socioeconómicas y mortalidad infantil en Bolivia Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Maydana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar las desigualdades socioeconómicas y su relación con la mortalidad infantil en los municipios de Bolivia en 2001. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico a partir de los datos del Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda de 2001 para los 327 municipios de los nueve departamentos de Bolivia. La variable dependiente fue la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI y las independientes fueron indicadores socioeconómicos indirectos (la proporción de analfabetos mayores de 15 años y las características constructivas y sanitarias de las viviendas. Se describió la distribución geográfica por indicador y se analizó la relación entre la TMI y los indicadores socioeconómicos mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman y el ajuste de modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: La TMI estimada para Bolivia en 2001 fue de 67 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. Las tasas fluctuaron entre OBJECTIVES: To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities and its relation to infant mortality in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. METHODS: An ecological study based on data from the 2001 National Census on Population and Housing (Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda covering the 327 municipalities in Bolivia's nine departments. The dependent variable was the infant mortality rate (IMR; the independent variables were indirect socioeconomic indicators (the percentage of illiterates older than 15 years of age, and the building materials and sanitation features of the houses. The geographic distribution of each indicator was determined and the associations between IMR and each socioeconomic indicator were calculate using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and adjusted with Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The resulting IMR for Bolivia in 2001 was 67 per 1 000 live births. Rates ranged from < 0.1 per 1 000 live births in the Magdalena municipality, Beni department, to 170.0 per 1 000 live births in the Caripuyo municipality, Potosí department. The mean rate of

  13. Physical ages of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.; Pilot, J.

    1980-01-01

    Age determinations of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia, have been performed using the K-Ar and Rb-Sr methods. The results obtained permit to draw conclusions with regard to the tectono-magmatic evolution of Eastern Cordilleres of Bolivia, and to the prospection and exploration of new deposits in the metallogenetic province

  14. Teacher Education Reform and Subaltern Voices: From Politica to Practica in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, the National Educational Reform in Bolivia instituted reforms that called for a model of education that held at its center the knowledge and languages of Indigenous people. The types of change called for by the reforms in Bolivia signify major transformations in teacher preparation practices and a concerted emphasis on training in…

  15. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  16. Contesting the notion of "The Pink Tide", Case studies of Bolivia and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Vibeke; Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Vi sammenligner venstredrejningen i Bolivia og Brasilien og diskuterer om disse landes udviklinger er en del af en venstredrejning i Latinamerika.......Vi sammenligner venstredrejningen i Bolivia og Brasilien og diskuterer om disse landes udviklinger er en del af en venstredrejning i Latinamerika....

  17. Micología en Bolivia: Un tema Latente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pacasa-Quisbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El reino de los hongos es uno de los más diversos grupos de organismos en el planeta, están ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza, principalmente en ambientes terrestres y en menor proporción en ambientes acuáticos. Muchos científicos sugieren que el Reino de los Hongos seria hiperdiverso y podría superar los 3.5 M de especies (O’Brien et al. 2005. Muchas especies aun no fueron descritas y podrían estar presentes en ecosistemas tropicales, en ambientes no explorados, aunque también existirían especies cripticas. Bolivia es considerada como uno de los países megadiversos a nivel mundial en riqueza animal, vegetal, insectos y microorganismos, en su amplio territorio contiene diversos ecosistemas que ofrecen una amplia variedad de hábitats de esta riqueza. Las investigaciones micológicas se han concentrado en las ramas médicas y afines, estudiando patógenos de humanos y animales, pero ¿Cuál es el avance de la ciencia micológica en Bolivia con relación con otras ciencias como la Agronomía, Ecología, Medio Ambiente, Fitopatología, entre otras? Se han conseguido importantes avances en la descripción de la diversidad de plantas, animales e insectos, en cambio investigaciones en microbiología del suelo se han concentrado en el uso o aplicación de algún microorganismo benéfico para el control de plagas, enfermedades y promoción del crecimiento de las plantas en nuestro país. El reino de los hongos es hiperdiverso, pero escasamente estudiados en nuestro país, buscando exhaustivamente recursos en Google search con las frases: “diversidad de microorganismos del suelo en Bolivia”, “hongos de Bolivia” y “diversidad de hongos en Bolivia”, hay muy pocas investigaciones y referencias de nuestro país, a pesar de su importancia, la diversidad taxonómica, distribución de especies y funciones que desempeñan en los ecosistemas son poco documentadas en Bolivia. La amplia variedad de ecosistemas de Bolivia podr

  18. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  19. Virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno de Bolivia ha tenido desde 1983 un programa nacional para combatir los trastornos por deficiencia de yodo (TDY, que a principios de la década de 1980 afectaban a más de la mitad de la población del país. La principal estrategia empleada de forma sostenida en la lucha contra los TDY es la yodación de toda la sal destinada para consumo humano. En 1996, el Gobierno de Bolivia invitó a un grupo de expertos a revisar, en colaboración con los integrantes del programa dentro del país, cuánto se había avanzado hacia la eliminación de los TDY de todo el territorio nacional. El equipo revisor examinó los datos recolectados mediante las encuestas más recientes sobre la disponibilidad y el uso de la sal yodada y las concentraciones de yodo excretadas por la orina. Sobre la base de criterios internacionales establecidos para estos indicadores, el equipo llegó a la conclusión de que Bolivia había eliminado los TDY como problema de salud pública de alcance nacional, pese a pruebas de que algunas comunidades aisladas de los Andes todavía carecían de una ingesta adecuada de yodo. El equipo hizo recomendaciones para mejorar el programa y garantizar su sostenibilidad. Asimismo, examinó los métodos de producción y el control de la calidad del proceso de yodación y recomendó medidas para reducir la variabilidad del contenido de yodo en la sal.

  20. Virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno de Bolivia ha tenido desde 1983 un programa nacional para combatir los trastornos por deficiencia de yodo (TDY, que a principios de la década de 1980 afectaban a más de la mitad de la población del país. La principal estrategia empleada de forma sostenida en la lucha contra los TDY es la yodación de toda la sal destinada para consumo humano. En 1996, el Gobierno de Bolivia invitó a un grupo de expertos a revisar, en colaboración con los integrantes del programa dentro del país, cuánto se había avanzado hacia la eliminación de los TDY de todo el territorio nacional. El equipo revisor examinó los datos recolectados mediante las encuestas más recientes sobre la disponibilidad y el uso de la sal yodada y las concentraciones de yodo excretadas por la orina. Sobre la base de criterios internacionales establecidos para estos indicadores, el equipo llegó a la conclusión de que Bolivia había eliminado los TDY como problema de salud pública de alcance nacional, pese a pruebas de que algunas comunidades aisladas de los Andes todavía carecían de una ingesta adecuada de yodo. El equipo hizo recomendaciones para mejorar el programa y garantizar su sostenibilidad. Asimismo, examinó los métodos de producción y el control de la calidad del proceso de yodación y recomendó medidas para reducir la variabilidad del contenido de yodo en la sal.

  1. Resistance of infection by Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Moscoso, Manuel; Laguna, Ángel; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Cuba, Mauren; Gutierrez, Sonia; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) over three days plus primaquine (PQ) for seven days is the treatment of choice of infections by Plasmodium vivax in Bolivia, where 95% of the cases of malaria are attributed to this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in this setting. Patients in the Amazon region of northern Bolivia, were included in the study from May to November 2011 and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ was evaluated over a 28-day follow-up period. Patients with P. vivax mono-infection received 25 mg/Kg body weight of CQ over three days. The concentrations of CQ + desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in blood were determined at days 7 and 28 of follow up; at follow-up and on the day of treatment failure was administered PQ. One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, two were lost to follow up and another two were later excluded for protocol violation. Of the 96 patients who completed the follow up 10 showed TF; one presented continued parasitaemia until day 7 of follow up, three on day 21 and six on day 28 of follow up. The geometric mean of CQ + DCQ on day 7 was 321.7 ng/ml (range 197-535 ng/ml). In six patients with TF the CQ + DCQ concentrations in blood on the day of TF were >100 ng/ml. The rate of resistance was 6.5%. The present study demonstrates the presence of resistance to CQ in the treatment of malaria by P. vivax in the Amazon region of Bolivia. New clinical trials are needed to establish alternative treatments against these parasites in this region of South America.

  2. A review of forest economics research in Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefee; Helles, Finn; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    Economic values play a significant role in social development, whether they are made explicit or just perceived by social actors. In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use values, indirect use values and non-use values we attempt to encompass t...... the total value of forest resources. Taking Bolivia as an example, we present a review of forest and environmental economics literature, providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of this research field in an Andean country....

  3. Las voces del coraje. Radios mineras de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridvia Kuncar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las radios mineras bolivianas, uno de los casos más nítidos de autogestión comunicacional en el mundo y la conquista más sólida de espacios participativos por parte de los trabajadores de Bolivia, constituyen un fenómeno poco estudiado y difundido. A más de treinta años de vigencia de estas emisoras, sus protagonistas siguien avanzando en la experiencia de reconvertir el signo de una tecnología dominante -como la radio- en un instrumento para el desarrollo de su propia comunicación.

  4. Modeling forest dynamics along climate gradients in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kruijt, B.; Quispe, J.; Añez, S.; Arora, V. K.; Melton, J. R.; Hickler, T.; Kabat, P.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic vegetation models have been used to assess the resilience of tropical forests to climate change, but the global application of these modeling experiments often misrepresents carbon dynamics at a regional level, limiting the validity of future projections. Here a dynamic vegetation model (Lund Potsdam Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) was adapted to simulate present-day potential vegetation as a baseline for climate change impact assessments in the evergreen and deciduous forests of Bolivia. Results were compared to biomass measurements (819 plots) and remote sensing data. Using regional parameter values for allometric relations, specific leaf area, wood density, and disturbance interval, a realistic transition from the evergreen Amazon to the deciduous dry forest was simulated. This transition coincided with threshold values for precipitation (1400 mm yr-1) and water deficit (i.e., potential evapotranspiration minus precipitation) (-830 mm yr-1), beyond which leaf abscission became a competitive advantage. Significant correlations were found between modeled and observed values of seasonal leaf abscission (R2 = 0.6, p days. Decreasing rainfall trends were simulated to reduce GPP in the Amazon. The current model setup provides a baseline for assessing the potential impacts of climate change in the transition zone from wet to dry tropical forests in Bolivia.

  5. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    N Medrano-Mercado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones" where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218 from the South zone (SZ and North zone (NZ districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ. We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%, indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.

  7. Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Coimbra-Roca, Ana Isabel; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, M Aurora

    2015-10-06

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe's Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The genus Attalea (Arecaceae of Bolivia: regional ecologic system affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moraes R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of the Neotropical species of the Arecaceae family, based on the recent contributions to its taxonomy and its relationship with natural landscapes, updates the spatial patterns to which they adapt in their range of distribution. In this case 121 records of specimens of the 11 species of the genus Attalea of Bolivia and their relationship with 30 ecological systems that approximate their scope of distribution at regional level are released. To this end, the geographical coordinates were systematized, verified and corrected. Localities of all the specimens collected from the genus Attalea in order to compare them with ecological systems, using the ArgGis tools. We then elaborate a dendrogram (species vs. ecological systems using the minimum distance method in the R program. The analysis of the relation of the species with the ecological systems highlights a species that does not compose to the southwest amazon: A. eichleri and that is native to ecological systems of the Cerrado. Among the SW Amazonian Attalea species, A. blepharopus (endemic to Bolivia is isolated from the others and the rest subgroup species according to their presence in forests and savannas, in addition to the subandean and alluvial, as it is for A. princeps, which is found in 17 systems (57%. Eight species of Attalea are common with Peru and 10 with Brazil. It is important to relate the hierarchical grouping of the Attalea species with ecological systems in function of landscape dynamics to document their space patterns and also for their conservation.

  9. In Spaces of Marginalization: Dispossession, Incorporation, and Resistance in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Z. Kaup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarship conceptualizing primitive accumulation as an ongoing process in global capitalism has noted the difficulties faced in bringing struggles against exploitation and dispossession together. While some scholars suggest that an 'organic link" exists between these conflicts. they have yet to clearly specify the conditions and mechanisms through which such a link can form. Examining cases in Bolivia at the turn of the twenty-first century. I argue that struggles against exploitation and dispossession do not merely converge when facing a common oppressor. but also as the changing forms and geographies of exploitation and dispossession bring people together in more proximate locations. I illustrate that the changing means through which Bolivia was incorporated into the global economy enhanced levels of marginalization and subsequently resulted in patterns of migration that led to a convergence of peasant and proletarian struggles. As both segments of Bolivian society were excluded from the country's major economic sectors. they migrated to the places where they thought they could best satisfy their livelihood needs. But as people continually struggled to meet these needs, these places became spaces of marginalization, and eventually, spaces of resistance.

  10. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  11. A Contribution to the Lichen Family Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota of Bolivia. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefelbein Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microlichens of the family Graphidaceae are important components of the lowland and montane tropical forests in Bolivia. In this paper we present new records for 51 taxa of the family in Bolivia. Leiorreuma lyellii (Sm. Staiger is reported as new for the Southern Hemisphere, while Diploschistes caesioplumbeus (Nyl. Vain., Graphis daintreensis (A. W. Archer A. W. Archer, G. duplicatoinspersa Lücking, G. emersa Müll. Arg., G. hossei Vain., G. immersella Müll. Arg. and G. subchrysocarpa Lücking are new for South America. Thirty taxa are reported for the first time from Bolivia. Notes on distribution are provided for most species.

  12. Pachakuti en Bolivia (2008-2010. Un diario personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dunkerley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing of this personal Diary approaches crucial public “moments” in Bolivian history and connects them with present debates around the exercise of democracy in the context of the New Political Constitution of the State (2006 and of the recently founded Plurinational State (2010. In an effort to embrace a Pachakuti logic, the writing avoids a strict chronological order of the facts, rather unfolding a concern with the ‘historicity’ of where Bolivia now stands and where she might be ‘going.’ The Diary begins on February 7, 2009 (inauguration of the new Political Constitution of the State and concludes on February 13, 2010 (with a report of the British newspaper The Guardian commenting that the government of Evo Morales has created a Space Agency and plans to launch, in 2013, a satellite that will be called Tupac Katari.La escritura de este Diario personal aborda “momentos” públicos cruciales en la historia de Bolivia y los conecta con los debates actuales en torno al ejercicio de la democracia en el contexto de la Nueva Constitución Política del Estado (2006 y del recientemente fundado Estado Plurinacional (2010. En un esfuerzo por darle a la escritura una lógica de Pachakuti, no se sigue el orden cronológico de los hechos, más bien se despliega una preocupación por la historicidad de dónde está parada Bolivia y hacia dónde podría estar yendo.  El Diario se inicia el 7 de febrero de 2009 (inauguración de la nueva Constitución Política del Estado y concluye el 13 de febrero de 2010 (con un reporte del periódico británico The Guardian comentando que el gobierno de Evo Morales ha creado una Agencia Espacial y planea lanzar, en 2013, un satélite que se llamará Tupac Katari.

  13. Discursos de otredad, conflictos políticos y movimientos sociales en Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne Marie Ejdesgaard

    2006-01-01

    Sociale bevægelser, demokrati, deltagelse og konflikt. Bogen undersøger de sociale bevægelsers rolle som aktører i de politiske forandringsprocesser i Bolivia i begyndelsen af det nye årtusind...

  14. Bolivia: New Presidential Electoral System and Political Parties Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.

  15. ¿Qué ocurrió realmente en Bolivia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to dispute the explanations which assume that the process Bolivia is going through is similar to the processes other Latin–American countries are experiencing. These perspectives suggest the triumph of Evo Morales in the presidential elections of December 2005 was produced by the failure of the neoliberal policies carried out in this region during the period following the debt crisis of the eighties. Showing data that reveal that the bolivian economic performance in the neoliberal period was better compared to the performance of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, this article offers an alternative explanation, which not denying the poverty of the bolivian majorities, asserts that the breakdown of the political system and the parties that alternated in power for twenty years is the main factor explaining the rise of the first indigenous president.

  16. Spatial Causality. An application to the Deforestation Process in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aliaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las causas de la deforestación para un conjunto representativo de municipios bolivianos. La literatura sobre economía ambiental insiste en la importancia de los factores físicos y sociales. Nos centramos en el último grupo de variables. Nuestro objetivo es identificar los mecanismos causales entre estos factores de riesgo y el problema de la deforestación. Con este fin, se presenta una estrategia de análisis para identificar mecanismos de causalidad espacial, basada en una secuencia de los multiplicadores de Lagrange. Los resultados que obtenemos para el caso de Bolivia confirman sólo parcialmente la visión tradicional del problema de la deforestación. De hecho, sólo encontramos signos inequívocos de causalidad en relación con la estructura de los derechos de propiedad.

  17. Bolivia-Brazil natural gas project: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the natural gas reserves in Bolivia and Brazil is discussed. The development of these reserves is being conducted by the Private Corporation for Gas Development. The Corporation was created to promote participation of the private sector in an area that was exclusively managed by federal or state governments. In order to promote participation by the private sector and at the same time to motivate foreign investors, the corporation is conducting a program of activities and studies that includes a legal and institutional analysis, a feasibility study in accordance with the viewpoints of the private sector, and also the structure of a business development plan, according to the perspective of private investors

  18. DIFFERENTIAL SPECTRUM OF NEUTRONS AT CHACALTAYA-BOLIVIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayta, R.; Zanini, A.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the Neutron Spectrometer Experiment installed at Chacaltaya Cosmic Rays Observatory (68 deg. O, 16.2 deg. S), located in Bolivia, at 5230 m.a.s.l. This experimental system is constituted by passive detectors which register the flux of neutrons, in an energy range of 10 KeV-20 MeV. Using the unfolding code BUNTO a peak around 1 MeV of the characteristic spectrum of neutrons was obtained. Experimental values, observed during April of 2008, are compared with similar ones carried out in 1997 at the same place, in order to look for eventual changes due to local atmosphere. A similar experiment was also carried up at the Laboratory of Testa Grigia-Italy (45.56 deg. N, 7.42 deg. E,. 3480 m.a.l.s). Data of both stations allow us to compare the spectra in order to explain the difference of neutron flux of these two stations.

  19. Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Eduardo Lopes; Henrique, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

  20. Geography and culture matter for malnutrition in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rolando; Aguilar, Ana María; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of health problems and malnutrition in Bolivia is exceptionally high, even in comparison to other underdeveloped countries. This study analyzes the relationship between a two measures of child health--height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores--and a set of physical and cultural determinants of child nutrition, including mother's characteristics, household assets and access to public services. The ultimate aim is to identify the most important determinants of child health and to measure the relative impact of each factor on the height and weight z-scores. A sequential strategy was adopted in order to estimate a two-equation linear model with correlated error terms. A major finding points to geographical and cultural variables as main causes of nutritional status and highlights the role of mother's anthropometrical characteristics. This study uses data on over 3000 children gathered from a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).

  1. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (pdepression, and unwanted pregnancies. Many cases of suicide......BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...... profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  2. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Somos nosotros, somos gobierno. Experiencia de movimientos sociales en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Quiroga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of social movements in the public arena had to do with neoliberalism´s negative consequences. Different actors with different interests worked together against the system, which became their “common antagonist”.  On the one hand, after years of autonomous organization, these social movements won social recognition and increased their power. On the other, political parties and trade unions lost legitimacy.  In December 2005, a faction of the Bolivian social movements won the general elections, and Evo Morales (the cocalero movement´s leader became the first Aymara president in Bolivian history. How to manage this government it is one of the majors challenges the social movements confront in today’s Bolivia. La emergencia de movimientos sociales en la esfera pública está ligada a las consecuencias negativas del neoliberalismo.  Actores sociales provenientes de distintos sectores y con intereses distintos unieron fuerzas contra un sistema que se convirtió en el “antagonista común”.  Después de años de organización autónoma, estos movimientos lograron reconocimiento político e incrementaron su poder de gestión, mientras los partidos políticos y los sindicatos perdían legitimidad.  En diciembre 2005 una facción de los movimientos sociales ganó las elecciones generales y Evo Morales (líder del movimiento cocalero se convirtió en el primer Presidente aymara de la historia de Bolivia. Cómo gestionar este gobierno constituye hoy día uno de los mayores retos que enfrentan los movimientos sociales.

  4. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-04-21

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.

  5. Two new species of Euconnus (Rhomboconnus) in Peru and Bolivia (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-01-25

    To date, the subgenus Rhomboconnus Franz of Euconnus Thomson was represented by ten species known to occur in Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador. For the first time Rhomboconnus is reported to occur in Peru and Bolivia, and two new species are described: Euconnus wari sp. n. (Peru) and E. inkachakanus sp. n. (Bolivia). The latter species is the largest representative of Rhomboconnus, with body length exceeding 3 mm.

  6. Solar cells for Bolivia. Two project supported by the Dutch Ministry of Development Assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassing, P.; Rijssenbeek, W.; De Winter, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1992 the Netherlands Development Assistance (NEDA) supports the energy sector in Bolivia, South-America. Next to support on the policy level demonstration projects in the field of renewable energy are financed successfully. Two solar energy projects form the start of a broad introduction of Solar Home Systems in rural areas of Bolivia. The main obstacle is the financing of the plans. 3 refs

  7. Bolivia: Del “proceso de cambio” a los cambios en el proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Ybarnegaray Ortiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado del conflicto en torno al TIPNIS desde la perspectiva de una consultora independiente y activista cultural radicada en Bolivia. En su desarrollo, el artículo contextualiza históricamente el conflicto del TIPNIS y lo sitúa dentro del proceso social y político que hoy vive Bolivia. La autora se detiene en el análisis de “lo que revela el conflicto” y en los desafíos políticos que le plantea al gobierno del MAS, problematizando sustancialmente el  “proceso de cambio” anunciado el año 2005, durante la campaña electoral que condujo a Evo Morales a la Presidencia de Bolivia.        This article offers a detailed analysis of the conflict around the TIPNIS from the point of view of an independent consultant and cultural activist based in Bolivia. In its development, the article historically contextualizes the conflict of the TIPNIS locating it within the social and political process that today lives Bolivia. The author pauses in the analysis of “which substantially reveals the conflict” and in the political challenges that it poses to the government of the MAS, problematizing the “process of change” announced in 2005, during the electoral campaign that lead to Evo Morales to the Presidency of Bolivia

  8. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  9. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  10. Economic approach of pipelines: TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia) case; Analise economica de gasoduto: o caso TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Brasil-Bolivia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Celso P.; Pettendorfer, Erick P. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this paper is offer to the industry an example of successful project finance in an emergent country. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline was projected to develop an industry of natural gas in Brazil. The total costs invested was around US$ 1, 5 billion (Brazilian side) and BID, BIRD, CAF, BEI, BNDES- Finame, Marubeni, Mediocredito with main lenders. There are tree contracts with Ship or Pay clauses that are the main guarantees of the project. We will describe the mains variables of this project and the economic model that was created to calculate the tariff and project all financial reports of Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline. (author)

  11. Manufacturing of glass from tin mining tailings in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arancibia, J. r. H.; Alfonso, P.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Martinez, S.; Parcerisa, D.; Canet, C.; Romero, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tailings from mining activities in Bolivia represent an environmental problem. In the vicinity of the tin mines of Llallagua, Potosi department, there are large dumps and tailings. We present a study of the use of these wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of glass. This procedure aims to contribute to environmental remediation of mining areas through the vitrification, a process which offers an alternative for stabilization of hazardous waste. In addition, the marketing of the obtained product would provide an additional income to the mining areas. For this study three samples of mining waste, with grain size between sand and silt, were used. The chemical composition of these raw materials, determined by X-ray fluorescence, is granitic, with high contents of heavy metals. On the basis of its composition, glass were made from silica glass by adding CaCO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 . The thermal cycle has been determined from TDA. Tg values of glass range from 626 degree centigrade to 709 degree centigrade. Leaching tests of the obtained glasses confirm their capacity to retain heavy metals. (Author)

  12. Cultivation of minor tuber crops in Peru and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Pietilä

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available A collection mission of three Andean tuber crops, oca (Oxalis tuberosa, Oxalidaceae, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus, Basellaceae and añu (Tropaeolum tuberosum, Tropaeolaceae, was carried out in southern Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. This article deals with the observations made during this mission. 55 ulluco fields were visited. In general, the fields are small, 240m2 on average, and they are mostly situated on mountain slopes. The fields are fertilized with animal dung; chemical fertilizers are quite rare. In the fields, people work with hoes ang ploughs as they did hundreds of years ago. Mechanization of agriculture would prevent full utilization of the mountainous area of the Andes. Ulluco is usually interplanted with other crops, usually, many forms of ulluco in one field. Because of crop rotation description of the fields is partly valid for the cultivation of other crops, too. Due to drastic climatic variation, cultivation of mixed varieties maybe the best way to guarantee some yield. When results of the investigations are wished to benefit developing countries, knowledge of social, agricultural and environmental factors is of great value.

  13. Men and Women Facing Political Violence in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Beaucage

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I propose to outline the stories of violence between men and women from the countryside and low-income neighborhoods in the cities, based on 33 interviews conducted in Bolivia in the summers of 2005 and 2006. I don’t consider «violence» as a universal concept, but rather as a combination of representations related to widely distributed practices within society. I will clearly point out the commonalities between men and women, on the one hand, and among inhabitants of the country and the city, on the other. One of the common characteristics of all is the perception of living in a dangerous world. Women place a considerably bigger emphasis on dangers of a supernatural kind, as well as damages cause by symbolic violence, such as «badmouthing.» The inhabitants of poor urban environments place more importance on delinquent violence, and take measures to confront it. Both sexes refer to gender violence within the family, but it is women who cite lived experiences to that respect. In terms of causes for the violence, in the city both sexes seem to be incorporating into their imagination elements of academic discourse about structural violence

  14. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Signs of η Carinae Outburst in Artifacts of Ancient Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teames, Sallie

    Recent HST and X-ray photos of η Carinae reveal the bipolar gaseous lobes--the Homunculus Nebula--created by the star's "Great Eruption of 1843." From debris gases on the outskirts beyond the two gaseous lobes, astrophysicists surmise an earlier outburst. The 1999 Chandra X-ray photo of the horseshoe-shaped outer nebula surrounding the bipolar lobes indicates an earlier outburst occurring over a thousand years ago. Because η Carinae is so far south, it is entirely possible that the outburst would not have been seen by the Chinese and other observers in the northern hemisphere. Researchers are looking for possible recordings by early southern hemisphere observers. Pre-Incan artifacts excavated in Bolivia may provide an answer. In the script and artwork carvings on a monolith stone statue, an artifact of the Tiahuanacan culture, are signs possibly depicting the earlier outburst of η Carinae--the recordings of a star that suddenly brightened in their night sky. Two small stones from the same era and also found on the south shore of Lake Titicaca may also show depictions related to this brightening.

  16. Chagas Disease Vector Control in Tupiza, Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Guillen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy domestic and peridomestic infestations of Triatoma infestans were controlled in two villages in southern Bolivia by the application of deltamethrin SC25 (2.5% suspension concentrate at a target dose of 25 mg a.i./m². Actual applied dose was monitored by HPLC analysis of filter papers placed at various heights on the house walls, and was shown to range from 0 to 59.6 about a mean of 28.5 mg a.i./m². Wall bioassays showed high mortality of T. infestans during the first month after the application of deltamethrin. Mortality declined to zero as summer temperatures increased, but reappeared with the onset of the following winter. In contrast, knockdown was apparent throughout the trial, showing no discernible temperature dependence. House infestation rates, measured by manual sampling and use of paper sheets to collect bug faeces, declined from 79% at the beginning of the trial to zero at the 6 month evaluation. All but one of the houses were still free of T. infestans at the final evaluation 12 months after spraying, although a small number of bugs were found at this time in 5 of 355 peridomestic dependencies. Comparative cost studies endorse the recommendation of large-scale application of deltamethrin, or pyrethroid of similar cost-effectiveness, as a means to eliminate domestic T. infestans populations in order to interrupt transmission of Chagas disease

  17. Geografía y clima de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available GEOGRAPHIE ET CLIMAT DE BOLIVIE. La Bolivie est divisée en sept unités physiographiques : la Cordillère Occidentale, la Cordillère Orientale, l’Altiplano, le Subandin, la Plaine, le Bouclier Brésilien, les Serranías Chiquitanas. Le climat en Bolivie est très varié et il est dépend essentiellement de la latitude, de l’altitude, de l’existence de montagnes élevées, de la présence de plaines et surtout de la circulation des alizés. La distribution des précipitations s’explique par le mouvement des principales masses d’air actives en Amérique du Sud. Les températures, selon la latitude, sont distribuées en trois régions : tropicale, subtropicale et tempérée. Dans le contexte de la physiographie et du climat, l’usage actuel de la terre en Bolivie est analysé en soulignant le potentiel productif des forêts, ainsi que des terres cultivées divisées en quatorze zones agroécologiques caractérisées par leur extension, leur production et le risque de sécheresse et de gelées. Le climat joue un rôle prépondérant surtout au niveau de l’agriculture de la région andine où les gelées d’origine statique et dynamique causent en permanence des dégâts aux plantes. Se describe con detalle las siete unidades fisiográficas en las que se divide el país: Cordillera Occidental, Cordillera Oriental, Altiplano, Subandino, Llanuras, Escudo Brasileño, Serranías Chiquitanas. El clima reinante en Bolivia es muy variado y depende fundamentalmente de la latitud, la altitud, la existencia de elevadas montañas, la presencia de zonas planas y sobre todo de la circulación de los alisios. La distribución de las precipitaciones se explica por el movimiento de las principales masas de aire activas en América del Sur. Las temperaturas se relacionan a tres regiones latitudinales climáticas: tropical, subtropical y templada. Dentro del contexto de la fisiografía y la climatología se remarca el uso que tiene actualmente la tierra en

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  19. Reformas constitucionales y competencia política en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2017-03-01

    El presente artículo explica  las  causas  y  efectos del cambio institucional en contextos políticos en los que no hay garantía sobre el cumplimiento estricto de  las reglas.  Analizando  la  reforma  política  de  2005  que  posibilitó  (por primera vez  que   en   Bolivia   los   prefectos   o  gobernadores  puedan  ser elegidos por voto popular,  se  halla  evidencia  que  indica  que  cuando  hay crisis  de  legitimidad,  las  coaliciones  declinantes  impulsan  cambios inclu-yentes  que  reducen   sus   futuras   pérdidas  electorales  y  no  pueden  ser revertidos por las coaliciones ascendentes que llegan al poder. No obstante, éstas intentan limitar el grado de inclusión de las reglas a través de cambios normativos de menor nivel que disminuyen la competencia política.

  20. Marital Dissolution and Child Educational Outcomes in San Borja, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    Serial monogamy is likely an adaptive mating strategy for women when the expected future fitness gains with a different partner are greater than expected future fitness with one's current partner. Using interview data from more than 400 women in San Borja, Bolivia, discrete-time event history analyses and random effects regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of marital dissolution, separated by remarriage status, and child educational outcomes. Male income was found to be inversely associated with women's risk of "divorce and remarriage," whereas female income is positively associated with women's risk of "divorce, but not remarriage." Children of women who divorce and remarry tend to have significantly lower educational outcomes than children of married parents, but women with higher incomes are able to buffer their children from the negative educational outcomes of divorce and remarriage. Counter to predictions, there is no evidence that women with kin in the community have a significant difference in likelihood of divorce or a buffering effect of child outcomes. In conclusion, predictors of divorce differ depending on whether the woman goes on to remarry, suggesting that male income may be a better predictor of a serial monogamy strategy whereas female income predicts marital dissolution only. Thus, women who are relatively autonomous because of greater income may not benefit from remarriage.

  1. The history of neurosurgery in Bolivia and pediatric neurosurgery in Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdoub, Carlos F; Dabdoub, Carlos B

    2013-09-25

    The practice of neurosurgery in Bolivia began thousands of years ago with skull trepanation. This procedure dates from the earliest period of the Tiwanaku culture, a preInca civilization. Neurosurgical development in Bolivia has its origins in the late 19(th) century and can be divided in two stages. At the beginning, before the advent of neurosurgery as a discipline, some general surgeons performed procedures on the skull and brain. Formal neurosurgery in Bolivia was developed with the arrival of neurosurgeons trained in the United States and some countries of South America. The Bolivian Neurosurgical Society was created in 1975. Nowadays, our national society has 74 members. It is affiliated with the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies and the Latin American Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. Presently, neurosurgery in Bolivia is similar to that seen in developed countries. In this sense, government programs should dedicate more financial support to establish specialized healthcare centers where the management of complex central nervous system lesions could be offered. In contrast, we believe that encouraging the local training of young neurosurgeons is one of the most important factors in the development of neurosurgery in Bolivia or any other country.

  2. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hribljan; D.J. Cooper; J. Sueltenfuss; E.C. Wolf; K.A. Heckman; Erik Lilleskov; R.A. Chimner

    2015-01-01

    The high-altitude (4,500+ m) Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia:...

  3. Primary healthcare providers' views on improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Orozco, M.; Ibarra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods: Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicarag...

  4. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Bolivia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Bolivia estimates that the Speculative Uranium Resources of that country fall within the range of 100 to 107 500 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Precambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the southwestern part of the Central Brazilian Shield. Other potentially favourable geologic environments include Palaeozoic two mica granites and their metasedimentary hosts, Mesozoic granites and granodiorites as well as the intruded formations and finally Tertiary acid to intermediate volcanics. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 13 million be spent on exploration in Bolivia over a five-year period. The majority of this expenditure would be for airborne and surface exploration utilising geologic, magnetometric, radiometric, and geochemical methods and some pitting, trenching, tunneling and drilling to further evaluate the discovered occurrences. (author)

  6. POLITICAL STABILITY IN BOLIVIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MARITIME CLAIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO COLOMA ROJAS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between Bolivian internal crisis and the claims the President of Bolivia has argued against Chile about the lack of territorial access to the sea, in order to demonstrate the existence of a connection between them. By analyzing the successive institutional changes in the political and economic level, seeing them as factors that affect the Bolivian internal stability, is impossible any examination that may use the same criteria to justify the misunderstandings that have occurred between Chile and Bolivia in the last three decades because for the maritime issue. In the other hand, the existing empiric evidence regarding the popularity of the President and the social conflict situation in Bolivia shows that both indicators are not always related to the Bolivian offensives against Chile due to the maritime issue.

  7. THE BRAZIL-BOLIVIA BORDER AND THE SECOND-HAND CLOTHING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Carlos Machado Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The second-hand clothing trade started widely in Bolivia in 1994. This kind of trade usually involves popular globalization activities, whose practices are often identified by State agencies as illegal, although with natural popular acceptance. It is established within a complex system of networks, and takes advantage of distribution (stock and transfer meshes and knots, with the consequent conformation of connected territorial circuits. This paper aims at analyzing the second-hand clothing trade in three locations: Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Puerto Quijarro (Bolivia, and Corumbá (Brazil. The purpose is to identify the route and the nuances regarding the second-hand clothing distribution network from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Corumbá, on the Bolivia-Brazil border.

  8. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  9. Grazing and climatic variability in Sajama National Park, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yager, K.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sajama National Park, the first protected area in Bolivia, includes five indigenous communities with a primary production base of pastoralism. The semi-arid region of the Central Andes is one of the most extreme areas of human occupation at 4200 meters altitude and affected by high climatic variability. This paper studies the relations between climate variability, resilience, biodiversity of pastures and pastoral production in Sajama National Park. We present a botanical study of palatable pasture herbs between two years, one humid (2006 and the other dry (2007. Thirty vascular plants were recorded. The number of species and the cover of iro (Festuca ortophylla peak in areas of intermediate disturbance; areas that are at a medium distance from camelid corrals. On the other hand, the cover of ephemeral plants between tussocks increases in high disturbance areas. This is interpreted as a result of the tradeoff between the damage of grazing and the benefit of the fertilization produced by the herding animals. The local people clearly perceive strong impacts of climate change, combined with changes in management and human pressures. The social dynamics and production management, combined with climate warming, water reduction, and the increasing variability of surface water regimes create potential risks for the local sustainability of pastoralism.

    El Parque Nacional Sajama, la primer área protegida de Bolivia, incluye a cinco comunidades indígenas con una base de producción principalmente de ganadería. Esta región semi-árida de los Andes Centrales es una de las áreas más extremas de ocupación humana a 4200 metros de altura y es afectada por una alta variabilidad climática. Este trabajo considera las relaciones entre la variabilidad climática, resiliencia, biodiversidad de pastos y la producción ganadera en el Parque Nacional Sajama. Presentamos un estudio botánico de las comunidades de hierbas palatables a lo largo de dos a

  10. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Bolivia. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Jacques; Mueller-Kahle, Eberhard

    1982-08-01

    The uranium exploration done so far in Bolivia has been carried out by COBOEN, partly with IAEA support, and AGIP S.p.A. of Italy, which between 1974 and 1978 explored four areas in various parts of Bolivia under a production sharing contract with COBOEN. The basic objective of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) is to 'review the present body of knowledge pertinent to the existence of uranium resources, to review and evaluate the potential for discovery of additional uranium resources, and to suggest new exploitation efforts which might be carried out in promising areas in collaboration with the country concerned'. Following the initial bibliographic study which formed Phase I of IUREP, it was envisaged that a further assessment in cooperation with, and within, the country concerned would provide a better delineation of areas of high potential and a more reliable estimate as to the degree of favourability for the discovery of additional uranium resources. It was planned that such work would be accomplished through field missions to the country concerned and that these field missions and the resulting report would be known as the Orientation Phase of IUREP. The purpose of the Orientation Phase mission to Bolivia was a) to develop a better understanding of the uranium potential of the country, b) to make an estimate of the Speculative Resources of the country, c) to delineate areas favourable for the discovery of these uranium resources, d) to make recommendations as appropriate on the best methods for evaluating the favourable areas, operating procedures and estimated possible costs, e) to develop the logistical data required to carry out any possible further work, and f) to compile a report which would be immediately available to the Bolivian authorities. The mission reports contains information about a general introduction, non-uranium exploration and mining in Bolivia, manpower in exploration, geological review of Bolivia, past uranium

  11. Tuberculosis control in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru: why does incidence vary so much between neighbors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobero, R A; Peabody, J W

    2006-11-01

    In 2003, Peru and Bolivia reported the highest annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in the Americas. Neighboring Colombia and Chile had lower annual incidence rates despite their proximity. To determine what factors contribute to differences in TB incidence rates among Chile, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Multiple sources of literature dating between 1990 and 2005 were used and World Health Organization TB control guidelines were consulted for policy level comparisons. Comprehensive implementation of the DOTS strategy is the main factor explaining the differences in TB incidence rates, even after considering socio-economic factors. Cross-national comparisons suggest ways to improve regional DOTS implementation.

  12. Management of empty pesticide containers – An experience from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2014-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huici, Omar; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Jørs, Erik

    The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia. The objec......The mismanagement of empty containers of pesticides, posing a risk to the environment and the health of people, has motivated the promotion of international policies and guidelines to mitigate the problems. Despite these guidelines the attention to this problem is inadequate in Bolivia...

  13. Fattige vandløb på Bolivias Andes-højslette

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bolivias højslette, i 4.000 m højde, er selv uforurenede vandløb så fattige på arter af smådyr og fisk at biologisk bedømmelse af vandløbskvalitet ikke umiddelbart kan anvendes.......På Bolivias højslette, i 4.000 m højde, er selv uforurenede vandløb så fattige på arter af smådyr og fisk at biologisk bedømmelse af vandløbskvalitet ikke umiddelbart kan anvendes....

  14. Valor monetario de la leche materna en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Aguayo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Estimar el volumen de leche materna consumido por los niños bolivianos de < 36 meses de edad y el valor monetario de la sustitución de dicho volumen de leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales. Métodos. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta la distribución de la población infantil por grupos de edad, la prevalencia de las diferentes prácticas de lactancia materna (exclusiva o parcial en cada grupo de edad, el volumen promedio de leche materna consumido por los lactantes de un grupo de edad determinado y el costo de la producción y sustitución de la leche materna. Resultados. Los lactantes bolivianos consumen anualmente más de 161 millones de litros de leche materna, lo que representa un volumen promedio de 573 mL/día por cada lactante menor de un año. El valor monetario de la leche materna consumida por los lactantes bolivianos asciende a US$ 274 millones anuales. El costo promedio de sustituir la leche materna con sucedáneos comerciales en un lactante amamantado adecuadamente el primer año de vida asciende a US$ 407. Discusión. Para que la formulación y consolidación de políticas y programas de protección, promoción y apoyo a la lactancia materna sean una realidad, los líderes políticos de Bolivia han de tomar conciencia del enorme valor monetario de la leche materna.

  15. Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; LaFuente, Carlos; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Calderon, Maritza; Pacori, Juan; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Aparicio, Hugo; Brady, Mark F.; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Angulo, Noelia; Marcus, Sarah; Sterling, Charles; Maguire, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Background We conducted a study of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Our objective was to apply new tools to identify weak points in current screening algorithms, and find ways to improve them. Methods Women presenting for delivery were screened by rapid and conventional serological tests. For infants of infected mothers, blood specimens obtained on days 0, 7, 21, 30, 90, 180, and 270 were concentrated and examined microscopically; serological tests were performed for the day 90, 180, and 270 specimens. Maternal and infant specimens, including umbilical tissue, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle and by quantitative PCR. Results Of 530 women, 154 (29%) were seropositive. Ten infants had congenital T. cruzi infection. Only 4 infants had positive results of microscopy evaluation in the first month, and none had positive cord blood microscopy results. PCR results were positive for 6 (67%) of 9 cord blood and 7 (87.5%) of 8 umbilical tissue specimens. PCR-positive women were more likely to transmit T. cruzi than were seropositive women with negative PCR results (P < .05). Parasite loads determined by quantitative PCR were higher for mothers of infected infants than for seropositive mothers of uninfected infants (P < .01). Despite intensive efforts, only 58% of at-risk infants had a month 9 specimen collected. Conclusions On the basis of the low sensitivity of microscopy in cord blood and high rate of loss to follow-up, we estimate that current screening programs miss one-half of all infected infants. Molecular techniques may improve early detection. PMID:19877966

  16. Genetic differences between mestizo populations of Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    plus grand assortiment de type caucasien chez les métisses péruviens rapportés dans la littérature. Ces découvertes pourraient avoir un impact en ce qui concerne l’efficacité de moyens d’immunisation modernes grâce aux vaccins d'ADN sur la population andine, et aussi en ce qui concerne l’identification de groupes à risque pour certaines conditions médicales. DIFERENCIAS GENÉTICAS ENTRE POBLACIONES MESTIZAS DE BOLIVIA Y PERÚ. Existe escasa información acerca del fondo genético de las poblaciones de Perú y Bolivia. Estudios han mostrado que los mestizos presentan varios alelos del sistema mayor de histocompatibilidad originalmente descritos en tribus amerindias genéticamente aisladas, y que los mestizos de Perú y Bolivia están genéticamente cercanamente relacionados. Mediante la técnica de transferencia de línea reversa, se realizó la tipificación de alelos de histocompatibilidad de Clase I (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw así como de Clase II (HLA-DRB1 y HLA-DQB1 en 57 mestizos bolivianos. Los sujetos provinieron mayormente de La Paz (la ciudad principal en los Andes Bolivianos, además de otras tres ciudades importantes situadas en el Valle Central Boliviano (Sucre, Tarija y Tupiza. La comparación de la frecuencia de los alelos de los mestizos bolivianos con datos disponibles de la literatura acerca de mestizos peruanos, reveló que los alelos de Clase I HLA-Cw*01, y B*40 se encontraban en mayor proporción en el grupo de mestizos peruanos (Chi-cuadrado = 4.87 p<0,05 y chi-cuadrado = 7,56 p<0,01 respectivamente. Con respecto a los alelos de clase II, HLA-DRB1*1101 y DRB1*1302 se encontraron en mayor frecuencia en los mestizos peruanos (Chi-cuad = 5,12 p<.05 y chi-cuad = 3,8 p = 0.05 respectivamente, mientras que el alelo HLA-DQB1*0402 fue significativamente mayor en los mestizos bolivianos (Chi-cuad = 47,2 p<.0001. Las diferencias en las frecuencias de alelos encontradas, y la ausencia o presencia de algunos alelos en cualesquiera de los grupos, puede

  17. Bolivia; 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The staff report for Bolivia’s 2009 Article IV Consultation describes economic developments and policies. The impact of the global recession on Bolivia has been milder than in other countries in the region. Lower commodity exports and remittances have resulted in a sharp narrowing of the external current account surplus. The financial system has been barely affected by the global crisis owing to its limited integration with international capital markets. As the economy gathers momentum, a tig...

  18. Rural/Urban Differences in Child Growth and Survival in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Forste, Renata

    2003-01-01

    In Bolivia, a third of rural children are stunted, and rural infants are twice as likely to die before age 2 than urban infants. National survey data indicate child survival and development are related to maternal education and literacy, community sanitation practices, access to health care, and socioeconomic status. Parental knowledge about…

  19. Transforming Pre-Service Teacher Education in Bolivia: From Indigenous Denial to Decolonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2012-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006 Bolivia's "politics of change" of president Evo Morales includes a new "decolonising" education reform called "Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez" (ASEP). With the aim to break down deep historical processes of indigenous denial and exclusion in education,…

  20. Digital Inclusion of Secondary Schools' Subject Teachers in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Iskra; Fabre, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The government of Bolivia planned to introduce information technology in secondary education through establishing computer labs in schools and through granting each subject teacher a laptop. This initiative was tested for the first time in 2012 with three public schools in La Paz. Most of the subject teachers have never used a computer before. The…

  1. DNA damage and photosynthetic inhibition induced by solar ultraviolet radiation in tropical phytoplankton (Lake Titicaca, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, EW; Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Andrade, M; Zaratti, F

    Experiments were conducted during October 1998 in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia (16 degrees S, 68 degrees W, 3810 m a.s.l), to determine the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on phytoplankton photosynthetic rates and DNA damage. Water samples were taken daily and incubated ir? situ or in

  2. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3918, č. 1 (2015), s. 128-140 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Bolivia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  3. The sensitivity of wet and dry tropical forests to climate change in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kruijt, B.; Hickler, T.

    2015-01-01

    Bolivia's forests contribute to the global carbon and water cycle, as well as to global biodiversity. The survival of these forests may be at risk due to climate change. To explore the associated mechanisms and uncertainties, a regionally adapted dynamic vegetation model was implemented for the

  4. Impacts of Electricity Access to Rural Enterprises in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Annemarije; Clancy, Joy S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence to underpin strategies of poverty reduction through income generation in small scale rural enterprises through supplying energy. This paper reports on research findings from a three country study in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam which aimed to provide insights into

  5. New species of Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Graphocaeciliini) from Bolivia and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2017-03-20

    The genus Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan presently includes nine species, all described when the genus was erected; since then, no other species have been discovered. Here, we describe and illustrate one Bolivian and three Mexican species. This is the first record of Prolachesilla from Bolivia. A key to the species of the genus is included.

  6. Emergence and clonal dissemination of carbapenem-hydrolysing OXA-58-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Elena; Fernández, Elena; Bustamante, Zulema; Zabalaga, Silvia; Rosales, Ikerne; Umaran, Adelaida; Gallego, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen and very little information is available regarding its imipenem resistance in Latin American countries such as Bolivia. This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile of 46 clinical strains from different hospitals in Cochabamba, Bolivia, from March 2008 to July 2009, and the presence of carbapenemases as a mechanism of resistance to imipenem. Isolates were obtained from 46 patients (one isolate per patient; 30 males,16 females) with an age range of 1 day to 84 years, and were collected from different sample types, the majority from respiratory tract infections (17) and wounds (13). Resistance to imipenem was detected in 15 isolates collected from different hospitals of the city. These isolates grouped into the same genotype, named A, and were resistant to all antibiotics tested including imipenem, with susceptibility only to colistin. Experiments to detect carbapenemases revealed the presence of the OXA-58 carbapenemase. Further analysis revealed the location of the bla(OXA-58) gene on a 40 kb plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolates from Bolivia that is conferred by the OXA-58 carbapenemase. The presence of this gene in a multidrug-resistant clone and its location within a plasmid is of great concern with regard to the spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in the hospital environment in Bolivia.

  7. A new genus and three new species of Pangoniini (Diptera: Tabanidae from Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Chainey

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Boliviamyia gen. nov. and it’s type species fairchildi sp. nov. are described. Two new species of Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia, griseipleura sp. nov. and gracilipalpis sp. nov. are described. Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia planaltina Fairchild is recorded from Bolivia.

  8. Schooling and Critical Citizenship: Pedagogies of Political Agency in El Alto, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Sian

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the formation of citizenship as social practice in a school in El Alto, Bolivia. I examine interactions between "banking" forms of education, students' responses, and embodied practices of belonging and political agency, and argue that the seemingly passive forms of knowledge transmission so criticized by critical…

  9. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  10. llustrated review of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae of the central Andes (Peru and Bolivia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonis, Jonas R.; Diškus, Arunas; Remeikis, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    We review forty-five species of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) based on an analysis of samples collected in the central Andean region of Peru and Bolivia. Thirteen of these species are new to science, and are named and described here: Stigmella paracosma Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. expressa...

  11. Transformative Teachers or Teachers to Be Transformed? The Cases of Bolivia and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators' strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation--Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary context of each nation, we suggest that transformation…

  12. The emergence, growth and decline of political priority for newborn survival in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-12-01

    Bolivia is expected to achieve United Nations Millennium Development Goal Four, reducing under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 2021 and 2025. However, progress on child mortality reduction masks a disproportionately slow decline in newborn deaths during the 2000s. Bolivia's neonatal mortality problem emerged on the policy agenda in the mid-1990s and grew through 2004 in relationship to political commitments to international development goals and the support of a strong policy network. Network status declined later in the decade. This study draws upon a framework for analysing determinants of political priority for global health initiatives to understand the trajectory of newborn survival policy in Bolivia from the early 1990s. A process-tracing case study methodology is used, informed by interviews with 26 individuals with close knowledge of newborn survival policy in the country and extensive document analysis. The case of newborn survival in Bolivia highlights the significance of political commitments to international development goals, health policy network characteristics (cohesion, composition, status and key actor support) and political transitions and instability in shaping agenda status, especially decline-an understudied phenomenon considering the transitory nature of policy priorities. The study suggests that the sustainability of issue attention therefore become a focal point for health policy networks and analyses. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  13. Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), a new genus of Rhopalophorini from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter, a monotypic new genus of Rhopalophorini, is described from Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Meringodes is most similar to Disaulax Audinet-Serville, although it also possesses characters of Thalusia Thomson and Cosmisoma Audinet-Serville. A diagnosis and descripti...

  14. The Citizen Factory: Schooling and Cultural Production in Bolivia. SUNY Series: Power, Social Identity, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luykx, Aurolyn

    This book attempts to engage theoretical questions of ethnicity, ideology, and identity as they are lived out by Aymara students in a small teachers' college in rural Bolivia. A year of fieldwork at the Escuela Normal Rural "Kollasuyo" focused on the experiences of Aymara students during their intensive training to become rural teachers,…

  15. Education, Culture and Indigenous Rights: The Case of Educational Reform in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comboni Salinas, Sonia; Juarez Nunez, Jose Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Examines the implementation of intercultural bilingual education throughout Bolivia and its relationship to the linguistic and cultural rights of the majority indigenous population. Discusses institutional and curriculum reforms, particularly in rural schools; a new emphasis on students' learning needs; relationship to indigenous…

  16. Indians of Eastern Bolivia: Aspects of Their Present Situation. IWGIA Document No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riester, Jurgen

    Of the 41 Indian tribes in Eastern Bolivia, the very existence of 29, averaging 202 members, is threatened because their numbers have been so reduced that only in certain cases could direct assistance be useful. Of these 29 tribes, it is certain that 16 will not last until the end of the seventies due to epidemics, violent subjugation, and…

  17. La Persistencia de la Pobreza Rural en Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia: un Fracaso del Neoliberalismo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLos documentos de estrategia de lucha contra la pobreza, preparados por los gobiernos mediante un proceso en el que participan instituciones internacionales y actores de la sociedad civil, no dieron los resultados previstos. El artículo analiza los casos de Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia

  18. Endemic wild potato (Solanum spp.) biodiversity status in Bolivia: Reasons for conservation concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadima Fuentes, X.; Zonneveld, van M.; Scheldeman, X.; Castaneda, N.; Patino, F.; Beltran, M.; Damme, van P.

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives possess important traits, therefore ex situ and in situ conservation efforts are essential to maintain sufficient options for crop improvement. Bolivia is a centre of wild relative diversity for several crops, among them potato, which is an important staple worldwide and the

  19. Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    Bolivia’s population of 9.1 million people is among the most ethnically diverse in South America. Quechua and Aymara are the two predominant indigenous...Biography Evo Morales was born on October 26, 1959, in Oruro, Bolivia. Morales, like most coca growers, is descended from the Quechua and Aymara Indians

  20. Patterns and determinants of floristic variation across lowland forests of Bolivia. Biotropica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, M.; Poorter, L.; Peña-Claros, M.; Alarcón, A.; Balcázar, J.; Chuviña, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Steege, ter H.; Bongers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Floristic variation is high in the Neotropics, but little is known about the factors shaping this variation at the mesoscale. We examined floristic composition and its relationship with environmental factors across 220 1-ha permanent plots in tropical lowland Bolivia. For each plot, abundance of 100

  1. Movimientos de base indígena y fase pre-constituyente de Bolivia (Tema Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval, Carla

    2007-01-01

    El presente artículo ofrece un panorama de la conformación de espacios de reflexión y diálogo abiertos por las organizaciones de base indígenas de los movimientos sociales de Bolivia durante el periodo Pre-constituyente.

  2. Finance, growth and social fairness : Evidence for Latin America and Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sucre Reyes, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis explores the role of finance in promoting economic growth and social fairness. Our case studies concentrate on Latin America and the Caribbean, and on Bolivia, a developing region and a country for which the relationship between finance, growth, and social fairness turns out to be

  3. Bolivia : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: North and Central America, South America, Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 215,000.00. Le cadre d'analyse de la gouvernance, une approche de recherche sur les systèmes de santé. Projet. Les initiatives de politiques actuelles visant à réformer les systèmes ...

  4. Growing Food for Thought: A New Model of Site-Specific Research from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Edward

    1995-01-01

    A severe drought precipitated systematic documentation of farmers' field trials in the farmer-to-farmer extension service in Bolivia. Successful agricultural experiments and seminars on agronomic practices and on data recording and analysis increased farmer self-confidence; developed awareness of literacy and numeracy educational needs; and…

  5. Hydrology and climate in the southwestern Amazon basin (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchail, J.; Bourrel, L.; Maurice-Bourgoin, L.; Vauchel, P.; Cochonneau, G.; Guyot, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Castro, A.

    2003-04-01

    and tropical Atlantic related rainfall anomalies in both regions of Bolivia.

  6. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2009-02-01

    During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical countries with large areas of certified forests. In this study, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews in Ecuador and Bolivia to identify key framework conditions that influence the costs and benefits for companies to switch from conventional to certified forestry operations. Bolivia has a much greater relative area under certified forest management than Ecuador and also significantly more certified producers. The difference in the success of certification between both countries is particularly notable because Bolivia is a poorer country with more widespread corruption, and is landlocked with less access to export routes. Despite these factors, several characteristics of the Bolivian forest industry contribute to lower additional costs of certified forest management compared to Ecuador. Bolivia has stronger government enforcement of forestry regulations a fact that increases the cost of illegal logging, management units are larger, and vertical integration in the process chain from timber extraction to markets is higher. Moreover, forestry laws in Bolivia are highly compatible with certification requirements, and the government provides significant tax benefits to certified producers. Results from this study suggest that certification can be successful in countries where governments have limited governance capacity. However, the economic incentives for certification do not only arise from favourable market conditions. Certification is likely to be more successful where governments enforce

  7. Evaluation of methane fugitive emissions in systems of natural gas transportation. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline case; Avaliacao das emissoes fugitivas de metano em sistemas de transporte de gas natural. O caso do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Daniele Mesquita Bordalo da; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: danielembc@poli.ufrj.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Sarno, Ruy Alberto Campos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ruy@tbg.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper verifies the total annual of fugitive emissions of methane from the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, presently the largest pipeline in operation in Brazil, beside to estimate the financial loss associated to those emissions.

  8. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The circular feature at the center-left of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was

  9. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing

  10. Harvesting the Past: The Social Mobilization of Bolivia’s Indigenous Peoples. Strategic Insights v4 n5 May 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    and indigenous groups have increasingly organized under their own banner, in the process limiting the state’s realm of maneuver. Is this an inevitable... process , reflecting essential, stable identities? Is the ascendancy of indigenous groups in countries such as Bolivia inevitable? If so, why now...Producers,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 33, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 98. 26. Constitucion Politica de Bolivia 1967, Texto

  11. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline: a study on the economic viability; Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil: um estudo sobre a viabilidade economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabiano Ionta Andrade; Almeida, Isaque da Silva [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the year of 2003 the Brazilian government, as form of to stimulate the demand for natural gas in the country and to promote the success of the investment accomplished in the construction of the pipe line Bolivia-Brazil, it lowered the price of the Bolivian commodity' in US$0,85/MMBTU. In the end of 2005 and mainly in 2006, the current Bolivian president Evo Morales nationalized the energy reservations of your country. To main change it is related to the price of sale of the Bolivian input. The values stipulated in contract they were broken and new negotiations are in process. The maximum capacity of transport of natural gas was reached in 2007. However, before the crisis established due to the measure taken by the government from Bolivia, Brazil suspended the investments in compressors and the projections of increase of this capacity were stagnated. One of the forecasts was to increase in at least more 50% of the current capacity or even in 100% in a more promising scenery. Before this context this research makes the analysis of economical viability regarding the construction of the pipe line Bolivia-Brazil in agreement with three sceneries. The first of them suggests that the investments foreseen in compressors it was stopped and, this way, the pipe line will operate it ties the end of the amortization with your current maximum capacity. The second scenery already suggests that the investments were not interrupted, in other words, the current maximum capacity was overcome in 50%. Similarly to the previous ones, the third scenery makes reference the overrun of the current capacity in 100%. The methodology used for such an analysis it was lent of the financial mathematics and it is treated of the calculation of TIR and of VPL. Both studies show that in agreement with TIR (15%) and VPL the economical viability is satisfactory. The president of PETROBRAS is renegotiating the contract and the investments will probably be retaken. This measured it seeks to

  12. Una base impermeabilizante de los populismos: Bolivia y su historia reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Pinto Ocampo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la idea de la presencia de líderes populistas exitosos en Bolivia en años recientes. Desarrolla la idea de que en Bolivia no hay incentivos estructurales para que se desarrolle un líder populista debido al hecho de que los populistas no crecen en un contexto de extrema organización popular independiente. En la primera parte presenta una discusión sobre el marco teórico de la noción de populismo y de la definición del autor; la segunda parte presenta el caso del populismo boliviano analizando los elementos históricos que contribuyen a la ausencia del mismo hoy (especialmente el tipo de

  13. Derrick Hindery. From Enron to Evo. Pipeline Politics, Global Environmentalism, and Indigenous Rights in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From Enron to Evo is a long-term study of Enron and Shell’s construction of the Cuiabá pipeline in eastern Bolivia. The pipeline goes through the middle of the Chiquitano forest and affects a population of about 8,000. The project also has a negative impact on four critical ecoregions; the Gran Chaco and Cerrado, which are a mixture of grasslands and scattered trees, the Chiquitano dry forest, and the Pantanal wetlands. The Cuiabá pipeline has been highly contested by the thirty-four Chiquitano and two Ayoreo communities that live in the area. After years of field research, extensive interviews and document analyses, Dr. Hindery manages to expose the murky ways in which the hydrocarbon industry works in Bolivia. This is an industry where the powerful –mainly multinational oil companies and the Bolivian government– abuse the ecoregion and the indigenous populations that live on it.

  14. Contrasting patterns of urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Parés-Ramos, Isabel K; Aide, T Mitchell

    2013-02-01

    The global urban population is increasing rapidly, but patterns of urban expansion differ greatly among countries. Urban transition theory predicts that the shift from low to high urbanization depends on a country's history and level of economic development. This study describes urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009. Urban dynamics were analyzed by combining nighttime lights and census data from 4032 municipalities. High-lit areas (>52-63 pixel values) were correlated with urban populations across municipalities and years (R (2) > 0.90). Analyses showed that between 1992 and 2009 Bolivia and Ecuador had rapid population growth and rapidly increasing high-lit areas, while Peru and Colombia had lower rates of population growth and urbanization (i.e., expansion of high-lit areas). We demonstrate how nighttime lights can be a useful tool, providing a homogeneous platform for multi-scale analyses of urban growth.

  15. La energía del litio en Argentina y Bolivia: comunidad, extractivismo y posdesarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Fornillo, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se analiza y compara la relación actual entre extracción de litio, conflicto comunitario y políticas de desarrollo en Argentina y Bolivia, a partir de la premisa de que la interacción del triángulo tecnología-industria-política es clave para pensar los modos de desarrollo de nuestra región periférica. La hipótesis central es que en Argentina predomina una lógica extractiva, mientras que en Bolivia es otro el caso del litio debido a que se apuesta a una articulación mayor entre actor...

  16. Possible health effects of living in proximity to mining sites near Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Sara; Das, Riva; Strosnider, William H J; Wilson, Robin Taylor

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the health effects of living downstream from mines in the Potosí region of Bolivia. Histories, physical examinations, and urinalyses were completed on adults recruited from mining and nonmining villages in Bolivia. Blood concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined in a subset of participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Mining region participants had significantly higher frequencies of hypertension, hematuria, and ketonuria. Hematuria was significantly elevated among those watering livestock downstream from mines and eating grains from their own farm (odds ratio = 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 17.7). Significantly higher blood concentrations of Pb were observed in a subsample of participants with hematuria (4.80 μg/dL vs 10.91 μg/dL; P = 0.026). Efforts to abate environmental exposure to toxic metals seem warranted.

  17. Forty years of USAID health cooperation in Bolivia. A lose-lose game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Herland; Closon, Marie-Christine; Paepe, Pierre De; Darras, Christian; Dessel, Patrick Van; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The present article proposes an analysis of the USA-Bolivia relationships in the health sector between 1971 and 2010 based on a grey and scientific literature review and on interviews. We examined United States Agency for International Development (USAID) interventions, objectives, consistency with Bolivian needs, and impact on health system integration. USAID operational objectives--decentralization, fertility and disease control, and maternal and child health--may have worked against each other while competing for limited Ministry of Health resources. They largely contributed to the segmentation and fragmentation of the Bolivian health system. US cooperation in health did not significantly improve health status while the USAID failed to properly tackle anti-drugs, political, and economic US interests in Bolivia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. BOLIVIA IN 1904. WHY DO THEY SIGN THE TREATY WITH CHILE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORETO CORREA VERA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that Bolivia - despite the negotiations of 1895 and all the recent rhetoric - was not worried of the effective recovery of the coast until long after the signing of the 1904 Treaty, instead of that, the presidency of Ismael Montes and the rise of Liberals in the Bolivian state, prioritized the modernization of the country and the search for ways to get the production of tin at any cost, at that time, the main wealth of Bolivia. This text has the purpose of explaining –as a witness of the time-, what were the reasons that the Bolivian authorities wielded before their people to sign the Treaty of Peace with Chile. Following that logic and notwithstanding all the recent literature, it seems appropriate to go beyond the subjective line of interpretation to establish the sayings of the main actors.

  19. Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-22

    Servicio Internactional, May 20, 2004; “Peru/Chile: Energy Exacerbates Strained Relations,” Oxford Analytica, August 24, 2004; “Bolivia Signs Agreement to...Development Assistance (DA) for FY2005, and a requested $14.5 million in FY2006. This assistance will provide technical assistance to micro -finance...institutions, micro - entrepreneurs, and technological services to farmers. Support will also be provided for strengthening democracy and anti-corruption

  20. Preliminary report on the geology and metallogenesis of uranium in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Leyton, E.; Barron, E.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary study of aspects of the geology and metallogenesis of uranium in Bolivia. It must be considered as a first study which will serve as a basis for possible future work of this type. Its purpose is to show the possible relationships of the uranium anomalies and prospects to the country's various mineralized belts and also to the Nazca tectonic plate and to lineaments and intrusive bodies. (author)

  1. Dollarization hysteresis, network externalities and the “past legacy” effect: the case of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo X. Fernández Tellería

    2007-01-01

    Dollarization in Bolivia rose rapidly immediately after the hyperinflation and currency crisis episode that took place between 1984 and 1985, but failed to reduce and, in fact, continued increasing the following years. In order to explain this dollarization hysteresis, this document proposes and estimates a model, based in the work of Oomes (2003), where network externalities can generate multiple steady-states for dollarization while a so-called past legacy effect increases the likelihood of...

  2. The Political Economy of Counterdrug Policy: The Case of Bolivia, 1997-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Economia de la Coca,” Comision Inter-americana para el Control del Abuso de Drogas (Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission), 6. available from http...this was a frightening thought because, if Mexico , for example, which has more established institutions and legal system than Bolivia, was having a...Penguin Group, Inc) 1988. “Sustituyendo La Economia de la Coca,” Comision Interamericana para el Control del Abuso de Drogas (Inter-American

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  4. Population genetic data for 15 STR loci (Identifiler kit) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocabado, Omar; Taboada, Patricia; Inda, Francisco Javier; Yurrebaso, Inaki; García, Oscar

    2009-11-01

    Allele frequencies for 15 STR autosomal loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were obtained from a sample of 200 unrelated individuals from Bolivia, South America.

  5. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  6. [Telemedicine in Bolivia: RAFT-Altiplano project, experiences, future prospects, and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alejandro; Ugalde, Miguel; Vargas, Reynaldo; Narvaez, Ramiro; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the RAFT-Altiplano project (RAFT: Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine, or African Francophone Telemedicine Network) is to evaluate the viability, potential, and risks of implementing and developing a telemedicine network in the context of a developing country-specifically, the Altiplano region of Bolivia-to improve access to medical care and continuing education in a rural area. The activities described in this report took place between 2011 and 2013. Digital telemedicine equipment was donated to the health centers and a Microsoft®-based platform capable of integration with other technologies (using standardized formats) was developed to manage documents and clinical content electronically. Health professionals were trained in teleconsultation and the teleconsultation workflow was designed. The tele-education system used is Dudal, which requires only a small bandwidth. After three years of implementation, an organized working structure of teleconsultation and tele-education tools, adapted to the Latin American context, is now in place and connections have been established with hospitals, institutions, and health centers. The project has improved access to specialized medical care in remote health centers and third-level hospitals in urban areas, and it has become the foundation for development of the national project "TeleSalud for Bolivia" promoted by the Ministry of Health, which involves use of the new Bolivian satellite, Túpac Katari. It is viable to develop and set up telemedicine tools to serve the population in remote regions of Bolivia when they are made available to government and municipal health institutions and communication between them and the health centers takes place in a coordinated manner. The sharing of experiences, challenges, and risks encountered is very useful in designing and implementing the telemedicine project "TeleSalud for Bolivia" on a national scale.

  7. Apatite fission-track dating of erosion in the eastern Andes, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crough, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Three samples from a Triassic-age batholith in the eastern Andes northeast of La Paz, Bolivia yield apatitic fission-track ages of 11-13 Ma. Interpreting these young ages as due to uplift and erosion requires approximately 2.5-5.0 km of erosion in the past 12 Ma, an amount which is consistent with the known geology and which is typical of many active mountain ranges. (orig.)

  8. Where are the NGOs and why? The distribution of health and development NGOs in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Lindsay P; Corbett, Kitty K; Zeng, Leilei

    2012-11-23

    The presence and influence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the landscape of global health and development have dramatically increased over the past several decades. The distribution of NGO activity and the ways in which contextual factors influence the distribution of NGO activity across geographies merit study. This paper explores the distribution of NGO activity, using Bolivia as a case study, and identifies local factors that are related to the distribution of NGO activity across municipalities in Bolivia. The research question is addressed using a geographic information system (GIS) and multiple regression analyses of count data. We used count data of the total number of NGO projects across Bolivian municipalities to measure NGO activity both in general and in the health sector specifically and national census data for explanatory variables of interest. This study provides one of the first empirical analyses exploring factors related to the distribution of NGO activity at the national scale. Our analyses show that NGO activity in Bolivia, both in general and health-sector specific, is distributed unevenly across the country. Results indicate that NGO activity is related to population size, extent of urbanization, size of the indigenous population, and health system coverage. Results for NGO activity in general and health-sector specific NGO activity were similar. The uneven distribution of NGO activity may suggest a lack of co-ordination among NGOs working in Bolivia as well as a lack of co-ordination among NGO funders. Co-ordination of NGO activity is most needed in regions characterized by high NGO activity in order to avoid duplication of services and programmes and inefficient use of limited resources. Our findings also indicate that neither general nor health specific NGO activity is related to population need, when defined as population health status or education level or poverty levels. Considering these results we discuss broader implications

  9. Culture and Human Capital Investments: Evidence of an Unconditional Cash Transfer Program in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanez-Pagans, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a policy quasi-experiment created by the introduction of an old-age unconditional cash transfer program in Bolivia to study the intra-household income allocation process towards children's educational expenditure by ethnicity and gender of the recipient. Taking advantage of a sharp discontinuity created by the program assignment mechanism, I investigate the heterogeneity in the patterns of allocation within indigenous, multiethnic, and non-indigenous families, conditional on h...

  10. Parasitological diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania b. braziliensis in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Dimier-David

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological diagnosis, using staned smears, culture and pathological examination of biopsy, was studied in 146 patients infected with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, in Bolivia and Peru. The most efficient parasite detecting technique appeared to be the smear examination in cutaneous lesions (33 % positive and the pathology in case of mucous lesions (28 % positive. In both, cutaneous and mucous lesions, the parasites were found most frequently in old lesions.

  11. Culture and landslide risk in the Central Andes of Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Roberts

    2009-01-01

    Culture and its heritage play a major role in determining landslide risk in the Central Andes. Examples of some of these many possible influences are provided from natural and social science literature and from the author’s recent work in Bolivia. Landslide risk appears to have generally increased throughout the last millennium, due largely to anthropogenic modification of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and coping capacity. These changes result from both local and distant pressures and from ...

  12. Where Are the NGOs and Why? The Distribution of Health and Development NGOs in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Galway, Lindsay P.; Corbett, Kitty K.; Zeng, Leilei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The presence and influence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the landscape of global health and development have dramatically increased over the past several decades. The distribution of NGO activity and the ways in which contextual factors influence the distribution of NGO activity across geographies merit study. This paper explores the distribution of NGO activity, using Bolivia as a case study, and identifies local factors that are related to the distribution o...

  13. La "media luna" sobre Bolivia: nación, región y clase social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem ASSIES

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante los últimos años, se ha visto una serie de convulsiones sociales en Bolivia. Un aspecto de estas dificultades fue la aparición de discursos nacionalistas y regionalistas, los cuales dividían la parte oriental de la parte occidental del país, y al revés. Dichos discursos se han caracterizado por sus fuertes matices étnicos y acentuaban por un lado la identidad camba y por otro la identidad colla. No obstante, tales discursos tienen raíces muy distintas y reflejan proyectos y relaciones de clase muy diferentes. Partiendo de la metáfora de la «nevera al revés» (la nevera que genera calor hacia dentro y frío hacia afuera, este artículo busca elucidar la interrelación entre la política nacionalista/regionalista, la etnia y la clase social en la Bolivia contemporánea.ABSTRACT: Over the past years Bolivia has seen a series of «social convulsions». One aspect of these upheavals was the emergence of nationalist and regionalist discourses pitting the orient against the occident of the country, and vice versa. Such discourses were marked by strong ethnic overtones, accentuating either camba or colla identities. Nevertheless, such identity discourses have very different roots and reflect very different projects and class relations. Taking a lead from the «inverted fridge» metaphor –the fridge that generates warmth towards the «inside(r» and cold towards the «outside(r»– this paper seeks to elucidate the interrelation between the politics of nationalism/regionalism, ethnicity and class in contemporary Bolivia.

  14. Student Readiness for Online Learning – A case study in rural Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Blass, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    The present paper describes the research of the students’ online learning readiness in a rural university in Bolivia. In particular, it examines through a quantitative research the influences of some variables on the students’ attitudes toward online learning. These variables were established based on theoretical fundaments and selected and confirmed through a qualitative research based in semi-structured interviews with lecturers and directors of the university’s rural centers. This study...

  15. THE BRAZIL-BOLIVIA BORDER AND THE SECOND-HAND CLOTHING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Carlos Machado Oliveira; Fernanda Loureiro Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The second-hand clothing trade started widely in Bolivia in 1994. This kind of trade usually involves popular globalization activities, whose practices are often identified by State agencies as illegal, although with natural popular acceptance. It is established within a complex system of networks, and takes advantage of distribution (stock and transfer) meshes and knots, with the consequent conformation of connected territorial circuits. This paper aims at analyzing the second-hand clothing ...

  16. Una base impermeabilizante de los populismos: Bolivia y su historia reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Pinto Ocampo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la idea de la presencia de líderes populistas exitosos en Bolivia en años recientes. Desarrolla la idea de que en Bolivia no hay incentivos estructurales para que se desarrolle un líder populista debido al hecho de que los populistas no crecen en un contexto de extrema organización popular independiente. En la primera parte presenta una discusión sobre el marco teórico de la noción de populismo y de la definición del autor; la segunda parte presenta el caso del populismo boliviano analizando los elementos históricos que contribuyen a la ausencia del mismo hoy (especialmente el tipo de gobernability y el tipo de inclusión y el mecanismo que evita que Bolivia tenga un líder populista con presencia en un sector de la sociedad fuertemente organizado

  17. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco

    2015-05-15

    Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  18. Pertussis infections and vaccinations in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico from 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Colleen M; Czachor, John S

    2013-01-01

    Global coverage with three doses of the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP3) increased from less than 5% in 1974 to 82% in 2009 due to worldwide focus on universal vaccination. Nonetheless, pertussis remains the fifth-leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths. This study examines DTP3 vaccination from 1980 through 2009 in three countries within Latin America, Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico, selected for their distinct health care systems and vaccination strategies. Similar to global trends, these nations have achieved dramatic improvements in pertussis immunization. In Bolivia, immunization rates increased from 11% to 85%; in Brazil, rates increased from 37% to 97%; and in Mexico, the immunization rates increased from 44% to 72%. Pertussis infections have concomitantly decreased from 1980 to 2009. In Bolivia, cases decreased from 44.4 per 100,000 people to zero reported cases. In Brazil, the incidence decreased from 37.6 to 0.5 cases per 100,000. The incidence in Mexico decreased from 8.2 to 0.5 cases per 100,000. In order to increase vaccination rates further, health systems must continue to raise awareness about disease prevention, expand health surveillance systems, and improve access to health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huici Omar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution.

  20. Trypanocidal activity of Brazilian plants against epimastigote forms from Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomé Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the main public health problems in Latin America. Since the available treatments for this disease are not effective in providing cure, the screening of potential antiprotozoal agents is essential, mainly of those obtained from natural sources. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of the trypanocidal activity of 92 ethanol extracts from species belonging to the families Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Verbenaceae against the Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Additionally, cytotoxic activity on LLCMK2 fibroblasts was evaluated. Both the trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated using the MTT method, in the following concentrations: 500, 350, 250, and 100 µg/mL. Benznidazole was used for positive control. The best results among the 92 samples evaluated were obtained with ethanol extracts of Ocotea paranapiacabensis (Am93 and Aegiphila lhotzkiana (Am160. Am93 showed trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms of the Bolivia strain and was moderately toxic to LLCMK2 cells, its Selectivity Index (SI being 14.56, while Am160 showed moderate trypanocidal activity against the Bolivia strain and moderate toxicicity, its SI being equal to 1.15. The screening of Brazilian plants has indicated the potential effect of ethanol extracts obtained from Ocotea paranapiacabensis and Aegiphila lhotzkiana against Chagas disease.

  1. Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients at risk of drug resistance in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteserin, Johana; Camacho, Mirtha; Barrera, Lucía; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Ritacco, Viviana; Martin, Anandi

    2013-07-01

    Bolivia ranks among the 10 Latin American countries with the highest rates of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. In view of this, and of the lacking information on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the country, we explored genotype associations with drug resistance and clustering by analyzing isolates collected in 2010 from 100 consecutive TB patients at risk of drug resistance in seven of the nine departments in which Bolivia is divided. Fourteen isolates were MDR, 29 had other drug resistance profiles, and 57 were pansusceptible. Spoligotype family distribution was: Haarlem 39.4%, LAM 26.3%, T 22.2%, S 2.0%, X 1.0%, orphan 9.1%, with very low intra-family diversity and absence of Beijing genotypes. We found 66 different MIRU-VNTR patterns; the most frequent corresponded to Multiple Locus Variable Analysis (MLVA) MtbC15 patterns 860, 372 and 873. Twelve clusters, each with identical MIRU-VNTR and spoligotypes, gathered 35 patients. We found no association of genotype with drug resistant or MDR-TB. Clustering associated with SIT 50 and the H3 subfamily to which it belongs (pBolivia. However, results should be taken cautiously because the sample is small and includes a particular subset of M. tuberculosis population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  3. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Yellow Fever in Bolivia from 1999 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Cécile; Goitia, Norma Janeth Velasquez; Cook, Shelley; Roca, Yelin; Revollo, Jimmy; Flores, Jorge Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health problem in Bolivia since at least the 19th century. Surprisingly, very limited information has been made available to date regarding the genetic characterisation and epidemiology of Bolivian YF virus (YFV) strains. Here, we conducted the genetic characterization of 12 human isolates of YFV collected in Bolivia between 1999 and 2008, by sequencing and analysis of two regions of the viral genome: a fragment encoding structural proteins “PrM” (premembrane and envelope) and a distal region “EMF,” spanning the end of the virus genome. Our study reveals a high genetic diversity of YFV strains circulating in Bolivia during the last decade: we identified not only “Peruvian-like” genotype II viruses (related to previously characterized Bolivian strains), but also, for the fist time, “Brazilian-like” genotype I viruses. During the complete period of the study, only cases of “jungle” YF were detected (i.e., circulation of YFV via a sylvatic cycle) with no cluster of urban cases. However, the very significant spread of the Aedes aegypti mosquito across Bolivian cities threatens the country with the reappearance of an urban YFV transmission cycle and thus is required a sustained epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20925524

  5. Indigenous traditional medicine and intercultural healthcare in Bolivia: a case study from the Potosi region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Maria Costanza; Hollenberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples have the worst socio-demographic indicators and the largest inequalities in terms of access to social services and health in the Latin American region, Bolivia included. In the last few years, attempts to implement policies that support indigenous people's health rights led to the development of intercultural health approaches. Yet, acceptance and integration of indigenous medicine into the biomedical health system presents a major challenge to intercultural health in Latin America. The objective of this article is to analyze the case of a health center in Tinguipaya, one of the first and few examples of intercultural health initiatives in Bolivia. This intercultural health project, which represents a pioneer experience with regard to the creation of intercultural health services in Bolivia, aims to create a network between local communities, traditional healers, and biomedical staff and offer a more culturally sensitive and holistic health service for indigenous people living in the area. The aim of this article is to critically assess this initiative and to analyze the main challenges met in the creation of a more effective intercultural health policy. The extent to which this initiative succeeded in promoting the integration between indigenous health practitioners and biomedical staff as well as in improving access to health care for local indigenous patients will also be examined.

  6. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. Methods It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. Results 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Conclusion Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients. PMID:24564892

  7. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  8. A historical case in the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline: slope on the Curriola River; Caso historico no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil: encosta no Rio Curriola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.593 kilometers since Rio Grande City in Bolivia until Canoas City, in south Brazil. The pipeline crosses a lot of types of geological fields and difficult topography. The south spread of the gas pipeline is the most interesting because of its hard topography combined with the variety of geological materials, such as, colluvium deposits and debris flow areas. Curriola River is located at the kilometer 408, north part of Parana State. In this area, the pipeline crosses slopes of 45 degrees of inclination. The down part of Curriola's slope is composed by a non-resistance material (clay and little rock blocks) with a high porosity. Every year, during the rainy seasons, tension cracks are observed evidencing the earth movement. The slope stability is above the minimum expected for pipeline operation. The aim of this paper is to present the site characterization of the Curriola River Slope, together with all the investigation made in order to supply the studies with condensed information for the slope stabilization. (author)

  9. A new species of Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae in Bolivia Una especie nueva de Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae de Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry R. Haverkost

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During a biodiversity survey of mammals and their parasites in the Beni, Bolivia in the summer of 2000, several spiny rats, Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900, were collected and examined for parasites. Herein we describe Lentiella lamothei n. sp. from one of these hosts. This species is can be distinguished from L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 by having a greater total length but smaller maximum width, a greater number of segments, a smaller cirrus sac, a smaller scolex diameter, and in the eggs, a larger pyriform apparatus. In addition, we formally validate the genus Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, that had been placed in synonomy with Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.Como parte del monitoreo de la biodiversidad de Bolivia, varias ratas espinosas (Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900 fueron examinadas en busca de parásitos durante el verano boreal del año 2000. En el presente trabajo se describe el céstodo Lentiella lamothei n. sp. recolectado en estos hospederos. Esta especie puede distinguirse de L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 por tener una mayor longitud total pero menor ancho máximo, mayor número de proglótidos, bolsa del cirro más pequeña, escólex de menor diámetro, y un mayor aparato piriforme en los huevos. Además, se revalida formalmente al género Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, anteriormente sinonimizado con Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.

  10. Entre cifras y normas legales: el trabajo de los menores en Bolivia Entre cifras y normas legales: el trabajo de los menores en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Yamile Hayes Michel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la temática del trabajo de niños, niñas y adolescentes en Bolivia, a partir de una revisión de la normativa legal vigente, que pretende protegerlos, las cifras y datos estadísticos sobre este tipo de trabajo, y la relación entre las disposiciones legales y la realidad del trabajo en la calle y fuera de ella, evidenciando que resta mucho camino por recorrer para que se produzca una auténtica tutela de los derechos de los menores trabajadores.This The present article have the issue of child and teenager labor in Bolivia, from a review of the current legislation, that pretends to protect them, the statistics number about this kind of works and the relation between the legal dispositions and the job reality in the street and also outside it, showing that much remains to be done to produce a real protection of the rights of working children.

  11. Health impact and economic analysis of NGO-supported neurosurgery in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Greene, Kevin R; Flores, Ivan; Capobianco, Fernando; Salas, Gueider; Uriona, Maria Ines; Weaver, John P; Moser, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Bolivia, one of the poorest countries in the world, ranks 108th on the 2013 Human Development Index. With approximately 1 neurosurgeon per 200,000 people, access to neurosurgery in Bolivia is a growing health concern. Furthermore, neurosurgery in nonindustrialized countries has been considered both cost-prohibitive and lacking in outcomes evaluation. A non-governmental organization (NGO) supports spinal procedures in Bolivia (Solidarity Bridge), and the authors sought to determine its impact and cost-effectiveness. In a retrospective review of prospectively collected data, 19 patients were identified prior to spinal instrumentation and followed over 12 months. For inclusion, patients required interviewing prior to surgery and during at least 2 follow-up visits. All causes of spinal pathology were included. Sixteen patients met inclusion criteria and were therefore part of the analysis. Outcomes measured included assessment of activities of daily living, pain, ambulation, return to work/school, and satisfaction. Cost-effectiveness was determined by cost-utility analysis. Utilities were derived using the Health Utilities Index. Complications were incorporated into an expected value decision tree. Median (± SD) preoperative satisfaction was 2.0 ± 0.3 (on a scale of 0-10), while 6-month postoperative satisfaction was 7 ± 1.4 (p Bolivia appears to be cost-effective, especially when compared with the conventional $50,000/QALY benchmark and the WHO endorsed country-specific threshold of $16,026/QALY. However, with a gross domestic product per capita in Bolivia equaling $4800 per year and 30.3% of the population living on less than $2 per day, this cost continues to appear unrealistic. Additionally, the study has several significant limitations, namely its limited sample size, follow-up period, the assumption that patients not receiving surgical intervention would not make any clinical improvement, the reliance on the NGO for patient selection and sustainable practices

  12. Genetic structure and phylogeography of Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow-fever mosquito vector in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Le Goff, Gilbert; Brengues, Cécile; Guerra, Mabel; Revollo, Jimmy; Barja Simon, Zaïra; Hervé, Jean-Pierre; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-08-01

    Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Africa, invaded the Americas, where it was successively responsible for the emergence of yellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN). The species was eradicated from numerous American countries in the mid-20th century, but re-invaded them in the 1970s and 1980s. Little is known about the precise identities of Ae. aegypti populations which successively thrived in South America, or their relation with the epidemiological changes in patterns of YF and DEN. We examined these questions in Bolivia, where Ae. aegypti, eradicated in 1943, re-appeared in the 1980s. We assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. aegypti samples in order to deduce their genetic structure and likely geographic origin. Using a 21-population set covering Bolivia, we analyzed the polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (COI and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed a significant genetic structure among geographic populations (F(ST)=0.0627, PBolivia. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed the existence of two genetic lineages, one dominant lineage recovered throughout Bolivia, and the second restricted to rural localities in South Bolivia. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this minority lineage was related to West African Ae. aegypti specimens. In conclusion, our results suggested a temporal succession of Ae. aegypti populations in Bolivia, that potentially impacted the epidemiology of dengue and yellow fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elaboration of sustainable capacity maps of Bolivia-Brazil pipeline; Elaboracao de cartas de capacidade sustentavel na area de influencia do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Gilberto L.S. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Daitx, Elias C.; Rueda, Jairo J.R.; Caetano, Norton R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Mattos, Juercio T. de [UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura, Artes e Comunicacao

    2005-07-01

    The analysis of drainage net allows to identify features of relief symmetry and/or not symmetry and know its morpho structure (high and low structural). The interpretation of relief and drainage texture elements at Landsat/ETM7+ satellite images allows to identify the geo environmental zoning. The integration between morpho structural maps and geo environmental zones maps produces sustainable capacity maps. In the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, the evaluation of sustainable capacity shapes the interrelation among gas pipeline and physical environment and allows classify more geological and geotechnical favorable areas to gas pipeline maintenance. Gas pipeline regions located at 'High Sustainable Capacity' need few maintenance. However, gas pipeline regions at 'Low/Very Low Sustainable Capacity' need constant investment and monitoring. (author)

  14. First Report of Widespread Wild Populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the Valleys of La Paz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Rosio; Waleckx, Etienne; Bosseno, Marie-France; Zoveda, Faustine; Vidaurre, Pablo; Salas, Renata; Mamani, Elio; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    Wild populations of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries, may be involved in reinfestation of human dwellings, limiting the success of vector-control campaigns in Bolivia. Knowledge of the distribution of these populations remains incomplete. We report here the detection of T. infestans wild populations in large areas in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. Among 18 sylvatic areas investigated, 17 were positive with T. infestans specimens. The infection rate of captured T. infestans with Trypanosoma cruzi was 85.7% in adult specimens. These results expand the geographical distribution of wild populations of T. infestans; it may be distributed throughout the Inter-Andean Dry Forest eco-region of Bolivia. The current information allows us to propose the hypothesis that a sylvatic origin of the reinfestation is located in the valleys of La Paz. PMID:20348501

  15. Without Distinguishing Color or Profession: Culture, Vatican II and the Long-Term Development of Credit Institutions in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Norris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By the late 20th and early 21st century, credit institutions in Bolivia had become more complex, resilient and popular that at any time previously in its history. Traditional economics analyses emphasize incentives created by laws such as those promulgated by the Kemmerer mission in Bolivia in the 1920s and 30s, or material factors, such as transportation costs. Yet neither of these explanations offers a compelling explanation for the magnitude of the flourishing of popular and complex credit institutions in Bolivia after the 1960s. Cultural changes, however, might offer a compelling complement to legal and material explanations of credit development. Vatican II represented an important mass change in Bolivian culture, and institutions associated with these reforms ushered in a new era of credit institution development in the country. A finales del siglo XX y comienzos del XXI, las instituciones crediticias en Bolivia se volvieron más complejas, elásticas y populares que en cualquier otro momento de su historia. Los análisis económicos tradicionales ponen de relieve los incentivos creados por leyes como las promulgadas por la misión Kemmerer en Bolivia en las décadas de 1920 y 1930, o factores materiales, tales como los costos de transporte. Con todo, ninguna de estas explicaciones ofrece una explicación convincente de la importancia del florecimiento de instituciones crediticias populares y complejas en Bolivia después de la década de 1960.  No obstante, los cambios culturales podrían ofrecer un complemento de peso a las explicaciones legales y materiales del desarrollo del crédito. El Concilio Vaticano II representa un importante cambio en la cultura boliviana, y las instituciones asociadas con sus reformas marcan el comienzo de una nueva era en el desarrollo de la institución crediticia en el país.

  16. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  17. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  18. Inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance under laboratory conditions of Triatoma infestans from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; Pessoa, Grasielle D'Avila Caldas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Echeverria, Jorge Espinoza; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2015-11-16

    Over the last few decades, pyrethroid-resistant in Triatoma infestans populations have been reported, mainly on the border between Argentina and Bolivia. Understanding the genetic basis of inheritance mode and heritability of resistance to insecticides under laboratory conditions is crucial for vector management and monitoring of insecticide resistance. Currently, few studies have been performed to characterize the inheritance mode of resistance to pyrethroids in T. infestans; for this reason, the present study aims to characterize the inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans populations from Bolivia with different toxicological profiles. Experimental crosses were performed between a susceptible (S) colony and resistant (R) and reduced susceptibility (RS) colonies in both directions (♀ x ♂ and ♂ x ♀), and inheritance mode was determined based on degree of dominance (DO) and effective dominance (D(ML)). In addition, realized heritability (h(2)) was estimated based on a resistant colony, and select pressure was performed for two generations based on the diagnostic dose (10 ng. i. a. /nymph). The F1 progeny of the experimental crosses and the selection were tested by a standard insecticide resistance bioassay. The result for DO and D(ML) (Bolivia. The lethal doses (LD50) increase from one generation to another rapidly after selection pressure with deltamethrin. This suggests that resistance is an additive and cumulative factor, mainly in highly structured populations with limited dispersal capacity, such as T. infestans. This phenomenon was demonstrated for the first time for T. infestans in the present study. These results are very important for vector control strategies in problematic areas where high resistance ratios of T. infestans have been reported.

  19. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. La Educación superior en la región andina: Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista Weise

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este capítulo estudia en forma comparativa los sistemas de ES de Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador, que se caracterizan por un alto por ciento de población indígena y por su diversidad cultural y lingüística. Sus sistemas se han desarrollado de manera diversa.This chapter discusses, from a comparative perspective the higher education systems of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. These systems are characterized by a high percentage of native Indian population and by their cultural and linguistic diversity. Their systems have evolved in different ways.

  1. Sustained Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine Against Very Severe Rotavirus Disease Through the Second Year of Life, Bolivia 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kimberly D; Patzi, Maritza; Tate, Jacqueline E; Iniguez Rojas, Volga; Patel, Manish; Inchauste Jordan, Lucia; Montesano, Raul; Zarate, Adolfo; De Oliveira, Lucia; Parashar, Umesh

    2016-05-01

    In Bolivia, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2008 and a previous evaluation reported a vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 77% with 2 doses of vaccine in children aged 5 years after its introduction in Bolivia. Although VE appears to wane in children aged ≥1 year, it still provides significant protection, and does not wane against severe disease. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation. The employment generation according to Leontief's matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieroni, Fernando de Paiva; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy

    1999-01-01

    During the past 15 years, a strong evolution in the concept of the use of energy for industrial purpose was brought in step by step by the Governments and users themselves. The progress within the fields of energy savings, thermal control and reduction of air pollution must be pointed out. Within this scheme the natural gas technology has overcome many technical difficulties and the solutions using natural gas rank among the most efficient to tackle current problems. The aim of this work is to analyse Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation and it influences in the Brazilian economy

  3. Destitution through “Development”: A Case Study of the Laka Laka Project in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrum J. Shriar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental and socioeconomic outcomes of a water project in rural Bolivia, and sought insights on how and why its planning was so flawed. The project destroyed an ancient, sustainable irrigation system, and replaced it with one that provides insufficient and diminishing quantities of water to many fewer people, appears to be causing land degradation and groundwater depletion, and has fueled conflicts. The study shows that even relatively small, NGO-led projects can generate significant negative impacts, and raises questions about the pressures on development agencies to charge ahead with projects, despite obvious potential for such impacts.

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. Livestock vaccine adoption among poor farmers in Bolivia: remembering innovation diffusion theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Thomson, Kim; Nielsen, Louise

    2008-05-02

    The paper explores the low uptake of livestock vaccination among poor farming communities in Bolivia utilising core elements of the original innovation diffusion theory. Contrary to the recent literature, we found that vaccination behaviour was strongly linked to social and cultural, rather than economic, drivers. While membership in a group increased uptake, the 'hot' and 'cold' distinctions which dictate health versus illness within Andean cosmology also played a role, with vaccination viewed as a means of addressing underlying imbalances. We concluded that uptake of livestock vaccination was unlikely to improve without knowledge transfer that acknowledges local epistemologies for livestock disease.

  6. Petroleum industry in Latin America: volume III Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    As the previous volume in this series, this concluding volume was divided into separately paged sections, one for each of Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico and Peru, each section being complete in itself. For each of the countries dealt with, there was a brief historical introduction, followed by a detailed analysis of its energy sector, a description of the physical and market characteristics, the transportation and infrastructure systems, the legal and regulatory issues pertaining to the petroleum industry, especially as regards investment and environmental requirements, and an analysis of the prevailing political climate. figs., tabs., refs

  7. Pobreza y activos en Bolivia: Qué rol juega el capital social?

    OpenAIRE

    George Gray-Molina; Ernesto Perez de Rada; Wilson Jimenez; Ernesto Yáñez

    1999-01-01

    Análisis recientes de la pobreza en Bolivia muestran que, a pesar de un ligero descenso en el porcentaje de la población que vive en condiciones de pobreza a lo largo de la última década, el número absoluto de hogares pobres continúa en ascenso (Jiménez y Yañez 1997a y b; Vos et al. 1997; Banco Mundial 1996). El bajo nivel de crecimiento de los ingresos de los hogares más pobres sugiere que los esfuerzos sostenidos por mantener niveles de crecimiento económico moderados e incrementar la efici...

  8. Progress report on nuclear data activities in Bolivia 1983/84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon-Aramayo, O.A.

    1984-09-01

    The activities related to the nuclear data that have been carried out in Bolivia during the period April 1983 to April 1984 are summarized. The targets 235 U, 238 U and 232 Th are used for the measurement of the relative neutron fission cross sections. The measurement of the Pb(n,gamma) cross section at 14 to 15 MeV and the re-measurement of the 15 N cross section for the 15 N(n,p) 15 C reaction is in process

  9. Investigating the quality of expectorated sputum for tuberculosis diagnosis in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Punchak, M; Camacho, M; Hepple, P; McNerney, R

    2015-09-01

    A low-power microscope-based cytological system to assess the quality of expectorated sputum provided for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis was piloted in Bolivia. A total of 3688 samples were subjected to visual and cytological examination in nine laboratories: of these, 591 (16%) were misclassified by visual examination and 294 (8%) were found to be degraded. The degree of discordance varied between locations, and laboratories received a higher number of degraded specimens from isolated health clinics. Cytological assessment of sputum was found to be feasible and identified areas for improvement in the Bolivian diagnostic system for TB.

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. A new species of Microkayla (Anura: Craugastoridae: Holoadeninae) from Department La Paz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LA Riva, Ignacio; Cortez, Claudia; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2017-12-12

    We describe a new species of direct-developing frog of the genus Microkayla from the Cordillera Real of the Bolivian Andes, in the Department of La Paz. The new species, Microkayla huayna sp. nov., is closely related to M. teqta and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by its brown dorsal skin and the presence of a large dark brown vocal sac in males. This is the second species of Microkayla known from the Zongo Valley, and the ninth in the Cordillera Real, contributing to a total of 22 described species in Bolivia. Given its small distribution range, we recommend to considering it as Vulnerable according to IUCN criteria.

  12. Culture and landslide risk in the Central Andes of Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roberts

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture and its heritage play a major role in determining landslide risk in the Central Andes. Examples of some of these many possible influences are provided from natural and social science literature and from the author’s recent work in Bolivia. Landslide risk appears to have generally increased throughout the last millennium, due largely to anthropogenic modification of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and coping capacity. These changes result from both local and distant pressures and from contemporaneous and pervious cultural factors. Consequently, holistic examination of landslide risk necessitates consideration of culture and its heritage.

  13. Where are the NGOs and why? The distribution of health and development NGOs in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galway Lindsay P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence and influence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs in the landscape of global health and development have dramatically increased over the past several decades. The distribution of NGO activity and the ways in which contextual factors influence the distribution of NGO activity across geographies merit study. This paper explores the distribution of NGO activity, using Bolivia as a case study, and identifies local factors that are related to the distribution of NGO activity across municipalities in Bolivia. Methods The research question is addressed using a geographic information system (GIS and multiple regression analyses of count data. We used count data of the total number of NGO projects across Bolivian municipalities to measure NGO activity both in general and in the health sector specifically and national census data for explanatory variables of interest. Results This study provides one of the first empirical analyses exploring factors related to the distribution of NGO activity at the national scale. Our analyses show that NGO activity in Bolivia, both in general and health-sector specific, is distributed unevenly across the country. Results indicate that NGO activity is related to population size, extent of urbanization, size of the indigenous population, and health system coverage. Results for NGO activity in general and health-sector specific NGO activity were similar. Conclusions The uneven distribution of NGO activity may suggest a lack of co-ordination among NGOs working in Bolivia as well as a lack of co-ordination among NGO funders. Co-ordination of NGO activity is most needed in regions characterized by high NGO activity in order to avoid duplication of services and programmes and inefficient use of limited resources. Our findings also indicate that neither general nor health specific NGO activity is related to population need, when defined as population health status or education level or poverty

  14. Geomorphology subprogram: Geomorphological map of Occidental region of Bolivia, utilizing ERTS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Suarez, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Due to the receipt of ERTS-1 imagery, Bolivia will have for the first time a geomorphological map at a scale of 1:100,000. Now the researcher and the student will be able to compare the distribution of the existing shapes of the country, which have been modelled by diverse processes, factors, and agents. This geomorphological information will be very useful in its application to mining, especially alluvial beds, engineering work, and other geological studies. This map is divided into ten geomorphological units which coincide with the geostructural units of the western region of the country.

  15. Birds (Aves, Serrania Sadiri, Parque Nacional Madidi, Depto. La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessey, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Serrania Sadiri for birds at elevations between 500-950m for a combined total of 15 days in threedifferent months. The area surveyed was along the Tumupasa/San Jose de Uchupiamones trail at the edge of ParqueNacional Madidi in Depto. La Paz, Bolivia. We report observations of 231 species of birds detected by sight and sound,including many outlying ridge specialists. We report and present photographs of a new species for Depto. La Paz(Caprimulgis nigrescens, the second Bolivian localities for Porphyrolaema prophyrolaema, Zimerius cinereicapillus,and Basileuterus chrysogaster, and five new species records for Parque Nacional Madidi.

  16. Agricultura y empleo rural agropecuario en Bolivia. Consecuencias del control de precios en el sector agropecuario

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Diego Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Los controles de precios son medidas que pueden afectar considerablemente a los sectores sujetos a dichas políticas. Mediante un modelo de equilibrio general dinámico estocástico con dos tipos de agentes: campesinos y citadinos, calibrado para Bolivia, se muestra que, ante caídas en la productividad del sector agropecuario, el empleo rural agropecuario y la producción agropecuaria se ven mermadas cuando existen controles de precios. Asimismo, mejoras de productividad en el sector rural no agr...

  17. Proyecciones de rabia canina en Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay, usando series de tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    SCORTTI, M.; CATTAN, P.; CANALS, M.

    1997-01-01

    Se estudió el número de casos mensuales de rabia canina en Argentina (1971-1993), Bolivia (1987-1993) y Paraguay (1976-1993), a fin de identificar fluctuaciones regulares y predecir el comportamiento futuro de la rabia en dichos países. Los métodos empleados consistieron en análisis de series de tiempo, incluyendo el análisis armónico de Fourier y los modelos multiplicativos ARIMA-SARIMA de Box-Jenkins. Se evidenciaron ciclos en Argentina y Paraguay. La estacionalidad ocurrió a fines de invie...

  18. Telemedicina en Bolivia: proyecto RAFT-Altiplano, experiencias, perspectivas y recomendaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del proyecto RAFT-Altiplano (RAFT, Red Africana Francófona de Telemedicina es evaluar la viabilidad, potencialidad y riesgos de la implementación y el desarrollo de una red de telemedicina en el contexto de un país en desarrollo, como es el caso del Altiplano de Bolivia, para mejorar el acceso a la atención médica y la formación continua en el área rural. En este estudio se describe el desarrollo de dicho proyecto entre 2011 y 2013. MÉTODOS: Se donaron equipos de telemedicina digitales a los centros de salud y se desarrolló una plataforma basada en tecnología Microsoft®integrable con otras tecnologías (con formatos estándares, para gestionar electrónicamente contenidos y documentos clínicos. Se ha capacitado a los profesionales de la salud para realizar las teleconsultas y se ha diseñado un flujo de trabajo de teleconsulta. El sistema de teleenseñanza utilizado es Dudal, porque requiere poco ancho de banda. RESULTADOS: Tras tres años de implementación se dispone de una estructura de trabajo organizada con los diferentes hospitales, instituciones y centros de salud adaptada al contexto latinoamericano para la implementación y utilización de herramientas de teleconsulta y teleenseñanza. El proyecto ha mejorado el acceso a la atención médica especializada en los centros de salud alejados y en los hospitales de tercer nivel de zonas urbanas y ha sido la antesala del desarrollo del proyecto nacional "TeleSalud para Bolivia" promovido por el Ministerio de Salud que contempla la utilización del nuevo satélite boliviano Túpac Katari. CONCLUSIONES: Es viable desarrollar e implementar herramientas de telemedicina en regiones remotas de Bolivia en beneficio de la población cuando se ponen a disposición de las instituciones gubernamentales y municipales de salud y el trabajo entre ellas y los centros asistenciales se realiza de forma coordinada. La comunicación de experiencias, dificultades y riesgos

  19. Telemedicina en Bolivia: proyecto RAFT-Altiplano, experiencias, perspectivas y recomendaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Alejandro; Ugalde, Miguel; Vargas, Reynaldo; Narvaez, Ramiro; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO: El objetivo del proyecto RAFT-Altiplano (RAFT, Red Africana Francófona de Telemedicina) es evaluar la viabilidad, potencialidad y riesgos de la implementación y el desarrollo de una red de telemedicina en el contexto de un país en desarrollo, como es el caso del Altiplano de Bolivia, para mejorar el acceso a la atención médica y la formación continua en el área rural. En este estudio se describe el desarrollo de dicho proyecto entre 2011 y 2013. MÉTODOS: Se donaron equipos de teleme...

  20. Altiplano Sur de Bolivia : capítulo 5.1.b

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Thierry; Alvarez-Flores, R.; Bommel, P.; Bourliaud, J.; Chevarria Lazo, M.; Cortes, G.; Cruz, P.; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, P.; Joffre, R.; Léger, F.; Nina Laura, J.P.; Rambal, S.; Rivière, G.; Tichit, M.

    2014-01-01

    Alimento de base de las poblaciones andinas desde hace milenios, la quinua se ha convertido hoy en un producto apreciado en el mercado internacional de alimentos dietéticos, orgánicos y equitativos. Este cambio lo iniciaron los mismos productores del Altiplano Sur de Bolivia hace aproximadamente unos 40 años. En medio de un desierto de altura, ellos lograron desarrollar una floreciente producción agrícola de exportación. Aunque cuentan con lucrativos nichos de mercado, los productores de quin...

  1. LOS COMITÉS DE ÉTICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMÉDICA Y PSICOSOCIAL EN BOLIVIA OS COMITÊS DE ÉTICA DE PESQUISA BIOMÉDICA E PSICOSSOCIAL NA BOLIVIA BIOMEDICAL AND PSICOSOCIAL SCIENTIFIC ETHICAL REVIEW COMMITTEES IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Zwareva Mashiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación. Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación.Este artigo reporta a um estudo realizado nas cidades de La Paz, Cochabamba, e Santa Cruz, na Bolivia. Interessava-se saber qual era a situação da bioética na Bolivia e como se estava protegendo os sujeitos de pesquisa. Ao revisar alguns conceitos bioéticos, a legislação boliviana e os métodos de estudo foi possível identificar os resultados pesquisados; esses revelaram grande desconhecimento a respeito de como garantir os direitos dos sujeitos de pesquisa, por conta da quase ausência e/ou do inadequado funcionamento dos comitês de ética de pesquisa.This article reports a study carried out in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz in Bolivia. The interest was to know the situation of bioethics in Bolivia and how research subjects are being protected. After revising some bioethical concepts, Bolivian legislation and study methods, results revealed great lack of knowledge on how to protect research subjects, due to the almost absence or inadequate functioning of scientific ethical review committees.

  2. Poder y sociedad en los Andes: Manuel Isidoro Belzu, un caudillo popular. Bolivia, 1848-1855

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Ortíz Mesa

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo quiero referirme a un gobernante boliviano, Manuel Isidoro Belzu, presidente entre los años de 1848 y 1855. Con una larga carrera militar de casi 25 años, en un ambiente de permanente inestabilidad política y con una fascinante estrategia, Belzu ha sido percibido por algunos historiadores y literatos como un «Caudillo del Pueblo», otros lo calificaron como un demagogo y algunos más como el presidente para la Bolivia de entonces. Manuel Isidoro Belzu nació al tiempo que se vislumbraba la Bolivia Republicana en 1808. Fue un hombre pobre como muchos de sus conciudadanos, predominantemente indígenas. No obstante, Belzu fue un mestizo, expresión de los cambios raciales que desde la Colonia se produjeron en la población de la Audiencia de Charcas cuya sede y capital fue Chuquisaca o Sucre, donde tuvo asiento el emporio minero más importante y productivo de los Andes, el Cerro Rico de Potosí.

  3. Elder Abuse in the Iberian Peninsula and Bolivia: A Multicountry Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal, Rosa; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Ruiz-Gandara, África; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, Mª Aurora

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of abuse of vulnerable older persons in the family and community environment in the following regions-Spain (Andalusia-Córdoba), Portugal (Azores), and Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra)-and to identify risk factors and delineate a profile of abused older persons. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of people in the age group 65 years plus living in the catchment areas of health centers. The following were used as instruments to collect data: the medical record of the patients of relevant health centers, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), daily activities autonomy test, adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve (APGAR) familiar test, The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and the Social Work Evaluation Form. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with abuse. Suspected abuse was identified in 6.9% of the elderly who participated in the study in Spain, 39% in Bolivia, and 24.5% in Azores. In all areas, studied psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse. In conclusion, although the prevalence of abuse to older people in the family and community environment differs in the areas studied, it is present in all countries and the data are comparable with other developing and European countries. The profile of the abused older persons appears to be similar in all countries.

  4. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  5. Experimental control of Triatoma infestans in poor rural villages of Bolivia through community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Depickère, Stéphanie; Aliaga, Claudia; Chavez, Tamara; Zambrana, Lilian

    2015-02-01

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestans were identified, and an eco-health intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  6. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Bolivia. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new records of 135 lichen taxa in Bolivia. Two species, Myriotrema laeviusculum (Nyl. Hale and Graphis tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking, are new for the Southern Hemisphere; two, Cladonia uncialis (L. Weber ex F. H. Wigg. and Thelocarpon laureri (Flot. Nyl., are new for South America; and 27 species are new for Bolivia: Acanthotrema brasilianum (Hale Frisch, Bulbothrix laevigatula (Nyl. Hale, B. leprieurii Aubel, Canoparmelia salacinifera (Hale Hale, Catolechia wahlenbergii (Flot. ex Ach. Körb., Chapsa alborosella (Nyl. Frisch, Coccocarpia dissecta Swinscow & Krog, Graphis apertoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, G. cinerea Fée, G. globosa (Fée Spreng., G. haleana R. C. Harris, G. marginata Raddi, G. pilarensis Cáceres & Lücking, G. striatula (Ach. Spreng., Hemithecium oryzaeforme (Fée Staiger, Hypotrachyna protochlorina Sipman, Elix & T. H. Nash, H. sinuosella Elix, T. H. Nash & Sipman, H. tariensis Elix, Parmeliella isidiopannosa Jørg., Parmotrema conferendum Hale, P. enteroxanthum Hale, P. laciniellum (Ferraro & Elix Blanco et al., P. pilosum (Stizenb. Krog & Swinscow, P. recipiendum (Nyl. Hale, P. ruptum (Lynge Hale ex DePriest & Hale, Pyxine pungens Zahlbr. and Xanthoparmelia substenophylloides Hale. Notes on distribution are provided for the species. Bulbothrix goebelii (Zenker Hale is excluded from the list of Bolivian lichens; the record is referred to B. laevigatula.

  8. Traditional llama husbandry and breeding management in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markemann, A; Valle Zárate, A

    2010-01-01

    The llama claims the largest population of the domestic South American camelids, most of which are raised in Bolivia. More than 53,000 rural families are dedicated to llama husbandry as part of their livelihood strategy. Contemporary Andean societies deliberately select animals for specific traits and employ substantial livestock management to secure subsistence. This study presents traditional llama husbandry and breeding management activities in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia. Traditional selection traits for male and female llamas are documented and assessed by a ranking and a ratio-scaled evaluation. Husbandry and management parameters are in concordance with other studies conducted in the region, but show a high variation. Average llama herd sizes are rather small (mu = 45.6). In some herds, breeding males are utilized for a long time and mix with other herds, causing concerns about inbreeding. Preferred trait groups for llama males according to farmers' responses were body conformation, fibre, testicle conformation, fleece colour and height at withers. Traditional selection criteria generally relate to the phenotype, but also include the commercially interesting fibre trait. The presented results should be considered in breeding and management programmes for the respective llama population to ensure sustainable use of this genetically and culturally valuable resource.

  9. Electronic Health Record in Bolivia and ICT: A Perspective for Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Gil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new technologies in society through its application to many areas and very diverse realities is a clear element in the time in which we live. The health sector has been unable to escape this reality and has been renovated many of its traditional structures with new options brought by the application of information technology and communication (ICT in areas such as management and hospital administration. This paper focuses on analyzing from the point of view of medical diagnosis the importance of electronic medical records as a unifying element of the information essential for this type of diagnosis, and the use of artificial intelligence techniques in this field. To this end the current situation of electronic medical records is analyzed in a country like Bolivia exhaustively analyzing three of the most important health centers. Is used for this unstructured interview experts on the subject reflect the current status of electronic medical records from the point of view of protection of the right to privacy of individuals and will serve as a model for development, not only in Bolivia but also in other Latin American countries.

  10. Natural Resources Curse in the Long Run? Bolivia, Chile and Peru in the Nordic Countries’ Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Ducoing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The new estimates of the Maddison Project show that GDP per capita ratio at purchasing power parity (ppp between Bolivia and Finland has changed from 0.68 ca. 1850 to 0.16 in 2015; similarly, that between Chile and Norway from 0.65 to 0.28. The aim of this article is to present a review of the literature and available quantitative evidence to understand how these extreme differences became possible between countries with similarly enormous natural resource endowments. Specifically, the article seeks to: (a identify some stylized facts that may help understand the divergence between Andean and Nordic countries; (b identify key historical processes that explain the divergent effect of natural resource abundance in Andean and Nordic economies. In order to achieve these objectives, four topics are covered: GDPpc, population, trade and taxation. The analysis comprises three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden and three Andean countries (Bolivia, Chile and Peru from the mid-Nineteenth Century to present day. The sample size, time span covered and thematic approach provide new evidence regarding previous work.

  11. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  12. A model for predicting the growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedling stands in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, G.; Morales, M.; Pukkala, T.; Miguel, S. de

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most planted species in the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia, where growing conditions are different from most places where eucalyptus have been studied. This prevents a straightforward utilization of models fitted elsewhere. In this study a distance-independent individual-tree growth model for E. globulus plantations in Bolivia was developed based on data from 67 permanent sample plots. The model consists of sub-models for dominant height, tree diameter increment, height-diameter relationship and survival. According to model-based simulations, the mean annual increment with the optimal rotation length is about 13 m3 ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 on medium-quality sites and 18 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 yr -1 on the best sites. A suitable rotation length for maximizing wood production is approximately 30 years on medium sites and 20 years on the most productive sites. The developed models provide valuable information for further studies on optimizing the management and evaluating alternative management regimes for the species. (Author) 22 refs.

  13. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Economics of secondary energy from GTL regarding natural gas reserves of Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Arzabe Maure, Jose Omar; Oliva, Cidar Ramon

    2007-01-01

    This work aims the economics and the viability of Natural Gas Industrialization in Bolivia, by producing secondary fuels like gas to liquid (GTL)-diesel from natural gas (cleaner than the oil by-product), looking for a clean development with that environmentally well energy using this GTL process. Bolivia has resources that could fulfill these secondary energy resources from GTL. It is possible to process 30 MCMpd of gas obtaining profits from the gas and also from the liquid hydrocarbons that are found in it. Then the Bolivian GTL would present the following advantages: it would export diesel and/or gasoline and would not have to import it anymore.; the exportations of GTL-FT would reach 35 Mbpy, acquiring competitive prices; it would increase productive jobs not only due to the GTL itself, but also from secondary economy linked to GTL market; the use of GTL-FT diesel would bring a ''cleaner'' environment especially in the urban areas; finally, from the macroeconomic perspective, the investment in the plant construction and supporting works would generate a great amount of job offers. (author)

  15. Could clinical audit improve the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuba, Peru and Bolivia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Kamran; Volz, Anna; Armas, L; Otero, L; Ugaz, R; Ochoa, E; Gotuzzo, E; Torrico, F; Newell, James N; Walley, J; Robinson, Mike; Dieltiens, G; Van der Stuyft, P

    2008-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of clinical audit in improving the quality of diagnostic care provided to patients suspected of tuberculosis; and to understand the contextual factors which impede or facilitate its success. Twenty-six health centres in Cuba, Peru and Bolivia were recruited. Clinical audit was introduced to improve the diagnostic care for patients attending with suspected TB. Standards were based on the WHO and TB programme guidelines relating to the appropriate use of microscopy, culture and radiological investigations. At least two audit cycles were completed over 2 years. Improvement was determined by comparing the performance between two six-month periods pre- and post-intervention. Qualitative methods were used to ascertain facilitating and limiting contextual factors influencing change among healthcare professionals' clinical behaviour after the introduction of clinical audit. We found a significant improvement in 11 of 13 criteria in Cuba, in 2 of 6 criteria in Bolivia and in 2 of 5 criteria in Peru. Twelve out of 24 of the audit criteria in all three countries reached the agreed standards. Barriers to quality improvement included conflicting objectives for clinicians and TB programmes, poor coordination within the health system and patients' attitudes towards illness. Clinical audit may drive improvements in the quality of clinical care in resource-poor settings. It is likely to be more effective if integrated within and supported by the local TB programmes. We recommend developing and evaluating an integrated model of quality improvement including clinical audit.

  16. A view to educational reforms and the formation of citizenship in Bolivia (century XX and XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimar Iño

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article takes a historical look at the educational reforms implemented in Bolivia with reference to the formation of citizenship. For this purpose historical research was used and the bibliographic review was used to collect, describe and analyze the written sources. This in order to understand the relationship between State, education and citizenship, which identifies two aspects that guide educational policies and the formation of citizenship. In this way, we can also elucidate the types of citizens who projected these educational reforms in Bolivia during the 20th century: the liberal (1899-1920, the nationalist (1954-1964 and the neoliberal (1994-2004; And in the 21st century, the sociocommunity. In each of these reforms there are common characteristics, on the one hand, there is the centralization of public education at the hands of the State; On the other hand, the role given to education for civic formation and the construction of national identity, in this case Bolivianity; For example, for the indigenous majority was their assimilation to the national culture and homogenization, through education. Likewise, each reform sought the formation of a citizenship; In the case of the liberal raised the Bolivian identity; The nationalist point towards mestizaje as a citizen, neoliberal ideal for the construction of a pluricultural and multilingual citizenship; And the sociocommunity towards an intercultural and decolonized citizenship.

  17. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbord, Silvio

    2010-03-01

    To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. Challenges to two central goals of TB control--early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy--were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as 'peers' in health services. The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.

  18. Beyond Parity in Figures: The Challenges in Reality of Municipal Women Councillors in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmé Dominguez R.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is a country that has advanced substantially regarding women’s representation in politics. In fact, at a global level, Bolivia rivals Rwanda at both the national and local representation levels. This is particularly true at the local level where several women from all social conditions and ethnicity groups have become the majority of municipal councillors, even though women mayors are still a rarity. However, parity in figures does not mean parity in reality. Many of these women councillors face hard realities impregnated with discrimination and harassment of all sorts. Moreover, some mechanisms—like the rotation principle designed to increase participation and democracy—have been turned against many of these women councillors. Based on a field work using interviews and participant observation as well as findings of previous relevant works, this article discusses these problems and offers an analysis as to the causes of such a situation where parity in figures is not reflected in shared power and equal respect in the daily realities at the local level.

  19. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  20. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on child mortality, morbidity, and rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchauste, Lucia; Patzi, Maritza; Halvorsen, Kjetil; Solano, Susana; Montesano, Raul; Iñiguez, Volga

    2017-08-01

    The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in countries with high child mortality rates remains to be established. The RV1 rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Bolivia in August 2008. This study describes the trends in deaths, hospitalizations, and healthcare visits due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in rotavirus-related hospitalizations, among children rotavirus-related AGE was assessed using data from the active surveillance hospitals. Compared with the 2001-2008 pre-vaccine baseline, the mean number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations was reduced by 40.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-66.4%) among children rotavirus disease. Over the post-vaccine period, changes in rotavirus epidemiology were observed, manifested by variations in seasonality and by a shift in the mean age of those with rotavirus infection. The significant decrease in main AGE-related health indicators in children rotavirus vaccine provides evidence of a substantial public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in Bolivia, as a measure for protecting children against AGE. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Conexiones revolucionarias: repercusiones de la expropiación petrolera mexicana en Bolivia, 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Zuleta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata un tema relevante en la historiografía latinoamericana como es la expropiación petrolera mexicana durante el gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas y aporta información original así como un enfoque innovador que desborda las historiografías estrictamente nacionales, intentando contribuir tanto a la historia de Bolivia como a la mexicana. La expropiación mexicana de 1938 alcanzó una dimensión trasnacional más allá de sus repercusiones diplomáticas: una experiencia percibida bajo muy diversos prismas en cada país latinoamericano. ¿Cómo fue vista la expropiación mexicana en los Andes bolivianos? Se argumenta que en la Paz, y en Sucre, diversos sectores de la sociedad leyeron esa expropiación tras los filtros del conflicto con la Standard Oil of Bolivia y del debate ideológico y político en torno a la recién creada YPFB, y cargaron de otro significado este episodio nacionalista al adaptarlo al contexto boliviano, dialogando simultáneamente con el sustrato previo de recepción de la revolución mexicana en la región, así como con el especial contexto político, económico y diplomático andino. Razones de orden nacional e internacional explican las reacciones ante el episodio petrolero mexicano en Bolivia, tanto como la percepción de estas por parte de la diplomacia mexicana.This article deals with a relevant subject in Latin American historiography, that being the Mexican oil expropriation during the Lázaro Cárdenas government and provides original information as well as an innovative approach that goes beyond strictly national historiographies, with the intention of contributing both to Bolivian and Mexican history. The Mexican expropriation of 1938 reached a transnational dimension beyond its diplomatic implications; an experience perceived through quite different prisms in each Latin American country. How was the Mexican expropriation viewed in the Bolivian Andes? We have argued that in La Paz and Sucre, various

  2. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  3. A learning-based approach to understanding success in rural electrification : insights from micro hydro projects in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkwaard, ir. W.; Kirkels, A.F.; Romijn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the performance of a set of rural Micro Hydro Power (MHP) projects and MHP-implementing organizations in Bolivia, using a learning-based analytical perspective. Rather than identifying a generic set of critical success factors such as access to finance, adequate technological

  4. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico Mountain, known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations, both of which have left a legacy of pollution. In this study...

  5. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  6. The Effect of Integrated Basic Education Programs on Women's Social and Economic Well-Being in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Haiyan; Burchfield, Shirley

    A large-scale longitudinal study in Bolivia examined the relationship between adult women's basic education and their social and economic well-being and development. A random sample of 1,600 participants and 600 nonparticipants, aged 15-45, was tracked for 3 years (the final sample included 717 participants and 224 controls). The four adult…

  7. Foundations, trusts and funds in near mine closure and post-closure environments: a case from Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    and when management of the FTF requires considerable input from the community it was meant to serve. This paper provides baseline results from research undertaken on the Inti Raymi Foundation in Bolivia. It analyses the community engagement practices and the programs used by both the foundation and its...

  8. The Cost-Effectiveness of Interactive Radio Instruction for Improving Primary School Instruction in Honduras, Bolivia and Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Thomas D.; And Others

    Findings are presented from studies on the use of radio for teaching primary school children mathematics in Honduras and Bolivia and English as a Second Language in Lesotho. Interactive radio instruction (IRI) is so called because of the active participation of the students. Although lessons are presented by conventional radio, scripts are written…

  9. The Impact of Participation and Social Contacts on International Attitudes of Youth (The Case of Bolivia and Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario

    Interviews with high school seniors in Bolivia (n=1,100) and Chile (n=2,460) demonstrated that individuals with international contacts hold more positive attitudes toward others than those individuals without this type of exposure. The study examined the students' opinions about other countries of the Latin American region, opportunities for…

  10. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  11. Problemas metodológicos en las investigaciones sobre VIH/SIDA en Bolivia Methodological problems in the scientific research on HIV /AIDS in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ramírez Hita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una reflexión sobre las dificultades metodológicas que arrastra la producción científica, tanto epidemiológica como de ciencias sociales, relativa a la problemática del VIH/SIDA en Bolivia. Los estudios asociados a esta producción sirvieron de base para la implementación de programas del Fondo Mundial, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, cooperaciones internacionales, Organizaciones No Gubernamentales y el Ministerio de Salud y Deportes boliviano. El análisis de las contradicciones y falencias metodológicas se realizó a través de una revisión bibliográfica y una investigación de metodología cualitativa, que se centró en la calidad de atención a las personas viviendo con VIH/SIDA en servicios públicos de salud y en cómo son realizados y diseñados los programas destinados a esta población. De esta manera se pudo observar las deficiencias en los diseños metodológicos que presentan los estudios epidemiológicos y de ciencias sociales que sirven de base para la implementación de programas sanitarios.This paper discusses the methodological problems in the scientific research on HIV/AIDS in Bolivia, both in the areas of epidemiology and social sciences. Studies associated with this research served as the basis for the implementation of health programs run by The Global Fund, The Pan-American Health Organization, International Cooperation, Non-Governmental Organizations and the Bolivian Ministry of Health and Sports. An analysis of the methodological contradictions and weaknesses was made by reviewing the bibliography of the studies and by conducting qualitative methodological research, that was focused on the quality of health care available to people living with HIV/AIDS in public hospitals and health centers, and looked at how programs targeted at this sector of the population are designed and delivered. In this manner, it was possible to observe the shortcomings of the methodological design in the

  12. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia V Aguilar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  13. Manufacturing of glass from tin mining tailings in Bolivia; Obtencion de vidrio a partir de residuos de la mineria del estano en Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arancibia, J. r. H.; Alfonso, P.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Martinez, S.; Parcerisa, D.; Canet, C.; Romero, F. M.

    2013-06-01

    Tailings from mining activities in Bolivia represent an environmental problem. In the vicinity of the tin mines of Llallagua, Potosi department, there are large dumps and tailings. We present a study of the use of these wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of glass. This procedure aims to contribute to environmental remediation of mining areas through the vitrification, a process which offers an alternative for stabilization of hazardous waste. In addition, the marketing of the obtained product would provide an additional income to the mining areas. For this study three samples of mining waste, with grain size between sand and silt, were used. The chemical composition of these raw materials, determined by X-ray fluorescence, is granitic, with high contents of heavy metals. On the basis of its composition, glass were made from silica glass by adding CaCO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The thermal cycle has been determined from TDA. Tg values of glass range from 626 degree centigrade to 709 degree centigrade. Leaching tests of the obtained glasses confirm their capacity to retain heavy metals. (Author) 38 refs.

  14. Prevalencia de las infecciones por virus de las hepatitis B, C, D y E en Bolivia Prevalence of viral hepatitis B, C, D, and E in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar León

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available En Bolivia no se han realizado estudios específicos sobre los virus de la hepatitis, por lo que su prevalencia y patrones de circulación son prácticamente desconocidos. De 1992 a 1996 se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico con el fin de adquirir una primera visión de conjunto sobre las prevalencias de las infecciones por virus de la hepatitis B (VHB, C (VHC, D (VHD y E (VHE en distintas poblaciones de Bolivia. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en otros lugares de América Latina, se prestó atención especial al estudio de las comunidades autóctonas de la región amazónica. En las zonas rurales del altiplano andino, la infección por VHB presentó una prevalencia general que correspondería a una situación de endemia media o baja (11,2% y no se encontró ningún portador de anticuerpos contra VHC o VHD. En dos poblaciones de alto riesgo de la ciudad de Cochabamba (niños sin hogar y trabajadoras del sexo, la prevalencia de infección por VHB fue similar (11,6% y podría considerarse baja en comparación con la de otras poblaciones análogas de núcleos urbanos en América Latina. La correspondiente al VHC (un caso positivo, 0,5% sería parecida a la descrita en esas mismas poblaciones, si bien el escaso número de muestras estudiadas no permite extraer conclusiones más firmes. En concordancia con observaciones anteriores de comunidades similares de zonas tropicales de Suramérica, en las poblaciones autóctonas de la Amazonia boliviana la infección por VHB es sumamente endémica (prevalencia general de 74,0%, pero no se ha detectado la circulación de VHC. Se sabe que la transmisión de VHB es horizontal y tiene lugar desde edades muy tempranas, pero se desconocen los mecanismos de esa actividad. A los 10 años de edad, más de la mitad de la población ya ha experimentado la infección natural que, 10 años más tarde, se habrá difundido a prácticamente toda la población. La tasa muy baja de individuos positivos al HbsAg (1

  15. "It Is Not Natural Anymore": Nutrition, Urbanization, and Indigenous Identity on Bolivia's Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Adam C; Leon, Juan S; Calle, Susana C; Andes, Karen L

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this article was to characterize how urbanization and indigenous identity shape nutrition attitudes and practices in El Alto, a rapidly urbanizing and predominantly indigenous (Aymara) community on Bolivia's Andean plateau. We took a qualitative ethnographic approach, interviewing health care providers ( n = 11) and conducting focus groups with mothers of young children ( n = 4 focus groups with 25 mothers total [age = 18-43 years, 60% Aymara]). Participants generally described their urban environment as being problematic for nutrition, a place where unhealthy "junk foods" and "chemicals" have supplanted healthy, "natural," "indigenous" foods from the countryside. Placing nutrition in El Alto within a broader context of cultural identity and a struggle to harmonize different lifestyles and worldviews, we propose how an intercultural framework for nutrition can harmonize Western scientific perspectives with rural and indigenous food culture.

  16. Blaming Machismo: How the Social Imaginary is Failing Men with HIV in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnography of HIV care in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in this article I explore how the social imaginary surrounding gender relations shapes men's experiences of seeking care for and living with HIV. Popular understandings of gender relations, which draw heavily on the machismo concept, intersect with a global health master narrative that frames women as victims in the AIDS epidemic in a way that generates a strong sentiment of blaming machismo within local HIV/AIDS-related services. Statements such as, "it's because of machismo" are used to explain away epidemiological trends. Participant observation in the context of HIV care, coupled with illness narrative interviews, illuminate how blaming machismo shapes men's experiences of care and the ways that they feel excluded from various forms of support. Thus, the illness experiences of men with HIV problematize the machismo concept and how it is drawn upon in the context of care.

  17. Reglas versus discreción en la política fiscal: caso Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Arancibia Romero, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo formula y evalúa una regla fiscal del 1% del PIB sobre el balance estructural del gobierno de Bolivia para un período retrospectivo (desde 1990 al 2014) y un prospectivo (2015 al 2018), a través de metodologías propuestas por el FMI y la OCDE, en el contexto de una economía guiada por la discrecionalidad y ciclicidad de sus finanzas públicas. Los resultados visibilizan el debate que existe en la teoría económica sobre regla y discreción en las finanzas públicas de un país....

  18. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Dengue Fever in Bolivia from 1998 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Yelin; Baronti, Cécile; Revollo, Roberto Jimmy; Cook, Shelley; Loayza, Roxana; Ninove, Laetitia; Fernandez, Roberto Torrez; Flores, Jorge Vargas; Herve, Jean-Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever was first recognized in Bolivia in 1931. However, very limited information was available to date regarding the genetic characterization and epidemiology of Bolivian dengue virus strains. Here, we performed genetic characterization of the full-length envelope gene of 64 Bolivian isolates from 1998 to 2008 and investigated their origin and evolution to determine whether strains circulated simultaneously or alternatively, and whether or not multiple introductions of distinct viral variants had occurred during the period studied. We determined that, during the last decade, closely related viruses circulated during several consecutive years (5, 6, and 6 years for DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, respectively) and the co-circulation of two or even three serotypes was observed. Emergence of new variants (distinct from those identified during the previous episodes) was identified in the case of DENV-1 (2007 outbreak) and DENV-2 (2001 outbreak). In all cases, it is likely that the viruses originated from neighboring countries. PMID:19505253

  19. Gasification of the southern spread of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisoli, Caetano; Senna, Ferando Jose Ennes de; Faria, Jose Aurelio Carvalho de

    2000-01-01

    As to the commissioning of the Northern spread, Inert Direct Purging was also adopted for purging the Southern Spread of Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. This section is 1191 km long and lies between the city of Paulinia in the State of Sao Paulo up to Canoas in the Sate of Rio Grande do Sul. The Inert Direct Purging is based on the principle of high gas injection flow rates at the initial point and the purging of air at the other end, separated by a nitrogen plug. A purging model, developed by The Gas Research Institute, was used in conjunction with the software Pipeline Studio for planning purposes. The arrival of gas at each valve and the size of gas/nitrogen/air interfaces were also recorded. Graphs and tables compare calculated and recorded data. Final results demonstrated model accuracy and its suitable applicability for purging, as well as the Inert Direct Purging method for gas pipelines of extensive lengths. (author)

  20. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  1. The Ignimbritic tertiary volcanism of the Andes (Peru, Bolivia, Argentina): its characteristics and uraniferous potentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, J.L.; George-Aniel, B.

    1988-01-01

    The petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the volcanism and the primary U distribution at the magmatic stage: alkali-rich volcanic rocks (Peru) appear to be fertile source-rocks, whereas sub alkaline and calc-alkaline rocks (Bolivia and Argentina) are less favorable. Uranium can only be leached from the matrix, due to the stability of the accessory minerals during all the following events. The fertility of a volcanic rock is thus directly controlled by the volume proportion of the matrix and the U fractionation between glass and accessory minerals. The preconcentration and concentration stages: the existence of mineralizations in relation with a fertile rock will depend on other events which must occur successively at the same place: the cooling type and rate of the volcanic pile (pre-concentration stage), the intensity and the duration of the hydrothermal circulations, the presence of reducing agents and trapps. (author)

  2. Perception of HIV prevention programs among Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, José

    2015-11-01

    The Ayoreo population constitutes one of Bolivia's most vulnerable ethnic groups in terms of HIV/AIDS. Being a woman, indigenous, and a sex worker signifies belonging to a high-risk group. The aim of this study is to explore the Ayoreo sex workers' and health agents' perceptions of HIV/AIDS prevention programs in order to identify variables that could influence their success or failure. This study used an ethnographic methodology that included participant observation and semistructured interviews. In the data collection, participant observation and semistructured interviews with sex workers and key informants were conducted. Three themes emerged from the inductive data analysis: health prevention efforts, cultural inadequacy of prevention programs, and the eventuality of interventions. We conclude that nursing can develop culturally-adequate HIV/AIDS prevention interventions and programs as well as promote health within these populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR): the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aristizabal, Urko; Sanz-Victoria, Silvia; Sahonero-Daza, Milton; Ledesma-Ocampo, Sandra; Cachimuel-Vinueza, Mesías; Torrico, Marisabel

    2012-01-01

    Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labor Office (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP) in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio-cultural context may determine whether CBR programs succeed or fail.

  4. Populismo, Estado y movimientos sociales. Posibles articulaciones en los contextos recientes de Argentina y Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Quiroga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers ‘kirchnerism’ and ‘evism’ to be popular identity movements which have attempted to provide answers to the open social dislocations since the crisis of December 2001 in Argentina, and the cycle of protests from 2000-2005 in Bolivia. The emergence of both of these identity constructions has involved at least three simultaneous processes. Firstly, the gradual incorporation of public decision-making on subjects and demands which were formerly ignored; secondly, political divisions within communities; and, finally, establishing a nation within the new institutional framework currently in force. As these processes developed, some points of approach and distancing between the case studies were noted.

  5. La energía del litio en Argentina y Bolivia: comunidad, extractivismo y posdesarrollo

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    Bruno Fornillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the current relationship between the extraction of lithium, communitarian conflict and development policies in Argentina and Brazil and compares what is happening in one country with what is happening in the other. It is based on the premise that the interaction of the technology-industry-politics triangle is key to an understanding of the modes of development in our peripheral region. The main hypothesis is that an extractive logic predominates in Argentina, while there is a different approach to lithium in Bolivia, due to a wager on a stronger linkage between national actors and the endogenous growth of a productive network, although the results are still uncertain. The study draws on secondary sources, first-hand documentation and interviews in both countries.

  6. From Conflict to Collaboration: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Coca Cultivation in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ledebur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon his presidential election, Bolivian coca grower leader Evo Morales adopted a policy of promoting consensual coca reduction through social control, a sophisticated coca monitoring system, and economic development. That strategy is paying off. In 2011, coca cultivation decreased by 13 per cent according to the U.S. government. The Morales administration has also made significant progress facing the ongoing challenges of drug production and trafficking. Seizures of coca paste and cocaine and destruction of drug laboratories have steadily increased since President Morales took office. Despite continued tensions in bilateral relations, U.S.-Bolivian counter-drug cooperation continues and the signing of a new framework agreement in 2011 should lead to an exchange of ambassadors. Internationally, Bolivia has successfully gained acceptance of the right to the traditional use of coca within its own territory. But Bolivia’s efforts must be carried out in tandem with effective demand reduction strategies to shrink the global cocaine market.

  7. Safe household water treatment and storage using ceramic drip filters: a randomised controlled trial in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, T; Brown, J; Suntura, O; Collin, S

    2004-01-01

    A randomised controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ceramic drip filters to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water in a low-income community in rural Bolivia. In four rounds of water sampling over five months, 100% of the samples were free of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) compared to an arithmetic mean TTC count of 1517, 406, 167 and 245 among control households which continued to use their customary sources of drinking water. The filter systems produced water that consistently met WHO drinking-water standards despite levels of turbidity that presented a challenge to other low-cost POU treatment methods. The filter systems also demonstrated an ability to maintain the high quality of the treated water against subsequent re-contamination in the home.

  8. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  9. Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

    2014-05-01

    In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

  10. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  11. Exploring chronic disease in Bolivia: A cross-sectional study in La Paz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Patricia; Banerjee, Tanima; Aruquipa Yujra, Amparo Clara; Xie, Boqin; Piette, John

    2018-01-01

    This study seeks to develop an understanding that can guide development of programs to improve health and care for individuals with Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in La Paz, Bolivia, where NCDs are prevalent and primary care systems are weak. This exploratory investigation examines the characteristics of chronic disease patients in the region, key health related behaviors, and their perceptions of the care that they receive. The longer-term goal is to lay groundwork for interventional studies based on the principles of the Chronic Care Model (CCM). The study is based on two surveys of adults (> 18 years old) administered in 2014 in La Paz, Bolivia. A total of 1165 adult patients participated in the first screening survey. A post-screening second survey, administered only on those who qualified based on Survey 1, collected more detailed information about the subjects' general health and health related personal circumstances, several health behaviors, health literacy, and their perceptions of care received. A final data set of 651 merged records were used for analysis. Characteristic of a low-income country, the majority of participants had low levels of education, income, health literacy and high rates of under/unemployment. Nearly 50% of participants reported 2 or more NCDs. Seventy-four percent (74%) of respondents reported low levels of medication adherence and 26% of the population was found to have an undiagnosed depressive disorder. Overall, the perception of care quality was low (60%), particularly in those under the age of 45. Significant relationships emerged between several sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and perceptions that have major implications for improving NCD care in this population. These findings illustrate some of the challenges facing low-income countries where reversing the tide of NCDs is of great importance. The prevalence of NCDs coupled with challenging social determinants of health, poor medication adherence, low

  12. Reporting diarrhoea through a vernacular term in Quechua-speaking settings of rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gonzalo Durán; Christen, Andri; Arnold, Ben; Hattendorf, Jan; Colford, John M; Smith, Thomas A; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Field studies often use caregiver-reported diarrhoea and related symptoms to measure child morbidity. There are various vernacular terms to define diarrhoea that vary across the local cultural contexts. The relationship between vernacular definitions of diarrhoea and symptoms-based definitions is not well-documented. This paper describes the association of the vernacular Quechua term k'echalera with the symptoms-based standard definition of diarrhoea in rural Bolivian settings. During a cluster randomized trial in rural Bolivia, both signs and symptoms of diarrhoea and reports of k'echalera were collected for children aged less than five years. Reported k'echalera were found to be associated with important changes in stool frequency, consistency, and presence of blood and mucus. Reported k'echalera were highly related to three of four recorded categories of watery stool. The intermediate (milk-rice) stool consistency, which fits into the definition of watery stool, was not strongly related to k'echalera. Mucus in the stool was also associated with k'echalera; however, its presence in k'echalera-free days accounted for at least 50% of the possible false negatives. The sensitivity and specificity of the term k'echalera were estimated by Bayesian methods, allowing for both symptoms of diarrhoea and reports of k'echalera to be subject to diagnosis error. An average specificity of at least 97% and the sensitivity of at least 50% were obtained. The findings suggest that the use of k'echalera would identify fewer cases of diarrhoea than a symptom-based definition in rural Bolivia.

  13. CRISIS ECONÓMICA INTERNACIONAL Y BOLIVIA: CRECIMIENTO, INFLACIÓN Y CONSUMO DE HOGARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cupé C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian en detalle las cifras del crecimiento, inflación y consumo de hogares durante la crisis; para el estudio de las dos últimas variables se recurre al análisis de precios por descomposición en componentes y, además, se estima econométricamente un sistema casi lineal de demanda de alimentos para Bolivia. Se muestra que la crisis llegó cuando la economía boliviana estaba a punto de entrar en crisis inflacionaria debido a factores externos, que el extraordinario desempeño de la economía en términos de crecimiento se debe a un hecho también extraordinario antes que estructural, que la baja inflación es resultado de la desinflación internacional ocasionada por la crisis, la apuesta del Banco Central de Bolivia por la estabilidad de precios en el mercado interno y las medidas orientadas a garantizar el abastecimiento del mercado interno. También se muestra que la estabilidad de precios ha favorecido ampliamente al consumidor, aunque hay diferencias en la forma en que se favorecen los sectores de menores ingresos y los sectores de mayores ingresos. Una conclusión es que, en la medida que la crisis queda atrás y dado el tamaño de la economía boliviana, es necesario retomar la visión de largo plazo y dirigir los esfuerzos a lograr competitividad en los mercados internacionales, camino en el que el tipo de cambio es sólo un factor propiciador, para que el crecimiento también priorice las exportaciones además del consumo.

  14. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Monick L; Velarde-Dunois, Ketty G; Segurondo, David; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-01-16

    Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005). These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt) and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37) and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay). The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5%) samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%). Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70.0%) or BF1 recombinant (23.8% vs 30.0%) samples from Bolivia.

  15. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Monick L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Materials and methods Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005. These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37 and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay. The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Results Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5% samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%. Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. Conclusion HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70

  16. Design and stabilization works of the km 767 slope of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Projeto e obra de estabilizacao do talude do km 767 do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson R.; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline starts at Santa Cruz de La Sierra city, in Bolivia, and goes until Canoas City (RS) in Brazil, with a total extent of 3,150 km. The pipeline crosses in the 2,593 km established in Brazilian soil, the most diverse types of geology and geomorphology. Along the line, the right-of-way (ROW) also crosses a lot of roads, railways, rivers and lakes. During a routine inspection (foot patrol), signs of instability were detected at an embankment slope of a highway of the Santa Catarina state, at the pipeline crossing. An eventual failure of this slope could put the pipeline at risk. The aim of this paper is to present the aspects of the stabilizations phases, since field investigation, design, works, instrumentation, until monitoring. Emphasis is given to the design criteria to pipeline safety. The solution adopted is composite by soil nailing, a changing of slope inclination and superficial drainage system. (author)

  17. Calidad de los servicios de anticoncepción en El Alto, Bolivia The quality of contraception services in El Alto, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Velasco

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar la calidad de los servicios de anticoncepción en la ciudad de El Alto, Bolivia. En su diseño se han contemplado cuatro elementos: 1 las relaciones entre los proveedores de servicios y sus clientes, 2 la disponibilidad de métodos anticonceptivos, 3 las condiciones de los servicios, y 4 la satisfacción de las usuarias. También se han tenido en cuenta las opiniones de los proveedores y de las usuarias y no usuarias de estos servicios, quienes se clasificaron como gubernamentales o no gubernamentales, de acuerdo con la administración de la institución a la que pertenecían. Los datos provinieron de un análisis de la situación de dichos servicios y de testimonios obtenidos de las participantes durante 1995. En cuanto a las relaciones interpersonales, se encontró que los proveedores percibían el trato del médico más favorablemente que las clientas, en tanto que las no usuarias lo percibían desfavorablemente. La percepción de un trato igualitario se correlacionó positivamente con la vestimenta que usaban las clientas. En cuanto a la disponibilidad de los métodos anticonceptivos, 15 de las 36 instituciones encuestadas no disponían de métodos modernos, a pesar de la existencia de una política nacional para proveerlos a la población. La oferta de estos servicios a parejas y a adolescentes es escasa, principalmente en las instituciones gubernamentales. El análisis de las condiciones de los servicios demostró que en algunas instituciones había problemas graves en la provisión de una atención de mínima calidad. Finalmente, este trabajo describe cómo la mayoría de estas limitaciones en la prestación de servicios de anticoncepción en El Alto pueden subsanarse mediante estrategias de costo moderado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of contraception services in the city of El Alto, Bolivia. In the study design, four components were considered: 1 interpersonal

  18. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay Comunicación participativa para el control de la tuberculosis en cárceles de Bolivia, Ecuador y Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Waisbord

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. METHODS: Challenges to two central goals of TB control-early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy-were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed...

  19. LA FORMACIÓN EN EVALUACIÓN PSICOLÓGICA EN CARRERAS DE PSICOLOGÍA DE BOLIVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marion K. Schulmeyer

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la formación que se realiza en Bolivia en el área de la evaluación psicológica en base a los Planes de Estudio de las carreras de Psicología y los Programas Analíticos de cuatro universidades públicas y cuatro universidades privadas. Se analizó el papel que cumplen las materias de esta área en los programas de Psicología en Bolivia, los contenidos que se transmiten, cómo se enseña a evaluar y en qué teorías y bibliografía se basa esta formación. Los r...

  20. Susceptibility and resistance to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae: Triatominae in Bolivia: new discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Depickère

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is a high-endemic country for Chagas disease, for which the principal vector is Triatoma infestans (Triatominae. This is a mainly domestic species that is also found in the wild environment. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown the importance of Triatominae resistance to insecticides, especially in Bolivia. Data regarding the susceptibility/resistance of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin are presented. For the first time, domestic populations of the department of Santa Cruz were tested, showing low resistance. Although most of the wild populations were found to be susceptible to deltamethrin, three populations from three departments showed a mortality rate of less than 100%. This result is emphasised here.

  1. Rights of nature and the indigenous Peoples in Bolivia and Ecuador: a Straitjacket for Progressive development Politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard LALANDER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to justify resource extractivism to provide progressive welfare politics and still respect the constitutional rights of nature? The Indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay on human beings living in harmony with each other and the environment is the fundamental framing of the new constitutions of Ecuador and Bolivia. These constitutional reforms embrace strengthened proper rights of nature and similarly of ethnic rights. However, the same constitutions grant the State the right to exploit and commercialize natural resources and extractivism has increased. This study revises the tensions between welfare politics, extractivism and the rights of nature and the Indigenous peoples in the new constitutional settings of Bolivia and, particularly, Ecuador. The article argues that Sumak Kawsay challenges dominating understandings of the concepts of welfare, common good and development, and likewise that a pragmatic approach is applied by national governments towards the constitutional rights of nature amidst other human values.

  2. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  3. Normative changes and gender equity. From electoral quotas to parity in Latin America: the cases of Bolivia and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Nélida ARCHENTI; María Inés TULA

    2014-01-01

    This study, aimed at analyzing the impact of institutional factors on the efficacy of gender parity policy in Latinamerica. It compares regulatory changes and electoral results in Bolivia and Ecuador, the only two countries in Latinamerica that have implemented parity on national elections. These data demonstrate the persistence of obstacles for gender political parity effectiveness derived from electoral systems and from party aligned strategies channeled by electoral rationality.

  4. Analysis of the Execution of Counter-Drug Strategy in Bolivia Using the Low Intensity Conflict Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    constant encouragement, and Dr. Graham Turbiville who added the academic focus and perspective to the paper. I especially thank my wife whu was introduced...boundaries became a source of conflict especially when mineral riches were involved. In 1879, Bolivia and Peru went to war with Chile over Bolivian claims...La Paz: Comision Episcopal de Educacion , 1981) pp. 277. 25 candidate. The incumbent president refused to allow Paz Estenssoro to assume power and

  5. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  6. Normative changes and gender equity. From electoral quotas to parity in Latin America: the cases of Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida ARCHENTI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, aimed at analyzing the impact of institutional factors on the efficacy of gender parity policy in Latinamerica. It compares regulatory changes and electoral results in Bolivia and Ecuador, the only two countries in Latinamerica that have implemented parity on national elections. These data demonstrate the persistence of obstacles for gender political parity effectiveness derived from electoral systems and from party aligned strategies channeled by electoral rationality.

  7. Balances de glaciares y clima en Bolivia y Perú: impacto de los eventos ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available BILANS GLACIAIRES ET CLIMAT EN BOLIVIE ET AU PÉROU : IMPACT DES ÉVÉNEMENTS ENSO. À partir d’une reconstruction faite pour le glacier de Zongo (Cordillère Royale, Bolivie avec des données hydrologiques et de l’application du modèle linéaire (Lliboutry sur les données des glaciers Yanamarey et Uruashraju (Cordillère Blanche, Pérou, on a pu disposer de séries de 15-20 ans de bilans de masse. En analysant parallèlement les données recueillies aux stations météorologiques proches, on met en évidence le rôle des températures dans la détermination de ces bilans. La variabilité des températures dépend de façon étroite des phénomènes ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation : pendant ces épisodes, les températures maximales et minimales augmentent sensiblement, ce qui affecte le terme ablation du bilan de masse. On vérifie sur ces séries de 20 ans que toutes les années ENSO sont associées à des bilans négatifs. Pendant la plupart des épisodes ENSO se produit au sud du Pérou et en Bolivie une réduction des précipitations, ce qui contribue à accentuer l’effet ENSO sur les bilans. Ces événements ont une grande influence sur l’évolution actuelle des glaciers andins, caractérisée par un recul rapide. La reconstrucción del balance hidrológico a partir de datos hidrométricos del glaciar de Zongo (Cordillera Real de Bolivia, así como la aplicación del modelo lineal (Lliboutry sobre los datos de balance de los glaciares Yanamarey y Uruashraju (Cordillera Blanca del Perú, ofrecen la posibilidad de disponer de series de 15-20 años de balance de masa. Analizando paralelamente los datos recogidos en estaciones meteorológicas cercanas, se puede evidenciar el rol de las temperaturas en la determinación de estos balances. La variabilidad de las temperaturas depende de una manera estrecha de los eventos ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation: durante estos eventos, las temperaturas máximas y mínimas aumentan

  8. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in urban and rural community settings in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Alessandro; Pallecchi, Lucia; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Monasterio, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cabezas, César; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in rural and urban community settings of Bolivia and Peru. MRSA nasal carriage was investigated in 585 individuals living in rural and urban areas of Bolivia and Peru (one urban area, one small rural village, and two native communities, one of which was highly isolated). MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of virulence genes, characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and genotyping (multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)). An overall very low prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was observed (0.5%), with MRSA carriers being detected only in a small rural village of the Bolivian Chaco. The three MRSA isolates showed the characteristics of community-associated MRSA (being susceptible to all non-beta-lactam antibiotics and harboring the SCCmec type IV), were clonally related, and belonged to ST1649. This study provides an insight into the epidemiology of MRSA in community settings of Bolivia and Peru. Reliable, time-saving, and low-cost methods should be implemented to encourage continued surveillance of MRSA dissemination in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Adams, A Paige; Suárez, Victor; Beingolea, Luis; Vargas, Jorge; Manock, Stephen; Freire, Juan; Espinoza, Willan R; Felices, Vidal; Diaz, Ana; Liang, Xiaodong; Roca, Yelin; Weaver, Scott C; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2009-09-15

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of Peru, and more recently (2005), in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  10. Programa 'nieves y glaciares tropicales' (NGT: resultados (1991-1996 obtenidos en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available PROGRAMME “NEIGES ET GLACIERS TROPICAUX” (NGT: RÉSULTATS (1991-1996 OBTENUS EN BOLIVIE. Depuis 1991, avec ses partenaires la COBEE, l’IHH et le SENAMHI, l’ORSTOM a progressivement équipé 2 glaciers de la Cordillère Royale de Bolivie, les glaciers de Chacaltaya et Zongo. Cet équipement a permis de réaliser les bilans glaciologiques des 2 glaciers et les bilans hydrologique et énergétique du glacier Zongo. Les principaux résultats, glaciologique, hydrologique et énergétique, sont fournis dans cette communication. Un premier modèle physique du fonctionnement du glacier Zongo a été réalisé, avec des premiers résultats qui permettent d’entreprendre un modèle plus élaboré susceptible d’être généralisé à d’autres glaciers. Des carottages de neige et glace à haute altitude ont confirmé la possibilité d’exploiter ces véritables archives climatologiques. Desde 1991, con sus contrapartes COBEE, IHH y SENAMHI, el ORSTOM ha equipado progresivamente 2 glaciares de la Cordillera Real de Bolivia, los glaciares de Chacaltaya y Zongo. Este equipo ha permitido realizar los balances glaciológicos de los 2 glaciares y los balances hidrológico y energético del glaciar Zongo. Los principales resultados, glaciológicos, hidrológicos y energéticos, son proporcionados en esta comunicación. Se realizó un primer modelo físico del funcionamiento del glaciar Zongo, con primeros resultados que permiten comenzar un modelo más elaborado capaz de ser generalizado a otros glaciares. Extracciones de testigos de nieve y hielo a gran altura confirmaron la posibilidad de aprovechar estos verdaderos archivos climatológicos. PROGRAM “SNOWS AND GLACIERS IN THE TROPICS” (NGT: PRINCIPAL RESULTS IN BOLIVIA (1991-1996. Since 1991, two glaciers of the Royal Cordillera of Bolivia, the glaciers of Chacaltaya and Zongo, have been equipped by ORSTOM with his partners COBEE, IHH and SENAMHI. That equipment allowed to carry out the glaciological

  11. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  12. Rural migration in Bolivia: the impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, Carlos Balderrama; Tassi, Nico; Miranda, Ana Rubena; Canedo, Lucia Aramayo; Cazorla, Ivan

    2011-04-15

    This case study analyses current migration dynamics in two regions of Bolivia: Northern Potosi, one of the main areas of outmigration in Bolivia, and the municipality of San Julian in the Department of Santa Cruz, a major destination for internal migrants, some of whom come from Northern Potosi. The research was qualitative in nature, with specific attention to breadth and accuracy in the information and analysis. The methods used were participative and the research was done in collaboration with the rural and indigenous organisations in the two selected areas: the Federation of Indigenous Ayllus of Northern Potosi (Federacion de Ayllus Originarios Indigenas del Norte de Potosi Charka Qhara Qhara - FAOI-NP) and the Federation of Intercultural Communities of San Julian (Federacion de Comunidades Interculturales de San Julian). The information gathering process examined a wide range of factors that may trigger migration, including the possible influence of climate change and public policies on migration. The key challenge was to understand current patterns of migration, the processes involved and the social, cultural, economic and political causes and effects, taking into account issues that are increasing in importance, such as climate change, and seeking to discover the extent of their influence in the midst of other factors that drive migration. It is well known that migration is not a simple occurrence. In fact, it involves a series of processes, motivations, causes and decisions. Because it is a collective rather than an individual process, it takes on the character of a 'social phenomenon' that is historically and geographically determined. In many cases, there are cultural practices of transhumance, such as agriculture on different ecological levels or the use of winter and summer pastures. This involves people moving from one place to another, sometimes travelling long distances and crossing districts for several months at a time. These transhumance practices

  13. Rural migration in Bolivia: the impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, Carlos Balderrama; Tassi, Nico; Miranda, Ana Rubena; Canedo, Lucia Aramayo; Cazorla, Ivan

    2011-04-15

    This case study analyses current migration dynamics in two regions of Bolivia: Northern Potosi, one of the main areas of outmigration in Bolivia, and the municipality of San Julian in the Department of Santa Cruz, a major destination for internal migrants, some of whom come from Northern Potosi. The research was qualitative in nature, with specific attention to breadth and accuracy in the information and analysis. The methods used were participative and the research was done in collaboration with the rural and indigenous organisations in the two selected areas: the Federation of Indigenous Ayllus of Northern Potosi (Federacion de Ayllus Originarios Indigenas del Norte de Potosi Charka Qhara Qhara - FAOI-NP) and the Federation of Intercultural Communities of San Julian (Federacion de Comunidades Interculturales de San Julian). The information gathering process examined a wide range of factors that may trigger migration, including the possible influence of climate change and public policies on migration. The key challenge was to understand current patterns of migration, the processes involved and the social, cultural, economic and political causes and effects, taking into account issues that are increasing in importance, such as climate change, and seeking to discover the extent of their influence in the midst of other factors that drive migration. It is well known that migration is not a simple occurrence. In fact, it involves a series of processes, motivations, causes and decisions. Because it is a collective rather than an individual process, it takes on the character of a 'social phenomenon' that is historically and geographically determined. In many cases, there are cultural practices of transhumance, such as agriculture on different ecological levels or the use of winter and summer pastures. This involves people moving from one place to another, sometimes travelling long distances and crossing districts for several months at a time. These transhumance

  14. Análisis de la elección presidencial de 2005 en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador ROMERO BALLIVIÁN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Bolivia celebró en 2005 una elección presidencial anticipada que constituyó la respuesta a la grave crisis política y social que vivió el país en los años previos. El resultado de los comicios no tuvo precedentes en la historia democrática reciente pues por primera vez un candidato consiguió la mayoría absoluta y los partidos hasta entonces dominantes quedaron en una posición desairada. El triunfador, Evo Morales, encabezó una organización de izquierda que criticó con dureza el liberalismo económico, reivindicó el nacionalismo, prometió una reforma profunda de la política e hizo énfasis en la identidad étnica indígena. Superó por amplio margen al ex presidente Jorge Quiroga y conformó el primer gobierno monocolor desde el retorno a la democracia. El artículo busca ofrecer una explicación política y sociológica de los principales datos de la elección, interesándose en el desarrollo de la campaña y el comportamiento de los votantes.ABSTRACT: Bolivia celebrated in 2005 a presidential early election that constituted the response to the serious political and social crisis that lived through the country in the previous years. The result of the assemblies did not have precedents in the democratic recent history since for the first time a candidate obtained the absolute majority and the parties till then dominant stayed in a graceless position. The winner, Evo Morales, headed an organization of left side that criticized with hardness the economic liberalism, claimed the economic nationalism, promised a deep reform of the politics and did emphasis in the ethnic indigenous identity. He overcame for wide margin the ex-president Jorge Quiroga and the first government shaped monocolor from the return to the democracy. The article seeks to offer a political and sociological explanation of the principal information of the election, being interested in the development of the campaign and the behavior of the voters.

  15. Comparison of transmission parameters between Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in two ecologically different localities of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Aliaga, Claudia; Tejerina, Rosenka; Torrez, Libia

    2013-08-13

    Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis is a recognized malaria vector in the slopes of the Andes of Bolivia. There, other species might be involved in malaria transmission and one candidate could be Anopheles argyritarsis. Although it is generally admitted that this species is not a malaria vector in the neotropical region, its potential role in transmission is still controversial and this situation has to be cleared, at least for Bolivia. Comparing the vectorial efficiency of An. pseudopunctipennis with that of An. argyritarsis could solve the question. The two species were sampled throughout Bolivia to estimate their degree of co-existence in their distribution range. Vectorial efficiencies of the two species were compared in two ecologically different localities where the species were sympatric by analysing their vectorial capacities and components (i e, human biting rates, human biting index, survival, durations of the gonotrophic cycle and extrinsic cycle), and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR). Mosquitoes were sampled monthly during more than one year in the two localities. A monthly sample consisted in hourly captures in four houses (inside and outside) in each locality, during four consecutive nights. Climatic variables (temperature, humidity, potential evapo-transpiration and precipitations) were recorded to better understand variability in the entomological parameters. Relationships were analysed using multivariate methods. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis are "altitude" species, sharing the same geographical distribution range in the Andes of Bolivia. No Plasmodium parasite was identified in An. argyritarsis and estimates of the vectorial capacity indicated that it is not a malaria vector in the two studied localities, unlike An. pseudopunctipennis which showed positive EIRs. This latter species, although not a very good malaria vector, exhibited better life traits values and better behavioural characteristics in favour of

  16. EL ACRE Y LOS "ASUNTOS DEL PACÍFICO: BOLIVIA, BRASIL, CHILE Y ESTADOS UNIDOS, 1898-1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Garay Vera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo sitúa el problema de la guerra del Acre en un contexto multilateral, reconociendo la vigencia del equilibrio de poder como parte del razonamiento de la conducción de las políticas exteriores en juego. Se aplica el concepto de frontera de F. J. Turner, para explicar cómo las fronteras permeables pusieron a Brasil y Bolivia en confrontación, por la maniobra boliviana de configurar una concesión a inversionistas estadounidenses, británicos y franceses, que fue interpretada por Brasil como una maniobra imperialista de Estados Unidos. Entones Brasil se acercó a Chile, y afrontaron juntos los problemas del Acre y de Antofagasta, que derivaron en las redacciones de los tratados de Petrópolis (1903 y de Paz y Amistad (1904. El artículo postula que Bolivia procedió de esta forma para impedir el avance brasileño, peruano y paraguayo sobre sus fronteras, y que la búsqueda del paraguas estadounidense fue una idea que Bolivia gestó para compensar el desequilibrio de poder.This work considers the Acre War as part of a multilateral context where the equilibrium of power was important in the reasoning behind the establishment of foreign relations. It uses the frontier concept developed by F. J. Turner to explain why their open frontier put Brazil and Bolivia in confrontation. This happened because of the Bolivian strategy of granting land to investors from the United States, Great Britain and France, which was interpreted by Brazil as an imperialist action promoted by the United States. This explains why Brazil established a cióse relationship with Chile to confront together their problems in Acre and Antofagasta, which led to the drafting of the Petrópilis (1903 and Paz y Amistad (1904 treaties. The article argues that Bolivia proceeded this way to avoid a Brazilian, Peruvian or Paraguayan territorial advance, seeking the support of the United States to compénsate the imbalance of power.

  17. Maternal behavior and experience, care access, and agency as determinants of child diarrhea in Bolivia Comportamiento y experiencia, acceso a la atención de salud y capacidad de acción de la madre como determinantes de la diarrea infantil en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bethany Caruso; Rob Stephenson; Juan S Leon

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Latin America and the Caribbean, Bolivia has the third highest rate of mortality among children under five years of age (57 per 1 000), with 14.0% of under-five deaths attributable to diarrhea. Because a child's world is predominantly controlled by and experienced through his or her mother, this investigation aims to understand what maternal dimensions may determine child diarrhea. METHODS: Variables were selected from the 2003 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey to create ind...

  18. Bolivia, la otra que quiero y que empezaba a desconocer. Reflexiones en torno al Informe de Desarrollo Humano en Bolivia 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis VERDESOTO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo —que comenta el Informe Desarrollo Humano de Bolivia 2000— se pregunta ¿qué significa globalizarse para un país? ¿Es posible medirla desde las dimensiones subjetivas de la interacción social? ¿Cuáles son los límites de la modificación de la "personalidad social" de las naciones? Para proyectarse en el mundo globalizado es necesario interactuar desde la definición de los intereses "propios". Hay que definir los cambios en los paradigmas de la subjetividad para asumir la comparación y examinar las aptitudes para conservar y modificar a la nación. En suma, ¿Estamos construyendo formas específicas de ser en la globalización? La forma de entendernos en los "poderes" de la globalización es disponer de un arsenal mínimo de "saberes". Es una medición de la autonomía para relacionarse. Permite "negociar" la inserción en la globalización, que plantea las formas de una construcción conjunta y conflictiva de los sentidos de la historicidad (compromisos. Acerca de las tareas pendientes, en el ámbito político, el artículo sostiene que deben fortalecerse las instituciones: cuando la sociedad asedia con su dinámica contradictoria, las instituciones no pueden construir su lógica valórica. En el ámbito económico, debe re-enrumbarse el sentido de la competitividad: ¿Se puede conducir la eficiencia hacia la solidaridad? En el ámbito social, debe superarse la extrema pobreza: existe una enorme incapacidad para producir un pacto nacional contra la pobreza ya que los pactos políticos no tienen pactos sociales de sustento.La educación aparece como la posibilidad de (re conocer a la inserción internacional como una oportunidad. Es una apuesta por la ciudadanización, ejercicio de la capacidad de elección de los usuarios de la democracia. La utilización de las instituciones de la democracia está sustentada en la implantación ininterrumpida de la ciudadanía. Para que los valores sean parte del desarrollo

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  20. "I Cannot Be Worried": Living with Chagas Disease in Tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin J

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) profoundly affects the social and emotional dimensions of patients' lives, and disproportionately impacts poor, marginalized populations in Latin America. Biomedical treatment for CD fails to reach up to 99% of the people affected, and in any case seldom addresses the emotional health or socioeconomic conditions of patients. This study examines patient strategies for coping with CD in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. In this ethnographic study, semistructured interviews took place from March-June 2013 with 63 patients who had previously tested positive for CD. During the fieldwork period, participant observation was conducted and patient family members, providers, community members, and public health officials were consulted. Patients often experienced emotional distress when diagnosed with CD, yet were generally unable to find biomedical treatment. Respondents stressed the need to avoid powerful emotions which would worsen the impact of CD symptoms. To manage CD, patients embraced a calm state of mind, described in Spanish as tranquilidad, which partially empowered them to return to a normal existence. In the perceived absence of biomedical treatment options, patients seek their own means of coping with CD diagnosis. Rather than fatalism or resignation, patients' emphasis on maintaining calm and not worrying about CD represents a pragmatic strategy for restoring a sense of normalcy and control to their lives. Programs focused on treatment of CD should remain mindful of the emotional and social impact of the disease on patients.

  1. The expansion of brown rot disease throughout Bolivia: possible role of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, José Antonio; Plata, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating plant disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum species complex and affects different crops. Bacterial wilt infecting potato is also known as brown rot (BR) and is responsible for significant economic losses in potato production, especially in developing countries. In Bolivia, BR affects up to 75% of the potato crop in areas with high incidence and 100% of stored potatoes. The disease has disseminated since its introduction to the country in the mid-1980s mostly through contaminated seed tubers. To avoid this, local farmers multiply seed tubers in highlands because the strain infecting potatoes cannot survive near-freezing temperatures that are typical in the high mountains. Past disease surveys have shown an increase in seed tubers with latent infection in areas at altitudes lower than 3000 m a.s.l. Since global warming is increasing in the Andes Mountains, in this work, we explored the incidence of BR in areas at altitudes above 3000 m a.s.l. Results showed BR presence in the majority of these areas, suggesting a correlation between the increase in disease incidence and the increase in temperature and the number of irregular weather events resulting from climate change. However, it cannot be excluded that the increasing availability of latently infected seed tubers has boosted the spread of BR.

  2. Full moment tensors for small events (Mw < 3) at Uturuncu volcano, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizuri, Celso; Tape, Carl

    2016-09-01

    We present a catalogue of full seismic moment tensors for 63 events from Uturuncu volcano in Bolivia. The events were recorded during 2011-2012 in the PLUTONS seismic array of 24 broad-band stations. Most events had magnitudes between 0.5 and 2.0 and did not generate discernible surface waves; the largest event was Mw 2.8. For each event we computed the misfit between observed and synthetic waveforms, and we used first-motion polarity measurements to reduce the number of possible solutions. Each moment tensor solution was obtained using a grid search over the 6-D space of moment tensors. For each event, we show the misfit function in eigenvalue space, represented by a lune. We identify three subsets of the catalogue: (1) six isotropic events, (2) five tensional crack events, and (3) a swarm of 14 events southeast of the volcanic centre that appear to be double couples. The occurrence of positively isotropic events is consistent with other published results from volcanic and geothermal regions. Several of these previous results, as well as our results, cannot be interpreted within the context of either an oblique opening crack or a crack-plus-double-couple model. Proper characterization of uncertainties for full moment tensors is critical for distinguishing among physical models of source processes.

  3. Contrasting pollen histories of MIS 5e and the Holocene from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Jennifer A.; Gosling, William D.; Paduano, Gina M.; Bush, Mark B.

    2005-10-01

    Two long sediment records (cores LTO1-2B and LT01-3B) from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru, are compared with a previously analysed Holocene record from this lake (core NE98-1PC). The Holocene records of LT01-2B and NE98-1PC are similar. There are striking differences, however, between the MIS 5e sections of the long cores and the Holocene records. In these records, temperature is probably the dominant parameter that determines the total fossil pollen concentration and is used to time the onset and termination of deglaciation. In contrast, the relative and absolute abundance of specific taxa (e.g. Polylepis/Acaena, Chenopodiaceae) are indicators of relative moisture availability. Although the Holocene contains a period of aridity between ca. 8000 cal. yr BP and 4300 cal. yr BP, it is a minor event compared with the more extreme aridity of MIS 5e. Core LT01-3B showed similar trends during MIS 5e when compared to LT01-2B, as did NE98-1PC when comparing Holocene records. MIS 5e and the Holocene are markedly different interglacials, depicted by shifts in pollen concentration and taxa representation over time.

  4. Influence of helminth infections on childhood nutritional status in lowland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S; Leonard, W R; McDade, T W; Reyes-Garcia, V; Godoy, R; Huanca, T

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections, are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in many populations. Inspired by the research and methodological innovations of A. Roberto Frisancho, this work considers the impact of childhood environment and local disease ecology on child health and nutritional patterns among an indigenous group in lowland Bolivia. Specifically, we examine the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection, especially hookworm species, and anthropometric markers of short- and long-term nutritional status. Fecal samples, anthropometric dimensions, and health interviews were collected for 92 children ranging in age from 2.0 to 10.9 years. Microscopic examination revealed high levels of parasitic infection, with 76% of children positive for hookworm species infections (77% of girls and 74% of boys). Less common infections included Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichurius trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis with only 15% of children positive for multiple-species infections. After adjusting for sex and age, no statistically significant associations were observed between helminth infections and the frequency of reported illness or anthropometric measures of nutritional status. These data demonstrate the difficulty of assessing nutritional impacts of endemic infections.

  5. Household food insecurity and food expenditure in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, And the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo R; Zubieta, Ana C; MkNelly, Barbara; Nteziyaremye, Anastase; Gerardo, Maria Filipinas D; Dunford, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n approximately 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure, which represented over 60% of the total household consumption, as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings.

  6. Agrobiodiversity, Rural Transformations and Household Experiences of Globalised Change: A Case Study from Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines reconfigurations of household economies and agrobiodiversity through the experiences and responses of rural households to local manifestations of globalisation and environmental change in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, from the 1950s to the present. Research participant narratives from seven study communities document a widely experienced regional shift from rain-fed agriculture and pastured livestock production for household consumption to market-oriented production of regionally-specialised commodities. Particularly important to this reconfiguration are changing land access and use regimes, household responses to changing opportunities, discourses and social requirements related with ‘modernising lifestyles’, market integration and dependence, changing environmental and ecological conditions, and greater availability of consumer goods and technologies. We analyse how these processes have combined to reconfigure the range of livelihood possibilities available to rural households, or their ‘landscapes of possibility’, in ways that favour transition to specialised commodity production. Patterns of change in household agrobiodiversity use, however, are entwined with threads of persistence, underscoring the contingent nature of rural transitions and the role of local agency and creativity in responding to and sometimes shaping how globalisation unfolds. Examining rural transition through the experiences of households in particular contexts over time offers insights for development policy and practice to support producers’ ability to respond to globalisation and environmental change in ways they see as desirable and beneficial to their livelihoods and wellbeing.

  7. Decentralization and local government performance improving public service provision in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Faguet

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza algunas de las justificaciones más importantes para el desarrollo de procesos de descentralización, analiza sus fundamentos teóricos, y posteriormente describe los elementos de una nueva teoría descentralización, la cual debería llevarnos más lejos en nuestro entendimiento de la efectividad y las implicaciones de la descentralización. Finalmente y de forma más importante, revisamos una gran cantidad de nueva información sobre los efectos de la descentralización en Bolivia. Encontramos fuerte evidencia de que la devolución de recursos y poderes a los gobiernos locales han (i incrementado en la eficiencia de asignación en el sector público boliviano, (ii generado una mayor estabilidad en los patrones de inversión pública entre sectores, (iii llevado a un gobierno más orientado a las necesidades locales de lo que había sido posible a través de gobiernos centralizados, y (iv muy probablemente incrementado el criterio de costo efectividad del sector público.

  8. Association of caspase-1 polymorphisms with Chagas cardiomyopathy among individuals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Katherine Yih-Jia; Zamudio, Roxana; Henderson-Frost, Jo; Almuedo, Alex; Steinberg, Hannah; Clipman, Steven Joseph; Duran, Gustavo; Marcus, Rachel; Crawford, Thomas; Alyesh, Daniel; Colanzi, Rony; Flores, Jorge; Gilman, Robert Hugh; Bern, Caryn

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection is usually acquired in childhood in endemic areas, leading to Chagas disease, which progresses to Chagas cardiomyopathy in 20-30% of infected individuals over decades. The pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy involves the host inflammatory response to T. cruzi, in which upstream caspase-1 activation prompts the cascade of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, cardiac remodeling, and myocardial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of two caspase-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cardiomyopathy. We recruited infected (Tc+, n = 149) and uninfected (Tc-, n = 87) participants in a hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Cardiac status was classified (I, II, III, IV) based on Chagas cardiomyopathy-associated electrocardiogram findings and ejection fractions on echocardiogram. Genotypes were determined using Taqman probes via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood DNA. Genotype frequencies were analyzed according to three inheritance patterns (dominant, recessive, additive) using logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. The AA allele for the caspase-1 SNP rs501192 was more frequent in Tc+ cardiomyopathy (classes II, III, IV) patients compared to those with a normal cardiac status (class I) [odds ratio (OR) = -2.18, p = 0.117]. This trend approached statistical significant considering only Tc+ patients in class I and II (OR = -2.64, p = 0.064). Caspase-1 polymorphisms may play a role in Chagas cardiomyopathy development and could serve as markers to identify individuals at higher risk for priority treatment.

  9. Sujeto político, democracia y pueblo: Argentina y Bolivia frente al nuevo siglo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El retorno del sujeto político en América Latina durante los primeros años del siglo XXI ha sido acompañado por la rearticulación de lo popular con lo democrático. Mientras el imperio de la democracia liberal en la tercera ola de las democracias suponía el protagonismo de figuras individuales (como el votante y el ciudadano, esta cuarta se sostuvo también sobre otras lógicas colectivas (el derecho y la soberanía popular. En Argentina y Bolivia, los movimientos asociados a demandas laborales y acceso a recursos básicos (como alimentos, subsidios, agua y gas lograron dislocar la escena pública. Además, tuvieron éxito en plantear un litigio en torno al rol de la soberanía po - pular, cobrando identidad frente a un enemigo común. No obstante, mientras en un caso tuvieron capacidad de establecer un programa común en contra de un enemigo, en otro caso no pudieron hacerlo. Las estrategias de los sujetos políticos fueron diferentes. Para mostrar estas diferentes se recuperan, de manera crítica, autores ligados al posestructuralismo como Laclau, Rancière y Zizek.

  10. Levels of radon gas concentration and progeny in homes of Potosi City, Bolivia to 4000 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani M, R.; Claros J, J.; Vasquez A, R.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In this work the presence of radon gas was determined, which is a radioactive contaminant that comes from underground, able to penetrate the houses. The danger is that when mixed air and when inhaled can cause serious damage to the lungs, for the short life time that has radon and progeny for decay, damaging the pulmonary alveoli and reducing breathing capacity of the habitants, then causing polycythemia in some cases. The study was carried out in homes in the city of Potosi, Bolivia located at 4000 m. The quantification of radon gas and progeny was performed with the equipment Alpha-Zaeller-2 (Az-2), quantification was realized in 6 zones of the city of Potosi, chosen randomly. In each zone were carried out measurements in 40 homes (2 rooms more permanent), both day and night, for a period of 3 days in two different seasons and with concentrations of average humidity of 20, 50 and 80%. The values obtained for each period vary depending on the season and 30 to 50% of the allowable values given by the EPA and Who for housing. (Author)

  11. Advances in Ethical, Social, and Economic Aspects of Chronic Renal Disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arze, S; Paz Zambrana, S

    2016-03-01

    Since 2005, great progress has been made in health care provision to patients with terminal renal failure in Bolivia. Access to dialysis and transplantation is regulated by the Ministry of Health, based on clinical criteria, applied equitably, without favoritism or discrimination based on race, sex, economic means, or political power. Until December 2013, there were no restrictions in dialysis and transplantation in Health Insurance institutions, but they covered only 30% of the population. Now the remaining 70% has access to free dialysis funded by the communities where patients live, with funds coming from the government and taxes on oil products. More than 2,231 people are getting dialysis, reaching a population growth of >60% annually. The number of hemodialysis units has increased by >200% (60 units), making access easier for end-stage renal failure patients. Treatment protocols have been drawn up to guarantee the best quality of life for the patients. The Law on Donation and Transplantation was enacted in 1996, and Supplementary Regulations were enacted in 1997 with various amendments over the past 5 years. A National Transplant Coordination Board, working under the National Renal Health Program, supervises and regulates transplants and promotes deceased-donor transplantation in an attempt to cover the demand for donors. Rules have been drawn up for accreditation of transplant centers and teams to guarantee the best possible conditions and maximum guaranties. Since January 2014, the National Renal Health Program has been providing free kidney transplants from living donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, G.; Revollo, J.; Guerra, M.; Cruz, M.; Barja Simon, Z.; Roca, Y.; Vargas Florès, J.; Hervé, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The natural transmission of dengue virus from an infected female mosquito to its progeny, namely the vertical transmission, was researched in wild caught Aedes aegypti during an important outbreak in the town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Mosquitoes were collected at the preimaginal stages (eggs, larvae and pupae) then reared up to adult stage for viral detection using molecular methods. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 3 were found to be co-circulating with significant higher prevalence in male than in female mosquitoes. Of the 97 pools of Ae. aegypti (n = 635 male and 748 female specimens) screened, 14 pools, collected in February-May in 2007, were found positive for dengue virus infection: five DEN-1 and nine DEN-3. The average true infection rate (TIR) and minimum infection rate (MIR) were respectively 1.08% and 1.01%. These observations suggest that vertical transmission of dengue virus may be detected in vectors at the peak of an outbreak as well as several months before an epidemic occurs in human population. PMID:21894270

  13. Q-values and Attenuation of the Shallow Crust Under Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarlin, H. L.; McNutt, S. R.; Thompson, G.

    2017-12-01

    Uturuncu Volcano, located in the Altiplano-Puna region of the central Andes, near the border of Bolivia and Chile, has been shown to be inflating at a rate of 1-2 cm/yr over an area that is about 70 km wide. The PLUTONS project deployed 28 broadband seismometers around Uturuncu from April 2009 to October 2012. Several thousand shallow (depth < 20 km) local earthquakes were recorded. Attenuation of seismic waves along travel paths for these local crustal earthquakes can be measured by calculating Q-values, which we have performed using the method of single station spectral ratios by Frankel (1982). Large scatter in the Q-values for various distances and travel times appear to be a function of variations in source depth, focal mechanism, and back azimuth. Preliminary Q-values were calculated for azimuths in 30° increments in sectors around each station. Estimates for Q range from about 60 to 700, with many showing a low Q in the direction of the summit from each station. This suggests that the volcanic pile is more highly attenuating than the surrounding crust.

  14. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. When is deliberate killing of young children justified? Indigenous interpretations of infanticide in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hilari, Caroline; Condori, Irma; Dearden, Kirk A

    2009-01-01

    In the Andes, as elsewhere, infanticide is a difficult challenge that remains largely undocumented and misunderstood. From January to March 2004 we used community-based vital event surveillance systems, discussions with health staff, ethnographic interviews, and focus group discussions among Aymara men and women from two geographically distinct sites in the Andes of Bolivia to provide insights into the practice of infanticide. We noted elevated mortality at both sites. In one location, suspected causes of infanticide were especially high for girls. We also observed that community members maintain beliefs that justify infanticide under certain circumstances. Among the Aymara, justification for infanticide was both biological (deformities and twinship) and social (illegitimate birth, family size and poverty). Communities generally did not condemn killing when reasons for doing so were biological, but the taking of life for social reasons was rarely justified. In this cultural context, strategies to address the challenge of infanticide should include education of community members about alternatives to infanticide. At a program level, planners and implementers should target ethnic groups with high levels of infanticide and train health care workers to detect and address multiple warning signs for infanticide (for example, domestic violence and child maltreatment) as well as proxies for infant neglect and abuse such as mother/infant separation and bottle use.

  16. Four thousand years of environmental change and human activity in the Cochabamba Basin, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Gosling, William D.; Coe, Angela L.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Gulliver, Pauline

    The Cochabamba Basin (Bolivia) is on the ancient road network connecting Andean and lowland areas. Little is known about the longevity of this trade route or how people responded to past environmental changes. The eastern end of the Cochabamba valley system constricts at the Vacas Lake District, constraining the road network and providing an ideal location in which to examine past human-environmental interactions. Multi-proxy analysis of sediment from Lake Challacaba has allowed a c. 4000 year environmental history to be reconstructed. Fluctuations in drought tolerant pollen taxa and calcium carbonate indicate two periods of reduced moisture availability ( c. 4000-3370 and c. 2190-1020 cal yr BP) compared to adjacent wetter episodes ( c. 3370-2190 and c. 1020 cal yr BP-present). The moisture fluctuations broadly correlate to El Niño/Southern Oscillation variations reported elsewhere. High charcoal abundance from c. 4000 to 2000 yr ago indicates continuous use of the ancient road network. A decline in charcoal and an increase in dung fungus ( Sporormiella) c. 1340 -1210 cal yr BP, suggests that cultural changes were a major factor in shaping the modern landscape. Despite undisputable impacts of human populations on the Polylepis woodlands today, we see no evidence of woodland clearance in the Challacaba record.

  17. An ethnography of nonadherence: culture, poverty, and tuberculosis in urban Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2004-09-01

    The author conducted a focused descriptive ethnographic study of nonadherence with tuberculosis (TB) therapy among Aymara-speaking residents of the city of La Paz, Bolivia. A cohort of patient-informants was identified from the District III TB Control Registry of La Paz as having been nonadherent with their TB medication protocol. From June to August 1998, ethnographic material was collected through participant-observation and repeated interviews and visits in homes, workplaces, clinics, and the community. Ethnographic analysis revealed structural barriers to be more important than cultural differences in the production of nonadherence. Though informants maintained a variety of beliefs and practices related to Aymara medicine, the majority of patients were comfortable with a biomedical model of tuberculosis and maintained belief in the efficacy of antituberculosis chemotherapy and desire to finish treatment. Patients overwhelmingly cited hidden costs of treatments, poor access to care, ethnic discrimination, and prior maltreatment by the health system as reasons for abandoning treatment. These data suggest that overemphasis of cultural difference without exploration of other social dimensions of health care delivery can obscure a more practical understanding of nonadherence in marginalized populations.

  18. Cultural conceptions of HIV/AIDS among teenagers in Bolivia, Chile and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres López, Teresa Margarita; Reynaldos Quinteros, Carolina; Lozano González, Aldo Favio; Munguía Cortés, Jazmín Aranzazú

    2010-10-01

    To understand the cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS among adolescent students. A cognitive anthropological study was undertaken in Cochabamba (Bolivia), Talca (Chile) and Guadalajara (Mexico), during 2007 and 2008. A total of 184 teenagers (from 14 to 19 years old) were selected by purposeful sampling at secondary schools in each country. Free association lists and pile sorts were utilized. Terms associated with the concept of HIV/AIDS and groups of conceptual dimensions were investigated. Subsequently, consensus analysis was performed using factorial principal components and dimensional analysis through hierarchical clusters and multidimensional scales. The differences between the country contexts were in the degree of consensus in relation to the term HIV/AIDS, which was greater in Cochabamba. In Talca and Guadalajara the youths mentioned metaphors of fighting against HIV/AIDS, while in Cochabamba participants talked about help, support and love that infected people should receive. The similarities among conceptions by youth from the three countries were: the risk factors (unprotected sexual practice and contact with specific population groups), the consequences (physical and social death, being the latter understood as social rejection of people living with HIV/AIDS) and the prevention of illness (based on information and condom use). For adolescent students, HIV/AIDS is a disease caused by sexual practices and drug use and involves harm, pain and death. HIV/AIDS prevention programs for adolescents should promote science based information on the topic and not concentrate only on the emotional and social consequences of HIV/AIDS.

  19. Bolivia: hundimiento de la Asamblea Constituyente y naufragio del proyecto de Constitución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Zalles

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia cierra una coyuntura en el cual la Asamblea Constituyente no sirvió sino para acentuar los problemas estructurales de la sociedad. Un nuevo proyecto de Constitución, cuya filosofía reivindica el carácter multiétnico de la sociedad y la aspiración colectiva de justicia social, no ha podido lograr la forma de un pacto social nacional ni una formulación sencilla favorable a la construcción de un nuevo Estado. Los cambios anunciados están trabados por el centralismo que el MAS ejerce en la toma de decisiones, por la ineficacia táctica de sus operadores políticos y por la dependencia de su política internacional. A pesar de un escenario interior conflictivo, la crisis boliviana podría atemperarse gracias a la influencia de los factores externos regionales: Brasil, potencia emergente, secundado por Argentina y Chile aspiran consolidar una zona libre de conflictos en el Cono Sur.

  20. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Albó

    2016-03-01

    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  1. Reliability centred maintenance of the cathodic protection system of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto, TBG, Bolivia-Brasil S.A (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the Reliability-Centred Maintenance study performed on the Cathodic Protection System of the Bolivia -Brazil Gas Pipeline. The Cathodic Protection installation for the north spread (from Corumba to Guararema, 1413 km) was commissioned in March 1999 and for the south spread (from Campinas to Porto Alegre, 1180 km) one year after. The protection against corrosion of the buried external surface of our gas pipeline is provided, primarily, by an high-efficient external coating, complemented by a impressed current cathodic protection system consisting of: - Forty-one rectifiers and respective anodes ground beds; - One solar panel and respective anodes ground beds; - Fifty-nine insulating joints and respective protective devices; - Nine hundred and ninety pipe-to-soil test stations; - Thirty-six pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices; - Forty-one electrical power feeder network to the rectifiers. The rectifiers/anodes ground beds are installed at each 50 km approximately, including the solar panel, and the pipe-to-soil test stations at each 2.5 km, under different environment conditions. The insulating joints and theirs protective devices are installed inside stations (launch and receive scrapers, compression and metering) and city-gates, as well, the pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices. The cathodic protection system and electrical power feeder network are inspected and maintained by a TBG third part Contractor.

  2. The municipal solid waste management of La Paz (Bolivia): Challenges and opportunities for a sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Navarro; Gorritty Portillo, Marcelo Antonio; Guisbert Lizarazu, Edith Gabriela; Torretta, Vincenzo; Bezzi, Marco; Ragazzi, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered an important public health, economic and environmental concern, especially in developing countries. This paper introduces the situation of MSWM in La Paz (Bolivia) in 2016, and is based on the Wasteaware indicators and waste flow analysis, useful tools for classifying and comparing waste treatment and management plans among other countries. Taking into account the lack of technology in waste treatment and the presence of a developed informal sector, the paper analyses the main strengths and weak points for implementing a sustainable MSWM. The research conducted revealed that the MSWM of La Paz is not efficient with regard to collection, recycling (8%), financial sustainability, and equity of the service. At the same time, local Government and stakeholders are interested in implementing new MSWM methods for improving the current sanitary state of the city and many efforts were made over the last ten years. In general terms, La Paz could be considered as a good study area for developing plans for waste valorization, becoming an example for a low-middle income developing big city of Latin America. The study provided a few considerations about the affordability of the methodology applied and critically analyzed the case study proposed.

  3. MULTILINGÜISMO Y LENGUAJE MEZCLADO EN LAS MINAS DE POTOSÍ (BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Muysken

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora, utilizando la metodología de la sociolingüística histórica, el multilingüismo y el contacto de lenguas en las minas de Potosí (Bolivia en la época colonial. Potosí fue el destino de la inmigración masiva durante su florecimiento económico y una de las ciudades más grandes en el mundo occidental en 1610. En las minas se desarrollaba un código separado, con un léxico especializado que contenía palabras de lenguas diferentes. Este léxico fue tan distinto que el primer vocabulario de lengua de minas fue escrito en 1610, y muchos han seguido desde esa fecha. El quechua jugaba un papel clave como lengua intermediaria entre dos formas de hablar: el lenguaje minero indígena de los yanaconas y mingas, probablemente una mezcla de castellano y quechua, y el lenguaje de los mitayos, posiblemente una mezcla de aimara y quechua. Las semejanzas entre aimara y quechua deben haber contribuido a esta posibilidad de lengua intermediaria.

  4. Human impact on wild firewood species in the rural Andes community of Apillapampa, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Douterlungne, David; Vandebroek, Ina; Heens, Frieke; Goetghebeur, Paul; Van Damme, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Firewood is the basic fuel source in rural Bolivia. A study was conducted in an Andean village of subsistence farmers to investigate human impact on wild firewood species. A total of 114 different fuel species was inventoried during fieldtrips and transect sampling. Specific data on abundance and growth height of wild firewood species were collected in thirty-six transects of 50 ×2 m(2). Information on fuel uses of plants was obtained from 13 local Quechua key participants. To appraise the impact of fuel harvest, the extraction impact value (EIV) index was developed. This index takes into account local participants' appreciation of (1) decreasing plant abundance; (2) regeneration capacity of plants; (3) impact of root harvesting; and (4) quality of firewood. Results suggest that several (sub-)woody plant species are negatively affected by firewood harvesting. We found that anthropogenic pressure, expressed as EIV, covaried with density of firewood species, which could entail higher human pressure on more abundant and/or more accessible species. The apparent negative impact of anthropogenic pressure on populations of wild fuel species is corroborated by our finding that, in addition to altitude, several anthropogenic variables (i.e. site accessibility, cultivation of exotics and burning practices) explain part of the variation in height of firewood species in the surroundings of Apillapampa.

  5. Managing externally financed projects: the Integrated Primary Health Care Project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homedes, N

    2001-12-01

    Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Health indicators are very poor, communicable diseases are prevalent and, coupled with malnutrition, remain the major killers of children under 5 years old. The Integrated Primary Health Care Project (PROISS) was a US$39 million project executed by the Ministry of Health (MOH), 50% financed by the World Bank and aimed at improving primary health care in the four largest Bolivian municipalities. The implementation of the project started in 1990 and ended in 1997. During implementation it went through three distinct phases: Phase 1 (1990-94) was a period characterized by conflict and confusion; Phase 2 (1995-mid-1996) documented major improvements in coverage and service quality; and Phase 3 (mid-1996-97) witnessed the decline of the project. This paper explores the factors that contributed to the success and the decline of the project, draws lessons for project managers and international agencies involved in the definition and implementation of social sector projects, and discusses the unlikelihood that externally financed projects can have a sustainable impact on the development of the health sector of recipient countries.

  6. Alternative Silver Production by Environmental Sound Processing of a Sulfo Salt Silver Mineral Found in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Birich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Very often, the production of silver causes devastating environmental issues, because of the use of toxic reagents like cyanide and mercury. Due to severe environmental damage caused by humans in the last decades, the social awareness regarding the sustainable production processes is on the rise. Terms like “sustainable” and “green” in product descriptions are becoming more and more popular and producers are forced to satisfy the rising environmental awareness of their customers. Within this work, an alternative environmental sound silver recovery process was developed for a vein type silver ore from Mina Porka, Bolivia. A foregoing characterization of the input material reveals its mineral composition. In the following mineral processing, around 92.9% silver was concentrated by separating 59.5 wt. % of non-silver minerals. Nitric acid leaching of the generated concentrate enabled a silver recovery of up to 98%. The dissolved silver was then separated via copper cementation to generate a metallic silver product of >99% purity. Summarizing all process steps, a silver yield of 87% was achieved in lab scale. A final upscaling trial was conducted to prove the process’ robustness. Within this trial, almost 4 kg of metallic silver with a purity of higher than 99.5 wt. % was produced.

  7. Last Glacial mammals in South America: a new scenario from the Tarija Basin (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Abbazzi, L.; Ferretti, M. P.; Iacumin, P.; Rios, F. Paredes; Pellegrini, M.; Pieruccini, P.; Rustioni, M.; Tito, G.; Rook, L.

    2007-04-01

    The chronology, sedimentary history, and paleoecology of the Tarija Basin (Bolivia), one of the richest Pleistocene mammalian sites in South America, are revised here based on a multidisciplinary study, including stratigraphy, sedimentology, geomorphology, paleontology, isotope geochemistry, and 14C geochronology. Previous studies have indicated a Middle Pleistocene age for this classic locality. We have been able to obtain a series of 14C dates encompassing all the fossil-bearing sequences previously studied in the Tarija Basin. The dated layers range in age from about 44,000 to 21,000 radiocarbon years before present (BP), indicating that the Tarija fauna is much younger than previously thought. Glacial advances correlated to marine isotopic stages (MIS) 4 and 2 (ca. 62 and 20 ka BP, respectively) are also documented at the base and at the very top of the Tarija Padcaya succession, respectively, indicating that the Bolivian Altiplano was not dry but sustained an ice cap during the Last Glacial Maximum. The results of this multidisciplinary study enable us to redefine the chronological limits of the Tarija sequence and of its faunal assemblage and to shift this paleontological, paleoclimatological, and paleoecological framework to the time interval from MIS 4 to MIS 2.

  8. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon M

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms from almost all intervention households and significantly reduced turbidity, thereby improving water aesthetics. Most importantly, the filters were associated with a 45.3% reduction in prevalence of diarrhoea among the study population (p = 0.02). After adjustment for household clustering and repeated episodes in individuals and controlling for age and baseline diarrhoea, prevalence of diarrhoea among the intervention group was 51% lower than controls, though the protective effect was only borderline significant (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.01; p = 0.05). A follow-up survey conducted approximately 9 months after deployment of the filters found 67% being used regularly, 13% being used intermittently, and 21% not in use. Water samples from all regularly used filters were free of thermotolerant coliforms.

  9. Small scale mining cooperatives in Bolivia: From lifeguard of the poor to machinery of political manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carrillo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that relations between social movements and organizations and the State are not only developed based on defended objectives and interests in political negotiations, but are also developed within particular situations, of specific cultures and histories. Our investigation about the relationship between mining cooperatives, their national organization, and the Bolivian State demonstrates the crucial importance of considering historical aspects, of collective memory, some regional and others within the organizations themselves. The traditions, memories, and abilities incorporated in the mining organizations and in the political realm will influence the way in which different parts relate to one another, design their strategies, and adapt to changing circumstances. This topic is illustrated firstly through a historical and contemporary account of mining in Bolivia focused in the sector of small scale mining. This is followed by outlining the position that cooperative mining occupies in the country and the strategies and self esteem that they display. Next, our case study is addressed: the ASOBAL cooperative. In the national outline, like in our case study, we connect the positions and strategieswith themes of identity, memory, and place.

  10. Groundwater Origins and Circulation Patterns Based on Isotopes in Challapampa Aquifer, Bolivia

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    Etzar Gómez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aridity and seasonality of precipitation are characteristics of the highland region in Bolivia. Groundwater becomes an important and safe source of water when surficial bodies are intermittent and affected by natural and anthropogenic contamination. Decades of exploitation of the Challapampa aquifer, combined with lack of information required to understand the groundwater circulation, represent a challenge for reservoir management. This study analyzes isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 in different stages in the hydrologic cycle to assess flow patterns in the aquifer, especially in the alluvial fan of River Paria, where records are more extensive in space and time. Interpretations are based on existing and new data. Some implications, such as the age of water, the evaporation effect in groundwater and some thermal intrusions are supported by stable isotopes, tritium, radiocarbon, and electrical conductivity records. New results confirm that modern precipitation over the mountains surrounding the study area is the most important origin of water for shallow aquifers until exploited depths, 100 m below surface. The origin of water in deeper depths, 400 m, seems related to infiltration at higher altitudes and longer residence times.

  11. Social Movement Discourses and Conditions of Possibility in Bolivia and Mexico

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    J. Carlos Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo presenta un análisis comparativo de dos movimientos sociales en Latinoamérica. El primero es el movimiento de oposición a la privatización de los servicios de agua potable y alcantarillado en Cochabamba, Bolivia, en el año 2000; y el segundo es el movimiento en contra del proyecto para un nuevo aeropuerto en la Ciudad de México (2001-2002. Ambos casos de estudio ilustran la manera como el estudio de los discursos colectivos y los marcos de acción colectiva pueden servir para mejorar nuestro conocimiento de movimientos sociales que surgen en el contexto de grandes proyectos de infraestructura. El trabajo argumenta que un factor determinante en el desarrollo y tiempo de vida de un movimiento social es la medida en que distintas variables contextuales y organizacionales facilitan o impiden la relación dialógica entre los discursos colectivos y otros procesos de formación de identidad a nivel microsociológico.

  12. Evaluación de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz, Bolivia

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    Omar Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 1996 al 2003, mediante métodos de observación directa, caminatas y capturas con redes niebla, realizamos un inventario y obtuvimos datos sobre la historia natural, gremios tróficos y patrones de migración de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz (Bolivia. Registramos 136 especies de aves en 30 localidades de estudio. Las familias más representativas fueron Tyrannidae, Emberizidae y Furnariidae con 19, 16 y 15 especies, re- spectivamente. Registramos 18 especies de aves acuáticas y dos especies (Tachuris rubrigastra y Phleocryptes melanops de passeriformes especialistas de totorales. Dos especies de furnáridos (Cranioleuca henricae y Upucerthia harterti fueron endémicas bolivianas. Detectamos 57 especies en alguna categoría de migración. Movimientos altitudinales inusuales fueron observados para cinco especies (e.g. Pitangus sulphuratus, Pyro- cephalus rubinus. Diecinueve especies fueron consideradas raras (e.g. Lesbia nuna, Poospiza boliviana. Los insectívoros y frugi-granívoros son los gremios tróficos mas representativos entre comunidades. El valle de la ciudad de La Paz es una ruta obligatoria para muchas aves migrantes latitudinales (boreales y australes y altitudinales, que provienen del Altiplano por el oeste y las especies de Yungas por el este.

  13. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g.

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Domestic policy responses to the food price crisis: The case of Bolivia

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    Harald Grethe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In face of the global food crisis of 2007–2008, severe concerns arose about how developing countries would be affected by the extreme short-term fluctuations in international commodity prices. We examine the effects of the crisis on Bolivia, one of the poorest countries of the Americas. We focus on the effectiveness of the domestic policy interventions in preventing spillovers of the development of international food prices to domestic markets. Using a cointegration model, we study price interdependencies of wheat flour, sunflower oil and poultry. The analysis suggests that the policy measures taken had little effect on food security during the food crisis. Throughout the entire period, perfect price transmission between the Bolivian poultry and sunflower oil markets and the respective international reference markets existed. Bolivian prices were determined by international prices and the policy interventions in the markets of these two commodities were not found to have had an effect. The government’s large-scale wheat flour imports did not shield Bolivian consumers from the shocks of international prices.

  16. UNA DÉCADA DEL GOBIERNO DEL M.A.S. EN BOLIVIA: UN BALANCE GLOBAL / A DECADE OF GOVERNMENT OF ‘MAS’ IN BOLIVIA: A GLOBAL BALANCE

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    Luis Miguel Uharte Pozas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis about the government experience of the Movement to Socialism (MAS in Bolivia since Evo Morales became president in 2006 to the present, identifying the main changes and conflicts that have occurred in four areas: social policy, domestic policy, foreign policy, and economy. The methodology is based on the collection of documents from various sources (public and business institutions, researchers, and recognized research centers, and interviews with various social actors (academics, politicians. We conclude that there have been substantial advances in terms of national sovereignty and economic model (overcoming neoliberalism, despite the contradictions and conflicts with sectors of internal dissent.

  17. Remote monitoring of cathodic protection rectifiers of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline using low orbit satellite telephone; Monitoracao remota de retificadores de protecao catodica do Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil utilizando telefone via satelite de baixa orbita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present paper has for objective to present the information collected during definitions, development, implementation, testing and operation phases of the Pilot System for monitoring of the Cathodic Protection Rectifiers MS-10 and SP-09, installed on the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The adopted solution for the Pilot System includes, basically, communication through low-earth satellite telephone, inter linked to the public telephone net, acquisition and data transmission system (Remote Terminal Unit) and data reception in the Supervision and Control Room. (author)

  18. Lineage Analysis of Circulating Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites and Their Association with Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Ramona; Nishizawa, Juan Eiki; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Iihoshi, Naomi; Roca, Yelin; Avilas, Cinthia; Gianella, Alberto; Lora, Javier; Gutierrez Velarde, Freddy Udalrico; Renjel, Luis Alberto; Miura, Sachio; Higo, Hiroo; Komiya, Norihiro; Maemura, Koji; Hirayama, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Background The causative agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is divided into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTU): Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and IIe. In order to assess the relative pathogenicities of different DTUs, blood samples from three different clinical groups of chronic Chagas disease patients (indeterminate, cardiac, megacolon) from Bolivia were analyzed for their circulating parasites lineages using minicircle kinetoplast DNA polymorphism. Methods and Findings Between 2000 and 2007, patients sent to the Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales for diagnosis of Chagas from clinics and hospitals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were assessed by serology, cardiology and gastro-intestinal examinations. Additionally, patients who underwent colonectomies due to Chagasic magacolon at the Hospital Universitario Japonés were also included. A total of 306 chronic Chagas patients were defined by their clinical types (81 with cardiopathy, 150 without cardiopathy, 100 with megacolon, 144 without megacolon, 164 with cardiopathy or megacolon, 73 indeterminate and 17 cases with both cardiopathy and megacolon). DNA was extracted from 10 ml of peripheral venous blood for PCR analysis. The kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) was amplified from 196 out of 306 samples (64.1%), of which 104 (53.3%) were Tc IId, 4 (2.0%) Tc I, 7 (3.6%) Tc IIb, 1 (0.5%) Tc IIe, 26 (13.3%) Tc I/IId, 1 (0.5%) Tc I/IIb/IId, 2 (1.0%) Tc IIb/d and 51 (25.9%) were unidentified. Of the 133 Tc IId samples, three different kDNA hypervariable region patterns were detected; Mn (49.6%), TPK like (48.9%) and Bug-like (1.5%). There was no significant association between Tc types and clinical manifestations of disease. Conclusions None of the identified lineages or sublineages was significantly associated with any particular clinical manifestations in the chronic Chagas patients in Bolivia. PMID:20502516

  19. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

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    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  20. Mercury pollution by mining activities in Rayo Rojo mining district, Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran-Mita, T.; Faz Cano, A.; Muñoz, M.; Millán, R.; Salvador, F.

    2009-04-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important causes of the environmental degradation. This is the case of the Natural Integrated Management Area of Apolobamba (Department of La Paz, Bolivia), where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to present days, with very little gold extraction and very scarce mineral processing technology. In Apolobamba mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes and this might conduct to high Hg contents. Inhabitants of this area consume fish from lakes and rivers, and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate mercury impact into the soil-plant-water system. The Technical University of Cartagena, Spain, through the Research Group "Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water", carried out a research, in the most intense affected gold extraction zones in Apolobamba, among them Rayo Rojo, where mining activity is mainly gold extraction, although the extracted mineral volume and technology used is low. Rayo Rojo is located in the central part of ANMI - Apolobamba (in the andean region), inside of Pelechuco municipality; the area belongs biogeographically to the Altoandina and Puna. This district, located in Apolobamba mountain-range, where altitudes above 5.000 m.a.s.l are reached. Water, soil, sediment and plant samples were taken around the operations mining sites and total mercury analysed. Mercury content was determined by AMA-254 model, based on the thermal decomposition of the sample and collection of the Hg vapour on a gold amalgamator. The analysis is performed from solid samples without any further preparation. Samples are initially dried at 125°C and then thermally decomposed at the temperature of 550°C. Mercury vapour is then trapped on the gold amalgamator. AMA-254 method certificated standards were BCR 62-BCR 281. Preliminary results show high Hg concentrations

  1. Pollution by Arsenic, Mercury and other Heavy Metals in Sunchulli mining district of Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Mita, Tania; Faz Cano, Angel; Muñoz, Maria Angeles; Millán Gómez, Rocio; Chincheros Paniagua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. This is the case of the National Area of Apolobamba Integrated Management (ANMIN of Apolobamba) in La Paz, Bolivia, where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to the present, with very little gold extraction and very primitive mineral processing technology; in fact, mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes of the gold concentration, which is burned outdoors to recover the gold. Sunchullí is a representative mining district in ANMIN of Apolobamba where mining activity is mainly gold extraction and its water effluents go to the Amazonian basin; in this mining district the productivity of extracted mineral is very low but the processes can result in heavy-metal contamination of the air, water, soils and plants. Due to its high toxicity, the contamination by arsenic and mercury create the most critical environmental problems. In addition, some other heavy metals may also be present such as lead, copper, zinc and cadmium. These heavy metals could be incorporated in the trophic chain, through the flora and the fauna, in their bio-available and soluble forms. Inhabitants of this area consume foodcrops, fish from lakes and rivers and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals pollution by gold mining activities in Sunchullí area. In Sunchullí two representative zones were distinguished and sampled. Zone near the mining operation site was considered as affected by mineral extraction processes, while far away zones represented the non affected ones by the mining operation. In each zone, 3 plots were established; in each plot, 3 soil sampling points were selected in a random manner and analysed separately. In each sampling point, two samples were taken, one at the surface, from 0-5 cm depth (topsoil), and the other between 5

  2. Cuentas ambientales del departamento de Pando en Bolivia: Aplicación del enfoque insumo producto a nivel sub-nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Suxo, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    La estimación de las cuentas ambientales a nivel subnacional es importante en Bolivia, debido a la heterogénea distribución espacial de los activos ambientales en el territorio nacional, en particular para departamentos de escasa diversificación productiva, donde la extracción de recursos naturales constituye su principal base económica. El presente trabajo se concentra en el departamento de Pando en Bolivia. Aplica la metodología non-survey de regionalización de matrices insumo producto, a u...

  3. Not only climate change: mobility, vulnerability and socio-economic transformations in environmentally fragile areas in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2011-02-15

    This paper argues that migration is better defined as an adaptive response to socio-economic, cultural, political and environmental transformations, in most instances closely linked to the need to diversify income sources and reduce dependency on natural resources. Drawing on case studies in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania, it describes how environmental change at the local level interacts with other factors to shape migration patterns, and how such patterns in turn affect the livelihoods and resilience of individuals, households and communities in areas experiencing the impacts of climate change in the form of desertification, soil degradation, disrupted rainfall patterns and changes in temperature.

  4. Movilizaciones y votos. La participación política de la mujer en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano, Nilse

    2016-01-01

    PRESENTACIÓN La motivación principal del presente trabajo, es conocer la calidad de la inserción de las mujeres en el proceso democrático que desde 1982 vive Bolivia, considerando que son los partidos políticos los mediadores entre la sociedad civil y el Estado y que el voto es el único mecanismo de elección de los gobernantes, característica que toma importancia si consideramos que la población boliviana la mayor parte de su vida republicana ha interpelado al Estado a través de formas no con...

  5. Las chicas sólo quieren divertirse? Sexualidad, embarazo y maternidad en las adolecentes de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio busca cuantificar actividad sexual, embarazo y maternidad adolescente en Bolivia utilizando la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud más reciente. Los resultados descriptivos sugieren que la actividad sexual, el embarazo y la maternidad adolescente son más prevalentes entre aquellas jóvenes que tienen mayor probabilidad de ser vulnerables y socialmente excluidas. Además, la alta tasa de incidencia de embarazos no deseados entre adolescentes bolivianas sugiere que es necesario introducir...

  6. Posibilidades y limitaciones de la educación Intercultural Bilingüe en Bolivia y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Saucedo, Tomas Francisco

    2012-01-01

    La tesis estudia las posibilidades de la Educación Intercultural Bilingüe – E.I.B. en Bolivia y Perú; considerando la importancia que tiene como propuesta constitutiva de los sistemas educativos, de la legislación educativa y de ser el modelo más innovador que ha tenido la educación indígena en las últimas décadas. La investigación incluye la participación decisiva que han tenido las organizaciones indígenas y sindicales; al asumir entre sus reivindicaciones más importantes el derecho a la ed...

  7. Discriminación étnica en Bolivia: Examinando diferencias regionales y por nicho de calificación

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas Q., Horacio; Núñez, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Utilizando la encuesta de Mejoramiento de las Condiciones de Vida (MECOVI) del año 2002 este trabajo estima la discriminación étnica en el área urbana de Bolivia, separando la muestra entre zonas geográficas y entre trabajadores de distinta calificación. El análisis desagregado por zona geográfica muestra que la discriminación en el altiplano es poco relevante para explicar la brecha de ingresos mientras que en la zona de los valles y del llano la discriminación es más importante que las dife...

  8. Establishing an independent mobile health programme for chronic disease self-management support in Bolivia

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    John D Piette

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobile health (m-health work in low and middle-income countries (LMICs mainly consists of pilot programmes with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: 364 primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. 165 of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly Interactive Voice Response (IVR calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: 37% of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home, and 38% had six or fewer years of education. 82% had a mobile phone; half (45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR programme participants completed 1007 self-management support calls, with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health via IVR increased during programme participation, and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the programme, with 19/20 (95% reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programmes can be transferred from higher-resource centres to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among people

  9. The role of cassiterite controlling arsenic mobility in an abandoned stanniferous tailings impoundment at Llallagua, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Francisco Martín; Canet, Carles; Alfonso, Pura; Zambrana, Rubén N; Soto, Nayelli

    2014-05-15

    The surface water contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTE) leached from mine tailings is a major environmental concern. However, the formation of insoluble solid phases can control the mobility of PTE, with subsequent decrease of the risk that tailings suppose to the environment. We characterized the tailings from a tin inactive mine in Llallagua, Bolivia in order to assess the risk for surface water quality. These tailings contain high concentrations of PTE, with up to 94,344 mg/kg Fe, 9,135 mg/kg Sn, 4,606 mg/kg As, 1,362 mg/kg Cu, 1,220 mg/kg Zn, 955 mg/kg Pb and 151 mg/kg Cd. Oxidation of sulfide minerals in these tailings generates acid leachates (pH=2.5-3.5), rich in SO4(2-) and dissolved PTE, thereby releasing contaminants to the surface waters. Nevertheless, the concentrations of dissolved Sn, As and Pb in acid leachates are low (Sntailing deposits; it should be the main solid phase controlling Sn and As mobility in the impoundment. Additionally, jarosite and plumbojarosite, identified among the secondary minerals, could also play an important role controlling the mobility of As and Pb. Taking into account (a) the low solubility constants of cassiterite (Ksp=10(-64.2)), jarosite (Ksp=10(-11)) and plumbojarosite (Ksp=10(-28.66)), and (b) the stability of these minerals under acidic conditions, we can conclude that they control the long-term fate of Sn, As and Pb in the studied tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Loretta; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8-88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4-99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design.

  11. [Antituberculosis-drug resistance in the border of Brazil with Paraguay and Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marli; Cunha, Eunice Atsuko Totumi; Evangelista, Maria do Socorro Nantua; Basta, Paulo Cesar; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; Croda, Julio; de Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira

    2017-04-20

    To estimate the rate of drug resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and specifically in the border areas with Paraguay and Bolivia, as well as to identify associated risk factors. The present cross-sectional, epidemiological study focused on PTB cases recorded between January 2007 and December 2010 in the State Reportable Disease Information System with results of susceptibility tests to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin. Dependent variables were development of resistance to a single drug or any combination of drugs. Independent variables were being a new or treated case, living in border areas, presence/absence of diabetes, and history of alcoholism. There were 789 TBP cases with susceptibility testing. The following characteristics were associated with resistance: treated case (P = 0.0001), border region (P = 0.0142), alcoholism (P = 0.0451), and diabetes (P = 0.0708). The rates of combined, primary, and acquired resistance for the state were 16.3%, 10.6%, and 39.0%, vs. 22.3%, 19.2%, and 37.5% for the border region. The rates of combined, primary, and acquired multidrug resistance for the state were 1.8%, 0.6%, and 6.3%, vs. 3.1%, 1.2%, and 12.5% for the border region. In the border region, the state should investigate drug resistance in all patients with respiratory symptoms, determine the pattern of resistance in confirmed cases, adopt directly observed treatment for cases of PTB, and develop health actions together with neighboring countries. Across the state, the levels of acquired resistance should be monitored, with investigation of resistance in all treated cases and implementation of directly observed treatment especially among patients with diabetes or alcoholism.

  12. Nutritional status of children from Cochabamba, Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María Del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2015-12-01

    To assess the adequacy of energy and nutritional intakes compared to recommended daily intakes (RDIs) in schoolchildren from the Cochabamba region (Bolivia) and to determine micronutrient intake distributions across different ages and genders. This nutritional study (n = 315) was part of a larger population-based crosssectional study (the "Bolkid" survey) that collected data on schoolchildren 5-16 years old in 2010 in the Cochabamba region. Information about food intake was gathered with a semiquan-titative, food-frequency, parent-administered questionnaire about l2 months before the study. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of energy and nutrient intakes were assessed. For all ages studied and both genders, the average energy and micronutrient intakes were acceptable but below the requirements. The diet included high amounts of fiber, some minerals (iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium), and vitamins (pantothenic acid, niacin, vitamins B2, B12, C, and E), but was low in calcium and vitamin D. However, more than half the children had insufficient energy intake, and low calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D intakes, according to RDIs adjusted for age and gender; one-third of the children had insufficient folate and magnesium intakes; and adolescent girls had low iron intakes. Regardless of recommendations or demographic characteristics, the vast majority of children in Cochabamba consumed insufficient energy and too little calcium, folate, magnesium, and vitamin A and D. In addition, adolescent girls consumed insufficient iron. Higher energy intake for schoolchildren through increased food availability, frequency, and size portions in daily meals should be a priority for Bolivian public health institutions.

  13. Treatment and prevention of malnutrition in Latin America: focus on Chile and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstaub, Gerardo; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Uauy, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Seven million children under 5 years of age died worldwide in 2011, and one-third had malnutrition. Latin America and Caribbean countries stand out for the notable improvement of their health and nutrition situation, particularly in pregnant women and young children. Nutrition-sensitive interventions such as promoting food security, women's empowerment, social safety nets, clean water, and sanitation, among others, are critical for success. In Bolivia, the program Desnutrición Cero (Malnutrition Zero) was able to reduce mortality from severe malnutrition after 5 years from 25% to less than 5%, based on widespread implementation of the World Health Organization 10-steps protocol for hospitalized care and the application of community management. The Economic Commission for Latin America estimated the cost of malnutrition for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Dominican Republic as US $6,658 million. Approximately 1 million children have dropped out of school because of malnutrition, and as a result, malnourished children have 2 years less schooling, which brings social and economic losses not only to those affected but to society at large. National and international nutrition and food programs developed over the past 50 years have been implemented as integral components of broader strategies of primary healthcare and education, oriented toward preventing deaths and improving the quality of life of low-socioeconomic-status groups. Treating hundreds or thousands of affected children will not solve the global public health problem of malnutrition. Access to adequate amounts of quality foods represents a basic human right and is a necessary precondition for health. In turn, good nutrition and health are prerequisites for human, social, and economic development.

  14. Medios interactivos y cultura digital: Alfabetización hipermedia en Perú y Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mora Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se centra en las formas en que interfaces multimedia interactivas e hipermedia han cambiado las dinámicas clásicas de la comunicación y educación humanas creando un nuevo paradigma. Éste se origina en la interfaz, al permitir la multidireccionalidad comunicativa multimedia mediante la interacción con los elementos que la componen. Esta investigación describe los diferentes elementos estéticos, narrativos, emocionales y de valores integrados en las interfaces hipermedia culturales. Dichos elementos hipermedia son componentes fundamentales a tomar en cuenta durante la creación de productos multimedia interactivos educativos. Las funciones comunicativas son cambiantes entre emisor-receptor: autor-lecto-autor, creador-usuario, profesor-alumno... gracias a la introducción de expresiones multimedia interactivas e instrumentos tecnológicos que permiten distintos tipos de interacciones. Esta flexibilidad funcional genera nuevos modelos comunicativos así como dramáticos, de narrativa interactiva, donde la interacción de los receptores-emisores, lecto-autores, con las acciones narrativas se produce a nivel del personaje o avatar. Los componentes estéticos, narrativos, emocionales y de valores de la interfaz son estudiados, analizados y descritos en detalle gracias a un modelo innovador de análisis que sirve para la implementación y diseño de productos interactivos lúdico-educativos inmersivos. La aplicación de este modelo ayudó a la creación de interfaces de contenido cultural, permitiendo desarrollar no solo talleres educativos interactivos en Estados Unidos, Perú y Bolivia para más de 200 estudiantes, sino también una comunicación inmersiva multisensorial de calidad.

  15. The Genomic Legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Yungas Valley of Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Heinz

    Full Text Available During the period of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (TAST some enslaved Africans were forced to move to Upper Peru (nowadays Bolivia. At first they were sent to Potosí, but later to the tropical Yungas valley where the Spanish colonizers established a so-called "hacienda system" that was based on slave labor, including African-descendants. Due to their isolation, very little attention has been paid so far to 'Afro-Bolivian' communities either within the research field of TAST or in genetic population studies. In this study, a total of 105 individuals from the Yungas were sequenced for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region, and mitogenomes were obtained for a selected subset of these samples. We also genotyped 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIM in order to investigate continental ancestry at the autosomal level. In addition, Y-chromosome STR and SNP data for a subset of the same individuals was also available from the literature. The data indicate that the partitioning of mtDNA ancestry in the Yungas differs significantly from that in the rest of the country: 81% Native American, 18% African, and 1% European. Interestingly, the great majority of 'Afro-descendant' mtDNA haplotypes in the Yungas (84% concentrates in the locality of Tocaña. This high proportion of African ancestry in the Tocaña is also manifested in the Y-chromosome (44% and in the autosomes (56%. In sharp contrast with previous studies on the TAST, the ancestry of about 1/3 of the 'Afro-Bolivian' mtDNA haplotypes can be traced back to East and South East Africa, which may be at least partially explained by the Arab slave trade connected to the TAST.

  16. Biotic nitrosation of diclofenac in a soil aquifer system (Katari watershed, Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiron, Serge; Duwig, Céline

    2016-09-15

    Up till now, the diclofenac (DCF) transformation into its nitrogen-derivatives, N-nitroso-DCF (NO-DCF) and 5-nitro-DCF (NO2-DCF), has been mainly investigated in wastewater treatment plant under nitrification or denitrification processes. This work reports, for the first time, an additional DCF microbial mediated nitrosation pathway of DCF in soil under strictly anoxic conditions probably involving codenitrification processes and fungal activities. This transformation pathway was investigated by using field observations data at a soil aquifer system (Katari watershed, Bolivia) and by carrying out soil slurry batch experiments. It was also observed for diphenylamine (DPA). Field measurements revealed the occurrence of NO-DCF, NO2-DCF and NO-DPA in groundwater samples at concentration levels in the 6-68s/L range. These concentration levels are more significant than those previously reported in wastewater treatment plant effluents taking into account dilution processes in soil. Interestingly, the p-benzoquinone imine of 5-OH-DCF was also found to be rather stable in surface water. In laboratory batch experiments under strictly anoxic conditions, the transformation of DCF and DPA into their corresponding N-nitroso derivatives was well correlated to denitrification processes. It was also observed that NO-DCF evolved into NO2-DCF while NO-DPA was stable. In vitro experiments showed that the Fisher-Hepp rearrangement could not account for NO2-DCF formation. One possible mechanism might be that NO-DCF underwent spontaneous NO loss to give the resulting intermediates diphenylaminyl radical or nitrenium cation which might evolve into NO2-DCF in presence of NO2 radical or nitrite ion, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rural power supply with local management: Examples from Bolivia, India and Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerger, Aa; Gullberg, M

    1997-08-01

    Local management of rural power supply is being evaluated in a joint research project conducted by Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) and Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) on new approaches to management and organization of rural electrification. The study is based on literature, and on data from eight visited local organizations for management of power supply in Bolivia (4), India (1) and Nepal (3). Common for these countries is that the national, rural electrification programmes have encountered difficulties. Governments have failed to generate enough funds from existing power supply systems to cover the cost for a continued rural electrification. In cases where large private companies exist, they have had few incentives for expanding into rural areas since it is often not profit making. A third category may be defined as local initiators to power supply, private or co-operative. In all these countries, locally managed power supply systems have developed as a complement to governmental and other large scale programmes. The national policies pertaining to rural power supply in general and local management thereof in particular are described for each country. From the study, it appears that local management of rural power supply is a feasible approach in developing countries. Local management of rural power supply can slightly lower the costs of electrification, and it may help accelerate the pace of load development in newly electrified areas. For successful local organizations though, the most significant factor appears to be local peoples` willingness to develop their own area. Important though, is that proper financial and technical assistance is provided the local organizations. Crucial for sound external assistance is that the national rural electrification policies are clear and consistent. 53 refs, 1 fig, 11 tabs

  18. Astronomically Forced Hydrology of the Late Cretaceous Sub-tropical Potosí Basin, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasistro-Hart, A.; Maloof, A. C.; Schoene, B.; Eddy, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Orbital forcings paced the ice ages of the Pleistocene, demonstrating that periodic variations in the latitudinal distribution of insolation amplified by ice-albedo feedbacks can guide global climate. How these forcings operate in the hot-houses that span most of the planet's history, however, is unknown. The lacustrine El Molino formation of the late Cretaceous-early Paleogene Potosí Basin in present-day Bolivia contains carbonate-mud parasequences that record fluctuating hydrological conditions from 73 to 63 Ma. This study presents the first cyclostratigraphic analysis using high-resolution drone-derived imagery and 3D elevation models, combined with conventional stratigraphic measurements and magnetic susceptibility data. The drone-derived data are integrated over the entire outcrop at two field areas using a novel application of stratigraphic potential field modeling that increases signal-to-noise ratios prior to spectral analysis. We demonstrate that these parasequences exhibit significant periodicities consistent with eccentricity (400 and 100 kyr), obliquity (50 kyr, 40 kyr, and 29 kyr), precession (17-23 kyr), and semi-precession (9-11 kyr). New U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon ages from intercalacted ash beds corroborate the interpreted sedimentation rates at two sites, indicating that the Potosí Basin contains evidence for hot-house astronomical forcing of sub-tropical lacustrine hydrology. Global climate simulations of late Cretaceous orbital end-member configurations demonstrate precessional-eccentricity and obliquity driven modulation of basin hydrology. In model simulations, the forcings drive long-term shifts in the location of the intertropical convergence zone, changing precipitation along the northern extent of the Potosí Basin's catchment area. This study is the first to demonstrate orbital forcing of a lacustrine system during the Maastrichtian and could ultimately contribute to a precise age for the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

  19. Putative Panmixia in Restricted Populations of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolated from Wild Triatoma infestans in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Christian; Buitrago, Rosio; Bremond, Philippe; Aliaga, Claudia; Salas, Renata; Vidaurre, Pablo; Herrera, Claudia; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Bosseno, Marie-France; Waleckx, Etienne; Breniere, Simone Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is subdivided into six discrete typing units (DTUs; TcI–TcVI) of which TcI is ubiquitous and genetically highly variable. While clonality is the dominant mode of propagation, recombinant events play a significant evolutive role. Recently, foci of wild Triatoma infestans have been described in Bolivia, mainly infected by TcI. Hence, for the first time, we evaluated the level of genetic exchange within TcI natural potentially panmictic populations (single DTU, host, area and sampling time). Seventy-nine TcI stocks from wild T. infestans, belonging to six populations were characterized at eight microsatellite loci. For each population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), and presence of repeated multilocus genotypes (MLG) were analyzed by using a total of seven statistics, to test the null hypothesis of panmixia (H0). For three populations, none of the seven statistics allowed to rejecting H0; for another one the low size did not allow us to conclude, and for the two others the tests have given contradictory results. Interestingly, apparent panmixia was only observed in very restricted areas, and was not observed when grouping populations distant of only two kilometers or more. Nevertheless it is worth stressing that for the statistic tests of "HWE", in order to minimize the type I error (i. e. incorrect rejection of a true H0), we used the Bonferroni correction (BC) known to considerably increase the type II error ( i. e. failure to reject a false H0). For the other tests (LD and MLG), we did not use BC and the risk of type II error in these cases was acceptable. Thus, these results should be considered as a good indicator of the existence of panmixia in wild environment but this must be confirmed on larger samples to reduce the risk of type II error. PMID:24312410

  20. Referéndum y asamblea constituyente: autonomías departamentales en Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mayorga Ugarte.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available On 2 July 2006, Bolivia held a national referendum about departamental autonomy as part of the process of state decentralization and as an institutional response to the dire political and social crisis. The inclusion in the constitution of figures such as referendum, constitutional assembly and citizen legislative initiation was the response to the social demands and unrest given under the framework of semi-direct democracy which allowed for an institutional solution to them. Even though the law that called for the referendum defines its national character, in several articles it states that a regime of departamental autonomy will apply immediately after the new Constitution is ratified in those departments where the referendum question was approved by a simple majority of the vote. This dual interpretation with regards to the mandatory nature of the results — at the national or the departamental level — is added to the debate about the nature of the autonomies.The party of the government, whose position won in the referendum and won a majority of the constitutional assembly, sketches a proposal that includes different versions of autonomy — indigenous, regional, provincial, cantonal, communal — that run counter, in some instances, to the departamental autonomies. In sum, the referendum on departamental autonomy, far from solving the problem, has transfered it to the constitutional assembly which puts at risk the democratic legitimacy of its decisions given that the new constitution must answer the demands of diverse political and social actors. Aside from these dynamics, this experience of citizen participation in the decisiom-making process is an example of the positive impact of an institutional reform in the strengthening of the democratic legitimacy and the efficacy of political institutions.

  1. Evolution of Dengue Disease and Entomological Monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 – 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernández, Roberto Torres; Vargas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002–2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002–2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28‰ to 0.95‰; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January–June) and low (July–December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases. PMID:25706631

  2. Calcite Twin Analysis in the Central Andes of Northern Argentina and Southern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, E.; Hindle, D.

    2005-12-01

    The use of calcite twinning to infer compression directions and strain axes patterns has been applied widely in both fold and thrust belts, and continental interiors. Calcite twinning is noted to be one of the most precise methods for determining the internal strain of deformed rocks. Until now, such data from the deformed plate boundary of the Central Andes were lacking. This study has examined twinning orientations along the deformed Andean foreland (southern Bolivia and northern Argentina) from -25 to -20 latitude. In the Central Andes, we find an abundance of calcite twins in intervals of the Cretaceous age Yacorite limestone. Twin samples were collected, measured for orientation and type (I and II can be best used for strain analysis), and processed using the Groshong method, to give resultant strain tensors. The orientations of the twin short axes trend mostly NE-SW, which is close to the plate convergence direction. However, in a limited number of samples from the north, adjacent to the southern culmination of the active Subandean fold thrust belt, they trend NW-SE. This difference may be related to the more active, or more recent, shortening of the southern portion of the Eastern Cordillera, south of the culmination of the Subandean belt. This implies that twin short axes vary consistently with respect to geographic location and local tectonic regime. NW-SE trends in the northern region match well with fault kinematic studies in rocks pre-dating the San Juan del Oro unconformity (9-10 Ma). NE-SW trends in the south could correspond to much younger (~1-3 Ma) fault kinematic trends. In the Eastern Cordillera, where there is present day tectonic activity, the plunges of the twin short axes are found to be almost horizontal. This suggests that the twins were formed after folding occurred.

  3. Putative panmixia in restricted populations of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from wild Triatoma infestans in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Barnabe

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is subdivided into six discrete typing units (DTUs; TcI-TcVI of which TcI is ubiquitous and genetically highly variable. While clonality is the dominant mode of propagation, recombinant events play a significant evolutive role. Recently, foci of wild Triatoma infestans have been described in Bolivia, mainly infected by TcI. Hence, for the first time, we evaluated the level of genetic exchange within TcI natural potentially panmictic populations (single DTU, host, area and sampling time. Seventy-nine TcI stocks from wild T. infestans, belonging to six populations were characterized at eight microsatellite loci. For each population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, linkage disequilibrium (LD, and presence of repeated multilocus genotypes (MLG were analyzed by using a total of seven statistics, to test the null hypothesis of panmixia (H0. For three populations, none of the seven statistics allowed to rejecting H0; for another one the low size did not allow us to conclude, and for the two others the tests have given contradictory results. Interestingly, apparent panmixia was only observed in very restricted areas, and was not observed when grouping populations distant of only two kilometers or more. Nevertheless it is worth stressing that for the statistic tests of "HWE", in order to minimize the type I error (i. e. incorrect rejection of a true H0, we used the Bonferroni correction (BC known to considerably increase the type II error ( i. e. failure to reject a false H0. For the other tests (LD and MLG, we did not use BC and the risk of type II error in these cases was acceptable. Thus, these results should be considered as a good indicator of the existence of panmixia in wild environment but this must be confirmed on larger samples to reduce the risk of type II error.

  4. Establishing an independent mobile health program for chronic disease self-management support in bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients' ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients' likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among

  5. Characteristics of the aerial regime of an aridisol at the central high plateau of Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsag, V.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, the aerial regime of an aridisol with a loam clay-sandy texture of the central area of the high plateau of Bolivia, was determined as a function of the monthly volumetric moisture (using mean values) and the total porosity of the horizons Ap (0-19 cm), Bt (19-49 cm) and Cca (49-70 cm), Bt (19-49 cm) and Cca (49-70 cm). Values of moisture were determined during three year: 1983-84, 1984-5 and 1985-86 with the neutron probe. Fluctuations of the soil air content during the research period in the Ap and Bt horizons were strictly dependant on the precipitations and their seasonal variations due to porosity which was considered constant. Because this work was made in a soil with natural vegetation cover and without physical changes produced by tillage. The soil air content in the sandy Ap horizon showed higher values and greater difference (4-27%) than inferior horizons rich in clay (2-14%). The results were compared with quotes from the Czechoslovakian literature on the requirement of soil air content for certain crops: 15-35% for potatoes, 10-15% for cereals and 5-10% for pastures. This aridisol showing certain properties as clay horizons from 20 cm depth, unstable structure and insufficient air contents, can only be used for cereals and pastures. The use of these soils could be extended to crops with greater air requirements, if the water and aerial regimes are improved with the help of subsoilers, deepening the top soil and incorporating manure and green manure for improving the soil structure and porosity

  6. Constraining Glacial Runoff Contributions to Water Resources in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia using Environmental Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Warming temperatures in recent decades have contributed to substantial reductions in glaciers in many mountain regions around the globe, including the South American Andes. Melting of these glaciers taps water resources accumulated in past climates, and the diminishing ice marks a decrease in a nonrenewable water source that begs the question: how will future water supplies be impacted by climate change. Water resource management and climate adaptation efforts can be informed by knowledge of the extent to which glaciers contribute to seasonal streamflows, but remote locations and scant monitoring often limit this quantification. In Bolivia, more than two million people draw water from watersheds fed, in part, by glaciers. The amount to which these glaciers contribute to the water supply, however, is not well constrained. We apply elemental and isotopic tracers in an end-member mixing model to quantify glacial runoff contributions to local water supplies. We present oxygen and deuterium isotopes and major anion concentrations (sulfate and chloride) of shallow groundwater, streams, reservoirs, small arroyos, and glacial runoff. Isotopic and anion mixing models suggest between 45-67% of the water measured in high altitude streams originated from within the glacial footprint during the 2011 wet season, while glacial runoff contributed about 42-53% of the water in reservoirs in the 2012 dry season. Data also show that shallow groundwater is connected to glacial-fed streams. Any future decrease in glacial runoff may contribute to a reduction in surface water supplies and lower groundwater levels downstream, perhaps below the depth of hand-dug wells common in rural communities.

  7. Isolating active orogenic wedge deformation in the southern Subandes of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan R.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Foster, James H.; Bevis, Michael; Echalar, Arturo; Caccamise, Dana; Heck, Jacob; Kendrick, Eric; Ahlgren, Kevin; Raleigh, David; Smalley, Robert; Vergani, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    A new GPS-derived surface velocity field for the central Andean backarc permits an assessment of orogenic wedge deformation across the southern Subandes of Bolivia, where recent studies suggest that great earthquakes (>Mw 8) are possible. We find that the backarc is not isolated from the main plate boundary seismic cycle. Rather, signals from subduction zone earthquakes contaminate the velocity field at distances greater than 800 km from the Chile trench. Two new wedge-crossing velocity profiles, corrected for seasonal and earthquake affects, reveal distinct regions that reflect (1) locking of the main plate boundary across the high Andes, (2) the location of and loading rate at the back of orogenic wedge, and (3) an east flank velocity gradient indicative of décollement locking beneath the Subandes. Modeling of the Subandean portions of the profiles indicates along-strike variations in the décollement locked width (WL) and wedge loading rate; the northern wedge décollement has a WL of ~100 km while accumulating slip at a rate of ~14 mm/yr, whereas the southern wedge has a WL of ~61 km and a slip rate of ~7 mm/yr. When compared to Quaternary estimates of geologic shortening and evidence for Holocene internal wedge deformation, the new GPS-derived wedge loading rates may indicate that the southern wedge is experiencing a phase of thickening via reactivation of preexisting internal structures. In contrast, we suspect that the northern wedge is undergoing an accretion or widening phase primarily via slip on relatively young thrust-front faults.

  8. ESTIMACIÓN Y CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA DURACIÓN DEL DESEMPLEO EN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Foronda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de desempleo de una economía es considerada el indicador sintético más empleado para describir un mercado laboral; sin embargo, no proporciona información suficiente sobre la dinámica del mismo. El presente estudio ofrece un análisis complementario de la dinámica del mercado laboral a través de la estimación de la duración completa del desempleo y de una aproximación metodológica adecuada a la disponibilidad de información en Bolivia mediante el uso de modelos paramétricos y no paramétricos que permiten una descripción del comportamiento de la duración del desempleo en relación a las características sociodemográficas de la población. Los resultados muestran que es necesario corregir los sesgos en los datos disponibles ya que ocasionan una sobre-estimación de la duración del desempleo. Para ello se empleó el método de Corak M. y Heisz A. [1]. En el país, durante los últimos años, la duración del desempleo ha sido relativamente baja, aunque existen grupos vulnerables que experimentan largos períodos de búsqueda de empleo, como son las mujeres y los mayores. También se explora la relación entre la duración del desempleo con la educación técnica y área geográfica. Finalmente, se identifica la necesidad de incluir la informalidad, el subempleo y otras variables en el análisis.

  9. Metrological control of the gas flow and analysis of mass conservation in Bolivia-Brasil gas pipeline; Controle metrologico da vazao de gas e analise da conservacao de massa no gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro; Frota, Mauricio Nogueira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade Industrial

    2005-07-01

    International gas pipelines reflect a integrated commerce and impose a metrological challenge for the custody transferences that indistinctly imply in significant economic impact. This work argues the complex analysis of the mass balance and expression of uncertainties of the Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (3.150 Km of length, 557 Km in Bolivian territory and 2.593 Km that cross Brazil of West for East), today carrying approximately 60% from its maximum capacity (30 million of cubic meters daily), operating for the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., a enterprise controlled by PETROBRAS Gas S/A (GASPETRO). The TBG measuring methods always taking care of the necessities of the customers as well as being lined up with the changes of the natural gas market. In six years of existence, the TBG came along with the legislation created for regulating agency in formation and adjusted to the establishment of the contract inspector, important landmarks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that guide the metrological subjects of the TBG, making use of efficient tools in answers for each demand and searching to satisfy its proper necessities, the necessities of its customers and the new demands of the regulating agency. (author)

  10. Case history: recovery of the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline at the Vocoroca reservoir crossing Parana state; Caso historico: recuperacao da travessia do gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil no reservatorio da barragem de Vocoroca-Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 Km. Of this total, 2.593 Km are in Brazilian soil. In the kilometer 526+500m of the south spread, GASBOL crosses the reservoir of the Vocoroca's dam (COPEL), which had its operational level reduced, in face of the station of the droughts that usually reaches the area in the months of March to September. The lowing of the reservoir caused the turn of the course of Fojo River (Sao Joaozinho River) to its natural quota, forming a waterfall, whose hydraulic gradient caused the removal of the sediment and part of the foundation soil, discovering the pipe that was with space free from approximately 13 m of length. This paper discusses the solution adopted, as well as the several details of the recovery project, besides geotechnical and hydraulic studies and the aspects of safety of the Gas Pipeline. (author)

  11. LA FORMACIÓN EN EVALUACIÓN PSICOLÓGICA EN CARRERAS DE PSICOLOGÍA DE BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion K. Schulmeyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la formación que se realiza en Bolivia en el área de la evaluación psicológica en base a los Planes de Estudio de las carreras de Psicología y los Programas Analíticos de cuatro universidades públicas y cuatro universidades privadas. Se analizó el papel que cumplen las materias de esta área en los programas de Psicología en Bolivia, los contenidos que se transmiten, cómo se enseña a evaluar y en qué teorías y bibliografía se basa esta formación. Los resultados permiten constatar una fuerte presencia psicoanalítica, especial interés por las pruebas proyectivas gráficas, énfasis en la evaluación de la inteligencia a través de pruebas objetivas, y de la personalidad a través de pruebas subjetivas, e interés por la evaluación del desarrollo infantil.

  12. Crisis de las hegemonías en América latina: los casos de Bolivia y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Albero Vivero Arriagada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comprender y distinguir cómo se manifiesta, la ruptura o crisis de la hegemonía de las clases dominantes, cómo se presentan los procesos y posibilidades de reconfiguración de las clases sociales y las correlaciones de las fuerzas políticas entre las élites dominantes y los sectores excluidos. Se toma como referencia los casos de Bolivia y Chile en el período comprendido entre los años 2006 y 2012 ya que permite tener como referencia los triunfos electorales de Evo Morales en Bolivia y en el caso de Chile el primer gobierno de Michelle Bachelet y el triunfo de Sebastián Piñera. Desde una perspectiva hermenéutica crítica se realiza una revisión y análisis interpretativo de las obras de Antonio Gramsci y de otros referentes del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano que nos aporta un marco teórico que ilumina el análisis interpretativo. Se concluye que los conflictos y las contradicciones presentes en estos países dan cuenta de la posibilidad de construcción de nuevas relaciones sociales y políticas a partir de las luchas contra hegemónicas que han venido protagonizando las clases excluidas.

  13. CBERS-2B Brazilian remote sensing satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Gilberto Luis Sanches [TBG Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of CBERS-2B' Brazilian Remote Sensing Satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The CBERS-2B is the third satellite launched in 2007 by the CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) and the innovation was the HRC camera that produces high resolution images. It will be possible to obtain one complete coverage of the country every 130 days. In this study, 2 images from different parts of the Bolivia- Brazil Gas Pipeline were selected. Image processing involved the geometric registration of CBERS-2B satellite images with airborne images, contrast stretch transform and pseudo color. The analysis of satellite and airborne images in a GIS software to detect third party encroachment was effective to detect native vegetation removal, street construction, growth of urban areas, farming and residential/industrial land development. Very young, the CBERS-2B is a good promise to help to inspect the areas along the pipelines. (author)

  14. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Cochabamba (Bolivia); a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2013-11-01

    The anthropometric status of school age children and young adolescents in Andean countries is not well known. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia), and their association with different variables, as well as to determine the agreement between two classifications (BAP, IOTF) of obesity and overweight. A school-based cross-sectional survey (n=441) was carried out in 2010 in pupils, aged 5 to 16 years old, living in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia). Evaluations were based on parent-administered questionnaires and a physical examination based on anthropometric measures. Descriptive, bivariate, and concordance analyses were performed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 20.9% (CI95% 17.1-24.7) and 3.2% (CI 95% 1.6-4.8) respectively, with higher incidences in younger birth cohorts from rural areas. No differences were observed according to gender, parent's educational level, nutritional patterns, or physical activity. There was a moderate agreement globally and on overweight, and excellent on obesity. This study determined that the prevalence of overweight and obese Bolivian school children is increasing, mainly in younger birth cohorts from rural areas, independently from physical activity and energy intake. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. How important are national companies for oil and gas sector performance? Lessons from the Bolivia and Brazil case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz Antolín, María José; Ramírez Cendrero, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Control of natural resources, especially oil and gas, has been a major issue in the consideration of underdevelopment. In the present commodity boom, some Latin American economies are reforming their resource exploitation regimes, especially those issues linked with foreign capital share. The purpose of this report is to analyze these changes in the Bolivian and Brazilian oil and gas sectors in order to answer such questions as: Which property system combining public and private capital is the most suitable? Which regulating framework can guarantee a sustainable increase in output and investment? Our analyses lead to the conclusion that the regulatory framework can establish a particular ownership structure that is considered favorable for improving the performance of oil and gas sector, but the internal dynamics and the historical trajectories of enterprises will also be determining factors that interact with the given regulatory framework, generating mixed results. - highlights: • We analyze the influence of the regulatory framework in the growth of production. • We analyze the influence of the regulatory framework in investment dynamics. • We compare the regulatory frameworks for Brazil and Bolivia. • We compare the importance of public and private companies in hydrocarbons in Brazil and Bolivia

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius robustus adults invade households in the Tropics of Cochabamba region of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Cortez, Mirko; Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Garcia, Lineth; Arteaga, Mery; Uriona, Liliana; Gamboa, Seyla; Mejía, Carolina; Lozano, Daniel; Gascon, Joaquim; Torrico, Faustino; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2016-03-16

    There are hardly any data available on the relationships between the parasite and the vector or regarding potential reservoirs involved in the natural transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Tropics of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Local families from communities were responsible for the capture of triatomine specimens, following a strategic methodology based on entomological surveillance with community participation developed by the National Chagas Programme of the Ministry of Health of Bolivia. We describe the collection of adult Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius robustus naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from houses and from the hospital of Villa Tunari municipality. The flagellates found in the digestive tract of P. geniculatus belong to genetic lineages or DTUs TcI and TcIII, whereas only lineage DTU TcI was found in R. robustus. The detection of these vectors infected with T. cruzi reveals the vulnerability of local communities. The results presented here highlight the risk of Chagas disease transmission in a region previously thought not to be endemic, indicating that the Tropics of Cochabamba should be placed under permanent entomological and epidemiological surveillance.

  17. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Hribljan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 The high-altitude (4,500+ m Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia: near the village of Manasaya in the Sajama National Park (Cordillera Occidentale, and in the Tuni Condoriri National Park (Cordillera Real. (2 We cored to 5 m depth in the Manasaya peatland, whose age at 5 m was ca. 3,675 yr. BP with a LARCA of 47 g m-2 yr-1. However, probing indicated that the maximum depth was 7–10 m with a total estimated (by extrapolation carbon stock of 1,040 Mg ha-1. The Tuni peat body was 5.5 m thick and initiated ca. 2,560 cal. yr. BP. The peatland carbon stock was 572 Mg ha-1 with a long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA of 37 g m-2 yr-1. (3 Despite the dry environment of the Bolivian puna, the region contains numerous peatlands with high carbon stocks and rapid carbon accumulation rates. These peatlands are heavily used for llama and alpaca grazing.

  18. EL DESARROLLO HUMANO EN SANTA CRUZ (BOLIVIA: DESEQUILIBRIOS TERRITORIALES Y EFECTO NEGATIVO DEL COMPONENTE ECONÓMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bazzaco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del Índice de Desarrollo Humano de los municipios del departamento de Santa Cruz permite destacar como característica central del proceso de desarrollo humano del departamento cruceño en los últimos veinticinco años su profunda vinculación a los progresos realizados por el conjunto de Bolivia y a los factores económicos que condicionaron esta evolución. En este sentido, el departamento reprodujo y amplificó no sólo el ciclo económico del país, sino también el perfil de desarrollo humano de Bolivia: el valor de su Índice de Desarrollo Humano muestra un fuerte desfase entre un indicador económico débil e indicadores sociales básicos - en las áreas de educación y salud - con valores más elevados. Los valores del IDH, los desequilibrios entre sus distintos componentes (entradas económicas, indicadores de educación y esperanza de vida al nacer, así como las correlaciones negativas rescontradas entre indicadores de pobreza y grado de urbanización municipal, ponen en evidencia importantes asimetrías internas en el departamento y permiten avanzar algunas conclusiones respecto a la sostenibilidad del proceso de desarrollo departamental cruceño.

  19. Findings and lessons learned from a multi-partner collaboration to increase cervical cancer prevention efforts in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analia R; Espey, David; Glenn, Jeffrey; Lara-Prieto, Elisa; Moreno, Amanda; Nuñez, Fernando; Padilla, Haydee; Waxman, Alan; Flowers, Lisa; Santos, Carlos; Soria, Milton; Luciani, Silvana; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in Bolivia, where cytology based screening has not performed well due to health-systems constraints. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Pan American Health Organization partnered with the Bolivian Ministry of Health and the Peruvian Cancer Institute (INEN) to build capacity in Bolivia for the use of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. Four 5-day courses on basic clinical skills to perform these procedures, provide related counseling, and manage side effects and infections were conducted from September 2010 to December 2012 for 61 Bolivian nurses and physicians. Of these courses, two were conducted by Bolivian trainers that were certified through a Training-of-Trainers course taught by the INEN. Classroom didactic sessions included lectures and practice with anatomic models followed by clinical practice sessions to provide trainees with practical experience in VIA and cryotherapy. Pre- and post-training evaluations were administered to ascertain knowledge gained. Evaluation of competency was conducted during simulation exercises in the classroom and during supervised performances of procedures in clinical settings. This report summarizes findings and lessons learned that will be useful for planning the supervision and monitoring phase of this project as well as for future partnerships in the Latin American and the Caribbean region.

  20. Las comunidades afrodescendientes de Nor Yungas, Bolivia: una aproximación a su estudio antropogenético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Iudica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un estudio antropogenético realizado en las poblaciones afrodescendientes de la región de Nor Yungas, Bolivia. Se pone el énfasis en su encuadre sociohistórico, en la metodología de trabajo construida con las comunidades y personas participantes así como en la importancia de la devolución de los resultados. Nuestra propuesta consistió en acercar una herramienta científica que resultara un aporte en el proceso de reconstrucción histórico-cultural emprendido por las comunidades afrobolivianas desde hace dos décadas, en pos de una mayor visibilización como nación en el marco del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. Se determinaron marcadores genéticos de herencia uniparental (ADN mitocondrial y STRs del cromosoma Y con la finalidad de estimar el origen geográfico de los pobladores afroyungueños. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las comunidades afrodescendientes estudiadas poseen una marcada ascendencia africana, observándose minoritariamente un proceso de mestizaje con pueblos nativos americanos y europeos.

  1. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans of the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; D'Avila, Grasielle Caldas Pessoa; Orellana, Ana Lineth Garcia; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Noireau, François; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2014-11-14

    The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem. Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed. Three wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrin with RR50 of Bolivia are less susceptible.

  2. Possible living flea beetle fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (C. cuevas, C. ellimon, and C. maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne 1958, Psylliodes Berthold 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein 2010. Remarkably, ba...

  3. Dealing with the state, the market and NGOs : the impact of institutions on the constitution and performance of Community Forest Enterprises (CFE) in the lowlands of Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, C.E.B.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to determine whether and how the institutional environment
    influences the establishment and performance of Community Forest Enterprises (CFEs) in Bolivia.
    This study defines CFEs as organizations that: (1) manage collectively owned forests in

  4. From Adopt-a-Project to Permanent Services: The Evolution of Water For People’s Approach to Rural Water Supply in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fogelberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dominant paradigm in rural water provision in Bolivia has focused on the provision of infrastructure, whether by government agencies or international cooperation groups. However, the investment in infrastructure has led neither to universal access for all Bolivians nor to consistently high levels of services for those who do have access to a water system. This paper will describe the transition of one international non-profit organisation, Water For People, from supporting dispersed water projects throughout the country towards targeted support of water services at the municipal level, aiming to support permanent universal services. The institutional evolution – including changes in governance, implementation strategy, donor base, and indicators of success – that allowed field programmes to shift from projects to services provides the context for the change of approach in Bolivia. A discussion of the various aspects that have changed in the organisation’s operations in seven municipalities in Bolivia, from the scale of intervention, to municipal-wide planning information and tools, to support to service providers and service authorities, and an increased focus on post-construction monitoring, demonstrates how the Everyone, Forever approach is resulting in a more service- delivery-oriented approach in Bolivia.

  5. New records of the mailed catfish Planiloricaria cryptodon from the upper Amazon in Peru, Brazil and Bolivia, with a key to the genera of the Planiloricariina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1986-01-01

    The mailed catfish Planiloricaria cryptodon (Isbrücker, 1971) was hitherto only known from the holotype from Río Ucayali, Peru. New material from Rio Purus (Est. Acre, Brazil) and from Río Mamoré (Prov. Beni, Bolivia) is described and compared with the holotype. One of the new specimens is

  6. A quantitative and constraint-specific method to assess the potential impact of new agricultural technology : the case of frost resistant potato for the Altiplano (Peru and Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Condori, B.; Carrillo, R.; Kropff, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative and constraint-specific approach to assess the potential impact of new agricultural technology is described and applied to frost resistant potato cultivars for the Altiplano (Peru and Bolivia). The approach uses geo-referenced databases and a simulation model. Calculations are made

  7. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity from plants used in Tacana traditional medicine (Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Lopéz, Diandra; Nina, Nélida; Ticona, Juan C; Limachi, Ivan; Salamanca, Efrain; Udaeta, Enrique; Paredes, Crispin; Espinoza, Boris; Serato, Alcides; Garnica, David; Limachi, Abigail; Coaquira, Dayana; Salazar, Sarah; Flores, Ninoska; Sterner, Olov; Giménez, Alberto

    2018-04-24

    Thirty-eight Tacana medicinal plant species used to treat skin problems, including leishmania ulcers, skin infections, inflammation and wound healing, were collected in the community of Buena Vista, Bolivia, with the Tacana people. Twenty two species are documented for the first time as medicinal plants for this ethnic group living in the northern area of the Department of La Paz. To evaluate the leishmanicidal effect (IC 50 ) and cytotoxicity (LD 50 ) of the selected plants. To carry out bioguided studies on the active extracts. To assess the potential of Bolivian plant biodiversity associated with traditional knowledge in the discovery of alternative sources to fight leishmaniasis. Seventy three ethanol extracts were prepared from 38 species by maceration and were evaluated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. braziliensis. Active extracts (IC 50 ≤ 50 μg/mL) were fractionated by chromatography on Silica gel column and the fractions were assessed against the two Leishmania strains. The most active fractions and the crude extracts were evaluated against reference strains of L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. aethiopica, two native strains (L. Lainsoni and L. braziliensis) and for cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. The chromatographic profile of the active fractions was obtained by reverse phase chromatography using HPLC. From the 73 extracts, 39 extracts (53.4%) were inactive and 34 showed activity. Thirteen species were sselected for bioguided studies. The crude extracts and their 36 fractions were evaluated against two Leishmania strains. The most active fraction were tested in a panel of five leishmania strains and for cytotoxicity. The Selective Index (SI = LD 50 /IC 50 ) was calculated, and were generally low. Retention time and UV spectra were recorded for the active fractions by HPLC-DAD using a reverse phase column. Profiles were very different from each other, showing the presence of different compounds. Bolivian traditional

  8. The age and thermal history of Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Zartman, R.E.; McKee, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Naeser, C.W.; Sanjines, V.O.; Ericksen, G.E.; Tavera, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia, is the world's largest silver deposit and has been mined since the sixteenth century for silver, and for tin and zinc during the twentieth century, together with by-product copper and lead. The deposit consists primarily of veins that cut an altered igneous body that we interpret to be a dacitic volcanic dome and its underlying tuff ring and explosion breccia. The deposit is compositionally and thermally zoned, having a core of cassiterite, wolframite, bismuthinite, and arsenopyrite surrounded by a peripheral, lower-temperature mineral assemblage consisting principally of sphalerite, galena, lead sulfosalt, and silver minerals. The low-temperature assemblage also was superim-posed on the high-temperature assemblage in response to cooling of the main hydrothermal system. Both the dacite dome and the ore fluids were derived from a larger magmatic hydrothermal source at depth. The dome was repeatedly fractured by recurrent movement on the fault system that guided its initial emplacement. The dome was extruded at 13.8 ?? 0.2 Ma (2??), based on U-Th-Pb dating of zircon. Mineralization and alteration occurred within about 0.3 my of dome emplacement, as indicated by a 40Ar/39Ar date of 13.76 ?? 0.10 Ma (1??) for sericite from the pervasive quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration associated with the main-stage, high-temperature, mineralization. The last thermal event able to reset zircon fission tracks occurred no later than 12.5 ?? 1.1 Ma (1??). as indicated by fission-tract dating. Minor sericite. and magmatic-steam alunite veins, were episodically formed around 11 Ma and between 8.3 and 5.7 Ma; the younger episodes occurring at the time of extensional fracturing at Cerro Rico and widespread volcanism in the adjacent Los Frailes volcanic field. None of these younger events appear to be signific-ant thermal/mineralizing events: the exceptionally flat thermal release pattern of 39Ar from sericite and the results of the fission-tract dating of

  9. Licancabur Volcano, Bolivia and life in the Atacama: Environmental physics and analogies to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Andrew Nelson

    Although there is no perfect environmental analog to Mars on Earth, quantitative study of relevant terrestrial field sites can serve as the basis for physical models and technology development to aid future exploration. This dissertation describes original field and laboratory research on two terrestrial analog sites: Licancabur Volcano, Bolivia, and the Atacama Desert, Chile. Atop Licancabur, at an elevation of nearly 6,000 meters above sea level, sits the highest volcanic lake on Earth. Prior to this work, little was known about the lake, its waters, the role of volcanism or its potential relationship to locales on Mars. In the first part of this work, I describe observations of the lake resulting from several years of field study, including data on meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. These and other measurements provide the basis for (1) the first quantitative mass and energy balance model of the lake, and (2) the first determination of the altitude effect on solar visible and ultraviolet flux from the high altitude summit. Under the observed conditions, model results indicate: lake waters are primarily meteoric in origin and evaporating rapidly; volcanic input is not required to explain observations of lake water temperature or year-end model results. Nearby, Chile's Atacama Desert is known to be one of the driest, most inhospitable environments on Earth. There, environmental similarities to Mars provide an apt testing ground for new astrobiological exploration technologies. In the latter part of this work, I present results from my work with the Life In The Atacama (LITA) Mars rover field experiment. In particular, I report on the development of a new data analysis tool named the LITA Data Scoring System (DSS). Subject to the user-defined constraints, the DSS was used to facilitate targeting, analysis and mapping of rover science results relevant to potential habitability and evidence for life at three desert field sites. Although experimental in

  10. Favreauite, a new selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Christy, Andrew G.; Housley, Robert M.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Steele, Ian M.; Thorne, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Favreauite, ideally PbBiCu_6O_4(SeO_3)_4.H_2O, is a new secondary selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Antonio Quijarro Province, Potosi Department, Bolivia. The mineral occurs in vughs in a matrix of (Co, Cu)-rich penroseite, dolomite and goethite. Associated minerals are: ahlfeldite, allophane, calcite, chalcomenite, malachite, molybdomenite and an unnamed Al selenite. Favreauite forms tiny green square tbular crystals, flattened on {001}, up to 0.1 mm on edge and 0.01 mm thick, occurring in subparallel and divergent groups. The Mohs hardness of favreauite is estimated as ∼3; it has perfect cleavage on {001}, an irregular fracture and a vitreous lustre. The calculated density based on the empirical formula is 4.851 g cm"-"3. Favreauite is uniaxial (-), with mean refractive index estimated as 1.854 from the Gladstone-Dale relationship. It is pleochroic in shades of green, O 4σF_o] and 0.0356 for all 1432 unique reflections. Favreauite is a close structural relative of nabokoite, KCu_7Te"4"+O_4(SO_4)_5Cl, and atlasovite, KCu_6Fe"3"+BiO_4(SO_4)_5Cl. In all cases, oxygen-centred tetrahedra share edges to form corrugated [Cu_6MO_4] layers (M = Bi or Te) which can be derived from the framework structure of murdochite, Pb"4"+Cu"2"+_6O_8_-_x(Cl,Br)_2_x by selective deletion of atoms. In favreauite, additional OH and H_2O between the layers are weakly bound to Cu, giving it Jahn-Teller distorted 4 + 2 coordination. The Cu-Bi-O layer is braced by SeO_3 pyramids. The Bi"3"+ and interlayer Pb"2"+ form an approximately face-centred cubic array analogous to the Pb"4"+ sites in murdochite. Unlike Bi"3"+, Pb"2"+ is in a site with nonpolar anti 4 point symmetry, which suppresses the stereoactivity of its lone pair.

  11. Pliocene and Pleistocene chronostratigraphy of continental sediments underlying the Altiplano at La Paz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicholas J.; Barendregt, René W.; Clague, John J.

    2018-06-01

    Continental sediments underlying the Altiplano plateau provide insight into the late Cenozoic evolution of the Central Andes. We characterize the magnetostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the upper part of this fill sequence along a transect extending southwestward from the Cordillera Real at La Paz, Bolivia, where it is best exposed. Multiple polarity reversals and the locally extensive, 2.74-Ma Chijini Tuff enable correlation between our six sections and three previously reported sections. The tuff ties the composite polarity sequence to the geomagnetic polarity time scale, demonstrating that the stratigraphic record extends from the latest Gilbert Chron (ca. 3.8 Ma) to the late Olduvai subchron (ca. 1.8 Ma), or possibly Jaramillo subchron (ca. 1.0 Ma). The sequence provides Earth's longest known record of low-latitude glaciation and the only record of Pliocene tropical glaciation. It includes evidence for 16 late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene glaciations, separated by interglacials of sufficient length (>103-104 a) to produce mature soil profiles. Successively larger ice caps formed directly before, during, and after the globally warm mid-Piacenzian (3.265-3.025 Ma), and throughout Plio-Pleistocene climate deterioration. The late Pliocene glacial units predate the onset of widespread Northern Hemisphere continental glaciation and in most cases unambiguously correspond to specific cool peaks of the astronomically tuned, benthic oxygen isotope (δ18O) record, including marine isotope stages MG2, M2, KM2, and G10. The glacial events broadly coincide with those nearer both poles, suggesting inter-hemispheric climate linkages. The early formation and subsequent expansion of ice caps beyond glacier margins of the Last Glacial Maximum suggest that the Cordillera Real likely attained its modern height before ca. 3.4 Ma. The number and timing of glaciations, and long-term sediment accumulation and incision rates suggest that the local Altiplano surface formed by ca

  12. Individual health and the visibility of village economic inequality: Longitudinal evidence from native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nica, Veronica; Zhang, Rebecca; Mensah, Irene C; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources. We measured inequality using the Gini coefficient. We tested the robustness of our results using a shorter two-year annual panel (2008-2009) in another 40 Tsimane' villages and an additional measure of inequality (coefficient of variation, CV). Behaviors with low cultural visibility (e.g., household farm area planted with staples) were less likely to be associated with individual health, compared to more conspicuous behaviors (e.g., expenditures in durable goods, consumption of domesticated animals). We find some evidence that property rights and access to resources matter, with inequality of privately-owned resources showing a larger effect on health. More inequality was associated with improved perceived health - maybe due to improved health prospects from increasing wealth - and worse anthropometric indicators. For example, a unit increase in the Gini coefficient of expenditures in durable goods was associated with 0.24 fewer episodes of stress and a six percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness. A one-point increase in the CV of village inequality in meat consumption was associated with a 4 and 3 percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness and being in bed due to illness, and a 0.05 SD decrease in age-sex standardized arm-muscle area. In small-scale, rural societies at the periphery of market economies, nominal economic inequality in

  13. Establishing an Independent Mobile Health Program for Chronic Disease Self-Management Support in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D.; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusion: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that

  14. Redes públicas, descentralizadas y comunitarias de salud en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavadenz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La Reforma de la Salud en Bolivia está basada principalmente en la descentralización y la equidad para mejorar la calidad y ampliar la cobertura de servicios de salud a las áreas rurales y pobres del país. Como experiencia piloto de reforma, el Ministerio de Salud y Previsión Social, el Gobierno Departamental y el Municipio de El Alto, suscribieron un acuerdo con una organización no gubernamental (ONG, a la cual transfirieron la gestión integral de una de las redes de servicios de salud del municipio. La transferencia se basó en un contrato de gestión con indicadores de proceso y resultados. Después de un año de funcionamiento, los resultados preliminares indican que, a través del acuerdo, se ha mejorado la calidad de la administración y de los servicios, aumentado la cobertura y fortalecido los servicios de primer nivel de la red. La ocupación de camas, generalmente muy baja en hospitales de segundo nivel (43% en el departamento de La Paz, 1999, alcanzó 84% en el hospital de la red en su segundo semestre de operación; las consultas externas en la red aumentaron en 55% (83% en el hospital y 18% en los centros del primer nivel entre el primer semestre de 1999 y el primer semestre del 2000; los partos institucionales aumentaron en 41% y el porcentaje de partos atendidos en los centros del primer nivel aumentó de 5 a 9% en el mismo período. Una reciente encuesta de satisfacción de los usuarios muestra que 87% de las personas atendidas en la red se sintieron altamente satisfechas con la atención recibida y que 75% de la población consultada recomendaría el servicio a otras personas. Estos datos no son típicos de los servicios de salud del país. Esta experiencia piloto sugiere que un cambio en la organización y administración de una red de servicios de salud con separación de funciones entre comprador y proveedor, combinado con una gerencia basada en resultados y la participación de la comunidad en el proceso, puede

  15. Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarracin-Veizaga Hugo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000, where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128: females, 15.1% (11/73; males, 9.1% (5/55. Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76.7% , n= 30, galvanized iron rooves (86.7% and earthen floors (53.4% 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7% were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8.7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3% specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7% of which in domestic environments. DISCUSSION: The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional

  16. Identifying and attributing common data quality problems: temperature and precipitation observations in Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie; Calle, Juan; Moreno, Isabel; Andrade, Marcos; Velarde, Fernando; Ticona, Laura; Carrasco, Gualberto; Castellón, Yaruska; Oria Rojas, Clara; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Assessing climatological trends and extreme events requires high-quality data. However, for many regions of the world, observational data of the desired quality is not available. In order to eliminate errors in the data, quality control (QC) should be applied before data analysis. If the data still contains undetected errors and quality problems after QC, a consequence may be misleading and erroneous results. A region which is seriously affected by observational data quality problems is the Central Andes. At the same time, climatological information on ongoing climate change and climate risks are of utmost importance in this area due to its vulnerability to meteorological extreme events and climatic changes. Beside data quality issues, the lack of metadata and the low station network density complicate quality control and assessment, and hence, appropriate application of the data. Errors and data problems may occur at any point of the data generation chain, e.g. due to unsuitable station configuration or siting, poor station maintenance, erroneous instrument reading, or inaccurate data digitalization and post processing. Different measurement conditions in the predominantly conventional station networks in Bolivia and Peru compared to the mostly automated networks e.g. in Europe or Northern America may cause different types of errors. Hence, applying QC methods used on state of the art networks to Bolivian and Peruvian climate observations may not be suitable or sufficient. A comprehensive amount of Bolivian and Peruvian maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation in-situ measurements were analyzed to detect and describe common data quality problems. Furthermore, station visits and reviews of the original documents were done. Some of the errors could be attributed to a specific source. Such information is of great importance for data users, since it allows them to decide for what applications the data still can be used. In ideal cases, it may even allow to

  17. Clonal relatedness of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing LT and CS17 isolated from children with diarrhoea in La Paz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Claudia; Klena, John D; Nicklasson, Matilda; Iniguez, Volga; Sjöling, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of traveller's and infantile diarrhoea in the developing world. ETEC produces two toxins, a heat-stable toxin (known as ST) and a heat-labile toxin (LT) and colonization factors that help the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized a subset of ETEC clinical isolates recovered from Bolivian children under 5 years of age using a combination of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, virulence typing, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance test patterns in order to determine the genetic background of ETEC strains circulating in Bolivia. We found that strains expressing the heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin and colonization factor CS17 were common and belonged to several MLST sequence types but mainly to sequence type-423 and sequence type-443 (Achtman scheme). To further study the LT/CS17 strains we analysed the nucleotide sequence of the CS17 operon and compared the structure to LT/CS17 ETEC isolates from Bangladesh. Sequence analysis confirmed that all sequence type-423 strains from Bolivia had a single nucleotide polymorphism; SNP(bol) in the CS17 operon that was also found in some other MLST sequence types from Bolivia but not in strains recovered from Bangladeshi children. The dominant ETEC clone in Bolivia (sequence type-423/SNP(bol)) was found to persist over multiple years and was associated with severe diarrhoea but these strains were variable with respect to antimicrobial resistance patterns. The results showed that although the LT/CS17 phenotype is common among ETEC strains in Bolivia, multiple clones, as determined by unique MLST sequence types, populate this phenotype. Our data also appear to suggest that acquisition and loss of antimicrobial resistance in LT-expressing CS17 ETEC clones is more dynamic than acquisition or loss of virulence factors.

  18. Clonal Relatedness of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Strains Expressing LT and CS17 Isolated from Children with Diarrhoea in La Paz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Claudia; Klena, John D.; Nicklasson, Matilda; Iniguez, Volga; Sjöling, Åsa

    2011-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of traveller's and infantile diarrhoea in the developing world. ETEC produces two toxins, a heat-stable toxin (known as ST) and a heat-labile toxin (LT) and colonization factors that help the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized a subset of ETEC clinical isolates recovered from Bolivian children under 5 years of age using a combination of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, virulence typing, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance test patterns in order to determine the genetic background of ETEC strains circulating in Bolivia. We found that strains expressing the heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin and colonization factor CS17 were common and belonged to several MLST sequence types but mainly to sequence type-423 and sequence type-443 (Achtman scheme). To further study the LT/CS17 strains we analysed the nucleotide sequence of the CS17 operon and compared the structure to LT/CS17 ETEC isolates from Bangladesh. Sequence analysis confirmed that all sequence type-423 strains from Bolivia had a single nucleotide polymorphism; SNPbol in the CS17 operon that was also found in some other MLST sequence types from Bolivia but not in strains recovered from Bangladeshi children. The dominant ETEC clone in Bolivia (sequence type-423/SNPbol) was found to persist over multiple years and was associated with severe diarrhoea but these strains were variable with respect to antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusion/Significance The results showed that although the LT/CS17 phenotype is common among ETEC strains in Bolivia, multiple clones, as determined by unique MLST sequence types, populate this phenotype. Our data also appear to suggest that acquisition and loss of antimicrobial resistance in LT-expressing CS17 ETEC clones is more dynamic than acquisition or loss of virulence factors. PMID:22140423

  19. El regreso de Túpac Katari. Bolivia y los procesos de transformación global del capitalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Errejón Galván

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La victoria electoral en diciembre de 2005 del Movimiento al socialismo encabezado por Evo Morales tuvo una significación mundial. En este artículo defenderemos que los acontecimientos políticos bolivianos de los últimos tiempos deben ser interpretados como algo más que un mero recambio en las elites políticas del país. Lo que está ocurriendo en Bolivia es, a nuestro juicio, la cristalización institucional de un conjunto de procesos que convergieron en la apertura de un ciclo de luchas anti-neoliberales iniciado en el año 2000. Los orígenes y efectos de este «ciclo rebelde» trascienden la escala estatal aún cuando ésta represente su espacio de materialización más visible. Een primer lugar, usando la perspectiva del «sistema-mundo» de Wallerstein, llevaremos a cabo una explicación de las tendencias históricas de transformación en la distribución geopolítica del poder y en las dinámicas de integración del Capitalismo. Prestaremos particular atención a los efectos de reordenación sistémica de la globalización neoliberal desde los años 70. segundo lugar, examinaremos los efectos del Neoliberalismo en la situación geopolítica de Bolivia y su influencia determinante en la emergencia de las identidades políticas indígenas, así como en la crisis de protagonismo político del proletariado minero boliviano, en el marco de procesos de impugnación de la «colonialidad». Een tercer lugar, analizaremos algunos aspectos de la influencia de los elementos anteriores —dinámicas sistémicas globales y transformación de la estructura de clases— en el proceso constituyente actualmente abierto en Bolivia. Intentaremos describir las interacciones entre los actores políticos que intervienen en el proceso constituyente prestando especial atención al papel de los movimientos sociales

  20. Variabilidad climática y modelización hidrológica del glaciar Zongo, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIABILITÉ CLIMATIQUE ET MODÉLISATION HYDROLOGIQUE DU GLACIER ZONGO, BOLIVIE. Un modèle hydrologique a été mis au point pour simuler les débits journaliers à l’exutoire du Glacier Zongo (Cordillère Royale, Bolivie à partir des paramètres météorologiques (température, humidité, radiation, précipitation, vent. Ce modèle se fonde sur un bilan énergétique calculé sur chaque secteur du bassin versant englacé. Une méthode automatique d’optimisation non linéaire permet de caler les paramètres du modèle. Pour la période de octobre 1993 à août 1994, le modèle explique plus de 87% de la variance des débits journaliers observés. Une fois calé, le modèle peut servir à l’étude sur les glaciers andins des conséquences hydrologiques d’un changement global du climat. Para simular los caudales diarios en el emisario del Glaciar Zongo (Cordillera Real, Bolivia, se elaboró un modelo hidrológico a partir de parámetros meteorológicos (temperatura, humedad, radiación, precipitación y viento. Este modelo se basa en un balance energético calculado en cada sector de la cuenca con glaciar. Un método automático de optimización no lineal permite calibrar los parámetros del modelo. Para el período de octubre 1993 a agosto 1994, el modelo explica más del 87% de varianza de los caudales diarios observados. Una vez calibrado, el modelo puede servir para el estudio de las consecuencias hidrológicas de un cambio global del clima sobre los glaciares andinos. CLIMATIC VARIABILITY AND HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING ON ZONGO GLACIER, BOLIVIA. The daily discharges at the outlet of Zongo Glacier (Cordillera Real, Bolivia have been modelized using meteorological data (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, wind. The hydrological model is based on the energy balance, estimated on each sector of the glacierized catchment. An automatic nonlinear method is used to calibrate the model parameters. From October 1993 to August 1994

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in the Toro Toro municipality, Potosi, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Echeverria, Jorge; Rodriguez, Antonio Nogales; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves; Gorla, David E

    2017-02-02

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Bolivia. The species is present both in domestic and peridomestic structures of rural areas, and in wild ecotopes of the Andean valleys and the Great Chaco. The identification of areas persistently showing low and high house infestation by the vector is important for the management of vector control programs. This study aimed at analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of house infestation by T. infestans in the Toro Toro municipality (Potosi, Bolivia) between 2009 and 2014, and its association with environmental variables. House infestation and T. infestans density were calculated from entomological surveys of houses in the study area, using a fixed-time effort sampling technique. The spatial heterogeneity of house infestation was evaluated using the SatScan statistic. Association between house infestation with Bioclim variables (Worldclim database) and altitude was analyzed using a generalized linear model (GLM) with a logit link. Model selection was based on the Akaike information criteria after eliminating collinearity between variables using the variable inflation factor. The final model was used to create a probability map of house infestation for the Toro Toro municipality. A total of 73 communities and 16,489 house evaluation events were analyzed. Presence of T. infestans was recorded on 480 house evaluation events, giving an overall annual infestation of 2.9% during the studied period (range 1.5-5.4% in 2009 and 2012). Vector density remained at about 1.25 insects/ house. Infestation was highly aggregated in five clusters, including 11 communities. Relative risk of infestation within these clusters was 1.7-3.9 times the value for the regional average. Four environmental variables were identified as good descriptors of house infestation, explaining 57% of house infestation variability. The model allowed the estimation of a house infestation surface for the Toro Toro municipality. This

  2. The socioeconomic context of the use of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart. in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Bussmann, Rainer W; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-06-02

    Traditional knowledge (TK) has enabled communities to adapt to changes in life conditions over centuries. However, this local context is being dramatically affected by recent changes through globalization and modernization of societies. In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia. Both species are known in the region under the main vernacular name of Asaí, and are source of two highly commercialized resources: palm-hearts and fruits. Euterpe precatoria Mart. is native to the region whereas E. oleracea Mart. is being introduced for the use of both resources. We compare TK about the two Euterpe species in both countries in relation to 14 socioeconomic factors in seven use categories. We performed a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to elucidate the influence of each socioeconomic factor on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. In the two countries, we found that mestizos, speaking only Spanish, and migrants in the same ecoregion, knew more uses in all use categories for E. precatoria than for E. oleracea, even in use categories such as Medicinal and veterinary and Construction, for which indigenous participants had more uses in case of other species. In Peru, the use of E. precatoria was higher among participants with greater wealth, which could be related to the commercial importance that both the fruits and the palm-hearts have had in the markets of the region. In contrast, in Bolivia, although some income generation from Euterpe sp. was observed, the use of E. precatoria was much more homogeneously distributed. The use of E. oleracea in Bolivia is recent, and although its most important uses are related to the consumption of fruits and palm-hearts (Human food), it is now being slowly used for Medicinal and Construction purposes, similar to E. precatoria. The use of each of the species

  3. Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

  4. Construction of new tie-in in the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline (GASBOL) using hot tapping techniques; Derivacao do Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil com a tecnica de hot-tapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto; Leite Filho, Ismael Casono; Lobao Filho, Jesualdo Pereira; Saavedra, Marcelo Curto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    To supply 2,4 MM m3/d of natural gas to Tres Lagoas thermo electric plant, it was necessary to install a new delivery point of 12'' in the 32'' trunk line of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline. The most efficient method for executing new delivery points and maintenance repairs in pipelines is using the 'hot-tapping' technique, because there is no need to stop flow and blow down lines. This paper shows the project, specifications, planning and a detailed job execution to support this new city-gate, using a T split sleeve welded in the pipeline, explaining all the activities. Complex and innovative aspects related to the welding and inspection processes, executed in a API 5L X70 pipe at 92 kgf/cm{sup 2}, are also reported. (author)

  5. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay Comunicación participativa para el control de la tuberculosis en cárceles de Bolivia, Ecuador y Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Waisbord

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. METHODS: Challenges to two central goals of TB control-early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS strategy-were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as "peers" in health services. RESULTS: The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. CONCLUSION: In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.OBJETIVOS: Identificar los desafíos para reducir la tuberculosis (TB en cárceles de Bolivia, Ecuador y Paraguay y recomendar vías para solucionarlos mediante intervenciones informativas. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron las dificultades para alcanzar dos metas centrales del control de la TB: el diagnóstico temprano de los casos positivos y la aplicación exitosa del tratamiento bajo supervisión directa de curso corto. Se obtuvieron datos (mediante entrevistas estructuradas en

  6. A participatory assessment to identify strategies for improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Bolivia Evaluación participativa orientada a identificar estrategias para mejorar la prevención y el tratamiento del cáncer cervicouterino en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Ilana G. Dzuba; Ruth Calderón; Siri Bliesner; Silvana Luciani; Fernando Amado; Martha Jacob

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se evalúan la organización y disponibilidad de servicios de prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervicouterino en cuatro de los nueve departamentos de Bolivia y se identifican estrategias de intervención. De 2001 a 2002 un equipo multidisciplinario de 15 personas llevó a cabo en Bolivia una evaluación que comprendió una revisión bibliográfica sobre el cáncer cervicouterino en el país, entrevistas semiestructuradas con 583 partes interesadas y 56 observaciones de servicios de s...

  7. Response to Martinez-Novack et al. Comments on Hynes et al. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 5233-5240

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have read with great interest the Comments related to the article entitled “Prevalence of marijuana use among university 20 students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru” and appreciate the readers’ feedback [1]. [...

  8. The use of PDAs to collect baseline survey data: lessons learned from a pilot project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandon, I N; Searing, H; Goldberg, R; Duran, R; Arce, J Monterrey

    2008-01-01

    We compared the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) against the use of standard paper questionnaires for collecting survey data. The evaluation consisted of qualitative approaches to document the process of introducing PDAs. Fieldwork was carried out during June-July 2005 at 12 sites in Bolivia. Data collectors reacted positively to the use of the PDAs and noted the advantages and disadvantages of paper and PDA data collection. A number of difficulties encountered in the use of PDA technology serve as a warning for investigators planning its adoption. Problems included incompatible data files (which impeded the ability to interpret data), an inadequate back-up protocol, and lack of a good 'fit' between the technology and the study. Ensuring the existence of a back-end database, developing an appropriate and adequate back-up protocol, and assessing whether a technology 'fits' the project are important factors in weighing the decision to collect data using PDAs.

  9. Pueblos indígenas, democracia y representación: los casos de Bolivia y Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Iguanzo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo descriptivo estudia la representación de los intereses de los indígenas en la Cámara Baja en Bolivia (2006) y Guatemala (2008) a través de la distinción de actitudes y comportamiento, entre los que se consideran indígenas y no indígenas. El texto se sostiene en el análisis de las encuestas realizadas por Barómetro de las Américas del Proyecto de Opinión publica de América Latina (LAPOP) y las entrevistas a legisladores del Proyecto Elites Parlamentarias en América Latina. La...

  10. TRAZADOR DE CURVAS I-V DE CÓDIGO ABIERTO PARA MONITOREO DE RENDIMIENTO DE PANELES FOTOVOLTAICOS EN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un trazador de curva I-V de código abierto para el monitoreo de potencia producida por un panel solar en Bolivia, y los resultados obtenidos por éste. El dispositivo está elaborado con componentes de bajo costo y es posible adaptar su diseño para monitorear paneles de diferentes potencias. El dispositivo toma muestras de corriente y voltaje para un elemento fotovoltaico utilizando una carga variable para obtener los diferentes puntos que conforman una curva corriente-voltaje. El dispositivo también tiene un régimen de control, el cual desconecta y reconecta el panel de su carga en intervalos de tiempo fijos para la toma de datos, permitiendo el monitoreo del panel aun cuando está siendo  utilizado en un sistema de energía solar.

  11. Education as policy: the impact of education on marriage, contraception, and fertility in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, T B; Forste, R

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the World Fertility and Demographic and Health Surveys of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, we model the effects of education on three demographic outcomes: the timing of first sexual union, contraceptive use, and fertility. These effects are examined over time and across geographic areas using a multivariate framework. We find substantial improvements in female educational attainment over the last fifty years and a strong relationship between education and the demographic outcomes. Each successive increment in education is associated with declines in the marriage rate, increased contraceptive use, and lower fertility. Education accounts for some of the changes over time in the demographic outcomes, but the pattern varies by outcome, time period, and geographic area. In support of the social diffusion hypothesis, our results indicate that educational differences in reproductive behavior are reduced as the level of development increases and societies pass through their demographic transition.

  12. Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Pena-Claros, M.

    2012-07-01

    To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross sections in 2002 was visually identified. The seven species showed annual growth rings. In most cases, boundaries between rings were marked by the presence of marginal parenchyma and wall-thick ed fibers formed at the end of the growing season. Growth lenses and false rings were recorded in some species. Tree rings can be carefully used in Santa Cruz forests to determine rates of growth. This information is crucial for defining forest management practices in tropical regions. (Author) 21 refs.

  13. A biocultural perspective on fictive kinship in the Andes: social support and women's immune function in El Alto, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the influence of emotional and instrumental support on women's immune function, a biomarker of stress, in the city of El Alto, Bolivia. It tests the prediction that instrumental support is protective of immune function for women living in this marginal environment. Qualitative and quantitative ethnographic methods were employed to assess perceived emotional and instrumental support and common sources of support; multiple linear regression analysis was used to model the relationship between social support and antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. These analyses provided no evidence that instrumental social support is related to women's health, but there is some evidence that emotional support from compadres helps protect immune function. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  14. Liberating the people from their "loathsome practices:" public health and "silent racism" in post-revolutionary Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacino, Nicole L

    2017-01-01

    After the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (MNR) took power in the 1952 National Revolution, the party expanded rural public health programs to address what early twentieth-century elites called the "Indian problem:" the idea that indigenous culture was an impediment to Bolivia's modernization. After 1952, the MNR used public health as a project of cultural assimilation, and state-sponsored health programs sought to culturally whiten the population by transforming personal habits. This essay analyzes the language with which health workers discussed the indigenous population to show that despite the regime's intention to move away from defining the rural population on racial terms, medical and political elites continued to define indigenous customs as an obstacle to progress and a remnant of an antiquated past.

  15. Herpetofauna of the Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve, Amazonian Bolivia: Additional information, and current knowledge in context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middendorf, G.; Reynolds, R.; Herrera-MacBryde, Olga; Dallmeier, Francisco; MacBryde, Bruce; Cominskey, James A.; Miranda, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Previous collections in the Departamento del Beni in tropical Bolivia only hinted at high levels of herpetological biodiversity (Fugler 1986, 1988; de la Riva 1990a; Fugler and de la Riva 1990). Fieldwork (totaling 48 days) in July-August 1988 and September 1987 (dry seasons) and November-December 1990 (wet season) has resulted in collection and identification of 401 amphibian and reptilian specimens from the general area of the Beni Biological Station's (EBB) headquarters at El Porvenir. These collections represent 33 amphibian and 17 reptilian species in 29 genera (14 amphibian, 15 reptilian). The inventory of herpetofauna scientifically documented to occur in the Departamento del Beni is considered to have been increased by 6 amphibian and 10 reptilian species. Specimens that could not be definitively identified (reflecting taxonomic uncertainty and/or probably species new to science) include 3 amphibian species (anurans) and 2 reptilian species (snakes). The EBB harbors the richest savanna for anuran species known in South America.

  16. IMPACT OF ADDITIONALS CONTAMINANTS DUE TO ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN TRIBUTARIES OF THE PILCOMAYO RIVER FROM CERRO RICO, POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  17. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon; Suntura, Oscar; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic water filters have been identified as one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level. In a six-month trial, water filters were distributed randomly to half of the 50 participating households in a rural community in Bolivia; the remaining households continued to use customary water handling practices and served as controls. In four rounds of sampling following distribution of the filters, 100% of the 96 water samples from the filter households were free of thermotolerant coliforms compared with 15.5% of the control household samples. Diarrheal disease risk for individuals in intervention households was 70% lower than for controls (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53-80%; P ceramic water filters enable low-income households to treat and maintain the microbiologic quality of their drinking water.

  18. Reflexiones sobre los efectos del cambio climático en la agricultura de Bolivia

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    Gabriel Julio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura es altamente dependiente del clima, y los impactos del cambio climático se sentirán más en los países del Sur, agravando los problemas existentes de degradación de suelos y falta de agua. Las familias de agricultores de escasos recursos particularmente, se verán afectados por las pérdidas de sus cultivos y la posible erosión de su agrobiodiversidad. Esto se agravará porque no cuentan con recursos económicos y tecnologías adecuadas para adaptarse a las consecuencias de los efectos del cambio climático. Los efectos del cambio climático manifestados como el cambio de temperatura, mayor incidencia de sequía, helada, granizo y otros fenómenos naturales, tienen un impacto directo sobre los niveles de producción y rendimiento de los cultivos. El fenómeno niño/niña agudizó por ejemplo la sequía en el oriente boliviano, causando en el presente año dramáticos cambios en la agricultura de Santa Cruz, así en la soya de 290.000 ha sembradas en el año 2015, este año bajo la siembra a 40.000 ha, con una reducción de la superficie cultivada de 276.2%; asimismo hubo efectos catastróficos a nivel de rendimiento, ya que de 2.5 t/ha producidas, bajo a 1.5 t/ha. Similar situación ocurre con el sorgo, el trigo, el maíz, el arroz, el girasol y la chía; y lo mismo está pasando con cultivos de seguridad alimentaria, como la papa, la quinua y las hortalizas en el occidente boliviano. Esto obligará a que el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, tenga que posiblemente pensar en importar estos productos para el consumo de la población boliviana, porque sus efectos recién se sentirán en el año 2017. Es notorio el hecho que también habrá un impacto indirecto, ya que el ciclo de los cultivos resulta ser afectado por otros factores, como la proliferación de enfermedades y plagas; así como los cambios en la composición de los suelos, lo que implica que abra pérdida de microorganismos benéficos y menor contenido de materia org

  19. Mercury pollution from the artisanal mining in Yani gold district, Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Pura; Freixas, Anna; Bascompta, Marc; María Aranibar, Ana; Villegas, Karla; María García-Noguero, Eva; Higueras, Pablo; Cielito Saraiva, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Artisanal gold mining is the main economic activity in the Yani district, Northern Bolivia. In this area abundant orogenic gold deposits constituted by quartz veins hosted in paleozoic turbiditic series that contain either free gold or associated with pyrite. Gold is recovered in processing plants by gravimetric methods using shaking tables in several communities of this district. Previously, miners ground the mineral in ball mills together with mercury. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mercury used in the gold recovering process to the environment and human health in the Yani district. The assessment was based on the analysis of human hair, sediments and water from the river nearby the processing plant and drinking water from the fountain that supplies these communities. 47 samples of hair from miners and other people from the Yani and Señor de Mayo communities were obtained in 2014 and 52 samples in 2015. All were analysed to evaluate the mercury exposure in these places. The results from the 2014 sampling show a wide range of Hg concentration in hair, especially in Señor de Mayo, with values up to 136 μg/g THg. However, in 2015 among the 43 residents in Señor de Mayo, 29 (67%) exhibit concentrations higher than 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 5.36 μg/g THg. On the other hand, in Yani only 40% have concentrations above 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 2.34 μg/g THg. The content in Hg in most of the hair samples exhibit values above the tolerable limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1 μg/g Hg) and the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2 μg/g Hg). These high Hg concentrations are found not only in miners but also in the other members of the community, in spite of low fish consumption in this area. Part of the hair was analysed before and after cleaning. Usually in the second case the content of Hg is reduced, but still show high Hg levels, then probably the atmosphere is polluted with Hg and population is

  20. Favreauite, a new selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Stuart J. [Museum Victoria, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Geosciences; Kampf, Anthony R. [Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mineral Sciences Dept.; Christy, Andrew G. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Advanced Microscopy; Housley, Robert M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Chen, Yu-Sheng [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Steele, Ian M. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Thorne, Brent

    2014-07-01

    Favreauite, ideally PbBiCu{sub 6}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}.H{sub 2}O, is a new secondary selenite mineral from the El Dragon mine, Antonio Quijarro Province, Potosi Department, Bolivia. The mineral occurs in vughs in a matrix of (Co, Cu)-rich penroseite, dolomite and goethite. Associated minerals are: ahlfeldite, allophane, calcite, chalcomenite, malachite, molybdomenite and an unnamed Al selenite. Favreauite forms tiny green square tbular crystals, flattened on {001}, up to 0.1 mm on edge and 0.01 mm thick, occurring in subparallel and divergent groups. The Mohs hardness of favreauite is estimated as ∼3; it has perfect cleavage on {001}, an irregular fracture and a vitreous lustre. The calculated density based on the empirical formula is 4.851 g cm{sup -3}. Favreauite is uniaxial (-), with mean refractive index estimated as 1.854 from the Gladstone-Dale relationship. It is pleochroic in shades of green, O < E. Electron microprobe analyses gave the empirical formula Pb{sub 0.95}Ca{sub 0.17}Bi{sub 0.90}Cu{sub 5.81}Se{sub 4.10}O{sub 16}(OH) . 1H{sub 2}O, based on 18 O pfu. The Raman spectrum shows strong SeO{sub 3} bands at 847 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 1}), 764 and 795 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 3}), 493 and 542 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 2}), and 320 and 392 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 4}). Favreauite is tetragonal, space group P4/n, with the unit-cell parameters: a = 9.860(4) Aa, c = 9.700(5) Aa, V = 943.0(9) Aa{sup 3} and Z = 2. The eight strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs}/Aa (I) (hkl)]: 5.67(100)(111), 3.470(76)(220,202), 3.190(35)(003), 2.961(40)(311,113), 2.709(33)(302,203), 2.632(34)(231,312), 2.247(36)(331,133), and 1.6652(33)(305,513,531). The crystal structure was refined to R{sub 1} = 0.0329 for 1354 observed reflections [F{sub o} > 4σF{sub o}] and 0.0356 for all 1432 unique reflections. Favreauite is a close structural relative of nabokoite, KCu{sub 7}Te{sup 4+}O{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}Cl, and atlasovite, KCu{sub 6}Fe{sup 3+}BiO{sub 4}(SO

  1. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  2. La extranjerización del sistema bancario de Bolivia en la última década

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado, Enrique

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el proceso de consolidación de la propiedad y el control de la gestión en los bancos que operaron en Bolivia durante el periodo de 1996 a 2006, y se evalúa de manera general el papel de los bancos extranjeros en el desarrollo del sistema bancario. El uso del concepto de subsidiaria extranjera en el país, más allá de la definición tradicional de sucursal extranjera, permite apreciar perspectivas diferentes a las habitualmente observadas sobre el desempeño de los bancos extranjeros en Bolivia. Adicionalmente, un análisis definido por las etapas de la evolución de la cartera, con aproximaciones a indicadores macro y micro, utilizando la información publicada por los bancos, posibilita también la observación de características sobresalientes y particulares en bancos nacionales y sucursales o subsidiarias extranjeras. El estudio llega a la conclusión de que los cambios más substanciales de la última década en el sistema bancario del país anfitrión, fueron protagonizados por las subsidiarias extranjeras, ya que sus modelos de negocio y actividades fueron más allá de la especialización en operaciones de comercio exterior o de carácter corporativo, pero también muestra cómo los cambios en las estrategias de sus casas matrices extranjeras pueden ser perniciosos para un sistema financiero de las características del boliviano.

  3. Incidence and Mortality Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Young Adults in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Duarte Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine incidence, mortality, and clinical status of youth with diabetes at the Centro Vivir con Diabetes, Cochabamba, Bolivia, with support from International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. Methods. Incidence/mortality data analysis of all cases (<25 year (y diagnosed January 2005–February 2017 and cross-sectional data (December 2015. Results. Over 12.2 years, 144 cases with type 1 diabetes (T1D were diagnosed; 43.1% were male. Diagnosis age was 0.3–22.2 y; peak was 11-12 y. 11.1% were <5 y; 29.2%, 5–<10 y; 43.1%, 10–<15 y; 13.2%, 15–<20 y; and 3.5%, 20–<25 y. The youngest is being investigated for monogenic diabetes. Measured incidence in Cercado Province (Cochabamba Department was 2.2/100,000 children < 15 y/y, with ≈80% ascertainment, giving total incidence of 2.7/100,000 children < 15 y/y. Two had died. Crude mortality rate was 2.3/1000 patient years. Clinical data on 141 cases <35 y: mean/median HbA1c was 8.5/8.2% (69/62 mmol/mol, levels higher in adolescents. Three were on renal replacement therapy; four others had substantial renal impairment. Elevated BMI, triglycerides, and cholesterol were common: 19.1%, 18.3%, and 39.1%, respectively. Conclusions. Bolivia has low T1D incidence. Reasonable glycemic control is being achieved despite limited resources; however, some have serious complications and adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Further attention is needed for complications.

  4. Evaluation of a residential nutrition rehabilitation center in rural Bolivia: short-term effectiveness and follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Kristen M; Polansky, Lauren S; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Huamani, Katherine Foy; Mues, Katherine E; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Leon, Juan S

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) have shown mixed results in reducing morbidity and mortality among undernourished children in the developing world. Follow-up on children after leaving these programs remains undocumented. To assess the nutritional improvement of children attending the Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Nutricional (CRIN), a residential NRC in rural Bolivia, from entrance to exit and to a household follow-up visit 1 month to 6 years later, and to identify factors associated with nutritional improvement. A retrospective analysis was conducted of clinical records collected by CRIN staff from 135 children under 3 years of age attending CRIN in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2003 to 2009, and of clinical records of household follow-up measurements on a subset of 26 children that were taken between 1 month and 6 years postexit. Nutritional status was evaluated by calculating z-scores for weight-for-height (WHZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and height-for-age (HAZ). Children with z-scores < -2 were considered to be wasted, underweight, or stunted, respectively. The prevalence of wasting decreased significantly, while the prevalence of stunting did not change significantly between entrance and exit from the program. From entrance to exit, the mean changes in WHZ (0.79) and WAZ (1.08) were statistically significant, while the mean change in HAZ (-0.02) was not significant. Linear regression analysis suggested that nutritional status and diarrhea at entrance had the greatest effect on WHZ and HAZ changes between entrance and exit. Children maintained their nutritional gains from the program between exit and follow-up and showed statistically significant improvement in WAZ (but not HAZ). CRIN is effective at rehabilitating nutritional deficits associated with wasting, but not those associated with stunting.

  5. Análisis de las actividades delictivas en Bolivia desde la perspectiva económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimmy Nardó Sanjines Tudela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigacion es dar a conocer la correlacion espacial que determine la interaccion y dependencia espacial y temporal de las actividades delictivas en los diferentes departamentos de Bolivia. Para lograr este objetivo se analizan variables como: delitos contra la integridad corporal y la salud, homicidios, hurtos, robos, atracos o robos agravados, violaciones,estupros y abusos deshonestos, buscando explicar estos hechos delictivos mediante la realidad economica, representada por las variables Producto Interno Bruto y Producto Interno Bruto Percapita, variables sociales como numero de operativos realizados y cantidad de droga incautada y finalmente variables ambientales como la temperatura. Con base en esta informacion se realiza el análisis aplicando modelos econometricos espaciales de panel para mostrar los impactos de las variables descritas en las actividades delictivas y sus niveles incrementales.Palabras Clave: Actividades delictivas; Econometria Espacial; Imoran; Autocorrelacion Espacial; Economia y Violencia. Analysis of the criminal activities in Bolivian from the economic perspectiveAbstractThe aim of this research is to present the spatial correlation to determine the interaction and spatial and temporal dependence of criminal activities in the various departments of Bolivia. To achieve this goal variables are discussed such as; crimes against bodily integrity and health, homicide, mugging, theft, burglary or aggravated robbery, violations, rapes and indecent assault,trying to explain these crimes by economic reality, represented by the variables Gross Domestic Product and Per Capita GDP, social variables such as number of operations performed and amount of drugs seized and finally environmental variables such as temperature. Based on this information the analysis is performed using spatial econometric panel models to show the impact of the variables described in criminal activities and incremental levels

  6. Using mixed methods to investigate factors influencing reporting of livestock diseases: a case study among smallholders in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Lewis, Elisa G; Chang, Yu-Mei; Ruiz, Hugo; Balanza, Maria Elba; Guitian, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Livestock disease surveillance is particularly challenging in resource-scarce settings, where disease events are often unreported. Surveillance performance is determined as much by the quantifiable biological attributes of the disease, as it is by motivations and barriers perceived by livestock keepers for disease reporting. Mixed methods designs, which integrate the collection, analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data in a single study, are increasingly used across different disciplines. These designs allow for a deeper exploration of the topic under investigation, than can be achieved by either approach alone. In this study a mixed methods design was used in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that influence reporting of livestock diseases in Bolivia. There is a need to strengthen passive surveillance in this country, among other reasons as part of an eradication programme for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Findings revealed livestock keepers in the study area were extremely unlikely to report the occurrence of livestock health events to the Official Veterinary Services (OVS). Communication outside the local community occurs more often through alternative routes and this is positively correlated with disease awareness. The main barriers to disease reporting identified were a lack of institutional credibility and the conflicting priorities of the OVS and livestock keepers. As for other animal and human diseases across the developing world, passive surveillance of livestock diseases in Bolivia should be enhanced; this is urgent in view of the current FMD eradication programme. Increasing timeliness and smallholders' participation requires a detailed understanding of their likely actions and perceived barriers towards disease reporting. These insights are most likely to be developed through a holistic mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Antibody response to an anti-rabies vaccine in a dog population under field conditions in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; González, E T; Ascarrunz, G; Loza, A; Pérez, M; Ruiz, G; Rojas, L; Mancilla, K; Pereira, J A C; Guzman, J A; Pecoraro, M R

    2008-10-01

    Rabies remains an important public health issue in Bolivia, South America. Public concern and fears are most focussed on dogs as the source of rabies. The objective of the present study was to assess immunity of an inactivated suckling mouse brain vaccine against canine rabies used for the official vaccination campaigns under field conditions in an endemic area of rabies in Bolivia. A total of 236 vaccinated and 44 unvaccinated dogs in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, selected using stratified random sampling, were investigated in order to obtain owned dog characteristics and antibody titres against rabies in April 2007. The proportion of vaccinated dogs with an antibody titre exceeded the protection threshold value of 0.5 EU/ml was 58% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 52-65], indicating that vaccination is likely to elicit an antibody response (odds ratio 6.3, 95% CI: 1.2-11.5). The range of geometric mean of antibody titre for vaccinated dogs (0.89 EU/ml; 95% CI: 0.75-1.04) was considered to meet the minimal acceptable level indicating an adequate immune response to the vaccine. However, the titre level was not satisfactory in comparison with the results from other field investigations with inactivated tissue culture vaccines. It is recommended for public health authorities to (1) consider modernizing their vaccine manufacturing method because the level of immunity induced by the current vaccine is comparably low, (2) conduct frequent vaccination campaigns to maintain high levels of vaccination coverage, and (3) actively manage the domestic dog population in the study area, which is largely responsible for rabies maintenance.

  8. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SEGUROS AGRÍCOLAS BASADOS EN ÍNDICES CLIMÁTICOS: UN ESTUDIO DE CASO EN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nogales Carvajal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los seguros agrícolas basados en índices climáticos son instrumentos financieros novedosos para la gestión de riesgos de agricultores. A diferencia de los seguros tradicionales, éstos pueden mitigar e incluso anular el riesgo moral y la selección adversa, permitiendo abaratar sus primas. Esta característica hace de este tipo de seguros un mecanismo atractivo para economías en vías de desarrollo con gran parte de población rural sumida en severas condiciones de precariedad y, simultáneamente, se promueve el desarrollo de un mercado de seguros agrícolas. Este tipo de seguros no es aún empleado en Bolivia, pero su promoción por parte del aparato público tiene gran potencial de coadyuvar a la seguridad alimentaria y promover el desarrollo económico. El documento presenta algunas experiencias exitosas en el desarrollo de seguros basados en índices climáticos a nivel mundial y analiza el estado actual de desarrollo de este mercado en Bolivia. Se revisan en detalle los fundamentos técnicos de la creación de este tipo de seguros, a partir de los cuales, se presentan propuestas de esquemas paramétricos de seguros agrícolas basados en índices climáticos para la protección de cultivos de trigo y papa, ambos de ciclo intermedio, en el municipio de Anzaldo (sur-oeste de Cochabamba.

  10. La red de monitoreo glacio-hidrologico de ORSTOM y de sus contrapartes en Bolivia, Peru y Ecuador : une herramienta para el estudio del recalentamiento global y de sus consecuencias en los tropicos

    OpenAIRE

    Pouyaud, Bernard; Francou, Bernard; Ribstein, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Desde hace algunos años, junto con sus contrapartes sudamericanas de Bolivia, Peru y Ecuador, ORSTOM mantiene una red de mediciones en algunos glaciares representativos de estos 3 paises. Los glaciares tropicales son, en efecto, objetos hidrologicos que integran particularmente bien los efectos de un cambio climatico. Es asi que los primeros resultados evidenciaron la influencia de los acontecimientos ENSO sobre la hidrologia glaciar, con efectos contrastados en la Cordillera Real de Bolivia ...

  11. Primer registro de Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758 para el departamento de La Paz, Bolivia. Comentarios sobre la extensión de la distribución geográfica para Plica umbra (Linnaeus 1758, (Squamata: Tropiduridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de la especie Plica plica y tres de Plica umbra fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Todos los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Capital de Provincia Ixiamas, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas, Cantón Ixiamas, Capital de Cantón Tahua.

  12. Comparación y evaluación de la distribución del estimador de la tasa global de fecundidad de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenka Linneth ARGOTE-CUSI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó el método de remuestreo para generar la distribución estadística de la TGF de Bolivia en 1998 y 2003 con el objetivo de evaluar diferencias del estimador en ambos momentos. Se consideraron las muestras de las ENDSAS para 1998 y 2003 de Bolivia que tienen diseño estratifi cado y bietápico. Las distribuciones resultan positivas para las pruebas de normalidad; sin embargo, tienen sus propias características de asimetría y curtosis. El método permite generar la distribución estadística empírica para el estimador, lo cual no es factible en la realidad. También permite evaluar la precisión del estimador toda vez que el algoritmo de replicación puede ser modificado y aplicado a otras poblaciones u otros indicadores.

  13. Giant fossil tortoise and freshwater chelid turtle remains from the middle Miocene, Quebrada Honda, Bolivia: Evidence for lower paleoelevations for the southern Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A.; Anaya, Federico; Croft, Darin A.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the first Miocene turtle remains from Bolivia, which were collected from the late middle Miocene (13.18-13.03 Ma) of Quebrada Honda, southern Bolivia. This material includes a large scapula-acromion and fragmentary shell elements conferred to the genus Chelonoidis (Testudinidae), and a left xiphiplastron from a pleurodire or side-necked turtle, conferred to Acanthochelys (Chelidae). The occurrence of a giant tortoise and a freshwater turtle suggests that the paleoelevation of the region when the fossils were deposited was lower than has been estimated by stable isotope proxies, with a maximum elevation probably less than 1000 m. At a greater elevation, cool temperatures would have been beyond the tolerable physiological limits for these turtles and other giant ectotherm reptiles.

  14. Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, from the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), in the Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S L; Rausch, R L; Camacho, O C

    1988-06-01

    Among approximately 2,000 mammals examined for helminths in various regions of Bolivia during 1983-1987, cysts of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, were found in a single paca, Cuniculus paca L., collected at La Laguna, Departamento de Santa Cruz (lat. 16 degrees 36'W; long. 62 degrees 42'S). This record, the first from Bolivia, represents a considerable extension of the known geographic range of this species in South America. Upon analysis of the morphologic characteristics of the protoscoleces derived from the cysts, the sizes of rostellar hooks from the material from the paca were found to be well within the ranges reported in previous studies. Statistical analysis of frequency distributions of hook characteristics revealed some deviations from normality. These results indicate that parametric statistics should be applied with caution in analyses of inter-and intraspecific variation of morphologic characteristics of hooks of metacestodes of the genus Echinococcus.

  15. La empresarialidad informal como un reto de política económica: El caso de La Paz y El Alto, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Parra Bernal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente caso de estudio se analiza la empresarialidad informal como un reto de política pública y económica. Para ello, se efectuaron 20 entrevistas en profundidad a microempresarios y comerciantes del sector informal en las ciudades de La Paz y El Alto, en Bolivia en 2010, y a 3 funcionarios públicos de instituciones de apoyo al fomento empresarial en el mismo país. La principal reflexión giró en torno al establecimiento de que los empresarios informales poseen un elevado nivel de influencia en la efectividad de las políticas públicas implementadas para su sector, así como en los mecanismos que se han utilizado en Bolivia para incluirlos en el proceso.

  16. Analysis of the entrepreneurial strategies for conversion to money the Bolivian natural gas reserves; Analise das estrategias empresariais para monetizacao das reservas de gas natural da Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Rodrigo Valle; Gutierrez, Margarida; Almeida, Edmar de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia]. E-mail: rodreal@ig.com.br; margarida@ie.ufrj.br; edmar@ie.ufrj.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses the recent evolution of the natural gas in Bolivia. During the last years the sector opening allowed the private investments increasing by international enterprises, and a great increasing of the reserves. The paper presents various alternatives for the commercialization of the produced gas in the market and consequently, allowing the enterprises detaining part of the reserves follow different strategies, in accordance with their positioning in the region their core business and the perspective for the market expansion.

  17. Bolivia; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation, First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement, and Request for Waiver of Performance Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Macroeconomic and financial vulnerabilities have intensified in recent years. Bolivia has adopted a program to stabilize the situation, and the program is broadly on track. Monetary policy is appropriately geared to support a gradual build-up of international reserves while ensuring needed liquidity for the financial system. A comprehensive strategy is being developed for the financial and corporate sectors. Executive Directors welcome the government's progress toward a medium-term economic p...

  18. Modern and last glacial maximum snowline in Peru and Bolivia: implications for regional climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LIMITES DES NEIGES ACTUELLE ET DURANT LE DERNIER MAXIMUM GLACIAIRE AU PÉROU ET EN BOLIVIE : IMPLICATIONS EN TERMES DE CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES RÉGIONAUX. Dans les Andes centrales (5°-23°S, le front actuel des neiges éternelles et celui datant du dernier maximum glaciaire (DMG ou LMG ont été cartographiés par télédétection et par un système utilisant une technologie basée sur des informations géographiques. La configuration générale du front des neiges éternelles du DMG est semblable à la configuration actuelle. Ce front s’élève d’est en ouest suivant des précipitations décroissantes. La limite des neiges éternelles du DMG dans la région s’écarte considérablement des 1 000 m souvent rencontrés dans les zones de basse latitude. Un modèle décrivant l’abaissement du front des neiges éternelles (Kuhn, 1989 a été utilisé afin de déterminer les changements de températures et de précipitations responsables de l’abaissement du front des neiges DMG. L’abaissement du front des neiges éternelles à 800-1 200 m dans la cordillère occidentale durant le DMG s’explique en partie par une augmentation des précipitations. Sur les flancs de la cordillère orientale, l’abaissement du front neigeux supérieur à 1 200 m est ce qui révèle le mieux le refroidissement subi par la région pendant le DMG. Il correspond à une baisse d’environ 5 à 7,5 °C. LÍMITES DE NIEVE ACTUAL Y DURANTE EL ÚLTIMO MÁXIMO GLACIAL EN PERÚ Y EN BOLIVIA: IMPLICACIONES EN TÉRMINOS CLIMÁTICOS REGIONALES. El límite de nieve perenne actual y la correspondiente a la de la última máxima glaciación (UMG de los Andes Centrales (5°-23° S han sido mapeadas utilizando técnicas de sensores remotos y sistema de información geográfica. La configuración general del límite de nieve perenne durante la UMG era similar a la actual, elevándose de este a oeste en respuesta a la disminución de las precipitaciones. La depresión del límite de

  19. Impacts of the Bolivian regulatory changes for the future of natural gas in Brazil; Impacto na relacao Brasil-Bolivia com a nacionalizacao dos hidrocarbonetos bolivianos de 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Berrnardo Pestana Mello C.; Saraiva, Thiago Carvalho; Bone, Rosemarie Broker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to clarify and understand the reasons for the current economic policy and trade between Bolivia and Brazil, the latter represented by PETROBRAS, as the year 2006. Focuses on the regulatory change in Bolivia that culminated in a period of re-nationalization of its mineral wealth as opposed to international interests, including Brazilians, and agreements entered into during the opening of the market in the country. Thus, set in the Latin American actual situation, we undertake to understand the process and its consequences for Brazil, which, even with the third largest gas reserves in the region, in the short term, it follows as an importer of this feature. To have a concrete base with foundations and analyze what happens today, we must understand the political history of Bolivia and their internal changes. So we divided the work into two parts: first, we analyze the neo liberal period, and the agreements signed with Brazil in the hydrocarbon sector, for mutual benefits. In the second part, we understand the political rise of Evo Morales and the nationalization process of national wealth and the consequent crisis that developed with the international oil companies, especially with PETROBRAS, to the final outcome on the price, production and export of gas.

  20. El desequilibrio de importancia entre las lenguas oficiales de Bolivia ¿ Por qué existen lenguas que son más oficiales que otras?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    EL DESEQUILIBRIO DE IMPORTANCIA ENTRE LAS LENGUAS OFICIALES DE BOLIVIA ¿ POR QUÉ EXISTEN LENGUAS QUE SON MÁS OFICIALES QUE OTRAS? Con la Constitución de Bolivia muchas lenguas originarias fueron declaradas oficiales y levantadas a un nivel de lengua oficial en paridad con el español. En el Artículo...... 5 de la Constitución boliviana, la Política del Estado reconoce oficialmente a 36 idiomas como lenguas oficiales. Este reconocimiento formó parte de un proceso de descolonización, devolviendo de esta manera el orgullo de las lenguas y culturas a los pueblos originarios de Bolivia. En 2012, se...... de Bolivia”. La pregunta es si esta política lingüística en realidad confiere a todas las lenguas oficiales el mismo peso, influencia e importancia o hay algunas menos poderosas. Palabras clave: Lenguas oficiales, política lingüística, lenguas originarias, bilingüismo, diglosia....

  1. Associations between intimate partner violence, childcare practices and infant health: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2015-08-25

    Child health is significantly poorer in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV). However, a possible link to parental provision of childcare has been neglected. Utilizing data from Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examined the association between IPV and illness signs in children 0-59 months in Bolivia (n = 3586), Colombia (n = 9955) and Peru (n = 6260), taking into account socio-demographic factors, childcare and severe child physical punishment. Data were collected in the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 for Bolivia, Colombia and Peru respectively. The study found weak but persistent effects of IPV on illness signs in Bolivia (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14-1.63) and Peru (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.26-1.77), after adjusting for the effects of childcare. These effects were not observed in Colombia. The results call for a mix of qualitative and quantitative research that can map direct, mediating and moderating patterns of relationships between IPV, childcare practices and child health. Can good childcare mitigate the negative effects of IPV? Can poor childcare exacerbate the negative effects of IPV? Such interactions were not observed in the present study, but should be the focus of much more intensive investigation, to help inform child health promotion. Answers could lead to better interventions to improve child health, and perhaps to tackle IPV.

  2. CONTRIBUCIÓN DEL SISTEMA DE PENSIONES PRIVADO DE CAPITALIZACIÓN INDIVIDUAL AL DESARROLLO DEL MERCADO DE CAPITALES EN BOLIVIA, 1997– 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Córdova Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento del Sistema de Pensiones de Capitalización Individual en Bolivia aprobado en el año 1996, constituye el reemplazo de un sistema tradicional de reparto colectivo, de contribuciones comunes y administradas por el Estado, por un sistema de capitalización individual, de contribuciones definidas y administradas por el sector privado. A más de una década de su establecimiento, es posible realizar una estimación más completa y precisa de sus resultados e impactos. Este estudio presenta una evaluación cualitativa y cuantitativa del impacto de los Fondos de Pensiones de Capitalización Individual sobre el desarrollo del Mercado de Capitales en Bolivia en lo que respecta a su regulación, composición, tamaño y profundidad financiera considerando alternativamente la participación del sector privado y público. Como base de demostración empírica, se plantea un modelo econométrico basado en el análisis de series de tiempo cointegradas que hacen hincapié en los factores financieros concentrados en una variable de profundidad financiera, cuyo resultado confirma el importante aporte del Sistema de Pensiones Privado a la mejora en la calidad de regulación, tamaño, trasparencia y crecimiento del mercado financiero en Bolivia.

  3. Reflexiones sobre la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC: la experiencia de un programa de RBC en Bolivia Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR: the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Díaz-Aristizabal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC es una estrategia de desarrollo comunitario avalada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO, que persigue la rehabilitación, la igualdad de oportunidades y la integración social de las Personas con Discapacidad (PD en sus entornos. Con este objetivo promueve la colaboración entre las PD, sus familias y los diferentes actores de la comunidad involucrados, así como el liderazgo comunitario y la participación de las PD mediante el impulso de la colaboración multisectorial. Este artículo expone los antecedentes históricos y las características fundamentales de la estrategia de RBC a partir de un programa llevado a cabo por una fundación del departamento de Cochabamba (Bolivia, para después incidir en algunos aspectos referentes al contexto sociocultural, que especialmente en situaciones de interculturalidad, pueden determinar que un programa de RBC tenga éxito o esté abocado al fracaso.Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Labor Office (ILO and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio

  4. Respuesta terapéutica de Plasmodium vivax a la cloroquina, en Riberalta, Guayaramerín y Yacuiba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arletta Añez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La determinación de la eficacia de la cloroquina contra Plasmodium vivax permite mejorar la capacidad de vigilancia de la resistencia a los antipalúdicos. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia terapéutica de la cloroquina como tratamiento de malaria no complicada por P. vivax en Riberalta, Guayaramerín y Yacuiba, Bolivia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de la eficacia in vivo en pacientes mayores de cinco años; se suministró cloroquina (25 mg/kg en tres días y se hizo seguimiento por 28 días, midiendo los niveles de cloroquina en sangre y desetilcloroquina, el día dos y el día de registro de reaparición de parasitemia. Para la evaluación de la incidencia acumulada de falla del tratamiento, se usó el análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados. Se estudiaron 223 pacientes (Riberalta, 84; Guayaramerín, 80; Yacuiba, 59. Las mediasde densidad parasitaria (formas asexuadas del día 0 en Riberalta fueron de 6.147, en Guayaramerín, 4.251, y en Yacuiba, 5.214 parásitos/μl de sangre. En el mismo orden, los promedios de concentraciones sanguíneas de cloroquina-desetilcloroquina del día 2 fueron de 783, 817 y 815 ng/ml. Mientras en Yacuiba no se presentaron fracasos terapéuticos, en Riberalta ocurrieron con frecuencia de 6,2 % y en Guayaramerín de 10 %. Los valores de cloroquina y desetilcloroquina en sangre de pacientes con fracaso terapéutico fueron menores de 70 ng/ml en el día de reaparición de parasitemia. Conclusión. No se evidenció resistencia de P. vivax a la cloroquina en las tres regiones de evaluación en Bolivia. Se requieren mayores estudios de la concentración de la cloroquina en sangre. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.750

  5. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15-24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs.

  6. Late Quaternary geomorphic history of a glacial landscape - new sedimentary and chronological data from the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.-H.; Preusser, F.; Zech, R.; Ilgner, J.; Veit, H.

    2009-04-01

    Throughout the Central Andes, glacial landscapes have long been used for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary glaciations and landscape evolution. Much work has focused on the Andes in Peru, Chile and the Bolivian Altiplano, whereas relatively little data has been published on glaciation history in the eastern Andean ranges and slopes. Even less is known with regard to the postglacial evolution of these glacial landscapes. In the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), local maximum advances probably peaked around 20-25 ka BP and were followed by significant readvances between ~12-16 ka BP. This generally points to temperature controlled maximum glacial advances along the humid eastern slopes of the Central Andes, which is supported by glacier-climate-modelling studies. However, most studies include only marginal information with regard to the complex geomorphic and sedimentary situation in the Cordillera de Cochabamba. Furthermore, the chronological results are afflicted with several methodological uncertainties inherent to surface exposure dating and call for application of alternative, independent age dating methods. Therefore this study aims at i) documenting and interpreting the complex glacial geomorphology of the Huara Loma valley in the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), ii) analyzing the involved units of glacial sediments, and iii) improving the chronological framework by applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating (14C). For this purpose, geomorphic mapping was combined with field documentation of sedimentary profiles. The involved sediments were subject to geochemical and mineralogical analysis in order to deduce information on their erosional and weathering histories. In addition, the interpretation of OSL ages from glacial and proglacial sediments integrated several methodological procedures with regard to sample preparation and statistical analysis of the measurements in order to increase the degree of confidence. These

  7. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  8. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  9. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia

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    Bouchité Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Human Blood Index (HBI, proportion of bloodmeals of a mosquito population obtained from man is relevant to epidemiological assessment and to the modification of measures to interrupt malaria transmission since the vectorial capacity of the vector varies as the square of the HBI. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is a main malaria vector in South America. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning HBI values in its range of distribution and none from Bolivia where this species is considered as an important malaria vector in the central Andes. Methods The host choice of An. pseudopunctipennis has been studied in Mataral, a characteristic village of the central Andes of Bolivia. Mosquito host feeding preference experiments (equal accessibility to host in homogenous environment were monitored using baited mosquito nets in latin square designs. Host feeding selection experiments (natural feeding pattern in heterogeneous environment was measured by bloodmeal analysis, using ELISA to determine the origin of blood. Mosquito bloodmeals were collected on various occasions, using various techniques in a variety of sampling sites. A survey of the possible blood sources has also been carried out in the village. Data were analysed with the forage ratio method. Results An. pseudopunctipennis chooses amongst hosts. Sheep, goats, donkeys and humans are the preferred hosts, while dogs, pigs and chicken are rarely bitten. An. pseudopunctipennis has an opportunistic behaviour, in particular within the preferred hosts. The HBI in Mataral is ≈40% and in the central Andes, may range from 30–50%, in accordance to other findings. A high proportion of mixed meals were encountered (8%, and cryptic meals are likely more numerous. There was no difference amongst the HBI from parous and nulliparous mosquitoes. Conclusion Forage ratio analysis is a powerful tool to interpret mosquito host choices. However, refinements in sampling strategies are still

  10. Espacios nacionales y espacios regionales. Conflictos y concertaciones en las fronteras chaqueñas de Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay

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    Figallo, Beatriz J.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth, the Gran Chaco was a zone of conflict. Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay exercised varied and competing influences in the region, reflecting the intentions of each nation to incorporate the Chaco forcibly as part of larger projects of industrialisation and colonisation. This study examines the implementation of these projects, as well as the resistance they generated in the face of the violence visited upon the inhabitants of the region, whether indigenous peoples, mestizos, or whites. From an anthropological perspective, the work also reassesses conflicts in the Chaco region as a problem in the history of inter-American relations, where non-governmental actors determine links between people and government. The article goes on to consider the national and regional contexts to conflict, in which frontiers and boundaries are further concepts and realities to be assessed.

    Desde fines del siglo XIX y hasta mediados del XX, el Gran Chaco constituyó, en procesos asimétricos ejercidos por los estados que terminaron dividiéndose su jurisdicción, la Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay, una región de disputas, que incluyó guerras, militarización de límites, forzada incorporación en los desarrollos industrializadores y colonizadores. Este trabajo busca conocer la ejecución de aquellas políticas y las resistencias generadas, en espacios que fueron tanto de concertaciones, como de conflictos frente al poder y a la violencia ejercida sobre sus pobladores, indios, mestizos y blancos. El objetivo es también contribuir a enriquecer la historia de las relaciones interamericanas, a través de una perspectiva antropológica, en donde actores no estatales configuran vínculos entre pueblos y gobiernos, y asimismo de una mirada que se dirija simultáneamente hacia la consideración de los contextos nacionales y regionales, en donde fronteras y límites son nociones y realidades a

  11. Formación de las autonomías indígenas originarias y campesinas en Bolivia: Un proceso precario

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    Pavlína Springerová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of Indigenous First Peoples and Peasant Autonomies in Bolivia: A Precarious Process The goal of the article is to explore the obstacles to the process of the creation of Indigenous First Peoples and Peasant Autonomies (AIOC – autonomías indígenas originarias campesi-nas in Bolivia. In the specific case of the municipality San Pedro de Totora Marka we will verify the relevance of the Dickovick’s and Eaton’s theories of recentralization and institutional layering that emphasize the political factors as the principal obstacles to the decentralization process. The actors’ perception (primarily political and indigenous authorities of AIOC and its main obstacles are more important than the normative-institutional context (such as laws, orders. The discourses of the main protagonists are examined for the purpose of capturing the main obstacles to the process. The data comes from semi-structured interviews carried out in Bolivia in the period between July and October 2015.ResumenEl objetivo de este artículo es explorar las mayores trabas en el proceso de la formación de las autonomías indígenas originarias campesinas (AIOC en Bolivia. En el caso concreto del municipio San Pedro de Totora Marka verificamos la relevancia de las teorías de recentralización y estratificación institucional de Dickovick y Eaton quienes consideran los factores políticos como principales obstáculos del proceso descentralizador. En este sentido, más importante que el contexto normativo-institucional (leyes, reglas etc., es la percepción de las AIOC y sus frenos potenciales por parte de los mismos protagonistas del proceso (sobre todo las autoridades políticas y originarias. Con el fin de descubrir los obstáculos principales son examinados los discursos de los protagonistas del proceso utilizando ante todo los datos de las entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas en Bolivia en el período desde julio hasta octubre 2015.

  12. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-06-02

    Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per capita foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, soft-drink imports, the volumes of various soft-drinks sold, and the volumes of sugar from soft-drinks before/after FTA ratification (2006) and enforcement (2009). In Peru average per capita FDI-inflows rose from US$103.11 in the pre-ratification period to US$269.79 post-ratification, with little change in Bolivia. This corresponded with a 122 % increase in Peruvian soft-drink production. There was a significant between-country difference in FDI-inflows pre-/post-ratification (DID:1.07, 95 % CI:0.19-1.96; p = 0.01). Despite little difference in total per capita soft-drink sales volumes there was a significant between-country difference in per capita sugar from soft-drinks pre-/post enforcement (DID:-0.99, 95 % CI: -1.91-0.06; p = 0.03) with stagnated growth in Peru and continued growth in Bolivia. This resulted from stagnated sugar sweetened carbonates growth and increased bottled water, juice and sports & energy drinks growth in Peru, with continued carbonates growth in Bolivia. There was a significant between-country difference in per capita carbonates (DID: -1.44, 95 % CI: -2.52-0.36, p = 0.01) and bottled water (DID:0.63; 95 % CI: -0.01-1.26; p = 0.04) sales volumes. The FTA may have resulted in increased FDI-inflows and soft-drink production and also contributed to the diversification of soft drinks produced and sold in Peru with some positive (stagnated carbonates and increased bottled water) and some negative (increased

  13. Levels of radon gas concentration and progeny in homes of Potosi City, Bolivia to 4000 m; Niveles de concentracion de gas radon y progenie en viviendas de la Ciudad de Potosi, Bolivia a 4000 msnm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani M, R. [Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias, Carrera de Fisica, Av. del maestro s/n, Edif. Central Potosi, Villa Imperial de Potosi (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Claros J, J. [Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias, Facultad de Minas Potosi, Centro de Investigacion, Av. Serrudo y Arce s/n, Villa Imperial de Potosi (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Vasquez A, R., E-mail: raulm2k13@hotmail.com [Instituto Boliviano de Biologia de Altura, Calle Hoyos 953, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In this work the presence of radon gas was determined, which is a radioactive contaminant that comes from underground, able to penetrate the houses. The danger is that when mixed air and when inhaled can cause serious damage to the lungs, for the short life time that has radon and progeny for decay, damaging the pulmonary alveoli and reducing breathing capacity of the habitants, then causing polycythemia in some cases. The study was carried out in homes in the city of Potosi, Bolivia located at 4000 m. The quantification of radon gas and progeny was performed with the equipment Alpha-Zaeller-2 (Az-2), quantification was realized in 6 zones of the city of Potosi, chosen randomly. In each zone were carried out measurements in 40 homes (2 rooms more permanent), both day and night, for a period of 3 days in two different seasons and with concentrations of average humidity of 20, 50 and 80%. The values obtained for each period vary depending on the season and 30 to 50% of the allowable values given by the EPA and Who for housing. (Author)

  14. Network transportation model with capacity restrictions for the Bolivia Brazil gas pipeline influence area; Modelo de transporte em rede com restricoes de capacidade para a area de influencia do Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)

  15. Democracia directa, poder y contrapoder: Análisis del referendo del 21 de febrero de 2016 en Bolivia

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    Yanina Welp

    2017-03-01

    El referendo ha dividido aguas entre quienes lo defienden como un instrumento de empoderamiento de la ciudadanía y quienes lo rechazan como un arma para la concentración del poder en manos de los líderes. Frente a esta disyuntiva, sostenemos que cuando existen garantías democráticas para su ejercicio, el referendo es un potente mecanismo de contrapoder. Los referendos obligatorios y los iniciados por la ciudadanía son los más adecuados para cumplir con esta función, siempre que se cumplan las reglas del juego y se garantice la existencia de espacios para la expresión de diferentes argumentos y la deliberación. Este artículo analiza estas cuestiones en la consulta popular que tuvo lugar en Bolivia el 21 de febrero de 2016, que resultó en el rechazo a la propuesta de reformar la Constitución para permitir una nueva reelección del presidente Evo Morales y su vicepresidente Álvaro García Linera.

  16. A one-dimensional seismic model for Uturuncu volcano, Bolivia, and its impact on full moment tensor inversions

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Weisen

    2016-11-24

    Using receiver functions, Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion determined from ambient noise and teleseismic earthquakes, and Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical ground motion amplitude ratios from earthquakes observed across the PLUTONS seismic array, we construct a one-dimensional (1-D) S-wave velocity (Vs) seismic model with uncertainties for Uturuncu volcano, Bolivia, located in the central Andes and overlying the eastward-subducting Nazca plate. We find a fast upper crustal lid placed upon a low-velocity zone (LVZ) in the mid-crust. By incorporating all three types of measurements with complimentary sensitivity, we also explore the average density and Vp/Vs (ratio of P-wave to S-wave velocity) structures beneath the young silicic volcanic field. We observe slightly higher Vp/Vs and a decrease in density near the LVZ, which implies a dacitic source of the partially molten magma body. We exploit the impact of the 1-D model on full moment tensor inversion for the two largest local earthquakes recorded (both magnitude ∼3), demonstrating that the 1-D model influences the waveform fits and the estimated source type for the full moment tensor. Our 1-D model can serve as a robust starting point for future efforts to determine a three-dimensional velocity model for Uturuncu volcano.

  17. Sources of Blood Meals of Sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, Assayed with qPCR and 12S Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, David E.; Ribera, Wilma; Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Plaza, Carlos; Gordon, Levi W.; Peña, Reynaldo; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Stevens, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methodology/Principal Findings We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). Conclusions/Significance We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors. PMID:25474154

  18. Illustrated review of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae of the central Andes (Peru and Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Karsholt, Ole; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2017-04-24

    We review forty-five species of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) based on an analysis of samples collected in the central Andean region of Peru and Bolivia. Thirteen of these species are new to science, and are named and described here: Stigmella paracosma Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. expressa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. acalyphae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lepida Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. misera Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. inca Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. eiffeli Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. arequipica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. coronaria Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. azulella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sparsella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., Manoneura forcipis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and Acalyptris murex Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. Some of the central Andean species are recorded here as leaf-miners on Euphorbiaceae (Acalypha), Fabaceae (Collaea), Rosaceae (Polylepis), Malvaceae (Sida), Calceolariaceae (Calceolaria), Lamiaceae (Clinopodium), and Asteraceae (Ageratina and Trixis). We create eleven new species groups based on morphological characters designated in Stigmella and one in Acalyptris. A pictorial key to the species groups and distribution maps are provided. All new species are illustrated with 150 photographs and drawings of the adults and genitalia, and, where known and/or available, photographs of host-plants and leaf-mines.

  19. Inmigrantes de Bolivia en el colegio en São Paulo: fronteras del derecho a la educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Modé Magalhães

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entender cómo está siendo implantado el derecho humano a la educación para los y las inmigrantes de Bolivia que viven en São Paulo es el principal objetivo de este estudio, que se inscribe en dos debates globales contemporáneos: de un lado, los que abarcan la complejidad de las migraciones internacionales y, de otro lado, los que tratan las tensiones relativas a la universalización de derechos en sociedades desiguales y discriminatorias. A lo largo de la investigación, analizamos la legislación nacional e internacional y recorremos la literatura contemporánea sobre migraciones internacionales y sus puntos de contacto con el campo de los Derechos Humanos, especialmente, al problematizar la relación entre los derechos de todos y los derechos de los ciudadanos — puesto que muchos de los que hacen parte del grupo estudiado viven en situación irregular en Brasil, lo que no les quita la garantía de la realización de los derechos fundamentales—. Para una mejor comprensión de esta dinámica, visitamos lugares de convivencia de los inmigrantes bolivians(as en la ciudad, tuvimos encuentros con organizaciones que trabajan el tema y finalmente, hicimos 16 entrevistas con estudiantes, madres, padres, profesores(as y funcionarios de escuelas públicas de la capital.

  20. [Control of Chagas' disease in Guarani communities: knowledge and hygiene habits within the Project to Improve Living Conditions in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, J; Ruiz, M T

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify knowledge and control of vectorial transmission (Triatoma infestans, known as vinchuca) of Chagas' disease in Guaraní Communities in Bolivia. We performed a descriptive study of a series of 98 individuals through a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviewees were asked about their familiarity with vinchuca, whether they thought vinchuca produced disease, the name of the disease and its consequences, as well as behavior related to eliminating the domestic insect vectors, such as cleaning of the home, backyard and corral.The insect vector was sufficiently well known (98%), although the name of the disease was identified by only 14.3% of the interviewees. Although the dwellings favored insect proliferation, they were not frequently cleaned: 28.6% cleaned their homes while and 42.9% cleaned the backyard and 7.1% cleaned the corral. Gender differences were found in the division of labor: women cleaned the homes and backyards, while men clean the corral. Experience has shown that the usefulness of projects for building healthy living areas and for health education depends on the value given to these projects by the community. Women are probably the best target group, because they perform a greater number of preventive tasks and seldom leave the community for extended periods of time.