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Sample records for bolivar state venezuela

  1. [Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Ixora; Hernández, Yessica; Ramsay, Mario; Salazar, Carmen; Devera, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis infection in a random sample of apparently healthy food handlers. A total of 415 individuals attending the Manoa Urban Outpatient Clinic (Caroní Municipality, Bolívar State, Venezuela) in the Adult Hygiene Program and who requested health certification to work as food handlers were studied. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were examined by direct microscopy and the Willis concentration method. A total of 150 individuals were infected (36.14%), 107 (25.78%) of whom with B. hominis. There was no difference between males and females (p > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between ages (chi(2) = 12.17; g.l. = 4), with infection more frequent between 18 and 27 years. In 71.02% of the cases, B. hominis was the only parasite. Giardia lamblia was the parasite most frequently associated with B. hominis (2.41%). In the majority (85%) of infected individuals, less than five microorganisms per microscopic field were observed. We conclude that B. hominis is a frequent intestinal parasite among food handlers in Caroní Municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

  2. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at reservoir Guri, using nuclear techniques, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reservoir Guri located at the south of Venezuela in Bolivar State has occurred the bioaccumulation process. Several studies have demonstrated it. In samples of 42 specimens of carnivorous trophic level, the average value of total mercury was 1.90 mg/g with a maximum of 6.04 mg/g. As first job it was necessary to identify and classify the infrastructures of each town according to their use due to the lack of updated demographic information. In this investigation is described the home characteristics with relation to its residence conditions and work status of home bosses through the design and application of a survey by home in two communities nearby reservoir Guri: 'La Paragua' and 'El Manteco'. A simple questionnaire was also designed and applied where home bosses were asked for the weekly frequency of consumption of fish, especially those of carnivorous habits as well as the quantity in grams consumed per week. Homes were better structured at 'La Paragua' than at 'El Manteco' but in the latest the monthly income by home was bigger nevertheless, it does not meet the requirements of the basic basket in Venezuela of US $ 323 for a four people family. The overall consumption of fish per week was twice higher at 'El Manteco' (1,485 kg) than at 'La Paragua' (678 kg). The fish specie consumed as first priority at 'La Paragua' was Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus ('Coporo') which is of detritivorous alimentary habits while the second more consumed was Cichla ocellaris ('Pavon') of carnivorous alimentary habits. On the opposite side, at 'El Manteco' the first priority of fish was Cichla ocellaris ('Pavon') while the second one was for Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus ('Coporo'). Next step will be the organic mercury analysis in hair samples and the nutritional profile in individuals from the selected homes: 36 at 'La Paragua' and 50 at 'El Manteco' towns. (author)

  3. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at reservoir Guri, using nuclear techniques, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reservoir Guri located at the south of Venezuela in Bolivar State arose from damming the Caroni river and its main tributary, the Paraguay river. It was built between the years 1963 and 1986. The reservoir, whose primary use is the electric power generation followed by others beneficial uses such as water supply and recreation, was opened to commercial fishing recently. The riparian population is about 8,030 inhabitants: 7,389 toward the left side (west) and 641 toward the right side (cast) and it is distributed in populated centers, villages and in dispersed areas. The young population is the most conspicuous: 46 % and 52% on the right and left sides, respectively, with predominance of the masculine sex (86%). The reservoir Guri, the same as some reservoirs from other countries has shown what has been called 'dam effect', a term used to designate the occurrence of bioaccumulation process in reservoirs due to the high mercury levels found mainly in piscivorous fish species which are the most preferred by fish consumers. In a sample of 42 specimens of the carnivorous trophic level, the average value of total mercury was 1. 90 ppm, with a maximum value of 6.04 ppm. For the detritivorous trophic level, in a sample of 17 specimens, the average value of total mercury was 0.27 ppm, with a maximum value of 0.69 ppm, while for the omnivorous trophic level, in a sample of 6 specimens, the average value of total mercury was 0.55 ppm, with a maximum value of 0.99 ppm. The source of mercury in fishes from reservoir Guri has not been determined; however, in some sectors of the flooded area activities were carried out of exploitation of aluvional gold using metallic mercury for gold recovery and burning the amalgam at open ceiling. The objective of this research project is to determine the relationship among the ingestion of fish coming from reservoir Guri, the levels of organic mercury in hair and the appearance of signs and symptoms of neurotoxicity in a sample

  4. [Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello González, T; Rivera-Olivero, I A; Pocaterra, L; Spadola, E; Araque, M; Hermans, P W M; De Waard, J H

    2010-01-01

    In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae in mothers and children of the Panare people from Venezuela. In May 2008, in 8 distinct geographically isolated communities, 148 nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 64 healthy mothers and 84 healthy Panare children under 5 years of age. S. pneumoniae was isolated and identified by standard techniques. Strains were typified by multiplex PCR and resistance patterns were determined by the disk diffusion method. A total of 65 strains were isolated; 11% of the mothers and 69% of the children carried S. pneumoniae. Serotypes 6B (48%), 33F (21,5%), 6A (6%), 19A (3,1%) and 23F (1,5%) were the most predominant. Of the 6 colonized mother-child pairs, 3 pairs (2 with 6B), were colonized with the same serotype. All strains were sensitive to penicillin and 13,7% were resistant to macrolides. The high colonization rates in the Panare people suggest that the children are at increased risk of pneumococcal invasive disease and could benefit from vaccination. Four conjugate vaccine serotypes (6B, 6A, 19A and 23F) representing 58 % of all strains were present in the population at the moment of sampling. Resistance to antibiotics is (still) not a problem. PMID:20461291

  5. Evaluación de un brote de leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana en una comunidad rural del Estado Bolívar, Venezuela Evaluation of an outbreak of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a rural community in the Bolivar State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo González M.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de un foco de leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana (LTA en la localidad de San José de Hacha, al sur del Estado Bolívar en Venezuela, motivó la realización de un estudio epidemiológico utilizando la intradermorreacción (IDR de Montenegro. De los 184 habitantes de San José de Hacha, se aplicó la IDR a 121 (65,8%. El 33,9% fueron reactores positivos (44/121. El mayor porcentaje de positividad se observó en personas del sexo masculino con 39,5% (PAn epidemiological survey based on the Montenegro intradermal reaction (IDR was carried out in San Jose de Hacha, south of the Bolivar State, Venezuela, on the occasion of an outbreak of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (LTA in that locality. The IDR was applied to 121 of the 184 local inhabitants (65.8%, with a 33.9 rate of positive reactions (44/121. The highest percentage of positivity was observed among males (39.5% (P < 0.05 and among adults, especially in the 31 to 40 year age group (52.4% (chi2 = 18.28; g.l. = 6. With respect to occupation, agriculturist were the most reactive with 69%. of subjects IDR positive, in 65.9% (27/41 the reaction areas ranging from 5 to 9 mm. Active lesions of LTA were identified in 22 inhabitants and scars were detected in only seven cases. It is suggested that San Jose de Hacha is a recent focus of LTA.

  6. Prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en vendedores ambulantes de comida del municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela

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    Ixora Requena

    2003-12-01

    frequent between 18 and 27 years. In 71.02% of the cases, B. hominis was the only parasite. Giardia lamblia was the parasite most frequently associated with B. hominis (2.41%. In the majority (85% of infected individuals, less than five microorganisms per microscopic field were observed. We conclude that B. hominis is a frequent intestinal parasite among food handlers in Caroní Municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

  7. A new species of Bachia (Teiidae, Sauria) from Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, with notes on the zoogeography of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bachia guianensis nov. spec, is described from Guri, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, on the basis of a single specimen. The species is closely related to Bachia heteropa (Lichtenstein), but differs from this species in lacking the interparietal scale.

  8. Elevada prevalencia de Cyclospora cayetanensis en indígenas del estado Bolívar, Venezuela High prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in Bolivar State, Venezuela

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    Rodolfo Devera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad las coccidiosis intestinales causadas por Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli y Cyclospora cayetanensis constituyen parasitosis de gran importancia médica, sin embargo, en el Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, se desconocen muchos aspectos epidemiológicos de estas infecciones. Entre julio de 2003 y abril de 2004 fue evaluada la población indígena San Antonio de Morichal con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de coccidiosis intestinales. Las muestras fecales obtenidas por evacuación espontánea fueron preservadas en dicromato de potasio 2,5% y posteriormente examinadas mediante la técnica de concentración con formol-éter y coloración de Kinyoun. De los 160 indígenas evaluados, el 92,5% (148 casos estaba parasitado. Entamoeba coli (58,8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (38,8% y Giardia lamblia (18,8% fueron los más comunes. La prevalencia de coccidiosis intestinal fue de 13,1%, siendo la cyclosporiosis la más importante con 11,9% (19 casos. Solamente se diagnosticó un caso con ooquistes de C. parvum (0,6% y otro con I. belli (0,6%. No hubo diferencias en cuanto al sexo (p > 0,05 y la edad (c2 = 5,6; g.l: 6 de los habitantes infectados con C. cayetanensis. De los infectados con C. cayetanensis únicamente dos tenían diarrea. En conclusión, se determinó una prevalencia elevada de coccidiosis intestinal en habitantes de la comunidad indígena evaluada, siendo la infección por C. cayetanensis las más prevalente.The intestinal coccidioses caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, and Cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitoses of major medical importance, but many epidemiological aspects of these infections are still unknown in Bolívar State, Venezuela. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and especially of intestinal coccidiosis, an indigenous population in San Antonio de Morichal was evaluated from July 2003 to April 2004. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were preserved in potassium

  9. [Blastocystis hominis in patients at the Ruiz y Paez University Hospital from Bolivar City, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devera, R; Azacon, B; Jiménez, M

    1998-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a polymorphic protozoan of discussed taxonomic position, which is currently associated with human intestinal disease. In order to determine the prevalence of the microorganism in a sample of hospitalized patients, a study was carried out from november 1996 to april 1997 on 100 adult patients of both sexes aged 20 to 79 years at the "Ruíz y Páez" University Hospital of Bolivar city, Venezuela. A coproparasitological study was carried out using direct examination and Faust method. Infection by parasites and/or commensals was demonstrated in 48 patients. The most frequent agent was B. hominis with a prevalence of 42.0%. We did not find a statistically association between sex (P > 0.05) or age (X2 = 3.52; d.f; = 3) and B. hominis infection. B. hominis was most frequently identified as the single parasite (88.1%), and with a number of less than 5 cells per 400X microscopic field (73.8%). The infection was more common in patients with base chronic-immunosuppressive diseases, the major one being cancer. Diarrhea was observed in 27.0% of cases. Due to its high prevalence, especially as a single agent, together with the particular immunological characteristics of the patients studied, a potential pathogenic role of the opportunistic type is suggested for B. hominis. PMID:10413881

  10. Blastocistosis en pre-escolares de Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela Blastocystosis in preschool children from Bolivar City, Venezuela

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    Rodolfo Antonio Devera

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la prevalencia y relevancia clínica de la blastocistosis en una muestra de niños en edad pre-escolar, fueron evaluados 169 alumnos del pre-escolar "Los Coquitos" de Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. Las muestras fecales fueron estudiadas mediante la técnica de examen directo y métodos de concentración de Faust y Willis. Se encontraron 72 niños parasitados, de ellos 32 (29,09% con Blastocystis hominis. Se determinó una prevalencia de infección por este protozoario de 18,93% ± 5,93%. No hubo predilección por el sexo y la edad de los pre-escolares parasitados (ji2 = 1.84 DF = 3; p>0.05. Se diagnosticó mayormente como parásito único (53,13%; Giardia lamblia fue el parásito más frecuentemente identificado (39,13% junto con B. hominis. En el 94,12% de los casos, se observó en un número mayor de 5 células por campo. El 70,58% de los pre-escolares tenía manifestaciones clínicas, sin embargo, la cantidad de Blastocystis presente no fue determinante en su aparición, pero si en la severidad de ellas. Luego del tratamiento, hubo respuesta clínica y parasitológica favorable en el 80% y 90% de los casos, respectivamente. Se concluye que B. hominis es un patógeno de relativa alta frecuencia en el grupo de niños estudiados.To evaluate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and its clinical relevance, 169 preschool children from the "Los Coquitos" nursery school living in Bolivar City, Venezuela, were studied. Stool samples were obtained and examined by direct microscopic examination, and the Faust and Willis concentration techniques. Some 72 of the children had intestinal parasites, of whom 32 (29.09% had B. hominis. Prevalence for the latter was 18.93% ±5.93%. No differences were observed by sex or age (chi2 = 1.84 DF = 3; p>0.05. In the majority (53.13% of the children, B. hominis was the only parasite. Giardia lamblia was the parasite most frequently identified with B. hominis (39.13%. In 1994, in 12% of the cases more

  11. Stereoselective biodegradation of tricyclic terpanes in heavy oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela); Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.E. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; Peters, K.E. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS-MS analyses of heavy oils from Bolivar Coastal Fields (Lagunillas Field) show a complete set of demethylated tricyclic terpanes. As is the case for the 25-norhopanes, the demethylated tricyclics are probably formed in reservoirs by microbially-mediated removal of the methyl group from the C-10 position, generating putative 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes. Diastereomeric pairs of tricyclic terpanes are resolved above C{sub 24} due to resolution of 22S and 22R epimers, but the elution order of the 22S and 22R epimers is unknown. Early-eluting diastereomers (EE) predominate over late-eluting diastereomers (LE) (C{sub 25}-C{sub 29}) in the heavily degraded oils, indicating a stereoselective preference for the LE stereoisomers during biodegradation. Conversely, the LE diastereomers predominate over the EE diastereomers in the 17-nor tricyclic series (C{sub 24}-C{sub 28}), indicating that tricyclic terpanes and 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes are directly linked as precursors and products, respectively. A good correlation exists between the destruction of steranes and the demethylation of hopanes and tricyclic terpanes. This suggests that terpane demethylation occurs during sterane destruction and hopane demethylation, although the rate is slower, indicating that tricyclic terpanes are more resistant to biodegradation. (Author)

  12. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Venezuela. X ray Fluorescence in Venezuela at the Agronomy Faculty, Laboratory Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research in the field of XRF was devoted to the development of methods for arsenic determination and the application of the TXRF technique in bioremediation studies and archeometry. X ray techniques and chemometrics were used for the determination of composition as well as for classification and provenance studies of archeological samples. The projects were conducted in collaboration with the Laboratory of Nuclear Physics at Universidad Simon Bolivar, Venezuela, the University of Concepcion and the University of Arica, Chile, the University of Buenos Aires, the CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica de Argentina), and the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria of Brasil

  13. [Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello Gonzalez, T.; Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Pocaterra, L.; Spadola, E.; Araque, M.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2010-01-01

    In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal carriage and ser

  14. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

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    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author conceptualized and revealed basic historical patterns of formation and development of Latin American countries during the War of Independence (1810-1826 period. Author conducted comprehensive analysis of the draft constitution which was developed by Simon Bolivar for the newly independent states of Latin America and reveals theoretical and practical problem of choosing Simon Bolivar republican form of government, such as a peculiar institution in the form of principle of the separation of powers, containing the fourth power. Author focuses on the questions of Simon Bolivar’s relationship to the constitutional institute of human rights, idea of relationship between state and church. Article also researches many other political, legal and constitutional ideas of Simon Bolivar, present views of historians, lawyers, political scientists, statesmen and public activists.

  15. High occurrence of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in soil sources from Bolívar State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Hernán, Aurora; Rojas, Elsy; Pérez, Gladymar; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, twenty-seven soil samples were collected in the Bolivar State in Venezuela and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2% non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed E. coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 51.8% of soil samples. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genotype T4 in soil sources from Venezuela. Further studies should be carried out in this State and in the country in order to determine the current occurrence of Acanthamoeba in Venezuelan environments. PMID:27447209

  16. Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    This discussion of Venezuela reviews the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Over the 1920-1961 period Venezuela's level of fertility was high and continued to rise gradually. The crude birth rate was around 40.0/1000 population in 1920, 44.0/1000 in 1950, and 45.0/1000 in 1961, and thereafter began to decline, dropping to a level of 38.4/1000 by 1971. During the same period, mortality underwent a steady decline, with the crude death rate falling from 30.0/1000 population in 1920 to 13.7 in 1950, 7.4 in 1961, and to 6.6 by 1971. Venezuela's government has no policy of intervention to modify fertility or population growth but has relied primarily on the benefits of rapid economic growth to achieve a rate of demographic growth that is compatible with its development objectives. Since 1920, 7 modern censuses have been conducted. The most recent census was in 1971. The registration data are classified as incomplete. Multiround sample household surveys were conducted in 1976-1977 and 1978. The government has not established a special unit for population policies. It assigned this function to the Central Planning Agency in 1975. The government has not announced a comprehensive population policy, but it has been moving in the direction of formulating more comprehensive policies in 2 areas of concern--international migration and spatial distribution. The government considers the current rate of population growth to be satisfactory despite the fact that it is rather high by Latin American standards. The government also considers

  17. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  18. Tradizione romana e storia moderna: il nesso libertas-civitas e l’abolizione della schiavitù in Venezuela (1816)

    OpenAIRE

    Firpo, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    L’autore analizza il rapporto tra il proclama di Simón Bolivar dell’abolizione della schiavitù in Venezuela e alcuni principi di diritto pubblico romano. El autor considera la relación entre el anuncio de la abolición de la esclavitud en Venezuela por Simón Bolivar y algunos principios del derecho publico romano. The author considers the relationship between the proclamation of the abolition of slavery in Venezuela by Simon Bolivar and some principles of the public roman law.The author consid...

  19. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

    OpenAIRE

    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author con...

  20. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  1. [Genetic and demographic structure of the State of Aragua, Venezuela, estimated through the surnames].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Larralde, A; Casique, J

    1993-01-01

    The genetic structure of the State of Aragua, Venezuela, has been studied through the analysis of surnames obtained from the register of electors. The analysis covered 23 counties and included a total of 99,593 individuals and 6,338 different surnames. Estimators of isolation, consanguinity, microdifferentiation and four measures of genetic distance, were studied. When our results were compared with those obtained in other States of Venezuela studied previously (Falcón, Lara, Mérida, Nueva Esparta and Yaracuy), Aragua appears as the State most open to new migrants, probably due to its nearness to Caracas, Venezuela's capital city. Within Aragua, the counties most isolated are Choronií, Ocumare de la Costa and Tovar, while those less isolated are El Limón, Turmero, La Victoria, San Mateo and Cagua. The correlations between the logarithmic transformations of genetic and geographic distances were all significant, revealing surname differentiation by distance. The dendrogram built with the Euclidean distance matrix shows a first group of counties formed by those localized towards the central portion of the State, to which southern counties are added. Choroní and Ocumare de la Costa form a group which enters the dendrogram just before Tovar, the last county to be included in the analysis. Seven surnames with a focal distribution within the State were identified: Ayala and Calanche in Choroní; Kanzler, Misle and Ruh in Tovar; Lira in San Mateo and Santaella in Barbacoas. PMID:7483965

  2. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct analysis of biological samples is the main research challenge of the scientific group at the Unidad de Analisis Instrumental of the Agronomy Faculty, Universidad Centro Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, (UCLA) Edo. Lara, Venezuela. The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) plays an important role in the scientific activities of the laboratory. In this field, the research is devoted to the design, development, evaluation and application of methods for the analysis of biological and related samples, such as biological tissues, fluids, biota, soil and water samples. The studies involve the evaluation of feasibility for direct determination of analytes, the in situ (in quartz sample holder) preparation techniques, the in situ pre-concentration and speciation among others studies. The methods are developed for the application in clinical studies, agronomy, environmental monitoring, bioremediation, statistical processing of data and neural network applications. The following projects are described: Direct analysis of biological samples by TXRF; Determination of calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, cooper and zinc levels in representative samples of two onion cultivars using TXRF and ultrasound extraction procedure; Evaluation of vermicompost as bioadsorbent substrate of Pb, Ni, V and Cr for waste waters remediation using total reflection X-ray fluorescence; Determination by TXRF of total As in onion plants growing in contaminated substrates

  3. Texas Teacher at Sea on the BOLIVAR Project Geophysical Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, M.; Sullivan, S.; Ellins, K.

    2004-12-01

    UTIG provides K-12 teachers with research experiences in field programs that involve UTIG scientists. I am a 6th-9th grade science teacher in Van Vleck, Texas and in April 2004 I sailed to the southeastern Caribbean aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing as a member of the BOLIVAR Project alongside scientists from the U.S. and Venezuela. Our goal was collect seismic data to image the crust and mantle beneath the Caribbean as part of a study of the tectonic processes accompanying different stages of the Caribbean arc/South America continental collision process. Throughout the 52-day cruise I worked as a watch stander, interpreted newly collected seismic reflection data, helped deploy the streamer, maintained a cruise blog (a chronological journal weblog documenting personal thoughts about my experience), spoke with students in Texas with the telephone on loan from Iridium Satellite Solutions, and responded to email inquiries from shore-based students. It was hard work, but most importantly, a voyage of discovery. With guidance from scientists and GK-12 Fellows at UTIG, I am using my experience and the data collected as the basis for K-12 curriculum resources, including learning activities and a video documentary. Support for my participation and post-cruise activities was provided by the NSF and the Trull Foundation in Texas. If given the opportunity to do this again, I would, without reservation!

  4. Prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganadería de altura en Bailadores Mérida, Venezuela (Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gauta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa fasciolosis bovina es una enfermedad de importancia en Venezuela. Por denuncias de productores de la zona sobre numerosos decomisos de hígados y disminución de la producción, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganado lechero de Bailadores (Mérida, Venezuela en base a análisis coprológico.SummaryBovine fasciolosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases on Venezuela. Attending to the claim of farmers in the Andean zone about the high levels of infected livers detected at the slaughterhouse and milk production decrease, the aim of this work was to determine prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela.

  5. [Reptiles from Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, O; Prieto, A; Comejo, P

    2000-01-01

    An inventory of the reptiles that inhabit in Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, was performed from March, 1994 to March, 1995. There were reported 8 species of snakes and 7 of lizards enclosed in 4 and 5 families repectively. Aspects observed were ecolology as habitat, activity, reproduction and relative abundance. The more abundant species of lizards were: Cnemidophorus femniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata, (Teiidae), Tropidurus hispidus (Tropiduridae), Gonatodes vittatus and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae) and the ophidians: Leptodeira annulata and Mastigodryas amarali (Colubridae). It is believed that the changes occurred in the zone influenced the increase of the relative abundance of the species Leptotyphlops goudotii (Leptotyphlopidae) arid Gymnophthalmus speciosus(Gymnophthalmidae) and perhaps in the disappearance of others that have been reported at the xerophitic or semixerophitic zones of the Sucre State of Venezuela. PMID:11220219

  6. Les trois constitutionnalismes de Simon Bolivar

    OpenAIRE

    Gourdon, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    De l'ensemble des textes bolivariens examinés dans cet article, qui couvre une durée d'une vingtaine d'années mais également un espace très différencié - cinq nations aujourd'hui - ne saurait se dégager un constitutionnalisme homogène, répétitif, mais bel et bien plusieurs ; nous tenterons d'en distinguer trois, sur lesquels, suivant les périodes et les citoyens concernés, Bolivar a su jouer simultanément ou successivement : un constitutionnalisme du compromis, un constitutionnalisme de pédag...

  7. Yoduria en escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, Venezuela 2007-2008 Urinary Iodine in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo state, Venezuela 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Caballero

    2011-10-01

    iodine deficiency in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo State, in the Andean region of Venezuela. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 400 school children aged 7-14 years and 300 pregnant women. Random urine samples were collected and analyzed for urinary iodine by Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The criteria suggested by WHO to indicate iodine deficiency were applied. Results: Median urinary iodine for school children was 175 μg/L; and 6,25 % of children had urinary iodine concentrations below 50 μg/L. Median urinary iodine for pregnant women was 228 μg/L; and 25 % of pregnant women had urinary iodine concentrations below 150 μg/L. Conclusions: On the basis of the WHO criteria, the iodine intake in school children and pregnant women in Trujillo State, Venezuela, is adequate.

  8. Estudio seroepidemiologico de la amibiasis en una comunidad del estado Zulia, Venezuela A seroepidemiological study of amebiasis in a community of Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Chacin-Bonilla

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiologico de amibiasis en una comunidad de bajas condiciones socioeconómicas del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 283 individuos cuyas edades fluctuaron de 2 a 53 años. Se obtuvieron muestras de sueros, las cuales se examinaron con la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta de KESSEL et al., según una modificación de MILGRAM et al. Se utilizó antígeno amibiano obtenido de cultivos axénicos de la raza HK9 de E. histolytica. La tasa de seropositividad obtenida fué de 46.6%; la mayoría de los reactores tenía títulos bajos y no presentaba signos de amibiasis. El porcentaje de seropositividad aumentó con la edad. Los resultados sugieren una alta endemicidad de la infección en esta comunidad, ocurriendo la transmisión con mucha mayor frecuencia que la amibiasis invasiva.In the present evaluation, a community of low socioeconomical conditions from Zulia State, Venezuela, was analyzed for the prevalence of antibodies to E. histolytica. Two hundred and eighty three serum samples were collected and examined by the indirect hemagglutination test according to a microtiter modification of the KESSEL and LEWIS method, as used by MILGRAM et al. Antigen prepared from axenically-grown. E. histolytica strain HK9 in Diamond's medium was used. The seropositivity rate obtained was 46.6% and the frequency of positive cases was dependent on age. The antibody profiles obtained suggest a high endemicity for this parasitic infection in the area studied, with a much higher level of transmission than invasive amebiasis.

  9. The policy process in a petro-state. An analysis of PDVSA's (Petroleos de Venezuela SA's) internationalisation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, C.E. [Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-07-01

    Venezuela offers a unique case and fertile ground for the study of oil policy-making processes. In the specialised literature very little attention has been paid to the nature and operations of multinationals from developing countries. By analysing Petroleos de Venezuela SA's (PDVSA's) internationalisation policy, this unique book explores the difficulties encountered by a major state oil enterprise in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. This informative study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policy-making in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. (author)

  10. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  11. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature. PMID:9239851

  12. Venezuela nationalises oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezuela President Hugo Chavez has stated he will nationalise the Orinoco belt's extra-heavy oil operations and ask for 'special powers' to rule the country. Since last year, the government has been negotiating with international consortia currently operating in the Orinoco area, so that Venezuela state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) attains a majority stake in each project (ml)

  13. SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PERNA VIRIDIS FROM GUAYACAN, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemus, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Biomonitoring is a tool to assess the presence of environmental pollutants, particularly heavy metals, due to their persistence and toxicity to the biotic component. The concentrations of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni were determined in males and females of Perna viridis (μg·g-1dry weight, with the purpose of evaluating the environmental quality in Guayacán, state Sucre, Venezuela, during the months of November (2006, May and August (2007, and February (2008. November and August are both in the rainy season, with May and February part of the dry season. The metals in the samples were determined using AAS (Atomic Absortion Spectophotometric and the precision of the method was verified using the reference standard NIST Oyster Tissue 1566ª. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni showed significant differences in the months studied except for Ni in males that did not exhibit variation. The highest values in Zn and Ni occurred in the rainy season, while Cu and Cr were highest during the month of February, and Cd and Pb during the month of May, both months in the dry season. The females presented levels of Cu, Cd and Ni significantly higher than the males. The metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni presented values below the limits pointed out by FAO (Food and Agricultura Organization of the United Nations, FDA (Food and Drugs Administration and BZL (Federal Brazilian Legislation.

  14. Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela Meningoencefalite por Naegleria fowleri: estudo epidemiológico no Estado de Anzoategui, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julman R. Cermeño

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4. An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003. A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD± 2.0 and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD± 32.2, respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources.Um caso de meningoencefalite amebiana primária, causada por Naegleria fowleri, foi diagnosticada no município de Independência no Estado de Anzoategui, Venezuela. Este caso motivou a realização deste estudo epidemiológico com o objetivo de identificar amebas de vida livre nessa área. Foram colhidas amostras representativas de água e realizadas análises fisicoquímicas e microbiológicas. Trofozoítos e cistos de Naegleria spp foram detectados em 44,4% (n=4. Verificou-se excelente concordância entre a observação das amebas de vida livre em esfregaços e aquelas de culturas monoxênicas em ágar não nutriente com Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p=0,003. Obteve-se uma carga variável de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbicos. As médias de mofos e leveduras foram de 3,0 CFU/ml (SD+2,0 e 102,9 CFU/ml(SD+32,2, respectivamente. Cem por cento das amostras apresentaram um número maior prov

  15. [Vertebrate mortality in the Guanare-Guanarito road, Portuguesa state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, Andrés Eloy; Araujo-Quintero, Alexis; Velásquez, Nadines

    2013-12-01

    Roads directly or indirectly affect the structure, dynamics and function of ecosystems that they traverse. Most studies on the effect of roads on wildlife focus on the evaluation of mortality of vertebrates by vehicle collisions. Despite the extensive road network that exists in Venezuela, studies of wildlife mortality in them are scarce. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of vertebrate's collisions along the road Guanare-Guanarito, in Portuguesa state. We travelled 26 times between these towns (74 km) to localize dead vertebrates, at a speed of 50-60km/h. of those trips were conducted from March 13 to October 26, 2010, and 10 additional trips from December 7, 2009 to December 14, 2010; these ones, with the aim to include months and seasons that were insufficiently sampled during the first period. The elapsed time between trips varied from 14 to 37 days. The total distance traveled was 1 924 km. Dead animals found amounted 464 individuals, 66 of them were birds (25 identified species), 130 mammals (15 species) and 268 reptiles (18 species). The species with the highest number of individuals were the snake Leptodeira annulata (n=119), the oppossum Didelphis marsupialis (n=39) and the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus (n=33). Excluding domestic animals, the rate of road-killed vertebrates was 0.2282 indiv./km, a figure 28.3% higher than previous studies in the same road. Changes in the relative number of collisions for some species, respect to the numbers reported 20 years ago, were linked to the increase in traffic flow and changes in land use. Road segments with collision rates higher than expected by chance were identified. Collition by cars may be the principal cause of mortality for species like the tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) and the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the last considered a vulnerable species. Some basic measures are proposed to reduce wildlife mortality on the road. PMID:24432523

  16. The first report of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela: a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiroga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus gonzalespongai n. sp. is a species endemic to the high mountains of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. It is found between 1,600 and 2,200 m in ''La Laguna'' mountain. Its habitat includes the area of ''Bosque Húmedo Montano Bajo'' with the type of vegetation of ''Bosque Ombrófilo Montano Siempreverde'' (''Bosques Nublados Costeros'' that includes the ''Subpáramos Arbustivos''. It is distinguished from other Tityus species (T. caripitensis, T. monaguensis, and T. nororientalis by the following characteristics: 1- the disposition of the trichobothria in the pedipalps; 2- ventral keels of the caudal segments of the metasoma (segment II, double and parallel in the proximal two thirds, then convergent and finally divergent in the base; segments III and IV, double and parallel in the basal third, then convergent in a single keel that divides in the base; 3- the number of lines of denticles of the movable finger of the right pedipalp (male = 14; female = 14; 4- pectineous teeth (right/left: male = 15/15: female = 16/15; 5- color: movable and fixed fingers dark brown; prosoma and metasoma, ochre; caudal segment IV, slightly darker than the previous ones; V and the telson, dark brown. T. gonzalespongai belongs to the ''androcottoides'' group and presents a marked sexual dimorphism. It is the first species of the Tityus genus described and reported in Anzoátegui State, expanding this taxa distribution in Venezuela.

  17. [Inventory of reptiles in 2 semi-arid zones from Northeastern of the Peninsula de Araya, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo Cornejo, E; Antulio Prieto, A

    2001-01-01

    The fauna of reptiles in two localities from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya (Guayacán and El Morahal), Sucre State, Venezuela, was evaluated. Both zones are characterized by a vegetation of thorny tropical mount type, and semiarid climate of scarce precipitations (less than 700 mm). Field trips were made between june 1997 and june 1998. The samples were collected both during day and night, with the aid of conventional accessories. The information was complemented with visual registrations and bibliography revision. A total of 21 species were captured and/or observed, distributed in 10 families belonging to 2 of the 3 orders present in Venezuela. The most important families from the point of view of the diversity of species, were the Gekkonidae (2.00 bits/species) for the lizards and the Colubridae (2.33 bits/species) among the snakes. It was also reported one species of tortoises and three of cinegetic interest, being Cnemidophorus lemniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata y Tropidurus hispidus the only species of constant presence during the study. PMID:11915444

  18. Sharing in God's Mission: The Evangelical Pentecostal Union of Venezuela and The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the United States 1960-1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Evangelical Pentecostal Union of Venezuela (UEPV), an autonomous pentecostal denomination, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the United States, a Mainline Protestant denomination, established an ecumenical partnership in 1963 that remains a positive force today. These two denomi

  19. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  20. China Strengthens Energy Cooperation with Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Deliang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Venezuela is the 5th biggest oil export country in the world, and a member of OPEC. With rich reserves of crude oil, its average daily oil output reached 3.1 million barrels in 2004. Venezuela's state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA), the biggest oil company in South America, launched its China representative office in Beijing on 22 Aug. Ma Fucai, Vice Director of the State Energy Leading Group Office, and Rafael Ramrez,Minister of the Energy and Oil Ministry of Republic of Venezuela, attended the opening ceremony.

  1. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  2. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him.

  3. Geothermal exploration by geochemical methods of the thermal area El Pilar-Mundo Nuevo, state of Sucre, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geochemical survey was carried out in 1985-86 in the El Pilar-Mundo Nuevo area, Paria peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. The aim was to ascertain a possible geothermoelectric exploitation of the area, characterized by many natural manifestations with temperatures in the range 80 - 100 deg. C. Through a series of different classifications of water and gas samples it was possible to operate a selection of the most significant chemical compositions that allowed useful geothermometric indications. Several geothermometric techniques based on fluid-rock interaction have been applied at the same time to evaluate some reservoir parameters. The area of concern seems to be promising for the recovery of high enthalpy geothermal resources; a deep reservoir appears to be constituted by a relatively low salinity (2 partial pressure. A second shallower reservoir is supposed to exist, with a temperature of the order of 200 - 220 deg. C. Both reservoirs result to be water-dominated, and boiling appears to take place at 160 deg. C, at a very shallow level. The piezometric level (elevation 150 m) regulates the areal distribution of water springs and fumaroles. Self-sealing allows accumulation of fluids at least in the deep reservoir which can receive it recharge from local meteoric water. A batholith is inferred at some depth, supplying the hear to the deep fluids. (author). 50 refs, 23 figs, 8 tabs

  4. [Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by polymerase chain reaction in a community in Zulia State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Zulbey; Bracho, Angela; Calchi, Marinella; Díaz, Iris; Acurero, Ellen; Maldonado, Adriana; Chourio, Glenis; Arráiz, Nailet; Corzo, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Differential identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is essential for both appropriate patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. To determine the prevalence of these amoeba infections in Santa Rosa de Agua (Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela), a PCR assay using specific primers for each species was standardized and applied. 204 stool samples were analyzed through direct microscopic examination with SSF (0.85%) and lugol, formol-ether concentration, and PCR. Under direct microscopy, 42 individuals (20.58%) presented the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Meanwhile PCR showed 47 positive cases for these amoebas: 22 E. histolytica (10.78%), 16 E. dispar (7.84%), and 9 (4.41%) mixed infections. There was no significant difference in the presence of E. histolytica and/or E. dispar according to either gender or age. There were no cases of these amoebas in children under 2 years of age. Observed frequency of E. histolytica (31/204) shows the endemic nature of amoeba infection in this community.

  5. en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Brewer Carías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución de Venezuela, en la cual se establecen las regulaciones fundamentales relativas a la justicia constitucional y, en particular, a la Jurisdicción Constitucional, regula sólo dos supuestos, tanto en materia de control difuso como de control concentrado de la constitucionalidad de las leyes, en los cuales los jueces están autorizados para actuar de oficio. Sin embargo, mediante la jurisprudencia constitucional y en la Ley Orgánica del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de 2004, sin fundamento constitucional alguno se han dispuesto poderes de control constitucional de oficio, en algunos casos, en forma ilimitada. Este trabajo tiene por objeto analizar todos estos supuestos.

  6. Análisis estructural para el fortalecimiento estratégico del Instituto Universitario de Tecnología del Estado Bolívar-IUTEB (Structural Analysis for Strategic Strengthening at the Institute of Technology of the State Bolivar-IUTEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Bastarrica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish abstract El presente trabajo muestra un estudio estructural dentro de las técnicas prospectivas realizado en el Instituto Universitario de Tecnología del Estado Bolívar (IUTEB como aporte al proceso de transformación que se desarrolla en las instituciones universitarias venezolanas y en el marco de discusión de una universidad distinta y con mayor pertinencia e inclusión social. La validez científica de la propuesta está fundamentada en la utilización del método de expertos, la construcción de la matriz directa de influencia/dependencia del MICMAC y el enfoque estratégico. El análisis estructural y la interpretación de la interrelación existente permiten descubrir las variables que dinamizan a dicha Institución, generando el mapa de transformaciones en los niveles de realización de poder, enlace y conflicto dándole tejido sistémico al constructo prospectivo, poniendo de relieve las líneas de ruptura estratégica necesarias para alcanzar un nivel de eficiencia, competitividad y sostenibilidad en los procesos que dentro de ella se realizan y dar cumplimiento al encargo social, enmarcado en el nuevo modelo productivo en construcción. English abstract This paper presents a prospective study conducted at the University Institute of Technology of the State of Bolivar (IUTEB to assist the process of transformation taking place in Venezuelan universities and to contribute to the discussion of a different type of university with greater presence and social inclusion. The scientific validity of the proposal is based on the use of the experts method, the construction of the direct matrix of influence/dependence of MICMAC, and a strategic approach. The structural analysis and the interpretation of the interrelated variables enable to discover the variables that streamline each institution. This generates a map of changes in levels of achievement of power, engagement and conflict, which gives the systemic tissue a prospective

  7. Behind the ink : multi-billion dollar oil deal between Venezuela and China not necessarily bad for either the United States or Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although China has recently signed large contracts with Venezuela for crude oil, experts are convinced that Chinese refiners will want more Canadian crude oil because they have greater confidence in Canada as a reliable provider. Production difficulties with nationalized oil industries in Venezuela and Mexico will create further opportunities for Canadian oil producers. The recent recession has caused delays in plans to increase pipeline capacity. China may invest $US 8 billion in Venezuelan oil in order to increase exports to China to over a million barrels per day by 2015. The Chinese government granted the Venezuelan government a $4 billion loan last year. The Venezuelan government has increased the maximum royalty rates paid by foreign oil companies. The Venezuelan-owned Citgo operates more than 7000 gasoline retail outlets in the United States. The country is capable of processing 1.3 million barrels per day. Studies have suggested that the Chinese see their investments as a business opportunity, and not as a means of antagonizing western countries. It was concluded that economists are predicting that Venezuela's currency will be devalued this year. 3 figs

  8. Behind the ink : multi-billion dollar oil deal between Venezuela and China not necessarily bad for either the United States or Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-06-15

    Although China has recently signed large contracts with Venezuela for crude oil, experts are convinced that Chinese refiners will want more Canadian crude oil because they have greater confidence in Canada as a reliable provider. Production difficulties with nationalized oil industries in Venezuela and Mexico will create further opportunities for Canadian oil producers. The recent recession has caused delays in plans to increase pipeline capacity. China may invest $US 8 billion in Venezuelan oil in order to increase exports to China to over a million barrels per day by 2015. The Chinese government granted the Venezuelan government a $4 billion loan last year. The Venezuelan government has increased the maximum royalty rates paid by foreign oil companies. The Venezuelan-owned Citgo operates more than 7000 gasoline retail outlets in the United States. The country is capable of processing 1.3 million barrels per day. Studies have suggested that the Chinese see their investments as a business opportunity, and not as a means of antagonizing western countries. It was concluded that economists are predicting that Venezuela's currency will be devalued this year. 3 figs.

  9. Immigration and economic integration case studies: United States - Mexico and Venezuela - Colombia,

    OpenAIRE

    Hanchett, Ivy D.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The specter of refugees is inextricably linked to a state's national security interests. Mass movements of refugees across international borders cannot possibly be absorbed without incurring political. social and economic costs to the receiving state. To contribute to regional stability and international peace. the United States must be Vigilaint to the dangers and tensions inherent in the international problem of refugees. Nowhere have t...

  10. en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Caraballo Vivas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos esbozar los escenarios de gobernabilidad e ingobernabilidad de la democracia en Venezuela a partir del rol cumplido positiva o negativamente por los partidos políticos. Abordamos la cuestión de la crisis de gobernabilidad como un fenómeno complejo. La ingobernabilidad se presenta como una crisis básicamente como crisis de legitimidad, crisis, de conducción política y crisis del Estado, es decir no se logra conformar un ambiente y escenario definido por la legitimidad y eficiencia que conlleva a un deterioro del sistema político a causa de la disfunción de los partidos como productores de representación y gobernabilidad en la sociedad venezolana a finales de los años ochenta. Finalmente analizamos el agotamiento del bipartidismo y la llegada del fenómeno Chávez y naturalmente la persistencia antes y ahora de indicadores de ingobernabilidad democrática.

  11. Dosimetry of radon, thorium and their progenies in the environment of a chemistry lab and crude in Zulia State, Venezuela; Dosimetria de radon, toron y sus progenies en el entorno de un laboratorio de quimica y crudo en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, L.; Viloria, T., E-mail: lendavaI22@hotmail.com, E-mail: lpineda@fing.luz.edu.ve, E-mail: tviloria63@yahoo.es [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Departamento de Fisica; Palacios, D.; Sajo-Bohus, L., E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com, E-mail: sanjuro.perdomo@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the dose rate of inhalation and the annual contribution of effective dose in the mixed field of radon and thoron in the environment of laboratory chemicals and oil from Zulia State, Venezuela, due to manipulation and storage of oil samples and water production.

  12. Ptosis Palpebral in a Urban Area named: December 5. Paez Municipality, Portuguesa State. Venezuela 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenis López León

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive longitudinal prospective study was made in the Urban Area named December 5 of Páez Municipality, Portuguesa State, in The Venezuela’s Republic, including only the period since September 4 to December 11, 2007 with the objective to define the clinical epidemiological state of Ptosis Palpebral in the Region mentioned. The universe was conformed by 7000 patients of all ages, being a sample of 60 ill persons, for obtaining the information a structural interview was used made by the authors, having productiveness the use of Ophthalmology clinical backgrounds of each person; the obtaining data were introduced in a Pentium IV computer by means of EPINFO Program to calculate them. The female sex was the one that predominate, and it happens the same wit the skin colour (not white finding the ages between 21 and 41 years as high frequency. The moderate ptosis was the most usual, predominating the unilaterals and from etiological point of view: The acquires; obtaining the traumatics the highest incidence within them; resulting ametropias as the ocular pathologies more notables in studied patients and a considerable number of them were tributary of the surgical treatment even though the latest diagnostic, that´s why a previous detection is imposed of the referred entity, helping to improve your Qualitiy Life and reincorporating to your society .

  13. Caracterizaciónmineralógica del diamante de los placeres aluvionales del río Icaburú, SantaElena de Uairén, estado Bolívar, Venezuela Mineralogicalcharacterization of the diamond of the alluvial placer from Icabaru River, Santa Elena de Uairén, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albino Newman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La caracterizaciónmineralógica consistió en el estudio de 458 cristales de diamantes entre lasvariedades gemológica e industrial, provenientes de la región de Santa Elena deUairén, específicamente de los placeres aluvionales localizados en los ríosIcabarú y Uaiparú. En este trabajo se realizaron análisis mineralógicos dondelas muestras fueron estudiadas a partir de las propiedades físicas, el pesopromedio de los cristales fue entre 0,2 y 1,0 quilates. Utilizando análisis demicroscopia óptica se estudiaron las secciones superficiales, permitiendo lacaracterización morfológica. En relación al color los porcentajes dedistribución son de 37% incoloros, 20,5% amarillos, 19% marrones, 9,5% verdes,3% negros, 7,5% con capas verdes y 3,5% capas castañas, también se consiguiódiferenciar la variedad policristalina de aspecto negruzco, denominadacarbonado. A partir de análisis de microscopía electrónica de barrido, aplicandola técnica Espectroscopía de Energía Dispersiva (EDS se consiguió reconocerfiguras superficiales como trigons, cuadrons, crecimiento enbloque, crecimiento laminar, estrías, surcos y colinas que permitieronestablecer la evolución morfológica, partiendo del octaedro primitivo y pasandopor fenómenos de disolución originando formas transicionales (111+(110,(111+{hkl}, proporcionando hábitos rombododecaedricos {110} y hexaoctaedricos{hkl}. Con análisis de espectroscopía de absorción en el infrarrojo (FTIR seobtuvieron datos de la composición química que permitieron determinar los tiposde diamante Ib, IaA, IaB , IaAB y IIa. Mediante espectroscopía micro- Raman seidentificaron inclusiones de olivino, ilmenita y granada, posicionadassuperficialmente en los cristales.Mineral characterization consisted on the study of 458diamond samples representative of gem-grade and industrialgrade varieties,obtained from alluvial (placer diamond exploration located in the Icabaru and Uaiparu Rivers, Santa Elena de Uairén. Mineral analyseswere predominantly focused on physical properties and average weight (0.2 and 1.0ct. Optical microscopy was used to study surface sections of diamonds andmorphological characterization which resulted in the following. In relation tocolor, distribution percentages were colorless (37%, yellow (20.5%, brown(19%, green (9,5%, black (3%, green lattice points (7.5%, and brown latticepoints (3.5%. Also, a polycrystalline variety known as carbonado, orblack diamond, was studied. Some surface shapes such as trigons, quadrilateral,block and film growth, groove and hillocks were determined through ScanningElectron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer technique (EDS.Morphological evolution could be established from the octahedral primitivethrough dissolution phenomena for (111+(110, (111+{hkl} facets having rhombicdodecahedron {hkl} and hexaoctahedron {110} habits. Chemical composition datawere collected through Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (FTIR, and diamondtypes were determined Ib with low nitrogen concentration, IaA, IaB and IaAbdiamonds with high, average and low nitrogen concentration and IIa diamondswith no nitrogen concentration. Inclusions of olivine, ilmenite and garnet onthe crystal surface were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  15. Muertes bajo sospecha: Investigación sobre el número de fallecidos en el desastre del estado Vargas, Venezuela, en 1999 Deaths under suspicion: Investigation on the number of deaths in the Vargas state disaster, Venezuela, in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Altez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El desastre ocurrido en diciembre de 1999 en el estado Vargas, Venezuela, dio la vuelta al mundo como noticia espectacular, en donde el número de fallecidos siempre osciló entre decenas de miles. Muchas de estas cifras fueron el resultado de declaraciones inexpertas o irresponsables, desde las cuales se nubló toda posibilidad de precisión al respecto, contribuyendo con ello a que la noción sobre aquel evento alimentara la imaginería y no la interpretación. Este trabajo se concentró en la sistematización de la información existente en los servicios forenses que intervinieron en el levantamiento de los cadáveres, así como en otras instancias vinculadas al caso, acompañando los razonamientos con aproximaciones cualitativas a la zona del desastre. Los resultados ofrecidos a la vuelta de esta investigación, no sólo discuten las cifras ofrecidas desde aquel momento, sino que también evidencian la problemática resultante de la no aplicación de metodologías eficaces para el trato de cadáveres en desastres con muertes masivas, demostrando, del mismo modo, la necesidad de desarrollar investigaciones formales sobre casos similares.The disaster happened in December of 1999 in the Vargas state, Venezuela, run around the world like spectacular news, in which the number of deceases always oscillated between tens of thousands. Many of these numbers were the result of inexpert or irresponsible declarations, from which all possibility of precision became cloudy on the matter, contributing with it to that the notion on that event fed suppositions and not interpretations. This work are focused in the systematization of the existing information in the forensic offices that took part in the rise of corpses, as well as other instances to the case, accompanying the reasoning with qualitative approaches to the disaster zone. The results offered around this investigation, not only discuss the numbers offered from that moment, but that also demonstrate

  16. Energy sector developments in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state and future development of the oil, gas and coal sector in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has oil reserves of 73 billion barrels, gas reserves of 143 TCF and coal reserves of 6 billion BOE. The country has a refining capacity of 2.9 million barrels per day, a petrochemical capacity of 7.7 million tons per year, and a coal capacity of 4.6 million tons per year. The largest refiners in Venezuela are Shell, Exxon, PDVSA, Mobil, BP, Chevron and Texaco. In 1996 the total oil and derivatives exports for Venezuela were 2.8 million barrels per day. Fifty-eight companies from 14 countries participate in the Venezuelan upstream market. Fifteen operating agreements have been awarded to 27 companies from nine countries. Third round operating agreements have been awarded to 26 companies and profit sharing agreements are in force involving 14 companies. Four vertically integrated projects (Maraven-Conoco, Maraven-Total, Corpoven-Arco-Texaco-Phillips, and Lagoven-Mobil-Veba) are currently underway. The Orimulsion(R) project, the refining system, the natural gas production, marketing and transmission system, associated future projects for the 1997-2006 time frame, and developments in the field of petrochemicals also have been reviewed. 21 figs

  17. Energy sector developments in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantin, R. [Corpoven, (Venezuela)

    1997-12-31

    The current state and future development of the oil, gas and coal sector in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has oil reserves of 73 billion barrels, gas reserves of 143 TCF and coal reserves of 6 billion BOE. The country has a refining capacity of 2.9 million barrels per day, a petrochemical capacity of 7.7 million tons per year, and a coal capacity of 4.6 million tons per year. The largest refiners in Venezuela are Shell, Exxon, PDVSA, Mobil, BP, Chevron and Texaco. In 1996 the total oil and derivatives exports for Venezuela were 2.8 million barrels per day. Fifty-eight companies from 14 countries participate in the Venezuelan upstream market. Fifteen operating agreements have been awarded to 27 companies from nine countries. Third round operating agreements have been awarded to 26 companies and profit sharing agreements are in force involving 14 companies. Four vertically integrated projects (Maraven-Conoco, Maraven-Total, Corpoven-Arco-Texaco-Phillips, and Lagoven-Mobil-Veba) are currently underway. The Orimulsion(R) project, the refining system, the natural gas production, marketing and transmission system, associated future projects for the 1997-2006 time frame, and developments in the field of petrochemicals also have been reviewed. 21 figs.

  18. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  19. CEO and Director Turnover in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Urbi Garay; Maximiliano González

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of corporate governance structures and mechanisms outside the United States by looking at a specific emerging economy: Venezuela. We first build a corporate governance practices index for publicly listed companies in this country; the overall results indicate that Venezuela exhibits relatively low corporate governance scores. Using this limited sample, we are able to find a positive relation between this corporate governance index and...

  20. Petrochemical development in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation highlighted the evolution of the petrochemical industry in Venezuela. Comparative advantages for the industry such as (1) abundant low cost energy, (2) attractive geographical position, (3) good infrastructure, (4) skilled, low cost labour force, and (5) regional integration, were reviewed. A summary of national production, refining, and marketing facts for petrochemicals, coal, orimulsion, and marine transportation were presented, along with financial information concerning revenues from sales, and profits and investments. Future plans to maximize the creation of value for the nation through increased oil production and partial privatization of state petroleum enterprises, were reviewed. The current state and future plans for focused development of fertilizers, olefins and olefin derivatives, and methanol products were outlined. Production statistics for three large petrochemical complexes, - El Tablazo, Moron and Jose - were also presented. 9 figs

  1. Three new species of Macrothemis from Northern South America (Odonata: Libellulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J.

    1987-01-01

    Macrothemis belliata spec. nov. (male holotype: Suriname, District Marowijne, Lawa/Litani, Gransoela), M. ludia spec. nov. (male holotype: Venezuela, State of Bolivar, Santa Lucía) and M. proterva spec. nov. (male holotype: Venezuela, State of Bolivar, Luepa) are described and illustrated, and their

  2. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela Trihalomethanes in the drinking water of Carabobo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarmiento

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p Objective: Disinfection of water with chlorine in water treatment plants leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs. These compounds are associated with adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to analyze THM concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the two main water treatment systems of Carabobo State: the Alejo Zuloaga plant and the Pao-Cachinche reservoir, which form the Central Regional System I (CRS I, and the Lucio Baldo Soules plant and the Pao-La Balsa reservoir, which form the Central Regional System II (CRS II. Methods: We analyzed 144 water samples collected in 6 samplings carried out in 2000

  3. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976

  4. An Experiment in Systematized Course Design for ESP at the Universidad Simon Bolivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Dolores N.; And Others

    In order to bring about some continuity and coherence among the various English for Special Purposes (ESP) courses at the Universidad Simon Bolivar, a systematization project was undertaken. The purpose was to provide general guidelines for the production and future revision of materials while taking into account the specific characteristics of…

  5. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.197 Galveston Harbor, Bolivar.... 29°21′14.5″ N 94°45′49.0″ W. and thence to the point of beginning. (b) The regulations. (1) The... provisions in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. (8) Fixed moorings, piles or stakes, and floats or buoys...

  6. Validación de "infarto de miocardio" como causa de muerte en certificados de defunción, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela Validation of "myocardial infarction" as cause of death on death certificates in Barquisimeto, Lara state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Las tasas de mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica (CI han sido utilizadas ampliamente en el diagnóstico de la salud cardiovascular de regiones y países. Sin embargo, su validez ha sido cuestionada fundamentalmente por lo que le da origen: el certificado de defunción (CDD. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de establecer la validez del diagnóstico "infarto de miocardio (IM" como causa de muerte en los CDD de muertes intra-hospitalarias en la ciudad de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela. Entre julio de 1991 y junio de 1992, se identificaron todos los CDD con las características mencionadas, se trató de ubicar la historia clínica correspondiente a cada caso y cualquier otra información clínica pertinente. Se registraron 247 CDD elegibles y se ubicó información clínica adecuada en 136 casos (55%. Aplicando los criterios del Proyecto MONICA, se encontraron M-definitivo en 62 casos (45,6%, IM-probable en 31 casos (22,8% y No-IM en 43 casos (31,6%. Los resultados indican que existe un sobre registro de casos de muerte por IM del 32% (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 23,8-39,4. A la luz de estos resultados es necesario estudiar los factores que inciden en la exactitud de los diagnósticos IM en los CDD. Con esto tendríamos elementos para revisar las normas y los procedimientos empleados en la producción y manejo de los CDD, así como preparar un programa de educación para mejorar la precisión de los mismos.Death rates due to Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD are widely used to assess regional and national cardiovascular health status. However, their validity is questionable, essentially because they are based on death certificates (DCs. The present study was conducted in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Barquisimeto (Lara State, Venezuela, from June 1991 to July 1992. The purpose was to establish the validity of the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in DCs of intrahospital deaths. Efforts were made to locate all clinical charts and any

  7. Venezuela opens up to explorers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of Venezuela's first exploration bidding round since oil nationalisation in 1976 was a turning-point in the country's energy policy. The state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA), has said that the bidding round could generate investment of some $11 billion eventually in development investment and that over the next 10 years, nearly 20 percent of a planned $55 billion, 10-year state oil company investment programme could also come from foreign or private sector oil investment. Should this optimistic prediction materialise, Venezuela, whose 2.75 million b/d oil production in October was some 400,000 b/d over its Opec quota, will remain both the dominant oil producer in Latin America and the top-ranking oil exporter to the US market. In May this year, Venezuelan oil exports topped 1.43 million b/d, or some 16.8 percent of the US market, compared with Saudi Arabia's 15.7 percent. (author)

  8. BOLIVAR-tool for analysis and simulation of metocean extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatoukhin, Leonid; Boukhanovsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Metocean extreme events are caused by the combination of multivariate and multiscale processes which depend from each other in different scales (due to short-term, synoptic, annual, year-to-year variability). There is no simple method for their estimation with controllable tolerance. Thus, the extreme analysis in practice is sometimes reduced to the exploration of various methods and models in respect to decreasing the uncertainty of estimates. Therefore, a researcher needs the multifaceted computational tools which cover the various branches of extreme analysis. BOLIVAR is the multi-functional computational software for the researches and engineers who explore the extreme environmental conditions to design and build offshore structures and floating objects. It contains a set of computational modules of various methods for extreme analysis, and a set of modules for the stochastic and hydrodynamic simulation of metocean processes. In this sense BOLIVAR is a Problem Solving Environment (PSE). The BOLIVAR is designed for extreme events analysis and contains a set of computational modules of IDM, AMS, POT, MENU, and SINTEF methods, and a set of modules for stochastic simulation of metocean processes in various scales. The BOLIVAR is the tool to simplify the resource-consuming computational experiments to explore the metocean extremes in univariate and multivariate cases. There are field ARMA models for short-term variability, spatial-temporal random pulse model for synoptic variability (storms and calms alteration), cyclostationare model of annual and year-to-year variability. The combination of above mentioned modules and data sources allows to estimate: omnidirectional and directional extremes (with T-years return periods); multivariate extremes (the set of parameters) and evaluation of their impacts to marine structures and floating objects; extremes of spatial-temporal fields (including the trajectory of T-years storms). An employment of concurrent methods for

  9. Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hectorina Rodulfo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water and food, especially meat. METHODS: Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. RESULTS: The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%, and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2% strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.

  10. [The phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in the High Orinoco tropical humid forest, Amazonas State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rosas, J

    2001-01-01

    By international agreement (Austria-Venezuela), an experimental area was selected for canopy ecology studies. A tower crane was installed that allows direct access to the canopy of 1.5 ha area of the forest. This is a quantitative study of the phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in an Amazon tropical humid forest. The forest of Surumoni consists roughly of four arboreal strata, i.e., emergent (conspicuous), superior, middle and lower. The largest proportion of trees occurs in the lower diametric classes (smaller DBH), and the total distribution approaches an "inverted J" curve. The most abundant tree species in the three strata is Goupia glabra (Celastraceae); making this forest a case where a single arboreal species dominants. Mean of epiphyte individuals per occupied phorophyte is too variable, depending on phorophyte species and showing no correlation with occupied tree percentage. The species Eschweleira parviflora (Lecythidaceae) represented in the study area by a single individual of the superior stratum with high density of vascular epiphytes, indicates that this support species is particularly favorable for the establishment epiphytic flora. PMID:11915448

  11. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal concentrations were within levels allowed worldwide (FAO, BFL, FDA). • The highest concentration of heavy metals was found during the drought period. • Significant relationships amid size and metal concentration only found in drought. - Abstract: Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu > Ni > Mn > Co > Cd > Pb, and for drought: Cu > Mn > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes

  12. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos sobre pediculosis capitis en arenales, Estado Falcón, Venezuela Clinical and epidemiological aspects on pediculosis capitis in, Falcon State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cazorla PerfettI

    2012-03-01

    ón fueron: jugar en piso de tierra (OR = 2,20; p = 0,012 y lavarse el cabello ≥2 /semana (OR = 1,01; p = 0,002. A la luz de los resultados obtenidos, es recomendable mejorar las condiciones socio-sanitarias del sector y mantener campañas de promoción y educación para la salud.The human pediculosis capitis is a scalp and hair infestation caused by head lice Pediculus humanus capitis, which may result in bacterial secondary infections by intense scratching as well as anemia, anxiety and embarassment which are increased by children' exclusion from school under "no-nit" policy. From March to July 2011, a cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical and epidemiological profiles of head lice infestation among 199 (79 males and 120 females inhabitants of all age groups (0-75 years; ± D.S= 21.28 ± 17 of a rural and small town Arenales, from the semiarid region of Falcon state, north-western Venezuela.The diagnosis of head lice infestation was made by clinical naked eye inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphal stage, or eggs (nit by line-toothed head lice comb. Lice was cleared and mounted in Hoyer’s medium for microscopic observation. All individuals were evaluated by physical examinationand a detailed, structured questionnaire. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 10.10% (20/199. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (90% than in boys (10% [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.04; p = 0.01] and school-aged children (OR= 1.02;p=0,015; with hair length >3cm (OR = 2,44; p = 0.004 and lissotrichic type (OR = 2.25; p = 0.02, (OR= 2.25; 0.98 - 5.18, however, these were not significantly different among races or hair colours (P > 0.05. 65% of the individuals had only nits with 1 up to 64 per individuals, found between 0.1 and 9 cm from scalp on all anatomical regions of the head, and having school-aged children the higher ectoparasitic loads. Among clinical signs and symptoms, head pruritus (6

  13. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12341015

  14. SEASONAL VARIATION OF AVIFAUNAL COMPOSITION AND COMMUNITIES IN FOOTHILL GALLERY FOREST FRAGMENTS IN THE MANZANARES RIVER MEDIUM BASIN, STATE OF SUCRE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín-Espinoza, Gedio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the seasonal variation of avifaunal composition and structural community in foothill gallery forest fragments in the Manzanares river medium basin, state of Sucre, Venezuela, at two sectors: Guaranache-Cancamure (GC y Tataracual-Cangrejal (TC, during february-may (dry period and june-november (rainy period. Birds samples were taken monthly by point counts and mist-nets. Correlation analysis and non parametric tests were estimated to examine differences among seasonal periods. 73 species were recorded and were grouped into 7 feeding guilds. Mean diversity of both periods was high but no significant; although dry period diversity was moderately higher than rainy period. Richness and diversity showed no significant differences among periods, neither showed significant correlation with rainy levels. Occurrence frequency showed unusual > eventual > habitual > prevalent species pattern. Complementary index showed a substantial mean similarity monthly (67%. For both methods species cumulative curves displayed similar growing patterns. Insectivores and frugivores-insectivores were the most diverse feeding guilds. Amazilia tobaci obtained the highest specific importance index. Pitangus sulphuratus was the most persistent species. Community dynamic of avifauna of these riparian landscape would seem be influenced primarily to a suitable resources availability because to vertical and horizontal floristic heterogeneity. Conservation plans for medium basin of Manzanares river should take into account regular deforestation activities, particularly periodic and uncontrolled burnings, which likely would affect more adversely species associated with understory habitats.

  15. Characterization of the mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity of Pantoea agglomerans MMB051 isolated from an iron-rich soil in southeastern Venezuela (Bolívar State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán, Miguel; Pérez, Elizabeth; Ball, María M; Bahsas, Alí; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2009-04-01

    The mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) activity of a Pantoea agglomerans strain, namely MMB051, isolated from an iron-rich, acidic soil near Ciudad Piar (Bolívar State, Venezuela), was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including tri-calcium phosphate [Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)], iron phosphate (FePO(4)), aluminum phosphate (AlPO(4)), and Rock Phosphate (RP) were tested as sole sources of P for bacterial growth. Solubilization of Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) was very efficient and depended on acidification of the external milieu when MMB051 cells were grown in the presence of glucose. This was also the case when RP was used as the sole P source. On the other hand, the solubilization efficiency toward more insoluble mineral phosphates (FePO(4) and AlPO(4)) was shown to be very low. Even though gluconic acid (GA) was detected on culture supernatants of strain MMB051, a consequence of the direct oxidation pathway of glucose, inorganic-P solubilization seemed also to be related to other processes dependent on active cell growth. Among these, proton release by ammonium (NH(4)(+) ) fixation appeared to be of paramount importance to explain inorganic-P solubilization mediated by strain MMB051. On the contrary, the presence of nitrate (NO(3)(-) ) salts as the sole N source affected negatively the ability of MMB051 cells to solubilize inorganic P.

  16. [Mollusks associated to the submerged roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (L.), in the Gulf of Santa Fe, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, B; Jiménez, M

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative monthly study of the mollusks community associated to the submerged roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (L.), between October of 1998 and September of 1999, in six stations of the Gulf of Santa Fe, (Sucre State, Venezuela). Were collected 4,704 specimens, 45 species of mollusks were identified (22 gastropods, 15 bivalves and 8 chitons). The most abundant species were: Crassostrea rhizophorae, Isognomon bicolar, I. alatus and Brachidontes exustus. The highest values in diversity and evenness, and the smallest dominant values, were in the stations three and four, while the opposed happened in the stations one and two. The analysis of likeness showed that in the first five stations the space variations in the composition of the community are bigger than the temporary variations, while in the station six the temporary differences prevail. They were factors that could be important to determine the structure of the community, as vicinity to other ecosystems and/or specific biological aspects of the species like adaptations to fluctuating conditions, nutritious habits and migration in search of shady and protected atmospheres. PMID:12947593

  17. Venezuela: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Venezuela's expansion by state oil company PDVSA has gone from a mere concept a year ago to a well-defined plan. The five-year project that began this year and runs through 1995 received a $4-billion upgrading last fall to $25 billion. Money will be spent in increments of $5 billion/year, and all sectors are involved. Largest share, about $10.5 billion, will go to upstream projects, with $6 billion to be invested in refining, $6 billion in petrochemicals, $1.5 billion in coal and $800 million in domestic marketing. PDVSA intends to finance most of the spending directly from its cash flow. The upstream spending will go toward boosting oil production to more than 3.6 MMbpd by the beginning of 1996, with capacity topping at 4.2 MMbopd. Such heavy spending should prove a boon to the Venezuelan economy. The oil industry constitutes 23% of Venezuela's GNP, accounts for 75% of governmental revenues and produces 70% of the nation's annual foreign exchange earnings. The Ministry of Planning already is forecasting a 7% leap in real growth of the GNP this year

  18. Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, G.D. [Pantera Petroleum Inc., San Leandro, CA (United States)

    1995-06-19

    Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

  19. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    ller, Laura Beiras, Juan Contreras, Gabriel Torrente, Aimée Guerrero, Francisco Jose Blanco Tovar, and last but not least, my son Johann Puerta. Without their generous help and great effort, it would have been impossible for me to organize, reach all the goals and finally, successfully realize the workshop. We are also grateful for the financial support of CLAF (Centro Latino American de Fisica), Fonacit (Fondo Nacional de Ciencia Investigacion y Tecnología), IVIC (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificos), Fundacion Banco Mercantil, whose sponsorship and finnacial support were vital to the realization of the event. We would like to thank La Universidad del Zulia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Instituto Universitario de Tecnología, IDEA (Instituto de Estudios Avanzados), and Asociación de Amigos de la Universidad Simón Bolivar for their help and support in different ways for the good results we achieved in most of the meetings and the participation of their students who attend the Workshops. Finally we appreciate very much the Ministry for Science and Technology (Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Ciencia y la Tecnología) for their contribution to the workshops and to the publication process. We are under the impression that our meeting was successful, as we expected, and we are thankful for the collaboration of our Institution, and the close relation we had with all the physics researchers of Latin America and abroad (Europe, USA, Australia and Russia). Lastly, many thanks to the invited speakers for their lectures presented which have given a whole overview of the state of the art in different areas of the Physics of Plasma.

  20. Descripción del macho y de la hembra de Lutzomyia larensis n.sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae del estado Lara, Venezuela Descrição do macho e da fêmea de Lutzomyia larensis n.sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae do Estado Lara, Venezuela Description of the male and female of Lutzomyia larensis n.sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from State of Lara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Arredondo C.

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Es dada la descripción del macho y de la hembra de una nueva espécie de flebotomíneo recolectado en tronco de árboles en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La nueva espécie pertenece al subgénero Helcocyrtomyia, Barrto, 1962 o al grupo vexator, série peruensis de Theodor (1965 y de Young & Fairchild (1974. El macho se identifica por la presséncia de 5 espinos en el dististilo y por el mechón de cerdas largas en el basistilo, implantadas en tubérculos gruesos y queratinizados. La hembra a la vez presenta armadura dl cibário con 4 dientes largos y una espermateca segmentada semejante a las de otras espécies de la série peruensis.É apresentada a descrição do macho e da fêmea de uma nova espécie de flebotomíneo coletado em tronco de árvore no Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Estado Lara, Venezuela. A nova espécie pertence ao subgênero Helcocyrtomyia, Barretto, 1962, ou grupo vexator, série peruensis de Theodor (1965 e de Young & Fairchild (1974. O macho da nova espécie apresenta cinco espinhos no dististilo e no basistilo um grupo de cerdas longas, implantadas em tubérculos fortes e queratinizados e a fêmea mostra quatro dentes horizontais no cibário e espermatecas segmentadas, semelhantes ao de outras espécies da série peruiensis.A description is given of both the male and female of a new species of phlebotomine sandfly cought in tree trunks in yacambú Nacional Park, State of Lara, Venezuela. The new species belongs to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, Barretto 1962 or group vexator, series peruensis of Theodor (1965 and of Young and Fairchild (1974. The male is characterized by the presence of 5 spines on the dististyle and a basal patch of long bristles on the basistyle, implanted on queratinized, strong tubercules. Female presents cibarial armature with 4 large teeth, and a segmental spermatheca similar to another species of the series peruensis.

  1. Venezuela takes responsabilidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No federal government officials showed up at the Oct. 29 ceremony to lauch the Responsabilidad Integral program of Asoquim, the Venezuelan chemical industry association. But that did not discourage industry representatives. Industry has tried to keep the Ministry of Environment Affairs involved as much as possible, says Danay Zoppi de Perez, corporate v.p. with Grupo Quimico. But industry was proud to be doing it anyway, despite the absence of government. It's a private, proactive initiative. Asoquim's program is based on the six Responsible Care codes. At the ceremony, 56 companies from Asoquim's membership of 150, which represents 90% of chemicals production in the country, signed on. Signatories include stateowned Petroquimica de Venezuela (Pequiven), domestic private-sector firms, and most of the multinationls operating in Venezuela. The ceremony drew officials from the fire service and civil defense authorities who have to deal with spills and accidents

  2. Venezuela ups the ante

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong performances by small and medium sized oil companies in Venezuela have contributed to the success of its oil industry. This paper considers the historical progress of the industry since its nationalisation twenty-one years ago, charting its attractiveness to investors and plans for expansion. Its very success has brought the Venezuelan oil industry into conflict with OPEC's quota system, which it argues, needs to be charged. (UK)

  3. Building destruction from waves and surge on the bolivar peninsula during hurricane ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A.; Rogers, S.; Sallenger, A.; Gravois, U.; Zachry, B.; Dosa, M.; Zarama, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Bolivar Peninsula in Texas was severely impacted by Hurricane Ike with strong winds, large waves, widespread inundation, and severe damage. This paper examines the wave and surge climate on Bolivar during the storm and the consequent survival and destruction of buildings. Emphasis is placed on differences between buildings that survived (with varying degrees of damage) and buildings that were completely destroyed. Building elevations are found to be the primary indicator of survival for areas with large waves. Here, buildings that were sufficiently elevated above waves and surge suffered relatively little structural damage, while houses at lower elevations were impacted by large waves and generally completely destroyed. In many areas, the transition from destruction to survival was over a very small elevation range of around 0.5 m. In areas where waves were smaller, survival was possible at much lower elevations. Higher houses that were not inundated still survived, but well-built houses at lower elevations could also survive as the waves were not large enough to cause structural damage. However, the transition height where waves became damaging could not be determined from this study. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  4. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  5. Las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas Agroalimentarias en Venezuela y el Desarrollo Sustentable: Enfoque basado en los Principios de Manufactura Esbelta Small and Medium Size Enterprises of the Food and Agriculture Sector and Sustainable Development: Approach based on Principles of Lean Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyamira R Cardozo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el proceso productivo de cuarenta y cinco pequeñas y medianas empresas productoras de queso guayanés telita ubicadas en dos municipios rurales del Estado Bolívar en Venezuela. El estudio estuvo dirigido a la identificación de los principios de manufactura esbelta y la aplicación del concepto de las Cinco "S": i protección del ambiente; manejo de los residuos; ii creación y mantenimiento de áreas de trabajo limpias y seguras; iii capacitación y difusión de esta cultura; iv procesos de autorregulación; y v aplicación de buenas prácticas de producción alimentaria. Ia investigación fue de campo con alcance descriptivo y se aplicó un cuestionario a las cuarenta y cinco empresas. Ios resultados demuestran que estas pequeñas y medianas empresas poseen limitaciones en sus sistemas productivos que impide su participación competitiva en el mercado.The productive processes of forty five small and medium size enterprises that manufacture guayanés telita cheese, located in two rural municipalities of the Bolivar State in Venezuela were analyzed. The objective of the study was identifying the principles of lean manufacture and the application of the concept of the Five "S": i environmental protection; ii waste management; iii development and maintenance of areas of clean and safe work; iv training and dissemination of this culture of self-regulation processes; and v implementing best practices for food production. The study was of the descriptive type and a questionnaire was applied to the forty five companies. The results show that these small and medium size enterprises have limitations in their production systems that prevent their competitive participation in the market.

  6. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic disease in the Warao, Kari'ña, and Chaima indigenous populations of Monagas State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Ysabel; Rosillo, Celenia; Cedeño, Ligia; Martínez, Yanira; Sánchez, Gloris; López, Geovalis; Pérez, Fernando; Martínez, Damarys; Maestre, Gabriela; Berbin, Sol; Chacón, Rosa; Stekman, Iván; Valls, Evart; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in the Warao, Kari'ña, and Chaima indigenous populations of Monagas State, Venezuela. A cross-sectional, analytical, community-based study was conducted in 1537 indigenous subjects ≥18 years old (38.6 % male, mean age 41.4 ± 17.5 years). The cross-culturally validated Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) diagnostic questionnaire was applied. Subjects with a positive COPCORD diagnosis (either historic or current pain) were evaluated by primary care physicians and rheumatologists. A descriptive analysis was performed and comparisons made using analysis of variance and the chi-square test. Pain in the last 7 days was reported by 32.9 %, with pain intensity, according to a Likert-type scale [no pain, 195 (38.5 %); minimal pain, 231 (45.6 %); strong pain, 68 (13.4 %); intense pain, 5 (0.9 %)], 38.0 % reported historical pain, and 641 (41.7 %) had either historic or current pain. Of the COPCORD-positive subjects, pain most frequently occurred in the knee, back, and hands. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases included osteoarthritis (14.1 %), back pain (12.4 %), rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) (9.7 %), undifferentiated arthritis (1.5 %), rheumatoid arthritis (1.1 %), and fibromyalgia (0.5 %). Chaima (18.3 %) and Kari'ña (15.6 %) subjects had a high prevalence of osteoarthritis, and Warao subjects had a high prevalence of low back pain (13.8 %). The prevalence of RRPS was high in all three ethnic groups. The Chaima group had the highest prevalence of rheumatic diseases, with 2.0 % having rheumatoid arthritis. This study provides useful information for health care policy-making in indigenous communities. PMID:26895629

  7. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia; Contaminacion por mercurio en aire del distrito minero de San Martin de loba en el Departamento de Bolivar, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K., E-mail: jolivero@unicartagena.edu.co [Universidad de Cartagena, Facultad de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Grupo de Quimica Ambiental y Computacional, Calle de la Universidad 36-100, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia)

    2014-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m{sup 3}, while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m{sup 3}. In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m{sup 3}. These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  8. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  9. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m3, while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m3. In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m3. These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  10. Venezuela y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cardozo de da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela es uno de los principales actores económicos de América Latina, de allí la importancia de conocer las características de su política exterior. Los desarreglos de la política exterior hacia el caribe pueden ser resueltos si se les comprende en su dimensión local y global. En este sentido es necesario avanzar del espacio "inter-societal" de la preocupación estrictamente comercial a los espacios culturales y de cooperación técnica.

  11. Water buffaloes in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    J. Reggeti G.

    2010-01-01

    Water buffalo was introduced into Venezuela 85 years ago, but real growth and development started in the 70’s. ASOBUFALO, the Venezuelan buffalo breeder’s society, was formed in 1985, at the start buffalo were bred for beef, very soon their milking potential was realized and most farmers opted for a dual purpose milk/meat operation. Milk production and milk processing have become the principal operation of buffalo breeders. There are over 669 buffalo farmers in the country Our pri...

  12. Asociación entre la incidencia de leishmaniosis cutánea y el índice de desarrollo humano y sus componentes en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela Association between cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the human development index and its components in four endemic states of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar las posibles asociaciones entre el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH y sus componentes, y la incidencia de Leishmaniosis cutánea (LC en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara y Sucre en el período 1994 al 2003. Materiales y métodos. La data socioeconómica (clasificada de acuerdo al Banco Mundial se obtuvo del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y la epidemiológica del Ministerio de Salud, ambos de Venezuela. Para este estudio ecológico se evaluó la variación anual de las variables y se realizó modelos de regresión. Resultados. El IDH varió en el período, de 0,6746 en 1994 a 0,8144 en 2003 (p=0,90, asimismo, se observó un aumento de la incidencia acumulada de Leishmaniosis, en especial del año 1998 (7,3 casos/100 000 hab a 1999 (11,3 casos/100 000 hab. Al analizar con los modelos de regresión lineal, se observó que la relación entre las variables epidemiológicas y sociales era diferente a nivel de los Estados evaluados. Para Mérida y Trujillo se observó un descenso significativo de la incidencia de LC con relación al aumento del porcentaje de alfabetización (pObjectives. Assess potential relationships between the Human Development Index (HDI and its components and the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in four endemic States of Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara and Sucre in the period 1994-2003. Material and methods. Socioeconomical data (classified according the World Bank was obtained from the National Institute of Statistics, and the epidemiological data from the Ministry of Health, both from Venezuela. For this ecological study the annual variation of the variables was assessed and also regression models were done. Results. The HDI varied in the period from 0.6746 in 1994 to 0.8144 in 2003 (p=0.90. During this time an increase in the cumulative incidence of Leishmaniasis was observed, particularly from 1998 (7.3 cases/100,000 pop to 1999 (11.3 cases/100,000 pop. Analyzing

  13. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?; Kan Venezuela's oliesector Chavez' ambities nog langer dragen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-15

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [Dutch] De auteur beschrijft de teruggang van de olie-industrie van Venezuela en de reacties van president Chavez op de budgettaire crisis in Venezuela. Politisering, dalende investeringen en de verplichtingen m.b.t. de overvloed aan sociale uitgaven zorgen er voor dat de nationale oliemaatschappij Petroleos de Venezuela niet in staat is om efficient te produceren en de productie op peil te houden. Dalende olie-productie en lagere olieprijzen zorgen er ook voor dat de president niet in staat is om de rijkdom te verdelen over de armen in Venezuela. Hij is op zoek naar manieren om meer te halen uit de slecht functionerende economie. Zijn dure buitenlandse Venezuela beleid, onder meer door ondersteuning van regionale bondgenoten, in het bijzonder Cuba, en het zoeken naar export mogelijkheden, behalve naar de USA, pakt fiancieel gezien slecht uit. De verarmde massa's van Venezuela steunden Chavez nog in de verkiezingen in

  14. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  15. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma. PMID:15880361

  16. Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products

  17. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  18. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  19. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  20. Detección y diferenciación de Entamoeba histolytica y Entamoeba dispar mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en individuos de una comunidad del Estado Zulia, Venezuela Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by polymerase chain reaction in a community in Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulbey Rivero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación diferencial de Entamoeba histolytica y Entamoeba dispar es esencial para un tratamiento adecuado del paciente y con fines epidemiológicos. Para determinar la prevalencia de E. histolytica y E. dispar se estandarizó y aplicó un ensayo de PCR, utilizando oligonucleótidos específicos para cada especie. 204 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad de Santa Rosa de Agua (Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, fueron analizadas a través del examen directo con SSF (0,85% y lugol, concentrado de formol-éter y PCR. Al examen microscópico, 42 individuos (20,58% presentaron formas evolutivas del complejo E. histolytica/E. dispar; mientras que la técnica de PCR evidenció un total de 47 casos positivos a estas amibas; de los cuales 22 eran portadores de E. histolytica (10,78%, 16 (7,84% de E. dispar y 9 (4,41% presentaron infección mixta. No hubo diferencia significativa al relacionar las variables sexo y presencia de E. histolytica y/o E. dispar, ni con los grupos etarios. No existieron casos de estas amibas, en los menores de 2 años. La frecuencia observada de E. histolytica (31/204, demuestra el carácter endémico de la amibiasis en esta comunidad.Differential identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is essential for both appropriate patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. To determine the prevalence of these amoeba infections in Santa Rosa de Agua (Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela, a PCR assay using specific primers for each species was standardized and applied. 204 stool samples were analyzed through direct microscopic examination with SSF (0.85% and lugol, formol-ether concentration, and PCR. Under direct microscopy, 42 individuals (20.58% presented the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Meanwhile PCR showed 47 positive cases for these amoebas: 22 E. histolytica (10.78%, 16 E. dispar (7.84%, and 9 (4.41% mixed infections. There was no significant difference in the presence of E

  1. The Educational System of Venezuela. Education around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Edward J.

    History, structure, legal bases, and planned reforms of the educational system of Venezuela are discussed. The conflicting roles of church and state in administering education have been reconciled within the past two decades, with resultant increases in enrollment and government financing. Curriculum regulation, coordination, and supervision are…

  2. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  3. Uranium prospection in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The worldwide increase of energy consumption and high fossil fuels costs generates the necessity of alternative energy sources. At present, nuclear energy is substituting the use of hydrocarbons, due to its high performance and contribution to environmental preservation, since it avoids the emission of greenhouse gases. Uranium consumer countries will continue to increase its demand, and even, is expected the incorporation of new reactors in countries with emerging economies. Base in the statement considered above, investment in new mineral deposit is justified. At present, some countries are motivated to start or continue the uranium exploration because of the evolution of the nuclear energy industry. Venezuela started exploration in the mid of 1970s, and stopped at 1980s. Our purpose is to evaluate uranium resources potential in the country, both for own use or export. In order to locate potential areas for exploration, in this initial phase all data from previous period is being compiled, incorporating information from oil exploration (seismic data, wells profiles, etc.). This information is been digitalized to generate a database into a geographical information system. Preliminary results show three areas of interest, where new geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys are propose. At this time, we do not have specific information about ore reserves, but we have anomalous areas that have been established as starting points to continue the uranium exploration in the country. (author)

  4. Desarrollo humano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idana Berosca Rincón Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo principal analizar la tendencia y evolución del desarrollo humano en Venezuela para el periodo 2000-2010. Se abordó la investigación enmarcada en una metodología de tipo positivista con técnicas estadísticas. Se concluyó que los recursos escasos y las dificultades históricas exigen un incremento de esfuerzos presupuestarios y de gestión, en cantidad, calidad y transparencia por parte del Estado a través del gasto público. En los últimos años, el Estado no ha aprovechado plenamente el potencial de la política fiscal y los periodos de bonanza económica, precedidos por los auspiciosos auges petroleros, para fomentar, estimular y consolidar el desarrollo humano que permita a la población en general tener calidad de vida cónsonos con una sociedad conducente al bienestar general sostenible y permanente. Esto se explica por diversas limitaciones y retos afrontados, como la falta de diversificación del financiamiento y gasto público, la exigua carga fiscal, la corrupción dentro de la praxis política, la estructura mayormente regresiva del sistema de recaudación, el gasto público y social insuficiente e inequitativo.

  5. Risk of Trypanosoma cruzi I (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) transmission by Panstrongylus geniculatus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Caracas (Metropolitan District) and neighboring States, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J; Torrellas, Annhymariet; García, Carlos; Segovia, Maikell; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2005-11-01

    The collection of Panstrongylus geniculatus bugs by inhabitants of dwellings in Caracas city (Metropolitan District) and in the neighboring Miranda and Vargas Sates, Venezuela, allowed for the gathering of data on the potential role of this sylvatic triatomine bug as a vector of Chagas disease in this area. The natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was recorded by examining fresh and stained faeces of the bugs. Additionally, a random amplification of polymorphic DNA technique for parasite identification and group typing was employed. A dot-ELISA test was used to identify the gut content of the triatomine bugs with the aim of assessing and quantifying the vector-human contact. Sixty-seven specimens (76.1%) were positive to T. cruzi (identified as T. cruzi I) and 60.2% (53/88) gave a positive reaction to the human antiserum. The human blood-positive samples included mixed blood meals with domestic animals (dog, pig and cow) (9.4%) and with mouse (3.8%). The overall Human Blood Index, measured as the percentage of bugs whose gut contents reacted with human antiserum on the total numbers of bugs that reacted with all the antisera tested, was 98.1%. Almost 41% of the bugs that had fed on humans were also positive for T. cruzi. These data show that the feeding of P. geniculatus on humans does not seem to be accidental and that its rate of infection by T. cruzi is high in this area which is not regarded as endemic for Chagas disease by the National Control Programme. This situation is particularly striking because it occurs in and around Caracas, the capital city, where 20% of the whole population of Venezuela live, human migrations from endemic areas are continuous, people in the crowded shantytown as well as people living in high-quality country houses are equally at risk and the epidemiological cycle Didelphis marsupialis/Rattus rattus-P. geniculatus-human does appear to occur successfully. PMID:16019006

  6. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela Escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae na Ilha de Margarita, Nordeste da Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De Sousa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school, in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.Descrevem se os dois primeiros casos de escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae. Os acidentes ocorreram no ambiente antrópico (um no domicilio e outro na escola na aldeia de La Sierra, Ilha de Margarita, Estado de Nueva Esparta, nordeste da Venezuela. Os dois acidentes, moderadamente graves, cursaram com acometimento pancreático e alterações eletrocardiografias. Este reporte permite incluir à Ilha de Margarita entre as áreas endêmicas de escorpionismo na Venezuela.

  7. Genetic homogeneity within Leishmania (L.) infantum isolated from human and dogs: the relationship with the sandfly fauna distribution in endemic areas of Nueva Esparta State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, N M; De Guglielmo, Z; Barrios, M A; Barrios, R M; Zerpa, O; Feliciangeli, M D

    2005-06-01

    Leishmania infantum has been described as a highly polymorphic group of parasites, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this paper we report the life-cycle of L. (L.) infantum in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, by using molecular diagnosis and characterization of parasites isolated from dogs, humans with visceral leishmaniasis and sand flies. The molecular characterization was carried out by use of kDNA restriction analysis, dot-blot hybridization with species-specific probes and RFLP of the PCR products. The results demonstrated that L. (L.) infantum is the parasite responsible for VL in the island. The parasites were revealed to be genetically homogeneous with no intra-specific differences between isolates from different individuals. The highest homology of the isolates was with L. (L.) infantum from the Old World rather than with L. (L.) chagasi from the New World. Additionally, we report the geographical distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis, and the relationship with the transmission of L. (L.) infantum in the studied area. PMID:15977897

  8. World status: Petroleos de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the petroleum industry in Venezuela. The industry was nationalized in 1975 and by 1990 was the world's fifth largest oil company. They have ambitious plans to expand production capacity and are looking to the major oil companies to assist. The prospects for sales of Orimulsion are also discussed. (UK)

  9. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Venezuela discusses the status of English in society and in the educational system. It also gives an account of Venezuelan political, economic, and social life. A description is given of the education system and reforms that have been proposed for nursery school through higher education.…

  10. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  11. National reports: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, F.R., Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, Venezuela, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. Seven non-participating Member states and three international organizations were represented by 23 observers. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3) summary of the present and outlook for the future use of radioisotopes in industry. The national reports of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, F.R., Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, Venezuela, Yugoslavia were made available to the participants and were summarised by the experts in each field and presented to the audience. They include description of the activities of national organizations responsible for isotope applications and statistical data on the subject

  12. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Boadas, Jenny; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Borges, Adolfo; Boadas, Jesús; Marcano, Jenny; Turkali, Iván; De Los Ríos, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae) are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school), in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela. PMID:18200425

  13. Cambios en el uso de tabaco y factores relacionados en estudiantes del sexto al noveno grado, Estado Lara, Venezuela, años 2000 y 2003 Changes in tobacco use and related factors in Junior High School students, Lara State, Venezuela, 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (EMTAJOVEN, sistema de vigilancia basado en la escuela elemental, fue realizada en el Estado Lara, Venezuela, por una coalición de organizaciones. El instrumento incluye: actitudes, conocimientos, conductas; acceso a productos, propaganda y exposición al humo de tabaco en el ambiente. Participación 85,7% (2000 y 79,3% (2003. Prevalencias (% 2000 vs. 2003 de: "primer contacto con tabaco": sin cambios (22,8% y 22,8%; "Fumar su primer cigarrillo antes los 10 años": disminuyó en varones (21,5% y 16,7%; "Fumadores actuales": sin cambio (8,4% y 8,3%; "Fumadores que desean dejarlo": aumentó en varones (62,6% y 84,7%; "Expuestos al humo de tabaco en el ambiente en lugares públicos": aumentó (43,9% y 50,7%; "Apoya prohibir fumar en lugares públicos": sin cambios(> 80% ambos,; "Recibieron cigarrillos promocionales gratis": aumentó (9,5% a 13,4%. "No tuvieron problema al comprar": disminuyó en varones (97% y 74,3% y mujeres (95,9% y 90,3%. El tabaquismo se mantiene sin cambios lo que puede imputarse al mercadeo y a la falta de efectividad de las leyes. Los datos presentados permiten examinar políticas y programas actuales a fin de ajustarlos a la realidad.The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS is a school-based surveillance system. In Lara State, Venezuela, it was conducted by a coalition of organizations. The instrument includes: attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, mass media, and marketing. Participation was 85.7% in 2000 and 79.3% in 2003. Comparing prevalence (% from 2000 to 2003: "first contact": unchanged (22.8%; "males having first cigarette before the age of 10": decreased (21.5% to 16.7%; "current cigarette smoker": unchanged (8.4% to 8.3%; "male smokers wanted to quit": increased (62.6% to 84.7%; "exposure to environmental tobacco smoke": increased (43.9% a 50.7%, "support ban on smoking in public places": unchanged (> 80%, "received free promotional

  14. Sistema de salud de Venezuela The health system of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Bonvecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Venezuela, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos humanos y materiales con los que cuenta, y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Este sistema cuenta con un sector público y un sector privado. El sector público está constituido por el Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud (MS y diversas instituciones de seguridad social, dentro de las que destaca el Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS. El MS se financia con recursos del gobierno central, estados y municipios. El IVSS se financia con cotizaciones patronales, cotizaciones de los trabajadores y con aportes del gobierno. Ambas instituciones cuentan con su propia red de atención ambulatoria y hospitalaria. El sector privado está constituido por prestadores de servicios que reciben pagos de bolsillo y por compañías aseguradoras. El sistema de salud venezolano atraviesa por un proceso de reforma desde la aprobación de la Constitución de 1999 que plantea la creación de un Sistema Público Nacional de Salud cuya punta de lanza hoy es el programa Barrio Adentro.This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS. The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999

  15. Determination of metals in samples of Cocuy hand craft penca, produced in Lara State, Venezuela, by use of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The cocuy is a hydro alcoholic mixture coming from the distillation of fermented juice of agave cocuy. It is originate from Venezuela and it is produced in arid and semi-arid regions of that Country. In the last years, government has been concerned to obtain the legalization of the cocuy produced by peasants from the Municipality Urdaneta. The characterization of the cocuy produced in this municipality is an important contribution for the community and for the health of the consumers. To study the characteristics of the process of cocuy production in that region, it was carried out a census of producers, and a survey was applied in order to obtain information about raw material, process and storage of the cocuy. Samples were taken from different producers, to which it was determined p H, acidity, alcoholic degree, dry extract, refraction index, and content of Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb. The determination of metal in samples of cocuy was carried out by the method of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. This technique is very appropriate for alcoholic matrices, since effects of matrices are not observed, contrary to the technique of Atomic Absorption, which is the suitable one for the quality standards for this kind of drinks. The method TXRF has the additional advantage of the simultaneous determination with sample volumes of microliters order. The in situ internal standardization (in the reflector) was investigated by use of two methodologies, and the traditional procedure of addition of the internal pattern was compared. The analytic quality of the obtained results for each procedure it was object of analysis and it will be discussed. The concentration of metal Zn, Fe and Pb was near to limit of detection of the technique. The accuracy of the obtained results for Cu was determined by comparison with the technique of Atomic Absorption and it will also be object of discussion. They were found differences between the content of metal and the alcoholic degree, among

  16. Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth

  17. [Historical overview of antimalarials used in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa de Artiles, N

    1993-06-01

    A historical review of antimalarials used in Venezuela is presented from the time when the bark of quina was used until the massive distribution of quinine and metoquine by the Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. The utility of chloroquine and primaquine against sensible parasite isolates and of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine, currently used against P. falciparum resistant strains, is thoroughly discussed. The author suggests use of artemisimine and its derivatives as a very promising antimalarial drug. She also stresses the possibility of the application of new antimalaria vaccine against P. falciparum blood states, presently assayed in the country as an additional tool in malaria control programs. PMID:11640680

  18. Visual pollution in public spaces in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each day cities inhabitants are exposed to visual pollution. This work assess the environmental impact caused by visual pollution in public spaces, using as a case of study a mixed-use neighborhood in San Cristobal, the capital of Tachira state, Venezuela. Such assessment was made using a qualitative approach, where special emphasis was paid to the perception of these impacts by a purposive sample of users of this area. The compilation and analysis of information reveal the main visual pollutants existing in these public spaces where, in addition to outdoor advertising, overhead wires, rubbish, graffiti, vacant land, among others, cars and outdoor kiosks. Neighborhood users are sensitive to the presence of visual pollutants, which affects them physically and psychologically, as well as for the visual quality of their environment. Such signs were used to guide a qualitative appraisal of environmental impacts generated by these circumstances and to propose policies to mitigate them.

  19. Environmental factors and the distribution of mansonelliases in Southern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of mansonelliases and their relation to various quantitative criteria were determined through the study of 1,057 subjects in 17 localities in ten regions of Amazonas State and Bolivar State. The total prevalence among the blood samples, determined through the Knott technique, was 18.54 %. 11.26 % were parasited by Mansonella perstans, 9.93 % by Mansonella ozzardi, and 2.63 % by both species. The average of microfilaremia was 48.19 mf/mL of blood in M. perstans and 13.79 mf/mL in M. ozzardi. In the regions studied, A/I. ozzardi has a wider area of distribution than M. perstans. Prevalence, average number of parasites per host, and the infection index have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the total annual precipitation mean for each region for M. perstans; in the case of M. ozzardi the quantitative parameters are positively correlated with the altitude of each region, this correlation being statistically significant. With respect to type of vegetation, M. perstans had a higher infection index in Amazonian caatinga transition in pluvial lowland forest, and M. ozzardi in semideciduous forest of the alisio type. Therefore two types of transmission, M. ozzardi-Simulium and M. perstans-Culicoides are suggested.

  20. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo, I.

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  1. Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rifakis; Jesús Benitez; Gilberto Cabaniel; Elianet Araujo; Elizabeth Hernández; Magdary Colina; Blanco, Juan J.; Anna Viloria; Ymora Aguilera; Andrea Maldonado; Nestor Rubio; Gloria Gervasio; Oscar Urdaneta; Henry Perez; Marisela Ravelo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a...

  2. Family Cluster of Mayaro Fever, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Jaime R.; Russell, Kevin L.; Vasquez, Clovis; Tesh, Robert B.; Salas, Rosalba; Douglas M Watts

    2004-01-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  3. Arquitectura e imaginarios urbanos en las Sabanas del Sur de Bolivar, 1948 – 1968 (actual Departamento de Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arturo Martinez Osorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, analiza la manera particular como se construye la idea de una arquitectura moderna en el contexto de las Sabanas del Sur de Bolivar lo que se conoce actualmente como el departamento de Sucre. Se examinan los distintos imaginarios urbanos identificados, la ciudad y región de prosperidad y progreso contrapuesta a una provincia marginal olvidada por una administración que no atendía sus necesidades. Estas diferentes formas de aprehender el mundo, confluyen en un objetivo, el deseo de transformar la ciudad, ligado al interés por una autonomía regional, motivo de la creación del departamento de Sucre.

  4. US energy security plans threatened by militant Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced with the need to import increasing volumes of crude oil and the desire to avoid over-dependence on the Middle East, the United States is looking to its own hemisphere for more oil. Unfortunately for Washington, the continent's largest oil exporter does not appear to want to co-operate. Venezuela's President, Hugo Chavez, wants to reduce his country's political and economic ties with the US and is seeking other markets for its oil. He has also picked a fight with US oil companies operating in Venezuela, disputing their taxes and refusing to approve their upstream investment programmes, giving rise to fears that oil and gas production will not grow as planned, thereby reducing future export levels. (author)

  5. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  6. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  7. Importance of energy efficiency in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezuela's economic development relies heavily on oil. The nation's energy production equals 3.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe) per day. Oil comprises 71% of the energy Venezuela produces, natural gas 20%, hydro 9% and coal 1%. Of the energy produced, Venezuela exports three quarters and consumes the remainder. Over 99% of Venezuela's energy exports are crude oil and oil products. Economic problems have constrained Venezuela's development in recent years. Saddled with an external debt of $US 32 billion, Venezuela will continue to encounter barriers for years to come. The nation is, however, in the process of restructuring its economy. As part of this process, the Venezuelan government has begun to integrate opportunities for improving the efficiency of its energy use. As a major oil producer and exporter, Venezuela is conscious of its responsibility to the international community to limit its emissions of energy-related CO2 into the atmosphere. For this reason, the Venezuelan government is in the process of creating a program to conserve and ration the use of energy. This effort incorporates a number of measures including the substitution of natural gas for liquid fuels for all end uses (including transportation activities), the increased reliance on hydropower in the generation of electricity and the reduction of waste in the production of natural gas to 2% of the economically recollectable volume

  8. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  9. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  10. Heavy water. A production alternative for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of heavy water production methods is made. Main facts about isotopic and distillation methods, reforming and coupling to a Hydrogen distillation plant are presented. A feasibility study on heavy water production in Venezuela is suggested

  11. Radioactive wastes handling problems in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description of the radioactive wastes problem in Venezuela is presented. The origins of the problem are shown in a squematic form. The requirements for its solution are divided into three parts: information system, control system, radioactive wastes hadling system. A questionnaire summarizing factors to be considered when looking for a solution to the problem in Venezuela is included, as well as conclusions and recomendations for further discussion

  12. Urban venezuela, a gaze from the barrios

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Barreto, Teolinda

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela is the most urbanized country of Latin America. Venezuelan big cities, as most cities in Latin America, have a noticeable difference between the self constructed zones (without planning), called barrios in Venezuela, and the zones constructed according to the norms and other urban regulations, called urbanizations. In the article the helplessness in regulation terms of community life as well as in the planning practices stands out as well as the means and mechanisms that are adapted...

  13. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

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    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  14. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  15. Nitrogen Losses as N2O and NO After Non-tillage Agricultural Practice in a Tropical Corn Field at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, T. J.; Gil, J. A.; Marquina, S.; Donoso, L. E.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.

    2005-12-01

    Historically, the most common agricultural practice in Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions, has been mono cropping, with extensive tillage operations that usually causes rapid soil degradation and nitrogen losses. Alternative production systems, such as non-tillage agricultural practices, have been extensively implemented during the last few years. However, studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these alternative practices are not widely available. This study was conducted at "Fundo Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9°23'33" N, 66° 38'30" W) in a corn field under the non-tillage agricultural practice, during the growing season June-August 2005. The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). The area has two well defined precipitation seasons: wet (May-October) and dry (November-April). The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). Because the irrigation of the crop depends on precipitation, the planting is scheduled during the months of highest precipitation in June-July. We measured nitrogenous gas emissions (N2O and NO), concentrations of total nitrogen (NT), NH4+ and NO3- in soil (0-100 cm) after fertilization to estimate the nitrogen losses. We also measured CO2 emissions to evaluate the relationship of microbial respiration to the emissions of nitrogenous trace gases. Soils were fertilized with 54 kgN/ha (NPK 12:24:12, nitrogen as NH4Cl) and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depth. Thirty days later, soils were fertilized by broadcast addition of 18 kgN/ha (as ammonium nitrate). Nitrous oxide emissions were highly dependant on the water content. Prior to fertilization N2O emissions were very low. Right after fertilization the emissions increased by a factor of 5 compared to pre-fertilization levels and increased to 100 times larger after the first heavy rain. NO emissions did not increase

  16. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of agricultural practices on NO and N2O emissions from corn fields at Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions. Historically, the most common agricultural practice in these regions has been mono cropping. Tillage (T) and non-tillage (NT) of soils represent approximately 30 and 70% of the planted area, respectively. Comparative studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these agricultural practices are not available for these regions. This study was conducted at the farm "Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9° 23' 33'' N, 66° 38' 30'' W) in two corn fields under tillage and non-tillage agricultural practice during the growing season (June-August 2006). A dry tropical forest, the primary ecosystem of the region, was evaluated for the same period of time. The corn and the forest fields were adjacent; therefore, they were exposed to the same meteorological conditions. The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). Nutrient soil concentrations (as nitrate and ammonium), water soil content and pH soil were measured in the fields for the same period of time. Soils were fertilized and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depths. Tillage soils were fertilized on June 1st 2006 with 65 kgN/ha of NPK (13:18:16/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl), whereas non-tillage soils were fertilized the next day with 56 kgN/ha of NPK (12:25:12/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl). Second fertilization of both fields was done thirty-seven days later by broadcast adding 58 kgN/ha approximately, using nitrophosphate as fertilizer (NP 33-3: 33% N total; 16.7% N- NO3- and 16.6% N- NH4+). In general, NO and N2O soil emissions from both corn fields increased after fertilization events, and depend on water soil content and nutrient soil concentration. N2O soil emissions were 11 and 9 times larger in

  17. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  18. Second record of Tityus bahiensis (Scorpiones, Buthidae from Venezuela: epidemiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the scorpion Tityus bahiensis Perty from Venezuela. The specimen was found alive in a wardrobe at a hotel resort in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela. Morphological characterization allowed its assignment to the Tityus bahiensis population inhabiting the southernmost area of the species' geographic range, e.g. the state of São Paulo in Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. The fact that the only available Venezuelan antiscorpion (anti-Tityus discrepans serum does not neutralize the effects of alpha- and beta-toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom (which resembles in composition that of T. bahiensis constitutes a warning to local clinicians confronted with envenomations by noxious species transported to Venezuela from Brazil by human agency.

  19. Un nuevo Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Venezuela noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Villarreal Manzanilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, la cual habita en una caverna del Estado Lara en la región noroccidental de Venezuela y es la cuarta especie del mismo conocida para este país. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. representa el primer registro del género para la fauna hipogea venezolana.A new species of Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from a cave in Lara state, in the northwest region of Venezuela, and is its fourth species known from this country. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. represents the first record of this genus from Venezuelan hypogean fauna.

  20. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  1. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  2. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar, e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais nessas zonas de contato. Nessa fronteira Brasil-Venezuela, podemos afirmar que o trânsito maior é de brasileiros para a Venezuela e para a Guiana, em decorrência das possibilidades de atuarem nas atividades de mineração, no comércio local e no setor de transportes, além das atividades ilegais, como tráfico de mulheres, contrabando de combustível e câmbio ilegal de moeda. Apresenta-se, no entanto, uma nova tendência que é a imigração de estrangeiros de outros países do continente, tais como peruanos e colombianos. Esses migrantes transfronteiriços percorrem os países fronteiriços em itinerários cuja porta de entrada é a Venezuela e a Guiana, mas também o Estado do Amazonas.BORDER zones are zones of cultural lending, borrowing and appropriation, and, therefore, a privileged vantage point for understanding the phenomenon of international migration. This essay attempts to examine certain aspects of the transborder dislocation process in northern Brazil (the city of Pacaraima, state of Roraima and in southern Venezuela (the city of Gran Sabana, state of Bolívar, and point out its trends and reflections on the sociocultural makeup of those contact zones. In this Brazil-Venezuela border, the largest movement is clearly that of Brazilians going into Venezuela and Guyana in search of job opportunities in mining, local business and transportation, not to mention illegal activities such as the traffic of women, fuel smuggling and

  3. Education, Democracy and Social Change: Venezuela's Education Missions in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The "Bolivarian Revolution" in Venezuela is conceptualised as a pedagogical project that aims to develop "twenty-first century Socialism" through state-grassroots collaboration in the reorganisation of political space in order to develop participatory, democratic institutions and processes. The cornerstones of this project to…

  4. Surname frequency and the isonymy structure of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Morales, Jorge; Barrai, Italo

    2000-05-01

    Isonymy in Venezuela was studied analyzing the surnames of 3.9 million adults 40 years and older, selected from the register of electors updated in 1991. The electors were not differentiated by sex and represented all 22 states of Venezuela and its Federal District. The states of Nueva Esparta, an island, and Mérida, in the Venezuelan Andes, have the highest coefficients of microdifferentiation (R(ST)) and of inbreeding due to random isonymy. The states of Miranda, Aragua, Carabobo, and the Federal District, which includes the capital, Caracas, or are very close to it, had the lowest R(ST) values. The weighted averages of Fisher's alpha, a measure of surname abundance, varied by state from 43 in Nueva Esparta to 226 in Miranda, with a value of 210 for the entire country, much smaller than those observed in Switzerland, Germany, or Italy (2,396, 2,855, and 5,855, respectively). The fact that 32% of the total Venezuelan sample has only 40 surnames easily accounts for this small alpha. The correlation between the Euclidean distance and the log of geographic distance between the capital cities of states in km is high and significant (r = 0.78). The dendrogram built with the Euclidean distance matrix indicates the presence of three main clusters. One is formed by 10 states located in the western-central part of the country. The states of Zulia and Falcón join this cluster at a distance of 0.54 Euclidean units. A second cluster is formed by Barinas and the three Andean states. After combining these two, a third cluster joins them, formed by six Eastern states. Finally, the state of Amazonas enters the dendrogram at a distance of 0.66 units. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:352-362, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534025

  5. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region. PMID:23065034

  6. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week

  7. Paragonimus mexicanus en hospederos naturales en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tulio Díaz y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Paragonimus mexicanus in natural hosts from two municipalities of the Sucre State, Venezuela.The Paragonimus mexicanus infection was studied in the opposum Didelphis marsupialis and crab Eudaniela garmani from the Sucre and Montes municipalities of Sucre State, Venezuela. In Sucre,prevalence of adult parasites in opposums was 13. 33% with an intensity of 1.50 parasites per individual; in Montes, prevalence was 31.88% with a parasite load of 6.82 parasites per host. Prevalence of metacercariae in crabs was 17. 98% in Montes and 4.07% in Sucre. No significant differences between prevalence, intensity and gender of the crabs was found in any of the two areas, but there was a positive and significant correlation with size. In Sucre, the crab parasite burden was higher, 8.20%, than in Montes,5.31%. It was concluded that the intensity of infection was higher in female crabs and in those of a larger body size. These results indicate the existence of zoonotic contamination in both areas, and the need tocontinue investigating in order to determine relevant elements of this parasitic interrelation.

  8. The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Energy flow structure and role of keystone groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Diego J.; Wolff, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem (BCE) is among the most productive zones in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). It is exposed to relatively cool, nutrient-rich waters of the Cromwell current, which are brought to the photic zone through topographic upwelling. The BCE is characterized by a heterogeneous rocky reef habitat covered by dense algae beds and inhabited by numerous invertebrate and fish species, which represent the food for higher predators including seals and sharks and exploited fish species. In addition, plankton and detritus based food chains channel large amounts of energy through the complex food web. Important emblematic species of the Galapagos archipelagos reside in this area such as the flightless cormorant, the Galapagos penguin and the marine iguanas. A trophic model of BCE was constructed for the habitats diet matrix. Results reveal that the BCE is a large system in terms of flows (38 695 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) comparable to Peruvian Bay Systems of the Humboldt upwelling system. A very large proportion of energy flows from the primary producers (phytoplankton and macro-algae) to the second level and to the detritus pool. Catches are high (54.3 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) and are mainly derived from the second and third trophic levels (mean TL of catch = 2.45) making the fisheries gross efficiency high (0.3%). The system's degree of development seems rather low as indicated by a P/R ratio of 4.19, a low ascendency (37.4%) and a very low Finn's cycling index (1.29%). This is explained by the system's exposure to irregular changes in oceanographic conditions as related to the EL Niño Southern Oscillation. Most important keystone groups of large relative impact over other system compartments are sharks and marine mammals. In addition, the important role of macro-algae, sea stars and urchins, phytoplankton and barracudas should be emphasized for their great contribution to the trophic flows and biomass of the system.

  9. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people have…

  10. Radon concentration in thermal waters of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon content in thermal waters of Venezuela has been measured, and a method for carrying out serial measurements has been developed. Besides radon, the thorium and radium content has also been measured. Drinking water sources in the area of Caracas has also been measured. (K.A.)

  11. Implementing Pre-Vocational Studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi

    This paper describes prevocational education in Venezuela on each educational level. First, it sets a historical context by identifying aspects of technical education that emerged at different times in its development; then it identifies certain strategies created to support the implementation of prevocationalization, and finally it concludes by…

  12. The Development of Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, George I.

    The present study aims to bring to the reader an understanding of Venezuela's educational patterns, needs, and development within the framework of the country's economic and social situation. Much of this report is devoted to historical backgrounds --to cultural development, politics, immigration, economics, and international attitudes-- to give…

  13. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  14. [A new species of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Turimiquire, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Manzanilla, Jesús; Parrilla-Alvarez, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    We describe a new species of Buthid scorpion, Tityus quirogae, from the Turimiquire mountains, eastern side of the La Costa range, Monagas and Sucre States, Venezuela. It is morphologically similar to T. nematochirus and T. meridanus. It differs from these species in the distribution of the dorsal femoral trichobothria and in the following combination of characters: (1) I caudal segment with two parallel ventral keels. Caudal segments II to IV with ventral keels that are double in the extremes of the segments and single in the middle, (2) noticeable sexual dimorphism, especially in pedipalp shape; the male chelae are markedly thin and long, (3) number of pectineous teeth (male: 18 in each pecten; female: 18 in the right pecten and 19 in the left one), and (4) number of denticle rows in the movable finger of the right chela (16 in both sexes). T. quirogae is the first species of this genus, in the Northeastern region of Venezuela, with thin and elongated pedipalps. PMID:18494317

  15. CNPC American (Venezuela) Ltd Successful in Overseas Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yikai; Liu Guoxiang

    2001-01-01

    @@ CNPC American (Venezuela) Ltd has made remarkable business achievements in the past four years. In 1997, CNPC won the 20-year operationship for tow oil fields - Caracoles and Intercampo - from the third international bidding mounted by Venezuela, in which the country offered 20 marginal oil fields.CNPC American (Venezuela) Ltd was established in July of the same year to operate these two oil fields.

  16. Venezuela- China Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bordering Columbia, Brazil and Guyana,Venezuela's economy developed speedily in recent years. It is a comparatively active country in South America. The main industries of the country are petroleum, mining, telecom, husbandry and tourism. The visiting enterprises include the leading enterprises of each key industry. This fair provides abundant trade and investment opportunities for China's execution of "Introduce in and Walk Out" development strategy.

  17. National Oil Companies: the view from Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National oil companies were key elements in the initial OPEC strategy and they brought a de-integration of oil industry. These companies have tried to move from crude marketing to product marketing through new investments at home and abroad in order to get higher value added and more secure markets for crude. Low prices bring new challenges. Venezuela's answers are strategic associations, operating contract for marginal fields and profit sharing agreements. (Author)

  18. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  19. Crisis in Venezuela: Will Anybody Support Democracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Falomir Lockhart, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    Since February 12th 2014, popular demonstrations both in favor of and against the government have been taking place in Venezuela. The protests started as a student expression but they were rapidly taken up by the opposition seeking to channel the general dissatisfaction of society with high costs of living and insecurity. In some cases, violence took over these events. As a result, nearly 30 people, including demonstrators – both in favor of and against the government– and law enforcement age...

  20. Logistics Strategies And Practices In Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    ANGEL ANTONIO DIAZ

    2002-01-01

    (WP11/02 Clave pdf) This paper presents an empirical and statistical analysis identifies the key characteristics and opportunities of logistics in Venezuela. Among the key findings are conservative approaches to logistics in a protected market whose environment is changing faster than preferred by the responsible actors, limiting the application of modern logistics practices. This and other considerations, such as geographical location, production of commodities and the identification in the ...

  1. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; F. Rojas; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several web-based scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CeCalCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, ...

  2. Tres fases de la violencia homicida en Venezuela Three phases of homicidal violence in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2012-01-01

    Venezuela era considerado uno de los países menos violentos de América Latina, sin embargo para el año 2010 estaba entre los que mostraban la más alta tasa de homicidios. Este artículo analiza la evolución de los homicidios ocurridos en Venezuela entre 1989 y 2010 y plantea la existencia de tres etapas que se corresponden a distintos momentos de la institucionalidad social y política del país. La primera de 1985 a 1993, caracterizada por la crisis social de los saqueos de 1989 y los golpes de...

  3. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  5. Nueva especie de Mastigoproctus Pocock, 1894 (Thelyphonida, Thelyphonidae de Venezuela noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de L. Giupponi, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Mastigoproctus Pocock, 1894 is described from Falcon state in northwestern Venezuela. This is the third Mastigoproctus species recorded for this country, the northernmost record of the genus in South America and the first record of the order for Falcon state.Una nueva especie del género Mastigoproctus Pocock, 1894 es descrita para el estado Falcón, en el tramo occidental de la Cordillera de la Costa, Venezuela. Es la tercera especie del género registrada para el país, siendo el registro más al norte del género en el continente suramericano y el primero del orden para el estado Falcón.

  6. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  7. Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

    This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela,…

  8. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  9. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y perfil apolipoprotéico en un grupo de adultos atendidos en un centro público de salud del estado Carabobo, Venezuela Cardiovascular risk factors and apolipoproteic profile in a group of adults treated in a public health center in Carabobo state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelina Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    individuals (44.0 ± 15.5 years of both genders blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, lipid profile and apolipoproteins A-I and B; body mass index (BMI was calculated from weight and height; smoking habit, alcohol intake and consumption pattern were established. Results. 27.5% of individuals had low levels of Apo A-I, 45.2% high Apo B and 60.6% high Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Serum levels of apolipoproteins and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio did not vary with age or gender, while the ratio HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I decreased with the age. Obese individuals, smokers, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemics, hypertriglyceridemics or with low HDL cholesterol showed higher Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Older individuals, smokers or individuals with increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed lower HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I ratio. Consumption of three or more alcoholic drinks/day was associated with decreased Apo B. Conclusions. These results show high prevalence of altered apolipoprotein profile, which is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. The results support the inclusion of the evaluated apolipoproteins in laboratory determinations made in public health centers in Venezuela.

  10. HYDROLOGY, BOLIVAR COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, G; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Mendez, Z; Núñez, L A; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M

    2008-01-01

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bioclimate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA)

  12. Venezuela: A Nation In Need of Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Allsopp

    2003-01-01

    The Venezuelan economy is currently undergoing tremendous economic and political upheaval. However, of the Latin American countries, it was one of the least damaged by the events in 2001 and also made a steady recovery from the Asian crisis of 1997. Using a combination of economic indicators, it is shown that VenezuelaÂ’s difficulties occurred not through contagion from other countriesÂ’ problems but through (a) its reliance on the oil sector and (b) poorly constructed and ill-sequenced polic...

  13. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.; José Luis Saavedra

    2008-01-01

    El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir ...

  14. Kebijakan Politik Hugo Chavez Dalam Penanggulangan Krisis Ekonomi Venezuela (1998-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Try Edo Ati

    2015-01-01

    Hugo Chavez is the President of Venezuela who has an important role for change of political direction to resolve economic crisis in Venezuela with his Bolivarian Revolution. His political and economic policies able to cope with the bad condition in Venezuela. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the condition of Venezuela when the economic crisis (2) Describe the Bolivarian Revolution (3) Describe the policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela tackling the economic crisis...

  15. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease? PMID:26710538

  16. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  17. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  18. [The health system of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Carriedo-Lutzenkirchen, Angela; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS) and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS). The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999 Constitution which calls for the establishment of a national public health system. The reform process is now headed by the Barrio Adentro program.

  19. Nuevo Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de la Sierra San Luis, Venezuela noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. de Armas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo esquizómido del género Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, proveniente de la Sierra de San Luis, Estado Falcón, en Venezuela noroccidental. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. se caracteriza por el dedo móvil del quelícero con un diminuto diente subdistal, una débil eminencia dorsoposterior en el segmento abdominal XII del macho y espermatecas constituidas por dos pares de lóbulos largos y sinuosos, tenuemente quitinizados, sin bulbo terminal notable. Su asignación al género Rowlandius es tentativa, pues posee varios caracteres que no concuerdan plenamente con el mismo, sin embargo la carencia de caracteres sinapomórficos limita su asignación a otro género. Este es el primer registro del género para Venezuela y la tercera especie suramericana conocida.A new species of the genus Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from Sierra San Luis, Falcón State, northwestern Venezuela. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. may be characterized by having movable finger of chelicerae with a diminute sub-distal tooth, male with a poorly developed dorsal eminence on abdominal segment XII, and female with two pairs of weakly sclerotized, sinuous spermathecal lobes, without conspicuous terminal lobe. It is assigned to Rowlandius tentatively, because some characters are not congruent with this genus, nevertheless the absence of synapomorphic characters limits its inclusion in other one. This is the first record of the genus from Venezuela, and the third South American species described.

  20. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October). During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be exp...

  1. Quaternary Faults and Stress Regime of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Audemard M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial configuration of Quaternary active tectonic features along the southern Caribbean plate boundary suggests that the region is subject to a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato regime, characterized by a NNW-SSE maximum horizontal stress (sH=s1 and/or an ENE-WSW minimum (s h=s3 or s2 horizontal stress. Stress inversion applied to fault-plane kinematic indicators measured essentially in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks confirms this tectonic regime. Accordingly, this stress regime is responsible for the Quaternary activity and kinematics of six sets of brittle features along northern Venezuela (from Colombia in the west to Trinidad in the east: (1 east-west rightlateral faults, (2 NW right-lateral faults -acting as synthetic Riedel shears-, (3 ENE to east-west dextral faults -P shears-, (4 NNW normal faults, (5 almost north-south left-lateral faults -antithetic Riedel shears- and (6 mostly subsurface ENE reverse faults associated with folding of the same orientation. Brittle deformation conforms to the simple shear model, although not all the deformation can be accounted for it since strain partitioning is also taking place because regional folding and thrusting are due to the normal-to-structure component of the relative slip vector between the Caribbean and South America plates. On the other hand, the maximum horizontal stress in western Venezuela, particularly in the Maracaibo block and south of the Oca-Ancón fault, progressively turns counter-clockwise to become more east-west oriented, producing left- and right-lateral slip along the north-south striking and NE-SW striking faults, respectively. The orientation and spatial variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the superposition of the two major neighboring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (sH: roughly east-west trending stress across the Nazca-South America type-B subduction along the pacific coast of Colombia and NNW

  2. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empiri...

  3. The political economy of economic liberalisation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    DiJohn, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    his article examines the political impact of economic liberalisation programmes in Venezuela from 1989 to 1998. Venezuela, a long-standing democracy, has experienced a virtual political implosion. The rapid downward spiral has seen an increasing crisis in governability that has been manifested by the collapse of the two main political parties, an increase in political polarization, more frequent coup attempts, alarming increases in voter absenteeism, the growing use of corruption scandals as ...

  4. Influence of Dutch Disease to International Trade of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Karimov, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis proves that Venezuela is going through the so called and shows all the effects of this disease to international trade indicators and finally evaluates which proposal how to help Venezuela to deal with it is most in line with the empirical data from World Bank and FRED. All the empirical evidences for Dutch disease worldwide effects are demonstrated on Oman, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Ghana and Norway. The hypothesis about influences of Dutch disease on international trade of Venezuel...

  5. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, J L; Hamar, V; Isea, R; Rojas, F; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M; Florez-Lopez, J; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Núñez, L A

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several web-based scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CeCalCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the \\textit{E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America} (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria.

  6. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  7. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Syr Salas Perea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Note from the Editors: This article by Drs. Borroto Cruz and Salas Perea was published in the Fall 2008 edition of MEDICC Review. We will be publishing a Spanish translation this month in Medicina Social. We present here the abstract of the article. We encourage readers to read the English original which is available at: www.medicc.org/mediccreview/. The issue is entitled: Teaching for Health Equity: Changing Paradigms of Medical Education. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela Introduction: Through the 1990s, wide disparities in health status were recorded in Venezuela, a mirror of poor social conditions, decreasing investment in the public health sector and a health workforce distribution unable to meet population health needs or to staff effective, accessible public health services. Venezuelans’ health status deteriorated as a result. In 2003-2004, the Venezuelan government launched Barrio Adentro, a new national public health model aimed at assuring primary health care coverage for the entire population of an estimated 26 million. Cuban physicians staff Barrio Adentro clinics, mainly in poor neighborhoods, until enough Venezuelan physicians can be trained to fill the posts. Intervention: Cuban experience with community-oriented medical education and global health cooperation was drawn upon to develop curriculum and provide faculty for the new National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, begun in 2005 in cooperation with six Venezuelan universities. The program differs from previous Venezuelan medical education models by adopting a stated goal of training physicians for public service, recruiting students who had no previous opportunity for university-level education, and concentrating the weight of their training on a service- and community-based model of education, relying on practicing physician-tutors. Results: Over 20,000 students have been enrolled in three years. The six

  8. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now

  9. Brote de dengue en San Jose de Guaribe, Venezuela: reporte preliminar Outbreak of dengue in San José of Guaribe, Venezuela: preliminary report

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    Alajandro Caraballo

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos nuestra experiencia de un brote de dengue en el Municipio San José de Guaribe, Estado Guárico a mediados de Septiembre y comienzo de Octubre de 1990. Un total de 97 casos sin muertes y el estudio serológico en una muestra problacional mostró virus tipo 2. La pronta intervención y la efectividad de las medidas de control, una atención médica oportuna y un diagnóstico scrológico temprano contribuyeron al control del brote. Esta es la primera descripción de un brote de dengue en el Estado Guárico, Venezuela.An outbreak of dengue in the Municipality San Jose of Guaribe, Guarico State about the middle of September and to beginning October 1990 is reported. A total 97 cases without death and the Serologic study in a population sample showed type 2 virus. The quick intervention, the effectiveness of the measures of control, one attention medical opportune and the early Serologic diagnostic to contribute of the outbreak control. This is the first description of a dengue outbreak in the Guarico State, Venezuela.

  10. [Recent and future trends in general fertility in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papail, J

    1983-01-01

    Data from the 1977 Venezuela Fertility survey were used to assess recent trends in fertility and to attempt an understanding of future fertility based on observed trends. Between 1951-61, the total fertility rate increased from 5.96 to 6.61. In the 1960s, the fertility of women aged 15-30 years declined somewhat and the use of contraception and sterilization became more widespread, so that by 1971 the total fertility rate fell to 5.58. It is possible that the 1977 fertility survey slightly underrepresented women in the Caracas area, which would tend to overestimate fertility at the national level. The small sample size of 4361 women aged 15-44 involved considerable fluctuations in fertility rates from year to year. The risk of errors resulting from the method of retrospective reporting of live births appeared to be small since the recall period was relatively short. A series of quinquennial rates for women aged 15-39 was constructed for each age group from 1968-77. Fertility rates estimated for 1971 and 1976 respectively from the Venezuela Fertility Survey results using a moving average for 3 years were 120.7 and 105.1 for women 15-19, 259.0 and 225.1 for women 20-24, 255.0 and 213.1 for women 25-29, 214.3 and 167.7 for women 30-34, and 150.0 and 103.6 for women 35-39. The results were quite close to fertility rates estimated in other sources. The 1977 fertility survey indicated a trend toward later age at marriage and a correlation of ideal family size with age. The ideal number of children was 4.2 for the total sample, 5 children for women aged 35-39 years, 4.5 for those aged 30-34, 3.9 for those 25-29, and 3.5 for those aged 20-24. 55% of women in union stated they wanted no more children. 46% of women exposed to risk of pregnancy used a modern method of contraception; the proportion varied from 40% of those with 1 child to 56% with 4 children. The fertility decline, reduced ideal family size, and use of modern contraception were closely associated with

  11. Chapman Conference on Rainfall Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V. K.

    The Chapman Conference on Rainfall Fields, sponsored by AGU, was the first of its kind; it was devoted to strengthening scientific interaction between the North American and Latin American geophysics communities. It was hosted by Universidad Simon Bolivar and Instituto Internacional de Estudios Avanzados, in Caracas, Venezuela, during March 24-27, 1986. A total of 36 scientists from Latin America, the United States, Canada, and Europe participated. The conference, which was convened by I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (Universidad Simon Bolivar) and V. K. Gupta (University of Mississippi, University), brought together hydrologists, meteorologists, and mathematicians/statisticians in the name of enhancing an interdisciplinary focus on rainfall research.

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  13. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

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    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  14. PDV [Petroleos de Venezuela] ditches past to play leading role in Venezuela's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president of Petroleos de Venezuela (PDV) describes the transformation of Venezuelan society and economics which has come about between 1989 and 1992 and the effect of these political changes on the oil industry in this country. While political and social unrest has been widespread before and during these changes PDV, at least, considers that a more robust economy and a better and fairer society will result than would have been possible under the oil rent system which held sway prior to 1989. (author)

  15. Represión y justicia en Venezuela en tiempos de protesta

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    Rogelio Pérez Perdomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Between February and May 2014, wide public demonstrations erupted mayor cities in Venezuela, when young people protested against violent criminality, scarcity of goods, inflation and a general perception of an uncertain future. They were violently repressed by the military police, the police and armed thugs. Fifty people died, many were injured or arrested, and about 2.500 were submitted to criminal procedure. A number of opposition leaders and mayors are still in prison. Prosecutors and judges have collaborated in the repression and have paid no attention to the massive violation of human rights. The article analyzes the meaning of such massive repression for the judicial system and the state.

  16. Presencia de Ptychodus Mortoni (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae en el Cretácico Superior de Venezuela Presence of Ptychodus Mortini (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae in the Upper Cretaceous of Venezuela

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    Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ptychodus mortoni es un tiburón durofago característico del Cretácico Superior, con un registro cronoestratigráfico entre el Turoniano-Maastrichtiano. En la presente contribución se ilustra y describe un conjunto de dientes de un mismo ejemplar de Ptychodus mortoni, proveniente de la Formación La Luna, del Cretácico Superior de La Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Este material representa el único registro conocido de esta especie para América del sur y extiende la distribución paleobiogeográfica del taxón, el cual era conocido sólo para África, América del Norte y EuropaPtychodus mortoni is a durophagous shark characteristic from the Upper Cretaceous, with a chronostratigraphic record between the Turonian-Maastrichtian. The present contribution illustrate and describes a set of teeth of Ptychodus mortoni from the La Luna Formation, Upper Cretaceous of the Sierra de Perijá, Zulia State, Venezuela. This material represents the only known record for South America, increasing the paleobiogeographi distribution of the taxon, which was previously known only from Africa, North America and Europe.

  17. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  18. Social Change and Health Policy in Venezuela

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    Nuramy J. Gutiérrez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews social changes occurring in Venezuela during the last two decades, examining how they led to the development of a new health policy. Initially, the political context of the nineties is examined; this was a time when the neoliberal politics of the 1980’s had a demonstrable impact on the living conditions and health status of the population. By 1999 social and political events led to a new Constitution which provided the juridical and legal framework for a new health policy. The conceptualization of health and the model of health care which arose from the constitutional process are considered, as well as the reaction of the dominant economic and political sectors to the new policies imposed by constitutional mandate. The emergence of Barrio Adentro and other social missions is analyzed as an essential factor in the initiation of structural changes within the country and its health institutions. The Barrio Adentro program is described in detail, along with key steps in the development of the Venezuelan National Public Health System. Finally, the impact of these new health policies on the quality of life of the Venezuelan population is delineated.

  19. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  20. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

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    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  1. Current Space Projects of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, R.; Acevedo R.; Varela, F.; Otero, S.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2008, with the successful launch of the first Venezuelan telecommunication satellite VENESAT-1, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela became an active player in the international space sector aimed at using space science and technology as a powerful tool to promote the national development. Based on that, through the Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities (ABAE), Venezuela has been implemented several space projects such as the manufacturing and launch of the first Venezuelan remote sensing satellite, the construction of a design center for small satellite technologies, as well as research and development activities related with the estimation of the physical properties of the Earth. This paper presents a brief description of the current space projects that are being developed by Venezuela.

  2. Neogene history of the Carapita Formation, Eastern Venezuela basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Zambrano, Dennis Alberto

    The planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the lower to middle Miocene shales of the Carapita Formation of Eastern Venezuela in three exploration wells and one outcrop section are analyzed with the objectives of establishing a precise biostratigraphy of the formation and its bathymetric history. Comparison with the well-preserved microfaunas of the correlative Cipero Formation of Trinidad made possible the achievement of these objectives. The formation, up to 4500 to 6000 m thick in outcrops, extends from northeastern Anzoategui and North of Monagas States to the Gulf of Paria and is both an important oil reservoir towards the east and the main seal rock for the Oligocene reservoir in the north of Monagas State. In the area studied the Carapita Formation spans lower to lower middle Miocene Zones N6/M3 to N9/M6; its upper part is unconstrained as only rare long ranging early Miocene to early Pliocene planktonic foraminifera occur above the Orbulina datum. Unexpectedly, we found that the four lower to middle Miocene sections are highly discontinuous, with hiastuses as long as 4 Myr. Based on the abundance patterns of sixty-nine species of benthic foraminifera and analysis of morphotype abundance following the methodology of Corliss and Chen (1988) and Corliss and Fois (1993), we show that the Carapita Formation was deposited at outer neritic to middle bathyal depths (≥200--1000 m), whereas the Cipero Formation was deposited at middle to lower bathyal depths (≥600--2000 m). Importantly, the bathymetric changes are associated with unconformities in all sections, strongly suggesting that both (shallowing and associated unconformities) were tectonically induced.

  3. Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

  4. La incorporación de Venezuela al MERCOSUR

    OpenAIRE

    Bastías, Julio Adrián

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la incorporación de Venezuela al MERCOSUR: qué aporte realiza, y cuales son sus ventajas y desventajas para el Bloque en el ámbito regional e internacional. Para ello se realizó un estudio del contexto actual del MERCOSUR, analizando sobre todo las crisis que actualmente atraviesa y se investigó cómo en éste escenario político se inserta Venezuela en el Bloque. Se estudiaron también los logros de la XXX Cumbre Presidencial del MERCOSUR y se vis...

  5. El Ahorro Privado en Venezuela: Tendencias y Determinantes

    OpenAIRE

    Matías Riutort; Rafael Muñoz; Juan Carlos Guevara; Luis Zambrano Sequín

    1998-01-01

    La característica notable del comportamiento de la tasa de ahorro privado en Venezuela es su tendencia secular a reducirse desde los elevados niveles experimentados durante los años setenta a los muy reducidos de los noventa. Adicionalmente a esta tendencia al deterioro, habría que añadir su alta volatilidad. Las razones que explican este resultado no sólo están referidas a los sucesivos shocks, externos e internos, que han afectado a Venezuela, sino también a la forma peculiar como se ha ges...

  6. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delin...

  7. Venezuela, 1. Fenomenologìa de una Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Neira Fernández

    2000-01-01

    El autor muestra una primera reflexión, la coyuntura histórica presentada en la crisis de los procesos sociales y estructurales en Venezuela. Esta crisis presenta procesos simultáneos derivados del principal, que ha sido el que Venezuela ha pasado de ser un país agrariamente pobre a ser un país con una gran riqueza petrolera, lo cual ha provocado la modernización y urbanización de las ciudades, y por consiguiente la incorporación de ciencia avanzada y tecnología de punta en los diferentes cam...

  8. Venezuela: del neoliberalismo al socialismo del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se aborda la dinámica de la aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela y sus consecuencias económicas, políticas y sociales hasta llegar a la propuesta de construir el socialismo del siglo XXI. Para ello hacemos una breve retrospectiva de lo que ha sido la sociedad venezolana desde la década de 1970, del auge rentístico hasta llegar a la crisis de la década de 1980 y la inserción del programa neoliberal. La aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela, como en buen parte d...

  9. Derechos de propiedad, compañías petroleras, Estado y renta en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús MORA CONTRERAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo muestra que las compañías petroleras internacionales han estado haciendo negocios en Venezuela durante más de cuatro quintas partes de casi un siglo de historia de la industria petrolera en este país (1917-2009. Muestra también que lo que ha cambiado para ellas a lo largo del tiempo es la manera de hacer negocios en la industria petrolera venezolana, valga decir, los términos y condiciones de acceso a las actividades de exploración y producción que les ha impuesto el propietario del recurso natural, relacionados particularmente con el reparto de la renta petrolera internacional. El artículo, dividido en cuatro secciones, es una síntesis de la historia del derecho de propiedad del subsuelo, de las compañías petroleras, del Estado y de la renta petrolera internacional en Venezuela desde 1920 hasta el presente. ABSTRACT: This paper shows that in almost a century of history of the Venezuelan oil industry (1917-2009, International Oil Companies (IOCs have been doing business in this country for just more than fourth fifth of this period (74/92 years. It shows too that during that time, what has been changing in this country for the oil companies, IOCs or National Oil Companies (NOCs, is the way of doing business in the upstream of the oil industry: the terms and conditions of the owner of the underground property rights. Terms and conditions mean in this context how much of the oil generated rents in the underground public and national property rights goes to the pockets of the oil companies and government. This paper summarizes the history of the underground property rights, oil companies, the State, and rent in Venezuela from 1920 up to the present.

  10. e innovación en Venezuela

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    Jesús Peña cedillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestra investigación ha estado dirigida a evaluar las `Agendas de Investigación e Innovación` desarrolladas en Venezuela a partir de 1995. Las Agendas representaron un conjunto de políticas dirigidas a la constitución de redes de innovación en múltiples áreas, impulsando nuevas formas de colaboración entre investigadores, empresarios, ciudadanos, políticos, entre otros. En función de alcanzar nuestros objetivos de evaluación, desarrollamos algunas herramientas e indicadores para estimar si ellas fueron exitosas o no, centrándonos en este escrito en la apreciación cualitativa de las características generales de las Agendas como programas de innovación (un componente de una más compleja macro-evaluación institucional, quedando para otras publicaciones la presentación de los resultados específicos asociados a cada una de las Agendas. Los resultados preliminares aquí reportados indican un abandono de sus planteamientos originales y una vuelta a la tradición que privilegiaba la investigación académica frente a otros esfuerzos de generación de conocimiento. La puesta al día de estas políticas pareciera pasar por la profundización del planteamiento original de redes de actores y agentes sociales, superando el modelo `gerencialista` centrado en lograr `investigaciones más pertinentes`, el cual ha impedido el despliegue frontal de las promesas contenidas en el enfoque de redes.

  11. Primer registro de Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae para Venezuela First record of Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae in Venezuela

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    Joany Mariño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela el aeolidaceo Dondice parguerensis Brandon y Cutress, 1985, parásito de los cnidarios Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 y Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774, hasta ahora sólo conocido de Puerto Rico, Panamá y Bermudas.The presence of the aeolidacean Dondice parguerensis Brandon and Cutress, 1985, parasite of the cnidaria Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 and Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. It was previously recorded in Puerto Rico, Panama and Bermuda.

  12. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

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    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  13. Quaternary Faults and Stress Regime of Venezuela Fallas y campo de esfuerzos cuaternarios de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Audemard M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial configuration of Quaternary active tectonic features along the southern Caribbean plate boundary suggests that the region is subject to a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato regime, characterized by a NNW-SSE maximum horizontal stress (sH=s1 and/or an ENE-WSW minimum (s h=s3 or s2 horizontal stress. Stress inversion applied to fault-plane kinematic indicators measured essentially in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks confirms this tectonic regime. Accordingly, this stress regime is responsible for the Quaternary activity and kinematics of six sets of brittle features along northern Venezuela (from Colombia in the west to Trinidad in the east: (1 east-west rightlateral faults, (2 NW right-lateral faults -acting as synthetic Riedel shears-, (3 ENE to east-west dextral faults -P shears-, (4 NNW normal faults, (5 almost north-south left-lateral faults -antithetic Riedel shears- and (6 mostly subsurface ENE reverse faults associated with folding of the same orientation. Brittle deformation conforms to the simple shear model, although not all the deformation can be accounted for it since strain partitioning is also taking place because regional folding and thrusting are due to the normal-to-structure component of the relative slip vector between the Caribbean and South America plates. On the other hand, the maximum horizontal stress in western Venezuela, particularly in the Maracaibo block and south of the Oca-Ancón fault, progressively turns counter-clockwise to become more east-west oriented, producing left- and right-lateral slip along the north-south striking and NE-SW striking faults, respectively. The orientation and spatial variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the superposition of the two major neighboring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (sH: roughly east-west trending stress across the Nazca-South America type-B subduction along the pacific coast of Colombia and NNW

  14. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies pert

  15. Use of nuclear techniques in agriculture in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agricultural activites being carried out so far in Venezuela are described. Failures and lessons learned from the induced mutation programme (sorghum and ajonjoli) are emphasized. Some of the results obtained with the use of isotopes in biological investigations with dairy and beef cattle and sheep are related. (M.A.C.)

  16. Illegal immigration and the general register of foreigners in Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelena A; Antequera R; Mota C

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on irregular migrants (mainly immigration from Colombia) and the General Register of Foreigners in Venezuela - covers immigration in the 1970s and its relationship to economic conditions, migration policy, and the legal aspects and institutional framework for registering and legalizing immigrants. Bibliography. Restricted.

  17. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and determined on January 4, 2013 that it would conduct full reviews (78 FR 4437, January 22, 2013). Notice of... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on February 21, 2013 (78...

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Venezuela a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in a 32 year old man is presented. The clinical picture included a rapid progressive dementia associated with ataxia, global aphasia, myoclonus and pyramidal signs, death ocurred after 13 months. The diagnosis of CJD was confirmed by CT and neuropathological studies. This is the first report of CJD occurring in Venezuela.

  19. Reorganization and redimensioning of nuclear activities in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is of a self-critical nature, beginning with a retrospective look at nuclear activities in Venezuela. An inventory of human resources, materials and existing techniques is also made. National nuclear policies and developments are examined pointing out failures and successes. Finally, conclusions are presented about the technical assistance received from international organizations in research, nuclear safety and technological development

  20. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Alberto Isea Fernández; Lenin José Huerta Morillo; Ilsen Emérita Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticideslegislation in Venezuela was recovered, usingthe search engine Google. Progress and setbackswas analyzed, with information about imports,exports, inventories, storage sites, controls andactions taken for disposal and participation ininternational conventions. The country appearsto have adequate legislation, however, greaterconsistency of laws and decrees are required. Updatethe technical rule is necessary and increasesthe capacity to monitoring, iden...

  1. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  2. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr. PMID:26336258

  3. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr.

  4. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogollón de González, Amada

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: Nueva Esparta, Distrito Federal, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas y Delta Amacuro. El instrumento arrojó resultados que evidenciaron deficiencias, omisiones y ausencias durante el hecho supervisorio y su validación condujo a garantizar el éxito y calidad en la supervisión educativa venezolana.Abastract: This investigation must like intention present/display the approach to a Model for the functions of the scholastic supervision in Venezuela sustained in the scopes, supervisora action and denominated functions: Techniques, Administrative, Social, of Attendance and Mediation. The model was based theoretically on Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Theory of Systems of Bertalanffy, focuses humanist and hierarchy of the necessities of Maslow. It is an investigation of field made in Venezuela in the states: Nueva Esparta, Federal District, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas and Delta Amacuro. The instrument threw results that demonstrated deficiencies, omissions and absences during the fact supervisorio and its validation lead to ensure the success and quality in the Venezuelan educative supervision.

  5. Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

    2001-12-01

    Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress

  6. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  7. [Mollusc diversity in an Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) community, Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A S; Ruiz, L J; García, N; Alvarez, M

    2001-06-01

    The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H' = 2.087, J' = 0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index alpha of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69% in number of individuals and 72% of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 +/- 263 g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela. PMID:11935909

  8. THE ENTRANCE OF VENEZUELA IN MERCOSUR: ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Schmuziger Goldzweig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the perception of the political agents of the Congress through the analysis of their votes on the context of the acceptance of Venezuela into MERCOSUR, relating it to the potential gains coming from its admission. The relevance of the topic is justified by the importance that the bloc would acquire accepting a new member, considering the expansion of the internal consumer market and the increase of oil reserves of the bloc. Therefore, the intention is to clarify the political situation favorable to the integration and, taking the Brazilian perception in consideration, establish the relationship between economic gains that would come from the acceptance of Venezuela as a state member and the political discourse regarding this subject in the National Congress. Through the votes of deputies and senators we mapped the variables that act as important factors in the decision-making process of lawmakers. It was found that the party influence, though strong, suffers marginal effects of variables such as the influence of regional and local interests when it comes to voting on foreign policy.

  9. Indigenous territorial rights as a human right; an analysis of the (auto) demarcation of indigenous territories process in Venezuela (1999-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Bustillos; Vladimir Aguilar; Carlos Grimaldo

    2016-01-01

    The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CBRV) recognizes Indigenous Rights; among them, the territorial claims. In agreement with what is stated in the article 119 of the Magna Carta, the right to the territory of these populations is exercised through the public policy of demarcation, which is understood as the process in which its territorial space is disclaimed, made by the State in participation with the peoples and communities to be demarcated, subsequently to enti...

  10. The crisis of civil-military relations in Venezuela : testing rational choice, cultural, and institutional theories

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Flores, Jose Luis.

    1999-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the extent to which civil-military relations in Venezuela have deteriorated in the past decade. The thesis's central theme is that the civilian control over the military in Venezuela is far from ideal. The relations between the armed forces and the decision-makers are based only on the interactions of the President with the military. There are no other civilian institutions involved in the control of the military. However, the armed forces of Venezuela have shown very stro...

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748

  12. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  13. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  14. 420 Lentil Allergy: First Report from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Albarran, Carlos; Hulett, Arnaldo Capriles

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergy to lentils is infrequent in Latin America: this a first case report from Venezuela. A 5 year old female preschooler attended our allergology clinic with chief complaint of generalized giant urticaria inmediately after ingestion of cooked lentils; clinical history revealed frequent (>3) emergency visits, since the age of one year, with facial angioedema and generalized urticaria even from inhalation of vapors while cooking of lentils at home; moreover, also symptoms describe...

  15. Urban upgrading intervention and barrio integration in Caracas, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Alonso

    2012-01-01

    “Spatial segregation is the reflection of social structures onto space”. Understood as a negative condition the socio-spatial segregation of urban dwellers as the opposing form to urban integration has become a major hindrance to both functional urban development and the inclusive vision that cities are supposed to foster. This premise forms the underpinning rational to construct this dissertation using the situation of the informal settlements of Caracas, Venezuela, as its subject of analysi...

  16. Building a medicine bank for Venezuela. AIDS treatment access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A partnership began in 1994 between United Against AIDS International (UAAI) of New York and Accion Ciudadana Contra el SIDA (ACCSI) of Venezuela has led to the development of a volunteer infrastructure including medicine and medical supply donors, airlines, truck drivers, customs officials, storage facilities, and medical personnel to bring treatment to people with AIDS (PWA) in Venezuela. Renate Koch, ACCSI director, began bringing medications home to Venezuela in early 1994, following a visit to New York City, where she met with representatives of ACT UP], the Global Network of People with AIDS, and other New York-based HIV/AIDS associations. Hugh Ward, who founded UAAI to provide HIV/AIDS drugs to PWA in Venezuela, later met with Koch and several other nongovernmental organizations in Caracas. Ward explained that most unused medicines and treatments given to people with AIDS in the US are thrown away after the patient has died or when the patient's health condition demands an alternate treatment. A network of New York-based AIDS organizations and doctors' groups now collects the medicines returned to them by PWA for donation to the medicine bank program. Once the medicines are received in Caracas, they are stored at Accion Ecumenica health clinic for distribution to PWA. While there is always a need for more medicines and supplies, the current network is able to back-stock enough quantities to ensure that patients will receive consistent and sustained treatment. Limited quantities of retrovirals and protease inhibitors are included in the medicine bank. PMID:12321757

  17. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  18. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alberto Isea Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about organochlorine pesticideslegislation in Venezuela was recovered, usingthe search engine Google. Progress and setbackswas analyzed, with information about imports,exports, inventories, storage sites, controls andactions taken for disposal and participation ininternational conventions. The country appearsto have adequate legislation, however, greaterconsistency of laws and decrees are required. Updatethe technical rule is necessary and increasesthe capacity to monitoring, identification andelimination of organochlorine pesticides.

  19. Genetic characterization of rabies field isolates from Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    de Mattos, C A; de Mattos, C C; Smith, J S; Miller, E. T.; Papo, S; Utrera, A; Osburn, B. I.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein and by patterns of nucleotide substitution in the nucleoprotein gene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs. Unique substitutions per...

  20. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  1. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal content in fuel oil and oil-ashes in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years an intensive national program was developed to determine the environmental radioactivity levels in Venezuela. Gamma dose and the radon concentrations indoors, in drinking water, in caves and in artificial cavities including the effect of radon transported to the surface with the earth gas have been studied. To continue this project the oil and other natural energy resource should be considered. It is expected that the environmental radiation level is modified in regions where the oil industrial activity is more aggressive such as in the Zulia State and the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, (Central Region). In these regions Venezuela is producing 1.750 thousand barrels of oil from the near-to-the- surface or deep oil drilling. Petroleum constitutes an important source of energy and as the majority of natural source contains radionuclides and their disintegration products, being U, Ra, Pb, Bi, Po and K the most often encountered. The combustion of petroleum concentrate in the ashes those radioelements, and later enter the environment by different ways producing adverse effects on the quality of man life. The concentration of radioelements varies greatly between oil fields, then we still requiring local survey studies in this area. Moreover due to the recent national interest in recycling processes, it becomes important to take precaution in the selection of materials that may contain by-products of industrial origin, including oil. In fact the oil ashes, oil slurry and other mining by-products are thought to be employable in the building industry. The concentration of radioactivity in the ash from thermoelectric power plants that use petroleum as a primary energy source was determined. The analysis include the two major thermoelectric power plants in Venezuela, Ricardo Zuluaga on the northern sea side of Caracas and Planta Centro on the littoral of Carabobo State. The study cover different samples: fuel oil No 6, ashes, heavy and medium petroleum

  2. Venezuela: La descentralización en el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodriguez Rojas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La nueva dinámica del poder político y el desarrollo económico en Venezuela hay que entenderlos en el contexto de La Nueva geometría del Poder, el necesario reacomodo territorial, el fortalecimiento del poder popular, Comunal y de los Núcleos de Desarrollo Endógeno. En Venezuela el desarrollo endógeno es un mecanismo dentro del proceso para la construcción de nuestro socialismo. Por lo tanto este debe partir por el debate teórico y filosófico de los fundamentos que deben sustentar esta nueva economía y sociedad. Por eso el propósito de este trabajo tiene que ver con los cambios ocurridos en la administración publica, la dialéctica entre centralización y descentralización, la ocupación del territorio en Venezuela, y los espacios alcanzados por la organización popular, para entender el papel que juegan en el desarrollo armónico de las comunas y la sociedad socialista.

  3. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  4. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  5. Analysis of antenal sensilla patterns of Rhodnius prolixus from Colombia and Venezuela

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    Lyda Esteban

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Antennal sensilla patterns were used to analyze population variation of domestic Rhodnius prolixus from six departments and states representing three biogeographical regions of Colombia and Venezuela. Discriminant analysis of the patterns of mechanoreceptors and of three types of chemoreceptors on the pedicel and flagellar segments showed clear differentiation between R. prolixus populations east and west of the Andean Cordillera. The distribution of thick and thin-walled trichoids on the second flagellar segment also showed correlation with latitude, but this was not seen in the patterns of other sensilla. The results of the sensilla patterns appear to be reflecting biogeographic features or population isolation rather than characters associated with different habitats and lend support to the idea that domestic R. prolixus originated in the eastern region of the Andes.

  6. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  7. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  8. DISASTER AND UNCERTAINTIES IN THE CONTEXT OF VENEZUELA'S OIL CRISIS : AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF THE EXPLOSION AT THE AMUAY OIL REFINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Lezama, Paula

    2016-01-01

    On August 25, 2012, the Amuay oil refinery in northwestern Venezuela suffered an explosion. This unprecedented accident in the national oil industry killed 48 people and injured 156. In this study, we have adopted a political anthropology approach, in which natural and industrial disaster issues are posited as part and parcel of a nation's history. Our purpose is to examine the relation between the oil industry, the changes that took place within the state during the Venezuelan " Bolivarian r...

  9. Ecology of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a restricted focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela: II. Species composition in relation to habitat, catching method and hour of catching

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1987-01-01

    The ecology of phlebotomine sandflies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela (San Esteban, Carabobo State) was investigated through a year-term study. Three different habitats: viz. a house, a pridomestic area and a sylvatic area, were covered and the species composition, the abundance and occurrence of each species were analyzed in relation to the habitats, catching methods and hour of catching. L. panamensis, L. gomezi and L. ovallesi are the species which bite...

  10. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...

  11. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  12. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve "commun

  13. Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

    Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

  14. 78 FR 9034 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela, 67 FR 36149 (May 23, 2002). On October 1, 2012, the Department initiated the... (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 59897 (October 1, 2012) (``notice... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of...

  15. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... of institution (77 FR 59970, October 1, 2012) was adequate and that the respondent interested party... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct... duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead...

  16. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela (73 FR 841, January 4, 2008). The Commission is now... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is required if a..., and Venezuela (67 FR 36149). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  17. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  18. DIVERSIDAD MITOCONDRIAL EN EL NOR-OCCIDENTE DE VENEZUELA. IMPLICACIONES PARA PROBABLES RUTAS MIGRATORIAS PREHISPÁNICAS Mitochondrial diversity in Northwest Venezuela. Implications for probable prehispanic migratory routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINORAH CASTRO DE GUERRA

    prehispanic extinct groups are difficult. Admixture of Neoamerican groups has been characterized by unions between European males and Amerindian females. This allows the identification in present populations of Amerindian mitocondrial haplogroups which give information on ancestral groups. In order to investigate female lineages present in western Venezuela, RFLP haplogroups from mtDNA were obtained from 193 individuals with grandparents from this region, 81 from the State of Lara (Barquisimeto and 112 from 3 towns of the State of Falcon (Macuquita=25; Macanilla=29 and Churuguara=58. Comparison of haplogroup distributions between groups was performed, and admixture estimates based on female lineages were obtained. The distribution of four Amerindian haplogroups was compared with those of other populations from the American Continent. In our four samples Amerindian haplogroups predominate, followed by those of African origin. In the comparison of the mtDNA Amerindian fraction with other populations we find that Macanillas, Lara and Churuguara are similar to South American and Amazonian groups whilst Macuquita is similar to groups from Aruba. Our findings suggest an important genetic diversity in this region, explained by migration routes to and from the south and the Caribean. They also suggest genetic relationship between prehispanic groups from Aruba and those from the Paraguaná peninsula, which have been inferred by archeological evidences. An increase in sample size and analysis of sequences for more precision is recommended.

  19. De la Comunidad Andina de Naciones al Mercado Común del Sur: nueva estrategia de integración de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martínez Castillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The year 2006 marked a milestone in the history of the regional integration of Venezuela. After 33 years as a member of CAN, the country withdrew from the integration agreement and joined Mercosur, marking a significant change in regional integration strategy. In this paper, the causes of this change, as well as its economic and political effects, have been analyzed through desk research. One of the main conclusions is that Chavez decided to use regional integration as a tool to address the liberal policies of the United States, regardless of the economic consequences. Another is that, due to the economic and institutional deterioration of Venezuela, the non-oil productive sector is not ready to compete with other members of Mercosur.

  20. Zonation of hydric regimens in Venezuela based on rainfall characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, D.; Verbist, K.; Gabriels, D.; Puche, M.; Bracho, G.; Soto, G.; Santibañez, F.

    2012-04-01

    The climate in Venezuela is a product of a complex combination and interaction of meteorological and geographical factors such as the geographic location either north of Ecuador or in the tropics, and the presence of warm waters north and northeast, a vast tropical moist forest south and a mountain range west. In order to delimit the different climatic zones in Venezuela, a zoning of water regimes were used to classify climate indices primarily on rainfall parameters. A first index used was the length of a dry period, corresponding to the number of months in the year when precipitation is less than half of the reference evapotranspiration. Another index was the Aridity Index (Ia) proposed by UNEP (1997), for which calculations were based on values of average annual rainfall of the stations of the FAO database (1984, 2000). The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was calculated by the CIRH program version 2.0 (Santibanez, 2005), which allows the calculation of ETo by the FAO (Allen et al.1998) or by the original Penman-Monteith formula, by Thornthwaite (1948), Turc (1961) or by Ivanov (1996). The results show that the distribution of the climatic regimes of Venezuela is determined by rainfall patterns. The central region is dominated by a sub-humid regime surrounded by a humid regime. The southern region is dominated by hyper-humid, hydric and hyper-hydric regimes, as well as the most western and eastern regions. In the northern and central-western regions the semiarid, arid and hyper-arid regimes dominate.

  1. Preliminary inventory of mammals from Yurubí National Park, Yaracuy, Venezuela with some comments on their natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Franger J; Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; Aular, Luis

    2012-03-01

    In Venezuela, mammals represent an important group of wildlife with high anthropogenic pressures that threaten their permanence. Focused on the need to generate baseline information that allows us to contribute to document and conserve the richness of local wildlife, we conducted a mammalogical inventory in Yurubí National Park, located in Yaracuy State in Venezuela. We carried out fieldworks in three selected vegetation types: an evergreen forest at 197m, a semi-deciduous forest ranging between 100-230m, and a cloud forest at 1 446m. We used Victor, Sherman, Havahart and pitfall traps for the capture of small non-volant mammals and mist nets for bats. In addition, we carried out interviews with local residents and direct-indirect observations for medium-large sized mammals. At least 79 species inhabit the area, representing 28% of the species recorded for the North side of the country. Chiroptera (39 spp.), Carnivora (13 spp.) and Rodentia (9 spp.) were the orders with the highest richness, as expected for the Neotropics. The evergreen forest had the greatest species richness (n=68), with a sampling effort of 128 net-hours, 32 bucket-days, 16 hours of observations, and three persons interviewed, followed by cloud forest (n=45) with 324 net-hours, 790 traps-night, 77 bucket-days, 10 hours of observations, and one person interviewed. The lowest richness value was in the semi-deciduous forest (n=41), with 591 traps-night, 15 net-hours, 10 hours of observations and three persons interviewed. Data and observations obtained in this inventory (e.g., endemism, species known as "surrogate species" threatened in Venezuela) give an important role at the Yurubí National Park in the maintenance and conservation of local ecosystems and wildlife, threatened by human pressures in the Cordillera de la Costa.

  2. La dirección escolar en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Nacarid; Meza, Mildred

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta una descripción de la dirección escolar en Venezuela desde la perspectiva que ofrecen las leyes, los reglamentos y otros documentos normativos de esta función para los niveles de la escolaridad obligatoria administrados por el Ministerio de Educación y Deportes. Se ubica el ejercicio de la dirección en el contexto de las características generales del sistema educativo venezolano y las innovaciones recientes. Se describen los requisitos para el ingreso a los cargos directivos, las ...

  3. Neutron Activation Analysis of Pre-Columbian Pottery in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-Hispanic pottery figurines from north-central Venezuela islands and mainland were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA and PGAA) at the Budapest Research to establish their provenience. In order to classify the samples of figurines, characteristic molecular and atomic components were determined. Several mass ratios were calculated for significant classification of the object of two origins. Results shed light on the origin of island figurines and suggest specific areas of their production on the mainland, contributing to better understanding of late pre-Hispanic migration patterns in the southeastern Caribbean region

  4. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  6. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql-1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql-1. Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year-1. (author)

  7. (In) gobernabilidad y partidos políticos en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Caraballo Vivas; José Antonio Rivas Leone

    2005-01-01

    Nos proponemos esbozar los escenarios de gobernabilidad e ingobernabilidad de la democracia en Venezuela a partir del rol cumplido positiva o negativamente por los partidos políticos. Abordamos la cuestión de la crisis de gobernabilidad como un fenómeno complejo. La ingobernabilidad se presenta como una crisis básicamente como crisis de legitimidad, crisis, de conducción política y crisis del Estado, es decir no se logra conformar un ambiente y escenario definido por la legitim...

  8. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-01-01

    En Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros L...

  9. BYTTNERIA CARIPENSIS (STERCULIACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Byttneria caripensis Cristóbal (sección Crassipetala de Edo. Bolívar, Venezuela se describe como nueva. Se estudia también la anatomía de los nectarios de la hoja y la venación menor. El tamaño y la forma muy peculiar de la cavidad glandular de los nectarios multiaperturados están estresados. Se presentan dos ilustraciones.

  10. [Microbiological quality of vanilla ice cream manufactured in Caracas, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tamsut, L S; García, C E

    1989-03-01

    A total of 122 samples of vanilla ice cream, the base product used for all flavors, prepared by eight different large firms at the Metropolitan Area of Caracas, Venezuela, were analyzed for aerobic mesophilic and psicrophilic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Filamentous fungi. Findings revealed that within the sampling, 56.6% complied with the international standards proposed for aerobic mesophilic bacteria, 68% for Staphylococcus aureus, and 23% for Enterobacteriaceae. Three serotypes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, one of Salmonella, and one of Shigella were found. Ten genera of Filamentous fungi were isolated and identified. PMID:2487021

  11. Legalidad o ilegalidad de la desobediencia civil tributaria en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Mariadela Bello Atencio; Mercedes Montiel de Henríquez

    2008-01-01

    La presente investigación estudió la legalidad o ilegalidad de la Desobediencia Civil Tributaria en Venezuela en lo que al término hermenéutico se refiere. El artículo 350 de la carta magna consagra el derecho del pueblo a desacatar cualquier régimen, autoridad o legislación cuando contraríe los principios y garantías constitucionales o menoscabe los derechos humanos. El objetivo fundamental es analizar la legalidad o ilegalidad de la misma. Se trata de una investigación jurídica documental d...

  12. Petroleum industry in Latin America: volume II Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second of a three volume work presented separately paged reviews of the energy sector of each of the three countries, i.e. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Although the organization of the three sections varied slightly, in essence they were quite similar, providing in each case, a brief outline of the country's history, and examining in considerable depth the economic outlook, the physical and market characteristics, the legal and regulatory framework, and the prevailing political climate of the country, with a view to their potential effect on the energy sector. Figs., tabs., refs

  13. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010

  14. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m3. (Author)

  15. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  16. Child labour in Venezuela: children's vulnerability to macroeconomic shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, F.; C. A. Valdivia

    2006-01-01

    The study begins by providing a profile of working children in Venezuela for the 2000 reference year. This snapshot of the situation of working children is then used to provide a basis for examining the impact on children’s work produced by the economic crisis which hit the country during the period 2002-2003. The study shows that when households are at risk of seeing their income collapse due to economic shocks, their survival strategies are quickly reformulated in order to preserve their in...

  17. [History of psychiatry in Venezuela: milestones in social work education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J

    1991-01-01

    A historical compilation, initiated with Dr. Lorenzo Campins y Ballester in 1773, covering the teaching aspect, and culminated with the creation of the first postgraduate in psychiatry at the Central University of Venezuela in 1939, is made. On the assistential side, the way in which patients were treated during colonial times is mentioned, introducing the attempts which were carried out up to 1892, when Dr. G.T. Villegas Pulido ordered the moving of 30 patients to the remodeled military hospital, becoming this latter institution the Psychiatric Hospital of Caracas. The influence of private institutions on both teaching formation and assistential level is also mentioned.

  18. Venezuela to Export Crude to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ President of CNPC Chen Geng met visiting Venezuelan Foreign Minister Jesus Armaldo Perez at Diaoyutai State Guest House in Beijing on September 7. Chen briefed the guest about CNPC's business and overseas oil and gas operation and expressed the willingness to step up the bilateral cooperation in the oil industrial field. In return,Perez also made briefings about the present situation and development trend of the Venezuelan oil industry.

  19. VENEZUELA 2010-2011: POLARIZACIÓN Y RADICALIZACIÓN DEL PROYECTO SOCIALISTA Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarization and Radicalization of the socialist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICKARD LALANDER

    2012-01-01

    movement that hitherto has been characterized by a high degree of personalism and power concentration in Chávez. In the social field, the government has maintained its progressive (and/or paternalist policies ofdifferent State Social Missions (Misiones, since 2011 mainly to confront housing shortages. Already in 2011, the beginning of a pre-campaign before the presidential elections of 2012 can be observed. This study provides a political summary of Venezuela in 2010 and 2011, and there will be special analytical attention paid to the parliamentary elections of 2010, and -particularly- the tensions between two different democratic schemes: a liberal representative model and a more radical and participatory type of democracy. As for the second type there will be special attention to the Community Councils and their implications for Venezuelan democracy.

  20. CURRENT SPACE PROJECTS OF THE BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del a ̃o 2008, con el lanzamiento exitoso del primer sat ́lite venezolano de telecomunicaciones, sat ́lite n e e VENESAT-1, la Rep ́blica Bolivariana de Venezuela pasa a formar parte del grupo de pa ́ u ıses que a nivel internacional utilizan activamente la ciencia y la tecnolog ́ espacial como una herramienta para promover el ıa desarrollo nacional. Sobre esa base, a trav ́s de la Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales (ABAE, se e ha impulsado la ejecuci ́n de diversos proyectos espaciales, entre los que destacan la fabricaci ́n y lanzamiento o o del primer sat ́lite venezolano para la observaci ́n de la Tierra, la construcci ́n de un centro especializado para e o o el dise ̃o y fabricaci ́n de sat ́lites de peque ̃o peso, as ́ como actividades de investigaci ́n y desarrollo relativas n o e n ı o a la medici ́n de propiedades f ́ o ısicas de la Tierra. El trabajo presenta una breve descripci ́n de los proyectos o espaciales desarrollados en Venezuela.

  1. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  2. Venezuela: del neoliberalismo al socialismo del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda la dinámica de la aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela y sus consecuencias económicas, políticas y sociales hasta llegar a la propuesta de construir el socialismo del siglo XXI. Para ello hacemos una breve retrospectiva de lo que ha sido la sociedad venezolana desde la década de 1970, del auge rentístico hasta llegar a la crisis de la década de 1980 y la inserción del programa neoliberal. La aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela, como en buen parte de América Latina, no fue un proceso fácil, por el contrario produjo fuertes conflictos y contradicciones. Asimismo, el periodo iniciado en 1999 con la llegada de Hugo Chávez al poder está cargado de dificultades y obstáculos, pero sin lugar a duda ha sido un proyecto contra el neoliberalismo. Por ello el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar el proceso venezolano hacia el socialismo.

  3. Venezuela recasts itself as a new frontier in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January of this year, Venezuela captured the attention of the international energy community by welcoming back the foreign oil companies that, 20 years earlier, it had shut out of the country by nationalizing the hydrocarbon sector. The tool used to attract that attention, a new exploration bidding round, is the most publicized event staged to date in the country's aperture process. However, it is only the latest in a series of steps taken by officials to bring international oil and gas companies back to Caracas. Venezuela's physical attraction is easily understood. The country possesses roughly one-half of Latin America's (including Mexico) 125 billion bbl of established, conventional crude oil reserves, plus an estimated 300 billion bbl of additional, nonconventional reserves in the ultra-heavy crude belt of the Orinoco basin. Averaging 2.8 million bpd in 1996, Venezuelan crude production represents over 35% of regional oil output. Natural gas reserves total 138 Tcf, or just over one-half of the region's total reserves of 274 Tcfg. Annual gas output averages just under 5 Tcf, of which roughly 30% is reinjected as part of tertiary oil recovery schemes. This paper reviews the incentives, deregulation, and government policies to restore the oil and gas industry to the country

  4. Venezuela, 1. Fenomenologìa de una Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Neira Fernández

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor muestra una primera reflexión, la coyuntura histórica presentada en la crisis de los procesos sociales y estructurales en Venezuela. Esta crisis presenta procesos simultáneos derivados del principal, que ha sido el que Venezuela ha pasado de ser un país agrariamente pobre a ser un país con una gran riqueza petrolera, lo cual ha provocado la modernización y urbanización de las ciudades, y por consiguiente la incorporación de ciencia avanzada y tecnología de punta en los diferentes campos de la economía nacional. Las principales manifestaciones de esta crisis están en la inhabilidad de la clase política, la falta de una generación de líderes de relevo y la falta de institucionalización que ha dejado la sociedad sin marcos firmes y claramente definidos para encauzar su desarrollo. Se aúnan a todo lo anterior, los vicios presentes en la ciudadanía venezolana tales como la desidia en cuanto a la responsabilidad social, la cobardía cívica y la dejadez ante la propia suerte y la de la sociedad

  5. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  6. Democracia y dilema eficiencia-equidad en la descentralización local en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La descentralización es uno de los mecanismos mediante el cual el Estado central transfiere competencias políticas y administrativas a las localidades, ya sea con la finalidad de fortalecer la participación política, lograr eficiencia estatal o para buscar la gobernabilidad. En algunos países latinoamericanos como Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica se han impulado procesos de descentralización con el fin de racionalizar la actividad estatal y, precisamente, contribuir a la gobernabilidad.En Venezuela la Comisión para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE implementó la descentralización en 1988 como una forma de superar el modelo estado céntrico, caracterísitico de las últimas décadas en el país. El proceso no estuvo acompañado por cambios constitucionales, lo que condujo a conflictos entre diversas normas y al consiguiente retraso en la implementación de las nuevas políticas. El ejercicio descentralizador se está desarrollando principalmente a nivel político, por ejemplo, en los municipios de Chacao, Baruta, El Hatillo y Libertador, que pertenecen al Area Metropolitana Interna de Caracas. Así, el proceso descentralizador se vive con diferencias marcadas resultantes del tipo de administración implementada desde la alcaldía, la mayor o menor disponibilidad de resursos económicos y humanos, la población y la pobreza.ABSTRACT: Decentralization is one of the mechanisms by which the central State transfers political and administrative competences to the localities, sometimes with the purpose of strenghtening political participation, to achieve state efficiency of to look for gobernability. In some Latín American countries such as Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica have been decentralization processes impulsed to rationalize the public activity and, precisely, to contribute to gobernability.In Venezuela the Comission for the State Reform (COPRE implemented the decentralization in 1988 as a way of

  7. Environmental gamma and radon dosimetry in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental gamma exposure and radon concentration levels measured in Venezuelan regions are presented. A new generation image analyser was used for α particle track counting in CR-39 detectors. Mineral water wells from where water is supplied for massive consumption have an alpha activity around 0.450 Bq L-1 and few of them have concentrations above 50 Bq L-1. Coastal potable water activity is on the average around 5.3 ± 12% Bq L-1. Indoor radon national average is 36 ± 5% Bq m-3; in two of the 36 monitored sites, the measured average is above 400 ± 5% Bq m-3. In air gamma dose values are between 100 and 144 nGy h-1. In soil, 137Cs concentration is around 0.5 and 10 Bq kg-1 at the depth of down to 20 cm. Building materials were included in this study. 7Be and 137Cs were measured in low concentration in tropical plants on Tepuy-s (sacred mountains in the Amazonas State). Geological active faults were identified by radon concentration measurements using LR-115

  8. Environmental gamma and radon dosimetry in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Sajo-Bohus, L; Urbani, F; Castro, D D; Greaves, E D; Liendo, J A

    1999-01-01

    Environmental gamma exposure and radon concentration levels measured in Venezuelan regions are presented. A new generation image analyser was used for alpha particle track counting in CR-39 detectors. Mineral water wells from where water is supplied for massive consumption have an alpha activity around 0.450 Bq L sup - sup 1 and few of them have concentrations above 50 Bq L sup - sup 1. Coastal potable water activity is on the average around 5.3 +- 12% Bq L sup - sup 1. Indoor radon national average is 36 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3; in two of the 36 monitored sites, the measured average is above 400 +- 5% Bq m sup - sup 3. In air gamma dose values are between 100 and 144 nGy h sup - sup 1. In soil, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs concentration is around 0.5 and 10 Bq kg sup - sup 1 at the depth of down to 20 cm. Building materials were included in this study. sup 7 Be and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs were measured in low concentration in tropical plants on Tepuy-s (sacred mountains in the Amazonas State). Geological active faults w...

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ecology in Venezuela: epidemiologic correlates of common spoligotypes and a large clonal cluster defined by MIRU-VNTR-24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alland David

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains an endemic public health problem, but the ecology of the TB strains prevalent, and their transmission, can vary by country and by region. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in different regions of Venezuela. A previous study identified the most prevalent strains in Venezuela but did not show geographical distribution nor identify clonal genotypes. To better understand local strain ecology, we used spoligotyping to analyze 1298 M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Venezuela from 1997 to 2006, predominantly from two large urban centers and two geographically distinct indigenous areas, and then studied a subgroup with MIRU-VNTR 24 loci. Results The distribution of spoligotype families is similar to that previously reported for Venezuela and other South American countries: LAM 53%, T 10%, Haarlem 5%, S 1.9%, X 1.2%, Beijing 0.4%, and EAI 0.2%. The six most common shared types (SIT's 17, 93, 605, 42, 53, 20 accounted for 49% of the isolates and were the most common in almost all regions, but only a minority were clustered by MIRU-VNTR 24. One exception was the third most frequent overall, SIT 605, which is the most common spoligotype in the state of Carabobo but infrequent in other regions. MIRU-VNTR homogeneity suggests it is a clonal group of strains and was named the "Carabobo" genotype. Epidemiologic comparisons showed that patients with SIT 17 were younger and more likely to have had specimens positive for Acid Fast Bacilli on microscopy, and patients with SIT 53 were older and more commonly smear negative. Female TB patients tended to be younger than male patients. Patients from the high incidence, indigenous population in Delta Amacuro state were younger and had a nearly equal male:female distribution. Conclusion Six SIT's cause nearly half of the cases of tuberculosis in Venezuela and dominate in nearly all regions. Strains with SIT 17, the most common pattern

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis.

  11. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis. PMID:1440772

  12. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean. PMID:25102639

  13. Decentralization process in Venezuela, under perspective of mayors elected for the term 2000-2004 El proceso de descentralización de Venezuela, desde la perspectiva de los alcaldes electos para el período 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Josefina REVERÓN ESCOBAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the process of decentralization in Venezuela, under mayors’ perspective, elected for the period 2000-2004. Our main goal is to identify the vision they have over such an important process that theoretically strengthens, supports, and enhances the democratic system. We contrast decentralization theory (which states that if there is not democracy at levels of government closer to the citizens-municipal government-democracy is not sustained over real bases with what Venezuelan mayors exposed about the facts observed in the nation in this sense. Our hypothesis is that the concepts and visions that the mayors expressed must coincide with the theory sustaining decentralization in general and particularly decentralization in Venezuela, which must coincide with their praxis in their municipalities. We concluded that the positive perspectives and visions as the negatives or pessimistic ones stated by the interviewed mayors coincided with theory supporting decentralization in different countries and with the evaluations of decentralization that have been conducted in different nations. Venezuelan decentralization process is not different from those that have been discovered in other countries in this sense. It seems to be that the decentralization policy in Venezuela enjoys the same virtues and suffers the same problems that decentralization policies in other countries. El presente trabajo aborda el proceso de descentralización en Venezuela visto desde la perspectiva de los alcaldes electos para el período 2000-2004. El interés es identificar la visión que tienen éstos sobre tan importante proceso que, teóricamente, sustenta, soporta y fortalece el sistema democrático. Se contrastan los fundamentos teóricos esgrimidos sobre las bondades de las políticas descentralizadoras que parten del supuesto teórico de que si no hay democracia en los niveles del gobierno que están más cerca del ciudadano (el gobierno municipal la

  14. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  15. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  16. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  17. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  18. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  19. Three new rarely collected or endangered species of Annonaceae from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Pirie, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Annonaceae from Venezuela are described here: Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie, Klarobelia subglobosa Chatrou, and Pseudomalmea wingfieldii Chatrou. All three are represented by few collections (in comparison to those of other Neotropical species of Annonaceae). Klarobelia subg

  20. The political economy of anti-politics and social polarisation in Venezuela 1998-2004

    OpenAIRE

    DiJohn, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the decline of party politics in Latin America during the past two decades and the corresponding rise in what can be termed "anti-politics". It looks at populist leaders who appeal directly to the people and challenge existing political classes and parties. The author considers in particular the case of Venezuela, since the landslide victory of Hugo Chavez Frias in the 1998 presidential elections. The paper concludes that the return of party politics in Venezuela seems rem...

  1. Hugo Chavez and the crisis of political-party representation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Arias García

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the current political situation in Venezuela a direct consequence of the collapse of the party system, with the AD and the COPEI being its traditional actors. The author further analyses the populist regime of Hugo Chavez as a “competitive authoritarianism”, insofar as the crisis of representation is concerned and points out that one of the particular features of the current development in Venezuela is that it does not necessarily constitutes the exercise of election, but...

  2. Characterization of antigenetic serotypes from the dengue virus in Venezuela by means of Grid Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isea, Raúl; Montes, Esther; Rubio-Montero, Antonio J; Rosales, José D; Rodríguez-Pascual, Manuel A; Mayo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This work determines the molecular epidemiology of dengue virus in Venezuela by means of phylogenetic calculations performed on the EELA-2 Grid infrastructure with the PhyloGrid application, an open source tool that allows users performing phylogeny reconstruction in their research. In this study, a total of 132 E nucleotide gene sequences of dengue virus from Venezuela recorded in GenBank(R) have been processed in order to reproduce and validate the topology described in the literature. PMID:20543442

  3. Venezuela: mudanças políticas na era Chávez Venezuela: political changes in the Chávez era

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2005-01-01

    A VENEZUELA da época democrática, que se inicia em 1958, tem na emergência política de Hugo Chávez seu marco divisor do cenário político: pode-se, desta forma, apontar uma Venezuela democrática pré e pós-Chávez. Este ensaio analisa, pois, os fatores da mudança político-institucional venezuelana em quatro momentos: durante o auge e a queda do Pacto de Punto Fijo; o início do fenômeno chavista e suas características; a polarização social e política na Venezuela de Chávez; e, por fim, a Venezuel...

  4. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  5. Legalidad o ilegalidad de la desobediencia civil tributaria en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadela Bello Atencio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación estudió la legalidad o ilegalidad de la Desobediencia Civil Tributaria en Venezuela en lo que al término hermenéutico se refiere. El artículo 350 de la carta magna consagra el derecho del pueblo a desacatar cualquier régimen, autoridad o legislación cuando contraríe los principios y garantías constitucionales o menoscabe los derechos humanos. El objetivo fundamental es analizar la legalidad o ilegalidad de la misma. Se trata de una investigación jurídica documental de tipo descriptivo, con un diseño bibliográfico. El método utilizado fue el sociológico auxiliado por la hermenéutica jurídica, concluyéndose que la desobediencia civil tributaria es legal conforme al referido artículo 350.

  6. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  7. Services et développement urbains au Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Péné-Annette, Anne

    2013-01-01

    L’accès aux services urbains de base, et plus précisément à ceux de l’eau et de l’assainissement, constitue un angle d’approche intéressant pour rendre compte des conditions de vie urbaine au Venezuela et des réalités des réformes participatives. Nous partons d’une analyse des points de la loi sur l’eau et l’assainissement LOPSAPS concernant la gestion du service de l’eau en milieu urbain et la prise en compte de mesures en faveur d’une justice sociale. Puis nous nous penchons sur les implica...

  8. Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

    2000-01-01

    The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated. PMID:11132371

  9. La credibilidad del sistema de banda cambiaria de Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Campos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la credibilidad del régimen cambiario de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante de Venezuela durante el periodo julio de 1996-febrero de 2002. Mostramos que los análisis de credibilidad aplicados a zonas objetivo, introduciendo algunas modificaciones, también pueden utilizarse para estudiar la credibilidad de sistemas cambiarios de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante. En este trabajo aplicamos tanto el denominado test de credibilidad de Svensson como el método de ajuste de la deriva. Con ambos métodos obtenemos resultados similares en cuanto al alto grado de credibilidad del sistema durante el periodo analizado.

  10. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Venezuela-Colombia-05-06-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The Virtual Center of High Energy Studies (Centro Virtual de Altos Estudios en Altas Energias CeVALE2) is a Colombian-Venezuelan initiative to promote the research on particle physics in the region. It groups four Colombian universities and four Venezuelan institutions. The two main objectives of CeVALE2 are the development and transfer of collaborative and organizational platforms in the area and the creation of opportunities for the dissemination of particle physics such as courses and seminars. A cycle of conferences has been organized during June 2014 for teachers and students from the member institutions. The ATLAS Virtual Visit will be a key part of this experience - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2014/Venezuela-Colombia-2014.html#sthash.tZw8PxLn.dpuf

  11. Gamma environmental dosimetry and radon concentration in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental radiation levels have been determined in Venezuela by means of different techniques including the passive dosimeters and the alpha and gamma dosimetry besides the gross alpha/beta counting. The most important conclusion is that the presence of artificial radionuclides (Cesium-137, Beryllium-7 and Cadmium-109) was observed in different environmental samples and in food considered contaminant. The values of gamma levels are between 28 and 40 mGy/day and the mean value of radon concentration in closed environment is 36 Bq/m3 ; the higher values of a factor 10 have been measured in the Andes region. The 20% of analysed drinking water has a concentration of alpha radionuclides emitters less than 0.005 Bq/l and only the 8% is greater than 0.450 Bq/l. (authors). 6 refs., 1 fig

  12. Evaluation of Venezuela's Orinoco bitumen as an MHD fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela contains huge deposits of a bitumen that is complex to handle and refine into lighter hydrocarbon fractions. These deposits are in the early commercialization stage, being marketed as an emulsion with 30% water as a boiler fuel. The fuel is similar to oil in heating value (about 18,100 BTU/lbm) and ash (less than 0.4%). It has an extremely high carbon to hydrogen ratio, a parameter that is important in MHD for electrical conductivity. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for this bitumen as a fuel for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. An experimental program to demonstrate the merit of the bitumen as an MHD fuel and validate the calculations is suggested

  13. Radon concentrations in hot spring waters in northern Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 222Rn were determined in selected thermal water samples of the northern region of Venezuela. Concentrations in the range of 1-560 Bq/l were found. Soil radon concentrations and air radon concentrations related to the high values of radon concentration in water were investigated in El Castano and at a spa in Las Trincheras. An outstandingly high radon efflux was found in Las Trincheras with an average soil radon concentration of 122 kBq/m3, and an air radon concentration of 54 kBq/m3 in inhalation treatment pipes. Dose calculations revealed that regular consumption of the measured water samples presents an extra dose of radiation that may range up to 4 mSv/y

  14. Coal in Colombia and Venezuela: Production, transportation and export logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D. [Coal Export Services International, Inc. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The coal seams uplifted by the Perija and Sierra Nevada de Santa marta Mountains along the border of Colombia and Venezuela are high quality reserves with low mining ratios that are in close proximity to the coast. Since the late 70`s and early 80`s, various mining developments have increased the production of these reserves to its current level of 37 million tons per year. Most of the production is shipped to European and to North and South American markets. Further exploitation of these reserves will require significant investments in mine development, inland transportation, and port facilities. This paper will summarize the current status of the Colombian and Venezuelan coal industry, as well as the potential and challenges for increased production and exportation.

  15. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  16. Sucesos de la Venezuela Rentista, 1989 y 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ibelis Coromoto Blanco Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Durante el siglo XX, Venezuela fue catalogado uno de los países de Sudamérica más ricos del continente, destacándose por su y estabilidad económica. Sin embargo, el capitalismo rentístico tanto de la época democrática como en el socialismo del siglo XXI sobredimensionó el tamaño del estado, utilizó mecanismos de subsidios que desaceleró el aparato productivo, generó niveles de inflación y déficit fiscal que se reflejaron en malestar y estallido social. Este artículo hace una reflexión sobre l...

  17. La République bolivarienne du Venezuela et le droit

    OpenAIRE

    Mazet, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Quel est l’état du droit dans la République bolivarienne du Venezuela à la lumière des évènements récents ? Le socialisme du xxie siècle, cher au Président Chávez, est-il compatible avec l’État de droit ? Durant ces derniers mois, on a en effet assisté à nombre de péripéties, tant au plan international qu’interne, qui nous convient à la réflexion : que signifie le retrait de la Communauté andine des Nations concomitant à l’entrée dans le Mercosur, la signature du Traité de Commerce entre les ...

  18. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  19. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  20. Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del desempoderamiento en la experiencia reciente de Venezuela y Perú. Después de una breve explicación de los movimientos ciudadanos urbanos y de la política en nuestros dos casos, concretaremos unas reflexiones generales sobre la naturaleza de ese proceso, y sobre la peculiar combinación de fortalezas y fragilidades que determinan muchos movimientos contemporáneos. Seguiremos con un examen de los tipos de movimientos y de sus vínculos con los partidos políticos y las protestas. Las características de la vida urbana son muy importantes en este contexto. Concluiremos con el análisis de las recientes oleadas de movilizaciones urbanas en Perú (que provocaron la salida del presidente Alberto Fujimori y en Venezuela (ambas a favor y en contra del presidente Hugo Chávez Frías, y con algunas reflexiones sobre el futuro más probable del empoderamiento y desempoderamiento de los ciudadanos urbanos y sobre las implicaciones de esta perspectiva para la representación democrática.

  1. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delin...

  2. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  3. Study of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: the role of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a locality (Las Rosas, Cojedes State, venezuela previously non-endemic, 12.9% of humans, 7% of dogs and 21.4% of donkeys (Equus asinus had lesions with paraites. The agent in the three hosts was identified as Leishmania braziliensis, subspecies braziliensis at least in man and donkey. The probable vector was Lutzomyia panamensis. No infection was found in a small sample of wild mammals examined. The outbreak was apparently linked with the importation of donkeys with ulcers, from endemic areas. The Authors call attention to the fact that not only in the foci of "uta", but also in areas of the other forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, dogs are frequently found infected. They emphasize the necessity of searching for the infection in donkeys and of performing hemocultures and xenodiagnosis with sandflies in human, canine and equine cases, to verify their possible role as sources of infection, and not merely as dead ends in the epidemiological chain of the disease.Durante um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar em Las Rosas, localidade previamente não endêmica do Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, 12,9% dos habitantes, 7% dos cães e 21,4% dos asnos (Equus asinus apresentavam lesões com parasitos. O agente etiológico nos tres hospedeiros foi identificado como Leishmania braziliensis, sendo da subespécie braziliensis pelo menos em pessoas e asnos. O transmissor provável foi Lutzomyia panamensis. Não comprovamos a infecção numa pequena amostra de mamíferos silvestres examinados. O surto esteve aparentemente relacionado com a importação de asnos com úlceras de áreas endêmicas. Chamamos a atenção para o fato de que não é apenas nos fócos de "uta", mas também nos de outras formas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana que os cães estão freqüentemente parasitados. Enfatizamos a necessidade de se procurar a infecção em asnos e de se proceder a hemoculturas e a xenodiagnósticos com

  4. Isotope aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies on Venezuelan diets provided information on food consumed in each diet and their nutritional contents. It also showed the comparison of the iron absorption from these diets when given in the morning after over-night fast and when given at the customary time of the day. It was observed that the iron absorption from the lunch given at noon was slightly higher (although not significant) in Zulia and Sucre diets. There were no significant differences between the Zulia lunch given in the morning after over-night fast at noon. Similar results were observed in the Sucre diet lunch repeated twice. From these results we can state that iron absorption from meals is not affected by the time it is administered with the condition that the subjects tested have had a previous fast of three hours before the meal is administered. The significant difference in iron absorption in the first study could be due to a marked physiological daily variation in iron absorption. The results from these studies provide credit to previous reports in which meals were given in the morning after an over-night fast. The iron absorption studies from 11 diets consumed by the Venezuelan population, provided the basic information for the establishment of a programme on iron fortification. The Government of Venezuela, according to the recommendation of the National Nutrition Institute, approved a national programme of iron fortification by enriching precooked maize flour with ferrous fumarate in the proportion of 5 mg Fe/100 g flour, and the enrichment of flour used to produce paste with the same iron compound in the proportion of 3 mg Fe/100 g flour. This year, the Chemical Centre of the Venezuela Scientific Institute of Research discovered an iron compound, now called FERROIVIC. It is an insoluble white powder that, when given as iron fortification, forms part of the nonhaeme iron pool and it is absorbed to the same extent as ferrous sulphate; it is stable for several months. 15 refs, 8

  5. A new rabbit species (Sylvilagus, Mammalia: Leporidae) from the lowlands of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, P; Guevara, M A

    2001-03-01

    A new species of Venezuelan rabbit of the genus Sylvilagus from Fundo Millano (08 degrees 46'N and 69 degrees 56'W) and Chorrosco Bajo (08 degrees 05'N and 69 degrees 18'W), between 190 and 120 masl, state of Barinas, is described based on: 1. Body and skull measurements. 2. Coloration patterns of the pelage. 3. Arrangement and length of the color hair bands of dorsal, lateral, ventral nuchal, and gular patches. Body and cranial measurements, and some color patterns of the new species, Sylvilagus varynaensis, were compared with those of the closest relative groups such as S. brasiliensis (from Venezuela and Brazil), S. b. meridensis from the Venezuelan paramos, and three of the most representative groups of S. floridanus (S. f. continentis, S. f. orinoci, and S. f. valenciae). Most of the values recorded for these parameters were significantly higher for the new species (P < 0.005; Student "t" test). Cluster and principal components analysis of the data recorded for cranial characteristics indicated that S. varynaensis is the largest and darkest of the known Venezuelan rabbits, with a broader elongated skull and a different arrangement of the color hair bands. PMID:11795167

  6. Epidemiological Characterization of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Goat Herds in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Delgado Duno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caseous lymphadenitis (CL is a chronic infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; it affects small ruminants and generates economic loss due to a reduction in weight, reproductive performance, milk and wool production forfeiture, and depreciation of skins. Given the socio-economic importance of goat production in the Falcón state (Venezuela, this research aimed to epidemiologically characterize the disease in herds in the Paraguaná peninsula. The research is descriptive. Field work lasted six weeks, during which superficial lymph nodes were inspected, and 71 samples of purulent discharge were obtained from animals suspected to suffer from CL, according to their clinical manifestations. Back in the laboratory, specimens were bacteriologically analyzed; C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were compared with the reference strain ATCC 19410. The only risk factor detected for CL (p < 0.05 was the origin of goats by production units; those with the highest prevalence were located in the municipality of Falcón. Injuries in subscapular lymph nodes were the most frequent (p < 0.05 among the diagnosed animals. Penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and novobiocin-resistant strains were identified. These results are important to raise awareness among producers, given that this activity is of vital importance for the region and in many cases ignorance on the subject was evidenced.

  7. Thermal ecology and activity pattern lizard tropidurus hispidus (sauria: tropiduridae) in the east of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied aspects of thermal ecology and activity patterns in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus in a forest tropophic of Sucre state, Venezuela between June 2007 and May 2008. The body temperature was 35.68±1.4 Celsius degrades from 32.6 to 37.80 Celsius degrade. Female's body temperature (Tb) in drought and rainfall was 34-38 Celsius degrades and 32-38 Celsius degrades, respectively. In males the range of body temperature (Tb) in drought was 35-37 Celsius degrades and 34-35 Celsius degrades, in rain. No relation was found between the air temperature (Ta) and substrate temperature (Ts). Thermoregulatory trend, indicate active thermoregulation in drought and rain. Dividing the activity into three time segments: morning, afternoon and evening and the pattern of activity was bimodal in drought and unimodal in rain. To relate the pattern of activity with environmental variables (air and substrate) using the Pearson correlation in drought was a negative correlation with air temperature (-0.780) and with the substrate (-0.65). Rain was not associated with the air temperature (-0.056) or the substrate (-0.040). The thermal niche breadth was calculated using the Levins index, we did not find significant differences between males and females in both periods and thermal niche overlap between sexes, obtained by the Pianka index was 0.81 in rain and 0.90 in drought.

  8. [Diversity and abundance of mollusks in the sublittoral epifaunal community of Punta Patilla, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Antulio; Ruiz, Lilia J; García, Natividad

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of a sublittoral epifaunal mollusk community of Punta Patilla, Sucre State, Venezuela, was studied from September 1990 to September 1991. We identified 25 species (14 bivalves and 11 gastropods) of mollusks that inhabit gravel, soft sand and bottoms covered by Thalassia testudinum. Total diversity indices were H' = 3.42. J' = 0.74 and 1-D = 0.85. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in March 1991 (3.12 bits/ ind.), June 1991 (2.88 bits/ind.) and September 1991 (2.95 bits/ind.); minimum diversity was recorded in August 1991 (1.20 bits/ind.). A log series model showed a diversity index alpha = 4.56 for species abundance data and alpha = 3.11 for biomass data. The more abundant species were Chione cancellata, Anigona listeri, Chione granulata and Area zebra among the bivalves, and Chicoreus brevifrons, Turritella variegata and Phllonotus pomum among the gastropods (which present maximum biomass). The average total biomass (56.80 g/m2) is low when compared to reports from other tropical zones. PMID:17354426

  9. Ecological studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in north-central Venezuela, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, R A; Garcia, C Z; Liria, J; Barrera, R; Navarro, J C; Medina, G; Vasquez, C; Fernandez, Z; Weaver, S C

    2001-01-01

    From 1997-1998, we investigated the possible continuous circulation of epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus suggested by a 1983 subtype IC interepizootic mosquito isolate made in Panaquire, Miranda State, Venezuela. The study area was originally covered by lowland tropical rainforest but has been converted into cacao plantations. Sentinel hamsters, small mammal trapping, mosquito collections, and human serosurveys were used to detect active or recent virus circulation. Six strains of subtype ID VEE virus were isolated from hamsters that displayed no apparent disease. Four other arboviruses belonging to group A (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), two Bunyamwera group (Bunyaviridae), and three Gamboa group (Bunyaviridae) arboviruses were also isolated from hamsters, as well as 8 unidentified viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis-specific antibodies were detected in 5 small mammal species: Proechimys guairae, Marmosa spp., and Didelphis marsupialis. Mosquito collections comprised of 38 different species, including 8 members of the subgenus Culex (Melanoconion), did not yield any virus isolates. Sera from 195 humans, either workers in the cacao plantation or nearby residents, were all negative for VEE virus antibodies. Sequences of 1,677 nucleotides from the P62 gene of 2 virus isolates indicated that they represent a subtype ID lineage that is distinct from all others characterized previously, and are unrelated to epizootic VEE emergence. PMID:11425168

  10. Economics vis-à-vis Politics of Venezuela under the Chavez Regime 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world most of the countries are following the market rule to determine their economic determinants with some to follow the mixed role of the government. There are a very few countries or states that are following the socialistic nature of development. One such country is Venezuela which has a long history of socialism and the degree of socialism got magnified under the regime of Hugo Chavez. The last election result in favour of Chavez has put some questions before the economists and politicians regarding its grounds. The present study has been framed in line with examining whether the role of economic factors have done the trick for Chavez to regain the presidential power. The study for the period of 1998-2010 has observed that the country has suffered in major economic factors compared to two Latin heroes Brazil and Argentina, albeit he has won the election. The study further observed that there are certain political grounds that played role for the favourable verdict.

  11. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  12. The importance of trenching in paleoseismic studies in Venezuela: brief historical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoseismic studies have proved to be a powerful tool in seismic hazards assessment by he contributing to asses the seismogenic potential of a given fault by expanding the time window o seismic activity beyond the limits of historical and instrumental seismicity. Trenching has been an essential tool for paleoseismic studies in Venezuela. The first paleoseismic trenching project in Venezuela goes back to 1968 when Compania Shell de Venezuela retained the services of Woodward Clyde and Associates,(WCA), USA to asses the seismic integrity of the earthen dikes of Costa Oriental of Lake Maracaibo Protection System (COLM) in western Venezuela. The study was carried out under the general coordination of this author. An important part of this project included a seismology and seismic geology study under the direction of Geologist L.S. Cluff. This was the first ever study undertaken in Venezuela and included two excavations across the Oca Fault north of the city of Maracaibo. After several years of inactivity, FUNVISIS (The Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research) carried out in 1980 a seismic hazard (SHA) for the Uribante Caparo Hydroelectric Project southwest Venezuela. In 1989, MARAVEN, an operating company of PETROLE0S DE VENEUELA S.A. (PDVSA) undertook the project of a products pipeline form Maracaibo to El Vigia, south of Lake Maracaibo. Again, FUNVISIS was contracted to carry out a SHA, which included the digging of 5 trenches, which were supplemented with five more trenches for the COLM project. Trenching activity contined in Venezuela in the framework of SHA project, under the direction of Dr. Audemard. In 2001 Venezuelan trenching experience was exported to the neighboring Colombia as e Dr. Audemard t undertook a palaoseismicity project which included the digging of five trenches. In conclusion, paleoseismicty studies have given us the possibility of extending the scope of both instrumental and historical seismicity by some 10,000 years, trenching has

  13. Tratamiento constitucional de los derechos en Venezuela. ¿Eficacia o desvalorización? = Constitutional treatment rights in Venezuela. Efficiency or depreciation?

    OpenAIRE

    Goig Martínez, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo hace un estudio estrictamente constitucional del tratamiento que sobre los derechos hace la Constitución venezolana de 1999. La Constitución de Venezuela, que cierra un ciclo constitucional de casi dos siglos, es la más audaz, com

  14. Las identidades internacionales de Venezuela y sus comunicaciones con el mundo bajo el Socialismo del Siglo XXI. Diplomacia Pública Bolivariana 1999-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Canelón Silva, Agrivalca Ramsenia

    2016-01-01

    A partir de la revisión del discurso de política exterior y las prácticas de diplomacia pública apuntaladas durante la gestión gubernativa del extinto presidente Hugo Chávez entre los años 1999 y 2013, se analizan las identidades y la comunicación del gobierno de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela pivotada sobre la proyección regional del modelo político del Socialismo del Siglo XXI. Para ello, se apela al concepto del Brand State (van Ham, 2001), examinado al tamiz de los instrumentos del...

  15. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  16. Gamma radioactivity in sediments of Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracaibo Lake is located to the west part of Venezuela (see Figure), with a surface of 13.000 Km2, its coast embraces a longitude of 729 Km. This lake is the largest fresh water hydrologic basin of Venezuela and its ecosystem is subjected to intense and constant modification due to the strong oil exploitation developed in this region. Both in the coastal area and inside the lake, the petroleum extraction process induces modification in the ecosystem. Radioactive content characterization was carried out in coastal sediments of Maracaibo Lake, measuring the specific activity of the following elements: 40K, gamma emitters of the natural radioactive series (238U and 232Th) and radioactive elements of anthropogenic origin (137Cs, among others) and cosmogenic as Berilium-7. The radioactive disequilibrium in the 238U and 232Th series was evaluated. Surface samples (from depth up to 5 cm) of the sediments along the coast were recollected and measured by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a HpGe detector of approximately 2 KeV resolution for the 1,33 MeV 60Co peak and efficiency higher than 20% (supplied under the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project VEN/9/005). The 137Cs concentrations ranged in the interval 0,5-13,1 Bq/kg, while those of natural radionuclides are 238U (2,12 - 5,01 ppm), 232Th (6,71-38,58 ppm) and 40K (1,05-3,64%), assuming radioactive equilibrium in samples. Between elements of the 238U series high correlation was obtained while it is low between those of the 232Th series, being evidenced radioactive disequilibrium in this series. We found high positive correlation between 40K and elements of the 232Th series, and in turn low and negative with those of the 238U series. 232Th and 238U correlate negatively one to each other. This coastal sediment characterization of Maracaibo Lake allowed us to obtain a map of radioactive levels in these areas, which will serve as reference for future investigations. Reference sample for this study were supplied by

  17. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  18. Fluorescence Time-lapse Imaging of the Complete S. venezuelae Life Cycle Using a Microfluidic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlimpert, Susan; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of biological processes at the single cell level has been instrumental to our current understanding of the subcellular organization of bacterial cells. However, the application of time-lapse microscopy to study the cell biological processes underpinning development in the sporulating filamentous bacteria Streptomyces has been hampered by technical difficulties. Here we present a protocol to overcome these limitations by growing the new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, in a commercially available microfluidic device which is connected to an inverted fluorescence widefield microscope. Unlike the classical model species, Streptomyces coelicolor, S. venezuelae sporulates in liquid, allowing the application of microfluidic growth chambers to cultivate and microscopically monitor the cellular development and differentiation of S. venezuelae over long time periods. In addition to monitoring morphological changes, the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescently labeled target proteins can also be visualized by time-lapse microscopy. Moreover, the microfluidic platform offers the experimental flexibility to exchange the culture medium, which is used in the detailed protocol to stimulate sporulation of S. venezuelae in the microfluidic chamber. Images of the entire S. venezuelae life cycle are acquired at specific intervals and processed in the open-source software Fiji to produce movies of the recorded time-series. PMID:26967231

  19. ANÁLISIS BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS PECES CHARACIFORMES DE VENEZUELA Biogeographic Analysis of the Characiformes Fishes of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BONILLA RIVERO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis biogeográfico basado en los peces Characiformes de Venezuela con el objetivo de explorar la importancia relativa de los procesos que han contribuido con el establecimiento de los patrones de distribución actuales de la ictiofauna continental venezolana. La información geográfica y filogenética disponible se analizó siguiendo los métodos de Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE y Análisis de Parsimonia de Brooks (BPA. El PAE señaló fundamentalmente a los Llanos Occidentales y el sur del Amazonas como áreas de endemismo. El BPA realizado con la información filogenética de siete géneros mostró un patrón generalizado con los clados (Caribe + Maracaibo y ((((Río Negro+Orinoco + Paria + Valencia + Cuyuní, donde se destaca un evento de dispersión desde la cuenca del río Negro hacia el río Orinoco. Los resultados de ambos métodos biogeográficos indican que la región de los llanos - amazonas, donde se conjugó la biota del incipiente Orinoco con la biota amazónica, contiene el mayor número de especies, las áreas de endemismo mejor sustentadas, así como distintos eventos de especiación y posterior dispersión hacia otras regiones. La biota de la región nortecostera del país parece más bien gobernada por procesos de especiación vicariante de carácter puntual por el aislamiento histórico de sus drenajes.Based on the information available on fishes of the order Characiformes of Venezuela a biogeographical analysis was performed to explore the relative importance of the processes that may have contributed to the establishment of current distribution patterns of the Venezuelan continental ichthyofauna. Geographic and phylogenetic information available for this group of fishes was analyzed by Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA. PAE uncovered the western plains and southern Amazonas as areas of endemism. BPA, using the phylogenetic information of seven genera

  20. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela : A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzman, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a h

  1. Venezuela: regiones fronterizas y globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Cardozo Galué

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización, al mismo tiempo que introduce tendencias hacia la homogeneidad económica, impulsa la “economía difusa” a través de procesos de descentralización y reubicación de las estructuras industriales en asentamientos territoriales como las regiones fronterizas. Ha sido señalado el peligro de tales estrategias para la integridad y futuro de los Estados nacionales. En este artículo se analiza, en la perspectiva del proceso histórico, el caso específico de la región fronteriza que comparten Venezuela y Colombia, compuesta por los Estados Zulia y Táchira y el Departamento de Santander, respectivamente. La categoría “región histórica” sirve de marco teórico-metodológico para la comprensión del problema originado por el actual juego dialéctico de “Globalización-Estado nacional-Región” con el objeto de sustentar posibles propuestas de carácter sociopolítico.

  2. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  3. Sucesos de la Venezuela Rentista, 1989 y 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibelis Coromoto Blanco Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX, Venezuela fue catalogado uno de los países de Sudamérica más ricos del continente, destacándose por su y estabilidad económica. Sin embargo, el capitalismo rentístico tanto de la época democrática como en el socialismo del siglo XXI sobredimensionó el tamaño del estado, utilizó mecanismos de subsidios que desaceleró el aparato productivo, generó niveles de inflación y déficit fiscal que se reflejaron en malestar y estallido social. Este artículo hace una reflexión sobre la crisis que atraviesa este país, para lo cual se describen elementos de política económica de corte neoliberal en 1989 y un resumen de los catorce años del gobierno actual caracterizado por las medidas de control cambiario que han generado, escasez. De igual forma se revisan los hechos desataron la crisis social en 1989 y 2014, así como los puntos en común presentes en los dos momentos, el más característico: la inseguridad.

  4. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched δ13C and δ15N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C23 and C25 relative to C29 and C31n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C32 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C32 bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions

  5. SOFTWARE LIBRE: OPORTUNIDADES Y RETOS CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Rodríguez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan algunas consideraciones en torno al software libre, sus oportunidades pero también sus desafíos, a la vez que se expone el marco legal de esta figura a partir de su implementación en Venezuela. Se ha empleado una metodología descriptivo-explicativa, partiendo de la revisión bibliográfica conjuntamente con la legislación nacional sobre el tema. Asimismo, se consultó a FUNDACITE ZULIA, a través de la Misión Ciencia, y se concluye que el software libre es una oportunidad para desarrollar programas que atiendan necesidades particulares, y hay quienes consideran que resulta una herramienta especialmente útil para democratizar el acceso a la información en países en desarrollo; sin embargo, planteamos la realidad de una brecha digital entre países en desarrollo y desarrollados

  6. La primera relación sexual en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Letellier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La universalidad de las prohibiciones y la semejanza de una sociedad a otra, sugieren que toda codificación cultural esta asentada sobre una diferenciación sexual de los roles y funciones del hombre y la mujer. No existe sociedad que haya conocido moral sexual fija, al contrario, esta cambia según las circunstancias históricas. Cada individuo está sometido a su cultura que auto reproduce sin darse cuenta. Desde los inicios en la sexualidad hasta la sexualidad adulta y activa, los individuos reaccionan según los roles y marcos sociales que conforman su especificidad. La iniciación sexual esmuyritualizada enVenezuela, contiene en ella el honor de la familia y el estatuto social del individuo. En Francia, es personal y privada, concierne únicamente al individuo. Apesar de todo, es un pasaje obligado que es vivido como acto de amor o acto iniciativo. La primera relación sexual determinará en parte el giro que tomará la sexualidad adulta. Veremos que según el género y la clase social, las condiciones de advenimiento de la primera relación sexual observan esquemas diferentes.

  7. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  8. Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  9. UN MODELO DE EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA PARA VENEZUELA EN EL MARCO DEL SOCIALISMO DEL SIGLO XXI (A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION MODEL FOR VENEZUELA IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SOCIALISM OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Miguel

    2011-04-01

    the theoretical references to e. Morin and j. Habermas, develop three present in the reality of Venezuela categories: socialism of the 21st century, the State teachers and the University autonomy. The methodological treatment part of the approach of the premise: the new model of university education which is be built, is due to the crisis of the instrumental cognitive model established in the Constitution of the Republic of Venezuela (1961, its laws and regulations. To the triangular three categories arises, as an added value, conceive education through a transdisciplinary process, sustained in the first instance by the legal system to give realization and synchronization in time and movement. In the case of Venezuelan education, it is concluded that they have not been produced significant changes that indicate us that we are in the presence of a new model of education. University education is tied to the cognitive model instrumental, preventing any change it from her womb is intended to promote, so that the new law of university education and the new model of education remain deferred.

  10. LOS TRATADOS INTERNACIONALES Y SUS POSIBLES CONFLICTOS EN EL ORDEN INTERNO A LA LUZ DE LA CONSTITUCIÓN DE LA REPUBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA

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    María Fátima Pinho de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to perform an analysis of international treaties and possible conflicts in the internal order in light of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, based on two (2 major theories underlying the application of international law and the law states. These theories are the Monist and Dualist, the first provides that domestic law and international law are two systems of identical legal or legal nature, because their purposes and audiences are the same. Indeed, the two legal systems have a source to an agreement or consensus of wills; the second, however, public international law and domestic law are two systems or State laws of different legal nature because they have different sources and recipients. If we analyze some articles on the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, we see that it holds no preference on any of the two (2 theories, but has a mixed theory, in some cases monistic theory applies, but other cases the dualistic theory.La presente investigación tiene como finalidad realizar un análisis sobre los tratados internacionales y sus posibles conflictos en el orden interno a la luz de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, partiendo de dos (2 principales teorías que sustentan la aplicación del derecho internacional y el derecho interno de los estados. Dichas teorías son la Monista y la Dualista, la primera establece que el derecho interno y el derecho internacional son dos sistemas u ordenamientos jurídicos de idéntica naturaleza jurídica, porque sus funciones y destinatarios son los mismos. En efecto ambos sistemas jurídicos tienen como fuente un acuerdo o consenso de voluntades; la segunda, en cambio, el Derecho Internacional Público y el Derecho Interno Estatal son dos sistemas u ordenamientos jurídicos de naturaleza jurídica diferente porque tienen fuentes y destinatarios distintos. Si se analizan algunos artículos referidos en la Constitución de

  11. Rotación de presidentes ejecutivos y directores en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Urbi Garay; Maximiliano González

    2005-01-01

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) El propósito de este estudio es propiciar una mejor comprensión de las estructuras y los mecanismos de conducción empresarial fuera de Estados Unidos, observando una economía emergente específica: Venezuela. Primero formulamos un índice de prácticas de conducción empresarial de las compañías inscritas en bolsa, cuyos resultados generales indican que Venezuela exhibe puntajes de gestión empresarial relativamente bajos. Descubrimos, empleando esta muestr...

  12. Colombia y Venezuela: conflictividad, intereses y escenarios futuros de la relación bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Rabagliatti, Juan María; Nuñez, Mauricio Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda la relación bilateral entre Colombia y Venezuela en los últimos dos años. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la conflictividad entre los países demostrando que ésta es solo parte de la retórica de los dirigentes, ya que existe un entramado de intereses entre Colombia, Venezuela y Estados Unidos, que hacen vital la estabilidad en la región caribeña. Para ello se tomará como punto de partida la intervención colombiana en territorio ecuatoriano en marzo de 2008, t...

  13. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  14. Impacto Distributivo de las Reformas del IVA en Venezuela (1993-2011

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    Veruschka Quilez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular los impactos distributivos de las reformas a las exenciones del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2011. Los impactos distributivos se midieron a través de indicadores locales de progresividad/regresividad, bajo un enfoque de equilibro parcial, utilizando las encuestas nacionales de presupuestos familiares de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las Leyes del IVA. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que el diseño de las exenciones en Venezuela logró conferir progresividad al impuesto

  15. Perspectivas del MERCOSUR ante la incorporación de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Laredo, Iris Mabel; Cignacco, Gloria; Díaz, Corina; Angelone, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    El trabajo analiza críticamente las principales experiencias de integración regional existentes en un contexto de creciente globalización asimétrica. Una caracterización del bolivarianismo permite revisar la política exterior de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. De allí, se examinan las posibles consecuencias de la admisión de Venezuela al MERCOSUR, no sólo para ese país, sino para toda América Latina.

  16. Colombia-Venezuela: Comparación de las petroleras nacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Palotas Kelen; Oscar Vanegas Angarita

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo compara las Compañías Petroleras de Estado (CPE) de Venezuela y Colombia a tres maneras: (1) Describe las trayectorias de Ecopetrol y PDVSA, divergentes desde 2003 (con semi-privatización de la primera y estricto control gubernamental de la segunda). (2) Compara los actuales regímenes de explotación petrolera de Venezuela (Estado-céntrico) y Colombia (mercado-céntrico) según acceso a recursos, modelo organizativo, competencia-monopolio. (3) Compara la gobernanza de las dos CPE (...

  17. Normativas contables aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos, Alira; Rodríguez Medina, Guillemo; Urdaneta, Mary Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo planteó como objetivo, analizar las normativas contables internacionales aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela. Se realizó una investigación analítica, con diseño documental, obteniendo como resultado que en Venezuela no existen normas contables en materia medioambiental específicamente; se asume lo establecido de manera indirecta en las normas internacionales de información financiera (NIIF), en cuanto al reconocimiento de activos y provisiones medi...

  18. Seven new species of Notiospathius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae from Northwest Venezuela

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    Estefany Karen López-Estrada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe seven new species of the doryctine wasp genus Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh from Northwest Venezuela: N. araguae sp. n., N. bolivari sp. n., N. curvilineatus sp. n., N. dantei sp. n., N. estradae sp. n., N. larensis sp. n., and N. venezuelae sp. n. These represent the first described species of the genus reported for this country. Species boundaries for the above taxa were confirmed using the General mixed Yule-coalescent method with 441 DNA barcode sequences from specimens assigned to Notiospathius and other closely related genera collected in different countries along the Neotropics.

  19. Studies of arboviruses in Southwestern Venezuela: I. Isolations of Venezuelan and Eastern Equine Encephalitis viruses from sentinel hamsters in the Catatumbo region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, R; Suárez, O M

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe isolations of Venezuelan (VEE) and Eastern (EEE) Equine Encephalitis virus made in the lowland moist tropical forest of the Catatumbo region on the southwestern part of the State of Zulia, Venezuela. We have isolated four strains of EEEV from sentinel hamsters exposed at Caño Mocho and Madre Vieja sites in 1973 and 1974, and three strains of EEEV in Hacienda (Hda.) Las Nubes in 1975. Both viruses were recovered during silent interepidemic periods and we believe these viruses are maintained in this region in sylvatic conditions. The recovered virus strains were detected within 24 to 48 hours, both in SMB and Vero Cell monolayer cultures and the sentinel hamsters yielded virus infectivities up to 10(4) PFU ml. Our VEEV isolate (IVIC PAn 23645-47), recovered during the silent interepizodemic period had an elution profile on the hydroxylapatite column corresponding to that of a I-D (VEEV-3880) or a I-E (VEEV-63A216) 'enzootic' subtype. However, considering other in vitro criteria (KHI; HA pH 5.8-6.0; small plaque size in Vero monolayers with suitable overlay media), this later and other previous isolates had some very distinct properties of the 'epizootic' strains. Thus, the evidence suggests that in Venezuela the VEEV cycle in nature is maintained either by the so called 'enzootic' and/or 'epizootic' virus types, or the virus population of the isolates have particular in vitro properties which do not correlate to the virulence markers in vivo. We consider this important question must be further clarified, and in addition, the isolation of three strains of EEEV are reported; this is the first report of the presence of this virus in Venezuela. Although the EEEV isolates may be of the South American type, they must be considered as potentially dangerous in the case of outbreaks.

  20. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics

  1. PERSONALISMO POLÍTICO EN VENEZUELA CONTEMPORÁNEA

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    Luis Alberto Buttó

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The political personalism has been a historical constant in the Venezuelan road map after the second half of the twentieth century. In fact, he came to become one of the defining traits of the quintessential liberal representative democratic model. This essay addresses the analytical study of this phenomenon, emphasizing the general features of its evolution towards the pursuit of two goals. First, unravel the genesis of the mechanisms through which political personalism operates inserted in Venezuelan contemporary socio-political structure. Secondly, to provide methodological and / or foster conceptual understanding of how the political structure currently in force in Venezuela, as long as it expresses the aforementioned phenomenon.El personalismo político ha sido una constante histórica en el derrotero venezolano transcurrido durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. De hecho, llegó a constituirse en uno de los rasgos por excelencia definitorio del modelo democrático liberal representativo. En este ensayo, se aborda el estudio analítico de dicho fenómeno, haciendo énfasis en los rasgos generales de su evolución con miras a la prosecución de dos objetivos. En primer lugar, desentrañar el génesis de los mecanismos a través de los cuales el personalismo político se insertó y opera en el tejido sociopolítico venezolano contemporáneo. En segunda instancia, aportar elementos metodológicos y/o conceptuales que propicien la comprensión del funcionamiento de la estructura política vigente en la actualidad venezolana, en tanto y cuanto en ella se expresa el precitado fenómeno.

  2. Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

    2013-05-01

    Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling

  3. y sorda en Venezuela, una aproximación

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    Sergio Serrón Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se orienta por los presupuestos de la planificación lingüística y es de carácter exploratorio, descriptivo y documental. En el mismo, revisaré sucintamente la diferente situación actual de las comunidades indígenas y sorda en Venezuela, a partir de la consideración del texto constitucional de 1999 y de la realidad política, educativa, social y lingüística de cada colectivo, para intentar explicar por qué la marginación y la exclusión no han dejado de ser una constante. Desde el punto de vista teórico, propongo una reconceptualización de la competencia comunicativa, objetivo teórico inicial de la educación, y que deviene imprescindible para desarrollar una cultura comunicativa – y, sobre todo, la cultura democrática objetivo final que integra todas las anteriores. Los resultados muestran que además de la disparidad en la consideración política y social, ambas comunidades requieren una atención educativa prioritaria, centrada en una revisión del concepto de interculturalidad, y por ende de bilingüísmo, en un nuevo marco ideológico, sin dejar de lado la necesidad de construir la sociedad multiétnica y pluricultural. Este trabajo servirá de insumo básico para el desarrollo de programas y proyectos orientados a integrar los grupos minoritarios.

  4. Morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela

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    Yanelis Núñez Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela; en el período de enero a octubre de 2009. El universo fue de 286 niños, lo que se corresponde con la población total del grupo de edad de menores de 15 años. De estos se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio simple 43 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario y se confeccionó una guía de observación, para describir los factores epidemiológicos que influyen en la infestación por parasitismo intestinal. Además, se les realizaron análisis de las heces fecales seriadas para el diagnóstico del parasitismo. El método estadístico fue el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. A través del estudio de las heces fecales seriadas se obtuvo que 27 pacientes tenían parasitosis intestinal, para una morbilidad de 62,79%, con una mayor incidencia en los niños de cinco a nueve años de edad. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado. Los factores epidemiológicos que más influyeron fueron: los malos hábitos higiénicos personales, el entorno desfavorable y el consumo de agua no potable; existió relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, los factores epidemiológicos y la morbilidad por parasitismo intestinal. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba Histolytica, con 11 casos, para un 40,74%. La diarrea, las molestias abdominales y la pérdida de apetito constituyeron los principales síntomas

  5. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  6. Indigenous territorial rights as a human right; an analysis of the (auto demarcation of indigenous territories process in Venezuela (1999-2014

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    Linda Bustillos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CBRV recognizes Indigenous Rights; among them, the territorial claims. In agreement with what is stated in the article 119 of the Magna Carta, the right to the territory of these populations is exercised through the public policy of demarcation, which is understood as the process in which its territorial space is disclaimed, made by the State in participation with the peoples and communities to be demarcated, subsequently to entitle the collective ownership for these human beings groups. Fifteen years after the Constitution was approved, this process of delineation has been slow and misleading. This delay has caused that in the present, these human beings groups are being stalked by outside interests (illegal mining, development projects, irregular forces, among others who threaten their existence as distinct cultures; since the right to territory is a fundamental human right for their survival. This article is the result of a field research. In the first part, the study analyzes the Organic Law of Indigenous Peoples and Communities (LOPCI (2005 in Venezuela, with the purpose of clarifying at what stage the territorial demarcation process is paralyzed; and as a result, it describes how many communities and indigenous peoples have been demarcated and entitled from 2005 to 2014.

  7. A violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-01-01

    O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990; 19 em 1998; e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana...

  8. Prevalencia de infeccion humana por Trypanosoma cruzi en bancos de sangre en Venezuela Prevalence of human infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Venezuelan blood banks

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    Alberto Aché

    1993-10-01

    seroprevalence, between 1988 to 1992, was 1.20%(1.09 - 1.94%, with geographical variations between localities in several Stales. States with higher prevalence rates are located in the western and central part of Venezuela: Portuguesa, Lara, Trujillo, Cojedes and Carabobo. Due to difficulties in obtaining incidence rates for Chagas disease, it seems proper to use prevalence rates due to its greater stability; and in the specific case of Venezuela, due to a lesser severity and a higher survival of this disease at present. Considering that there is little to be offered to the seropositive individual, repeatibility is avowed for serological diagnosis. Specificity should be strived for in the light of lower prevalence rates at present.

  9. Innovación de la gestión pública en Venezuela

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    Haydée Ochoa Henríquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Venezuela transita desde 1999 por un proceso propio de transformación impulsado por el Estado. La aprobación de políticas alternativas plasmadas en una nueva constitución, en las leyes aprobadas en el marco de ésta y en otros documentos, dan cuenta de una nueva orientación dirigida a romper con las tendencias neoliberales de los 90 del pasado siglo. Desafortunadamente, en cuanto a los procesos de gestión, es evidente la presencia de viejas prácticas que obstaculizan los avances, aunque se maneja la hipótesis de que en este contexto existen algunos procesos innovadores vinculados a las políticas alternativas. El propósito de este trabajo es explorar la presencia de estos procesos en la gestión pública venezolana, vinculados a la nueva política. La metodología consistió en el análisis de documentos oficiales y fuentes secundarias, así como entrevistas abiertas a actores que han estado cerca de algunos de los procesos innovadores. Los resultados dan cuenta de: 1 Procesos de desconcentración flexibles que acerca el Estado al ciudadano; 2 Comunicación argumentativa a los ciudadanos, sobre las nuevas políticas; 3 Un sistema de participación que potencia la incorporación de los ciudadanos en la defensa de los intereses colectivos; 4 Estrategias de articulación sectorial e institucional; 5 Procesos de incorporación del sector privado a las políticas de inclusión social; 6 Sistemas de compras y financiamiento como promotores de la economía social. Se concluye que en el marco de un aparato público que se niega al cambio se han introducido formalmente algunos procesos innovadores, cuya práctica aún está pendiente por comprender.AbstractSince 1999, Venezuela is going through a transformation process launched by the State. The approval ofalternative policies set forth in a new constitution, in laws under the constitution’s frame and in other documents,are proof for a new guideline headed towards the braking up of

  10. Politics of oil in Venezuela: A decision-making analysis of PDVSA's internationalisation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cesar E.

    The high degree of international vertical integration achieved by the Venezuelan state oil enterprise, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA), has placed it among the most important oil multinationals (MNs). The policy of creating downstream outlets through the establishment of foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the form of refinery assets was given the term of 'internationalisation'. By analysing PDVSA's internationalisation policy, the thesis explores the difficulties encountered by a major state-owned enterprise (SOE) from a developing country in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. The study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policymaking in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. Specifically, the study examines the intricate policymaking process that shaped the origins and the development of PDVSA's internationalisation policy, underlying the events and factors that influenced each one of its three distinguishable phases: adoption, formulation, and implementation. The tensions between politics and corporate strategy are highlighted at the core of the policymaking process. The study also looks at the relationship between the oil industry and the other two key decision-making centres involved in the oil policymaking process: the executive and Congress. In exploring the ways in which each one of them sought to influence policy outcome, the study attempts to gain insight into the main factors that prompted the tensions among the policy actors involved. Three environments, or pressure-generating centres, constantly exert influence on the oil industry: the oil market, the political context and the government's financial situation. By seeking to determine the industry's response to their pervasive influence on policy formulation and implementation, this research ascertains the extent to which these variables influenced the decision-making process that

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN DEL INFARTO AGUDO DEL MIOCARDIO EN VENEZUELA DURANTE EL AÑO 2008 / Characterization of acute myocardial infarction in Venezuela during 2008

    OpenAIRE

    David Rafael Abreu Reyes

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was carried out in order to characterize the acute myocardial infarction in the Intensive Care Units of the first Integral Diagnosis Centers inaugurated by the Barrio Adentro Mission in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, since the implementation of the first Integral Medical Centers in 2008. A total of 240 patients with an acute myocardial infarction diagnosis were assisted. There was a predominance of the male patients and the white c...

  12. Tourisme et communautés rurales au Venezuela : vers une application des principes du Développement Durable

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    Olivier Dehoorne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution récente du tourisme international au Venezuela est particulièrement intéressante : l'activité touristique qui reste très largement concentrée sur la côte caribéenne, et notamment l’île de Margarita, se diversifie au profit de nouveaux centres d’intérêt dans les régions intérieures. L’affichage de nouvelles volontés politiques sur la scène régionale et internationale, sous l’impulsion du président Chavez, a perturbé le marché touristique national qui était dominé pour les clientèles nord-américaines ; le Venezuela apparaît désormais aux yeux des Etats-Unis comme un pays à risque, instable. C’est dans ce contexte que s’inscrit le « Programa Andes Tropicales » [PAT] qui soutient le  développement rural dans les parcs nationaux ; ce programme repose sur la participation des populations locales et leur implication dans les politiques de conservation des ressources naturelles et culturelles sources de revenus. Le soutien financier des microprojets familiaux et communautaires doivent permettent de lutter contre la pauvreté.The recent evolution of international tourism in Venezuela is particularly interesting. Even if tourism activity remains heavily concentrated on the Caribbean coast, in particular on the island of Margarita, it is nevertheless diversifying gradually to make way for new areas of interest in the country’s interior. The display of new political will on the regional and international scene, under the leadership of President Chavez, has disrupted the national tourism market which was dominated by North American customers. Venezuela now appears in the eyes of the United States as a country that is at risk,and therefore unstable. It is in this context that the “Programa Andes Tropicales" [PAT] was developed to promote rural development in national parks; This program is based on the participation and involvement of local populations in the development of appropriate

  13. The role of seismic microzoning within the disaster prevention in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malave, G.

    2007-05-01

    Due to the experience of the strong rainfalls which experienced great parts of Venezuela in early 2005, a national commission for risk management (CNGR) was created, that is composed by representatives from the Ministry of Interior and Justice, the Ministry of Environment, Defense Ministry, Infrastructure Ministry, Habitát and Housing Ministry and Science and Tecnology Ministry. The participation of the different ministries, which are represented by institutions related to hidrometeorological research and slope stability, amongst others, enables to focuss the risk management from anintegrated point of view. Within this commission, FUNVISIS, the official agency for seismological investigations, represents the Science and Tecnology Ministry and is responsible for the actions to be taken to reduce the seismic risk. A plan to reduce the seismic hazard and vulnerability, presented by FUNVISIS, was approved by the commission, in order to establish state policies to minimize the impact to the comunities in case of the ocurrence of an earthquake. Therein, seismic microzoning studies are addressed as the methodology to follow in order to reduce the seismic risk, which includes the evaluation of regional conditions (fault ocurrences, source characteristics, attenuation) as well as the knowledge of the local conditions (wave propagation, geological conditions, site effects). The interdisciplinary methods used within the microzoning studies (joint work done by geologists, geophysicists, civil engineers, arquitects, teachers) enable to address the results of the studies in away that they can be assimilated by the communities that live in the respective urban areas as well as by the local governments. Recommendations to local buiding codes as well as training of the communities take an important part within the projects.

  14. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-03-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata. PMID:22458212

  15. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Penaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  16. China Henan Cultural and Art Troupe’s Performance Tour of Venezuela and Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Venezuelan National Council of Culture and the Brazil Chinese Cultural Exchange Association, a 69-member cultural and art troupe from Henan Province, China gave three performances with a total audience of over 20,000 people in Venezuela and Brazil from February 25 to March 8.

  17. 78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    .... Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the Commission's Web site at http... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations...

  18. Índices de pobreza en Venezuela: En búsqueda de las cifras correctas

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Luis Sandoval; David Rosnick

    2006-01-01

    ¿Ha incrementado la pobreza en Venezuela bajo el mandato del Presidente Hugo Chávez? Este reporte estudia los datos disponibles sobre el tema y corrige información errónea que se ha presentado en varios medios de comunicación.

  19. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  20. Politicas de Seguridad Alimentaria en los Paises de la Comunidad Andina: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yep, Susana Chu; Gamarra, Rosario Gomez; Bucheli, Fausto Jordan; Studzinski, Karlos La Serna; Aguancha, Alberto Lora; Castro, Juan Fernando Marrero; Bohrt, Julio Prudencio; Baca, Salomon Salcedo; Mena, Raul Sanchez; Abril, Octavio Villamarin

    2005-01-01

    This book analyses the complex concept of food security in the Andean Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. The food security situation is examined from a sub regional perspective, and the possible elements of a sub regional food security strategy are outlined. Food security policies are analyzed and policy proposals are made for each Andean country.

  1. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  2. The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

  3. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  4. An Empty Research Agenda: The Creation of Myths About Contemporary Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at allegations against the government of Venezuela in Foreign Affairs' recently published article, "An Empty Revolution: The Unfulfilled Promises of Hugo Chávez" (March/April 2008), in light of available data. It shows that some of the allegations are altogether wrong, and others grossly exaggerated and/or misleading.

  5. Adapting EVIAVE methodology as a planning and decision-making tool in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfills in Venezuela have serious problems regarding their location, design and operation. In fact, basic waste disposal is one of the main weaknesses of the municipal waste management in this country. The Venezuelan Ministry of Environment and Renewable Resources has studied and identified the negative impacts of operating landfills, but no program has been implemented to determine the cause-effect relation of these impacts or to design strategies to counteract with the serious environmental and health risks generated. This paper describes how EVIAVE methodology can be successfully used for landfill diagnosis, and shows how this type of landfill diagnosis was applied in Venezuela. For our research study, we carried out both a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the environmental problems generated by 22 landfills in Venezuela. Our study was based on the following environmental indexes: Landfill Environment, Environmental Risk, Environmental Value, and Probability of Contamination. For the purposes of our study, it was first necessary to adapt EVIAVE to the legal system and social context in Venezuela. The results obtained confirmed the applicability of this methodology to Venezuelan landfills. EVIAVE was found to be an effective planning tool that provided crucial information for the development of action plans, which would improve landfill operation, and help make decisions pertaining to their closure, sealing and eventual recovery.

  6. Paysages agro-écologiques et macrostructures dans les Llanos occidentaux du Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Pouyllau, Michel

    1991-01-01

    Á partir des données satellitaires Landsat, un exemple de cartographie de paysages agro-écologiques et de macrostructures, liées à une puissante dynamique alluviale dans les Llanos occidentaux du Venezuela: la région de Guanare.

  7. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (78 FR 4437, January 22, 2013). A record of the... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year...

  8. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  9. Guidelines to elaborate a migration plan for digital terrestrial television in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Uzcátegui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In October 2009, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela adopted the ISDB-Tb (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting - Terrestrial Built On, released by Japan, with some improvement made by Brazil, as Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT to be deployment in Venezuela. After standard choice, has been start the route towards the solution of transcendental aspects of legal and technical nature to enable the provision of digital terrestrial television service harmonized with the goals of true social inclusion and democratization of information in the nation. In this regard, this paper proposes ideas for a pilot plan that lays the foundation and technical requirements for the deployment of digital terrestrial television service in the territory of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, according to the parameters and considerations set out in the ISDB-Tb and in close accordance with the Constitution, laws and other regulations. It addresses issues such as the mode of transmission (HDTV, SDTV, "One-seg", distribution of the spectrum (UHF for digital, analog to digital transition, service implementation and incentives for deployment implementation DTT Venezuela.Key words: Digital Terrestrial Television, ISDB-T standard, Deployment plan, Spectrum allocation, Service implementation.

  10. The promise of transformation through participation: an analysis of Communal Councils in Caracas, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Triviño Salazar (Juan Carlos)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCommunal Councils (CCs) in Venezuela are deemed as part of a greater project of social transformation under a radical approach to participatory democracy. The Hugo Chavez’s administration endorsed the creation of thousands of allegedly self-governing CCs in every neighbourhood of every c

  11. The freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa from northern Venezuela and Trinidad (Brachyura, Potamonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, G.

    1966-01-01

    During a study of collections of Venezuelan Pseudothelphusa deposited at the Museum of Biology of the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, and at the La Salle Museum of Natural History, Caracas, examples of two new forms were discovered; one of these is here described as a new species, the othe

  12. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. PMID:23650143

  13. Efectos del ingreso de Venezuela a MERCOSUR sobre la balanza comercial con énfasis en productos no petroleros

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Guerrero, Luis A.

    2006-01-01

    En este estudio sobre los efectos de la incorporación de Venezuela como miembro pleno del Mercosur sobre su balanza comercial, con énfasis en productos no petroleros, se observó que productos con el mayor aporte al total de las exportaciones venezolanas a Brasil no se verían beneficiados pues su arancel ya es cero. También por la misma razón las exportaciones de Venezuela hacia Argentina se verían poco beneficiadas. Además la estructura de la oferta exportable de Venezuela a Paraguay y Urugua...

  14. Caracteristicas morfologicas y cristalograficas del grafito de Osumita, Venezuela, y su uso como geotermometro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A morphologic, petrographic and crystallographic study was performed in some representative samples of disseminated graphite of the Cerro Osumita, Cojedes State, Venezuela with the aim of establishing the degree of mineral crystallinity (graphitization and the highest temperature reached by the rock. From the original rock (La Aguadita quartz-feldespatic-graphitic Gneiss, fractions enriched in graphite were obtained by means of leaching with HCI-HF and physical procedures (flotation and accumulation in liquid interfaces. The isolated graphite was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction, whereas morphology was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. The mineralogical association exhibited by the gneiss (quartz- oligoclase- hornblende (green- microcline - chlorite- biotite- epidote allows establishing the metamorphism of the rock in the upper zone of the green schist facies, in the biotite zone. Graphite grains present aspect of flakes, with a concentration oscillating between 7 and 10% in weight. The used enrichment process allowed obtaining fractions with more than 92% in graphi- te. Under Scanning Electronic Microscopy, graphite samples showed morphology dominantly as sheets, very well defined and ordered. The crystallinity index (measured by XRD is around 58 and 60, with a mean graphitization degree of 60, suggesting a high order in the crystalline net. The higher temperature reached by the rock, according to the graphitization degree, is of 472 f 27 "C.Muestras representativas del grafito diseminado del Cerro Osumita, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, fueron objeto de un estudio morfológico, petrográfico y cristalográfico, con el fin de establecer el grado de cristalinidad del mineral y la temperatura máxima alcanzada por la roca. A partir de la roca original (gneis cuarzo feldespático grafitoso de La Aguadita se obtuvieron las fracciones enriquecidas en grafito mediante una combinación de ataque químico (HCI-HF y físico (flotación y

  15. Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grande, José R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae, and Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae are described and illustrated from the summit areas of Sierra de Maigualida in the Gua - yana Highlands of southern Venezuela. To date, one genus, 32 spe cies, one subspecies, and one variety of angiosperms are known only from the Maigualida meadows and shrublands, between 1800 m and the highest elevation areas at 2400 m. Here we describe the first iteroparous species for the genus Sohnreyia K. Krause, a Turnera L. species with apically villose, apiculate petals, and a Siphocampylus Pohl species with aculeiform hairs and pinnatisect leaves. The new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus, together with S. Tillettii Steyerm., represents a morphologically distinct subgroup within the genus.

    Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas procedentes de las cumbres de la Sierra de Maigualida: Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae y Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae. Hasta ahora un género, 32 especies, una subespecie y una variedad de angiospermas se conocen exclusivamente de la Sierra de Maigualida, y todas ellas proceden de herbazales y arbustales desarrollados entre los 1800 m y las áreas más altas, a 2400 m. Aquí, se describen por primera vez una especie iterópara del género Sohnreyia K. Krause (Rutaceae, una especie de Turnera L. con pétalos apiculados apicalmente vilosos y una especie de Siphocampylus Pohl con pelos aculeiformes y hojas pinnatisectas. La nueva especie Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus representa

  16. In the Name of the People: Democratization, Popular Organizations, and Populism in Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Torre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The regimes of Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales, and Rafael Correa undermine contestation while simultaneously increasing the material inclusion of the poor and the excluded. These regimes that are usually lumped together show distinct patterns in fostering participation. Whereas in Ecuador participation is reduced to voting in elections, participatory institutions were created in Venezuela and Bolivia. And whereas mobilization in Bolivia comes mostly from the bottom up, in Venezuela and Ecuador it comes from the top-down. To compare their divergent patterns this paper analyses: 1 the strength of subaltern organizations when these leaders were elected; 2 the confrontation between governments and the oppositions; and 3 the views of democratization of the coalitions that brought these regimes to power.Resumen: En nombre del pueblo: democratización, organizaciones populares y populismo en Venezuela, Bolivia y EcuadorLos regímenes de Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales y Rafael Correa atentan en contra del pluralismo a la vez que incluyen materialmente a los pobres y a los excluidos. Estos regímenes que por lo general son aglutinados en un mismo saco tienen diferentes patrones para promover la participación política. Es así que mientras que en Ecuador la participación se reduce a votar en elecciones, en Venezuela y Bolivia se crearon instituciones participativas. Mientras que en Bolivia la participación viene en gran medida desde las bases, en Ecuador y Venezuela viene desde arriba hacia abajo. Para comparar los diferentes patrones este trabajo estudia: 1 la fuerza de organizaciones de los subalternos cuando estos líderes fueron electos; 2 la confrontación entre el gobierno y las oposiciones; 3 las visiones sobre democratización de las coaliciones que llevaron al poder a estos líderes.

  17. Venezuela under Chávez: The Prospects and Limitations of Twenty-First Century Socialism, 1999-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery R Webber

    2010-01-01

    This article takes stock of major developments in the political economy of contemporary Venezuela after ten years under Hugo Chávez. It is argued that the Bolivarian process has done a great deal to rejuvenate the international critique of neoliberalism and to bring discussion of socialism back on the agenda of the Left. At the same time, there has been no socialist revolution in Venezuela, and Chavismo is ridden with profound and abiding contradictions. This article considers the historical ...

  18. Leishmaniasis in the genital area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABELLO Ismery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed.

  19. Participation, Poverty and Public Policies: 3P Challenging Community Environmental Psychology (The Case of the Communal Councils in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wiesenfeld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation, poverty and public policy are three relevant topics for the state, society and academy, particularly for environmental and community social psychology. Meanings and ways of addressing these topics by the above mentioned sector have varied across time and places. Recent impact of new governance models, such as participative democracy, has provoked changes in public policy modes of influence, as a strategy for poverty reduction. Such changes’ orientations coincide with those of environmental community psychology, social constructionist theoretical perspective and qualitative methodology. In Venezuela, only Latin American country where participation has been given a constitutional and legal status, it is important to study participation’s meanings and its implications in public management as a strategy for poverty reduction. Communal councils constitute the main community participatory structure, which integrates poor sectors and vehicles their requirements together with governmental entities. Conscious as we are of existing gaps between discourses and actions, the present research analyses official discourses on participation, through the Venezuelan Constitution and the Organic Communal Councils Law, and compares them with participatory meanings and experiences provided by communal councils’ members and other community stakeholders’ narratives. Results show differences between official and community perspectives on participation in communal councils, as well as discrepancies within communities: they also point out to the difficulties of state induced participation, as is the venezuelan case, for its protagonists’ limitations for transcending projects and exerting power outside community boundaries.

  20. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  1. GESTIÓN TECNOLÓGICA: ESTUDIO DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DISTINTIVAS EN EMPRESAS BARQUISIMETANAS-VENEZUELA // TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT: STUDY OF ITS DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS IN COMPANIES FROM BARQUISIMETO - VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahira Moreno Freites

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyze the distinctive features of technology management in business for the retail, service and manufacturing / industrial sector, located in Barquisimeto - Lara state / Venezuela. The current situation of the companies in their technological management practices, and the constraints they face for their execution are evaluated. It is a descriptive research with a field design. The sample consisted of 60 companies (12 retail, 20 service and 28 manufacturing / industrial sector. The instrument applied consists in closed questions considering the Likert scale, complemented with other open questions, where interviewed managers gave their opinions and perceptions. It is concluded that managers possess Technology Management knowledge, and even consider it as an important aspect in the current economy. However, very few actions have taken place in this area, leading to a lack of the attention that this matter really deserves, Technological capability is deficient due to the absence of research on technological requirements of the companies, and the excess of routine activities prevents the insertion of innovation processes and technologies in companies. // RESUMEN La presente investigación analiza las características distintivas de la gestión tecnológica en empresas del sector comercio, servicio y manufacturero/industrial ubicadas en Barquisimeto - estado Lara, Venezuela. Se evalúa la situación de las empresas en cuanto a sus prácticas de gestión tecnológica y las limitaciones presentadas para su ejecución. La investigación es descriptiva con un diseño de campo, la muestra estuvo conformada por 60 empresas (12 sector comercial, 20 servicio y 28 manufacturero/industrial. El instrumento utilizado constó de preguntas cerradas considerando la escala Likert, complementadas con preguntas abiertas donde los gerentes entrevistados emitieron sus opiniones y percepciones. Se concluye que los gerentes tienen conocimiento sobre la

  2. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  3. Crisis política y narrativas transmedia en las protestas de 2014 en Venezuela/ Political crisis and transmedia storytelling in the 2014 protests in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Orlando Pernía Peñalver; Dimitrina Semova

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación en curso sobre el surgimiento en Venezuela de los online espacios de autonomía que vienen alterando los regímenes de intercambio informativo. Las protestas civiles de 2014 sumaron evidencias a la disolución de las fronteras, cada vez más imprecisas, entre los medios clásicos de comunicación de masas y las plataformas digitales que han posibilitado el acceso directo de los usuarios a la mediasfera. Abordamos ejempl...

  4. Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarización y Radicalización del Proyecto Socialista : Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarization and Radicalization of the Socialist Project

    OpenAIRE

    RICKARD LALANDER

    2012-01-01

    En Venezuela el bienio de 2010 y 2011 se caracterizó por una polarización política y social y la radicalización continua del gobierno socialista de Hugo Chávez Frías, con la gecución de nuevas leyes, oficialmente para expandir y profundizar la democracia participativa y radical. Paralelamente, también se manifestó el retorno de la oposición política a partir de las elecciones parlamentarias de 2010. En el 2011, la crisis interna ya existente dentro del chavismo se acentuó con la enfermedad de...

  5. HYDRAULICS, BOLIVAR COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  6. Discurso y comunicación en Venezuela: del determinismo al nacionalismo tecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de las tecnologías de información en Venezuela y cómo el elemento discursivo legitima su uso; para ello, se identifican tres tipos de discursos (determinismo tecnológico, democracia tecnológica y nacionalismo tecnológico. Se parte del supuesto de que la hegemonía es un proceso ideológico en constante búsqueda de poder, que usa el discurso para su legitimación. Se analiza cómo en Venezuela, junto con las políticas estatales que buscan la construcción de un modelo comunicacional basado en tecnologías de información, el discurso técnico "permea" los ambientes donde las tic puedan legitimar su existencia, con el fin de establecer una hegemonía ideológica en la sociedad.

  7. Barrio Adentro and the reduction of health inequalities in Venezuela: an appraisal of the first years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Francisco; Muntaner, Caries; Chung, Haejoo; Williams-Brennan, Leslie; Benach, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an update on the characteristics and performance of Venezuela's Bolivarian health care system, Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). During its first five years of existence, Barrio Adentro has improved access and utilization of health services by reaching approximately 17 million impoverished and middle-class citizens all over Venezuela. This was achieved in approximately two years and provides an example of an immense "South-South" cooperation and participatory democracy in health care. Popular participation was achieved with the Comités de Salud (health committees) and more recently with the Consejos Comunales (community councils), while mostly Cuban physicians provided medical care. Examination of a few epidemiological indicators for the years 2004 and 2005 of Barrio Adentro reveals the positive impact of this health care program, in particular its primary care component, Barrio Adentro I. Continued political commitment and realistic evaluations are needed to sustain and improve Barrio Adentro, especially its primary care services. PMID:19326784

  8. La violencia como mecanismo del debate público en Venezuela durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Guardia Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente ensayo es describir los mecanismos por medio de los cuales la violencia política se presenta como uno de los elementos fundamentales del debate público en dos coyunturas históricas en Venezuela: en la Revolución de Octubre y en la Revolución Bolivariana. El trabajo se desarrolla en torno a dos ideas: primero se abordará el problema de la violencia y el miedo desde una perspectiva teórica, luego se describirá cada una de estas coyunturas históricas; finalmente se revisa comparativamente este fenómeno que se repite a lo largo del tiempo en Venezuela.

  9. Venezuela: confrontación social y polarización política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bracamonte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Medófilo Medina y Margarita López Maya. Venezuela: Confrontación social y polarización política. Bogotá: Ediciones Aurora, 2003. La intensidad del debate público y del enfrentamiento político al que asiste el país desde 1998, ha logrado penetrar los espacios ociales más diversos, incluso aquellos en los que se creía que estaban vedados asuntos tan terrenales como los políticos, tenidos hasta la víspera como banales y de poca monta. Tal es uno de los saldos más trascendentales del proceso de transformación en curso hoy en Venezuela. Esto último es tan innegable, que constituye una verdad compartida por los dos bandos en que fatalmente está dividido el país

  10. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. PMID:27232127

  11. LA TELEMÁTICA Y LOS DELITOS INFORMÁTICOS EN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio E. Mendoza Vera; Eugenio E. Urdaneta

    2005-01-01

    La presente investigación se desarrolló con el propósito de analizar los principales factores telemáticos que limitan la persecución y penalización de los delitos Informáticos en Venezuela. La metodología utilizada en la investigación fue de campo, el diseño fue no experimental descriptivo. La población estuvo conformada por especialistas en las áreas Jurídico Informática y Telemática que laboran en Venezuela, la muestra fue seleccionada mediante el criterio de muestra de expertos y estuvo co...

  12. La ciencia política en Venezuela: fortalezas pasadas y vulnerabilidades presentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Álvarez Díaz; Said Dahdah Antar

    2005-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo presenta un panorama de la ciencia política en Venezuela. Se describen la evolución de la disciplina en el país y se hace una evaluación de sus fortalezas y debilidades. El perfil de la disciplina toma en cuenta la evolución teórica y un mapa metodológico que considera las principales líneas de división. También se muestra el desarrollo institucional de la investigación y la enseñanza de la politología en Venezuela, así como las principales tendencias en el mercado de tr...

  13. Los efectos de las elecciones de 1993 y 1995 sobre el sistema de partidos en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autora analiza los cambios ocurridos en las dos últimas convocatorias electorales en Venezuela. Sus observaciones muestran cómo un sistema de partidos tradicionalmente fuerte, bipartidista, se recompone a partir de la crisis política derivada de la dificultades económicas que vive este país. Emergencia de nuevas fuerzas, altas tasas de volatilidad y de desidentificación política son algunos de los nuevos procesos que aparecen en la vida política venezolana.ABSTRACT: The author analyzes the changes which have happened in the last two elections in Venezuela. Her observations show how a strong traditionally party system, bipartidist, it's recomponed from the political crisis provoked by economic problems in the country. The emergency of new political forces, high rates of volatility and political desafection are some of the new processes which appeared in the Venezuelan political life.

  14. Efectos del sistema de tipos de cambio fijos sobre la producción en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Trías Ramos, Gabriel Francisco

    2014-01-01

    El control cambiario es una medida de política cambiaria adoptada por el Gobierno de Venezuela en febrero de 2003. Consiste en un sistema de tipo de cambio fijo entre el bolívar, lamoneda venezolana, y el dólar de Estados Unidos. Esta medida surge con carácter temporal debido a la situación de crisis política y económica que ocurría en el país. Sin embargo,este sistema lleva implantado en Venezuela los últimos 11 años y sigue vigen te hoy en día. La presente investigación anali...

  15. UNASUR o la Confluencia de dos Liderazgos Regionales de Signo Dispar: Brasil y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Ríos Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo académico pretende servir de aproximación a los dos escenarios geopolíticos que en la actualidad son referencia en América del Sur: Brasil y Venezuela. El objetivo es analizar la confluencia de ambos en el último de los esquemas de integración que ha acontecido en la región, esto es, UNASUR. Así, se auspicia la necesidad de un liderazgo que sirva de referencia en el proceso de integración económica de América del Sur. Un liderazgo que, de mejor manera, debe ser asumido por Brasil y el entramado institucional que, per se, representa MERCOSUR, y frente al cual se erige, como alternativa, principalmente discursiva, Venezuela y el proyecto ALBA.

  16. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A radical alternative in the global field of higher education?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancheva, Mariya P.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as refl ected in an alternative model of the university – the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Misión Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on extensive fieldwork with communities, UBV offers an alternative model of science and research at the service of society. Drawing on my ongoing research o...

  17. Biogenic nitrogen gas production at the oxic-anoxic interface in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, E.(Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain); Altabet, M.A.; F. E. Muller-Karger; Scranton, M. I.; R. C. Thunell; Benitez-Nelson, C.; L. Lorenzoni; Astor, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nitrogen gas (excess N2) was measured in samples collected at six locations in the eastern and western sub-basins of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, in September 2008 (non-upwelling conditions) and March 2009 (upwelling conditions). During both sampling periods, excess N2 concentrations were below detection in surface waters, increasing to ~22 μmol N kg−1 at the oxic-anoxic interface ([O...

  18. QUO VADIS VENEZUELA: DE LA DEMOCRACIA DELEGATIVA AL AUTORITARISMO DEL SIGLO XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Chaguaceda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende, a partir del abordaje de un caso particular (el venezolano analizar algunas de las características que definen la Democracia Delegativa en tanto modo de concebir el acceso, ejercicio y fines del poder público y los recursos estatales, así como exponer las modalidades y consecuencias de su deriva a un régimen político abiertamente autoritario en la Venezuela actual.

  19. Analysis of information use in agricultural science PhD theses at Central University of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Haparro-Martinez, Exio Isaac; Marzal, Miguel Ángel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – To analyze information use in agricultural science PhD theses submitted between 1986 and 2002 in the Faculty of Agronomy, Central University of Venezuela (UCV). Design/methodology/approach – The source of information was the UCV Faculty of Agronomy, Library's database, “Tesis”. The unidimensional production and use indicators analyzed included: scientific production, reference density, self-citations, document contemporaneousness and type of documents cited, reference scatterin...

  20. Contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in bottom sediments from Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    González A; Palma M. G.; Ziegler K.; González E.; Álvarez M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in the bottom sediments of the Lake Valencia, Venezuela, was performed by determining the Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Factor (Igeo), the availability of metals and the Risk Index Code (RAC). The sediments were anthropogenic ally enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr and classified as uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, with a medium risk of Zn, Co, Ni and Cr, and low risk of Cu, Pb and Cd. Analysis of correlations and PCA ...

  1. Novedades agrostológicas (poaceae) para colombia, méxico y venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    GIRALDO-CAÑAS, DIEGO

    2012-01-01

    Se registran por primera vez para Colombia Aristida schiedeana Trin. & Rupr.,Calamagrostis guamanensis Escalona, Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene, Elionurusmuticus (Spreng.) Kuntze y Tripogon spicatus (Nees) Ekman. Por su parte, Axonopuscapillaris (Lam.) Chase es citada por primera vez para México, mientras queCalamagrostis jamesonii Steud. y Elionurus muticus se registran por primera vezpara Venezuela. Asimismo, se reporta por primera vez para la región andina a Raddiellaesenbeckii (Steud....

  2. A protocol to determine the situation of nuclear medicine in Venezuela, 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary results and the methodology followed for the implementation of a Protocol that included Radiological Protection and Quality Control at SPECT Systems in two important public hospitals at Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. We found in these inspections that the main problems were the lack of medical physicist capacity in nuclear medicine that implemented programs of quality assurance as well as radiation protection in these departments. (author)

  3. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866. PMID:27395620

  4. The political role of national oil companies in the large exporting countries : the Venezuela case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper starts by defining the role of mining companies vis-a vis the landlords in a modern economy. Then it examines the role international oil companies played in exporting countries. Finally the role of national oil companies is analyzed following the same scheme : what is their contribution to the development of a new landlord-tenant relationship, nationally and internationally ? ''Petroleos de Venezuela'' is taken as an example. (Author). 27 refs

  5. Venezuela 1999–2014: Macro-Policy, Oil Governance and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Vera

    2015-01-01

    During the administration of President Chavez, Venezuela registered some celebrated and encouraging socio-economic achievements, however; in the macroeconomic realm the country underperformed compared with other countries in Latin America of a similar size. The country, for instance, did not manage to avoid recurrent external crisis, suffered from unprecedented net transfers of financial resources abroad and, despite the oil windfall, has not accumulated a strong level of defensive internatio...

  6. The growth-employment-poverty nexus in Latin America in the 2000s: Venezuela country study

    OpenAIRE

    Cruces, Guillermo; Fields, Gary; Jaume, David; Viollaz, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela experienced slow economic growth during the 2000s. The economy suffered a recession in the early years of the period and during the international crisis of 2008, but most labour market indicators improved and moved along with the business cycle over the period. The only indicators that did not improve were the composition of employment by occupational position and the percentage of workers registered with social security, which remained essentially unchanged. Most of the labour mark...

  7. Great promise, but poor performance : understanding the collapse of Venezuela's Causa Radical

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira-Budny, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    "Rising meteorically to national prominence amidst the collapse of Venezuela's ossified two-party system, the leftist Radical Cause (LCR) seemed poised to ease the country's crisis of representation and win the presidency in 1993. Instead, it imploded, paving the way for radical populist Hugo Chávez. How can the poor performance of a party with such great promise be explained? This article explains LCR's initial success and eventual failure through the party's adoption of internally democrati...

  8. A stable demand for money despite financial crisis: The case of Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for broad money in Venezuela, over a period of financial crisis and substantial exchange rate fluctuations. The analysis shows that there exist a long run relationship between real money, real income, inflation, the exchange rate and the domestic interest rate, that remains stable over major policy changes and large shocks. The long run properties emphasize that both inflation and exchange rate depreciations have negative effects on real money demand. The lo...

  9. Banking Crises in Latin America in the 1990's; Lessons From Argentina, Paraguay, and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia García-Herrero

    1997-01-01

    Recent banking crises in Argentina, Paraguay, and Venezuela suggest that the macroeconomic impact is influenced by the causes of the crisis, the exchange rate regime, the degree of dollarization, and the structure of the banking system. Crises stemming from both macroeconomic and bank-specific causes had the largest macroeconomic impact. Countries with high dollarization and a large share of foreign and government-owned banks maintained a more stable deposit base, at least temporarily, by shi...

  10. Contraloría social a las gobernaciones en Venezuela. Estudio de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Boscán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar la realidad de la contraloría social en la gobernación del Estado Lara en Venezuela. El estudio parte de cuatro variables: marco legal larense, condiciones en las cuales se encuentra el objeto y el sujeto de contraloría social, y otros recursos disponibles para el ejercicio de este derecho ciudadano.

  11. CARNE DE MONTE Y CONSUMO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN LA ORINOQUIA Y AMAZONIA ( COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este taller regional estuvo dirigido al tema de carne de monte, consumo de fauna silvestre y procesos alternativos (cría de animales en cautiverio y piscicultura extensiva, entre otros), como elementos que aportan a la seguridad alimentaria de las comunidades locales (rurales e indígenas) en la Orinoquia y Amazonia (Colombia -­ Venezuela). Este evento tuvo como antecedente tres talleres realizados desde 2009 (talleres II, III, IV) y reuniones de expertos llevadas a cabo en 2002 para actual...

  12. Source characteristics of the 1989 Boca del Tocuyo earthquakes in northwestern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Malavé; Suárez, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Boca del Tocuyo earthquake of April 30, 1989, has a special significance in assessing the seismic hazard of northern Venezuela and in understanding the complex tectonic deformation in this area. Although it was an event of moderate magnitude (Mw=6.2), the mainshock and its largest aftershock (Mw=5.6) produced considerable damage in low-rise structures, mainly due to soil failure, and induced intense liquefaction in most of the coastal towns near the epicentral area. Both earthquakes show ...

  13. Suboxic dolomite formation linked to the sedimentary Mn cycle, Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrash, D.; Lalonde, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Gingras, M.; Konhauser, K.

    2013-12-01

    The preferential formation of Ca-rich dolomite precursors in modern peritidal environments has been associated with the degradation of buried microbial mats, with complexation of Ca and Mg cations by extracellular polysaccharides, and alkalinity generation, mostly through bacterial sulfate reduction. However, it remains unclear why Ca-dolomite would not occur in suboxic sediments where bacterial Mn(IV) and/or Fe(III) reduction are important sources of alkalinity, and the role, if any, of Fe- and Mn-recycling in its diagenetic stabilization to more stoichiometric dolomite is unknown. In a shoaling-upward parasequence in the Archipelago Los Roques, Venezuela, an abundance of Ca-dolomite coincides with a relative decrease in bulk-sediment iron concentrations. These sediments were analyzed with multiple analytical tools, including EPMA, ICP-MS, synchrotron-based XRF, XRD, and spatially resolved XANES. Results demonstrate that the distribution of spheroidal aggregates of nanometer-scale Ca-rich dolomite rhombohedra is linked with interstitial elemental sulfur and manganese accumulations, with Mn occurring in several oxidation states (Fig. 1). Based on our observations at this novel dolomite-forming site, we suggest that in peritidal settings the burial of metal-reactive microbial mats act as a barrier capable of concentrating dissolved reactive species that promote greater sediment residence times in suboxic (manganic) zones, where the recycling of Mn not only plays an important role in the remineralization of organic matter, but also sustains elevated alkalinity and dissolved pore water sulfide concentrations. The last two effects have been previously suggested to promote Mg dehydration, the major kinetic barrier to dolomite nucleation. Figure 1. Normalized Mn K-edge merged spectra of a 5 x 5 μm analytical area bearing dolomite cements. A: The K-edge exhibits two main features at about 6554 and 6558 eV. B: Intermediate Mn (III) is identified by the positive slope of

  14. Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

  15. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  16. El impacto fiscal de las reformas del IVA en Venezuela. 1993-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quílez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el impacto fiscal de las reformas a la ley del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA en Venezuela, desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2012. Para ello, se utilizaron las Encuestas Nacionales de Presupuestos Familiares (ENPF de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las leyes del IVA, así como la data de consumo final de los hogares en el mercado interno que publica el BCV en sus Cuentas Nacionales. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que en Venezuela el sacrifico fiscal de las exenciones del IVA es elevado, y para el período en estudio oscilan entre un mínimo de 2,17% del PIB en 2008 y un máximo de 4,51% del PIB en 1999. Esta pérdida fiscal se incrementa en la medida que aumenta la base exenta y la alícuota aplicada son mayores y los costos fiscales que asume el Estado son entre 9 y 11 veces superiores para el diez por ciento de la población de mayor ingreso comparado con el diez por ciento de menores ingresos.

  17. A program on quality assurance and dose calibration for radiation therapy units in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a five year program (1988-90-91-92-93) on quality assurance and dose calibration for 12 Cobalt-60 units from public hospitals, which represents 30% of total radiation therapy units in Venezuela, are presented. The remarkable improvement in the general performance of these units can be seen in the IAEA/WHO Postal TLD Intercomparison results which gave 100% within ± 5% in 1990 and 1992, while 63% in 1990 and 44% in 1992, with errors up to 37% were obtained for the participants not included in the program. The difference between the two groups lead the government to decrete through the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela, Resolution G-1397 on March 3, 1993, the quality assurance and dose calibration programs shall be established for all radiation therapy installations in Venezuela. The project for the standards was developed by the SSDL physicists and it was already approbated by the Health Ministry. It is expected that the Norms will enter into effect by the end of 1994. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences and workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries

  19. Copper, Cadmium and Lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon Dearborni, in two Lagoons of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprenodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos Lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant waste water from Cumana city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in Frebruary 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26± 210.68 μg/g for Cu, 44.71±45.58 μg/g for Cd, and 9.31±23.34 μg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88±16.30, 19.48± 5.81 and 22.85±20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for cooper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water. (Author)

  20. Organic geochemical investigation and coal-bed methane characteristics of the Guasare coals (Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, K.; Martinez, M.; Hackley, P.; Marquez, G.; Garban, G.; Esteves, I.; Escobar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out a geochemical study of channel samples collected from six coal beds in the Marcelina Formation (Zulia State, western Venezuela) and to determine experimentally the gas content of the coals from the Paso Diablo mine. Organic geochemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and isotopic analyses on-line in coalbed gas samples were performed. The results suggest that the Guasare coals were deposited in a continental environment under highly dysoxic and low salinity conditions. The non-detection of 18??(H)-oleanane does not preclude that the organic facies that gave rise to the coals were dominated by angiosperms. In addition, the presence of the sesquiterpenoid cadalene may indicate the subordinate contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) in the Paleocene Guasare mire. The average coalbed gas content obtained was 0.6 cm3/g. ??13C and D values indicate that thermogenic gas is prevalent in the studied coals. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  1. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziritt, Jose Luis

    1999-11-03

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences & workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries.

  2. Could the Chagas disease elimination programme in Venezuela be compromised by reinvasion of houses by sylvatic Rhodnius prolixus bug populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Martin, Maria J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Davies, Clive R

    2006-10-01

    The Andean Pact Initiative (1997) committed Andean countries to eliminate vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by 2010 via widespread residual insecticide spraying. In Venezuela, this aim could be compromised by reinvasion of houses by palm tree populations of the major vector Rhodnius prolixus. To test this hypothesis, a multivariate logistic regression was undertaken of risk factors for triatomine infestation and colonization in 552 houses and 1068 peri-domestic outbuildings in Barinas State. After adjusting for other risk factors, including palm roofs, R. prolixus infestation and colonization of outbuildings (and, to some extent, houses) was significantly associated with proximity to high densities of Attalea butyracea palm trees. House infestation and/or colonization was also positively associated with bug density in peri-domestic outbuildings, the presence of pigsties and nests. Hence, R. prolixus populations in ineffectively sprayed outbuildings could also provide an important source of house re-infestations. The secondary vector Triatoma maculata was mainly found associated with the presence of hens nesting both indoors and outdoors.

  3. Dinámica territorial del poder político en la Venezuela contemporánea (1961–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andreina Salas–Bourgoin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, since 1980 and within the framework of the Constitution of 1961, a process of the distribution of political power was begun that allowed the administrative and financial strengthening of the federal states and municipalities. Currently, with the backing of a new Constitution (1999 power was recentralized and, under the premise of a direct democracy, an unconstitutional power was set up —Popular or People Power— whose actions, dependent upon the President of the Republic, overlap with the sub–levels of government established in the Magna Carta. These changes have been made possible by modifications of the legal regulations on a national scale outside the constitutional framework whose impact on the territory dynamics of power will be evidenced, where possible, in this study.

  4. Estudio comparativo de la composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ruta graveolens L. recolectada en los estados Mérida y Miranda, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from two R. graveolens samples collected from Mérida and Miranda states, Venezuela, were analyzed by GC/MS identifying as major components: 2-undecanone, 2-nonanonae and pregeijerene. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity assays showed the wide range of activity of the oils that inhibited the bacterial strains grow not only for the Gram positive (S. aureus and E. faecalis but the Gram negative (E. coli and K. pneumonie as well, displaying MIC values between 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL.

  5. Las religiones y culturas de origen africano (Brasil, Cuba, Venezuela a prueba de políticas turísticas y rivalidades ¿ Un desarrollo sostenible ? Religions and cultures of African origin (Brazil, Cuba, Venezuela to test tourism policies and rivalries. A sustainable development? Religions et cultures d'origine africaine (Brésil, Cuba, Venezuela à l'épreuve des politiques touristiques et des rivalités. Un développement soutenable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fitó

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les religions1 d’origine africaine ont été transformées, au Brésil, à Cuba et plus récemment au Venezuela, en instruments pour augmenter la captation de devises, par le biais de programmes présentés par les autorités comme répondant aux normes du développement durable. Mais, tant le contrôle exercé sur ces manifestations culturelles, à des fins de commercialisation, que les rivalités engendrées entre pays, ou entre villes dans certains cas, mènent à une aliénation des acteurs de leur propre culture (après Guillermo Bonfill, contredisant la définition même de “développement durable”.The religions of African origin have been taken in Brazil, in Cuba and more recently in Venezuela as instruments to increase the inflow of currency, in tourism development programs presented by the authorities as sustainable. But the control exercised on them by the State organizations, with marketing purposes, as well as the rivalries between countries, as well as between cities of the same country in some cases, carry an alienation of the culture (according to Guillermo Bonfill's theory of cultural control, questioning the possibility of a balanced development, that is to say a sustainable development.Las religiones de origen africano han sido tomadas en Brasil, en Cuba y más recientemente en Venezuela como instrumento para incrementar la entrada de divisas, en programas de desarrollo del turismo presentados por las autoridades como sostenibles. Pero, tanto el control ejercido sobre ellas por los organismos oficiales, con fines de comercialización, como las rivalidades entre paises, así como en algún caso, entre ciudades de un mismo país, conllevan una enajenación de la cultura (según la teoría del control cultural de Guillermo Bonfill, cuestionando la posibilidad de un desarrollo equilibrado, es decir sostenible.

  6. The Resource Relationship: The Institutional Legacies of Oil in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewater, Elliot

    This thesis problematizes the concept of the 'Resource Curse', addressing the arguments of several theorists that resource dependence results in state monopolization of natural resource production, and causes poor development outcomes in resource dependent states. A single case study of the Venezuelan experience is used in order to take a longer-run historical approach that considers economic and political determinants of oil-dependent development starting with the impressive growth and emerging democracy of the post war period, economic stagnation of the 1980's and 1990's, and the divisive contemporary era of 'Chavismo'. To deconstruct the thesis that oil and development do not mix, each chapter explores the dynamic connections between the fiscal structure of the Venezuelan state, institutionalized patterns of political conflict and compromise, and their socio-economic consequences. It is argued that such a multi-faceted approach moves beyond static interpretations of the resource curse to grasp more firmly the ever-changing resource relationship.

  7. A correspondência de Simón Bolívar e sua presença na literatura: uma análise de O General em seu labirinto de Gabriel García Márquez Simon Bolivar's correspondence and its presence in literature: an analysis of The General in His Labyrinth by Gabriel Garcia Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Souza Fredrigo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Simón Bolívar, uma das lideranças mais importantes das independências na América do Sul de colonização espanhola, deixou um epistolário com 2815 cartas. Ao partir do propósito em expor o projeto narrativo epistolar, um dos temas de destaque, no decorrer da leitura, foi o da renúncia do general. As diversas solicitações de renúncia ao cargo administrativo e as justificativas que as acompanhavam levaram-me à análise do que denominei por memória da indispensabilidade. Depois da investigação desse discurso no epistolário, as relações com a literatura e a biografia foram fundamentais para ampliar a compreensão acerca da composição dessa memória da indispensabilidade nas epístolas. Para este artigo, pretende-se cotejar as cartas de Simón Bolívar e o romance de Gabriel García Márquez, O General em seu labirinto. A hipótese é a de que o texto literário, além de usar o epistolário bolivariano para construir seu personagem e a cena romanesca, acrescenta possibilidades explicativas sobre o projeto de memória conduzido pela escrita de cartas, na mesma medida em que reforça o culto ao general Libertador.Simon Bolivar, one of the most important South American leaders of independence within the areas of Spanish colonialism in South America, left behind an epistolary of 2815 letters. Our proposal starts off with the display of the narrative epistolary project and soon encounters one of its highlights in the course of the reading, which is the general's own resignation. The several requests of resignation from his administrative position, and the justifications that followed them had taken me to the analysis of what I called the memory of the indispensability. After investigating this speech in the epistolary, the relationship between literature and the biography had been fundamental in improving our understanding of the substance of this memory of the indispensability in the epistles. This article intends to compare Simon

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN DEL INFARTO AGUDO DEL MIOCARDIO EN VENEZUELA DURANTE EL AÑO 2008 / Characterization of acute myocardial infarction in Venezuela during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rafael Abreu Reyes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was carried out in order to characterize the acute myocardial infarction in the Intensive Care Units of the first Integral Diagnosis Centers inaugurated by the Barrio Adentro Mission in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, since the implementation of the first Integral Medical Centers in 2008. A total of 240 patients with an acute myocardial infarction diagnosis were assisted. There was a predominance of the male patients and the white color of the skin. The stay of the patients at the Intensive Care Unit was of more than 7 days; and among the risk factors, the most prevalent one was dyslipidemia. Concerning the topography of the infarction, the most common was the anterior wall infarction. The general survival was much higher in the cases that received the thrombolytic therapy and the normal procedures of vital support.

  9. Crisis política y narrativas transmedia en las protestas de 2014 en Venezuela/ Political crisis and transmedia storytelling in the 2014 protests in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Orlando Pernía Peñalver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación en curso sobre el surgimiento en Venezuela de los online espacios de autonomía que vienen alterando los regímenes de intercambio informativo. Las protestas civiles de 2014 sumaron evidencias a la disolución de las fronteras, cada vez más imprecisas, entre los medios clásicos de comunicación de masas y las plataformas digitales que han posibilitado el acceso directo de los usuarios a la mediasfera. Abordamos ejemplos que lo demuestran y aportamos elementos teóricos para una interpretación del fenómeno. El bloqueo informativo gubernamental es el eje que ha obligado a los nuevos infociudadanos a formar colectividades en red para construir las narraciones y modelos de lectura sobre el entorno crítico y sus fases de tensión. This work is part of an ongoing research on the rise in Venezuela of online autonomy spaces which are altering the information exchange regimes. Civil protests of 2014 brought into evidence the dissolution of borders, increasingly blurred, between traditional mass media and digital platforms which are enabling direct user access to the media sphere. In this article, we provide and analyze examples and also, theoretical elements contributing to an interpretation of the phenomenon. The government's information blockade is the axis that has forced communities to form new social info-network where to build stories and models of reading on critical environment and its phases of tension.

  10. CARIOTIPO DEL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus(SAURIA: TROPIDURIDAE EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA Lizard Karyotipe Tropidurus hispidus (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the East of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ALEJANDRO GONZÁLEZ S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por seis pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa 13% de longitud relativa total (LRT, siendo el cromosoma de mayor tamaño con respecto a la población peninsular con un 9,4 % y a la población insular con 7,1 %, conteniendo esta última población los cromosomas más pequeños. Considerando las diferencias cromosómicas y el aislamiento geográfico existente, estos lagartos podrían presentar un proceso de especiación alopátrica de tipo vicariante.A cytogenetic study by Giemsa staining in three xerophytic regions (continental, peninsular and insular in eastern Venezuela, showed a diploid number 2n=36, consisting of 6 pairs of metacentric and submetacentric macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of acrocentric microchromosomes maintained, this feature in males and females in the three populations studied. It was determined that the first pair of macrochromosomes is metacentric and the continental region represents 13% of total relative length (LRT as the larger chromosome, with respect to the peninsular population with 9.4% and the insular population 7.1%, the latter population containing the smallest chromosomes. Whereas chromosomal differences and geographic isolation exists, these lizards have a process of vicariant allopatric speciation.

  11. Radon Concentration in the Cataniapo-Autana River Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarez, H.; Liendo, J.; Vásquez, G.

    2007-10-01

    Radon activity concentration is measured in rivers of the Autana-Cataniapo hydrologic basin. The region experiments mining and it is forecasted that the basin will be perturbed. Radon activity monitoring is one of the methods to measure environmental changes. Values of radon concentration in water range between 0.4 and 30 Bq L-1.

  12. PLAN DE EMPRESA PARA UNA AGENCIA SITUADA EN VENEZUELA QUE OFRECE CURSOS DE IDIOMAS EN EL EXTRANJERO

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ CASADO, CARLOS

    2014-01-01

    Con la realización del presente Trabajo Final de Carrera, se pretende realizar un Plan de Empresa para la Creación, Plan de desarrollo y Viabilidad para una agencia de cursos de inglés en el extranjero y con oficina en Venezuela bajo la marca: Eurolingua. El objetivo de este plan de negocio es la implantación de una oficina de Eurolingua en Venezuela con el fin de buscar una apertura a nuevos mercados emergentes y contrarrestar los efectos que está provocando la crisis económica española e...

  13. La alta gerencia corporativa, el marketing y la responsabilidad social empresarial: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Raspa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es una visión que analiza y examina el desarrollo del concepto de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y el Marketing,a nivel global, bajo la óptica de autores como Lindbaek (2003 hasta las tendencias modernas de la misma, a través de las normativas que controlan e incentivan la acción social de las empresas en el concierto de las naciones. Luego de un análisis de esas tendencias se adentra en la situación de la Responsabilidad Social y Marketing en Venezuela y como se viene desarrollando durante las últimas décadas. Finalmente, al comparar las tendencias mundiales sobre Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y la situación venezolana se destaca la propensión del empresariado venezolano a la puesta en práctica de la acción social de una manera eficiente y con orientación al Marketing.Palabras Clave: Responsabilidad social empresarial; marketing, estrategia; acción social; ciudadano corporativo.Corporate senior management, marketing and corporate social responsibility: Venezuela Case AbstractThe work presented below is an overview that draws the development of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and global marketing from the perspective of authors like Lindbaek (2003 to modern trends of this perspective, through regulations that control and encourage social action of the companies in the concert of nations. After an analysis of these trends, it goes deeper into the situation of the Social Responsibility and Marketing in Venezuela and how it has been developing itself over recent decades. Finally, and to compare global trend about Corporate Social Responsibility and the Venezuelan situation, it is highlighted the propensity of the Venezuelan entrepreneurial to the implementation of social action in an efficient way and marketing focused.Keywords: corporate social responsibility; marketing; strategy; social action; corporate citizen.

  14. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  15. Transformaciones sociodemográficas de la élite parlamentaria en Venezuela (1993-1998

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    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Si bien Venezuela no es un caso representativo de nuevo régimen democrático, ya que ha funcionado ininterrumpidamente como tal desde hace treinta años, sí existen una serie de elementos que permiten plantear la existencia de una importante ruptura en la composición de la élite parlamentaria, constituyendo las dos últimas legislaturas un punto de inflexión claro en el desarrollo político venezolano y una muestra de la ruptura definitiva del bipartidismo que venía funcionando desde 1958.El objeto de este artículo es el estudio de la estructura sociológica de la élite parlamentaria en el período 1993- 1998, comparando algunas particularidades de la misma con características de la actual legislatura intentando establecer rupturas y continuidades entre ambas Cámaras. En el mismo se contrastan hipótesis clásicas, al estilo de las recogidas por Putnam y Von Beyme sobre la relación entre determinadas características sociodemográficas y demográficas y la élite política.ABSTRACT: Although Venezuela is not a representative case of new democracy, because it is established thirty years ago, there are now some important element that implied an break in parliamentarian elite composition. The last two legislatures can be interpreted as an evident point in Venezuela Political.The object of this article is the study of sociological estructure of parliamentarian elite durign the period of 1993-1998, comparing some o( their particularities and trying to stablish breaks and continuities along them. Some clasical hipothesis, as posited by Von Beyme and Putnam about correlation sociademoghapich characterists and political elites, are contrasted in the article.

  16. Venezuela: Nota sectorial en gestión de riesgo a desastres

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Lacambra; Tsuneki Hori

    2010-01-01

    La presente Nota Sectorial ha servido para la preparación de la estrategia de país del Banco con Venezuela para el período 2011-2014. Esta tiene como objetivo dar a conocer el impacto histórico de los desastres, enfocándose en los desastres por tipos de amenaza, fallecidos y afectados, así como daños económicos. Presenta los avances en la gestión del riesgo a desastres y las operaciones del BID. Finalmente, detalla el apoyo propuesto para minimizar los riesgos y desastres, a través de la coop...

  17. Historia reciente y situación política actual de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista (en español Presentación Elisabeth Burgos es una antropóloga y escritora venezolana; coautora del libro Me llamo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia (Madrid, Editores Siglo XXI, 1998, sobre la vida de la dirigente indígena guatemalteca ganadora del Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1992. Actualmente reside en París donde realiza estudios de Historia. En esta entrevista, Elisabeth Burgos nos presenta su visión de la historia de Venezuela desde 1936, año en el que ella sitúa el i...

  18. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Comach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month--86 years. Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6% subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144 of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144, parainfluenza virus (13/144, and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144 were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second--higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its

  19. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

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    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  20. Biogenic nitrogen gas production at the oxic–anoxic interface in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, E.(Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain); Altabet, M.A.; F. E. Muller-Karger; Scranton, M. I.; R. C. Thunell; Benitez-Nelson, C.; L. Lorenzoni; Astor, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    Excess nitrogen gas (N2xs) was measured in samples collected at six locations in the eastern and western sub-basins of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, in September 2008 (non-upwelling conditions) and March 2009 (upwelling conditions). During both sampling periods, N2xs concentrations were below detection in surface waters, increasing to ~ 22 μmol N kg−1 at the oxic–anoxic interface...

  1. A study on the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from Venezuela (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Buprestinae: Anthaxiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2015-01-01

    Study on the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from Venezuela. Altogether eight species were recorded from this country, four of them are described in this paper: Agrilaxia (Agrilaxia) biformis sp. nov., A. (A.) michaeli sp. nov., A. (A.) stephani sp. nov. and A. (A.) venezuelana sp. nov. All species are illustrated and new species are compared with the most similar/related species. A male of Agrilaxia (A.) balloui Fisher, 1942 is described and the male genitalia are illustrated. New country records are given for Agrilaxia (A.) balloui, A. (A.) costaricensis Obenberger, 1922, A. (A.) glabra Bílý & Brûlé 2013 and A. (A.) simillima Cobos, 1972. PMID:26624473

  2. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela: a population-based study (DENSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, L E; Díaz, J; Estevez, E; Costa, A; Méndez, H; Dávila, H; Medero, N; Rodriguez, N; Chaves, M; Vinueza, R; Ortiz, J A; Glasser, D B

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. A 49-item questionnaire was completed by 1946 men aged 40 years and older. The age-adjusted combined prevalence of minimal, moderate, and complete ED for all three countries was 53.4%, with 19.8% of all men reporting moderate to complete ED. Age was the variable most strongly linked to ED; the prevalence of complete ED increased markedly in men older than 79 y of age (31.9%) and 70-79 y (17.2%) compared with men aged 40-49 y (disease. PMID:12161763

  3. Tendencias actuales en autorregulación: el caso de las comunicaciones comerciales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David López Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La autorregulación de las comunicaciones comerciales constituye una práctica relativamente reciente. Numerosas empresas, en la actualidad, con buen criterio, están adecuando sus actividades publicitarias a los instrumentos derivados de la autorregulación. Estos últimos, fomentados en ciertas ocasiones por el sector público, constituyen un sugerente complemento de la normativa legal. En el presente estudio, nos referiremos, con carácter general, de forma somera, a esta figura. Posteriormente, tomaremos conciencia de la misma en el caso de Venezuela.

  4. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez; Adriana M. Márquez

    2007-01-01

    Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km2, 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment...

  5. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez; Adriana M. Márquez

    2007-01-01

    Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km², 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment...

  6. Democracia y Derechos Humanos en la Globalizacion. Una aproximación a Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rivas Leone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos abordar el debate actual en torno a los efectos positivos que tiene el proceso de globalización en la democracia, y específicamente en los derechos humanos, haciendo en primer lugar un abordaje y valoración teórica y académica, analizando posteriormente la realidad venezolana, en la que el avance y progresividad de los derechos humanos en términos de la Constitución Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 no corresponde con la cruda realidad y violación del Estado de derecho.

  7. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato) fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. R...

  8. Fauna flebotomina (Diptera: Psychodidae) del estado Falcón, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmiro J. Cazorla; Pedro Morales

    2012-01-01

    Se estudio la composición, abundancia y dispersión de la fauna flebotomina en focos endémicos de leishmaniasis en el estado Falcón, Venezuela. Se emplearon 5 métodos de captura, en 41 localidades ubicadas entre los 0 y 1584 m. Se colectaron 6273 especímenes, pertenecientes a 17 especies de Lutzomyia y 1 de Brumptomyia. De éstas, 10 especies (55,56%) fueron reconocidas por poseer hábitos antropofílicos. Lutzomyia evansi (52,37%) resultó ser la especie más abundante. Se presenta la diversidad y...

  9. Lectura comparada de la caricatura política en Canadá y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Este estudio descriptivo, compuesto por un corpus de seis caricaturas, analiza la articulación del sentido y el concepto de identidad en el trabajo de los caricaturistas Pedro León Zapata del periódico El Nacional de Venezuela y Terry Mosher (Aislin) del periódico The Gazette de Canadá, según la semiótica discursiva de Greimas (1991) y la teoría sociolingüística que proponen Krees y Van Leeuwen (2000). Aislin posee un estilo esencialmente irónico, directo y sin enmascaramientos. Zapata, por s...

  10. El voto electrónico en las elecciones de alcaldes en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Velázquez Trujillo

    2010-01-01

    En el artículo se aborda la transición del voto convencional al voto electrónico en las elecciones municipales en Venezuela. Se hace un recorrido por las elecciones de alcaldes recientes con énfasis en la elección de 2000, cuando se da el primer intento por instaurar el voto electrónico, y en la elección de 2004, donde esta modalidad sustituyó a la convencional. La recuperación histórica destaca dos aspectos: la secrecía y el conteo legal de los sufragios.

  11. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial

  12. Application of the nuclear technology in the oil industry in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 the Physics laboratory of the Condensed Matter of the Centre of Physics Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, IVIC several diagnostic techniques that, make use of neutrons, gamma rays and radioactive tracers have been developed, they have been oriented mainly towards, the oil industry of Venezuela bout 100 applications have been carried out in the principal enterprises oil refineries and companies crude producing petrochemical in the country. In this presentation are exposed three applications of these techniques. Utilization of neutrons (sources Am241-Be). Utilization of gamma rays and study of radiotracers

  13. Ultrastructural identification of Ehrlich ia sp in an experimentally infected dog in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is the first report made in Venezuela concerning the ultrastructural characteristics of Ehrlich ia sp in mononuclear blood cells from an experimentally infected dog. The animal developed clinical manifestations characteristic of the infection, and typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were clearly seen in blood smears stained with modified Giemsa examined by light microscopy. Microorganisms were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic inclusions, consisted of membrane-lined vacuole-containing elementary bodies. The organisms were extremely pleomorphic. Elementary bodies were surrounded by two distinct membranes and each was constituted by electro-dense granules. These findings corresponded to the described electron microscopy morphology which characterizes the Ehrlich ia genus

  14. Venezuela, los cambios globales y su política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo ha avanzado hacia la globalización, lo que exige que América Latina, con poca relevancia internacional y con una situación económica crítica, busque ajustarse a las nuevas exigencias internacionales mediante "la desregulación y la coordinación económica". También se hace prioritaria la búsqueda de la integración regional tanto a nivel público como privado a través de instituciones como Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.Este artículo plantea las incidencias de la globalización y la integración en la política exterior venezolana y los mecanismos a aplicar para ajustarse al nuevo modelo mundial. Tres son los puntos prioritarios en este sentido: los cambios globales, el petróleo y la política exterior.La situación de Venezuela como país proveedor de petróleo a Estados Unidos le ha permitido ser conservador en sus posiciones y asumir la apertura económica de forma más discreta al resto de países de la región. La democracia es otro tema que rodea las relaciones internacionales, especialmente lo relativo a los derechos humanos y al buen gobierno, y del cual Venezuela se beneficia al procurar un espacio idóneo para su desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The world has moved towards globalization, which means that Latin America, that has low international leverage and a critical economic situation, has to search for an adjustment to the new international demands by means of "deregulation and economic coordination". It is also a priority to pursue the regional integration at the prívate and public levels through institutions such as Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.This article poses the incidences of globalization and integration in the Venezuelan international policy, as wcll as the mechanisms of adjustment to the new world orden. Three elements are pointed out as priorities: the global changes, the petroleum, and the international policy.The situation of Venezuela as a US supplier of petroleum has

  15. La mujer en las publicaciones institucionales de las empresas petroleras extranjeras en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Luis J. González Oquendo

    2006-01-01

    Durante las décadas de 1940 y 1950 las empresas petroleras extranjeras que operaban en Venezuela editaron publicaciones institucionales como herramientas clave para el manejo de las relaciones públicas y laborales tanto con sus empleados como con la comunidad. Entre otras secciones, éstas prestaron un interés significativo a la mujer. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar cómo se dio la construcción discursiva de ella y de su rol en el seno tanto de la comunidad como de la empresa. ...

  16. "socialismo del siglo xxi” o viejo centrismo estatal? una lectura disidente de las transformaciones en venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Zelik, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Las transformaciones políticas en Venezuela polarizan los debates, no sólo en Colombia. Lo que para unos es una dictadura comunista, para otros representa una esperanza de democratización y justicia social. En realidad, un análisis serio de la ‘Revolución Bolivariana’ muestra un panorama mucho más complejo y contradictorio. Por un lado, hay importantes avances en la política social: con la recuperación de los ingresos petroleros —que antes no salieron de la empresa estatal PDVSA— el Gobierno ...

  17. La democracia directa en Venezuela: ¿democracia participativa o democracia plebiscitaria?

    OpenAIRE

    Lissidini, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo central de este informe es dar cuenta de las características centrales de la inclusión y el uso de los mecanismos de democracia directa en Venezuela, priorizando el análisis político y social de los actores claves, además de la descripción de los alcances jurídicos de cada mecanismo. En primer lugar, se exponen las características legales que asume la democracia directa en la Constitución Venezolana de 1999. En segundo lugar, se describe el contexto político y social de crisis del...

  18. La izquierda en Venezuela: evolución y situación actual

    OpenAIRE

    González Fuentes, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Históricamente, la izquierda en Venezuela se ha caracterizado por el enfrentamiento entre la izquierda socialdemócrata y la izquierda radical. Durante mucho tiempo la primera estuvo liderada por AD y la segunda por el PCV. En ambos partidos surgieron disidentes que crearon nuevas formaciones pasando de una a otra corriente. Así de AD surgió el MIR y el MEP, y del PCV, el MAS y LCR. Uno de los factores que más ha condicionado el avance electoral y el surgimiento de las fuerzas de izquierda ha ...

  19. El concepto de orden en tiempos de transición: Venezuela (1770-1850)*

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Curiel, Carole

    2014-01-01

    El artículo evalúa el recorrido semántico de las nociones de orden social, político y natural en el espacio político de Venezuela durante el periodo 1770-1850. Se analizan las transformaciones y resignificaciones que adquiere el concepto «orden» a partir de la crisis política de la monarquía en 1808 y su proceso de ruptura semántica con la emergencia de la república.

  20. Los efectos de las elecciones de 1993 y 1995 sobre el sistema de partidos en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN: La autora analiza los cambios ocurridos en las dos últimas convocatorias electorales en Venezuela. Sus observaciones muestran cómo un sistema de partidos tradicionalmente fuerte, bipartidista, se recompone a partir de la crisis política derivada de la dificultades económicas que vive este país. Emergencia de nuevas fuerzas, altas tasas de volatilidad y de desidentificación política son algunos de los nuevos procesos que aparecen en la vida política venezolana.ABSTRACT: The author ana...

  1. Estrategias para lograr la soberanía alimentaria en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yuneska Nava Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    El hecho de ser un país dependiente económicamente primordialmente de la renta petrolera, ha ocasionado que en Venezuela se hayan descuidado otros sectores no menos importantes, como lo es el sector agroalimentario. En el país, se enfrenta una crisis en dicho sector que se ha evidenciado en el desabastecimiento de buena parte de los alimentos de la cesta básica. A pesar que en los últimos meses esa situación ha mejorado levemente, se hace necesario diseñar e implementar estrategias que permit...

  2. La política social en situaciones de crisis generalizada e incertidumbre en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Thais Gutiérrez Briceño

    2002-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de la política social implantada en Venezuela desde 1989, en el marco de los procesos de ajuste estructural, con el objetivo de establecer la relación política social-legitimidad. Se definen dos sub-períodos, a los efectos identificados: 1989-1998 y 1999-2001. Estos corresponden, respectivamente, con la profundización de la situación de crisis en el país y la redefinición que se registra en las orientaciones de la política social y eco...

  3. Un Estudio sobre la Autonomía Administrativa del Banco Central de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrios Ross; Abelardo Daza

    2000-01-01

    El propósito básico de este estudio es contribuir a la comprensión de los factores favorables y los elementos de potencial amenaza para que los bancos centrales ejerzan su autonomía institucional. Para el logro de este propósito, se utiliza la metodología de estudio de casos, examinando la experiencia de Venezuela durante dos eventos particulares: la crisis financiera acaecida en el período 1994-1996 y el manejo de la política cambiaria durante los años 1995-96. Ambos eventos sucedieron duran...

  4. Los ferrocarriles de servicio público en Venezuela (1870-1990)

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría García, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Not available

    Este artículo es un estado de la cuestión sobre la historia de los ferrocarriles de servicio público en Venezuela. El trabajo formó parte del proyecto financiado por la Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles, “Los Ferrocarriles Latinoamericanos Ayer, Hoy y Mañana” (1990-92), cuyo objetivo fue construir una base de datos con la bibliografía y las fuentes, fundamentalmente estadísticas, existentes para el estudio del tema. A continuación presentamos los result...

  5. Behaviour of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in the Llanos of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Braza, Francisco; Álvarez, Fernando; Azcárate, Tomás

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in the Llanos of Venezuela was studied from May 1975 to May 1976. The average size of the social groups was 6.3±2.1 individuals. The groups were heterosexual, comprising individuals of all ages, with an average of 40% adult females, 26% adult males, 16% juveniles and 18% infants. The daily rhythm of activity for the performance of locomotion, feeding, snoozing and sleeping was ascertained for dry and rainy seasons. The density of the...

  6. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima) e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar), e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais n...

  7. Innovación de la gestión pública en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Haydée Ochoa Henríquez

    2008-01-01

    Resumen Venezuela transita desde 1999 por un proceso propio de transformación impulsado por el Estado. La aprobación de políticas alternativas plasmadas en una nueva constitución, en las leyes aprobadas en el marco de ésta y en otros documentos, dan cuenta de una nueva orientación dirigida a romper con las tendencias neoliberales de los 90 del pasado siglo. Desafortunadamente, en cuanto a los procesos de gestión, es evidente la presencia de viejas prácticas que obstaculizan los avances, aunq...

  8. Las ciencias sociales y la salud en la modernización de Venezuela Social sciences and health in the Venezuelan modernization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias sociales han estado vinculadas a los programas de salud en Venezuela desde comienzos del siglo 20, pero su papel ha ido cambiando conforme se han dado las transformaciones en el país y en la maduración de la comunidad científica. Este artículo presenta un análisis sobre la actuación de las ciencias sociales durante el siglo 20 en el campo de la medicina y la salud, en Venezuela. Se establecieron variables relacionadas con los cambios y/o transformaciones que se han dado en la sociedad, el Estado y la academia, las cuales permitieron construir cinco fases que denotan los estilos y formas de concebir la relación entre las ciencias sociales y la salud: a lo social como un asunto de descubrimiento médico; b lo social y lo sanitario como apoyo a la modernización; c la profesionalización de lo social: de la medicina social a las ciencias sociales; d lo social como crítica al poder; e la diversidad de lo social: de la medicina a la salud. La actuación crítica y constructiva de las ciencias sociales en el campo de la medicina y la salud, su contribución en los programas y acciones en salud desarrolladas por el Estado y, en el área de la investigación, le han otorgado el reconocimiento como claves en los cambios sociales necesarios para la modernización, hasta ahora inconclusa, de la sociedad venezolana.The social sciences have been involved in health programs in Venezuela since the turn of the 20th Century, but their role has been changing as the country has undergone successive transformations and the scientific community has matured. This article analyzes the social sciences’ actions in the medicine/ health field in Venezuela over the course of the 20th Century. Variables relating to the changes and/or transformations occurring in society, the State, and academia were specified, permitting the identification of five phases denoting different styles and ways of conceiving the relationship between the social sciences and

  9. Significado del consumo de drogas para las adolescentes de la calle, en la ciudad de Valencia, Venezuela Significado do uso de drogas para adolescentes de rua, Valencia, Venezuela Meaning of drugs use for adolescents living in the streets, Valencia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alvarado-Chacón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo con el objetivo de revelar el significado del consumo de drogas en las adolescentes de la calle, condición que las convierte en problema social, por lo que se busca obtener una aproximación teórica para comprender este fenómeno. Siete (7 adolescentes femeninas del paseo Cabriales en la ciudad de Valencia, en Venezuela fueron entrevistadas. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el recurso metodológico de la Teoría fundamentada (Grand Theory y la visión del Interaccionismo simbólico y de ahí surgieron las siguientes categorías: la búsqueda de no ser la buena, la reafirmación del rol femenino, el consumo como experiencia, la mirada de los otros a la adolescente que consume drogas, y la adicta como cuidadora. Finalmente, concluimos que el uso de drogas en la calle para las adolescentes del sexo femenino es una forma de protección, sobrevivencia e inclusión en los grupos.Trata-se de estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi revelar o significado do uso de drogas entre adolescentes que vivem nas ruas, condição que se torna um problema social, de modo que a abordagem teórica busca compreender esse fenômeno. Sete (7 adolescentes do sexo feminino, em Valência, Venezuela, foram entrevistadas. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se como recurso a metodologia da Grounded Theory e a visão do interacionismo simbólico, de onde emergiram as seguintes categorias: a busca de não ser bom, reafirmação do papel das mulheres, consumo como experiência, o olhar dos outros para a adolescente que usa drogas e o toxicodependente como cuidador. Por fim, conclui-se que o uso de drogas na rua, para adolescentes do sexo feminino, é uma forma de proteção, sobrevivência e inclusão grupal.This descriptive study with a qualitative approach aims to reveal the meaning of drugs use among adolescents living in the street, a condition that turns them into a social problem, so

  10. Evaluacion de Programas de Alfabetizacion. Consulta Tecnica Regional (Maracaibo, Venezuela, 30 Noviembre-6 Diciembre 1987) Informe Final. (Evaluation of Literacy Programs. Regional Technical Meeting (Maracaibo, Venezuela, November 30-December 6, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The objectives of this seminar were to identify problems in evaluating literacy programs and to design a working strategy to confront them. Four presentations included national case studies from Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Central questions asked concerned who and what were evaluated and how were the results to be used. In Brazil,…

  11. Antibiotic- and heavy-metal resistance in bacteria isolated from deep subsurface in El Callao region, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Lina Rojas Pirela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of contamination with mercury (Hg in the deep subsurface bacterial communities in the region of El Callao (Bolívar State, Venezuela was investigated. Bacterial communities from two deep levels (-288 m and -388 m in a gold mine were studied with the aim of describe the most relevant features of their colonizing indigenous culturable bacteria. Antibiotic and heavy metals resistance patterns, presence of the merA gene and plasmids in resistant isolates were evaluated. A high frequency of resistant indigenous bacteria to Hg and other heavy metals was found. From 76 Hg-resistant isolates tested 73.7 % were, in addition, resistant to ampicillin, 86.8% to chloramphenicol, 67.1 % for tetracycline, 56.6 % streptomycin, and 51.3 % kanamycin. Furthermore, it was found that 40.74 % (-328 mm and 26.53 % (-388 m of Hg-resistant bacteria were simultaneously resistant to both four and five of these antibiotics. The presence of low and high molecular weight plasmids was detected and, despite that isolated showed resistance to mercurial compounds, the presence of the gene merA was detected only in 71.05 % of strains. These results suggest that exposure to Hg could be a selective pressure on the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and promote the preservation and propagation of these resistance genes. However, the existence of such resistances to these depths could also support the idea that antibiotic resistance in these bacteria is natural and has a more ancient origin than their exposure to Hg.

  12. Revised seismic history of the El Pilar fault, Northeastern Venezuela, from the Cariaco 1997 earthquake and recent preliminary paleoseismic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard, Franck A.

    2007-07-01

    In light of the July 9, 1997, Cariaco earthquake, it is clearly understood now that damage in the city of Cumaná located in northeastern Venezuela and frequently destroyed by the largest earthquakes since the first recorded event in 1530 is strongly enhanced by poor soil conditions that, in turn, are responsible for site amplification and widespread earthquake-induced effects. Therefore, most previous macroseismic studies of historical earthquakes must be revaluated because those localized high-intensity values at Cumaná surely led to the misestimation of past epicenters. Preliminary paleoseismic results, gathered at three exploratory trenches dug across the surface break of the Cariaco 1997 earthquake in 1998, allow us to associate the 1684 earthquake with this recently ruptured fault segment that extends between the towns of San Antonio del Golfo and Río Casanay (roughly between the two gulfs of Cariaco and Paria, state of Sucre). Other major results from the reassessment of the seismic history of this fault are: (a) the 1766 event seems to have generated in a different source to the El Pilar fault because the size of the felt area suggests that it is an intermediate-depth earthquake; (b) damage to Cumaná produced by the 1797 event suggests that this was a local earthquake, perhaps equivalent to the 1929 earthquake, which ruptured for some 30 km just east of Cumaná into the Gulf of Cariaco; and (c) seismogenic association of the 1530 and 1853 earthquakes still remains unclear but it is very likely that these ruptures occurred offshore, as suggested by the rather large tsunami waves that both events have generated, placing their hypocenters west of Cumaná in the Cariaco Trough. This reassessment also sheds light into the El Pilar fault segmentation and the behavior of its seismogenic barriers through time.

  13. Spinocerebellar ataxias in Venezuela: genetic epidemiology and their most likely ethnic descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Irene; Ikonomu, Vassiliki; Arias, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Dominantly inherited ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias, SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar and spinal tract degeneration with ataxia and other signs, common to all known subtypes. Several types are relatively frequent worldwide, but in several countries, one specific SCA may show a higher prevalence owing to founder phenomena. In Venezuela, genetic epidemiological features of SCAs have been assessed during the last 30 years; mutations in ATXN1 (SCA1), ATXN2 (SCA2), ATXN3 (SCA3), CACNA1A (SCA6), ATXN7 (SCA7), ATXN8 (SCA8), ATXN10 (SCA10), TBP (SCA17) and ATN1 (dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, DRPLA) loci were searched among 115 independent families. SCA7 was the most frequent subtype (26.6%), followed by SCA3 (25.0%), SCA2 (21.9%), SCA1 (17.2%), SCA10 (4.7%) and DRPLA (3.1%); in 43% of the families, the subtype remained unidentified. SCA7 mutations displayed strong geographic aggregation in two independent founder foci, and SCA1 showed a very remote founder effect for a subset of families. SCA10 families were scattered across the country, but all had an identical in-phase haplotype carried also by Mexican, Brazilian and Sioux patients, supporting a very old common Amerindian origin. Prevalence for dominant SCAs in Venezuela was estimated as 1:25 000 nuclear families, provenances of which are either Caucasoid, African or Amerindian. PMID:26538302

  14. Producción, Reservas y Sostenibilidad de la Energía en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rojas-Zerpa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo está relacionado con la evaluación de los recursos energéticos de Venezuela y su posicionamiento estratégico mundial, referido principalmente a la producción y consumo de energía primaria y reservas. Así mismo se han evaluado los recursos energéticos renovables con la finalidad de identificar oportunidades para el desarrollo de la energía sostenible. Los resultados indican que Venezuela posee recursos fósiles para más de 130 años de explotación, lo cual lo convierte en una potencia energética relevante en el contexto mundial. La potencialidad aprovechable de las energías renovables duplicó la producción de recursos fósiles en 2011. En la actualidad, el aprovechamiento de estas fuentes es inferior al 2 % del total disponible, lo que deja abierto un amplio rango de posibilidades para la diversificación de la matriz energética nacional mediante tecnologías limpias o sostenibles

  15. A project: 'Radiological protection in radiology', IAEA - Universidad Central de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years a reference center of the UCV has been working on the project VEN/9/007 on dose reduction in diagnostic radiology sponsored by the IAEA. The dose and quality image was evaluated for different types of radiological study (conventional radiology, CT, mammography, interventional radiology) in different facilities at Caracas and others regions of the Venezuela. TL dosimeters were used to assess dose and reduction in dose. Based on the recommendations given by CEC documents on diagnostic quality criteria, a quality control program in radiological protection of patients and staff has been developed, for example: Pilot study by using TLD in personnel radiation monitoring. Comparative study between high and low kVp in chest. Evaluation and dose reduction in chest pediatric. Reduction of radiation dose in studies of billiards via Quality Image and reduction of the dose in studies of colon by enema. Radiation dose of staff in fluoroscopy procedures. Evaluation and dose reduction in dental radiography in public Institutions. A mammography accreditation program for Venezuela, applied to public hospitals. (author)

  16. Contaminantes químicos en agua y aire en Venezuela (2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to document studies in Venezuela about chemical pollutants in air and water (2006 to 2013 through a systematic review. It was a descriptive, cross-sectional documental review. Databases of the major universities in the country, government institutions and Non-Governmental Organizations were reviewed. From the twenty-seven articles selected, eight (29.6% investigated air pollution, 12 (44.4% water pollution and 7 (25.9%, studied environmental media. 90.9% of the research was conducted in the North area of the country. Main objects of the study were water quality (20.5%, metals/minerals and environmental phenomena including climate change (17.9% each and overall contamination (12.8%. The limited access to public environmental information, few environmental awareness campaigns and the lack of citizenship, put investigations in this area in a secondary level. Researchers must be stimulated with increased funding to study the environmental problems in the country, so that their results contribute to fostering “environmental education” at all levels and compliance with the existing legal framework. It is concluded that research on chemical contaminants in environmental media in Venezuela is scarce. The environmental situation in the country requires further research in the most affected areas, including the South area of the country where many polluting basic industries are located.

  17. Auge y declive del sistema financiero eclesiástico en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Ramírez Méndez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo colonial y hasta muy avanzado el siglo xix, la colocación de capital y bienes y la percepción de rentas en Venezuela fueron cumplidas mayoritariamente por la Iglesia católica. Esas funciones estuvieron sometidas a diversos marcos de actuación jurídico-legal, especialmente durante el periodo republicano y hasta su extinción en 1870, mediante los decretos emitidos por el presidente Antonio Guzmán Blanco. Así, se examina el funcionamiento y las regulaciones a que estuvo sometido el sistema financiero eclesiástico en Venezuela, y las tensiones que enfrentaron al clero con los gobiernos decimonónicos. El estudio parte de la revisión bibliográfica y documental sobre la temática, en particular de las fuentes manuscritas que reposan en los archivos regionales, nacionales y extranjeros. La investigación demuestra la intensa participación del sector rentista religioso en la protección de sus capitales e intereses y su progresiva decadencia durante el siglo xix, debido a la incapacidad para obtener nuevos aportes de numerario, recapitalizar intereses, reaccionar ante la competencia de capital foráneo y protegerse de la apetencia de poderosos e importantes grupos políticos que buscaban apropiarse de sus caudales.

  18. Auge y declive del sistema financiero eclesiástico en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ALBERTO RAMÍREZ MÉNDEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo colonial y hasta muy avanzado el siglo XIX, la colocación de capital y bienes y la percepción de rentas en Venezuela fueron cumplidas mayoritariamente por la Iglesia católica. Esas funciones estuvieron sometidas a diversos marcos de actuación jurídico-legal, especialmente durante el periodo republicano y hasta su extinción en 1870, mediante los decretos emitidos por el presidente Antonio Guzmán Blanco. Así, se examina el funcionamiento y las regulaciones a que estuvo sometido el sistema financiero eclesiástico en Venezuela, y las tensiones que enfrentaron al clero con los gobiernos decimonónicos. El estudio parte de la revisión bibliográfica y documental sobre la temática, en particular de las fuentes manuscritas que reposan en los archivos regionales, nacionales y extranjeros. La investigación demuestra la intensa participación del sector rentista religioso en la protección de sus capitales e intereses y su progresiva decadencia durante el siglo XIX, debido a la incapacidad para obtener nuevos aportes de numerario, recapitalizar intereses, reaccionar ante la competencia de capital foráneo y protegerse de la apetencia de poderosos e importantes grupos políticos que buscaban apropiarse de sus caudales.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in an Indigenous Kariña Community in Eastern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariolga Berrizbeitia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in an indigenous Kariña population in eastern Venezuela. A total of 175 serum samples were collected in the community of Piñantal during February 2009. Interviews targeting socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with the T. cruzi transmission were also conducted. Samples were evaluated using trypomastigote excreted/secreted antigens (TESAs in an ELISA format. TESA-ELISA positive samples were confirmed by indirect haemagglutination (HAI (Wiener. A nonsystematic collection of vectors was also undertaken. T. cruzi seroprevalence was 7.43% according to both assays, and the mean age of infected patients was 48.61±10.40 years (range 34 to 73 years. The vector infection rate was 20.00% (2/10. T. cruzi seropositivity was associated with a history of triatomine bites, the ability to recognize the vector and poor knowledge about Chagas disease, but no associations were found with gender, house type, knowledge of how the disease is transmitted, or the presence of vectors or animals inside dwellings. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. cruzi in an indigenous population in eastern Venezuela. All of the epidemiological variables required for the establishment of active vectorial transmission of T. cruzi were present in this community.

  20. Spinocerebellar ataxias in Venezuela: genetic epidemiology and their most likely ethnic descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Irene; Ikonomu, Vassiliki; Arias, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Dominantly inherited ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias, SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar and spinal tract degeneration with ataxia and other signs, common to all known subtypes. Several types are relatively frequent worldwide, but in several countries, one specific SCA may show a higher prevalence owing to founder phenomena. In Venezuela, genetic epidemiological features of SCAs have been assessed during the last 30 years; mutations in ATXN1 (SCA1), ATXN2 (SCA2), ATXN3 (SCA3), CACNA1A (SCA6), ATXN7 (SCA7), ATXN8 (SCA8), ATXN10 (SCA10), TBP (SCA17) and ATN1 (dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, DRPLA) loci were searched among 115 independent families. SCA7 was the most frequent subtype (26.6%), followed by SCA3 (25.0%), SCA2 (21.9%), SCA1 (17.2%), SCA10 (4.7%) and DRPLA (3.1%); in 43% of the families, the subtype remained unidentified. SCA7 mutations displayed strong geographic aggregation in two independent founder foci, and SCA1 showed a very remote founder effect for a subset of families. SCA10 families were scattered across the country, but all had an identical in-phase haplotype carried also by Mexican, Brazilian and Sioux patients, supporting a very old common Amerindian origin. Prevalence for dominant SCAs in Venezuela was estimated as 1:25 000 nuclear families, provenances of which are either Caucasoid, African or Amerindian.