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Sample records for boldo peumus boldus

  1. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Rodriguez, J A; Theoduloz, C; Astudillo, S L; Feresin, G E; Tapia, A

    2003-04-01

    The dry leaves of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) are used in infusion or decoction as a digestive and to improve hepatic complains. Preliminary assays showed free-radical scavenging activity in hot water extracts of boldo leaves, measured by the decoloration of a methanolic solution of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). Assay-guided isolation led to the active compounds. Catechin proved to be the main free-radical scavenger of the extracts. Lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes was inhibited by boldo extracts and fractions at 500 microg/ml with higher effect for the ethyl acetate soluble and alkaloid fractions. The IC50 for catechin and boldine in the lipid peroxidation test were 75.6 and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. On the basis of dry starting material the catechin content in the crude drug was 2.25% while the total alkaloid calculated as boldine was 0.06%. The activity of boldine was six times higher than catechin in the lipid peroxidation assay. However, the mean catechin:total alkaloid content ratio was 37:1. The relative concentration of alkaloids and phenolics in boldo leaves and their activity suggest that free-radical scavenging effect is mainly due to catechin and flavonoids and that antioxidant effect is mainly related with the catechin content The high catechin content of boldo leaves and its bioactivity suggest that quality control of Boldo folium has to combine the analysis of catechin as well as their characteristic aporphine alkaloids.

  2. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

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    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  3. Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

    2009-07-01

    Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector.

  4. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

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    M.C.S. Barbosa; Belletti,K.M. da S.; Corrêa,T.F.; C.A. de M. Santos

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establ...

  5. Efecto neurotóxico del extracto acuoso de boldo (Peumus boldus en un modelo animal

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    Jhon William Mejía-Dolores

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos : Evaluar el efecto neurotóxico del extracto acuoso de boldo (Peumus boldus en un modelo experimental. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un experimento, que incluyó 20 ratas macho Holtzman de 250 ± 15 gr, distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos: el control negativo recibió solución salina (SS por vía oral (VO, el control positivo que recibió 6-hidroxidopamina por vía intracraneal (VIC y SS por VO, el grupo experimental 1 recibió extracto acuoso de boldo (EAB por VO y el grupo experimental 2 recibió 6-hidroxidopamina por VIC y EAB por VO, en todos los casos durante 21 días. Se realizó una evaluación neurológica, la cual tuvo tres componentes: a clínico, evaluado con el test de rotarod, b bioquímico, mediante la determinación de niveles séricos de ácido úrico, y c histopatológico, por inmunohistoquímica para neuronas dopaminérgicas de sustancia negra. Se empleó la prueba de Kruskal Wallis y el test de Dunn para evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos. Resultados. Se encontró disminución significativa en el tiempo de latencia del test de rotarod entre los grupos control negativo y control positivo (p<0,01, control negativo y experimental 1 (p=0,09, control negativo y experimental 2 (p<0,01, control positivo y experimental 1 (p=0,04, y experimental 1 y 2 (p=0,09. En la determinación de ácido úrico no hubo diferencia significativa intergrupal. En el conteo neuronal hubo depleción de neuronas dopaminérgicas totales, pero sin diferencia intergrupal. Conclusiones. Se evidencio un efecto neurotóxico del extracto acuoso de boldo en ratas macho de la cepa Holtzman a nivel clínico

  6. Efecto neurotóxico del extracto acuoso de boldo (Peumus boldus en un modelo animal

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    Jhon William Mejía-Dolores

    Full Text Available Objetivos : Evaluar el efecto neurotóxico del extracto acuoso de boldo (Peumus boldus en un modelo experimental. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un experimento, que incluyó 20 ratas macho Holtzman de 250 ± 15 gr, distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos: el control negativo recibió solución salina (SS por vía oral (VO, el control positivo que recibió 6-hidroxidopamina por vía intracraneal (VIC y SS por VO, el grupo experimental 1 recibió extracto acuoso de boldo (EAB por VO y el grupo experimental 2 recibió 6-hidroxidopamina por VIC y EAB por VO, en todos los casos durante 21 días. Se realizó una evaluación neurológica, la cual tuvo tres componentes: a clínico, evaluado con el test de rotarod, b bioquímico, mediante la determinación de niveles séricos de ácido úrico, y c histopatológico, por inmunohistoquímica para neuronas dopaminérgicas de sustancia negra. Se empleó la prueba de Kruskal Wallis y el test de Dunn para evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos. Resultados. Se encontró disminución significativa en el tiempo de latencia del test de rotarod entre los grupos control negativo y control positivo (p<0,01, control negativo y experimental 1 (p=0,09, control negativo y experimental 2 (p<0,01, control positivo y experimental 1 (p=0,04, y experimental 1 y 2 (p=0,09. En la determinación de ácido úrico no hubo diferencia significativa intergrupal. En el conteo neuronal hubo depleción de neuronas dopaminérgicas totales, pero sin diferencia intergrupal. Conclusiones. Se evidencio un efecto neurotóxico del extracto acuoso de boldo en ratas macho de la cepa Holtzman a nivel clínico

  7. Peumus boldus (Boldo) Aqueous Extract Present Better Protective Effect than Boldine Against Manganese-Induced Toxicity in D. melanogaster.

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    Bianchini, Matheus Chimelo; Gularte, Claudia Ortiz Alves; Escoto, Dandara Fidélis; Pereira, Geovana; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Puntel, Robson L

    2016-10-01

    The cellular, intracellular and molecular mechanism(s) underlying the toxicity of Mn are still incompletely understood, although several points concerning Mn neurotoxicity have been addressed. Importantly, oxidative changes have been reported to be involved in Mn-induced toxicity. As a consequence, antioxidants are expected to offer protection in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to this metal. So, in this study we evaluated the hypothesis that the aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus), and its alkaloids boldine, could prevent/ameliorate behavioral and oxidative alterations induced by Mn in a D. melanogaster intoxication model. Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to Mn (3 mM) and boldo aqueous extract (5 mg/mL) or boldine (327.37 µg/mL) in the food during 9 days. Mn-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay and in the open-field test, as well as a higher incidence of mortality and TBARS levels in head and body, when compared to control group. Boldo aqueous extract was found to reduce the mortality rate of the flies exposed to Mn. In turn, boldine was ineffective against Mn-induced mortality and significantly increases mortality per se. Additionally, Mn-induced locomotors dysfunction were fully ameliorated by boldo crude extract and only partially ameliorated by boldine. Likewise, boldo completely normalize head and body TBARS levels, whereas boldine only partially normalize in body. Finally, we found that flies treated with Mn presented significantly decrease in dopamine levels. Our results suggest that boldo crude extract can exert protective effect against Mn-induced toxicity in D. melanogaster, whereas boldine do not. Moreover, our data confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, such as that caused by Mn.

  8. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

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    M.C.S. Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establish their quality control patterns. The results showed that all samples are authentic but the data obtained for the physico-chemical parameters differ from those related at the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed.

  9. Effect of dried extract of boldo (Peumus Boldus Mol. on growth and oxidative tissue status of broiler chickens

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    MA Fellenberg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of antioxidants to broiler diets has been shown to enhance their antioxidant status. Since boldo (Peumus boldus Mol. leaves contain highly antioxidant molecules, a dried extract of boldo (DEB was added to broiler diets to improve "in vivo" antioxidant tissue status and to favor animal growth. A DEB standardized for antioxidant content was prepared and added to poultry diets at three different levels (low-DELB, medium-DEMB, and high-DEHB for a period of 6 weeks. A single negative control (no added antioxidant and one positive control (supplementation with 200 mg/kg vitamin E were used. Plasma antioxidant capacity (PAC, thiol content (GHS, and basal and induced lipoperoxidation of liver, leg and breast tissues were determined in birds at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age. PAC increased with chicken age until week 6, but was unaffected by DEB addition at any level. However, DEB increased hepatic GSH content. No data indicated that DEB improved the resistance against induced lipoperoxidation in the assayed tissues. DEB contains compounds exhibiting high antioxidant activity "in vivo", as evidenced by the increase in liver thiol content. Regarding broiler performance, no differences in poultry body weight and feed consumption were detected during the assay.

  10. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) e camomila (Matricaria recutita L.) comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

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    F.P. SOARES; N.M. FREIRE; SOUZA, T. R. de

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus) e camomila (Matricaria recutita) são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE), além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de ca...

  11. Direct identification of phenolic constituents in Boldo Folium (Peumus boldus Mol.) infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirgiotis, M J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    2010-01-22

    A very simple and direct method was developed for the qualitative analysis of polyphenols in boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., Monimiaceae) leaves infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)). The phenolic constituents identified in infusions of the crude drug Boldo Folium were mainly proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides. In the infusions, 41 compounds were detected in male and 43 compounds in female leaf samples, respectively. Nine quercetin glycosides, eight kaempferol derivatives, nine isorhamnetin glycosides, three phenolic acids, one caffeoylquinic acid glycoside and twenty one proanthocyanidins were identified by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS for the first time in the crude drug. Isorhamnetin glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the most abundant flavonol glycoside in the male boldo sample, whereas isorhamnetin di-glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the main phenolic compound in female boldo leaves infusion. The results suggest that the medicinal properties reported for this popular infusion should be attributed not only to the presence of catechin and boldine but also to several phenolic compounds with known antioxidant activity. The HPLC fingerprint obtained can be useful in the authentication of the crude drug Boldo Folium as well as for qualitative analysis and differentiation of plant populations in the tree distribution range.

  12. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

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    Mazutti,M.; A J Mossi; CANSIAN,R.L.; M. L. Corazza; Dariva,C.; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  13. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.)

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Wajsman; Farid Chemat; Sandrine Périno-Issartier; Loïc Petigny

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids suc...

  14. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil

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    Liliana O Rocha; Maria Magali S. R. Soares; Cristiana Leslie Corrêa

    2004-01-01

    A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usa...

  15. Studies of Genetic Variation of Essential Oil and Alkaloid Content in Boldo (Peumus boldus).

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    Vogel, H; Razmilic, I; Muñoz, M; Doll, U; Martin, J S

    1999-02-01

    Boldo is a tree or shrub with medicinal properties native to Chile. The leaves contain alkaloids and essential oils. Variation of total alkaloid concentration, of the alkaloid boldine, and essential oil components were studied in different populations from northern, central, and southern parts of its geographic range and in their progenies (half-sib families). Total alkaloid concentration showed genetic variation between progenies of the central population but not between populations. Boldine content found in concentrations of 0.007 to 0.009% did not differ significantly between populations. Principal components of the essential oil were determined genetically, with highest values for ascaridole in the population of the north and for P-cymene in the south. Between half-sib families genetic variation was found in the central and northern populations for these components. The high heritability coefficients found indicate considerable potential for successful selection of individuals for these characters.

  16. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.

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    Joël Wajsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min, higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  17. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.).

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    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-03-12

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  18. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina e camomila (Matricaria recutita L. comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

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    F.P. SOARES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus e camomila (Matricaria recutita são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE, além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, de lojas de produtos naturais e de bancas de raizeiros, foram analisadas quanto à autenticidade, à pureza e às informações contidas na rotulagem desses produtos conforme legislação vigente. Na verificação de impurezas, 35,7% das amostras de boldo e 57,7% das amostras de camomila excederam o teor máximo de matéria estranha; no teor de cinzas totais, 33,3% das amostras de boldo foram reprovadas; rotulagens das amostras de boldo (100% e de camomila (96,6% apresentaram erros ou ausência de informações. Os resultados das análises confirmam, portanto, a necessidade urgente de melhor fiscalização e intervenção na produção e venda dessas e de outras drogas vegetais para adequação às normas vigentes.

  19. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

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    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  20. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. e ginco (Ginkgo biloba L. Control quality evaluation of commercial samples of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.

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    J. G. de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procurou avaliar a qualidade de produtos comercializados à base de boldo, pata-de-vaca e ginco, através dos parâmetros contidos na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica. Foram analisadas oito amostras de boldo, nove de pata-de-vaca e sete de ginco, adquiridas em farmácias na cidade do Recife. A metodologia consistiu em avaliar: os rótulos e bulas dos produtos verificando se estavam de acordo com a RDC n o 17 de 24/02/2000 e a portaria 110/97 da ANVISA; realizar análise sensorial; verificar a autenticidade das amostras e sua pureza. Todas as embalagens de boldo, pata-de-vaca e seis de ginco continham erros ou ausência de informações científicas, além da falta de bula. Na verificação de impurezas, todas as de boldo, cinco de pata-de-vaca, e uma amostra de ginco foram reprovadas. Todos os produtos analisados apresentaram alguma irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessário uma maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial products prepared with boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. by using parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. Eight samples of "boldo", nine of "pata-de-vaca", and seven of ginkgo were analyzed, all bought from pharmacies in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil. The methodology consisted in evaluating the products’ labels and instructions to verify their accordance to RDC n o 17 of 02/24/2000 and ANVISA (National Sanitary Surveillance Agency decree 110/97, undertaking a sensorial analysis, and verifying the authenticity and purity of the samples. All of the packages of "boldo" and "pata-de-vaca" and six of the packages of ginkgo contained mistakes or lacked scientific information; instructions were also missing. After analyzing for impurities, all samples of "boldo", five of "pata-de-vaca", and one of

  1. Pharmacology And Toxicology Of Peumus Boldus And Baccharis Genistelloides [farmacologia E Toxicologia De Peumus Boldus E Baccharis Genistelloides

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    Ruiz A.L.T.G.; Taffarello D.; Souza V.H.S.; De Carvalho J.E.

    2008-01-01

    There are a great number of medicinal plants without any scientific confirmation about their efficacy and safety. This paper is a short review about two medicinal plants, "boldo do chile" (Peumus boldus) and "carqueja" (Baccharis genistelloides). Pharmacological studies have confirmed several popular indications for P. boldus and B. genistelloides, besides have established a relationship between isolated compounds from these extracts and the pharmacological effects observed. On the other hand...

  2. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  3. Low doses of ethanolic extract of Boldo (Peumus boldus) can ameliorate toxicity generated by cisplatin in normal liver cells of mice in vivo and in WRL-68 cells in vitro, but not in cancer cells in vivo or in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesmin Mondal; Kausik Bishayee; Ashis Kumar Panigrahi; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Use of cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug, is restricted because it generates strong hepatotoxicity by accumulating in liver. Therefore its anticancer potential can only be fully exploited if its own toxicity is considerably reduced. Towards this goal, ethanolic extract of the plant, Boldo (Peumus boldus), known for its antihepatotoxic effects, was used simultaneously with cisplatin, to test its ability to reduce cisplatin’s cytotoxicity without affecting its anticancer potential. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Boldo extract (BE) and cisplatin, administered alone and in combination, was determined in three cancer cell lines (A549, HeLa, and HepG2) and in normal liver cells (WRL-68). Drug-DNA interaction, DNA damage, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨ) were also studied. Hepatotoxicity and antioxidant activity levels were determined by alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione assays in mice. The cytotoxicity of related proteins was tested by Western blotting. RESULTS:Co-administration of BE and cisplatin increased viability of normal cells, but had no effect on the viability of cancer cells. Boldo protected liver from damage and normalized different antioxidant enzyme levels in vivo and also reduced ROS and re-polarized MMP in vitro. Bax and cytochrome c translocation was reduced with caspase 3 down-regulation. Further, a drug-DNA interaction study revealed that BE reduced cisplatin’s DNA-binding capacity, resulting in a reduction in DNA damage. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that a low dose of BE could be used beneifcial y in combination with cisplatin to reduce its toxicity without hampering cisplatin’s anticancer effect. These ifndings signify a potential future use of BE in cancer therapy.

  4. Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Peumus boldus e Baccharis genistelloides Pharmacology and toxicology of Peumus boldus and Baccharis genistelloides

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    Ana Lúcia T. G. Ruiz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um grande número de espécies com uso medicinal tradicional ainda continua sem comprovação da eficácia e da segurança de seu uso. Este artigo apresenta uma pequena revisão sobre os trabalhos publicados com boldo (Peumus boldus e carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides. Os estudos farmacológicos realizados com P. boldus e B. genistelloides comprovam várias das atividades atribuídas popularmente a esses chás, além de correlacionarem esses efeitos a compostos puros, isolados a partir desses extratos. Já os estudos toxicológicos sugerem que o chá de boldo deve ser consumido com moderação e cuidado, principalmente no primeiro trimestre da gravidez (indícios de teratogenia e no uso por tempo prolongado (indícios de hepatotoxicidade, enquanto o consumo do chá de carqueja deve ser proibido para gestantes (risco comprovado de aborto e para pacientes que utilizam drogas para tratamento de problemas pressóricos (ação hipotensora. Estes relatos reforçam a necessidade de um maior conhecimento sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas popularmente, não apenas para a confirmação das atividades descritas pelo uso tradicional, mas também para que o uso seguro seja estabelecido.There are a great number of medicinal plants without any scientific confirmation about their efficacy and safety. This paper is a short review about two medicinal plants, "boldo do chile" (Peumus boldus and "carqueja" (Baccharis genistelloides. Pharmacological studies have confirmed several popular indications for P. boldus and B. genistelloides, besides have established a relationship between isolated compounds from these extracts and the pharmacological effects observed. On the other hand, toxicological researches have pointed out that P. boldus tea should not be consumed during a long period (potential hepatotoxicity and by pregnant, especially during the first three months. Moreover, B. genistelloides tea must be prohibited for pregnant because of confirmed abortive

  5. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  6. Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida) una especie silvestre promisoria de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín Acebedo, José; Doll, Ursula

    1998-01-01

    Se organiza y sintetiza la información relacionada con la botánica, ecología y el contenido químico de extraíbles de hojas, corteza y madera de Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida), árbol siempreverde, autóctono, endémico y termófilo de los bosques y matorrales esclerófilos naturales del área mediterránea de Chile. La popularidad y conocimiento de la especie tiene arraigo en la medicina popular empírica, dado el efecto farmacológico atribuible fundamentalmente, al alcaloide boldina, pre...

  7. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins.

  8. Antimutagenic evaluation of traditional medicinal plants from South America Peumus boldus and Cryptocarya alba using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Erico R; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Parodi, Jorge; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio

    2017-03-17

    Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) wing-spot test was employed. This assay detects a wide range of mutational events, including point mutations, deletions, certain types of chromosomal aberrations (nondisjunction), and mitotic recombination. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds were carried out using biochemical and high-performance liquid chromatography methodologies. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of P. boldus and C. alba leaf extracts was also analyzed. P. boldus and C. alba extracts did not induce significant mutagenic effects in the D. melanogaster model. However, simultaneous treatment of extracts concurrently with the mutagen ethyl methane sulphonate showed a decrease of mutant spots in somatic cells of D. melanogaster, indicating desmutagenic effects in this in vivo model. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were detected predominantly in the extracts, and these compounds exerted significant antioxidant capacity. The observed antimutagenic effects may be related to the presence of phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity, such as flavonoids and antohocyanins, in the extracts.

  9. EFECTO PROTECTOR DE PEUMUS BOLDUS EN RATAS CON TOXICIDAD HEPÁTICA INDUCIDA POR PARACETAMOL

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    Christiam Ochoa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comprobar el efecto protector hepático del extracto acuoso de boldo (EAB (Peumus boldus al daño hepático inducido por acetaminofén (paracetamol. Diseño: Analítico, experimental, aleatorizado, completo – experimento verdadero. Realizado en el Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina de UNMSM. Material y método. 30 Ratas Holtzman macho de 250g y dos meses se dividieron en 5 grupos aleatoriamente, grupo blanco, control paracetamol 200mg/kg y 3 experimentales tratados con EAB a 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg y 160 mg/kg respectivamente. Se administró EAB de 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg y 160 mg/kg vía orogástrica. Luego de media hora se administró paracetamol 200mg/kg i.p. a los grupos control y experimentales. Este procedimiento se repitió por 5 días. Se tomó pruebas de transaminasas (TGP basal y final en sangre. Se utilizó la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis para analizar la data y un p<0.05 fue considerado significante. Se estudió la anatomopatología de los hígados y se tomaron muestras de tejido teñidas con HE. Resultados: Existe diferencia significativa en los niveles de transaminasas (TGP entre grupos (p<0.05. El control obtuvo 196.6 U/L +- 38.1 (TGP mientras que los experimentales como máximo 55.6 U/l. Las muestras control evidencian signos de lesión hepática, degeneración grasa, congestión sinusoidal y centrolobulillar, y necrosis celular. Sin embargo los grupos experimentales no presentan signos de lesión celular y hay ausencia de inflamación. Conclusiones: El boldo tiene un efecto protector hepático al daño inducido por paracetamol en ratas Holtzmann.

  10. Efecto Protector de Peumus Boldus en ratas con toxicidad hepática inducida por Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiam Ochoa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comprobar el efecto protector hepático del extracto acuoso de boldo (EAB (Peumus boldus al daño hepático inducido por acetaminofén (paracetamol. Diseño: Analítico, experimental, aleatorizado, completo ¿ experimento verdadero. Realizado en el Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina de UNMSM. Material y método. 30 Ratas Holtzman macho de 250g y dos meses se dividieron en 5 grupos aleatoriamente, grupo blanco, control paracetamol 200mg/kg y 3 experimentales tratados con EAB a 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg y 160 mg/kg respectivamente. Se administró EAB de 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg y 160 mg/kg vía orogástrica. Luego de media hora se administró paracetamol 200mg/kg i.p. a los grupos control y experimentales. Este procedimiento se repitió por 5 días. Se tomó pruebas de transaminasas (TGP basal y final en sangre. Se utilizó la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis para analizar la data y un p<0.05 fue considerado significante. Se estudió la anatomopatología de los hígados y se tomaron muestras de tejido teñidas con HE. Resultados: Existe diferencia significativa en los niveles de transaminasas (TGP entre grupos (p<0.05. El control obtuvo 196.6 U/L +- 38.1 (TGP mientras que los experimentales como máximo 55.6 U/l. Las muestras control evidencian signos de lesión hepática, degeneración grasa, congestión sinusoidal y centrolobulillar, y necrosis celular. Sin embargo los grupos experimentales no presentan signos de lesión celular y hay ausencia de inflamación. Conclusiones: El boldo tiene un efecto protector hepático al daño inducido por paracetamol en ratas Holtzmann.

  11. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais Annual variation of insecticide properties of Peumus boldus on Sitophilus zeamais

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    Felipe Pérez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p. Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos e inmaduros y pérdida de peso y germinación del grano. La mayor mortalidad se obtuvo en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2003, para las tres concentraciones con un 100%, mientras que la menor fue en mayo de 2003, cuando solo la concentración de 2% fue próxima a 100% de mortalidad. La menor emergencia de insectos adultos y pérdida de peso se obtuvieron en los mismos tratamientos. El efecto sobre estados inmaduros fue menor que contra adultos, y la germinación de los granos de maíz fue afectada por los polvos de P. boldus. Las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de hojas de P. boldus no son estables durante el año, Mayo es el mes con la menor eficacia insecticida, y la germinación de las semillas se ve afectada por el polvo.The objective of this work was to determine the annual variation of Peumus boldus Molina insecticidal properties for the control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, under laboratory conditions. The powder of P. boldus leaves was evaluated, during 12 months, in 0.5, 1, and 2% (w/w concentrations. Thirty-six treatments, with three replications, were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design, with a factorial arrangement. Evaluations were made for adult and immature insect percentage mortality and emergence, grain weight loss and seed germination. The greatest mortality was obtained in August and September 2003, in the three concentrations with 100%, and the lowest mortality was registered in May 2003

  12. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, F.; Silva, G.; De Tapia, M; Hepp, R

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p). Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insecto...

  13. Fungistatic Activity Of Essential Oils Extracted from Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde and Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Chilean Monimiaceae Actividad Fungistática de Extractos de Aceites Asenciales de Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde y Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Monimiaceae chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalis Bittner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Components of essential oils from the Chilean Monimiaceae, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, and laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. were determined using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GCMS and fungistatic activity of the essential oils was tested against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz G. Winter, and Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. The essential oils of the Monimiaceae species shared some common components; all three had the 3-carene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene terpenes. L. philippiana and L. sempervirens also had safrole.The main components were ascaridol in P. boldus oil, 3-carene in L. philippiana, and safrole in L. sempervirens. The essential oil from L. sempervirens showed the highest fungistatic activity with significant differences in dose as well as exposure. P. violaceum was the most sensitive strain and P. irregulare the most resistant of all the essential oils (P. boldus extract affected growth by only 19%. Therefore, essential oils from these three plants could be used to control the fungal strains studied.Se determinaron los compuestos de aceites esenciales de Monimiaceae chilenas, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, y laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. a través de cromatografía de gas con espectrometría de masas (CG-EM y se midió la actividad fungistática de los aceites sobre los hongos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz Winter y Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. Los aceites esenciales de las especies de Monimiaceae tienen algunos compuestos en común; en las especies estudiadas se encontró que todos tenían los terpenos 3-careno, α-felandreno, y α-pineno. L. philippiana y L. sempervirens además tienen safrol. En cambio

  14. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  15. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wancke Reiniger, Ingrid; Fonseca de Oliveira, Joelma; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with {sup 99m}Tc was studied. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  16. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, M C; Joyeux, M; Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Sayag, M; Mortier, F; Younos, C; Pelt, J M

    1991-04-01

    Dried hydro-alcoholic extract of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) has been evaluated for hepatoprotective, choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or to invalidate traditional therapeutic indications. This extract exerted a significant hepatoprotection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes (in vitro technique) by reducing the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic leakage of LDH; this in vitro efficacy was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (in vivo technique), the plant extract reducing the enzymatic leakage of ALAT. Boldine, the main alkaloid of P. boldus appears to be implicated in this hepatoprotective activity. Choleretic effects, often mentioned in traditional indications, have not been confirmed in rats. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats). Boldine does not appear to be involved in such properties.

  17. Herbicidal Activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii Essential Oils from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    María Amparo Blázquez; David García-Rellán; Herminio Boira; Sandra Gandolfo; Eduardo Pérez; Mercedes Verdeguer

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively) were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51), p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52) and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99) as the main compounds in P. boldus and ¿-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41), followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34) and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06) in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Ama...

  18. Actividad insecticida del polvo de Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae) contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro, Diana; Gonzalo SILVA; Tapia,Maritza; J. Concepción RODRÍGUEZ; Angélica URBINA; Angel LAGUNES; Candelario SANTILLÁN-ORTEGA; Agustín ROBLES-BERMÚDEZ; Sotero AGUILAR-MEDEL

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de follaje de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos y estados inmaduros de S. zeamais. La mayor toxicidad por contacto y fumigación se obtuvo con las concentraciones iguales o mayores a 1,25% registrando una mortalidad superior a 90%. Los tratamientos con mayor mortalidad mostraron también una baja emergencia de insectos adultos (F 1) y menor pérdida de peso del grano. En el control de estados inmaduros la menor F1 se observó en la...

  19. Herbicidal activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii essential oils from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeguer, Mercedes; García-Rellán, David; Boira, Herminio; Pérez, Eduardo; Gandolfo, Sandra; Blázquez, María Amparo

    2011-01-10

    The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively) were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51), p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52) and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99) as the main compounds in P. boldus and g-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41), followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34) and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06) in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea. P. boldus essential oil was the most phytotoxic against both weeds, inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth at all concentrations assayed (0.125-1 µL/mL). D. winterii essential oil did not show any effect on A. hybridus germination and only affected P. oleracea germination at the highest concentration. The results suggest the possible use of the essential oil from P. boldus as a natural herbicide.

  20. Herbicidal Activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii Essential Oils from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Blázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51, p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52 and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99 as the main compounds in P. boldus and g-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41, followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34 and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06 in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea. P. boldus essential oil was the most phytotoxic against both weeds, inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth at all concentrations assayed (0.125–1 µL/mL. D. winterii essential oil did not show any effect on A. hybridus germination and only affected P. oleracea germination at the highest concentration. The results suggest the possible use of the essential oil from P. boldus as a natural herbicide.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days.

  2. Larvicidal activity of essential oil of Peumus boldus Molina and its ascaridole-enriched fraction against Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    de Castro, Débora Silva Borges; da Silva, Denise Brentan; Tibúrcio, Jacqueline Domingues; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Ferraz, Vany; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Serrão, José Eduardo; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Alves, Stênio Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment. The present work evaluated the larvicidal potential of the essential oil (EO) and ascaridole-enriched fraction (EF4-5) obtained from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina (boldo). The EO, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC/MS and fractionated on silica gel. EO and EF4-5, containing 31.4% and 89.5% ascaridole, respectively, were evaluated against C. quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml on the third and fourth instars. They showed lethal concentrations (LC50) of 82.14 and 41.85 μg/ml, respectively. Larvae treated with the EF4-5 showed morphological changes in the midgut, with cells possessing a cytoplasm that contained small vacuole-like structures, as well as a nucleus with decondensed chromatin and a cell apex with a short brush border. The cells of the fat body showed larger protein granules, which were acidophilic relative to the larvae of the control group. Moreover, the enriched fraction at a dose of 50 μg/ml showed a residual larvicidal effect according to exposure time on C. quinquefasciatus. This residual effect deserves consideration, since a long-term larvicidal product may be a useful tool for vector control.

  3. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  4. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Peumus boldus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, R; Valenzuela, L; Bello, H; Cañigueral, S; Montes, M; Adzet, T

    1999-03-01

    The composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Peumus boldus is investigated. Analyses of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation were carried out by GC and GC-MS using columns of two different stationary phases. Fractionation of the essential oil by column chromatography on silica gel was performed to improve identification of some constituents. More than 90% of the total oil (46 components) was identified, major constituents being monoterpenes (90.5%), among which limonene (17.0%), p-cymene (13.6%), 1.8-cineole (11.8%), and beta-phellandrene (8.4%) reached the highest percentages. Determination of the minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentration against several microorganisms showed interesting activities towards Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus sp., and Candida sp.

  5. Design of Peumus boldus tablets by direct compression using a novel dry plant extract.

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    Palma, Santiago; Luján, Claudia; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Barboza, Gloria; Manzo, Ruben Hilario; Allemandi, Daniel Alberto

    2002-02-21

    A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract of Peumus boldus MOL. (Monimiaceae) (Pb) is proposed. The botanical evaluation of plant material, through morphological and anatomical diagnosis, is presented. This evaluation permits to identify the herb to be used correctly. The analysis of the most extractive solvent mixture and the attainment of plant extract (fluid and dry) are reported. Several formulations (tablets) containing a novel dry plant extract of Pb and common excipients for direct compression are evaluated. The following formulation: dry plant extract of Pb (170 mg), Avicel PH101 (112 mg), Lactose CD (112) and magnesium stearate (6 mg), compressed at 1000 mPa, showed the best pharmaceutical performance.

  6. Alkaloids from Peumus boldus and their acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activity.

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    Hošt'álková, Anna; Opletal, Lubomír; Kuneš, Jiří; Novák, Zdeněk; Hrabinová, Martina; Chlebek, Jakub; Čegan, Lukáš; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Eleven isoquinoline alkaloids (1-11) were isolated from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. by standard chromatographic methods. The chemical structures were elucidated by MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with literature data. Compounds isolated in sufficient amount were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity using Ellman's method. In the prolyl oligopeptidase assay, Z-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide was used as substrate. Promising butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activities were demonstrated by two benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, reticuline (8) and N-methylcoclaurine (9), with IC50 values of 33.6 ± 3.0 µM and 15.0 ± 1.4 µM, respectively. Important prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activities were shown by N-methyllaurotetanine (6) and sinoacutine (4) with IC50 values of 135.4 ± 23.2 µM and 143.1 ± 25.4 µM, respectively. Other tested compounds were considered inactive.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines.

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    Falé, P L; Amaral, F; Amorim Madeira, P J; Sousa Silva, M; Florêncio, M H; Frazão, F N; Serralheiro, M L M

    2012-08-01

    This work aimed to study the inhibition on acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), the antioxidant activity and the toxicity towards Caco-2 and HeLa cells of aqueous extracts of Peumus Boldus. An IC(50) value of 0.93 mg/mL, for AChE inhibition, and EC(50) of 18.7 μg/mL, for the antioxidant activity, was determined. This activity can be attributed to glycosylated flavonoid derivatives detected, which were the main compounds, although boldine and other aporphine derivatives were also present. No changes in the chemical composition or the biochemical activities were found after gastrointestinal digestion. Toxicity of P. boldus decoction gave an IC(50) value 0.66 mg/mL for HeLa cells, which caused significant changes in the cell proteome profile.

  8. Bioactivity of a water extract of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Gonzalo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of water-extract of Peumus boldus Molina and its effect on the development cycle and feeding habits of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie were evaluated under laboratory conditions in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% (w/w. Spodoptera frugiperda was the most susceptible with 75% mortality at 7 d at 8% P. boldus concentration, while H. zea had only 30% mortality. LC50 was 2.31 mL kg-1 for S. frugiperda and 16.05 mL kg¹ for H. zea. When the extract concentration increased in the diet, larval size and weight, percentage of pupation and number of adults decreased, and the time required to reach those states was greater. Neonate larvae fed primarily on the diet with the lower extract concentration and the control was preferred by more than 50% of larvae. Inhibition of feeding, growth, weight gain of 3rd instar larvae as well as new biomass production decreased with concentration of the extract.

  9. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  10. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

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    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  11. Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development.

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    Speisky, H; Cassels, B K

    1994-01-01

    Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a Chilean tree traditionally employed in folk medicine and recognized as a herbal remedy in a number of pharmacopoeias, mainly for the treatment of liver ailments, has recently been the subject of increasing attention. Boldine, in particular, the major and most characteristic alkaloidal constituent of this plant species, now emerges as its most interesting active principle from the pharmacological viewpoint. The recent demonstration that boldine is an effective antioxidant in both biological and non-biological systems has opened up the perspective of a broad range of uses in medicine and industry. Given the toxicological data on this alkaloid, its antioxidative properties situate it as a potentially useful substance in many disease states featuring free-radical related oxidative injury. This review attempts to cover and discuss the studies conducted over the last four decades on the chemical and pharmacological properties of boldo and its main constituent.

  12. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  13. COMPARAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA ENTRE AMOSTRAS DE Peumus boldus Molina INDUSTRIALIZADAS E ARTESANAIS DO MUNICÍPIO DE CURRAIS NOVOS, RN.

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    Fabio Gonçalves Macêdo de Medeiros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais, embora constituam válida vertente da Medicina Tradicional, quando mal utilizadas representam risco potencial a saúde humana. O consumo de produtos contaminados pode gerar intoxicações diversas por subprodutos advindos de microrganismos patogênicos. O presente trabalho objetivou a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de amostras de Peumus boldus Molina artesanais, comercializadas na feira popular, e compará-la com a qualidade microbiológica de amostras da mesma espécie industrializadas, comercializadas no comércio varejista local. Foram quantificados: aeróbios mesófilos (ágar Padrão de Contagem, 35±1°C/24h, coliformes totais/Escherichia coli (teste presuntivo: caldo LST, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; CT: caldo VB, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; E. coli: caldo EC, 44,5±0,2°C/24±2h; ágar L-EMB, 35±0,5°C/24±2h, bolores e leveduras (ágar Batata Dextrosado Acidificado, 25±1°C/5 dias e Staphylococcus aureus (ágar Baird-Parker, 35-37°C/24±2h. Para a confirmação de E. coli, colônias foram submetidas às provas bioquímicas da série IMViC. A E. coli estava presente em 10% das amostras, o S. aureus em 50%, bolores e leveduras em 80% e aeróbios mesófilos em 100% das amostras analisadas. O estudo revelou que a tanto amostras industrializadas quanto artesanais não estavam de acordo com as recomendações de padrões sanitários e microbiológicos adequados para o comércio, caracterizando-se como riscos potenciais à Saúde Pública.

  14. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-03

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 μL/g of boldo and 3 and 5 μL/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, α-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and β-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days.

  15. Genotoxicity of the boldine aporphine alkaloid in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, P R; Vargas, V M; Andrade, H H; Henriques, A T; Henriques, J A

    1991-06-01

    The aporphine alkaloid boldine, present in Peumus boldus (boldo-do-Chile) widely used all over the world, was tested for the presence of genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic activities in microorganisms. This alkaloid did not show genotoxic activity with or without metabolic activation in the SOS chromotest and Ames tester strains TA100, TA98 and TA102. It was not able to induce point and frameshift mutations in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. However, mitotic recombinational events such as crossing-over and gene conversion were weakly induced in diploid yeast cells by this alkaloid. Also, boldine was able to induce weakly cytoplasmic 'petite' mutation in haploid yeast cells.

  16. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens.

  17. Especialización en el uso de hospederos de Dictyneis asperatus (Blanchard 1851 en un fragmento de vegetación esclerófila-higrófila en la Península de Hualpén, Chile Specialization on the host use of Dictyneis asperatus (Blanchard 1851 in a fragment of sclerophyllous-higrophyllous shrublands in Península of Hualpén, Chile

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    CRISTIAN CENTELLA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available En un fragmento de vegetación esclerófila-higrófila de la Península de Hualpén (36 S se evaluó si existen asociaciones de tipo trófica entre D. asperatus y cinco potenciales plantas hospederas: Peumus boldus, Lithrea caustica, Cryptocarya alba, Aextoxicon punctatum y Luma apiculata. Se determinó si existe preferencia de hospedero y si esta está relacionada con la forma cóncava de las hojas, carácter esclerófilo de ellas y con la mayor sobrevivencia de los insectos. Los insectos son significativamente más abundantes en boldo, pero no existen diferencias en el consumo foliar entre boldo, litre y arrayán. Boldo y litre tienen hojas más duras respecto de olivillo y arrayán. Los insectos adultos tienden a permanecer bajo hojas cóncavas de P. boldus. La mayor y menor sobrevivencia se registró en individuos alimentados con P. boldus (72% y A. punctatum (26%, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de refugio que pueden representar las hojas cóncavas de P. boldus, la mayor sobrevivencia y abundancia de los insectos que las consumen, a pesar de su alto nivel de esclerofilia, permitirían considerar a D. asperatus como un insecto especialista ecológico de P. boldus. El registro de D. asperatus sobre otras especies vegetales en otras áreas geográficas, permitirían considerar a esta especie como un especialista local de Hualpén.We evaluated trophic relationships between the coleopteran D. asperatus and five potencial hosts plants (Peumus boldus, Lithrea caustica, Cryptocarya alba, Aextoxicon punctatum and Luma apiculata in a coastal forest of the Hualpén peninsula (36 S. Leaf shape and degree of sclerophylly were examined as possible determinants of host preferences and insect survival. Although D. asperatus was significantly more abundant on P. boldus, there were no significant differences in consumption of leaves of P. boldus, L. caustica and L. apiculata. Adults insects tended to stay under the concave leafs of boldo. Highest and

  18. Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil

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    Alexandre Soares Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum, Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis, Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis, Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia, Guaraná (Paullinia cupana, Maracujá (Passiflora sp., Mulungu (Erythrina velutina, Sene (Cassia angustifolia and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0 in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

  19. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the alkaloid boldine in mammalian cell systems in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, D C; Takahashi, C S

    1994-05-01

    Boldine is an alkaloid present in Peumus boldus (popularly called "boldo-do-chile" in Brazil) which has healing properties and is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The possible clastogenic effect of the drug was tested in vitro on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by evaluating the induction of chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs). Cultures from different individuals were treated with boldine at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 micrograms/ml of culture medium. The effect of the alkaloid was also tested in an in vivo assay using BALB/c mouse bone marrow cells. Boldine was administered to the animals by gavage at the concentrations of 225, 450 and 900 mg/kg body weight. Under the conditions used, boldine did not induce a statistically significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations or SCEs in either test system.

  20. Comparación del contenido fenólico, capacidad antioxidante y actividad antiinflamatoria de infusiones herbales comerciales Comparison of phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflamatory activity of commercial herbal infusions

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    Erika Elizabeth Muñoz-Velázquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, hay un incremento en el consumo de infusiones debido a sus propiedades benéficas, las cuales se atribuyen a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido fenólico, la capacidad antioxidante y la actividad antiinflamatoria de infusiones comerciales de hierbabuena (Mentha piperita L., limón (Cymbopogon citratos, manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla L., árnica (Heterotheca inuloides y boldo (Peumus boldus Molina obtenidas en un supermercado en 2009. El contenido de fenoles y la capacidad antioxidante se determinaron por técnicas espectrofotométricas. Adicionalmente, la identificación y cuantificación de compuestos fenólicos también se llevó a cabo por HPLC. La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó mediante la inhibición de la enzima ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2. La infusión de boldo presentó el mayor contenido de compuestos fenólicos y la mayor capacidad antioxidante medida por la técnicas ABT, seguida de las infusiones de hierbabuena por el m��todo de FRAP. En las infusiones evaluadas se identificaron diez diferentes compuestos, encontrándose en mayor concentración los compuestos catequina, epigalocatequina galato, ácido rosmarínico y eriocitrina. En cuanto a la capacidad inhibitoria sobre COX-2, las muestras de manzanilla y limón presentaron los mayores porcentajes de inhibición, seguida de la infusión de boldo. En general, los resultados sugieren que las infusiones comerciales de boldo y hierbabuena muestran propiedades biológicas con beneficios potenciales a la salud.Actually there is an increase on infusion consumption due their beneficial properties, which are attributable to the presence of phenolic compounds. By this reason, the aim of this study was to assess phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory capacity of commercial infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L., lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratos, chamomile (Matricaria

  1. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

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    Loïc Petigny

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant.

  2. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

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    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  3. Estudo anatômico comparado de órgãos vegetativos de boldo miúdo, Plectranthus ornatus Codd. e malvariço, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. - Lamiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Mauro; Celi de Paula Silva; Juliana Missima; Thiana Ohnuki; Renata B. Rinaldi; Melissa Frota

    2008-01-01

    Foi feita uma investigação anatômica dos órgãos vegetativos de Plectranthus ornatus, "boldo miúdo" e Plectranthus amboinicus, "malvariço", da família Lamiaceae. Foram estudados o limbo foliar, pecíolo e caule destas duas espécies. Ambas apresentam limbo foliar com tricomas tectores, com tricomas glandulares pedicelados em P. amboinicus e pedicelados e sésseis em P. ornatus. Justifica-se esta investigação, pelo fato de se tratar de espécies utilizadas, popularmente, como fitoterápico....

  4. Protective effects of boldine against free radical-induced erythrocyte lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, I; Garrido, A; Bannach, R; Gotteland, M; Speisky, H

    2000-08-01

    Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid extracted from the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), has been shown to exhibit strong free-radical scavenger and antioxidant properties. Here, we report the in vitro ability of boldine to protect intact red cells against the haemolytic damage induced by the free radical initiator 2, 2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH). Boldine concentration-dependently prevented the AAPH-induced leakage of haemoglobin into the extracellular medium. Substantial and similar cyto-protective effects of boldine were observed whether the antioxidant was added 1 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the azo-compound. The delayed addition of boldine, by 1 h relative to AAPH, diminished but did not abolish its cytoprotective effect. However, negligible effects of boldine were observed after its addition to erythrocytes previously incubated with AAPH for 2 h. The data presented demonstrate that, in addition to its well-established antioxidant effects, boldine also displays time-dependently strong cytoprotective properties against chemically induced haemolytic damage.

  5. Studies on neuromuscular blockade by boldine in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J J; Cheng, Y W; Fu, W M

    1998-02-01

    The effects of boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxyl-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine], a major alkaloid in the leaves and bark of Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), on neuromuscular transmission were studied using a muscle phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation. Boldine at concentrations lower than 200 microM preferentially inhibited, after an initial period of twitch augmentation, the nerve-evoked twitches of the mouse diaphragm and left the muscle-evoked twitches unaffected. The twitch inhibition could be restored by neostigmine or washout with Krebs solution. The twitches evoked indirectly and directly were both augmented initially, suggesting that the twitch augmentation induced by boldine was myogenic. Boldine inhibited the acetylcholine-induced contraction of denervated diaphragm dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 13.5 microM. At 50 microM, boldine specifically inhibited the amplitude of the miniature end plate potential. In addition, boldine was similar to d-tubocurarine in its action to reverse the neuromuscular blocking action of alpha-bungarotoxin. These results showed that the neuromuscular blockade by boldine on isolated mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm might be due to its direct interaction with the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

  6. Effects of boldine on mouse diaphragm and sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J J; Cheng, Y W

    1998-02-01

    The effects of boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxyaporphine], a major alkaloid in the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), on skeletal muscle were studied using mouse diaphragm and isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles. Boldine, at 10-200 microM, has little effect on the muscle-evoked twitches; however, the ryanodine-induced contracture was potentiated dose-dependently. At higher concentrations of 300 microM, boldine by itself induced muscle contracture of two phases, which were caused by the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and induction of Ca2+ release from the internal Ca2+ storage site, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, respectively. When tested with isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles, boldine dose-dependently induced Ca2+ release from actively loaded sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle of rabbit or rat which was inhibited by ruthenium red, suggesting that the release was through the Ca2+ release channel, also known as the ryanodine receptor. Boldine also dose-dependently increased apparent [3H]-ryanodine binding with the EC50 value of 50 microM. In conclusion, we have shown that boldine could sensitize the ryanodine receptor and induce Ca2+ release from the internal Ca2+ storage site of skeletal muscle.

  7. Perfil e prevalência de uso de plantas medicinais em uma unidade básica de saúde da família em Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruan Ferreira de Araújo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Através desta pesquisa, objetivamos avaliar aspectos relacionados ao uso de plantas medicinais por usuários da Unidade Básica de Saúde da Família (UBSF, Malvinas V, em Campina Grande, PB. Para desenvolver essa avaliação, foram aplicados questionários semiestruturados com 420 usuários da referida unidade. Os resultados revelaram que 79% dos entrevistados faziam uso de plantas medicinais, sendo a mais prevalente o boldo (Peumus boldus, com uma porcentagem de 21,02%. A grande maioria dos entrevistados (97% não recebeu qualquer orientação sobre fitoterapia de profissionais da UBSF, sendo que 84% mencionaram que o conhecimento sobre a utilização de plantas medicinais foi adquirido com parentes. Mais da metade (51% dos entrevistados pensam que as plantas medicinais não causam dano à saúde, tanto que, 43% das pessoas reconheceram a automedicação com plantas medicinais. Esses dados nos permitem concluir que o consumo e a automedicação com plantas medicinais é uma realidade social também em Campina Grande e, que, os profissionais de saúde da rede pública precisam rever sua atuação enquanto responsáveis pela promoção de uma fitoterapia racional, conforme previsto pelo Programa Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos.

  8. Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán

    2006-01-05

    The increasing recognition of the participation of free radical-mediated oxidative events in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular, tumoural, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, has given rise to the search for new antioxidant molecules. An important source of such molecules has been plants for which there is an ethno-cultural base for health promotion. An important example of this is boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a chilean tree whose leaves have been traditionally employed in folk medicine and is now widely recognized as a herbal remedy by a number of pharmacopoeias. Boldo leaves are rich in several aporphine-like alkaloids, of which boldine is the most abundant one. Research conducted during the early 1990s led to the discovery that boldine is one of the most potent natural antioxidants. Prompted by the latter, a large and increasing number of studies emerged, which have focused on characterizing some of the pharmacological properties that may arise from the free radical-scavenging properties of boldine. The present review attempts to exhaustively cover and discuss such studies, placing particular attention on research conducted during the last decade. Mechanistic aspects and structure-activity data are discussed. The review encompasses pharmacological actions, which arise from its antioxidant properties (e.g., cyto-protective, anti-tumour promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic actions), as well as those that do not seem to be associated with such activity (e.g., vasorelaxing, anti-trypanocidal, immuno- and neuro-modulator, cholagogic and/or choleretic actions). Based on the pharmacological and toxicological data now available, further research needs and recommendations are suggested to define the actual potential of boldine for its use in humans.

  9. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Croteau, R

    1984-11-15

    Ascaridole, an asymmetric monoterpene endoperoxide with anthelmintic properties, occurs as a major constituent (60-80%) in the volatile oil of American wormseed fruit (Chenopodium ambrosioides: Chenopodiaceae), and as a lesser component in the leaf pocket oil of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus: Monimiaceae). Determination of optical activity and chromatographic resolution of naturally occurring ascaridole, and several synthetic derivatives, showed that both wormseed and boldo produce ascaridole in racemic form. The biosynthesis of ascaridole from the conjugated, symmetrical diene alpha-terpinene (a major component of the oil from wormseed) was shown to be catalyzed by a soluble iodide peroxidase isolated from homogenates of C. ambrosioides fruit and leaves. The enzymatic synthesis of ascaridole was confirmed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the product, which was also shown to be racemic. Optimal enzymatic activity occurred at pH 4.0 in the presence of 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM NaI. Soluble enzyme extracts were fractionated by gel filtration on both Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-100, and were shown to consist of a high-molecular-weight peroxidase component (Mr greater than 1,000,000, 30% of total activity) and two other peroxidase species having apparent molecular weights of 62,000 and 45,000 (major component). Peroxidase activity was susceptible to proteolytic destruction only after periodate treatment, suggesting an association of the enzyme(s) with polysaccharide material. Ascaridole biosynthesis from alpha-terpinene was inhibited by cyanide, catalase, and reducing agents, but not by compounds that trap superoxide or quench singlet oxygen. A peroxide transfer reaction initiated by peroxidase-generated I+ is proposed for the conversion of alpha-terpinene to ascaridole.

  10. Atividade antiviral de extratos de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente frente aos herpesvírus suíno e bovino Antiviral activity of commercially available medicinal plants on suid and bovine herpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Kaziyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a atividade antiviral in vitro de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente sobre herpesvírus suíno (SuHV-1 e bovino (BoHV-1. As espécies adquiridas foram Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun e Solidago microglossa. A citotoxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada na linhagem celular MDBK pelas alterações morfológicas das células e obtenção da concentração máxima não citotóxica (CMNC de cada planta. A atividade antiviral foi realizada com os extratos em suas respectivas CMNC e avaliada com base na redução do título viral e expressos em porcentagem de inibição. Os extratos aquosos de Peumus boldus e Solanum paniculatum apresentaram atividade antiviral sobre o SuHV-1 com 98% de inibição viral enquanto o de Peumus boldus inibiu apenas o BoHV-1 em 99%.This paper aims to find commercially available medicinal plants showing antiviral activity in vitro on suid and bovine herpesviruses. The following species were tested: Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun and Solidago microglossa. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by morphological changes in cells determining the maximum not cytotoxic concentration (MNCC. The antiviral activity was evaluated by viral title reduction. The extracts from Peumus boldus and Solanum paniculatum showed antiviral activity against SuHV-1 with 98% of inhibition. The extract of Peumus boldus also showed activity against BoHV-1 with 99% of inhibition.

  11. Contaminação fúngica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em chás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravely Lucena Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica quanto à presença de fungos filamentosos em ervas do tipo Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo, Pimpinella anisum L. (erva-doce e Matricaria chamomilla L. (Camomila comercializadas na cidade de Campina Grande (Paraíba. Nove amostras de cada planta foram analisadas, totalizando 27 amostras, obtidas aleatoriamente nas feiras livres e barracas informais da cidade. Cada 10 g de amostra foram suspensas em 90 mL de solução salina 0,89% estéril, obtendo-se o concentrado, a partir do qual foram realizadas diluições sucessivas. A seguir, uma alíquota de 0,1mL de cada diluição foi semeada em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose, as quais foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente por cinco a dez dias. Após este período foram contadas as colônias fúngicas presentes e realizados seus respectivos microcultivos para identificação através de microscópio óptico. Foram encontrados fungos toxigênicos como Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. e Fusarium sp., estando o primeiro presente em todas as amostras avaliadas. Também foram identificados os fungos Exophiala sp. e Fonsecaea sp., que possuem importância clínica, podendo causar micose. A forma como estas plantas são armazenadas para comercialização e a falta de fiscalização torna questionável a qualidade das plantas comercializadas para obtenção de chás, o que pode comprometer a saúde do consumidor ao utilizar esses produtos na forma de Chá.

  12. Boldine protects endothelial function in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through an antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yeh Siang; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu; Murugan, Dharmani; Achike, Francis I; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2013-02-01

    Increased oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes. Antioxidants are therapeutically beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid present in the leaves and bark of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus Molina), with known an antioxidant activity. This study examined the protective effects of boldine against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) and its mechanisms of vasoprotection related to diabetic endothelial dysfunction. In RAEC exposed to high glucose (30 mM) for 48 h, pre-treatment with boldine reduced the elevated ROS and nitrotyrosine formation, and preserved nitric oxide (NO) production. Pre-incubation with β-NAPDH reduced the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation; this attenuation was reversed by boldine. Compared with control, endothelium-dependent relaxation in the aortas of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats was significantly improved by both acute (1 μM, 30 min) and chronic (20mg/kg/daily, i.p., 7 days) treatment with boldine. Intracellular superoxide and peroxynitrite formation measured by DHE fluorescence or chemiluminescence assay were higher in sections of aortic rings from diabetic rats compared with control. Chronic boldine treatment normalized ROS over-production in the diabetic group and this correlated with reduction of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits, NOX2 and p47(phox). The present study shows that boldine reversed the increased ROS formation in high glucose-treated endothelial cells and restored endothelial function in STZ-induced diabetes by inhibiting oxidative stress and thus increasing NO bioavailability.

  13. Plantas medicinais abortivas utilizadas por mulheres de UBS: etnofarmacologia e análises cromatográficas por CCD e CLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.V. Souza Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas medicinais refere-se a uma prática milenar, seja na medicina alternativa para cura de diversas doenças, ou como método abortivo. No entanto, a população em geral desconhece os grandes riscos que a cometem. Neste sentido este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o índice de consumo de plantas medicinais por mulheres de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS, na tentativa de identificar quais as espécies mais frequentemente ingeridas inclusive em período gestacional. Através de um questionário de caráter explorativo com 48 mulheres observou-se que a maioria das entrevistadas tinha filhos e as plantas medicinais mais citadas foram "boldo" (Peumus boldus, "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera e "sene" (Cassia angustifolia, as quais eram empregadas principalmente em dores estomacais ou como digestivos (53%, para resfriados (23%, cólicas menstruais (4% ou para menstruar (2%. Outra parte do trabalho constituiu a análise visual e química de espécies de plantas medicinais citadas pelo público feminino entrevistado, bem como, outras utilizadas popularmente com propriedades abortivas. Análises visuais comparativas de amostras de plantas medicinais de quatro estabelecimentos comerciais diferentes denominadas Grupo A-C, mostraram a ausência de controle de qualidade com relação às especificações nas embalagens, e separação do material vegetal a ser consumido. Através de análises dos perfis químicos destas amostras por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE indicaram que aquelas pertencentes ao Grupo C diferiram significativamente em relação àquelas de mesma identificação, exceto no que se refere ao boldo do Chile, cujas amostras apresentaram-se bastante similares com relação à constituição química.

  14. Survey of insect fauna from plants medicinal, aromatic and seasoning and disinfestation by the process of radiation; Levantamento da entomofauna de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares e desinfestacao pelo processo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fabricio Caldeira

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to survey the insect fauna associated with medicinal plants, aromatic dehydrated and seasoning trade in Sao Paulo city, using different doses of gamma radiation with the aim of disinfestation of the material and determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on Sphaericus gibboides. From April to May 2011 were collected in 10 establishments the following sample materials: Melissa officinalis L. (Lemongrass), Mentha piperita L. (Mint), Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Senna alexandrina Mill (senna), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (salsa) and Pimpinella anisum L. (Fennel), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Gorse), Chamomilla recutita L. (= M. recutita L.) (chamomile), Laurus nobilis L. (Blonde) (Lauraceae); Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet paprika), Bixa orellana L. (Spice) (Bixaceae) and Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo). The first screening showed that all the tested materials did not show the presence of adult insects. After 45 days 940 adult insects were found and larvae from eggs. The substrates analyzed Chamomilla recutita showed the highest rate of infestation, with 70,6%. Pelmus boldus, Laurus nobilis, Chamomilla recutita and Capsicum annuum, had the highest species diversity. Baccharis trimera, Bixa orellana, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum showed no infestation. The species was Lasioderma serricorne the insect with the largest number of individuals found (936), higher percentage of infestation in different materials (62.5%) and lots, and highest occurrence (68,75%) materials (M. piperita, S. alexandrian, P. anisum, Chamomilla recutita, P. crispum, L. nobilis, C. sativum, C. annuum, O. basilicum, P. boldus and T. vulgaris). The following materials were selected for testing disinfestation by irradiation process: Bixa orellana, Capsicum annuum, Cassia angustifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Mentha

  15. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  16. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    , faríngeo e esofágico. Objetivo Avaliar se o gosto amargo de um bolo líquido provoca alteração do trânsito oral, faringeo e/ou esofágico de pessoas normais. Método Avaliação cintilográfica dos trânsitos oral, faringeo e esofágico foi realizada em 43 indivíduos assintomáticos, 22 mulheres e 21 homens, com idades entre 23-71 anos, sem problemas com a ingestão de alimentos líquidos e sólidos, sem doença digestiva, cardíaca ou neurológica. Cada indivíduo ingeriu, em sequência aleatória e na temperatura ambiente, 5 mL de um bolo líquido com sabor amargo, preparado com 2 g de folhas de Peumus boldus em 50 mL de água, aquecidas até a temperatura de fervura (chá de boldo, e 5 mL de um bolo líquido com sabor doce, preparado com 3 g de sacarose em 50 mL de água, ambos marcados com 37 MBq de tecnécio fitato (Tc99m. Resultados Não houve diferença entre o bolo amargo e o bolo doce na duração do trânsito pela boca, faringe e esôfago, e na quantidade de resíduos. Conclusão Um bolo amargo, considerado de sabor desagradável, não altera a duração das fases oral, faríngea e esofágica da deglutição, quando comparado com um bolo doce, considerado como sabor agradável.

  17. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique.

  18. Abitane diterpenoids isolation from Plectranthus barbatus; Diterpenos tipo abietano isolados de Plectranthus barbatus Andrews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Roberto L. de; Kentopff, Marta R.; Machado, Maria Iracema L.; Silva, Maria Goretti V.; Matos, Francisco Jose de A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Morais, Selene M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: braz@uenf.br

    2007-07-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is largely used in the Northeast region of Brazil by the local population for treatment of digestive problems as substitute of boldo (Pneumus boldus). Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (Labiatae) cultivated in this region yielded two abietane diterpenoids, cyclobubatusin (1) and barbatusin (2) and a new one named 7beta-acetyl-12-deacetoxycyclobutatusin (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral analysis, using mainly mass spectra and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}CNMR (1D and 2D). These procedures permitted the assignment of all chemical shifts in the diterpenoids. (author)

  19. Atividade antiviral de extratos de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente frente aos herpesvírus suíno e bovino Antiviral activity of commercially available medicinal plants on suid and bovine herpesviruses

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Kaziyama; Fernandes,M.J.B.; I.C. Simoni

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a atividade antiviral in vitro de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente sobre herpesvírus suíno (SuHV-1) e bovino (BoHV-1). As espécies adquiridas foram Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun e Solidago microglossa. A citotoxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada na linhagem celular MDBK pelas alterações morfológicas das células e obtenção da concentra...

  20. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida Antifungal activity from essential oils on Candida species

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    Igara de Oliveira Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase apresenta-se como uma infecção fúngica superficial ou profunda causada por leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida, sendo considerada a principal infecção micótica em ambiente nosocomial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a concentração inibitória mínima - CIM do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth e de Rosmarinus officinialis L. sobre cepas de Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis. Os ensaios de atividade antifúngica foram realizados através da técnica de difusão em meio sólido. Os óleos essenciais de C. zeylanicum e P. boldus mostraram os mais destacáveis resultados, visto que inibiram o crescimento de 58% das cepas ensaiadas e apresentaram CIM de 4%.Candidiasis occurs as a superficial or profound fungal infection caused by yeasts belonging to the Candida genus. This infectious has been considered the main mycotic infection in the nosocomial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth and Rosmarinus officinialis L. essential oils against Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis strains. The antifungal activity assays were carried out by solid medium diffusion technique. C. zeylanicum and P. boldus essential oils showed the most prominent results which inhibited the growth of 58% of the assayed yeasts strains and presented MIC of 4%.

  1. Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y Y; Song, J H; Shin, Y K; Han, E S; Lee, C S

    2000-10-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic tissue damage. Several antioxidants have been described as beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1, 10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid found in the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), and has been shown to possess antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects. From this point of view, the possible anti-diabetic effect of boldine and its mechanism were evaluated. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: control, boldine (100 mg kg(-1), daily in drinking water), diabetic [single dose of 80 mg kg(-1)of streptozotocin (STZ), i.p.] and diabetic simultaneously fed with boldine for 8 weeks. Diabetic status was evaluated periodically with changes of plasma glucose levels and body weight in rats. The effect of boldine on the STZ-induced diabetic rats was examined with the formation of malondialdehydes and carbonyls and the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in mitochondria of the pancreas, kidney and liver. The scavenging action of boldine on oxygen free radicals and the effect on mitochondrial free-radical production were also investigated. The treatment of boldine attenuated the development of hyperglycemia and weight loss induced by STZ injection in rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyls in liver, kidney and pancreas mitochondria were significantly increased in STZ-treated rats and decreased after boldine administration. The activities of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the liver, pancreas and kidney were significantly elevated in STZ-treated rats. Boldine administration decreased STZ-induced elevation of MnSOD activity in kidney and pancreas mitochondria, but not in liver mitochondria. In the STZ-treated group, glutathione peroxidase activities decreased in liver

  2. ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS SOBRE O Callosobruchus maculatus (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE

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    Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight medicinal plants on Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Plant powder from Rosmarinus officinalis (L. leaves, Peumus boldus (Mol leaves, Matricaria chamomilla (L. flowers, Baccharis trimera (Less. leaves, Camellia sinensis (L. leaves, Thea sinensis (L. leaves, Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hil. leaves, and fruits of Pimpinella anisum (L. were used in the experiment. Bioassays were carried out under constant conditions of temperature (28±2 °C, relative humidity (70±5% and scotophase of 24 hours. Experimental units consisted of 20 grams of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains with 13% wet basis moisture content, 2 g plant powder and ten adult insects, both placed in plastic containers (60 mm in diameter x 60 mm high. The analyzed variables included: insect mortality, oviposition (egg number and instantaneous rate of population growth (ri. The number of dead insects was recorded 5 days after bioassays were started, the egg number was recorded after 12 days, and ri was estimated on the 60th day. All the tested plants had toxicity to C. maculatus. The highest mortality was found in insects treated with P. boldus and I. paraguariensis. Number of eggs and ri also varied significantly among the powders. The lowest mean values for these parameters were recorded in the plots treated with P. boldus, P. anisum and R. officinalis.

  3. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species.

  4. Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Horn, Ana Paula; Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Henriques, Amélia T; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the central nervous system. Currently no efficient treatment is available. This study evaluated the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on glioma proliferation and cell death. Boldine decreased the cell number of U138-MG, U87-MG and C6 glioma lines at concentrations of 80, 250 and 500 muM. We observed that cell death caused by boldine was cell-type specific and dose-dependent. Exposure to boldine for 24 h did not activate key mediators of apoptosis. However, it induced alterations in the cell cycle suggesting a G(2)/M arrest in U138-MG cells. Boldine had no toxic effect on non-tumor cells when used at the same concentrations as those used on tumor cells. Based on these results, we speculate that boldine may be a promising compound for evaluation as an anti-cancer agent.

  5. Interactions in the patterns of vegetative growth and reproduction in woody dioecious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A J; Alliende, M C

    1984-01-01

    Interactions between vegetative growth and reproduction were evaluated in Peumus boldus, Lithraea caustica and Laretia acaulis, three woody dioecious species in central Chile. Phenological observations were made periodically on marked branches of male and female plants, and biomass allocation (dry weight) to vegetative and reproductive tissues was measured. The magnitude of flowering was evaluated in groups of plants in three successive seasons. The patterns of activities are species- and sex-dependent, and cycles of 2-4 years have been established. Branches that produce flowers either do not grow or grow less than branches without flowers, and males and females have differential resource allocation: male branches attain higher biomass values. Groups of plants show seasonal behavior that suggest synchrony in their reproductive activities.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Givernau, M; Cassels, B K; Valenzuela, A; Speisky, H

    1994-10-01

    Boldine, an antioxidant alkaloid isolated from Peumus boldus, exhibits a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced guinea pig paw edema test with an oral ED50 of 34 mg/kg. Boldine also reduces bacterial pyrogen-induced hyperthermia in rabbits to an extent which varied between 51% and 98% at a dose of 60 mg/kg p.o. In vitro studies carried out in rat aortal rings revealed that boldine is an effective inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, promoting 53% inhibition at 75 microM. The latter in vitro effect may be mechanistically linked to the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine exerted in vivo.

  7. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  8. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

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    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  9. Búsqueda de plantas con propiedades insecticidas para el control de Sitophilus zeamais en maíz almacenado Search for plants with insecticidal properties for Sitophilus zeamais control in stored corn

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    Gonzalo Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron, bajo condiciones de laboratorio, 23 plantas en polvo para el control de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. en maíz almacenado. En una primera etapa se evaluaron todos los polvos a una concentración del 1,0% (p/p. Posteriormente aquellos polvos con mejores resultados fueron probados en concentraciones del 0,1, 0,5, 1,0 y 2,0% en granos de maíz infestados con los insectos a las 24 horas, 30, 60 y 90 días. Se evaluaron 63 tratamientos distribuidos en un diseño experimental completamente al azar y el ensayo se repitió tres veces. En la primera etapa, la mayor mortalidad de insectos se obtuvo con Chenopodium ambrosioides L. y Peumus boldus Mol. con 65,8% y 99,3%, respectivamente. Estos tratamientos también propiciaron la menor emergencia de adultos, mientras que la pérdida de peso de los granos no superó el 13,0%. En las evaluaciones a diferentes concentraciones mostraron una mayor mortalidad y menor emergencia a concentraciones del 1,0% y 2,0% (p/p, obteniéndose para C. ambrosioides una mortalidad del 90,3% y 90,1% y para P. boldus 97,1% y 98,8%, respectivamente. La residualidad se mantuvo sólo en el tratamiento de 24 horas.Twenty three powdered plants were evaluated under laboratory conditions against Sitophilus zeamais Mots. on stored corn. In the first part of the work all plants were evaluated at a concentration of 1.0% (w/w. Furthermore the powders with best results were evaluated at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% on corn grains infested with insects during 24 hours, 30, 60 and 90 days. Sixty three treatments in a completely randomized experimental design were evaluated and the study was replicated three times. In the first stage the highest level of insect mortality was exhibited with Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Peumus boldus Mol. at 1.0% concentration (w/w, with values of 65.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The highest insect emergence reductions were obtained with the same treatments and the grain weight was reduced

  10. Proposição métodos analíticos para tinturas-mãe e misturas: avaliação estatística Proposition of analytical methods for tinctures and mixtures: statistical valuation

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    Gilberto Rubens Biancalana

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetiuo de propor métodos analíticos de tinturas-mãe e misturas utilizadas em preparações homeopáticas estudou-se a sua aplicabilidade a uma mistura em partes iguais de 10 (dez tinturas-mãe, das seguintes plantas: Archangelica offcinalis L.; Drymis granatensis L.; Mentha piperita L.; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Bahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisia absin­thium L. e Coriandrum sativum L. todas de usp terapêutico comprovado(6,7,8,9,10, e preparadas a partir de padões, em períodos distintos, durante cinco anos consecutivos. Os valores estatísticos calculados permitiram estabelecer os seguintes limites para os métodos propostos: a Resíduo alcalino clorofórmico: entre 0,203 e 0,387%; b Resíduo de ácido clorídrico adicionado ao extrato clorofórmico:entre 0,016 e 0,072%; c Determinacdo de pll: entre 6,39 e 6,80; d Determinação da acidez total: entre 0,048 a 0,112%.To propose a new analytical methodology applied to homeopathy, and its consequent statistical valuation, the autors studied its applicability to a mixture of ten tinctures in equal parts of the following plants: Archangelica officinalis L; Matricaria chamomile L; Drymis granatensis L; Mentha piperita L; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Vahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisa absinthium L. and Coriandrum sativum L. all of them with therapeutic activity proved (6,7,8,9,10 and prepared from standards, in distinct periods, during five consecutive years. The calculated statistical values permitted to establish the following limits form proposed methods: a chloroform alkaline residue: form 0.203 to 0.387%; b hydrochloride acid residue added to the chloroform extract: from 0.016 to 0.072%; c pH: 6.39 to 6.80; d Total acidity: from 0.048 to 0.112%.

  11. Identificação botânica e química de espécies vegetais de uso popular no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Botanical and chemical identification of plant species of popular use in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    J. Félix-Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais são utilizadas mundialmente como uma das principais formas de cuidado primário de saúde. No entanto, a literatura indica que muitas espécies podem apresentar composição química variável, toxicidade ou difícil identificação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi obter critérios úteis para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico das principais espécies vegetais de uso popular no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, utilizando metodologias de análise botânica (morfodiagnose macro e microscópica e química (triagem fitoquímica e cromatografia em camada delgada, evitando assim adulterações ou uso inadequado dessas plantas medicinais no estado. No total, sete espécies foram analisadas Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus e Rosmarinus officinalis. Diversos marcadores botânicos e fitoquímicos foram identificados, contribuindo dessa forma para a correta identificação destas espécies de plantas medicinais importantes no estado do Rio Grande do Norte.Medicinal plants are worldwide used as one of the main forms of primary healthcare. However, the literature indicates that many species may have variable chemical composition, toxicity, or even difficult identification. The aim of this study was to obtain useful criteria for pharmacognostic quality control of the main plant species of popular use in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, using methods of botanical (macro and microscopic morphodiagnosis and chemical (phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatography analysis, thus preventing adulteration or inappropriate use of these medicinal plants in the state. In total, seven species were analyzed Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus and Rosmarinus officinalis. Several botanical and phytochemical markers were identified, thereby contributing to the correct identification of these

  12. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

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    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  13. A novel alkaloid antioxidant, Boldine and synthetic antioxidant, reduced form of RU486, inhibit the oxidation of LDL in-vitro and atherosclerosis in vivo in LDLR(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, N; Penumetcha, M; Speisky, H; Parthasarathy, S

    2004-04-01

    A corollary to the oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis is that the consumption of antioxidants is beneficial. However, the literature is divided in support of this conclusion. In this study, Boldine, an alkaloid of Peumus boldus and reduced form of RU486, was tested for their antioxidant potency both in, in vitro oxidation system and in mouse models. Boldine decreased the ex-vivo oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Two different in vivo studies were performed to study the effect of these compounds on the atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDLR(-/-) mice. In study I, three groups of LDLR(-/-) mice (N = 12 each) were fed an atherogenic diet. Group 1 was given vehicle and group 2 and 3 were given 1mg of Boldine or Red RU per day for 12 weeks. In study II, two groups of LDLR(-/-) mice N = 10 each) were fed an atherogenic diet. Group 1 was given vehicle and group 2 was given 5mg of Boldine per day. The results indicated that there was a decrease in lesion formation reaching a 40% reduction due to Boldine and 45% reduction by Red RU compared to controls. The in vivo tolerance of Boldine in humans (has been used as an herbal medicine in other diseases) should make it an attractive alternative to Vitamin E.

  14. Evaluation of fungal burden of medicinal plants submitted to gamma radiation process after 30 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone; Araujo, Michel M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Goncalez, Edlayne; Reis, Tatiana A. dos; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Forty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia and Cassia angustifolia), purchased from pharmacies and street market in the five cities of Sao Paulo State, were irradiated using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with a dose of 10.0 kGy, delivered at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For fungal counts and identification in medicinal plants a serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. Mycological analysis of control samples revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of colony forming units (cfu/g) in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days, using the dose of 10.0 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. (author)

  15. Relationship between nutritional composition of plant species and infestation levels of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Simmonds, Monique S J; Blaney, Walter M

    2002-12-01

    Levels of soluble protein and carbohydrate (raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in leaves from a selection of plant species were measured to determine if a relationship existed between these nutrients and infestation by Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. Most species of host plant examined contained a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrates, and overall, leaves from species of plants that supported populations of thrips had greater levels of protein than leaves from nonhost species. New leaves and flowers that supported F. occidentalis contained high levels of carbohydrate and protein. The quantity of protein in leaves at the top of the tree, Peumus boldus, was greater than in leaves from lower levels, and the amount of feeding damage accrued by H. haemorrhoidalis was greater on the upper foliage than lower foliage. Oviposition by H. haenmorrhoidalis was positively correlated to levels of protein in host plants but not to levels of carbohydrates. Overall, levels of soluble protein in plants influenced their susceptibility to thrips more than levels of carbohydrates.

  16. Dry plant extracts loaded on fumed silica for direct compression: preparation and preformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, S D; Manzo, R H; Allemandi, D A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to load fumed silica with vegetal material (solid residue) from a liquid extract to obtain a solid loaded silica product (LSP) with satisfactory flow properties and compressibility to be processed by direct-compression technology. Extracts of Melissa officinalis L. (M.o.), Cardus marianus L. (C.m.), and Peumus boldus L. (P.b.) were used to load silica support. The release of boldine from LSP (P.b.) reached 100% in HCl 0.1 N solution and only approximately 70% in water. Some physical-mechanical properties of LSP (M.o. and C.m.) alone and LSP-excipient mixtures were determined. The densities (bulk and tap) of LSP were higher than those of fumed silica alone. Consequently, good flow properties of LSP products were observed. On the other hand, flowability, densities, and compactibility of directly compressible excipients (lactose, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose) were not adversely affected when mixed with LSP.

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  18. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.

  19. Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-05-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage.

  20. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  1. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease.

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Looi, Chung Yeng; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2014-01-01

    To date, plants have been the major source of anticancer drugs. Boldine is a natural alkaloid commonly found in the leaves and bark of Peumus boldus. In this study, we found that boldine potently inhibited the viability of the human invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (48-hour IC₅₀ 46.5±3.1 μg/mL) and MDA-MB-468 (48-hour IC₅₀ 50.8±2.7 μg/mL). Boldine had a cytotoxic effect and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells as indicated by a higher amount of lactate dehydrogenase released, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, we demonstrated that boldine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The anticancer mechanism is associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in MDA-MB-231. Boldine selectively induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7, but not caspase-8. We also found that boldine could inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation, a key molecule in tumor progression and metastasis. In addition, protein array and Western blotting analysis showed that treatment with boldine resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 and upregulation of Bax in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. An acute toxicity study in rats revealed that boldine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of boldine (50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Neuroinflammatory response to experimental stroke is inhibited by boldine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Neila Maria R; Ferreira, Emerson de O; Fernandes, Mara Yone S D; Lima, Francisco Arnaldo V; Neves, Kelly Rose T; do Carmo, Marta Regina S; de Andrade, Geanne M

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of ischemic brain damage. Astrocyte activation promotes the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and iNOS. Eventually, neuronal death occurs, leading to the development of motor and memory deficits in patients. Boldine is the main alkaloid in the leaves and bark of the Peumus boldus Molina, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of boldine on neuroinflammation and memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice. Thirty minutes before pMCAO and during the next 5 days, animals received vehicle (0.025 µmol/l HCl) or boldine (8, 16 and 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The extension of the infarct area, neurological scores, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated 24 h after pMCAO. Locomotor activity, working, and aversive memory were evaluated 72 h after pMCAO, object recognition memory was tested 96 h after pMCAO, and spatial memory was tested 120 h after pMCAO. Cresyl violet, Fluoro-Jade C staining, and immunohistochemical for GFAP, TNF-α, and iNOS were also carried out. The treatment with boldine significantly decreased the infarct area, improved the neurological scores, and increased cell viability. The vertical exploratory activity and aversive, spatial, object recognition, and working memory deficits induced by pMCAO were prevented by boldine. Moreover, myeloperoxidase activity and GFAP, TNF-α, and iNOS immunoreactivity were decreased significantly by boldine. Although various mechanisms such as its antioxidant activity should be considered, these results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of boldine might be related in part to its anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. Métodos de secagem e rendimento dos extratos de folhas de Plectranthus barbatus (boldo-da-terra e P. ornatus (boldo-miúdo Methods estimated drying and percentage of extracts in leaves of Plectranthus barbatus (Brazilian bold and P. ornatus (false bold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus sp. pertence à família Lamiaceae e inclui cerca de 300 espécies. Duas delas, P. barbatus (PB e P. ornatus (PO destacam-se pelo interesse medicinal. As principais substâncias encontradas em Plectranthus sp. são os diterpenóides, óleos essenciais e compostos fenólicos. A melhor forma de utilizar as folhas de PB e PO é a fresco; porém, na comercialização há necessidade de recorrer a processos de secagem. Entretanto, isto pode interferir no princípio ativo, desta forma, estudos para determinar o melhor método gravimétrico são importantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar qual o melhor método de secagem, onde haja maior perda de água possível, e calcular os rendimentos dos extratos visando avaliar se o método gravimétrico interfere na quantidade de extrato produzido. Desta forma, utilizou-se quatro métodos de secagem e após evaporação do solvente, fez-se o cálculo do rendimento dos extratos secos. O percentual de água foi superior em PB e PO (média geral de 90,12±8,22%. Dentre as secagens, em estufa de ventilação forçada (EVF foi mais eficiente em PB (88,87% e em estufa convencional (ECO foi melhor em PO (95,13%. O maior rendimento do extrato seco em PB foi na secagem em camada delgada (CD (20,96%, enquanto que em PO foi ECO (41,34%. Não houve correlação entre o método de secagem e o rendimento de extrato obtido.Plectranthus sp. belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes about 300 species. Two of them, P. barbatus (PB and P. ornatus (PO, have medicinal interest. The main substances found in Plectranthus sp. are the diterpenoids, essential oils and phenolic compounds. The best way to use the leaves of PB and PO is cool; but for marketing there is a need of resort to drying processes. However, this may interfere on the values of active principle; thus, studies to determine the best gravimetric methods are important. The objective of this study was to evaluate the best method of drying, where there the greater loss of water possible, and calculate the percentage of the extracts to assess whether the gravimetric method interferes with the amount of extract produced. To this was done by drying four different methods ventilated dry (EVF, conventional drying (ECO, microwave (MCO and layer thing (CD and after evaporation of the solvent, was made the calculation the percentage of the dried extract. The water content was higher in PB and PO (overall average of 90.12±8.22%. Among the drying, EVF was more efficient for PB (88.87% and ECO was better for PO (95.13%. The highest content of dry extract was for PB in to CD (20.96%, whereas for PO was in to ECO (41.34%. There is no relationship between the drying method and in the quantity of extract obtained.

  5. Produção vegetal e de óleo essencial de boldo pequeno em função de fontes de adubos orgânicos

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    Louise Ferreira Rosal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes orgânicos, em plantas medicinais e aromáticas, normalmente modifica positivamente a produção vegetal e de óleo essencial. Neste contexto, tendo por fim avaliar a resposta de plantas de Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., cultivadas com diferentes fontes de adubos orgânicos, o presente trabalho estudou a produção de biomassa, teor, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial. As mudas, após a aclimatização, foram transplantadas para vasos de dez litros, acondicionados em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi constituído por quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições (16 parcelas, sendo cada parcela composta por cinco vasos. Os tratamentos foram: ausência de adubo orgânico (testemunha; aplicação de 60 t ha-1 de esterco bovino; 30 t ha-1 de esterco avícola; 60 t ha-1 de composto orgânico. Aos 120 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram colhidas e uma parte das folhas frescas foi destinada à extração do óleo essencial. O restante do material vegetal foi seco em estufa, até atingir peso constante, para a determinação da biomassa seca. As análises químicas do óleo foram realizadas por cromatografia gasosa (CG-DIC e CG-EM. As fontes de adubo orgânico testadas promoveram diferenças entre os tratamentos em relação à produção de biomassa, rendimento e composição do óleo essencial de P. neochilus. A utilização de diferentes fertilizantes orgânicos não modificou o teor de óleo volátil.

  6. Ocorrência do uso de plantas medicinais por moradores de um bairro do município de Marília-SP

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    A. F. Macedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As plantas medicinais continuam ocupando lugar de destaque no arsenal terapêutico e muitas vezes, é o único recurso de muitas comunidades e grupos étnicos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi pesquisar a ocorrência do uso de plantas medicinais em residências de um bairro do município de Marília-SP. Foram entrevistados moradores de 150 residências do Jardim Lavínia, no período de março a julho de 2006. Foram aplicados questionários semi-estruturados para o levantamento dos dados. Os resultados mostraram que 19,34% das residências, possuíam plantas e destas, 41,37% de Melissa officinalis, 31,03% de Matricaria chamomilla, 13,79% de Camellia sinensis, Mentha piperita e Foeniculum vulgare, 6,89% de Valeriana officinalis, Baccharis triptera, Peumus boldus e 27,52% outros. A indicação do uso foi de 55,17% por amigos/parentes, 13,79% por TV/Rádio, 13,79% por cultura/crenças, 6,89% não responderam e apenas 10,34% por prescrição médica. Das plantas medicinais encontradas, 31,25% eram utilizados de modo contrário à sua finalidade. Dos moradores entrevistados, 41,37% apresentavam idade acima de 46 anos e 31,03% possuíam ensino superior completo. Estes dados permitem concluir que mesmo o consumo sendo amplo no Brasil, ainda existe escassez de informação e a falta desta se dá também em indivíduos de nível superior, podendo gerar uso incorreto. Os meios de comunicação já não são mais os grandes vilões do estímulo do uso das plantas medicinais, a cultura popular faz com que as indicações sejam transmitidas de pessoa para pessoa, atingindo também a população mais favorecida economicamente. Palavras-chave: etnobotânica; plantas medicinais; farmacoterapia; fitoterápicos.

  7. Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paydar M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammadjavad Paydar,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,2 Yi Li Wong,1 Won Fen Wong,3 Chung Yeng Looi,1 Mohd Rais Mustafa11Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: To date, plants have been the major source of anticancer drugs. Boldine is a natural alkaloid commonly found in the leaves and bark of Peumus boldus. In this study, we found that boldine potently inhibited the viability of the human invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (48-hour IC50 46.5±3.1 µg/mL and MDA-MB-468 (48-hour IC50 50.8±2.7 µg/mL. Boldine had a cytotoxic effect and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells as indicated by a higher amount of lactate dehydrogenase released, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, we demonstrated that boldine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The anticancer mechanism is associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in MDA-MB-231. Boldine selectively induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7, but not caspase-8. We also found that boldine could inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation, a key molecule in tumor progression and metastasis. In addition, protein array and Western blotting analysis showed that treatment with boldine resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 and upregulation of Bax in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. An acute toxicity study in rats revealed that boldine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of boldine (50 or 100 mg/kg significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.Keywords: boldine, breast cancer, caspase cascade, Bcl-2/Bax, heat shock protein 70, nuclear factor kappa B

  8. Descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas Decomposition of leaf litter of Pinus radiata and three native tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el centro-sur de Chile, las últimas décadas han sido testigo de una conversión masiva de bosques, matorrales y tierras agrícolas a plantaciones de árboles exóticos. Aunque se ha estudiado la influencia de dichos cambios sobre el balance hídrico, los posibles efectos sobre otros procesos ecosistémicos han recibido poca atención. En esta breve comunicación se presentan datos de un estudio de la descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas, llevado a cabo con el fin de explorar los posibles efectos del reemplazo de bosque nativo por plantaciones exóticas sobre el ciclaje de nutrientes. Se incubaron muestras de las cuatro especies en dos ambientes distintos en sitios colindantes: bajo un bosque nativo secundario, y bajo un rodal de P. radiata. Se registró la pérdida de peso seco después de dos meses y seis meses. Las tasas diarias de descomposición fueron mucho mayores durante los primeros dos meses de incubación que durante los cuatro meses subsiguientes. En ambas fechas hubo diferencias significativas entre las especies y entre los sitios: todas las especies presentaron mayores tasas de descomposición bajo P. radiata que bajo el bosque nativo. No hubo evidencia de interacción entre sitio y especie. Después de seis meses, el orden de pérdida de peso seco fue Nothofagus obliqua > P. radiata > Peumus boldus > Cryptocarya alba. La variación interespecífica en la tasa de descomposición presentó más relación con el área foliar específica que con el contenido de nitrógeno en la hojarasca. Dado que la hojarasca de P. radiata se descompuso más lentamente que la de la especie caducifolia N. obliqua, pero más rápidamente que las especies esclerófilas, los efectos de la sustitución o invasión sobre descomposición dependerían de la composición original del bosque nativo en cuestiónRecent decades have seen widespread conversion of native forests, shrublands and farmland in south

  9. Percepção de sabores em pacientes com acidente vascular encefálico Taste perception in stroke patients

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    Leda Maria Tavares Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção dos sabores amargo, azedo, doce e neutro. MÉTODO: foram estudados 36 pacientes com Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE (5 hemorrágicos e 31 isquêmicos e 30 sujeitos controles. Foi realizada avaliação fonoaudiológica estrutural e funcional incluindo postura, vedamento labial, presença de resíduos, tosse, engasgo, e ausculta cervical. Cada sujeito deglutiu em sequência aleatória 5 mL de líquido com os 4 sabores [chá de boldo (amargo, suco de limão diluído (azedo, sacarose diluída (doce e água (neutro] na temperatura ambiente. Entre as deglutições os participantes eram questionados sobre a dificuldade em deglutir e qual o sabor do líquido daquela deglutição. RESULTADOS: entre os pacientes houve maior freqüência de erros na identificação dos sabores amargo (controles: 16,7%, AVE: 47,3%, p=0,01 e azedo (controles: 6,7%, AVE: 27,8%, p=0,05, sem diferenças para o sabores neutro (controles: 10,0%, AVE: 16,7%, p=0,50 e doce (controles: 13,3%, AVE: 16,7%, p=0,80. Os pacientes com AVE tiveram maior dificuldade para deglutir os líquidos do que os controles (pPURPOSE: to assess the perception of bitter, sour, sweet and neutral flavors in stroke patients. METHOD: we studied 36 patients with stroke (5 hemorrhagic and 31 ischemic and had a 30 subjects' control group. W performed a structural and functional oral and pharyngeal evaluation including posture, lip sealing, presence of residues, cough, choking, and cervical auscultation. Five ml of fluids with the 4 flavors ["boldus" tea (bitter, diluted lemon juice (sour, diluted sucrose (sweet, and water (neutral] were offered in random sequence under room temperature. Participants were questioned, between swallows, on the difficulty in swallowing and which flavor they had just swallowed. RESULTS: patients with stroke had greater difficulty in swallowing the fluids than control group (p<0.04. Patients made more mistakes in identifying bitter (control: 16

  10. Editorial

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    José Yvan Pereira Leite

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hoje lançamos mais uma edição da Revista HOLOS, o terceiro volume deste ano! Ela está acompanhada de um momento difícil da educação, da ciência e da tecnologia brasileira, pois as instituições públicas federais de formação de recursos humanos se encontram em movimento paredista. É preciso entendimentos para a manutenção da boa quadra de desenvolvimento, àquela que prospecta os grandes problemas nacionais e, com o olhar inovador e de brasilidade, identifica alternativas para um futuro próspero para os brasileiros! O compromisso da HOLOS com a periodicidade está mantido. O terceiro volume disponibiliza 14 artigos que tratam de temas vinculados aos problemas do desenvolvimento nacional, tais como:energias renováveis, tratamento de efluentes, sistemas embarcados e aplicações de softwares, ações do programa de iniciação à docência (PIBID da CAPES/IFRN, formação docente e análise pedagógica das provas de vestibular. O primeiro artigo traz uma contribuição a respeito do uso do biodiesel em frota de ônibus com motores diesel, enquanto o incentivo à regulação da promoção do uso da energia fotovoltaica é tratado no segundo artigo. A terceira contribuição está vinculada ao estudo da estabilidade térmica da fibra queratina de penas de frango objetivando a obtenção de carbono CF. Os trabalhos seguintes são da área ambiental. Um trata de estudo comparativo sobre a qualidade sanitária de Peumus boldus Molina industrializadas em Currais Novos/RN, enquanto que o outro analisa a bioaumentação para degradação dos efluentes de processamento da castanha de caju. Na área de sistemas embarcados e softwares, este terceiro volume traz três artigos, os quais abordam: o monitoramento de plataformas de petróleo através de disponíveis móveis; os sistemas de recomendação baseados em web usage mining; e uso de plugin extrator para verificação de composição pew. No âmbito do programa de incentivo à doc

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

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    Paula Cordero-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective : Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods : The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST and alanine amino transferase (ALT, and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results : The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin. None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4 -treated group as compared with the CCl4 -only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4 - and Legalon+CCL4 -treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4 -treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion : Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect.

  12. Vivencias de opresión de mujeres en una cárcel municipal /

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Boldo, Claudia

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para optar al grado de Doctora en Antropología presenta Claudia Salinas Boldo ; tutora de tesis Dra. Martha Patricia Castañeda Salgado, asesoras Dra. Norma Blazquez Graff, Dra. María Eugenia D’Aubeterre Buznego326 páginasDoctorado en Antropología UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2012

  13. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Romina V; Etcheverry, Miriam G

    2008-04-01

    The antifungal activity of Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Pëumus boldus Mol (boldus), Hedeoma multiflora Benth (mountain thyme), Syzygium aromaticum L. (clove), and Lippia turbinate var. integrifolia (griseb) (poleo) essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus section Flavi was evaluated in sterile maize grain under different water activity (a(w)) condition (0.982, 0.955, and 0.90). The effect of EOs added to maize grains on growth rate, lag phase, and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation of Aspergillus section Flavi were evaluated at different water activity conditions. The five EOs analyzed have been shown to influence lag phase and growth rate. Their efficacy depended mainly on the essential oil concentrations and substrate water activity conditions. All EOs showed significant impact on AFB(1) accumulation. This effect was closely dependent on the water activity, concentration, and incubation periods. Important reduction of AFB(1) accumulation was observed in the majority of EO treatments at 11 days of incubation. Boldus, poleo, and mountain thyme EO completely inhibited AFB(1) at 2000 and 3000 microg g(-1). Inhibition of AFB(1) accumulation was also observed when aflatoxigenic isolates grew with different concentration of EOs during 35 days.

  14. Conteúdo de miricetina, quercetina e kaempferol em chás comercializados no Brasil Myciretin, quercetin and kaempterol contents in teas commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simara Matsubara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de miricetina, quercetina e kaempferol foram determinados em uma marca de ban-chá, duas de chá verde e quatro de chá preto. Analisaram-se três lotes para cada marca em duplicata por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quercetina (2,5-3,4 mg/g folha seca predominou em todas as amostras, seguida por kaempferol (1,0-2,0 mg/g folha seca, com exceção de uma amostra na qual kaempferol e miricetina tiveram teores iguais. Houve variação entre os tipos de chás e mesmo entre marcas do mesmo tipo. Miricetina (traços - 1,9 mg/g folha seca foi o flavonol, que mais variou e que esteve em menor nível nos chás pretos. Outros chás muito consumidos no Brasil também foram investigados. A miricetina não foi encontrada em chás de frutas (maçã e morango e de ervas (erva doce, camomila, erva cidreira, hortelã, boldo, mate e erva mate, enquanto que quercetina foi encontrada em quatro chás (camomila, boldo, morango e erva mate e kaempferol, em dois chás (boldo e erva-mate, em concentrações de 0,4 a 2,5 e 0,4 a 2,6 mg/g de folha seca, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que estes chás são fontes de flavonóis na dieta brasileira, embora com teores menores que em chás verde e preto.The myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol contents of a brand of "ban-chá", two brands of green tea and four brands of black tea were determined. Three lots of each brand were analysed in duplicate by high performance liquid chromatography. Quercetin (2.5-3.4 mg/g of dry leaf predominated in all samples, followed by kaempferol (1.0-2.0 mg/g of dry leaf, with the exception of one sample, in which kaempferol and myricetin had the same levels. There was variation between different types of tea and even between brands of the same type of tea. Myricetin (trace-1.9 mg/g of dry leaf was the flavonol, that varied the most and was present at lower levels in black tea. Other teas widely consumed in Brazil were also investigated. Myricetin was not found in teas of

  15. Heroísmo pessoal e ruína política, o PCB durante o Estado novo

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    Valerio Arcary

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Resenha:

    SENA JÚNIOR, Carlos Zacarias. bold;">Os Impasses da Estratégia, bold;">os comunistas, o antifascismo e a revolução burguesa no Brasil. 1936-1948. São Paulo: Annablume, 2010, 398p.

  16. Identification of a non-host plant of Xylella fastidiosa to rear healthy sharpshooter vectors Identificação de uma planta não-hospedeira de Xylella fastidiosa para criação de insetos vetores sadios

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    Rosangela Cristina Marucci

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rearing leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae vectors free of Xylella fastidiosa is a requirement for studies of various aspects of vector-pathogen interactions. The selection of a plant that allows vector development but not bacterial multiplication is desirable to produce healthy vectors. In this study, two leafhopper hosts, Vernonia condensata ('boldo' and Aloysia virgata ('lixeira' were needle inoculated with citrus and coffee strains of X. fastidiosa to evaluate if these plants support pathogen colonization. The inoculated plants did not present symptoms and the pathogen was not detected by culture and PCR tests, neither soon after inoculation (7-14 days nor later, at 1, 4, 6 and 12 months after inoculation. To obtain healthy adults of the leafhopper vectors Acrogonia citrina, Bucephalogonia xanthophis, Dilobopterus costalimai, Homalodisca ignorata and Oncometopia facialis, early-instar nymphs were reared on V. condensata. X. fastidiosa was not detected in any of 175 adults obtained. V. condensata and A. virgata are nonpropagative hosts of X. fastidiosa and enable the production of healthy leafhoppers for vector studies.A obtenção de cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae livres de Xylella fastidiosa é importante para estudos de interação entre essa bactéria e seus vetores, sendo desejável a seleção de uma planta que permita a criação desses insetos, mas não a multiplicação da bactéria. Neste estudo, duas plantas hospedeiras de cigarrinhas, Vernonia condensata (boldo e Aloysia virgata (lixeira, foram inoculadas por agulha com as estirpes de citros e de cafeeiro de X. fastidiosa, para avaliar a possibilidade deste patógeno colonizá-las. Não foram observados sintomas, nem se detectou a bactéria por isolamento em meio de cultura e/ou PCR em períodos curtos (7 e 14 dias ou longos (1, 4, 6 e 12 meses após a inoculação. Para obtenção de adultos sadios das cigarrinhas vetoras, Acrogonia citrina, Bucephalogonia xanthophis

  17. Stem and leaf anatomy of Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Lamiaceae Anatomia caulinar e foliar de Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Lamiaceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. is an aromatic herb named " boldo" or " boldo-gambá" and employed for treating hepatic insufficiency and dyspepsia in folk medicine. This paper has investigated its stem and leaf anatomy, in order to contribute for the medicinal plant identification. The botanical material was prepared according to standard microtechniques. The stem has quadrangular transection and, in secondary growth at the level analyzed, shows uniseriate epidermis and numerous trichomes. The glandular ones are capitate and peltate. The former has short unicellular or long multicellular stalk and uni- or bicellular head. The latter presents short stalk and eight-celled ovoid head. The non-glandular trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate and coated with granular cuticle. It is observed angular collenchyma, cambia forming phloem outward and xylem inward, and perivascular fiber caps next to the phloem. The blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with striate cuticle, diacytic stomata on both surfaces, numerous trichomes similar to the stem ones, and homogeneous mesophyll. The midrib shows one or two collateral bundles and the petiole has many of them distributed as an open arc.Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. é uma erva aromática denominada boldo ou " boldo-gambá" e empregada no tratamento de insuficiência hepática e dispepsia na medicina popular. Este trabalho investigou a anatomia caulinar e foliar, com a finalidade de contribuir na identificação dessa planta medicinal. O material botânico foi preparado de acordo com microtécnicas usuais. O caule tem secção transversal quadrangular e, em crescimento secundário no nível analisado, exibe epiderme unisseriada e numerosos tricomas. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e peltados. Os primeiros têm pedicelo curto e unicelular ou longo e pluricelular e cabeça uni ou bicelular. Os peltados apresentam pedicelo curto e cabeça ovóide com oito células. Os tricomas tectores s

  18. Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants

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    Guilherme Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial

  19. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

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    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  20. Composição do óleo essencial de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus Essential oil composition of four Plectranthus species

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    J.M Bandeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Plectranthus é considerado um dos mais ricos em óleos essenciais dentro da família Lamiaceae, compreendendo muitas espécies com propriedades medicinais. Algumas destas são conhecidas popularmente como boldo, as quais possuem semelhanças taxonômicas e diversas sinonímias, possuindo ações anti-dispépticas, analgésicas e digestivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quantitativa e qualitativamente os óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas das espécies P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis e P. neochilus. A extração do óleo foi realizada por hidrodestilação, utilizando pentano como solvente extrator, repetida por três vezes para cada uma das espécies. A análise dos componentes dos óleos essenciais das quatro espécies de Plectranthus, através da CG/EM, permitiu identificar 14 componentes químicos, sendo a maioria sesquiterpenos. O trans-cariofileno se apresentou em elevada concentração nos óleos estudados. Alguns componentes químicos demonstraram ser específicos para cada espécie e outros apresentaram ocorrência comum a todas as quatro, possibilitando a diferenciação das mesmas em dois grupos, um formado por P. amboinicus e P. neochilus e o outro por P. grandis e P. barbatus. Conclui-se que as quatro espécies de boldo apresentam diferenças significativas quanto ao teor e à constituição química do óleo essencialPlectranthus has been considered one of the richest genera in essential oils within the Lamiaceae family, which includes several species with medicinal properties. Some of them are commonly known as boldo and present taxonomic similarities and several synonymies, with antidyspeptic, analgesic and digestive actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the essential oils from P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis and P. neochilus leaves. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using pentane as extracting solvent and was repeated three times for each

  1. Variação sazonal na alelopatia de extratos aquosos de Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de Lactuca sativa L. Seasonal variation in the allelopathy of aqueous extracts from Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. on the germination and development of Lactuca sativa L.

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    L.L. Pelegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos de Coleus barbatus sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, em diferentes concentrações de extratos obtidos de folhas de falso-boldo (0; 7,5; 15; 22,5; 30%, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano, obtidos por trituração, maceração, infusão e decocção. As sementes de alface foram distribuídas sobre placas de petri umidecidas com 10 mL de solução. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de folhas afetaram a germinabilidade de sementes de alface apenas na concentração de 30% do extrato preparado por decocção de folhas coletadas no inverno. O índice de velocidade de germinação apresentou redução significativa nos extratos triturados preparados no outono e inverno; na maceração de folhas coletadas no verão e outono e no extrato de decocção preparado no inverno. Os extratos estimularam o crescimento da parte aérea das plântulas de alface, ao passo que, o comprimento das raízes foi afetado pelos extratos, ora inibindo, ora estimulando o crescimento das mesmas. Os extratos de folhas de falso-boldo coletadas nas quatro estações do ano apresentaram efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da alface, sendo que estes variaram em função da sazonalidade da coleta, da forma de obtenção dos extratos e das concentrações testadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts from Coleus barbatus on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory using different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of aqueous extracts from "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons; extracts were obtained by grinding, maceration, infusion and decoction. Seeds were distributed on Petri dishes moistened with 10 mL solution. Results showed that the leaf extracts affected the germination of lettuce seeds

  2. Quantitative analysis of boldine alkaloid in natural extracts by cyclic voltammetry at a liquid-liquid interface and validation of the method by comparison with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, C I; Bornancini, C A; Cabrera, J L; Ortega, M G; Yudi, L M

    2010-12-15

    The quantitative determination of boldine alkaloid in boldo leaf extracts by employing cyclic voltammetry, at a liquid/liquid interface as well as the validation of this methodology against the reference method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), are reported in the present paper. The voltammetric analysis was performed successfully and economically using two kinds of liquid/liquid interfaces: water/1,2-dicholoroethane and water/PVC (polyvinyl chloride)-gelled 1,2-dichloroethane. Linear calibration curves in the concentration range of 1.04 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) to 5.19 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) were obtained with a detection limit equal to (6.1 ± 0.7) × 10(-5)mol L(-1) and the quantitative determination of this alkaloid, in complex matrixes such as boldo leaf extracts, by the electrochemical technique proposed was found to be equal to the values obtained using the standard HPLC method. The validation analysis of this methodology against HPLC demonstrated that accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), specificity and precision are acceptable. The electroanalytical technique proposed is economical and selective, involves simple equipment and can be applied for the quantitative determination of boldine alkaloid in complex matrixes such as leaf extracts without special drug separation. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments applied at the liquid/liquid interface under different experimental conditions allowed us to study the transfer mechanism of boldine, and determine a value of pK(a)(w)=6.90 for protonated boldine, from the variation of voltammetric peak current with pH.

  3. USO POPULAR DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS PELAS COMUNIDADES DE TRÊS LAGOAS/MS, PORTO VELHO/RO E RIO VERDE/GO

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    Sandra Maria Eugênia PINTO, Leonice Manrique Faustino TRESVENZOL, Rosangela Romano Lopes JOHN, Euclenia Oliveira ALVES, José Realino de PAULA, Tatiana de Sousa FIUZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos conhecer o perfil sociocultural dos usuários e verificar o conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais de pessoas atendidas em programas assistenciais nas cidades de TrêsLagoas/MS, Rio Verde/GO e Porto Velho/RO. As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas orientadas por um questionário; as cinco plantas mais citadas foram selecionadas para levantamento bibliográfico. Foram entrevistadas 67 pessoas, a maioria (88% do sexo feminino e idade entre 35 a 64 anos. Quanto ao grau de instrução, 89,5% afirmaram serem alfabetizados; 73,1% relataram terem vindo da zona rural, enquanto 26,9% sempre residiram no perímetro urbano. Sobre as plantas medicinais, 92% afirmaram terem acesso a essas plantas desde crianças e que o conhecimento foi adquirido no convívio familiar. Nas três cidades pesquisadas, as plantas medicinais são utilizadas para vários problemas de saúde, que podem ir de uma gripe ou resfriado a doenças mais graves como o diabetes, a hipertensão arterial e as doenças reumáticas. As folhas foram a parte das plantas mais utilizadas (58,8% e o chá(infusão a forma de preparo mais empregada(83,6%. Os motivos alegados para o uso de plantas medicinais foram os bons resultados, a facilidade de obtenção e o baixo custo. Foram citadas 106 plantas pelos nomes populares e as cinco mais citadas foram: boldo nacional (Plectranthus barbatus, boldo de Goiás(Vernonia condensata, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba,hortelã (Mentha sp e arruda (Rutagraveolens.Verificou-se que essas cinco plantas já apresentam estudos científicos.

  4. Determinação da atividade antioxidante e do teor total de polifenol em amostras de chá de ervas comercializadas em sachets

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    Tieme Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Os chás de ervas são tradicionalmente utilizados na medicina popular em muitas regiões do Brasil. Os chás contêm compostos antioxidantes que combatem o stress oxidativo e seu consumo tem sido associado à diminuição dos níveis de colesterol, pressão arterial e até de doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a capacidade antioxidante total, o teor total de polifenóis, o consumo (scavenging de H2O2 e a presença de outros grupos de compostos antioxidantes em 43 amostras de chás em sachets. Métodos: O método CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity foi utilizado para determinar a capacidade antioxidante total. O teor total de polifenóis foi obtido com o uso do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu; o ensaio de scavenging baseou-se no consumo de solução de H2O2 após adição do chá; e a presença de flavonóides, carotenos e catequinas foi investigada por cromatografia em papel. Resultados: A capacidade antioxidante total nas amostras analisadas seguiu a ordem: camomila > hortelã > carqueja > cidreira > boldo > verde > mate > preto > branco > erva doce. O teor total de polifenóis obedeceu à sequência: branco > hortelã > preto > mate > boldo > verde > camomila > carqueja > cidreira > erva doce. As divergências encontradas entre as amostras de um mesmo grupo de chá podem ser atribuídas à época da colheita, ao tipo de solo, local de plantio, variações climáticas e partes da planta utilizadas na elaboração dos sachets. Conclusão: Concluise que todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram capacidade antioxidante e consumo de H2O2. Em apenas uma delas não foi possível detectar flavonóides, carotenos ou catequinas.

  5. Efeito embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo de plantas medicinais Embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortive effects of medicinal plants

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    H.G. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso milenar de plantas medicinais mostrou ao longo dos anos, que determinadas plantas apresentam substâncias potencialmente perigosas. Do ponto de vista científico, algumas pesquisas mostraram que muitas dessas plantas possuem substâncias agressivas e por essa razão devem ser utilizadas com cuidado, respeitando seus riscos toxicológicos. Os efeitos mais preocupantes do uso indiscriminado de plantas medicinais são embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo, uma vez, que os constituintes da planta podem atravessar a placenta, chegar ao feto e gerar um desses efeitos. Este estudo objetiva fornecer uma listagem das principais plantas medicinais que tenham efeitos embriotóxicos, teratogênicos e abortivos comprovados, conhecendo as partes da planta utilizadas e seus respectivos nomes científicos, com a finalidade de alertar gestantes quanto aos riscos de seu uso. Realizou-se buscas nas bases eletrônicas de dados SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES e Google acadêmico. Nos resultados encontrados, plantas como Arnica (Arnica montana, Artemísia (Artemisia vulgaris, Arruda (Ruta chalepensis/ Ruta graveolens, Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron polyphyllum, Boldo (Vernonia condensata dentre outras, podem vir a gerar um desses efeitos. A partir deste estudo comprova-se que para a maioria das plantas medicinais não há dados a respeito da segurança de seu uso durante a gravidez.The ancient use of medicinal plants has shown over the years that certain plants have potentially dangerous substances. From a scientific point of view, some studies have shown that many of these plants contain aggressive substances and therefore should be used with caution, respecting their toxicological risks. The most important effects of the indiscriminate use of medicinal plants are embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortifacient since the plant constituents can cross the placenta, reaching the fetus and leading to one of these effects. This study aimed to provide a list of

  6. Traditional uses of medicinal plants at Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro

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    Douglas S.A. Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This work had as outcome to deal with the part of the population of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro those who use the public health system and use alternative medicinal plants for the treatment of illness. Aims: To evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants traditionally used in curing/treatment different diseases and illnesses, and contribute as a therapeutic option in the public health system of municipality. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to measure independent variables and issues related to the consumption of medicinal plants, based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. It was calculated the relative importance index (RI of the medicinal plants used in the community as the number of users that mentioned them and the agreement use. Results: Seventy-three plants (44 families were cited by the population. Species with the highest number of citations (50% were boldo, lemon grass, gorse, lemon balm, breaks stone and air plant, and the leaves over part used in medicinal preparations; it was the tea as the main form of use from the fresh plant. Conclusions: The data suggest that the use of medicinal plants remains an important therapy and wanted by the population, and this would be integrating the knowledge of the practices of traditional medicine to scientific knowledge of these species, replacing the empirical use to the correct use, ensuring secure access to the population. This study is the first ethnopharmacological report in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.

  7. Teores de catequinas e teaflavinas em chás comercializados no Brasil Cathechin and theaflavin levels of teas commercialized in Brazil

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    Simara Matsubara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram determinados os teores de catequinas e teaflavinas em três marcas de chá verde e quatro de chá preto comercializadas no Brasil. A metodologia analítica consistiu de extração aquosa bastante simples e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foi utilizada uma coluna de fase reversa Novapak C18 (3,9 mmx150 mm, 4 µm com um gradiente de água e metanol ambos em ácido fórmico como fase móvel. Em chás verdes, os conteúdos de catequinas (em mg/g de folha seca variaram substancialmente: catequina, 0,8 a 2,8; epigalocatequina, 8 a 44; epigalocatequina galato, 11 a 50; epicatequina, 2,3 a 8,5 e epicatequina galato, 3,1 a 7,3. No caso dos chás pretos, as concentrações (mg/g de folha seca de catequinas estiveram nas faixas de: 10 a 50 de epigalocatequina, 14 a 37 de epigalocatequina galato, 5 a 9 de epicatequina e 10 a 21 de epicatequina galato. As teaflavinas apresentaram variação menor: entre 5 (para teaflavina 3'-galato e 13 mg/g (para teaflavina 3,3'-digalato de folha seca. Amostras de chás muito consumidas no Brasil (erva doce, camomila, erva cidreira, hortelã, boldo, mate, erva mate, maçã e morango também foram investigadas, não sendo encontrada nenhuma catequina ou teaflavina.In the present study, the catechin and theaflavin levels in three brands of green tea and four brands of black tea commercialized in Brazil were determined. The analytical methodology consisted of a very simple aqueous extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. A reverse phase Novapak C18 (3.9 mmx150 mm, 4 µm column was used with a gradient of water and methanol, both in formic acid, as mobile phase. In green tea, the catechin contents (in mg/g of dry leaf varied substantially: catechin, 0.8 to 2.8; epigallocatechin, 8 to 44; epigallocatechin gallate, 11 to 50; epicatechin, 2.3 to 8.5; and epicatechin gallate, 3.1 to 7.3. In the case of black tea, the concentrations (mg/g of dry leaf of catechins were in the ranges

  8. Obtenção e uso das plantas medicinais no distrito de Martim Francisco, Município de Mogi-Mirim, SP, Brasil Acquisition and use of medicinal plants in Martim Francisco district, Mogi Mirim Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Milena Andrea Curitiba Pilla

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um inventário das plantas medicinais conhecidas e usadas pela população do distrito de Martim Francisco, Município de Mogi-Mirim, SP, bem como conhecer seus empregos e sua importância na comunidade. Foram amostradas aleatoriamente 50 unidades domiciliares. Apenas um dos adultos responsáveis pela casa (homem ou mulher foi entrevistado, através de questionários. As plantas citadas foram coletadas e fotografadas paralelamente à aplicação dos questionários. O material botânico foi identificado e depositado no Herbarium Rioclarense (HRCB. Ao todo, foram catalogadas 107 espécies botânicas, predominantemente herbáceas e cultivadas, distribuídas em 40 famílias, sendo as famílias Lamiaceae e Asteraceae as mais representativas. Os índices de diversidade (H' = 4,07; e = 0,87 foram altos, se comparados aos obtidos em outros trabalhos no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Na preparação dos remédios, as folhas foram a parte da planta mais utilizada e a decocção a principal forma de preparo. A via oral foi a mais empregada para a administração dos medicamentos e as doenças mais freqüentemente tratadas por remédios caseiros referem-se aos Sistemas Digestivo e Respiratório. Não existe um rigor na posologia e na duração do tratamento, ficando este a critério do hábito de cada pessoa entrevistada. As plantas que apresentaram índice de importância relativa e concordância de uso acima de 60% foram: boldo (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, hortelã (Mentha sp. 2 e poejo (Cunila microcephala Benth..The aim of this work was to do an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants known and used by people in the Martim Francisco district, Mogi Mirim Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, as well as to investigate their application and importance for the community. A questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 50 households; in each, one adult (male

  9. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de Ipameri - GO Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Ipameri City - Goiás State

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    M.R. Zucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: identificar as espécies vegetais utilizadas com fins medicinais pela comunidade de Ipameri (Estado de Goiás; investigar as preferências com relação à produção e comercialização dessas plantas; e diagnosticar o perfil de gênero e as faixas etárias e salariais de seus usuários. Para isso, foram realizadas entrevistas estruturadas com 200 famílias da cidade e coletadas as plantas visando-se a sua correta identificação. O material foi herborizado, identificado e depositado no Herbário da Universidade Estadual de Goiás (HUEG. Das 200 famílias entrevistadas, 75 disseram não fazer uso de plantas com fins medicinais (37,5%, enquanto 125 afirmaram fazê-lo (62,5%. O grupo que utiliza relacionou 35 espécies mais empregadas: hortelã-rasteira (Mentha x villosa L., boldo-sete-dores (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews., capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf., quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus niruri L., camomila (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert., poejo (Mentha pulegium L., guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L., alfavacão (Ocimum gratissimum L., losna (Artemisia canphorata Vill., bálsamo (Eysenhardtia platycarpa Mich., carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., babosa (Aloe vera L. e malva (Althaea officinalis L.. Todas as famílias consumidoras (100% afirmaram preferir as plantas cultivadas de forma orgânica, selecionando-as através da boa aparência (68% das famílias e consumindo-as in natura (sem beneficiamento, 100%. A utilização de plantas medicinais em Ipameri é independente do sexo (54%, mulheres e 46%, homens e se estende às várias faixas etárias e também sócio-econômicas, configurando-se assim, um bom mercado consumidor.The aims of this study were: to identify the plant species used for medicinal purposes by the community at Ipameri (Goiás State; to investigate the preferences with respect to the production and marketing

  10. Extratos vegetais em dietas para frangos de corte Plant extracts in diets for broilers

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    Pricila Vetrano Rizzo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o fornecimento de misturas de extratos vegetais nas dietas de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 aves distribuídas em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições e cinco dietas, uma sem aditivos e outras quatro, cada uma contendo um dos aditivos: 10 ppm de avilamicina; 200 ppm de um produto contendo óleos essenciais de cravo, tomilho, canela e pimenta; 100 ppm de um produto comercial composto de óleos essenciais sintéticos de orégano e canela e óleo-resina de pimenta microencapsulados; 500 ppm de um produto comercial constituído de óleo de eucalipto, óleo essencial de canela-da-china, folhas de boldo-do-chile e sementes de feno-grego na fase inicial e 1.200 ppm nas fases de crescimento e final. Aos 21 e 42 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho e aos 44 dias de idade, as características de carcaça. Dos 27 aos 30 dias de idade, foi realizado o ensaio de metabolismo pelo método de coleta total de excretas e determinadas a energia metabolizável e a digestibilidade da proteína bruta das dietas. As dietas com misturas de extratos vegetais não tiveram efeito significativo sobre o desempenho se comparadas à dieta sem aditivo e à dieta com antibiótico. A ausência de desafio na criação e a utilização de dietas com ingredientes de alta digestibilidade podem ter contribuído para que as aves expressassem todo o seu potencial, tornando indetectável a melhora ocasionada pela inclusão de qualquer dos aditivos. Dietas contendo misturas de extratos vegetais promovem desempenho semelhante ao obtido com dietas contendo antibiótico.The trial was carried out to evaluate different blends of plants extracts in broilers diets. It was used 1,350 broilers distributed in a randomized block design with six replicates and five diets, one without additive and the four others, each containing one of the following additives: 10 ppm of avilamycin; 200 ppm of a product containing essential oils of carnation, thyme

  11. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus = Similaridade genética de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus

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    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.O gênero Plectranthus abrange plantas de diversas espécies, referidas como boldo, que são utilizadas na medicina popular pelas suas propriedades antidispépticas, analgésicas e estimulantes da digestão. Genótipos relacionados podem diferir amplamente na quantidade de princípios ativos naturais, resultando no uso de plantas não-apropriadas à saúde da população. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética interespecífica de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus e P. amboinicus e intraespecífica de P. barbatus, coletadas em diferentes localidades da região Sul do Brasil, por meio da técnica de RAPD

  12. Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations

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    Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos

  13. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and Farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms

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    Cermanova, Jolana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Kadova, Zuzana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Zagorova, Marie [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hroch, Milos [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Tomsik, Pavel [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Nachtigal, Petr; Kudlackova, Zdenka [Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Pavek, Petr; Dubecka, Michaela; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek [Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Laho, Tomas [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Micuda, Stanislav, E-mail: micuda@lfhk.cuni.cz [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. - Highlights: • Boldine may increase bile production by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. • Biliary concentrations of boldine above 10 μM directly stimulate bile production. • Long-term oral boldine administration increases bile acid (BA) biliary secretion. • Boldine

  14. São Manuel Bueno, mártir: a hagiografia de um santo sem fé

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    Lucas Gilnei Pereira de Melo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available bold;">O presente artigo objetiva realizar uma análise da novela de Miguel de Unamuno, “São Manuel Bueno, Mártir”, verificando a escrita hagiográfica do autor no processo de criação de um personagem santo, Dom Manuel, cujas ações e pensamentos transitam entre a santidade e a heresia. Observaremos os traços da biografia com base na teoria de Levi (2006, visto a novela ser construída a partir dos relatos da narradora Ângela Carballino, sendo, dessa forma uma tentativa de escrever sobre uma vida. Além disso, por tratar-se de uma hagiografia, traremos a baila o teórico Certeau (2010, pois o mesmo discute elementos caracterizadores da santidade, além da postura histórica da igreja em relação a própria hagiografia. A novela de Unamuno perpassa, ainda, pela discussão filosófica existencialista, sobre o sentido da vida, a fé divina e o suicídio.

  15. Estudo das plantas medicinais, utilizadas pelos pacientes atendidos no programa “Estratégia saúde da família” em Maringá/PR/Brasil

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    M.A. LOPES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Estima-se que 80% da população mundial dependam das plantas medicinais no processo da atenção primária em saúde, e grande parte destes tem nas plantas a única fonte de medicamentos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a utilização de plantas medicinais pela comunidade, pertencente à equipe 10 da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF da Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS Pinheiros, em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados no período de março de 2012 a maio de 2012. A equipe de pesquisadores aplicou 95 questionários intercalando os domicílios. Observou-se que 24,2% utilizam plantas medicinais com frequência, 40% utilizam esporadicamente e 35,8% não utilizam. Entre as pessoas que utilizam, observou-se que a forma mais citada foi o uso era pela indicação de amigos ou pelos ancestrais As plantas medicinais mais citadas foram: hortelã (Mentha sp., boldo (Plectranthus barbatus, camomila (Matricaria recutita, erva cidreira (Melissa officinalis e guaco (Mikania glomerata. Quando perguntados se o uso de plantas medicinais somente fazem bem à saúde, 68,5% dos participantes afirmaram que plantas medicinais não causam nenhum mal à saúde. A partir destes resultados, observou-se que a utilização de plantas medicinais é bem aceita pela população e que ainda existe uma lacuna grande a ser preenchida pelos profissionais da saúde no que diz respeito à orientação sobre o uso correto desse tipo de terapia.

  16. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

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    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  17. Avaliação do conhecimento e percepção dos profissionais da estratégia de saúde da família sobre o uso de plantas medicinais e fitoterapia em Petrolina-PE, Brasil.

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    B.J. NASCIMENTO JÚNIOR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho objetivou verificar se os profissionais de nível superior, ligados a Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF do Município de Petrolina-PE percebem a importância, utilização e indicações de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal de caráter exploratório e descritivo, no qual participaram 96 profissionais de nível superior locados em Unidades da ESF. Os dados foram obtidos através de entrevista individual utilizando questionário semiestruturado. Para análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste Pearson Qui quadrado. As plantas medicinais mais citadas foram o Boldo (Plectranthus barbatus A. e a Camomila (Matricaria recutita L.. Os fitoterápicos foram indicados apenas por 5 (5,2% médicos e os mais citados foram Guaco® e Maracugina®. 36 (37,5% dos profissionais acham que não estão preparados para repassar as informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais e apenas 35 (36,5% se sentem preparados para prescrever fitoterápicos. Observa-se a necessidade de capacitação e motivação desses profissionais para a utilização correta e segura das Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterapia.

  18. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

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    S.L. MACIEL

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 eggs, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

  19. Ação antioxidante de chás e condimentos de grande consumo no Brasil Antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil

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    Selene M. de Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantes são compostos que atuam inibindo e/ou diminuindo os efeitos desencadeados pelos radicais livres e compostos oxidantes. Os chás são bebidas populares e fontes significativas de compostos fenólicos, sendo considerados importantes integrantes das dietas devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antioxidante de uma variedade de chás e condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil. Os chás analisados foram das plantas: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia sinensis (L O. Kuntze (fermentado, Camelia sinensis (não-fermentado, Lippia alba N.E. Brown,Mentha arvensis L., e Pyrus malus L. Os condimentos analisados foram: Eugenia aromatica Baill, Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume, Laurus nobilis L. e Origanum vulgare L. O método utilizado para avaliar a ação antioxidante foi o da atividade seqüestradora de radicais livres DPPH em solução metanólica. Todas as amostras analisadas demonstraram atividade em suas diferentes concentrações. Camelia sinensis (não-fermentada foi a mais ativa com CI50= 0,14 mg/mL, cujos principais compostos antioxidantes são epigalocatequinas. Os condimentos mais ativos foram Cinnamonum zeylanicum (CI50 = 0,37 mg/mL, Eugenia aromatica Baill (CI50 = 0,46 mg/mL e Laurus nobilis (CI50 = 0,76 mg/mL, cujo principal antioxidante relatado foi o eugenol.Antioxidants are compounds that remove free-radicals or minimize their availability to generate oxidative stress. Teas are popular beverages providing a significant source of phenolic compounds, important components of the human diet due to their antioxidant properties. The present work had the objective of evaluate the antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil. The analysed teas were from the plants: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia

  20. Plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população do município de Lagarto- SE, Brasil – ênfase em pacientes oncológicos

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    N.L.B. CAETANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A utilização de plantas com fins medicinais é uma das mais antigas formas de prática medicinal da humanidade. Entretanto, o conceito de “natural” contribui para o pensamento popular e errôneo de que Plantas Medicinais (PM são sinônimos de produtos seguros, o qual pode ocasionar no desenvolvimento de efeitos adversos ou interações medicamentosas. Neste contexto, foi realizado levantamento etnofarmacológico das Plantas Medicinais (PM utilizadas no município de Lagarto, SE, Brasil, com ênfase de seu uso por pacientes oncológicos. Um total de 706 moradores foram entrevistados. Foram citadas 80 plantas, das quais 57 foram identificadas em nosso laboratório. O uso de plantas medicinais (MP para fins terapêuticos foi relatada por 336 (47,65% entrevistados. As MPs mais utilizados foram: Erva-Cidreira (Lippiaalba (Mill N. E. Brown - 103, 30,8%, Boldo (Plectranthus barbatus Andr. - 53, 15,7%, e Capim-Santo (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf - 49, 14,6%. Dos entrevistados que relataram o uso de MPs, metade (360, 50,95% comunicaram ao médico, mas não receberam orientações específicas. As doenças crônicas mais comuns identificadas foram: hipertensão arterial (144, 20,34%, câncer (55, 7,81% e diabetes (41, 5,89%. Dos pacientes com câncer, cerca de 40% (22 relataram utilizar PMs concomitante com quimioterapia, dado alarmante, visto a possibilidade de interações medicamentosas entre PMs e antineoplásicos. Diante desses dados, foi observado o uso de PM pela população de Lagarto, SE, e por pacientes oncológicos dessa região, porém, sem os mesmos receberem orientações de um profissional qualificado.

  1. O diálogo com gestantes sobre plantas medicinais: contribuições para os cuidados básicos de saúde - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1579 Dialogue with pregnant women about medicinal plants: contribution to health basic care - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1579

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    Amanda Ayres

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descritivo-exploratório discutiu o uso de plantas na vida da gestante e suas implicações para os cuidados básicos de saúde. Os objetivos eram os seguintes: identificar as plantas comumente utilizadas pelas gestantes; descrever a finalidade e a forma de preparo das plantas e analisar suas implicações para os cuidados básicos de saúde. Aplicaram-se os conceitos de educação dialógica e do cliente como sujeito do cuidado. Participaram da pesquisa gestantes de uma instituição pública de saúde do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizadas entrevista semi-estruturada. Os resultados apontaram que o conhecimento das gestantes sobre as plantas é de origem sócio-familiar, sendo a camomila, a erva-doce, a erva-cidreira e o boldo as mais utilizadas, predominantemente em forma de chá. Ressalta-se o diálogo na reflexão quanto aos prejuízos advindos do uso indiscriminado de plantas, destacando-se os efeitos tóxico e abortivo. Foi possível repensar o cuidado de enfermagem, valorizando a participação do cliente nas ações básicas de saúde.This descriptive, exploratory study discussed the use of plants in pregnant women’s life and its implications for health basic care. Objectives: to identify the plants regularly used by pregnant women; to describe the purpose and preparation of the plants; to analyze the implications for heath basic care. Semi-structured interviews were applied to pregnant women from a public institution of Rio de Janeiro. The results showed that pregnant women’s knowledge about the plants is social and hereditary, being Chamomile, Anise, lemon herb and boldutree leaf the most commonly used, predominantly in tea form. Dialogue reflecting the harm caused by indiscriminate uses of the plants is very important, as well as their toxic and abortive effects. It was also possible to rethink the nursery care, increasing the client’s participation in the health basic actions.

  2. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880 Genetic similarity among four species of Plectranthus genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880

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    Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.Medicinal plants are widely used by the population, therefore they are important sources of natural chemical products. Plectranthus includes species related as “boldo” that have anti-dyspeptics, analgesic and stimulants of digestion properties. Related species or genotypes can differ widely in the amount of natural active principles, in such case the lack of genetic fitness can lead to the use of not appropriate plants to the population health. Molecular techniques can be used for DNA-fingerprinting of plants providing its correct identification. This work aimed at verifying the genetic diversity among four species of Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P

  3. Los mapuchismos en el DRAE Mapuchisms in DRAE

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    Gilberto Sánchez Cabezas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata del léxico proveniente del idioma mapuche (mapudungun(n contenido en la última edición (vigésimo segunda del Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE. Se propone la voz mapuchismo(s para dicho léxico, así como ya existe guaranismo, mayismo, nahuatlismo o aztequismo y quechuismo para el que procede de las correspondientes lenguas amerindias. Desde que se produjo el contacto entre el pueblo mapuche y los conquistadores españoles (1540, comenzó a incorporarse en la lengua de estos últimos léxico referido al medio ambiente natural local, y a la cultura autóctona. Por ello, una parte importante del léxico del español de Chile que se refiere a la flora (boldo, canchalagüa, luma, mañío, peumo, etc., a la fauna (chuncho, coipo, loica, peuco, tiuque, etc., a la alimentación (cancato, curanto, pirco, ulpo, etc., al cuerpo humano (guata, charcha, trutro o tuto, al origen geográfico de los habitantes (colchagüino, curicano, penquista, rancagüino, talquino, etc. es de origen indígena. Tal léxico no solo se ha empleado en la lengua coloquial y familiar, sino también en la culta formal escrita: en las crónicas coloniales, en los tratados de historia, en tratados científicos de botánica, zoología, geografía, en obras literarias (desde La Araucana hasta el presente, en textos escolares, etc., y actualmente en los medios de comunicación. La lengua mapuche pervive igualmente en la abundante toponimia del país (desde la IVª hasta la XIª Regiones e, incluso, en la antroponimia (con nombres como Caupolicán, Guacolda, Lautaro, Millaray, Tucapel. En el artículo se trata de recuperar, en la medida de lo posible, la forma original del léxico, la cual aparece ya alterada en los escritos coloniales, hecho que se constata también en la actualidad. Para ello se ha recurrido a los léxicos de la lengua vernácula, tanto del pasado como del presente.This article deals with lexical items coming from Mapuche

  4. Plantas medicinais cultivadas em quintais de comunidades rurais no domínio do cerrado piauiense (Município de Demerval Lobão, Piauí, Brasil Medicinal plants cultivated in homegardens of rural communities in the domain of Cerrado in Piaui (Demerval Lobão Municipality, Piauí State, Brazil

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    L.C.G.G. Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento terapêutico acumulado por populações rurais através de séculos de estreito contato com o meio possibilita a obtenção de informações acerca do uso dos recursos naturais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um inventário das plantas medicinais cultivadas em quintais do município de Demerval Lobão, Piauí, bem como, conhecer o emprego e a importância dessas espécies na comunidade. Foram amostrados 21 quintais em nove comunidades da zona rural do município de Demerval Lobão com vegetação de cerrado. O trabalho foi conduzido com os mantenedores dos quintais a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação direta, associada à técnica de turnê-guiada. As plantas medicinais coletadas foram catalogadas, identificadas, e depositadas no Herbário Graziela Barroso (TEPB da Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI. Foram referidas 100 espécies botânicas, predominantemente herbáceas e cultivadas, distribuídas em 49 famílias, sendo Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Lamiaceae as mais representativas em número de espécies. Na preparação dos remédios, as folhas foram as mais utilizadas, sendo a decocção a principal forma de preparo. As doenças mais frequentes tratadas por remédios caseiros referem-se ao sistema respiratório e digestivo. Observou-se que não há rigidez quanto à posologia e a duração do tratamento, ficando este a critério do hábito de cada pessoa entrevistada. As plantas que apresentaram índice de importância relativa e concordância de uso (CUP acima de 60% foram cansansão (Cnidosculus urens, boldo (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, jurema-preta (Mimosa verrucosa Benth e cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex Britton & P.Wilson. P. barbatus foi a mais citada e também a que apresentou os índices mais altos de CUP (100%, fator de correção - FC (1,00 e concordância de uso corrigido - CUPc (100% para dores no estômago e problemas no fígado. Observou-se a necessidade de resgatar o

  5. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

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    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    , capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia, arruda (Ruta graveolens, falso-boldo (Coleus barbatus, confrei (Symphitum officinalis, erva-de-bicho (Polygonum acre, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, funcho (Foeniculum vulgare, guiné (Petiveria alliacea, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides, mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e nim (Azadirachta indica. Água destilada foi adicionada ao solo como tratamento testemunha. Após 60 dias, avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz e os números de galhas e de ovos por sistema radicular. Os extratos de hortelã, bardana e mamona reduziram o número de galhas em 75,6%, 65,7% e 54,4%, e o número de ovos em 81,7%, 75,9% e 56,6%, respectivamente.

  6. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

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    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    ão (Ocimum basilicum, melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia, arruda (Ruta graveolens, falso-boldo (Coleus barbatus, confrei (Symphitum officinalis, erva-de-bicho (Polygonum acre, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, funcho (Foeniculum vulgare, guiné (Petiveria alliacea, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides, mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e nim (Azadirachta indica. Água destilada foi adicionada ao solo como tratamento testemunha. Após 60 dias, avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz e os números de galhas e de ovos por sistema radicular. Os extratos de hortelã, bardana e mamona reduziram o número de galhas em 75,6%, 65,7% e 54,4%, e o número de ovos em 81,7%, 75,9% e 56,6%, respectivamente.

  7. Conhecimento e utilização da fitoterapia em idosos com aderência às práticas integrativas: estudo piloto

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    Thatiana Ezzaoui da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A fitoterapia, conceituada como o uso de plantas na cura ou prevenção de doenças, vem recebendo cada vez mais atenção dos órgãos não governamentais e oficiais de saúde. Cerca de 80% da população mundial, especialmente os idosos, já tiveram alguma experiência de utilização de fitoterápicos, com fins preventivos ou curativos. É fato que as plantas são portadoras de uma variedade muito grande de elementosutilizados no tratamento de doenças, todavia, também contêm substâncias que se mal-utilizadas podem levar o paciente à morte. Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento e a utilização da fitoterapia em um grupo de idosos com aderência às práticas integrativas. Método: Foi aplicado a um grupo de 17idosos habitantes da cidade de São Paulo, que recebiam tratamentos baseados em práticas integrativas, como o Reiki, questionário composto de 7 questões de múltipla escolha e 1 questão dissertativa a respeito do conhecimento e utilização da fitoterapia em seu cotidiano. Resultados: 15 voluntários declararam conhecer a fitoterapia, enquanto 1 declarou desconhecimento e 1 não respondeu a questão. 10 voluntários afirmaram fazer uso de plantas medicinais, enquanto 7 assinalaram não utilizar. 3 receberam indicações de fitoterápicos através de médicos, sendo que o restante recebeu informações de amigos,parentes e mídias diversas. As plantas medicinais mais relatadas foram: erva doce, erva cidreira, camomila, guaco e boldo. A busca pelos fitoterápicos foi relacionada principalmente para o tratamento da ansiedade e de problemas digestivos e respiratórios. As formas de preparo mais descritas foram a infusão e xarope. Conclusões: Apesar de ser uma amostra populacional que apresenta identidade e aderência às práticas integrativas, nem todos os voluntários se utilizam da fitoterapia. Algumas confusões em relação a correta indicação das plantas e suas formas de preparo foram constatadase são poss