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Sample records for boiss prehidrolisis acida

  1. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulose Biomass of Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Hidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-07-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Flavones and Flavone Glycosides from Salvia macrosiphon Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Ebrahimi, Hakimeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Foruzani, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Puneh; Ajani, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Salvia genus, which is generally called Maryam-Goli in the Persian language, belongs to Lamiaceae family and comprises 58 species in Iran. Four flavonoids plus a steroid compound were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss, using different chromatographic methods on the silica gel and sephadex LH20. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be apigenin-7, 4’-dimethyl ether (1), β-sitosterol (2), salvigenin (3) ap...

  4. Acid hydrolysis of Biomass lignocellulose Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs

  5. Antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Amin; Enayat Kalantar; Neda Mohammad-Saeid; Behzad Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Methods:Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was assessed by agar disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was tested by E test. Results:The essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was effective on pathogenic bacteria particularly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The MIC values of the target cultures ranged from 0.39 mg/mL to 1.56 mg/mL. The physicochemical properties like effects of pH, temperature, detergents, and enzymes on the activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss were also determined. The essential oil was quite stable to temperature as tested against S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The essential oil was very stable over a wide range of pH. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents (Such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton 100, etc.) and enzymes (namely proteinase K, trypsin, lipase, and lysosyme). Conclusions:A potential use of the essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss is suggested. More studies including further purification, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of toxicity are needed for confirmation of this suggestion.

  6. Phytochemical Screening And Analgesic Studies Of The Root Bark Of Hymenocardia Acida, Tul (Euphorbiaceae

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    Olotu N. Paul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research work covers the phytochemical screening and Analgesic studies of the root bark of Hymenocardia acida, Tul, (Euphorbiaceae which is claimed by the Hausa in the Northern Nigeria to be used traditionally for the treatment of headache, chest-pain, rheumatic pain, toothache, ear pain, migraine and sickle cell crisis. The various phytochemical tests revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The result of analgesic activity of the extracts showed a significant and dose dependent analgesic activity when compared to the untreated control group at P<0.05. This justifies the use of the plant in ethnomedicine for the treatment of headache, chest pain, rheumatic pain, toothache, ear pain, migraine and sickle cell crisis.

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts in production of nanoparticles and the effect of the extraction solvent on the produced nanoparticles. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. Both the extracts of P. gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. successfully produced small and polydispersed nanoparticles with low aggregates in early hours of the biotransformation. Methanol extract produced spherical and many single nanoparticles, whereas dichloromethane produced porous polyhedral and more aggregated nanoparticles. Methanol extract of this plant seems to be quiet useful for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  8. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Prażak; Edyta Paczos-Grzęda

    2014-01-01

    A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of gra...

  9. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  10. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  11. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. (Fabaceae) from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia I. Karpenko; Vladislava A. Badanina

    2014-01-01

    The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans.) Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae) at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. i...

  12. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Doğu; Muhittin Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic t...

  13. Lipid modulatory activities of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet are mediated by multiple components within hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Ding; Jun-Lin Liu; Waseem Hassan; Lu-Lu Wang; Fang-Rong Yan; Jing Shang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate a possible methodology of exploiting herbal medicine and design polytherapy for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we have made use of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet (CG), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been proven to be effective in treating hepatic diseases. Here, we report that the extract of CG effectively reduced lipid accumulation under conditions of lipid overloading in vivo and in vitro (in a rat high-fat diet model and a he...

  14. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

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    Roman Prażak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of grains per main spike, main spike fertility and 1000-grain weight than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. The BC1F1 hybrid line was characterized by wheat-like fertility and phenotype. The F5 hybrid lines were characterized by much higher variability of the analysed morphological traits than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. Grains of the hybrid lines had higher protein and micronutrient (iron and zinc content than wheat grains. The presence of DNA fragments specific to Ae. kotschyi Boiss. in the genotypes of the hybrid lines was confirmed by seven ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats molecular markers. Two ISSR markers – ISSR23690 and ISSR33650 – were the most effective for germplasm analysis of the hybrid lines. The analysed lines can become a source material for improvement of common wheat T. aestivum L. in crossing programs.

  15. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

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    Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H2O2 scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p2O2 induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments.La actividad antihemolítica y antioxidante de extractos hidroalcohólicos de flores, tallos y hojas de Ferula gummosa Boiss fueron investigados empleando diferentes ensayos in vitro. Los extractos de hojas mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de radicales libres. Además, mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de óxido nítrico y H2O2 y actividad quelatante de Fe2+ que las otras partes. Los extractos exhibieron una buena actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con ácido linoleico pero no comparable con la vitamina C (pF. gummosa mostraron una mejor actividad antihemolítica contra la hemolisis inducida con H2O2. Entre los extractos, las flores tienen los más altos contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides. Esta planta es muy prometedora para futuros experimentos bioquímicos.

  16. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  17. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  18. Evaluación de un inhibidor utilizado en soluciones acidas bajo condiciones hidrodinámicas controladas

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    Salinas-Bravo, V. M.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The cylindrical rotating electrode and electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the protection against corrosion of a commercial inhibitor used in hydrochloric acid solutions with and without additions of thiourea and ammonium bifluoride. The corrosion phenomenon was investigated under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. These were chosen to simulate those found in a pipe at different flow velocities. It was found that corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions with inhibitor is mainly controlled by activation, whereas in acid solutions with inhibitor added with thiourea and ammonium bifluoride it is mainly controlled by mass transfer. On the other hand, flow velocity of the acidic solutions affects negatively the efficiency of the inhibitor in the concentration range of 0.2 to 1.0 %.

    Utilizando el electrodo cilíndrico rotatorio y técnicas electroquímicas, se estudió la eficiencia de la protección contra la corrosión de un inhibidor comercial utilizado en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico con y sin adiciones de tiourea y bifluoruro de amonio. El fenómeno de la corrosión se investigó en condiciones hidrodinámicas controladas, seleccionadas para simular las que se establecen en una tubería a distintas velocidades de flujo. Se encontró que la corrosión del acero al carbono en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico con inhibidor de corrosión está controlada principalmente por activación, mientras que en soluciones acidas con inhibidor y adiciones de tiourea y bifluoruro de amonio está controlada principalmente por transferencia de masa. Por otra parte, la velocidad del flujo de las soluciones acidas afecta de -manera negativa a la eficiencia de protección del inhibidor estudiado en el intervalo de concentración de 0,2 a 1,0 %.

  19. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  20. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

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    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  1. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavi, S. F.; Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The Antioxidant and anti hemolytic activities of hydro alcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p< 0.001). The extracts showed weak reducing power activity. The F. gummosa stem extract showed better anti hemolytic activity against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments. (Author) 43 refs.

  2. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

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    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  3. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of Tunisian Limoniastrum guyonianum Durieu ex Boiss extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Amel; Benzarti, Anissa; Arem, Amira El; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Hammami, Saoussen; Gorcii, Mohamed; Mastouri, Maha; Hellal, Ahmed Noureddine; Mighri, Zine

    2016-07-01

    In the present investigation, extracts obtained from L. guyonianum Durieu ex Boiss. aerial parts were used to evaluate total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. A study of antioxidant activities of the prepared samples was carried out on the basis of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+.) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Moreover, the efficiency of methanolic, chloroformic and petroleum ether extracts and the deriving fractions from the methanolic extract was tested against human bacterial and fungal pathogenic strains using micro dilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plate. Furthermore, leaves and stems extracts were subjected to RP-HPLC for phenolic compounds identification. Results showed that polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities varied considerably as function of solvent polarity. Moreover, antiradical capacities against DPPH, ABTS(+.) and reducing power were maxima in methanol aerial parts extract which showed the highest polyphenol contents (134mg CE/g DW). The antimicrobial activities showed that methanolic, chloroformic and petroleum ether extracts were found to be most potent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 23 and 46μ.mL(-1), respectively. The fractions F(13) and F(16) have a great antifungal potential against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilesis (MIC=39μ.mL(-1)). The RP-HPLC analysis lead the identification of gallic, procatechuic and trans-cinnamic acids, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, n-propyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, epicatechin, naringin and myricetin in L. guyonianum Durieu ex Boiss. leaves and stems extracts. PMID:27393443

  4. Comparative essential oil composition of aerial parts of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss. from Southern Zagros, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Gholam Abbas; Naseri, Mahmood; Hatami, Ahmad; Jafari, Efat

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of leaves and flowers of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss., an endemic medicinal shrub, were extracted by using hydrodistillation method and analysed using GC and GC-MS. A total of 43 and 44 compounds were identified in the essential oils from the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum, respectively. The major chemical constituents of leaves oil were borneol (27.9%), bornyl acetate (18.4%), 1,8-cineol (17.5%), α-terpineol (5.3%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (3.3%), camphene (2.7%) and terpinene-4-ol (1.9%), while the main components of the flower oil were isobornyl-2-methyl butanoate (41.1%), trans-linalyl oxide acetate (11.9%), 1,8-cineole (7.7%), thymol (4.2%), linalool (3.9%), camphor (2.9%), isobornyl propanoate (2.9%), α-terpineol (2.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.0%). Major qualitative and quantitative variations for some main chemical compounds among different aerial parts of T. dumosum were identified. High contents of borneol, bornyl acetate, 1,8-cineol and linalool in the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum show its potential for use in the food and perfumery industry. PMID:25370611

  5. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in Mice

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    M. Rabbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae on the elevated plus-maze (EPM model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1.

  6. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wafaa; Al-Gendy, Amal; Al-Youssef, Hanan; El-Shazely, Assem

    2012-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, 1-beta-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophila-7,9-dien-12-oic acid (1), in addition to two known flavonol glycosides, rutin (2) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss. (family Asteraceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC), MS and UV data, and through comparison with the literature. The ethyl acetate fraction and the isolated rutin showed significant cytotoxic activity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and to less extent against brain (U 251) and breast carcinoma (MCF 7). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant level of activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the total extract showed the best antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was significant (96.7%) when compared to ascorbic acid. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity but no diuretic effect. PMID:22624330

  7. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

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    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  8. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  9. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss

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    Salmiah Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent.

  10. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmiah; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Talebpour, Amir Hossein; Zargar, Mohsen; Shameli, Kamyar; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent. PMID:23484141

  12. Anatomical and Phytochemical Study of Lilium ledebourii (Baker Boiss., a Rare Endemic Species in Iran

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    "Hassan Farsam

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lilium ledebourii (Baker Boiss.(Liliaceae, locally named “Susan -e Chelcheragh” is a native and rare species grown on the heights of Damash region (ca. 2100 m in Gilan province, north part of Iran.The microscopic and anatomical features and the composition of oils of flower and corm of this unique plant were studied. The microscopic study has shown the main characteristic elements of leaf, stem, corm and flower of this plant. The composition of essential oils of flower and corm were determined by coupled GC-MS analysis. The yields of oils of flower and corm were 0.71 % and 1.65 % (v/w respectively. The major components of flower’s oil were isopulegol (55.15 %, pentacosane (18.1%, 3-methyltricosane (9.97%, tricosane (5.35%, 2-methylpentacosane (4.35%, docosane (4.28% and linalool oxide (2.20%. The components of corm’s oil were almost fatty acids. No aromatic volatile compound was found in the corm oil. Primary qualitative phytochemical tests of stem, leaf, corm and flower showed positive results for alkaloid and flavonoid (one plus in stem and for saponin (4 plus in corm and (2 plus in the flower. Tests for tannin in all parts were negative. Further phytochemical and botanical studies on this unique plant is of importance.

  13. Lipid modulatory activities of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet are mediated by multiple components within hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Liu, Jun-Lin; Hassan, Waseem; Wang, Lu-Lu; Yan, Fang-Rong; Shang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    To investigate a possible methodology of exploiting herbal medicine and design polytherapy for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we have made use of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet (CG), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been proven to be effective in treating hepatic diseases. Here, we report that the extract of CG effectively reduced lipid accumulation under conditions of lipid overloading in vivo and in vitro (in a rat high-fat diet model and a hepG2 cell model of free fatty acid treatment). CG extract also protected hepatocytes from injury and inflammation to aid its lipid-lowering properties (in a rat high-fat diet model and a L02 cell model of acetaminophen treatment). Serum chemistry analysis accompanied by in vitro drug screening confirmed that CG-4, CG-10 and CG-14 are the lipo-effective components of CG. Western blotting analysis revealed that these components can regulate key lipid targets at the molecular level, including CD36, FATP5 and PPAR-α, thus the lipid oxidation and lipid absorption pathways. Finally, we adopted the experimental design and statistical method to calculate the best combination proportion (CG-4: CG-10: CG-14 = 2.065: 1.782: 2.153) to optimize its therapeutic effect. PMID:24797163

  14. [The use of RAPD and ITE molecular markers to study genetical structure of the Crimean population of Triticum boeoticum Boiss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallabaeva, D Sh; Ignatov, A N; Sheĭko, I A; Isikov, V P; Geliuta, V P; Boĭko, N G; Seriapin, A A; Dorokhov, D B

    2007-01-01

    Wild wheat Triticum boeoticum Boiss. is the rare species are included in the Red Book of Ukraine. This species are reducing the magnitude of population and the area of distribution under anthropogenic activity. We studied genetic structure of two populations of T. boeoticum, located on Sapun Mountain and in Baidar Valley in Crimea. According RAPD and ITE molecular analysis we have estimated that the population of T. boeoticum on Sapun Mountain is genetically more impoverished than a population from the Baidar Valley. For preservation of maximal natural genetic polymorphism of the rare species it is recommended to direct efforts to preservations of a population of T. boeoticum from the Baidar Valley.

  15. Effects of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae) essential oil on healing gastric ulcers according to sex

    OpenAIRE

    Guesmi, Fatma; Ben Ali, Manel; Barkaoui, Taha; Tahri, Wiem; Mejri, Mondher; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Bellamine, Houda; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as “mougecha” or “mazoukcha” is prolific in Mediterranean regions, mostly in North Africa, and is used in folk medicine to treat of stomach diseases. Methods In this study, animals were induced with gastric ulcers using HCl/ethanol (0.3 M HCl/60% ethanol) and treated orally with essential oil of Thymus algeriensis (EOTa) in various doses ranging from 54 mg/kg body weight to 180 mg/kg body weight. Result The dose found ...

  16. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alinejad, Mahla

    2016-07-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode's solution at 37°C and gassed with O2. Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM), electrical field stimulation (EFS) or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL) and EFS (IC50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL), EFS (IC50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL) as well as oxytocin (IC50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL). From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm. PMID:27651808

  17. Pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in Acer velutinum Boiss.seed lots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Farhadi; Mulualem Tigabu; Alireza Ghasemi Arian; Mehdi Sharifani; Abolfazl Daneshvar; Per Christer Oden

    2013-01-01

    Acer velutinum Boiss is a valuable tree species native to Iran,and its seeds possess physiological dormancy that hampers seedling production in the nursery for large-scale reforestation efforts.The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dormancy breaking treatments for A.velutinum seeds.We conducted a factorial experiment involving six seed lots collected along an elevation gradient from 300 to 1800 m at 300 m interval and four cold-moist stratification periods (0,4,8 and 16 weeks) at 4℃ and 70% relative humidity.The result shows that the germination of cold-moist stratified seeds was significantly (p < 0.0001)higher than the control for all seed lots.The highest germination capacity was recorded after 16 weeks of cold-moist stratification for all seed lots (68%-88% depending on the seed lot) except those collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) that germinated equally well (≥ 75%) after 4-and 8-week of clod-moist stratification compared to the other seed lots.The mean germination time was significantly shorter (12 to 19 days,depending on the seed lot) for seeds stratified for 16 weeks than for untreated seeds.It can be concluded that:(1) cold-moist stratification for 16 weeks is the best pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in A.velutinum seeds; and (2) seeds should be collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) to get more than 80% germination within 15 days,and these seed lots even required shorter cold-moist stratification period (eight weeks) than other seed lots.

  18. Chemical and genetic diversity of Zataria multiflora Boiss. accessions growing wild in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Javad; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Mirjalili, Mohammad Hossein; Azizi, Ali; Ranjbar, Hamid; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss. is an aromatic shrub belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Its aerial parts are used in the traditional medicine and in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The terpenoid and genetic profiles of 18 accessions of Z. multiflora, collected in different locations in Iran, have been analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS or by AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analyses, respectively. Altogether, 56 compounds were identified in the essential oils, with the major constituents being thymol (6.0-54.9%), carvacrol (0.7-50.6%), linalool (1.2-46.8%), and p-cymene (1.6-14.8%). On the basis of the essential-oil composition, the 18 accessions were divided into four groups. The first group was characterized by a high content of carvacrol, thymol, and linalool, the second group was dominated by carvacrol, thymol, and p-cymene, the third group was characterized by a high concentration of thymol and a low content of carvacrol and p-cymene, and the forth group contained linalool and carvacrol as the main components. The AFLP results revealed that the average genetic similarity (GS) between the accessions was 0.61, ranging from 0.40 to 0.77. The UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean) cluster analysis divided all accessions into five groups at a similarity level of 0.60. The two clusters generated, the first based on the essential-oil compositions and the second on the AFLP data, showed a different pattern of relationships among the accessions. The knowledge of the Z. multiflora chemotype diversity, illustrated in this study, will allow an improvement of the homogeneity of the plant material for the production of different types of essential oils, depending on the demands of the pharmaceutical and food industries for specific uses. PMID:21259428

  19. Tordylium persicum Boiss. & Hausskn extract: A possible alternative for treatment of pediatric infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Fallah, F; Setzer, W N; Entezari Heravi, R; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial herbal compounds are one of the important medical resources, and in order to help alleviate the spread of the pediatric infectious diseases, identification of additional bioactive phytochemicals and herbal extracts will be practical in treating illnesses. In the present work, antimicrobial activities various extracts of Tordylium persicum Boiss. & Hausskn aerial parts were determined against five Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, two fungi, and Echinococcus granulosus. Antimicrobial activities were assayed using both disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods. Scolicidal activity was assayed by the Smyth and Barrett method. Also total phenol and total flavonoid contents for plant extracts were assayed. Results showed that the methanolic extract was more effective on all microbes. The results showed that Streptococcus pyogenes was the most susceptible to the methanolic extract (MIC = 25.9 ± 0.0 µg/mL), while Proteus vulgaris was the most resistant strain (MIC = 295.3 ± 0.0 µg/mL) among all bacteria evaluated. The extracts showed significant activity versus E. granulosus (P < 0.5) with dose-dependent inhibitions of the protoscolices. The high concentration of total polyphenolics (294.5 ± 0.1 GAE/g DW) and flavonoids (105.7 ± 0.3 mg CE/g DW) may be responsible for these activities. Our study is first evaluation on antimicrobial and scolicidal activities of T. persicum. Due to the appearance of antibiotic-resistance, ourstudy suggested that methanol extracts of this plant are appropriate candidate for traditional curative uses and it can be utilized in the pediatric infectious disease therapy, especially pediatric infectious disease. PMID:27585257

  20. Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice Model

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    Amir TAVAKOLI KARESHK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the in vivo activity of Bunium persicum (Boiss essential oil on infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis.Methods: To evaluate prophylactic effects, male NMRI mice received B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg for 14 days. After 24 h mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1×104 tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain. In order to investigate therapeutic effects, mice were infected and then received B. persicum oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/kg two times a day for 5 days. The time/mean time of death in all infected mice and the number of tachyzoites from infected mice were recorded.Results: The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 8 and 9 days after oral administration of B. persicum oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively (P<0.05. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. In addition, B. persicum significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzo­ites compared with control group. The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 6 and 7 days after oral administration of B. persicum essential oil at the concentra­tion of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. B. persicum especially at the concentration of 0.1 ml/kg significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with con­trol group. Conclusion: The results showed the potential of B. persicum essential oil as a natu­ral source for the production of new prophylactic agent for use in toxoplasmosis.

  1. Antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities of Ferula narthex Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shumaila; Alam, Mahboob; Ahmad, Bashir; Aman, Akhtar

    2014-11-01

    Crude methanolic extract of roots, aerial parts and its subsequent fractions of Ferula narthex Boiss were tested for antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities. Crude methanolic extract of roots and its fractions showed significant antibacterial effect against P.aeruginosa (86.95%, 73.91, 69.59, 78.26 & 73.91%) represented by percent inhibition except ethyl acetate (EtoAc) fraction. The EtoAc fraction of roots and aerial parts showed significant activity against E. coli (80%), S. typhi (81.2 & 81.25%) and S. pneumoniae (80%). The n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of aerial parts showed significant activity against P. aeruginosa (78.26, 69.56 & 73.91%). Following fungal strains (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, C. glabrata) were also used for anti-fungal activity. Among tested samples only crude methanol extract of roots, n-hexane and chloroform fraction showed moderate anti-fungal activity against M. canis (40, 35 & 30%) represented by percent inhibition. The remaining fractions showed no effect on tested fungi. Different oils fractions were also tested against above fungal strains. Fraction I, II & V showed mild to moderate activity against M. canis (40, 40 & 25%). Phytotoxic effect of tested samples of roots, aerial part and its fractions showed concentration dependent growth inhibition. Maximum phytotoxic effect was noted for n-hexane and aqueous fraction (50% growth inhibition). The remaining tested samples showed mild effect on growth of Lemna minor plant. PMID:25362591

  2. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode′s solution at 37 °C and gassed with O 2 . Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM, acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM, electrical field stimulation (EFS or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC 50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL and EFS (IC 50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC 50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL, EFS (IC 50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL as well as oxytocin (IC 50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  3. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

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    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction,while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC 50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively. Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml. With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations.

  4. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice

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    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 (10% w/v solution. Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  5. Simultaneous compartmentalization of lead and arsenic in co-hyperaccumulator Viola principis H. de Boiss.: an application of SRXRF microprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mei; Chen, Tong-Bin; Huang, Ze-Chun; Wang, Yao-Dong; Huang, Yu-Ying

    2008-08-01

    The cellular distributions of Pb and As in the leaves of co-hyperaccumulator Viola principis H. de Boiss. were inspected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF). The results revealed that Pb and As had similar compartmentalization patterns in the leaves. Both elements were enriched in the bundle sheath and the palisade mesophyll. In comparison with the sheath and the mesophyll, the vascular bundle and the epidermis contained lower levels of Pb and As. The palisade enrichment of Pb and As indicated that V. principis H. de Boiss. may have a special mechanism on detoxification of toxic metals within the mesophyll cells. Relative concentrations of both Pb and As in trichome bases were higher than those in trichome rays. The results of hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation analysis confirmed that the distribution of Pb was similar to that of As in the leaves, and their distribution patterns were different from the nutrient elements, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. In vivo cellular localization of Pb and As in the leaves provides insight into the physiological mechanisms of metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation in the hyperaccumulators.

  6. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  7. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

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    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  8. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

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    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  9. Bioactivities of ethanolic extract and its fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae species

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    Osman Ustun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx, chloroform (CHCl3, butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Materials and Methods: Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3 using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Results: Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. Conclusion: The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32–8 μg/mL had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–<0.25 μg/mL of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity on HSV-1, same as control.

  10. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

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    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified. PMID:26522747

  11. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified.

  12. Estudio de los hongos que fructifican en la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss., en España peninsular. II. Ascomycotina. II

    OpenAIRE

    Larios, Juana M.ª; Honrubia, Mario; Moreno, Gabriel

    1988-01-01

    Se citan 41 taxones de la subdivisión Ascomycotina procedentes de la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss. en las provincias de Málaga y Cádiz. Es de resaltar la presencia de Aphiorhynchostoma curreyi (Rabenh.) MUller, Cucurbitaria berberidis (Pers.: Fries) Gray, Sydowia polispora (Bref. C v. Tavel) MUller, Glonium graphicum (Fries) Duby, Caloscypha fulgens (Pers.) Boudier, Coronophora abietina Fuck. y Rosellinia tassiana De Not.Se incluyen observaciones de tipo morfológico y taxonómico ...

  13. Agronomical and Botanical Characteristics of Cuminum setifolium (Boiss. Kos.-Pol. a Plant with Potentially Medicinal Applications

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    Abbas SAFARNEJAD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine. Cuminum setifolium ( Boiss. Kos.-Pol. with common name of white cumin, a member of the Apiaceae family, growing wild on mountains was investigated as a species having capability for cultivation and crop breeding. Generally, there is not information about Cuminum setifolium species. The aim of this study was to found plant identification and distribution in Iran, phenology, best treatment for seeds germination, farm cultivation and anatomical description. Cuminum setifolium plant is a annual herb which is distributed in Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tien-Shan and central Asia. In our studied region, the plant is generally grown on calcareous marl soils with climatic conditions of desert cold, semi-arid to arid having hot summer and cold winter. The effects of different treatment on seed germination showed significant highest germination percentage (54.4%, germination rate (6.4% were obtained from seeds that had exposed for 3 weeks at 4�C after omit of seeds hairs. The experiment of cultivation showed the best time for sowing in Mashhad was autumn and growing time was from middle of March until end of June and ripening seeds were end of June at 2005. Microscopic observation of the root structure showed lacking secondary structures and having epidermis tissue with only a row of cells along with relatively thick cuticle and for stem and leaf structure with stomata without any hairs. Parenchyma cells contained 2-3 rows of irregular oblong cells. Stomata type of epidermis was diacytic and distance between stomata was measured 5 ?m in average.

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

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    Masoud Dadashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are few therapeutic options for treatment of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates as a hospital infectious agent (nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 K. pneumoniae isolates from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods and detection of ESBL was carried out according to CLSI guidelines. The blaCTX-M-15plasmid genewas detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Extracts susceptibility test was performed by broth microdilution method.  Results: Among 100 K. pneumoniae strains, 48 (48% were ESBL positive. In this study, fosfomycin, colistin and tigecycline were more active than other antibiotics. The existence of blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 30 (62.5% of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. The chloroformic extract showed potent activity against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50 = 1.56 mg/ml and MIC90=3.12mg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 (The MIC50 represents the MIC value at which ≥50% of the isolates in a test population are inhibited and the MIC90 represents the MIC value at which ≥90% of the strains within a test population are inhibited were 3.12 and 6.25 mg/ml and 6.25  and 12.5 mg/ml for methanolic and acetonic extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae is very high. Therefore, detection of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in K. pneumoniae isolates and in control of infections. Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae.

  15. Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extract and its Fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Osman; Berrin-Ozcelik; Baykal, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Materials and Methods: Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Results: Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL) exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. Conclusion: The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32–8 μg/mL) had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–MDBK and Vero cell linesExtracts of C. laurifolius exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii(MIC; 32 μg/mL)The Hx extract of C. laurifolius had antiviral activity on PI-3 (CPE; 32–8 μg/mL). Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–<0.25 μg/mL) of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity PMID:27041865

  16. Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of essential oil and fatty acids of different parts of Ligularia persica Boiss

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    Maryam Mohadjerani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the fatty acids and essential oil from various parts of Ligularia persica Boiss (L. persica growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Essential oils were extracted by using Clevenger-type apparatus. Antibacterial activity was tested on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by using micro dilution method. Results: GC and GC∕MS analysis of the oils resulted in detection of 94%, 96%, 93%, 99% of the total essential oil of flowers, stems, roots and leaves, respectively. The main components of flowers oil were cis-ocimene (15.4%, β-myrcene (4.4%, β-ocimene (3.9%, and γ-terpinene (5.0%. The major constituents of stems oil were β-phellandrene (5.4%, β-cymene (7.0%, valencene (3.9%. The main compounds of root oil were fukinanolid (17.0%, α-phellandrene (11.5% and Β-selinene (5.0% and in the case of leaves oil were cis-ocimene (4.8%, β-ocimene (4.9%, and linolenic acid methyl ester (4.7%. An analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS on the fatty-acid composition of the different parts of L. persica showed that major components were linoleic acid (11.3-31.6%, linolenic acid (4.7-21.8% and palmitic acid (7.2-23.2%. Saturated fatty acids were found in lower amounts than unsaturated ones. The least minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of the L. persica was 7.16 μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the essential oil from L. persica stems and flowers showed high inhibitory effect on the Gram negative bacteria. The results also showed that fatty acids from the stems and leaves contained a high amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs.

  17. Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Copao Fruit (Eulychnia acida Phil. Unswe Thee Environmental Conditions in the Coquimbo Region Características Químicas y Composición Nutricional de los Frutos de Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. Bajo tres Condiciones Ambientales de la Región de Coquimbo

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    Lilia Masson S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. is an endemic arborescent cactus restricted mainly to the semi-arid Coquimbo Region (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" W, Chile. The area of distribution is from sea level to 1200 m.a.s.l. The edible fruit called rumpa is generally round, with green or pink peel and small scales on its surface, showing wide variability in size and weight. The aim of this work was to characterize the rumpa harvested in January 2009 and 2010 in three sectors of Coquimbo Region to determine chemical and nutritional composition in three fractions: pulp with seeds, juice, and peel. The research showed that this fruit is a good natural source of mainly soluble dietary fiber, which has a jellied texture and is present in the three fractions analyzed: 2% for juice, 3% for pulp with seeds, and approximately 5% for peel, making it potentially a good source of hydrocolloids for the food industry. The fruit is also a good source of vitamin C; around 55 mg 100 g-1 in peel, and 30 mg 100 g-1 in pulp with seeds and juice, values considered high compared to 18 mg 100 g-1 for prickly pear (Opuntiaficus-indica [L.] Mill. The main minerals were: K, Mg, Ca, and P. Total polyphenols and betalain pigments were also determined in the pulp with seeds and pink peel fractions, respectively. The nutritional characteristics, together with its high water content of around 96%, make rumpa a promising raw material for agro-industrial development of natural juices or isotonic drinks. This characterization helps in the recovery of an endemic native species by reducing potential threats to destroy wild populations of E. acid, especially near agricultural areas, and by promoting habitat conservation of the species in the region.El copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. es un cactus arborescente endémico restringido principalmente a la región semi árida de Coquimbo (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" O, Chile. El área de distribución comprende desde el nivel del mar hasta los 1200 m de

  18. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal., and biological effects on the CAM-assay: a safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Betül; Dadandi, Mehmet Y; Paper, Dietrich H; Franz, Gerhard; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2003-01-01

    Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal. of the Lamiaceae family growing in central, east and southeast Anatolia is an endemic species for Turkey. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts by hydro distillation was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. The main components of the oil were found as beta-caryophyllene (24.2%), germacrene D (22.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.2%), among 49 identified compounds, representing 94.5% of the total essential oil. The overall biological activity of the essential oil (100 microg/pellet) was tested on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the fertilized hen's egg in order to examine the anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. None of the tests showed pronounced activity, toxicity or irritation at the tested concentration. PMID:14713159

  19. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities. - Highlights: • Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil has potential in vitro antimicrobial effect. • Z. multiflora oil has potential antimicrobial effect in vivo system. • The antibacterial activities of the oil remained after irradiation treatments

  20. A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study designed to test the antibacterial potency of enrofloxacin (ENR and essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO and Trachyspermum copticum (TEO on Aeromonas hydrophila. Material and Methods: The antibacterial potency of test compounds was determined by several methods including the inhibition zone diameter determination, microbroth dilution method and colorimetric method of MTT. The cytotoxicity of test substances was assessed on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryo (CHSE-214 cells. Results: Results showed that ENR and tested essential oils exert antibacterial effect against A. hydrophila. Moreover, ENR exerted the most potent antibacterial effect with MIC values of 62.5 ng/ml. The natural compounds of ZEO and TEO also showed antibacterial effects with rather high MIC values of 0.315 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. None of the tested substances showed toxicity on CHSE-24 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.

  1. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

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    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  2. Induction of aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoid compounds in Scrophularia striata Boiss. cell culture in response to chitosan-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalipourazad, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohsen; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2016-10-01

    Manipulation of cell culture media by elicitors is one of most important strategies to inducing secondary metabolism for the production of valuable metabolites. In this investigation, inducing effect of chitosan on physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scrophularia striata Boiss. The results showed that chitosan concentration and time of elicitation are determinants of the effectiveness of the elicitor. Accumulation of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]), phenylpropanoid compounds (phenolic acids [PAs] and echinacoside [ECH]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and gene expression, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX], catalase [CAT]) activities were altered by changing the exposure time of elicitation. Results showed that, upon elicitation with chitosan, oxidative events were induced, antioxidant responses of S. striata cells were boosted through enhanced activity of an effective series of scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX), and biosynthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ECH and PAs [cinnamic, p-coumaric and, caffeic acids]). The increase in amino acid content and PAL activity at early days of exposure to chitosan was related with rises in phenolic compounds. These results provide evidence that chitosan by up-regulation of PAL gene differentially improves the production of phenylpropanoid compounds, which are of medical commercial value with good biotechnological prospects.

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  4. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  5. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oils of a Citronellol Producing New Chemotype of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak

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    Satyajit D. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowering aerial parts of two populations of Thymus pubescens, collected from Mishov-Dagh, was determined by the GC-MS analyses. A total of 18 compounds, representing about 95% of the total oils, were identified in both samples of the essential oils. The essential oils of these two populations showed the presence of high amounts of citronellol (42.0% and 42.6%, geranyl acetate (14.0 and 14.0%, geraniol (13.0 and 13.1%, citronellyl acetate (3.9 and 3.8%, L-linalool (7.8% and 7.9%, cis-nerodiol (5.9% and 5.5% and citronellyl acetate (3.9% and 3.8%. However, in the published literature, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene were reported to be the major compounds in T. pubescens. This significant difference in the composition of the essential oils was a clear evidence of chemical polymorphism with in the T. pubescens taxon, suggesting that these two populations of T. pubescens were in deed a new chemotype of this species, and the name Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak chemotype Citronellol for this new chemotype has been proposed . The antibacterial and free-radical-scavenging properties of the essential oils of T. pubescens have also been evaluated.

  6. Induction of aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoid compounds in Scrophularia striata Boiss. cell culture in response to chitosan-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalipourazad, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohsen; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2016-10-01

    Manipulation of cell culture media by elicitors is one of most important strategies to inducing secondary metabolism for the production of valuable metabolites. In this investigation, inducing effect of chitosan on physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scrophularia striata Boiss. The results showed that chitosan concentration and time of elicitation are determinants of the effectiveness of the elicitor. Accumulation of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]), phenylpropanoid compounds (phenolic acids [PAs] and echinacoside [ECH]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and gene expression, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX], catalase [CAT]) activities were altered by changing the exposure time of elicitation. Results showed that, upon elicitation with chitosan, oxidative events were induced, antioxidant responses of S. striata cells were boosted through enhanced activity of an effective series of scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX), and biosynthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ECH and PAs [cinnamic, p-coumaric and, caffeic acids]). The increase in amino acid content and PAL activity at early days of exposure to chitosan was related with rises in phenolic compounds. These results provide evidence that chitosan by up-regulation of PAL gene differentially improves the production of phenylpropanoid compounds, which are of medical commercial value with good biotechnological prospects. PMID:27392152

  7. Influence of Different Temperatures and Times on Antiradical Properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum Essential Oils by Using DPPH Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh KORDSARDOUEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of fats and oils has a key role in the reduction of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, there is a tendency to create to use natural preservatives, such as essential oils, for antioxidant, antiradical and antimicrobial properties in foodstuffs. In this study, the effect of thermal processing on the antiradical activities of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum (CZEO essential oils is checked. Antiradical activities were measured with a 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH– assay at 3 temperatures (100, 140 and 180 °C and at 3 different time intervals (1, 2 and 3 h. The EC50 of ZMEO and CZEO were 4026.67 ± 2.2 and 2605.01 ± 15.57 ppm, respectively, at 25 °C. The 2 essences showed various reactions and characteristics at different temperatures (100, 140 and 180 °C and time ranges (1, 2 and 3 h. Maximum and minimum antiradical properties were observed for ZMEO at respectively, 140 and 180 °C after 1 h heating.

  8. Impacto del ozono troposférico sobre la anatomía foliar de Abies pinsapo Boiss. I: estudio de la distribución de daños

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Gimeno, David; Ibars, Ana María

    2009-01-01

    Impacto del ozono troposférico sobre la anatomía foliar de Abies pinsapo Boiss. I: Estudio de la distribución de daños. Con el fin de elaborar unos criterios unificados para la evaluación del impacto del ozono troposférico y compararlos con la respuesta de las poblaciones naturales de Sierra Bermeja y Sierra de las Nieves, se han reproducido en cámaras Open Top, ambientes filtrados y enriquecidos con ozono para realizar una caracterización microscópica del daño que produce el ozono troposféri...

  9. Evaluation of Zataria MultiFlora Boiss and Carum copticum antibacterial activity on IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, F; Taherpour, A; Borhan, R S; Hashemi, A; Habibi, M; Sajadi Nia, R

    2013-12-31

    Carbapenem resistance due to acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) is considered to be more serious than other resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum plants on IMP-producing P.aeruginosa strains. This experimental study was carried out on hospitalized burn patients during 2011 and 2012. Antibiotics and extracts susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. MBL detection was performed by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT). The bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Using Combination Disk Diffusion test method, it was found that among 83 imipenem resistant P.aeruginosa strains, 48 (57.9%) were MBL producers. PCR and sequencing methods proved that these isolates were positive for blaIMP-1 genes, whereas none were positive for bla(VIM) genes. The mortality rate of hospitalized patients with MBL-producing Pseudomonas infection was 4/48 (8.3%). It was shown that Zataria multiflora and Carum copticum extracts had a high antibacterial effect on regular and IMP-producing P. aeruginosa strains in 6.25 mg/ml concentration. The incidence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients is very high. In our study, all MBL-producing isolates carry the blaIMP-1 gene. Therefore, detection of MBL-producing isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in P. aeruginosa, and in prevention and control of infections. In this study, it was shown that extracts of Z. multiflora and C. copticum have high antibacterial effects on ß-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa strains. PMID:24799849

  10. Antioxidant, Color and Antibacterial Properties of Edible Chitosan Film Incorporated with Zataria Multiflora Boiss ٍEssential Oil against Listeria Monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The film containing antimicrobial agents are a type of active packaging which is mainly designed to control microbial and chemical spoilage of food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and color properties of chitosan film incorporated with essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZEO. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Urmia University of Medical Sciences between 2009-2010, the chemical composition of ZEO was analyzed using GC-MS. Chitosan films containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% ZEO, were obtained by casting method and subsequently, total phenol (TP, antioxidant, color (accordance with hunter system (L* (luminosity, * (redness, and b* (yellowness and antimicrobial characteristics of films on Listeria monocytogenes were studied. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: The order of TP for all films in the experiment was 2% ZEO1% ZEO 0.5% ZEO unsupplemented chitosan film, respectively. It was also concluded that the antioxidant activity of chitosan films was increased by adding various concentrations of ZEO. These increases were significant for film containing 1% (33.98% and 2% (37.77% ZEO (p0.05. Regarding the color luminosity (L* of the chitosan film, results indicated no significant changes by incorporating ZEO, whereas the incorporation of ZEO into films had a significant effect on film yellowness, evidenced by lower b* values. Finally, it was shown that the presence of ZEO in chitosan films significantly modified the anti- listerial activity of chitosan, (p0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that an active film from chitosan could be achieved by incorporating ZEO. Addition of ZEO improves functional and antibacterial characteristics of chitosan film.

  11. Establecimiento de una red de equilibrios biológicos en ecosistemas con presencia de pinsapo (Abies pinsapo Boiss. en Andalucía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía established a Monitoring Network on ecosystems of Abies pinsapo Boiss.for evaluating the phytosanitary state in the natural range areas of A. pinsapo in the Iberian Península: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Spain, Sierra de Grazalema (Cadiz, Spain and Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Spain. This network is based on a 1 x 1 Km grid established throughout the forest stands where Abies pinsapo is present, given by the Mapa Forestal de España (Spanish land cover map, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. The Network has been constructed from 35 sample plots, which will be visited annually (in summer in order to assess the state of trees. This article describes the network design process and the main results from the first campaign of sampling.

    [fr]
    En mai 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente-Junta de Andalucía a mis sur pied un Réseau pour la surveillance systématique et multitemporelle de l'état de santé et vitalité des forets de Abies pinsapo Boiss. dans ses aires de répartition naturelle dans la Péninsule Ibérique: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Espagne, Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz, Espagne et Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Espagne. Cet inventaire a été réalisé à partir d'un réseau d'échantillonnage systématique selon un maillage de 1 x 1 kilomètres couvrant la surface des forêts avec présence de Abies pinsapo, d'après la Mapa Forestal de España (Carte Forestière Espagnole, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. Après Rétablissement, l'inventaire a été constitué par 35 parcelles d'observation, qui seront visitées annuellement (en été pour évaluer l'état des arbres. Cette note présente le dessin de ce réseau et les résultats de la première campagne de terrain.
    [es]
    En la primavera del año 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía estableció una Red de Equilibrios Biol

  12. Development of new active packaging film made from a soluble soybean polysaccharide incorporated Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha pulegium essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Moayyed, Hamid; Khaksar, Ramin; Noghabi, Mostafa Shahidi

    2014-03-01

    An active edible film from soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) incorporated with different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils was developed, and the film's optical, wettability, thermal, total phenol and antioxidant characteristics were investigated, along with their antimicrobial effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. The film's colour became darker and more yellowish and had a lower gloss as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased. Antioxidant activity of the films was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. DPPH was reduced in the range of 19.84-74.12% depending on the essential oil type and concentration. Film incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50=4188.60±21.73mg/l and EC50=8.86±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared with the control and MEO added film. Films containing ZEO were more effective against the tested bacteria than those containing MEO. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to both ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 387.05mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 21.98 for S. typhimurium and 10.15mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a single glass transition temperature (Tg) between 16 and 31°C. The contact angle increased up to 175% and 38% as 3% (v/v) of ZEO or MEO used: it clearly shows that films with ZEO were more hydrophobic than those with MEO. The results showed that these two essential oils could be incorporated into SSPS films for food packaging.

  13. ESSENTIAL OILS OF PYCNOCYCLA FLABELLIFOLIA (BOISS. BOISS. AND MALABAILA SECACULE (MILLER BOISS. FROM IRAN

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    M. YARI

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils from two Umbelliferae species of Iran were analyzed by GC and GC/MS . a- Phellandrene (64.0% and p- cymene (18.5% were the main compo¬nents among the nintheen constituents characterized in the oil of Pycnocycia flabeUifolia representing 94.2% of the total components detected. Sixteen compounds were identified in the oil of Malabaila secacide representing 80.4% of the total oil with (3 - elemene (27.1%and hexyl 3- methyl butanoate (15.6% as the major constituents.

  14. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  15. Corología de tres táxones de interés en el macizo del Castro Valnera: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. [Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Alejandre Sáez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ofrece una visión actualizada de la situación en el macizo del Castro Valnera de tres especies de alto interés regional: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. Se comentan datos sobre la historia de su descubrimiento en ese macizo. Se recogen y enumeran para cada uno de ellos los datos de recolecciones, citas bibliográficas y de campo. Con el conjunto de todas ellas se elaboran varios mapas. Finalmente, se aportan comentarios que contribuyen al conocimiento de su comportamiento ecológico y se apuntan algunas pautas y criterios a tener en cuenta para su protección. ABSTRACT: Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain. An updated view of the situation within the Castro Valnera mountain range of three species of high regional interest is provided: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. The history data of their discovery within that mountain range is discussed. Collections data and field citations are gathered and listed for each of them and several maps are drawn with the whole of them. Finally, comments that contribute to the knowledge of their environmental performance are provided, as well as some guidelines and criteria to be considered for their protection.

  16. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  17. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  18. [Progress on biodegradation of polylactic acid--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Wang, Sha; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun

    2008-02-01

    Polylactic acid is a high molecular-weight polyester made from renewable resources such as corn or starch. It is a promising biodegradable plastic due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. To achieve natural recycling of polylactic acid, relative microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in the biodegradation has become an important issue in biodegradable materials. Up to date, most isolated microbes capable of degrading polylactic acid belong to actinomycetes. Proteases secreted by these microorganisms are responsible for the degradation. However, subtle differences exist between these polylactic acid degrading enzymes and typical proteases with respect to substrate binding and catalysis. Amino acids relative to catalysis are postulated to be highly plastic allowing their catalytic hydrolysis of polylactic acid. In this paper we reviewed current studies on biodegradation of polylactic acid concerning its microbial, enzymatic reactions and the possible mechanisms. We also discussed the probability of biologically recycling PLA by applying highly efficient strains and enzymes. PMID:18438013

  19. 火焰原子吸收光谱法测定野生羌活和宽叶羌活不同部位中的微量元素%Determination the contents of six trace elements in different organs of wild Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H.T.Chang and Notopterygium forbesii Boiss by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周国英; 周玉碧

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To determine the contents of six trace elements Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu and Zn in different organs (root, stem, leaf, petiole, seed) of wild Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang and N.forbesii Boiss, analyze the characteristics of trace elements contents in different parts. Methods: The contents of six trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FA AS) ;SPSS 16. 0 analysis software was applied to analyze the results. Results;The study indicated that the contents of different elements had obvious difference in the same organ and the same element content was different in different parts of different plants. The contents of Ca were the highest in all organs and the contents of Cu and Zn elements were the lowest. To wild Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang,the content of Ca element was the highest in leaf and the lowest in seed;the contents of Mg, Cu, Zn were the highest in the petiole and the lowest in root and seed; the content of Fe was the highest in stem, and the lowest in petiole; the content of Mn element was the highest in leaf and the lowest in stem. And to N.forbesii Boiss, the contents of Ca element was the highest in leaf and the lowest in root; the contents of Mg, Mn, Zn were the highest in the leaf and the lowest in stem;the content of Cu was the highest in leaf,and the lowest in root and petiole ; the content of Fe element was the highest in root and the lowest in stem and seed. Conclusion: From the perspective of trace elements,the potential medicine values of leaf,petiole and seed can provide some references for thecomprehensive development and utilization of limited wide Notopterygium forbesii resources.%目的:测定野生羌活和宽叶羌活根、茎、叶、叶柄和种子中Ca、Mg、Fe、Mn、Cu、Zn 6种微量元素的含量.方法:采用空气-乙炔火焰原子吸收光谱法测定不同部位微量元素的含量,应用SPSS 16.0分析软件对结果进行统计分析.结果:相同部位不同元素的

  20. Biochemical activities of iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss Bor. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahboubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%, 4-carene (11.8% and β-himachalene (7.6% were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. D values of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC 50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents.

  1. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Moltkia aurea Boiss

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    Iclal Saracoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of M. aurea exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil ( DPPH, nitric oxide (NO and superoxide (SO radicals. The free radical scavenging effect of the extract was found comparable to that of reference antioxidants, 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanizole (BHA and ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C. Cytotoxic activity of the extract was also investigated against three different cancer cell lines, Hep-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma, RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma, L-20B (transgenic murine L-cells and one non-cancerous cell line (VERO- African green monkey kidney epithelial cell using 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide (MTT assayty. While dose dependent cytotoxic activity was observed against cancer cell lines, no cytotoxic effect on VERO cell line was found in the tested expe In addition, phochemical investigations to identify chemical content of the plant were resulted to the isolation of (+-syringaresinol-4′-O- b -glucopyranoside (1, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutine, 3 and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (4 on the basis of different spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, HR ESI-MS.

  2. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  4. One-dimensional metal phosphonates based on 6-phosphononicotinic acid:A structural and magnetic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of 6-phosphononicotinic acid (pnaH3) and metal salts result in three new compounds, namely, M(pnaH)-(H2O)3·H2O [M = Co(Ⅱ) (1), Ni(Ⅱ) (2), Zn(Ⅱ) (3)]. These compounds are isostructural and contain 21 helical chains made up of corner-sharing {MO5N} octahedra and {PO3C} tetrahedra. The chains are further connected by extensive hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. Magnetic studies reveal that dominant antiferromagnetic interactions are mediated in both 1 and 2. Interestingly the dehydrated compound 1 shows metamagnetic behavior at low temperature.

  5. Acid leaching of scheelite concentrates; Lixiviacion acida de concentrado de scheelita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    The acid leaching in hydrochloric media of a tungsten concentrate (scheelite, CaWO{sub 4}) was studied. Of the above-mentioned, an insoluble solid (H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was obtained which were treated with an alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide, achieving the complete solubilization of the tungsten as wolframate ion (WO''2{sub 4}). The transformed fraction of tungsten increases with the temperature, as well as with a finer grain. A maximum dissolution of 88.5% (400 g/l HCL, 363 K and 20 {mu}m of particle size) was achieved for a 3 h process, of the dissolution process was interpreted by the recessive core model with formation of a layer of solid product for the whole range of variation of the parameters in study. the activation energy value was found to be 28.0kJ/mol. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Actividad antibacteriana de soluciones acidas de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Pérez Cordero; Johanna Rojas Sierra; Johana Rodriguez Ruiz; Irma Arrieta Alvarez; Yenis Arrieta Alvarez; Andrés Rodríguez Carrascal

    2014-01-01

    Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of chitosan acid solutions obtained from shrimp exoskeleton Título: quitosano actividad antibacterianaResumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de soluciones ácidas de quitosano obtenido a partir del exoesqueleto de camarón, sobre siete bacterias patógenas, cinco de las cuales corresponden a patógenas de humanos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiel...

  7. Cotton nanofibers obtained by different acid conditions;Nanofibras de algodao obtidas sob diferentes condicoes acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Eliangela de M.; Oliveira, Caue Ribeiro de; Mattoso, Luiz H.C., E-mail: eliangelat@yahoo.com.b [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio; Correa, Ana Carolina [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Palladin, Priscila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The thermal stability of cellulose nanofibers is related to their application and especially to polymer processing which temperatures of processing are around 200 deg C. In this work, nanofibers of commercial cotton were obtained by acid hydrolysis employing different acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture (2:1; sulfuric acid: hydrochloric acid).The morphology of the nanofibers were characterized by transmission microscopy (TEM), crystallinity by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal stability in air atmosphere by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated a very similar morphology and crystallinity among them. The main differences were relative to aggregation state e and thermal stability. The aggregation state of the suspensions decreases in the order HCl < H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HCl < H{sub 2}SO{sub 4-}. The hydrolysis with a mix of HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} resulted in cellulose nanofibers with higher thermal stability than those hydrolyzed with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The hydrolysis employed with a mixture of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids also showed a better dispersion than those suspensions of nanofibers obtained by hydrolysis with only HCl. (author)

  8. Actividad antibacteriana de soluciones acidas de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of chitosan acid solutions obtained from shrimp exoskeleton Título: quitosano actividad antibacterianaResumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de soluciones ácidas de quitosano obtenido a partir del exoesqueleto de camarón, sobre siete bacterias patógenas, cinco de las cuales corresponden a patógenas de humanos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 43863 y  K.  oxytoca ATCC 43086 y las fitopatógenas (Pectobacterium sp UDS y  Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Concentraciones de soluciones de quitosano  de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 3.5 % (v/v disuelto en  ácido acético de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 % (v/v fueron preparadas; a partir de estas concentraciones, mediante la técnica de Kirby-Bauer se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana in vitro. Los resultados de actividad antimicrobiana mostraron diferencias altamente significativas entre la especie de bacteria y los tratamientos de quitosano. Las bacterias P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 y ATCC 43863 fueron las más susceptibles a los tratamientos, mientras que E. faecalis, Pectobacterium sp y B. glumae mostraron resistencia. Los tratamientos T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9 en donde las concentraciones de quitosano estuvieron por encima a las del ácido acético, se presentaron mayores valores medios de actividad de antimicrobiana en mm y aumentó este valor para los tratamientos  T9 (5.8095 mm, T8 (6.00 mm para y  T9 (5.8095 mm, donde las concentraciones  de quitosano  de 2.5 y 3.5%, disuelta en ácido acético fueron igual a 2%.  Los resultados de este estudio en el Caribe Colombiano permitirán a futuro el reaprovechamiento del exoesqueleto de camarón como fuente de quitosano como un compuesto potencial frente al manejo al problema de salud pública ocasionada por las enfermedades bacterianas. Palabras claves: camarón, quitosano, bacterias, patógenas.Abstract: The work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan obtained from exoskeleton of shrimp, on seven pathogenic bacteria, five of which corresponded to human pathogenic strain (ATCC 29212 Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. oxytoca ATCC 43863 and ATCC 43086 and two phytopathogenic strain (Pectobacterium sp UDS and Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Solution of chitosan of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5% (v/v dissolved in 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (v / v acetic acid was prepared, and with these concentrations through the Kirby-Bauer technique and the antibacterial activity in vitro was evaluated. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed significant differences between the species of bacteria and chitosan treatments evaluated. P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 and ATCC 43863 were the most susceptible to the treatments, while E. faecalis, B. glumae and Pectobacterium sp were resistant. The treatments T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9, where chitosan concentrations were above the acetic acid, showed higher mean mm antimicrobial activity and this value increased to T9 treatments (5.8095 mm , T8 (6.00 mm and T9 (5.8095 mm, where chitosan concentrations 2.5 and 3.5% solution in acetic acid was equal to 2%. The results of this study in the Colombian Caribbean enable future reuse of the exoskeleton of shrimp as a source of chitosan as a potential compound to handle the public health problem caused by bacterial diseases.Key words: shrimp, chitosan, bacteria, pathogens. 

  9. Vicia L. Cinsine Ait Bazı Taksonların Karyolojik Yönden Araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Gedik, Osman; Kıran, Yaşar; Şahin, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The chromosome number and morphology on some taxonsof the genus Vicia L. (Fabaceae) (V. cappadocica Boiss., & Balansa, V. cracca L. subsp. cracca, V. cracca L. subsp. stenophylla Vel., V. cuspidata Boiss., V. ervilia (L.) Wılld., V. hybrida L., V. michauxii Sprengel. var. stenophylla Boiss., V. narbonensis L. var. serratifolia (Jacq.) Ser., V. noeana Boiss.& Reut. ex Boiss. var. megalodonta Rech. Fıl., V. noeana Boiss.& Reut. ex Boiss. var. noeana, V. sativa L. subsp. sativa, V. sericocarpa F...

  10. Taratura di un 'apparecchiatura per misura di piccole percentuali di uranio in soluzione acida di acqua distillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d. Diana

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Si descrive una tecnica elio permette di misurare ilnumero di atomi di Uranio di una soluzione, con un errore non superioreal 10%.Il sistema consiste in un tubo di Geiger (Philips 18503 sistemato inun contenitore di vetro nel quale viene diluita una certa quantità di peso dinitrato di Uranile, misurato con una precisione migliore dell'1%. Al variaredella diluizione si registra il numero di particelle che il Geiger conta, e quindisi riporta in grafico. Da questi per diverse quantità di sale sciolto si determinala retta di taratura.

  11. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 6-aminonicotinic acid analogues as novel γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jette Gellert; Sørensen, Troels Ersted; Damgaard, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    A series of 6-aminonicotinic acid analogues have been synthesized and pharmacologically characterized at native and selected recombinant GABAA receptors. 6-Aminonicotinic acid (3) as well as 2- and 4-alkylated analogues (9–11, 14–16) display low to mid-micromolar GABAAR binding affinities to nati...

  12. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xi

    Full Text Available To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious' pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1 CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol. Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  13. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yu; Cheng, Dai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp) on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious') pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1) CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol). Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  14. Status of the art: hydraulic conductivity of acid- fractures; Condutividade hidraulica de fratura acida: estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Valdo Ferreira [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). E and P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Completacao e Avaliacao], e-mail: wcampos@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a review of the hydraulic conductivity models developed for acid fractures in almost four decades of studies in petroleum engineering. These studies have often benefited from theories and experiments carried out in areas of knowledge such as physics, geology, hydrology, fluid mechanics, rock mechanics and tribology. The review showed that the pioneer study of Nierode and Kruk (1973) is still used in commercial software and influences the current studies. There was significant evolution on the quantitative surface topography characterization of the fractures and their impact on the hydraulic conductivity. The same occurred for the effects of acid dissolution on the rock resistance. Improvements on correlations similar to the Nierode and Kruk can be applied at once on the acid fracturing project and evaluation practice for the cases of rough dissolution pattern. A method to consider the overall conductivity from heterogeneous channels and roughness pattern was recently proposed. The complexity of the theoretical fundaments, specially the range of validity of the equations in face of the simplifications assumed, the difficulty of performing representative laboratory and field experiments, the difficulty of characterizing quantitatively the fractures surface topography and its effects on the conductivity, and the large variety of rocks and acid systems keep this subject open for research. (author)

  15. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  16. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid--a potent, selective GABAB receptor agonist in the guinea-pig ileum and rat anococcygeus muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, J. M.; Dingsdale, R. A.; Parsons, M.E.; Dolle, R. E.; Howson, W.

    1989-01-01

    1. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue, was tested for activity on guinea-pig isolated ileum and rat isolated anococcygeus muscle preparations. The effects of 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid were compared with those of GABA and baclofen. 2. In the electrically stimulated ileum, 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid, like GABA and baclofen, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cholinergic twitch contraction, the IC50 value being 1.84 +/- 0.23 microM (n = 1...

  17. 6-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-2-naphthoylacryl Acid:a Highly Selective and Sensitive Fluorescent Sensor of Copper(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xu-zhi; CHEN Peng; CHEN He-ru

    2012-01-01

    A novel fluorescent probe,6-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2-naphthoylacryl acid(ACADAN) was designed and synthesized as a fluorescent sensor for Cu2+ in aqueous media.Significant amplification of fluorescence signals without causing any discernible change of maximum fluorescence emission wavelength(λmax) was observed upon the addition of Cu2+.Importantly,ACADAN is capable of recognizing Cu2+ selectively in aqueous media in the presence of various biologically relevant metal ions and the prevalent toxic metal ions in the environment with high sensitivity(detection limit was 0.1 μmol/L).

  18. Antiproliferative evaluation of terpenoids and terpenoid coumarins from Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl Boiss. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ebrahim Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago macrocarpa is a plant used as flavoring agent and protectant in the food industry and as a folk medicinal plant in Iran with no available information on its chemical identity. Ferulago spp. showed to contain biologically terpenoids and coumarins. Objective: The objective was to isolate and characterize terpenoids and coumarins from the acetone extract of F. macrocarpa fruits and to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on several cell lines. Materials and Methods: A series of normal and reverse phase gravity and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to purify constituents. Compounds 1-5 and 7 were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on MCF-7, HT-29 and H-1299 cell lines. Results: Six compounds including bornyl acetate (1, 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (2, stigmasterol (3 and three coumarins grandivittin (4, prantschimgin (5 and 4"-hydroxygrandivittin (7 along with mixtures of feruloyl derivatives (6a-6c have been purified. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and MS analyses. Compound 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity effect with IC 50 values of 5.0 and 6.7 mM on MCF-7 and HT-29, respectively. Conclusion: 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol could be considered as a potential proliferation inhibitor of MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines.

  19. Comparison of Cuminaldehyde Contents from Cell Suspension Cultures and Seeds of [Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KHOSRAVINIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell suspension culture and seed samples of Bunium persicum were extracted by supercritical fluid, hydrodistillation and solvent methods and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. In this study to compare the different methods of extractions, cuminaldehyde was targeted as one of the Black zira essential oil constitute. For callus induction the germinated seeds were cultured as explants on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l kinetin (treatment A as well as 2 mg/l ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyl aminopurine (treatment B and followed by cells suspension cultures establishment for the first time. The results of cell culture showed that cells from treatment B have a growth rate higher than A. All extracts were dissolved in 1 ml hexane and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. According to the Gas Chromatography analysis, cuminaldehyde was not detected in the supercritical fluid samples, while it was present in hydrodistillation and solvent extract. Cuminaldehyde percentage in cell and seed solvent extracts was 4.65% and 18.61% respectively. Gas Chromatography results also showed that no cuminaldehyde is present in media extracts, means no cuminaldehyde has been secreted into the medium.

  20. Optimization of Regeneration Conditions and In Vitro Propagation of Sideritis Stricta Boiss & Heldr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Dudu Özkum

    2016-09-01

    In this study the micropropagation of endemic species Sideritis stricta was investigated. Leaf segments and shoot explants (hypocotyl, single node and shoot tips) taken from in vitro growing plantlets and cultured on MS and B5 media containing different growth regulators combinations BAP (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/l) and NAA (0.0, 0.1 and 0.5mg/l). MS and B5 media supplemented with BAP (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/l) and NAA (0.1mg/l) combinations or only BAP and kinetin (2.0 and 3.0mg/l) were used at the subculture experiments of shoots and MS and B5 media supplemented with different concentrations of IBA (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 10.mg/l) were used at the rooting experiments. S. stricta seeds germinated at the rate of 100% when the seed coat was removed and endoperm with embryo part cultured on B5 medium. The single node explants taken from in vitro germinated and grown 30-40 days plantlets on B5 medium have been determined as the most successful explant at all used hormone combinations. B5 medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BAP+0.1mg/l NAA and 2.0mg/l BAP+0.5mg/l NAA was determined as the most effective medium on shoot formation. At the first and second subculture, the highest shoot formation was maintained on medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BAP+0.1mg/l NAA and the number of shoots per explant were 4 and 2.11, respectively. The highest multiplication rate has been determined as 33.76 at the end of second subculture. The best rooting was achieved on B5 medium supplemented with 4.5mg/l IBA. The rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized to outdoor conditions and survival rate was determined as 90%. PMID:26597567

  1. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mehrara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended.

  3. Characterization of Non-Terpenoids in Marrubium crassidens Boiss. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Hamedeyazdan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Marrubium crassidens, a plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae, was studied for its volatile components present in the aerial parts of the plant during the flowering stage. Methods: The essential oil of the plant obtained through hydrodistillation of the dried plant material was assessed for its chemical composition by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. Results: Twenty-five compounds were identified, which constituted 94.3% of the total oil composition. The major components were identified as, m-tolualdehyde (23.3%, acetophenone (15.8%, nonacosane (13.1%, docosane (7.2%, o-tolualdehyde (4.1%, β-caryophyllene (3.8% and caryophyllene oxide (3.4%. Non-terpenoids with 75.7% were the most abundant components of the essential oil. Conclusion: Overall, M. crassidens essential oil revealed to include rather higher proportions of non-terpenoid compounds compared with other species of genus Marrubium.

  4. Characterization of Non-Terpenoids in Marrubium crassidens Boiss. Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Hamedeyazdan; Solmaz Asnaashari; Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Marrubium crassidens, a plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae, was studied for its volatile components present in the aerial parts of the plant during the flowering stage. Methods: The essential oil of the plant obtained through hydrodistillation of the dried plant material was assessed for its chemical composition by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. Results: Twenty-five compounds were identified, which constituted 94.3% of the total oil composition. The major components were ident...

  5. Antimutagenic activity of major fractions of Zataria multiflora Boiss by Ames method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sharififar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zataria multiflora is a medicinal plant that has been interested in antimutagenicity effect because of its high antioxidant activity and richness of flavonoids. Antimutagenicity effect of total extract of the plant has been reported previously. Aerial parts of Z. multiflora were extracted by petroleum ether, chloroform and 80% methanol by liquid-liquid extraction method consequently. The fractions were concentrated in vacuum and dried at 40°C in oven. The genotype of two standard strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100 was confirmed by the evaluation of two important factors of histidine requirement and the presence of R factor. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of the fractions against these two strains was determined by agar dilution method. From each fraction, various concentrations less than MIC were studied for anti-mutagenic test. The sample along with bacterial strain and mutagen agent were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The number of revertant colonies was counted and compared with control plates. Our results showed that all fractions especially petroleum ether and chloroform ones maintain the number of colonies in the standard range in control plates and prevent from the growth of many strains of bacteria and increase of revertant colonies enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was prominent against TA100 starin. Methanolic fraction exhibited anti-mutagen activity just in the highest used concentration in the presence of TA98.

  6. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

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    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  7. Investigating the effect of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss and hohen on cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Soltani-Nasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phlomis lanceolata is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation and wounds. As most of Phlomis species have shown cytotoxic activity against proliferation of different cell lines, a biological investigation of P. lanceolata was carried out in this study. The aim of this study was to find out the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract and different fractions of Phlomis lanceolata on four cell lines. Cytotoxic activity of the metanolic total extract and partition fractions of chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether of flowering aerial parts of Phlomis lanceolata on the HT29, Caco2, T47D and NIH3T3 cell lines is examined by MTT. Petroleum ether fraction showed high cytotoxic activity against proliferation of all four cell lines. Presence of heavy triterpens and lipophil compounds recognized by TLC test in Petroleum ether fraction is responsible for high cytotoxic activity. The results emphasize the importance of phytochemical studies which could lead to the discovery of new active compounds.

  8. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa Boiss

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    B. S. Fazly Bazzaz

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa, various parts of the plant were collected at specific seasons. Aerial parts and root of the plant were dried in shady place and grinded to desirable. Unnatural and natural gum resins did not have the drying and grinding stages. The alcohol-aqueous (33%extract was obtained by masuration and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporator at low temperature and vaccum condition. The essential oil was extracted by water and steam distillation. Its antinociceptive effect was investigated in mice using hot plate method. Antibacterial effect was determined using paper disk method. The results suggest that the maximum antinociceptive effect (efficacy of root and aerial parts extract was higher than morphine and maximum effect of unnatural and natural gum resins extract was equal to morphine. The maximum effect of essential oil and unnatural gum resin was less than morphine but potency of these preparations were less than morphine. The amount of microbial growth inhibition of all extracts was less than chloramphenicol (30 ;ug on gram positive bacteria, but these extracts have not any growth inhibitory effect on gram negative baceria. These extracts inhibited fungus growth equal to nystatin (100units. "nThese results in conjunction with economic considerations suggest the usefulness of aerial parts of plant for medical treatment.

  9. Seasonal variation of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components in the essential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss.

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    G. Asghari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dracocephalum kotschyi is a plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family and exists mostly in south-west Asian countries, including Iran. This plant is used as antispasmodic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory to treat rheumatoid diseases. Methods: In order to investigate the impact of the harvesting time changes on the quantity and quality of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components of D. kotschyi aerial parts, ten samples were collected from cultivated plants from 19 April to 27 August 2013. Also samples of flower and root were harvested in order to investigate their essential oil components. The essential oils were obtained through hydrodistillation method. The components were studied and identified by GC and GC ⁄ MS systems. Results: The highest yield of the essential oil was obtained on 3 May (1.10% V.W and the lowest on 28 July (0.29% V.W. Totally 55 compounds were identified in the essential oil while the highest percentage belonged to monoterpenes especially the oxygenated ones. Most variations were observed in geraniol (1.40-15.34%, geranyl acetate (trace-14.41% and neryl acetate (0.62-17.51%. The major value in most cases belonged to geranial. Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that the harvesting time of plant is an effective factor in the quality and quantity of theessential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi.

  10. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

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    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  11. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H2SO4, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs

  12. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  13. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

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    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  14. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Abellanas

    2016-07-01

    • The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. Keywords: Vorest; stand dynamics; individual-based forest model; spatially explicit forest model; pinsapo.

  15. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  16. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  17. Effect of intensive planting density on tree growth, wood density and fiber properties of maple (Acer velutinum Boiss.)

    OpenAIRE

    Naji HR; Nia MF; Kiaei M; Abdul-Hamid H; Soltani M; Faghihi A

    2016-01-01

    Planting density is a major factor in determining tree growth and wood quality. Although the effect of low planting density on the variation of tree and wood characteristics has been already reported, the effect of intensive initial densities in plantations has not been fully assessed yet. In this study, the effect of intensive planting densities on tree growth, wood density and fiber cell properties was investigated in the context of the development of densely-stocked maple plantations for w...

  18. Effect of intensive planting density on tree growth, wood density and fiber properties of maple (Acer velutinum Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji HR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is a major factor in determining tree growth and wood quality. Although the effect of low planting density on the variation of tree and wood characteristics has been already reported, the effect of intensive initial densities in plantations has not been fully assessed yet. In this study, the effect of intensive planting densities on tree growth, wood density and fiber cell properties was investigated in the context of the development of densely-stocked maple plantations for wood production. The study was carried out in a 12-year-old Acer velutinum trial plantation in northern Iran, with initial densities of 10000, 4444, and 2500 trees ha-1 planted. The variation of diameter at breast height, annual ring width, stem taper, wood density, and fiber cell properties were examined. As expected, low planting densities showed trees with larger diameter at breast height and annual ring width. The largest trees at higher densities were smaller than those in lower planting densities. However, initial planting density had no significant effect on stem taper, wood density and fiber cell properties. In addition, no significant relationships between tree growth features and wood properties were detected, indicating similar wood properties at all planting densities. Therefore, stand/tree growth attributes under intensive planting densities could not be considered as reliable predictors of the wood properties.

  19. Essential Oil Content and Constituents of Black Zira (Bunium persicum [Boiss.] B. Fedtsch.) from Iran During Field Cultivation (Domestication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizi, Majid; Davareenejad, Gholamhossain; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Bunium persisum fruit oils from wild type MM, first (CY1) and second year (CY2) cultivars; (fourth and fifth year plants) were analyzed by GC and GUMS. The essential oil content of the WT (9.1% v/w) was higher than the oil content of the CY1 (6.2% v/w) and CY2 (5.1% v/w). No significant differences

  20. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sadraei, H.; Ghanadian, M.; Asghari, G.; Azali, N.

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice...

  1. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  2. Alpha-picolinic acid,a fungal toxin and mammal apoptosis-inducing agent,elicits hypersensitive-like response and enhances disease resistance in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Kuo ZHANG; Xin ZHANG; Bi Zeng MAO; Qun LI; Zu Hua HE

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-picolinic acid (PA),a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell,has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants. Here,we report that PA is an efficient apoptosis agent triggering cell death of hypersensitive-like response in planta. Confirmed by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS),rice suspension cells and leaves exhibited programmed cell death induced by PA. The PA-induced cell death was associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species that could be blocked by diphenylene iodonium chloride,indicating that the generation of reactive oxygen species was NADPHoxidase dependent. We also demonstrated the induction of rice defense-related genes and subsequent resistant enhancement by PA against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Hence,it was concluded that the PA-stimulated defense response likely involves the onset of the hypersensitive response in rice,which also provides a simple eliciting tool for studying apoptosis in the plant cell.

  3. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of petroleum refinery sour waters; Processos oxidativos avancados para tratamento de aguas acidas de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio V.; Coelho, Alessandra D.; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the waste water generated by the petroleum refineries are related to the type and amount of processed oil, to the nature and the efficiency of the refining operation. The effluents are composed basically of oily waters, originating from of the contact with the oil. Among them, the current of sour water is one of the most preoccupying due to its composition: sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, dissolved oil, basic pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) high. The aim of this work was to evaluate the advanced oxidation processes to degrade sour water (UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton). All process, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not supply satisfactory results, reducing 25% of initial DOC, which it is of 450 mg/L. The results using the Fenton process reached removal of 50% of the initial COD, and when photo- Fenton process obtaining removal of 90%. The processes Fenton and photo-Fenton were shown capable to degrade this kind of waste water, minimizing the environmental problems and corrosion, operating as a pre-treatment for the biological system, or acting alone to degrade the organic matter contained, seeking the water reuse. The effluent used in this work came from Duque de Caxias Refinery (Reduc)/PETROBRAS. (author)

  4. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  6. Characterization of two clays - attapulgite and sepiolite - before and after acid activation; Caracterizacao de duas argilas - atapulgita e sepiolita - antes e apos ativacao acida com HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: renataoliveira@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Among the special clays, two of them are distinguished by their large surface area: attapulgite and sepiolite. Although, being natural clays, when they are removed from the formation sites, their structural channels may be filled of impurities. The process done to clean these channels is called acid activation. The present work aim to treated samples from both clays by using 3M and 5M HCl solution under ultrasonic waves for 1 hour. The characterization of the clays before and after activation was carried out by SEM/EDS, XRD and surface area measure by method BET. The acid treatments employed were too aggressive, in special that with 5M HCl solution, which results in partial lixiviation of these clays. (author)

  7. Purification and characterization of a gentiohexaose obtained from botryosphaeran by partial acid hydrolysis; Purificacao e caracterizacao de uma gentioexaose obtida de botriosferana por hidrolise acida parcial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Iara Ribeiro; Monteiro, Nilson Kobori; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Izeli, Nataly Lino; Vasconcelos, Ana Flora Dalberto; Cardoso, Marilsa de Stefani; Silva, Maria de Lourdes Corradi da [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia]. E-mail: corradi@fct.unesp.br; Barbosa, Aneli de Melo [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biotecnologia; Dekker, Robert F.H. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha-IRICA, Ciudad Real (Spain); Silva, Gil Valdo Jose da; Moraes, Luis Alberto Beraldo de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    A hexa-oligosaccharide was obtained by partial acid hydrolysis from botryosphaeran, an exopolysaccharide (EPS) {beta}(1{yields}3; 1{yields}6)-D-glucan type, produced by the ascomyceteous fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina. The oligosaccharide was purified by gel filtration and charcoal-Celite column chromatography and the analysis was followed by HPAEC/ PAD. The structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, which showed that the oligosaccharide consists of six {beta}-D-glucopyranosyl units O-6 substituted (gentiohexaose). (author)

  8. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 1-Aminoindan-1,3-dicar-boxylic Acid,a Benzo-analogue of (1S,3R)-ACPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING,Ke(丁克); ZHANG,Xin-Rong(张欣荣); MA,Da-Wei(马大为); WANG,Bao-Min(王保民)

    2001-01-01

    Amirno acids 1 and 2 were designed and synthesized as the con-formationally constrained analogues of (1S,3R)- or (1S,3S)-ACPDs,and the selective agonists of mGluRs.The synthesis started from ( R)-phenylglycine using Seebach's stereo-center self-regeneration method and intramolecular acylationas key steps.No activity was found when 1 and 2 were testedas either mGluR agonist or antagonist.``

  9. Karyotype analysis of some Onobrychis (sainfoin) species in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akçelik Somay Esra; Avci S.; Uzun S; Sancak C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, karyotype analysis of the species of Onobrychis sp. was undertaken using the squash method. The results showed that the chromosome number of Onobrychis tournefortii (Willd.) Desv., O. gracilis Besser, O. hypargyrea Boiss. is 2n = 14 and O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss., 2n = 16. The karyotype formula of O. tournefortii (Willd.) Desv. is 4m+3sm, of O. hypargyrea Boiss. and O. gracilis Besser 3m+4sm, and of O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss. 2m+ 5sm+1 st.

  10. Karyotype analysis of ten sections of Trigonella (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Martin; Akan, H.; Ekici, M; Aytac, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes of ten sections of genus Trigonella Linnaeus, 1753 (Fabaceae) from Turkey were investigated. Somatic chromosome numbers of examined species were determined as 2n=14 and 16. The karyotype analyses of the species were carried out and somatic chromosome numbers of Trigonella plicata Boiss., 1872, Trigonella brachycarpa (Fisch.) Moris, 1833, Trigonella rostrata Boiss., 1872, Trigonella lunata Boiss., 1843, Trigonella isthmocarpa Boiss. et Balansa 1856, Trigonella rhytidocarpa ...

  11. A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.

  12. In vitro and in vivo comparison of the biological activities of two traditionally and widely used Arum species from Jordan: Arum dioscoridis Sibth & Sm. and Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Litescu, Simona C; Abaza, Ismail M

    2016-08-01

    Arum dioscoridis and A. palaestinum (Araceae) are indigenous plant species in Jordan. HPLC-MS analysis of A. dioscoridis revealed the presence of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside, vitexin, isoorientin, esculin, and caffeic and ferulic acids. Both Arum spp., influenced gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption. Orlistat inhibited dose dependently and highly substantially pancreatic lipase (PL) in vitro. Similar to orlistat, Arum species aqueous extracts (AEs), apigenin, caffeic acid and esculin exhibited a concentration related PL inhibition. Comparable to acarbose, dual inhibition of α-amylase/α-glucosidase was observed for both Arum species. Like guar gum, A. dioscoridis AE minimised substantially area under 24 h glucose curve. Acute starch-induced postprandial hyperglycaemia in overnight fasting rats was highly significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by A. dioscoridis AE. A. palaestinum could not perform effectively in either starch- or glucose-fed fasting rats. No antiproliferative effects against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116 and SW620 were detected for tested Arum spp.

  13. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from Bunium persicum(Boiss)Fedtsch seeds:a valuable herb of middle East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef; Emamipoor; Mahmood; Maziah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a protocol lor breaking of seed dormancy and increasing the seed germination rate of Bunium persicum.Methods:The seeds were treated with 3.1.6.3.12.5.25.50 and 100 μmol/L of benzyl aminopurine.gibberellic acid(GA,),thidiazuron(TDZ) and forchlorlenuron.Then,seeds were transferred to two different temperature conditions including room temperature(25 ℃) and chilling temperature(2-5℃).Results:The treatment of moist seeds with chilling temperature(2—5℃) broke seed dormancy and showed maximum germination,which was 54.7%after 60 d treatment.Also,the treatment of dn seeds with chilling temperature broke seed dormancy with 9.3%germination rate after 120 d.Treatment of seeds with different level of plant growth regulators showed that under moistroom condition,there was evidence ol higher and lower seed germination rate:GA,(100 μmol/L)with 46.7%and TDZ(50 μmol/L) with 6.67%respectively.In addition,the results showed that under moist-chilling condition.TDZ(6.3 μmol/L) with 53.3%seed germination rate had higher influence on breaking seed dormancy.Treatment of seeds with combination of TDZ and GA3 under moistchilling condition revealed higher rale of breaking of seed dormancy when 6.3 μmol/L TDZ was combined with 100 μmol/L GA,.showing 93.7%genninatiou rate.Conclusions:The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained.Thus,the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  14. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedtsch seeds:a valuable herb of Middle East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Emamipoor; Mahmood Maziah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop a protocol for breaking of seed dormancy and increasing the seed germination rate of Bunium persicum. Methods:The seeds were treated with 3.1, 6.3, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µmol/L of benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid (GA3), thidiazuron (TDZ) and forchlorfenuron. Then, seeds were transferred to two different temperature conditions including room temperature (25 °C) and chilling temperature (2-5 °C). Results: The treatment of moist seeds with chilling temperature (2-5 °C) broke seed dormancy and showed maximum germination, which was 54.7%after 60 d treatment. Also, the treatment of dry seeds with chilling temperature broke seed dormancy with 9.3%germination rate after 120 d. Treatment of seeds with different level of plant growth regulators showed that under moist-room condition, there was evidence of higher and lower seed germination rate:GA3 (100 µmol/L) with 46.7%and TDZ (50 µmol/L) with 6.67%respectively. In addition, the results showed that under moist-chilling condition, TDZ (6.3 µmol/L) with 53.3%seed germination rate had higher influence on breaking seed dormancy. Treatment of seeds with combination of TDZ and GA3 under moist-chilling condition revealed higher rate of breaking of seed dormancy when 6.3 µmol/L TDZ was combined with 100 µmol/L GA3, showing 93.7%germination rate. Conclusions:The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained. Thus, the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  15. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Niaz; Shah Syed; Shah Ismail; Ahmed Ghayour; Ghias Mehreen; Khan Imran

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Method...

  16. Karyotyping and in situ chromosomal localization of rDNA sites in black cumin Bunium persicum (Boiss B. Fedtsch,1915 (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chahota

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique has been applied to somatic chromosomes in the medicinally important species, Bunium persicum, to elucidate its karyotypes. The bicolour FISH technique involving 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes as probes was used to assign physical localization and measurement of rDNA sites on homologous pairs of chromosomes. The two 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene sites were at the terminal regions of the short arms of the chromosomes 1 and 2 involving NOR region of chromosome 1. The 5S rDNA sites were found on subtelomeric region of the long arm of the chromosome number 5 and at interstitial regions of the short arm of chromosome 7. Based on direct visual analysis of chromosome length, morphology and position of FISH signals, a pioneer attempt has been made to construct metaphase karyotype in B. persicum, an endangered medicinal plant of North Western Himalayas.

  17. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysisof leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. under NaCl salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhaier, Barhoumi; Abdallah, Atia; Najla, Trabelsi; Wahbi, Djebali; Wided, Chaïbi; Aouatef, Ben Ammar; Chedly, Abdelly; Abderazzak, Smaoui

    2015-11-01

    Leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopes and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) system, after growing for three months on sandy soil with or without 300 mM NaCl. Results showed that salt glands were irregularly scattered on both leaf sides and sunk under the epidermal level. Salt excretion occurred in both conditions and is mainly composed of calcium and magnesium in control plants, and essentially sodium and chloride in plants subjected to salt treatment. A salt gland is comprised of collecting, accumulating, and central compartments, and is made up of total thirty-two cells. The collecting cells were characterized by large central vacuoles. Accumulating cells contain numerous, large, and unshaped vacuoles and rudimentary chloroplasts. The central compartment was comprised of four basal cells and each one is surmounted by an apical cell. The basal cells are granulated, containing large nucleus, numerous mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, polyribosomes, and small vacuoles or vesicles. Equally, the apical cells are rich in organelles. Application of 300 mM NaCl to the culture medium increased vacuoles number and size, and organelles density especially the mitochondria which suggests energy requirement for ions transport. The reduction in size and number of vacuoles toward the interior of salt glands of treated plants and the fusion of the smallest ones with the plasma membrane substantiate the implication of such vacuoles in salt excretion process. The current study which is the first report on L. guyonianum salt gland has provided an in-depth understanding on structure-function relationship in the multicellular salt glands. PMID:26102605

  18. Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2011-10-01

    Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs. PMID:21937669

  19. In vitro and in vivo comparison of the biological activities of two traditionally and widely used Arum species from Jordan: Arum dioscoridis Sibth & Sm. and Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Litescu, Simona C; Abaza, Ismail M

    2016-08-01

    Arum dioscoridis and A. palaestinum (Araceae) are indigenous plant species in Jordan. HPLC-MS analysis of A. dioscoridis revealed the presence of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside, vitexin, isoorientin, esculin, and caffeic and ferulic acids. Both Arum spp., influenced gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption. Orlistat inhibited dose dependently and highly substantially pancreatic lipase (PL) in vitro. Similar to orlistat, Arum species aqueous extracts (AEs), apigenin, caffeic acid and esculin exhibited a concentration related PL inhibition. Comparable to acarbose, dual inhibition of α-amylase/α-glucosidase was observed for both Arum species. Like guar gum, A. dioscoridis AE minimised substantially area under 24 h glucose curve. Acute starch-induced postprandial hyperglycaemia in overnight fasting rats was highly significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by A. dioscoridis AE. A. palaestinum could not perform effectively in either starch- or glucose-fed fasting rats. No antiproliferative effects against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116 and SW620 were detected for tested Arum spp. PMID:26284613

  20. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Nacim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%, 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%, cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%, camphor (6.8-19.93%, 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%, terpenyl acetate (0-14.92% and viridiflorol (0-11.49%. Based on major compounds, the populations were represented by (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/cis-sabinene hydrate/camphor/viridiflorol, (1,8-cineole/camphor/terpenyl acetate, (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/camphor, (1,8-cineole/camphor/4-terpineol and (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/cis-sabinene hydrate/camphor/4-terpineol chemotypes. Variation of phenological stage did not have a statistically significant effect on the yield and metal chelating activity of the essential oil. These results can be used to investigate the geographical location and the harvesting time of this plant for relevant industries.

  1. Recovery of tungsten from wolframite from the Igarape Manteiga mine (Rondonia - Brazil) via acidic leaching; Isolamento do tungstenio da volframita da mina de Igarape Manteiga (Rondonia - Brasil) por lixiviacao acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Vianna, Claudio Augusto; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We report results of the efficiency of tungsten extraction from wolframite concentrate (containing 61.5 wt % WO{sub 3}) from the Igarape Manteiga mine (state of Rondonia, Brazil) through acid leaching with strong mineral acids at 100 deg C and 400 rpm for 2-4 h. HCl yielded insoluble matter containing the highest WO{sub 3} content (90 wt %). This solid was dissolved in concentrated NH{sub 3(aq)} at 25 deg C and the insoluble matter filtrated. The filtrate was slowly evaporated. 70 wt % of the tungsten present in the starting concentrate material was recovered as ammonium paratungstate (APT). (author)

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Zinc(Ⅱ) Dinicotinate Complex [Zn(nic)2(H2O)4](nic=nicotinic acid):A Three-dimensional Hydrogen-bond Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Hong-yan; ZHANG Zong-pei; ZHANG Hong-yun; XU Chen; WANG En-bo; WU Qing-an; ZHU Yu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Nicotinic acid and its transition-metal comple-xes have become increasingly important due to their potential applications as cosmetics or medicines with antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and the activity in the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism[1-3], etc. A major research effort has been made to generate such materials and to study their biological activity[4-9]. But few of the previous works have directed towards the structure investigation of these metal complexes[6-9]. So, in this report we aim at testing the effect of hydrothermal synthesis on the formation of the crystal structures of crystalline [Zn(nic)2(H2O)4 ](nic=nicotinic acid).

  3. Acid hydrolysis of sisal cellulose: studies aiming at nano fibers and bio ethanol preparation;Hidrolise acida de celulose de sisal: estudos visando obtencao de nanofibras e de bioetanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Mauricio P. de; Lacerda, Talita M.; Zambon, Marcia D.; Frollini, Elisabete, E-mail: elisabete@iqsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The hydrolysis of cellulose can result in nanofibers and also is an important stage in the bioethanol production process. In order to evaluate the influence of acid (sulfuric) concentration, temperature, and native cellulose (sisal) pretreatment on cellulose hydrolysis, the acid concentration was varied between 5% and 30% (v/v) in the temperature range from 60 to 100 deg C using native and alkali-treated (mercerized) sisal cellulose. The following techniques were used to evaluate the residual (non-hydrolysed) cellulose characteristics: viscometry, average degree of polymerization (DP), X-ray diffraction, crystallinity index, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The sugar cane liquor was analyzed in terms of sugar composition, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that increasing the concentration of sulfuric acid and temperature afforded residual cellulose with lower molecular weight and, up to specific acid concentrations, higher crystallinity indexes, when compared to the original cellulose values, and increased the glucose (the bioethanol precursor ) production of the liquor, which was favored for mercerized cellulose. (author)

  4. Acid membranes of poly(vinyl alcohol) for direct ethanol fuel cell applications; Membranes acidas de poli(alcool vinilico) para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel via etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra Filho, Jose C.; Gomes, Ailton S. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: asgomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Proton-conducting hybrid membranes composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), phosphotungstic acid (HPW) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) where prepared. The effect of HPW doping and crosslink with DTPA on the membranes properties such as uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity was investigated. Uptake and permeated flux decreases with increasing content of HPW and DTPA. Ethanol permeabilities obtained was about two orders of magnitude smaller than Nafion 117. FTIR spectra indicated that HPW was incorporated into the polymer matrix and DTPA acted as crosslink agent. The proton conductivity was in the order of 10-3 S.cm-1 with added 4 wt.% of DTPA and generally increases with the addition of HPW. (author)

  5. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr) con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle) y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle) como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo C. Orlando; Salazar C. Raúl; Torres M. Rodrigo

    1987-01-01

    At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmi...

  6. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo C. Orlando

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

  7. Comparación del "tabog" (swinglea glutinosa merr) con el limón "rugoso" (citrus jambhiri swingle) y la mandarina "cleopatra" (c. reticulata swingle) como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''tahiti" (c. aurantifolia swingle)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo C., Orlando; Torres M., Rodrigo; Salazar C., Raúl

    2010-01-01

    En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA), se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopa...

  8. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  9. 缬草属植物特征性化合物缬草烯酸研究进展%Progress in Research on Valerenic Acid-a Key Marker Compound of Valerian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左长英; 闫智勇

    2010-01-01

    缬草烯酸valerenic acid是败酱科Valerianaceae缬草属Valeriana植物的特征化合物,是缬草属植物中枢抑制等作用的主要活性成分.最近研究表明,缬草烯酸是通过影响γ-氨基丁酸(GABAA)受体、5-羟色胺(5-HT)受体、核因子(NF-κB)等发挥其药理活性的.本文对缬草烯酸的分离和含量测定、药理药效及药代动力学3个方面进行了分析综述,以期为缬草烯酸的进一步研究提供参考.

  10. Ni, Co recovery study and Fe by acid leaching in columns; Estudio de la extraccion de Ni, Co y Fe en lateritas por medio de lixiviacion acida en columnas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, C. di; Betancourt, E.; Vivas, R.; Rus, J.

    2006-07-01

    In the following work the possibility of the mic kel recovery by hydrometallurgy extraction for nickeliferous laterite is studied. The work looks for to study the technical viability of the extraction of nickel and cobalt by means of the application of heap leaching. The ore is chemically and physically characterized with the purpose of analyzes its composition and mineral phase, by means of x-rays diffraction, quantitative chemical analysis and elementary chemical analysis by electronic microscopy. One the ore is characterized, it is mixed with sulfuric acid to relations 0.05; 0.1 and 0.2 g acid/g to agglomerated pellets and paste, with the aim to improve the percolation in column, due to the argillaceous nature of the ore leaching rate ranged from 0.305 to 1.06 x 10 l/h m''2 and in the agglomerate condition of the percolation l/h m''2 improves at interval 3.05 to 6.11 x 100 l/h m''2. (Author)

  11. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  12. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  13. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not [3H]muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate [( 3H] TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively [3H] flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-[3H]CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated [3H]muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-[3H]CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for [3H]flunitrazepam, [3H]muscimol and [3H]TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested

  14. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  15. Cellulose whiskers from sisal fibers: a study about the variable of extraction by acid hydrolysis; Whiskers de cellulose obtido a partir de fibras de sisal: estudo de variaveis de extracao por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Kelcilene B.R., E-mail: rakelcilene@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, Eliangela de Morais; Correa, Ana Carolina; Campos, Adriana de; Marconcini, Jose Manoel; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria - EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA)

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of cellulosic nanostructures in polymeric matrices has been studied due to their properties of biodegradation, and expected higher mechanical performance than the traditional composites. In this work, cellulose nanofibers were obtained from sisal bleached with reagents without chlorine, where it was used an acid mixture, with acetic acid and nitric acid, and after the bleached fibers were submitted to acid hydrolysis. The influence of the temperature and time of hydrolysis on the morphology and dimensions, crystallinity and thermal stability were analyzed by scanning transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The hydrolysis condition of 60 deg C and 15 minutes showed to be the most effective condition to obtain whiskers from sisal fibers, resulting in nanostructures with higher crystallinity and thermal. (author)

  16. Use of wetlands for the treatment of acidic mining drainage: the processes in the wetland; Utilizacion de humedales para el tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina: procesos que tienen lugar en el humedal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lastra, M.; Loredo Perez, J. [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas. Escuela de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    Wetlands constitute an alternative method for the treatment of acidic mining drainage, through the utilization of some plant species complex physico-chemical and biological processes take place, producing and improvement of the quality of waters moving through. The inherent characteristics of a wetland in operation will originate an horizontal zonation as for the quality of waters due to their progressive ameliorations of pH increase and heavy metals concentration decreases, anyway a vertical zonation, giving rise to oxidation and reduction zones on the wetland. From the different physical processes occurring on the wetland, the plant roots filtering, the dilution of effluents with superficial and underground waters and aeration phenomena can be considered very important. Oxidation, hydrolysis and sulphate reduction constitute important chemical processes leading to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated effluents. Wetlands have plants as sphagnum, typha and algae advantageous for the treatment of acidic waters provided that they retain heavy metals in their tissues and the contribute furthermore to modify the substrate conditions favoring the creation of reduction zones. The aerobic-anaerobic mixed systems are from the different wetland types those are prevailing because of the advantages of sulphate reduction as contrasted with oxides precipitation for the removal of heavy metals. Wetlands although are not the panacea for the treatment of acidic mining waters they offer advantages and some disadvantages too, over other treatment methods, and they constitute a real alternative for the conventional methods of chemical neutralization. (Author)

  17. Acid drainages of the pyritic sterile from the Pocos de Caldas uranium mine: environmental interpretation and implications; Drenagens acidas do esteril piritoso da mina de uranio de Pocos de Caldas: interpretacao e implicacoes ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-12-01

    Considering the planned closure of the first uranium mine and milling plant operating in Brazil, located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, in the State of Minas Gerais, in the next two years, there is the need to obtain basic information for its decommissioning. Special attention has been directed to the following critical areas: open pit, tailing, dam and waste rock piles, because these are the main sources of acid drainage generation. These waters cannot be allowed to flow in the external environment because in addition to sulphuric acid, there is a number of elements in concentration above those allowed by regulations. Among the waste piles (bota-foras BF) two of them BF-4 and BF-8, are in a process of acid generation, thus requiring more attention. The objective of this work was to simulate at the laboratory scale the oxidation and the reduction zones of BF-4. The experiments were conducted in acrylic columns, where the waste sample was kept under aerated and saturated conditions, in different columns. The control of the chemical (solubilized chemical species), physico-chemical (redox potential, pH, conductivity) and biological (bacterial activity) parameters has been carried out on the acid solutions generated by the chemical and biological reactions that occur at the waste. Although the results refer to a four month period, some relevant points can be highlighted, which will serve as a basis for further research. The mineralogical characterization identified the existence of other sulphides associated to pyrite with lower oxidation potential than the latter. The results obtained with the biological characterization for the two conditions studied revealed that the bacterial activity is more intense in the region in contact with air, than in saturated region. (author) 30 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Sub products form a depuratives process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. part I; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos organicos como fuente carbonada, Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2002-07-01

    Subproducts from the biological depurative process of acid mine water, such as H{sub 2}S in the biogas and HCO{sub 3} in the effluents are applied for the selective precipitation of metallic sulphides of Pb, Zn, Cu, Al an Mn, as a function of pH. To obtain the maximum H{sub 2}S concentration is principal,so several studies have been made to found the best working conditions between microorganisms and the carbon source choice. In this work,the results of the digestion process with an inoculum from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure and cheese whey as carbon source are showed. The optimal conditions obtained are: for a SO{sub 4}''=COD of 1:1,5 in HRT of 12 days, 65% of sulphate reduction, 30% of H2S in biogas. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 98,3% of Fe, 96,1% Cu, 79% Zn and 99% Al are obtained. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 15 refs.

  19. Biological treatment of acid mine water: selection of a biomass population enriched in sulphate-reducing bacteria; Tratamiento biologico de aguas acidas de mineria: seleccion de una poblacion bacteriana enriquecida en bacterias sulfatoreductoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel Villagran, F. J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the biological sulphate reduction. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the metal mining industry. This wastewater is formed when sulphide ores undergo chemical and biological oxidation processes and is characterized by low pH-values and high levels of sulphate and metals. The effect of stimuling bacteria sulphate reduction in such systems in order to improve water quality was examined in a laboratory scale experiment, in 250 mL, magnetically stirred, batch, anaerobic reactors, to 25 degree centigree. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Subproducts from a depurative process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. Part II; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos orgnicos como fuente carbonada (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    The biological depurative process of acid mine water reducing sulphate concentration from Tinto River produces the alkalinity needed for the selective precipitation of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. But a suitable carbon source for the working conditions of microorganisms to reduce sulphates is needed. In this work, the results obtained using urban sewage as a carbon source are presented. the optimal conditions obtained are: 65,5% of sulphate reduction in HRT of 10 days for a SO{sub '}'2{sub 4} COD of 1:1 and 580 mg HS/L in the reactor effluent. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 77,6% of Fe, 88,6% of Cu, 70,7% of Zn and 71,5% of Al, are obtained depending on the assay applied. Ayesa is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 6 refs.

  1. γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)——一种新型的功能食品因子%Gamma-aminobutyric acid-a novel functional factor for nutraceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建军; 江波; 许时婴

    2003-01-01

    GABA(γ-氨基丁酸)是一种天然存在的功能性氨基酸,研究表明,它具有降低血压、改善脑功能、增强长期记忆及提高肝、肾机能等生理活性.本文概述了GABA的分布和制备方法,同时对GABA在降压、健脑等功能性食品中的应用及发展前景也作了讨论.

  2. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae). PMID:16084679

  3. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Qian; LI, Zu-Yi

    2000-01-01

    Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acidas from unsaturated carboxylic acids was investigated.Under mild conditions unsaturated arboxylic acids were convcveed to peroxide,then the unsaturated peroxycarboxylic acids epoxidised the C=C bond of themselves

  4. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.

  5. 利用多功能、多用途的可再生甲酸实现化学品的绿色与可持续合成%Formic acid:A versatile renewable reagent for green and sustainable chemical synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳翔; 李舒爽; 刘永梅; 曹勇

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid is available as a major byproduct from biorefinery processing and this together with its unique properties, including non-toxicity, favorable energy density, and biodegradability, make it an economically appealing and safe reagent for energy storage and chemical synthesis. This review provides an overview of novel recent achievements in green catalytic transformations that use biogenic formic acid as an efficient and versatile reagent. The examples selected demonstrate the advantages of formic acid in addressing the key issues (minimizing the use and generation of haz-ardous substances while maximizing productivity under mild and benign reaction conditions) in clean chemical transformation. Special emphasis is put on the prospects of formic acid for delivering new catalytic technology to produce a plethora of tailor-made products via the flexible and selective conversion of renewable biomass resources. The potential of formic acid as a renewable C1 feed-stock for both bulk and fine chemical syntheses is also outlined with examples. The role of multi-functionality in catalyst design as a key aspect in developing new catalytic concepts capable of pro-moting new transformations to give unprecedented selectivity and efficiency is also discussed. This article is expected to advance research on sustainable, green and affordable bio-based processes as alternatives to traditional ones with the goal to develop a fully sustainable chemical industry based on renewable resources.%近年来,随着化石资源日趋短缺以及由此带来的人类生存环境日益恶化,生物质等可再生资源的高效、可持续利用已成为各国科学家研究与关注的焦点。甲酸,生物精炼中的主要副产物之一,具备廉价易得、无毒、能量密度高以及可再生可降解等特性,将其应用于新能源利用与化学转化,不仅有助于甲酸应用领域的进一步拓展,还有助于解决面向未来的生物精炼技术中的一些共性瓶颈问题。本文简要回顾了甲酸利用的研究历史,总结了甲酸作为高效、多用途试剂与原料在化学品合成及生物质催化转化等方面的最新研究进展,并对利用甲酸活化来实现高效化学转化的基本原理及催化体系进行了对比分析,指出今后研究重点应着眼于努力提高甲酸的利用效率,同时实现高选择性合成两方面,并在此基础上进一步拓展其应用领域。在化学品合成方面,甲酸作为一种环境友好可再生的多功能试剂可应用于多种官能团的选择转化过程。作为一种高含氢量的氢转移试剂或还原剂,甲酸相较传统氢气具有操作简便可控、条件温和、具有良好化学选择性等优点,广泛应用于醛酮、硝基、亚胺、腈、炔烃、烯烃等的选择还原以制取相应的醇、胺、烯烃和烷烃类化合物,以及醇类和环氧化物的氢解和官能团去保护等过程。鉴于甲酸亦可用作C1原料,作为多用途的关键基础试剂甲酸还可应用于包括喹啉衍生物的还原甲酰化、胺类化合物甲酰化和甲基化,烯烃羰化以及炔烃还原水合等多级串联反应,是实现精细复杂有机分子高效简约绿色合成的重要途径。该类过程的挑战在于寻求对甲酸及特定官能团的可控活化兼具高选择性和高活性的多功能催化剂。此外,近期有研究表明以甲酸为C1原料还可通过催化歧化反应直接高选择性合成甲醇等大宗化学品。在生物质催化转化方面,甲酸的多功能特性为实现绿色、安全、高原子经济性生物精炼过程提供了潜在可能。生物质资源是储量最大、最具潜力的可持续替代资源,但将其转化为可利用的资源形式仍然面临挑战。甲酸的酸性质及良好溶剂特性可应用于生物质原料预处理过程,实现木质纤维素组分分离和纤维素提取,相较传统无机酸预处理体系具有沸点低、易分离、不引入无机离子、对下游反应兼容性强等优点;而作为高效氢源,甲酸也被广泛研究应用于生物质平台化合物选择催化转化制高附加值化学品、木质素降解制芳烃化合物和生物油加氢脱氧精制处理等过程,相较依赖H2的传统氢化过程具有转化效率高、反应条件温和,简便安全并可有效减少相关生物精炼过程中化石资源的物耗与能耗等优势。最新研究表明,通过在温和条件下甲酸水溶液中解聚氧化木质素,可得到重量比大于60%的低分子量芳烃溶液,这一创新性发现为从木质素中直接提取高值芳香化学物等化学品带来了新的机遇。综上所述,生物基甲酸在绿色有机合成和生物质转化等方面表现出巨大潜力,而其多功能性和多用途性对于实现原料的高效利用及目标产物的高选择性至关重要。该领域目前已取得了一定成果并得到了快速发展,然而距实际产业应用还有相当距离,需要进一步探索。今后的研究重点应着眼于以下几个方面:(1)如何针对特定反应优选合适的催化活性金属及反应体系;(2)如何在其他原料和试剂存在条件下高效、可控地活化甲酸;(3)如何从分子层面理解复杂反应的反应机制;(4)如何在相关过程中稳定相应催化剂。展望未来,基于现代社会对环境、经济和可持续发展的需求,甲酸化学将得到产业界与学术界越来越多的关注和研究。

  6. Relation of C358A polymorphism of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH with obesity and insulin resistance Relación del polimorfismo C358A del enzima del sistema endocanabinoide (hidrolasa amida acida con la obesidad y la resistencia a la insulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. de Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently, it has been demonstrated that the polymorphism 385 C->A of FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase was associated with overweight and obesity. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship of missense polymorphism (cDNA 385 C-A of FAAH gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk factors and adipocytokines. Methods: A population of 279 females with obesity (body mass index 30 was analyzed. An indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3 days written food records and biochemical analysis (lipid profile, adipocytokines, insulin, CRP and lipoprotein-a were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for the combined C385A and A385A as a group and wild type C385C as second group. Results: One hundred and ninety four patients (69.5% had the genotype C385C (wild type group and 76 (27.2% patients had the genotype C358A or A358A (9 patients, 3.2% (mutant type group. No differences were detected between groups in anthropometric parameters and dietary intakes. Triglycerides (118.9 ± 59.9 mg/dl vs 107.4 + 51.3 mg/dl;p Antecedentes y objetivos: Recientemente, se ha demostrado que el polimorfismo 385 C/A, de FAAH (hidrolasa amida de ácidos grasos se asocia con el sobrepeso y la obesidad. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar la relación de este polimorfismo del gen de FAAH con parámetros antropométricos, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y adipocitoquinas. Métodos: Una población de 279 mujeres con obesidad (índice de masa corporal> 30 fue analizada. Se realizaron las siguientes determinaciones; calorimetría indirecta, bioimpedancia eléctrica, presión arterial, una evaluación de la ingesta nutricional de 3 días, así como un análisis bioquímico (perfil lipídico, adipocitoquinas, insulina, proteina C reactiva y lipoproteína-(a. El análisis estadístico se realizó combinando C385A y A385A como grupo mutante y C385C como grupo salvaje. Resultados: Un total de 194 pacientes (69,5% tenían el genotipo C385C (genotipo salvaje y 76 (27,2% pacientes tenían el genotipo C358A y 9 pacientes (3,2% el genotipo A358A, formando estos dos el grupo de genotipo mutante. No se detectaron diferencias entre los grupos en los parámetros antropométricos y la ingesta dietética. Sin embargo los pacientes con genotipo salvaje presentaron valores más elevado de triglicéridos (118,9 ± 59,9 mg/dl vs 107,4 + 51,3 mg/dl; p < 0,05, glucosa (100,4 ± 19,9 mg/dl vs 94,8 + 11,5mg/dl; p < 0,05, HOMA (3,74 ± 2,2 vs 3,39 + 2,7; p < 0,05 y de interleukina-6 (3,3 ± 1,4 pg/ml vs 1,4 ± 2,1 pg/ml; p < 0,05 fueron mayores en el grupo de tipo salvaje que el grupo de tipo mutante. Conclusión: El principal hallazgo de este trabajo es la asociación del genotipo mutante (A358C y A358A de FAAH con un mejor perfil cardiovascular (triglicéridos, glucosa, interleucina 6 y HOMA que los pacientes portadores del genotipo salvaje.

  7. Blood loss and limb circumference changes in patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty after intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid:a randomized controlled trial%关节腔注射氨甲环酸单侧全膝关节置换者的失血量及肢体周径变化:随机对照

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金辉; 孙伟; 高福强; 王云亭; 李子荣

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Tranexamic acid has been more and more used in reducing bleeding after joint replacement, but its usage method and dosage remain controversial, and become a hot focus in recent years. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the efficacy of intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid on postoperative blood loss and limb circumference changes in patients who received unilateral total knee arthroplasty. METHODS:From March to October 2013, clinical data of 90 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty were randomized to the tranexamic acid group and the control group, including 19 males and 71 females. The 30 patients in the tranexamic acid group received 50 mL of 3%tranexamic acid dilute solution inside knee joint after capsule closure, and 60 patients in the control group received the same volume of physiological saline. No significant difference in age, height, body mass index, anticoagulation, the type of prosthesis, tourniquet time and preoperative diagnosis was detected between the two groups (P>0.05). The amounts of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion, postoperative drainage volume, the preoperative and postoperative limb circumference 10 cm above the operated knee were recorded. Routine blood test was reviewed after the surgery. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There were no significant differences in total blood loss, postoperative drainage volume and limb circumference changes between tranexamic acid and control groups (P>0.05). The amount of postoperative hidden blood loss was significantly less in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group (t=-2.683, P0.05)。记录患者术中及术后失血量和输血量、术后第1天引流量,测量术前及术后术侧膝上10 cm肢体周径,术后连续复查血常规。结果与结论:氨甲环酸组和对照组手术总失血量、术后第1天引流量与术侧肢体周径变化情况比较差异均无显著性意义(P>0.05),术后隐性失血量氨甲环酸组明显少于对照组(t=-2.683,P<0.05)。提示全膝关节置换过程中关节腔内注射氨甲环酸能明显减少患者术后隐性失血量,且不影响置换后肢体周径变化。

  8. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  10. Effects of salvianolic acid-A on rat hepatic stellate cell proliferation and collagen production in culture%丹酚酸A对培养的大鼠肝星状细胞增殖与胶原生成的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成海; 刘平; 胡义扬; 徐列明; 谭英姿; 王臻楠; 刘成

    2000-01-01

    目的:研究丹酚酸A对培养的大鼠肝星状细胞增殖与胶原生成的影响.方法:用链酶蛋白酶与胶原酶对肝脏进行原位灌流消化,Nycodenz密度梯度离心分离大鼠肝星状细胞,传一代培养.MTT法与[3H]TdR掺人法测定细胞增殖.丽春红染色、图象分析法半定量细胞胶原沉积量,ELISA法测定细胞培养上清中I型胶原分泌量,检测细胞层总蛋白量校正细胞数.RT-PCR法分析前胶原α2(I)基因的表达.结果:丹酚酸A 100 μmol/L引起部分细胞脱壁与死亡,有一定毒性反应.丹酚酸A0.1一10 μmol/L对细胞形态无明显影响.丹酚酸A l一100 μmol/L浓度依赖性抑制细胞增殖,降低胶原沉积量与I型胶原分泌量.丹酚酸A 1-10 μmol/L对前胶原α2(I)mRNA表达均有明显抑制作用.结论:丹酚酸A抑制肝星状细胞增殖与胶原表达,是丹参抗肝纤维化的主要有效成分之一,抑制肝星状细胞活化是其抗肝纤维化的主要作用机制.%AIM: To investigate the effects of salvianolic acid-A(SA-A), one of main effective components of Salvia miltiorrhiza for its antifibrotic action, on the cell proliferation and collagen production in cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSC). METHODS: HSC were isolated through in situ perfusion of liver with pronase E and collagenase,and gradient centrifugation with Nycodenz. The cultured HSC were incubated with SA-A 0.1 - 100μmol/L for 24h. MTT spectrometric assay and intercellular incorporation of methyl-[3H]thymidine ([3H]TdR) was used to assess the cell proliferation. The amount of collagen was semi-quantified by ponceau staining and image analysis,the amount of type I collagen secretion was measured with ELISA and normalized by the total protein of cell layer.The total RNA was prepared from the control cells and the drag treated cells respectively, and the expression of pro-collagen α2 (I) mRNA was semi-quantitatively analyzed with RT-PCR. RESULTS: SA-A 100 tmol/L showed a little cytotoxity, SA-A 0.1 - 10 μmol/L did not influence cell morphology, and SA-A 1 - 100 μmol/L decreased the cell proliferation significantly in a concentration-dependent manner ( P < 0.05). SA-A 1, 10,100 μmol/L decreased the cell collagen deposition by 78.6 %, 71.8 %, and 61.3 % of the control respectively ( P < 0.05), and decreased type I collagen secretion to 53.1%, 52.6 %, and49.5 % (P<0.01 or P <0.05). Both SA-A 1 and 10 μmol/L downregulated procollagen α2 (I) mRNA expression remarkably ( P <0.05). CONCLUSION: SA-A inhibited HSC proliferation and collagen expression. The inhibitory effect on HSC activation is the main mechanism of SA-A action against liver fibrosis.

  11. Quality in the organizations (enterprises and institutions of production and of services). Validation of the determination by atomic absorption of sodium and potassium in acid rain; Calidad de las organizaciones (empresas e instituciones de produccion y de servicios). Validacion de la determinacion por absorcion atomica de sodio y potasio en lluvia acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola T, D.L

    2005-07-01

    The present work is focused to the environmental area and in specific to the validation of an analytical method by means of one of the techniques more used for the determination of metals, the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Applied to the study of the acid rain and its diverse forms in the nature. As well as their consequences and the role that the man carries out in the contribution toward this phenomenon. To approach the following text it will be mention shortly how is distributed, beginning with the introduction that is about the importance of the role of the acid rain, its effects and repercussions in the environment. In the first chapter the points that we should be evaluated to carry out a validation are analyzed. Being the main ones, the precision, accuracy, lineal interval, among others. Continuing in the second chapter with the foundation study, equipment and interferences of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The last chapter contains the experimental part, continuing for each evaluated point, from the experimental development, results and its analysis. (Author)

  12. FLAVONOIDS OF SALVIA MICROSTEGIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN**, Z. SUKAL*, B. HALFON*

    2015-01-01

    Three flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-0-glucoside and chrysoeriol, havebeen isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia microstegia Boiss. et Bal.Key words: Salvia, flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol.

  13. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  14. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ünver, Ahmet; Özçelik, Hasan; Özcan, Musa; Sagdiç, Osman; Özkan, Gülcan

    2005-01-01

    Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC) and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE) endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus,...

  15. Nutlet morphology and its taxonomic utility in Salvia (Lamiaceae: Mentheae) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Mustafa; AKTAŞ, Kâmuran; Özdemir, Canan; Guerin, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The nutlet (mericarp) morphology of 12 Salvia L. (Lamiaceae: sub-family Nepetoideae: tribe Mentheae: sub-tribe Salviinae) taxa from Turkey, including five endemic taxa, was examined using scanning electron microscopy: Salvia bracteata Banks et Sol., S. cadmica Boiss., S. blepharoclaena Hedge et Hub.-Mor., S. cryptantha Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, S. aethiopis L, S. ceratophylla L., S. candidissima Vahl subsp. candidissima., S. cyanescens Boiss et Bal., S. virgata Jacq, S. halophila Hedge, ...

  16. Compuestos orgánicos presentes en aguas de escombreras de carbón.

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas Borrajo, Juan F.; Canoira López, Laureano; García-Martínez, Mª Jesús; Ortega Romero, Marcelo; Llamas Lois, Alberto; Diaz Bautista, Maria Aranzazu

    2008-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio de la influencia de las aguas acidas de mina en la movilización de los hidrocarburos policidicos aromáticos (PAHs) presentes en las escombreras de carbón. Se observa como dichas aguas acidas disuelven preferentemente a los PAHs de menor peso molecular. También se ha realizado un análisis de riesgos que indica que existe un riesgo real por uso y consumo, en el interior de las viviendas, del agua subterránea. Por último, se han establecido las bases para una técnica p...

  17. Sistema de tratamiento de aguas ácidas producidas por relaves y desmontes mineros generados en el proceso extracción de oro

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Salazar, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    El presente Proyecto Final de Carrera comprende el planteamiento de solución alterna para el tratamiento de aguas acidas producidas en los depósitos de desmonte y zona de tajo de un proyecto minero aurífero ubicado en la sierra norte del Perú. La planta tratamiento fue dimensionada para procesar el flujo de aguas acidas generadas en el distrito de San Jerónimo en el departamento de Cajamarca en la sierra norte del Perú. Durante la etapa de explotación minera se generan efluentes mineros...

  18. Drug: D00037 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00037 Drug Anhydrous citric acid (JP16); Citric acid anhydrous (JAN); Citric acid,...A09A DIGESTIVES, INCL. ENZYMES A09AB Acid preparations A09AB04 Citric acid D00037... Anhydrous citric acid (JP16); Citric acid anhydrous (JAN); Citric acid, anhydrous (USP) CAS: 77-92-9 PubChe

  19. Chemotype common planets in Lebanon gender and gender Micromeria Origanum (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemotype or (chimiotype) is the original denomination, meant to characterizean essential oil from the botanic and biochemical view point. It is so important that it is today acknowledged and used in the whole biological and botanic classification, earmarking the wildly present molecule in an essential oil. This classification is linked to factors directly related to the specific life conditions of the plant namely: the country, climate, soil and the harvest period which can influence the essential oil composition. One speaks about a chemotype essential oil (Zhiri and Baudoux, 2005). This study shows the classification of four Origanums: Origanum syriacum L.,Origanum majorana L., Origanum ehrenbergii Boiss. and Origanum libanoticum Boiss., the last 2 being endemic to Lebanon; and four Micromeria: Micromeria barbata Boiss., wild and endemic, Micromeria barbata, domesticated, Micromeria libanotica Boiss., also endemic to Lebanon and Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss Origanum of Lebanon is 'thyme of thymo' and Micromeria grown in Lebanon contain less pulegone rate than in other countries These endangered species could find a field of valorization in the food industry sector, which will definitely help in preserving them and will lead to a potential new income to the Lebanese industry . (author)

  20. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  1. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed. PMID:27395550

  2. A NEW AROMATIC ESTER AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF Salvia aucheri var. canescens

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN*, N. TAN*, G. TOPÇU**,

    2015-01-01

    The roots of an endemic Salvia species, Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss.and HeIdr. have been investigated and a new aromatic ester together with two diterpenoids, a triterpenoid and a steroidal compound were isolated. The structures of the new and the known compounds were determined by spectral methods and by TLC comparision with authentic samples except for the new compound.Key words: Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss. and Heldr.; Labiatae; aromaticester; terpenoidal compounds.

  3. Biología de la reproducción de tres especies del género lonicera (Caprifoliaceae)en la Sierra de Cazorla

    OpenAIRE

    Jordano, Pedro

    1990-01-01

    Se exponen observaciones básicas sobre biología floral y fructificación de tres especies de madreselvas (Lonicera arborea Boiss., L. etrusca G. Santi y L. splendida Boiss., Caprifoliaceae) en las sierras de Cazorla y Segura (Jaén). La polinización es diurna, realizada por abejorros y abejas, en L. arborea; y predominantemente crepuscular y nocturna, por esfíngidos, en L. etrusca y L. splendida. Las tres especies son muy nectaríferas; L. arborea secreta en promedio 1,7 ul por fl...

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  5. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  6. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants. PMID:27395681

  7. Otostegia persica (Lamiaceae): A review on its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Sadeghi; Maryam Akaberi; Jafar Valizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The current study summarizes the updated information concerning the ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Otostegia persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae), an endemic medicinal plant in south and southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Information was collected through bibliographic investigation from scientific journals, books, theses, reports, and electronic search (databases SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct). Moreover, documentation from...

  8. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    1974-01-01

    A number of species and varieties are mentioned as new to the adventitious flora of the Netherlands, viz. Zingeria trichopoda (Boiss.) P. Smirn.; Poa trivialis L. var. silvicola (Guss.) Hack.; Galium floribundum Sibth. & Sm., G. murale All.; Lallemantia iberica (Bieb.) Fisch. & Mey.; Veronica cf. gr

  9. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus. PMID:26996015

  10. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  11. Midazolam inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning through dual central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activation and neurosteroidogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O’Dell, Kazuko A.; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Charles F. Zorumski

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) enhance γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor inhibition by direct actions on central BDZ receptors (CBRs). Although some BDZs also bind mitochondrial receptors (translocator protein 18kDa, TSPO) and promote the synthesis of GABA-enhancing neurosteroids, the role of neurosteroids in the clinical effects of BDZs is unknown. In rat hippocampal slices, we compared midazolam, an anesthetic BDZ with clonazepam, an anticonvulsant/anxiolytic BDZ that activates CBRs selectivel...

  12. Phasic and Tonic Inhibition are Maintained Respectively by CaMKII and PKA in the Rat Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Kayoung; Yoon, Shin Hee; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Jang, Hyun-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Phasic and tonic γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor-mediated inhibition critically regulate neuronal information processing. As these two inhibitory modalities have distinctive features in their receptor composition, subcellular localization of receptors, and the timing of receptor activation, it has been thought that they might exert distinct roles, if not completely separable, in the regulation of neuronal function. Inhibition should be maintained and regulated depending on changes in ne...

  13. 浙江种子植物分布新记录%New records to the spermatophyte taxa of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈征海; 刘安兴; 孙孟军; 李根有; 胡绍庆

    2002-01-01

    报道了采自浙江的10个种子植物新记录分类群.其中杜仲科Eucommiaceae为科级分布新记录;圆柏属Sabina Mill.,杜仲属Eucommia Oliv.和福王草属Prenanthes L.等3属为属级分布新记录;圆柏Sabina chinensis(L.)Ant.,杜仲Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.,小花山桃草Gaura parviflora Dougl.,福王草Prenanthes tatarinowii Maxim和御谷Pennisetum americarum(L.)Leeke等5种,细叶水芹Oenanthe dielsii de Boiss.var.stenophylla de Boiss.1变种为种(变种)级分布新记录.参5

  14. The determination of nutritive value of some rangeland plants using nylon bags technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine of nutritive value of pasture forages (Agropyron intermedium Boiss, Coronilla Varia, Ziziphora Tenuior and Scorzonera grossheimii lipsch using in situ, this study was carried out. In this study two fistulated wetheres (35±1.8 kg were used in in situ method. Ruminal DM and CP disappearances were measured 0,4,8,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradabilities of Coronilla Varia and Agropyron intermedium Boiss at 48 h, were higher and lower, that showed significant differences (P<0.05. Crude protein degradabilities of Coronilla Varia at 96 h was 78.18 % that were higher and showed significant differences (P<0.05. Pasture forages can used largely as a ruminant feeds.

  15. Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from Linum olympicum (Linaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    KONUKLUGİL, Belma; BAHADIR, Özlem

    2004-01-01

    The lignan content of Linum olympicum Boiss. was investigated by HPLC and GC-MS in comparison with standards, and 2 phenylpropanoid glycosides, syringin (1) and coniferin (2), were isolated from the aerial parts. Identification of the 2 compounds was achieved by comparison with standards using TLC and HPLC and the structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV and 1H-NMR analysis.

  16. Comparison of Two Species of Notopterygium by GC-MS and HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Yaping Wang; Linfang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix (Qianghuo), including Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang (NI) and Notopterygium franchetii H. de Boiss (NF), is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Of these two plants, NI, is more commonly used and has a much higher price in the marketplace. To compare these two plants, a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was carried out, thus obtaining an overall characterization for both ...

  17. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  18. Synthesis of the reported structure of piperazirum using a nitro-Mannich reaction as the key stereochemical determining step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piperazirum, isolated from Arum palaestinum Boiss, was originally assigned as r-3,c-5-diisobutyl-c-6-isopropylpiperazin-2-one. The reported structure was synthesised diastereoselectively using a key nitro-Mannich reaction to set up the C5/C6 relative stereochemistry. The structure was unambiguously assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction but the spectroscopic data did not match those reported for the natural product. The structure of the natural product must therefore be revised.

  19. Clonal propagation of Dorystoechas hastata via axillary shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAĞ, Bengi BABA; EMEK, Yelda Çalmaz; AYDOĞAN, Serap KURT

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for the in vitro seed germination, seedling development, and axillary shoot propagation of Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham is described. By employing sterilised seeds that were transferred onto in vitro media, the effects of various in vitro media, photoperiods, and temperatures on germination were investigated. At the end of these experiments, a final protocol was determined for the in vitro germination of D. hastata seeds. With this protocol, the highest germi...

  20. Evidence from micromorphology and gross morphology of the genus Loranthus (Loranthaceae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    SHAVVON, ROBABEH SHAHI; MEHRVARZ, Shahryar SAEIDI; GOLMOHAMMADI, Narges

    2012-01-01

    The genus Loranthus L. (Loranthaceae) is represented in Iran by 2 species: Loranthus europaeus Jacq. and L. grewingkii Boiss. & Buhse; the latter species is endemic to the area of Flora Iranica. The plants of Loranthus are hemiparasites growing on various host trees such as Quercus infectoria Oliv., Acer monspessulanum L., and Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. In order to investigate the range of morphological variation in different populations of these species, an inclusive gross morphological and...

  1. Argon-enriched atmospheres preserve the overall quality of buckler sorrel during cold storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Barreira, João C.M.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, consumers are looking for healthy, convenient and more sustainable foods with different organoleptic properties of those daily consumed. Wild edible plants can contribute to this demand, since they are important inputs of health-promoting compounds and considered as added-value foods for commercialization [1]. A good example is buckler sorrel (Rumex induratus Boiss. & Reut.), an underutilized leafy vegetable appreciated especially in salads due to its peculiar sensory...

  2. Genome Relationship between Psathyrostachys huashanica and P. fragilis (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. Von; Kotimäki, M.; Linde-Laursen, I.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrids between the Chinese endemic species Psathyrostachys huashanica KENG and the SW. Asian species P. fragilis (BOISS.) NEVSKI (all 2n = 14) developed normally but were completely sterile. Meiotic analyses revealed a high chiasma frequency indicating that the two species as well as P. juncea...... (FISCH.) NEVSKI share the same basic genome (called N). The hybrid nature of the plants was established through karyotype analysis and Giesma C-banding....

  3. Three new species from the subfamily Phyllocoptinae (Acari, Trombidiformes, Eriophyidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Lotfollahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae, Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae, respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum and the first record of Notallus from Anacardiaceae plant family.

  4. Three new species from the subfamily Phyllocoptinae (Acari, Trombidiformes, Eriophyidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; de Lillo, Enrico; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae), Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae), Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae), respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum and the first record of Notallus from Anacardiaceae plant family. PMID:25147456

  5. Three new species from the subfamily Phyllocoptinae (Acari, Trombidiformes, Eriophyidae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Lotfollahi; Enrico de Lillo; Karim Haddad Irani-Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae), Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae), Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae), respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum an...

  6. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shoeb M.; Macmanus S.M.; Kong-Thoo-Lin P.; Celik S.; Jaspars M.; Nahar L.; Sarker S.D

    2007-01-01

    Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae), commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ...

  7. Wood Anatomy of Some Turkish Plants with Special Reference to Perforated Ray Cells

    OpenAIRE

    MEREV, Nesime; GERÇEK, Ziya; SERDAR, Bedri

    2005-01-01

    This study is a further contribution to a series describing perforated ray cells and the wood anatomy of some Dicotyledons families and their taxa indigenous to Turkey: Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Colutea armena Boiss & Huet (Fabaceae), Coronilla emerus L. (Fabaceae), Chamaecytisus hirsutus (L.) Link. (Fabaceae), Cytisus villosus Pourr. (Fabaceae), Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae), Paliurus spina-christii Mill. (Rhamnaceae), Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae), Salix triandra L. s...

  8. Preliminary antimycobacterial study on selected Turkish plants (Lamiaceae) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and search for some phenolic constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Askun, Tülin; Tekwu, Emmanuel Mouafo; Satil, Fatih; Modanlioglu, Seyma; Aydeniz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    Background The global resurgence of tuberculosis is a significant threat. Lamiaceae members have been used in folk remedies for centuries. This study was designed to assess the in-vitro antimycobacterial activity of eighteen crude extracts from six plants (Lamiaceae) and to characterize their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Methods Six Turkish medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae (Stachys tmolea Boiss., Stachys thirkei C. Koch, Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth., Thymus sipthorpii Benth., ...

  9. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXX. Cynaropicrin in species of the subtribe Centaureanae Dumort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cynaropicrin was determined in 13 species of the subtribe Centaureinae Dumort.: Centaurea declinata M. B.- C. leucophylla M. B.. C. dealbata Willd.. C. zangezuri (Sosn. Sosn., C. carthalinica (Sosn. Sosn., C. thracica (Janka Hayek, C. exarata Boiss. ex Cosson, C. phaeopappoides Bordz., Chartolepis intermedia Bioss., Ch. glastifolia (L. Cass., Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin, Rh. serratuloides (Georgi Bobr., Leuzea rhapontica (L. Holub.

  10. The Classification of the Salvia L. (Labiatae) Species Distributed in West Anatolia According to Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NAKİBOĞLU, Mahmure

    2002-01-01

    The seven species of Salvia L. growing naturally in West Anatolia (Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia smyrnaea Boiss., Salvia argentea L., Salvia horminum L., Salvia verbenaca L., and Salvia virgata Jacq.) and a cultivated form (Salvia officinalis L.) were selected as the study materials. The phenolic compounds extracted from the leaves of the species were separated by two- dimensional thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the distribution of phenolic spots in the spe...

  11. In vitro Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of Iranian Native Plants on the Standard Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Jamehdor

    2014-08-01

    Results & Conclusion: In this study, the highest anti-bacterial effect have been relative to Hippophae rhamnoides (17.6 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Juglans regia L and Origanum vulgare was 25% and was recorded 12.5% for Hippophae rhamnoides. At this research, difined all of the herbal extracts have antibacterial effect on the studied strain and this activity due to the culture, origin, growing season and effective material in plants could be different.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TWO LEBANESE MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rammal Hassan; Farhan Hussein; Mohsen Hawraa; Hijazi Akram; Kobeissy Ahmad; Daher Ahmad; Badran Bassam

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays herbal medicine presents a significant adjuvant tool for hard treatment, especially in the case of cancer where modern medicine has access to traditional medicine to deprive the patient of the side effects of therapeutic approaches such as surgery and chemotherapy. Thus, Lebanese 10452 km2 are so rich in medicinal plants such as Eryngium creticum L. and Euphorbia macroclada Boiss that are traditionally used in the treatment of various diseases (leukemia, asthma, skin diseases, antido...

  13. Antioxidant activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, A; Çinbilgel, I; Gün, S Ş; Çetin, A

    2015-01-01

    DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of some less known plants, distributed in Burdur-Antalya provinces and consumed both as food and for the medicine, Asplenium ceterach L. (golden herb), Valeriana dioscoridis Sm. (valerian), Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (tiger herb), Cota pestalozzae (Boiss.) Boiss. (camomile), Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb. (foxtail lily), Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (asphodel) and Smyrnium connatum Boiss. and Kotschy (hemlock) were investigated. As a result, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined in C. pestalozzae extract (IC50 = 18.66 μg mL(-1)), the highest superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined in A. ceterach extract (IC50 = 145.17 and 372.03 μg mL(-1)). The highest TPC was determined in A. ceterach extract (59,26 μg mL(-1)) as gallic acid equivalent. Further bioactivity and phytochemistry studies on these plants may enlighten new drug discovery researches. PMID:25649168

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracted from new verbascum species growing in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the aerial parts of four new Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae) species namely, Verbascum bellum Hub.-Mor., Verbascum detersile Boiss. and Heldr., Verbascum myriocarpum Boiss. and Heldr. and Verbascum pestalozzae Boiss., growing in Turkey. Plant materials were extracted with chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol for antimicrobial tests. These extracts were assayed against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by the microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the Verbascum species varied between 150-0.59 mg/ml. In general, ethylacetate extract was effective for E. coli (ATCC 25922, 1.88 mg/ml). Ethyl acetate extract of V. pestalozzae exhibited the highest effect on P. aeroginosa (ATCC 29853, 0.59 mg/ml). The antioxidant capacity of the studied species was only tested with methanol extracts. Their antioxidant action was tested by DPPH and beta-carotene-linoleic acid methods. While V. pestalozzae (IC/sub 50/=15 mu g/ml) exhibited the strongest activity in DPPH assay, V. detersile and V. pestalozzae provided an excellent inhibition effect (100% RAA) in the beta-caroten- linoleic acid system. HPLC analysis of methanol extracts was also carried out to determine the composition of the phenolic compounds responsible for the activity. Methanol extracts were also subjected to HPLC analysis to determine their phenolic compound profile. (author)

  15. Medio ambiente y salud.

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Aliaga, Tomás

    1997-01-01

    La salud es el resultado de un equilibrio dinámico entre los organismos y el medio del que forma parte. Esta armonía puede romperse de forma natural, pero cada vez es mayor la injerencia humana tanto en el ritmo de los fenómenos (efecto invernadero, capa de ozono o lluvia acida) como en el reparto de los recursos. El desequilibrio económico es la epidemia más letal entre los grupos humanos, cuyo antídoto está sólo en nuestras manos. Health is the result ...

  16. Balances de nutrientes en pequeñas cuencas de encinar. II: quimismo de la precipitación y aportes de origen atmosférico

    OpenAIRE

    Bellot Abad, Juan Francisco; Escarré Esteve, Antonio

    1988-01-01

    Durante un período de tres años, se ha estudiado el quimismo del agua de lluvia y se han estimado los aportes de nutrientes en la deposición global a una cuenca de encinar en la serra de Prades (Tarragona, España). En ninguno de los iones analizados se ha observado diferencia significativa entre las muestras colectadas en dos altitudes distintas: 700 y 950 m. s. n. m. La precipitación es moderadamente acida (pH = 4.96) y los iones más importantes en la lluvia son SO24- y Ca2+, ...

  17. Unidad de recuperación de azufre

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués Sancho, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    En este proyecto se trata del diseño de una unidad de recuperación de azufre, dentro de una refinería de petróleo, ubicada cerca de Tarragona. En esta unidad se pretende recuperar gran parte del azufre generado en toda la planta, para evitar que se filtre en modo de dióxido de azufre a la atmosfera, evitando así la posible creación de lluvia acida. También se pretende aprovechar el azufre en estado líquido, y el vapor sobrantes, para diversas aplicaciones, dentro y fuera de la refinería. ...

  18. Evaluación de la actividad desulfurizadora de aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. en presencia de hidrocarburo Desulfurization activity evaluation of native strains of Pseudomonas spp. in the presence of hydrocarbon

    OpenAIRE

    Alméciga-Díaz Carlos Javier; Sánchez Medina Óscar Fernando; Silva Gómez Edelberto

    2005-01-01

    El principal inconveniente en la combustión de los hidrocarburos es la conversión del azufre y el nitrógeno a sus respectivos óxidos, los cuales participan en la formación de lluvia acida y deterioran el medio ambiente e infraestructuras. La remoción de azufre a partir de compuestos órgano-azufrados mediante el uso de microorganismos ha surgido como una alternativa frente al proceso catalítico de hidrodesulfurización (HDS). En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora de vein...

  19. Molecular mechanisms of benzodiazepine-induced down-regulation of GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit protein in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M. J.; Bristow, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Chronic benzodiazepine treatment of rat cerebellar granule cells induced a transient down-regulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor alpha 1 subunit protein, that was dose-dependent (1 nM-1 microM) and prevented by the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (1 microM). After 2 days of treatment with 1 microM flunitrazepam the alpha 1 subunit protein was reduced by 41% compared to untreated cells, which returned to, and remained at, control cell levels from 4-12 days of treat...

  20. A new subculture and nematocidal assay using a species of diplogastridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, J; Matsuhashi, R; Watanabe, I; Satou, T; Koike, K; Nikaido, T; Akao, S

    1998-08-01

    A new subculture method and a novel microplate assay for nematocidal activity using a species of Diplogastridae have been developed. The assay gives results rapidly, with high sensitivity in 4 h, and indicated good correlation between action mechanism and the nematode shape when examining 15 known compounds, including the antiparasitic avermectin, antimalarial quinine, and the gamma-amino-n-butyric acidA (GABAA) activated Cl- channel antagonist picrotoxinin. Thus new assay could be used as a primary screening method for new nematocidal compounds.

  1. Optimal Design of Biodiesel Production Process from Waste Cooking Palm Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatitkul, Lida; Gani, Rafiqul; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai;

    2012-01-01

    process. A two-step approach of hydrolysis and esterification processes is also considered. Waste cooking palm oil consists of a mixture of triglyceride (e.g., trilaurin, tripalmitin, triolein, tristearin, trilinolein and trilinolenin) and free fatty acids (e.g., lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid......A design methodology for biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil is proposed. The proposed method is flexible to the biodiesel process using various catalyst types: alkali and acid catalyst in homogenous and heterogeneous forms, and different process: enzyme process and supercritical...

  2. Efecto de la adición de proteasas en el proceso madurativo de los embutidos crudos curados

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Rubio, Olga

    1994-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio con el fin de conocer si la adición de proteasas constituye un método útil para potenciar el sabor y aroma y/o acortar el periodo de maduración de los embutidos. Para ello se han elaborado distintos lotes de embutidos a los que se añadieron tres proteasas en distintas dosis: pronasa e de streptomyces griseus (600 y 6.000 unidades enzimáticas), asprtil proteinasa acida de aspergillus orizae (800 y 4.500 unidades) y papaina de carica papaya (800 y 4.500 unidades). Fin...

  3. Análisis de la superficie del vidrio. Aplicación a la determinación de elementos nocivos

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Fuentes, Francisco José

    1997-01-01

    Se constata que la Directiva 94/62/CE relativa a envases y residuos de envases incurre en un contrasentido entre el considerando 8 y el artículo 11 del texto. Se aplican lixiviaciones acuosas y acidas a la extracción de Pb, Cd, Hg y Cr en casco de vidrio reciclado de diferente procedencia. En los lixiviados se aborda el análisis de los anteriores elementos por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica, y vapor frió en el caso concreto del Hg. Se comprueba que la extracción de los citad...

  4. Dietary potential renal Acid load in venezuelan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sayers, Mayerling; Bernal, Jennifer; López, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y analizar la carga acida potencial renal de la dieta (Potential Renal Acid Load PRAL) y el patron de alimentacion de ninos entre 1 a 6 anos aparentemente sanos. Métodos: Se seleccionaron segun conveniencia a padres de 52 ninos asistentes a una consulta de ninos sanos. La calidad de la dieta y el patron de alimentacion se evaluo mediante un recordatorio de 24 horas y un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos. Se calculo la ingesta de macronutrientes y grupos de alimentos, como carnes, lacteos, frutas y verduras. La ingesta de nutrientes se comparo con las recomendaciones de energia y nutrientes. El PRAL se determino segun el metodo de Remer y Manz, para determinar la carga acida de la dieta. Se aplico estadistica descriptiva y correlaciones entre el PRAL, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos. Resultados: La ingesta de proteinas, de leche y de carnes fue elevada, mientras que la ingesta de rutas y hortalizas fue baja. El PRAL fue positivo en 92% de los ninos, se asocio con mayor ingesta de energia, proteinas, grasas, carne y lacteos. La ingesta de proteinas fue > 2,5 g/kg/ dia en 46,2% de los ninos. Los grupos de alimentos con mayor desequilibrio debido a exceso fueron la carne y los productos lacteos, mientras que por deficit fue el grupo de frutas y hortalizas. Conclusión: La dieta se caracteriza por una elevada carga de acido o PRAL, lo que aumenta el riesgo de acidosis sistemica y sus consecuencias metabolicas.

  5. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30. Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  7. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  8. Notas corológicas sobre el Sistema Ibérico (provincia de Guadalajara) III

    OpenAIRE

    Morales del Molino, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan nuevas localidades en la provincia de Guadalajara para un conjunto de 29 táxones de plantas vasculares. Entre éstas caben destacar las primeras citas en este marco geográfico de Euphorbia nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter subsp. nevadensis o Hedera helix subsp. rhizomatifera McAllister. También se aportan nuevas localidades para un conjunto de táxones incluidos en el Catálogo Regional de Especies Amenazadas como Geranium collinum Stephan ex Willd., Ribes alpinum L. o Rhamnus cathartica ...

  9. Genetic Variance in Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation in Wheat Materials Differing in Ploidy and Genome at Seedling Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, D; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, B;

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in wheat varieties differing in ploidy and genome were investigated at seedling stage under controlled environmental conditions. The wheat varieties included six diploid, eight tetraploid, seven hexaploid and three octoploid species together with wheat rela...... and cluster analysis, Triticum boeoticum Boiss was found to be the most Cd-tolerant variety exhibiting low Cd translocation rates, whereas T. aestivum cv. Huixianhong and Jinghui 1 were identified as the most Cd-sensitive varieties showing also higher Cd translocation rates....

  10. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXII. Guaianolides in species from the genus Chartolepis Cass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the composition of the "lactone fraction" of 4 species from the genus Chartolepis Cass. were observed. Cynaropierin was isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. and the occurrence there of grossheimin was confirmed. The following compounds were isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis glastifolia (L. Cass.: centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cebellin D, cynaropicrin, cebellin F and janerin. Centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cynaropicrin, janerin and a new guaianolide, pterocaulin were isolated from the herb Chartolepis biebersteinii Jaub. et Spach. In addition to the lactones found in Chartolepis biebersteinii, Chartolepis pterocaula (Trautv. Czer. also accumulated grossheimin.

  12. Estudo da eficácia da irradiação gama na conservação da qualidade nutricional de azedas durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; João C. M. Barreira; Barros, Lillian; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; M.B.P.P. Oliveira; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    O consumo de vegetais minimamente processados tem sido impulsionado pelo estilo de vida acelerado da sociedade moderna e pela crescente conscienciatização da influência da alimentação na saúde. Além de conveniência, salubridade e segurança, o consumidor procura também alimentos com características organoléticas diferenciadas das dos alimentos habitualmente consumidos diariamente. Neste sentido, a recuperação do uso das azedas (Rumex induratus Boiss. & Reut.) poderá responder a ...

  13. Apuntes sobre algunos Adenocarpus (Leguminosae) ibéricos

    OpenAIRE

    Castroviejo, Santiago

    1999-01-01

    Problems of different kinds, with species of the genus Adenocarpus -group complicatus and gr. hispanicus- are analysed. A. anisochilus Boiss, is accepted at the specific leve!. Within A. complicatus s.l. the problems of identity of A. parvifolius DC. an A. intermedius DC. are discussed. A. desertorum Castrov., sp. nov., is described. Within the group hispanicus, the type material of A. hispanicus (Lm.) DC. is studied to demónstrate that the ñame should continué to be used in the traditional s...

  14. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  15. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuncay Agar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC, A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC, antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract and TAC (2.080 UAE, the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL, the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  16. Extraction of Indigo from Some Isatis species and Dyeing Standardization Using Low-technology Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Comlekcioglu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh leaves of four Isatis species culture form of I. tinctoria L and wild forms of I. buschiana Schischkin, I. candolleana Boiss. (endemic and I. tinctoria L. subsp. corymbosa. (Boiss. were used for indigo production. Dyes were extracted by fermentation and hot water application. The extracted dyes were optimized with different pH and reducing agents. Results showed that the dye from hot water application produced the desired dying quality at pH 11. Reducing agent concentrations had no significant effect on color quality. Dark blue and blue colors were obtained from I. tinctoria and I. candolleana extracts although I. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa and I. buschiana produced mostly yellow-gray colors. Light, dry and wet rubbing fastness values varied between 3 and 3/4 while washing fastness was between 2 and 4/5. The highest indigo amounts were determined spectrophotometrically as 4.19 mg/g and 2.53 mg/g in I. tinctoria and I. candolleana, respectively. Results also showed that harvesting season was important for indigo production and the highest indigo amount was observed in mid-June.

  17. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  18. Wood anatomical changes due to uptake of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynab Shahpoori; Vilma Bayramzadeh; Vahid Reza Safdari; Manoochehr Khan Zarinkafsh; Pedram Attarod; Roghayeh Jirroodnejad

    2012-01-01

    We investigated wood anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum Boiss seedlings.Two-year old seedlings were exposed for 180 days to soil concentrations with varying cadmium and lead concentrations.We measured three wood anatomical traits,average vessel area (μm2),vessel number per square millimetre,and vessel lumen area percentage (%).For assessing the cadmium and lead accumulation,we measured the concentrations in the soil,leaf,stem,and root.Average vessel area and vessel lumen area percentage were similar (p>0.05) in control and treated seedlings.Vessel number per square millimetre showed a decreasing trend from pith to bark in control and treated seedlings,and the trend was more pronounced in treated seedlings.We conclude that vessel number per square millimetre in A.velutinum is influenced by soil contamination.A.velutinum Boiss is not a suitable species for remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium and lead but it can be used as an indicator of the soil lead contamination,because lead concentrations in seedlings increased with increasing amount of lead in the soil.

  19. 铁线莲属研究随记(Ⅵ)%Notes on the genus Clematis (Ranunculaceae) (Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the status of Clematis eriopoda Maxim. and sect. Atragenopsis Boiss. is discussed, and the species status of the former and the sectional status of the latter are recognized; two species (C. wenxianensis W. T. Wang, C. malacoclada W. T. Wang) and one variety (C. hastata Finet & Gagnep. var. micrantha W. T. Wang) are described as new;one species, C. tubulosa Turcz., which has been erroneously relegated into the synonymy under C. heracleifolia DC. by Fang and Wang for a long time, is reinstated; C. heracleifolia var. ichangensis Rehd. & Wils. is transferred to C. tubulosa, and a new combination, C.tubulosa var. ichangensis (Rehd. & Wils.) W. T. Wang, is made; the fruit description of C.glabrifolia K. Sun & M. S. Yan is given for the first time.%讨论了Clematis eriopoda Maxim.和sect.Atragenopsis Boiss.的地位,认为这二分类群均应成立;描述了2新种,1新变种;过去长期被归并的卷萼铁线莲C.tubulosa得到恢复;Clematis heracleifolia var.ichangensis被转移改作卷萼铁线莲的变种;首次给出光叶铁线莲Clematis glabrifolia的果实的形态描述.

  20. Advances in the progress of anti-bacterial biofilms properties of acetic acid%乙酸抗细菌生物膜作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高欣欣; 金正花; 陈欣欣; 于家傲

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are considered to be the hindrance in the treatment of chronic wound,because of their tolerance toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.They also have strong ability to escape from the host immune attack.Acetic acid,as a kind of organic weak acid,can disturb the biofilms by freely diffusing through the bacterial biofilms and bacterial cell membrane structure.Then the acid dissociates to release the hydrogen ions,leading to the disorder of the acid-base imbalance,change of protein conformation,and the degradation of the DNA within the membranes.This paper reviews the literature on the characteristics and treatment strategies of the bacterial biofilms and the acetic acid intervention on them,so as to demonstrate the roles acetic acid may play in the treatment of chronic wound,and thus provide a convincing treatment strategy for this kind of disease.

  1. The need of alkalinity determination in the characterization of rain; Necesidad de la determinacion de la alcalinidad en la caracterizacion de la lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper is presented the alkalinity determination of the carbonic species in the rain waters by the Gran titration method. The alkalinity values obtained by this method in low electric conductivity waters are fairly reliable. Also, the existing studies on the characterization of acid rains, are discussed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la medicion de la alcalinidad y la determinacion de las especies carbonicas en las aguas de lluvia por el metodo de la titulacion de Gran. Los valores de alcalinidad obtenidos por este metodo en las aguas de baja conductividad electrica son bastante confiables. Asimismo, se discuten los estudios existentes sobre la caracterizacion de la lluvia acida en la republica mexicana.

  2. Thermoelectric energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermoelectric energy system is described comprising: (A) at least first and second separated electrodes, said electrodes including copper; (B) a liquid electrolyte comprising a source of copper ions and a material for complexing the ions, the complexing material being selected from the group consisting of one or a combination of a source of tartrate, a source of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid,a source of gluconate, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, and a source of silicon dioxide, the electrolyte being disposed between and in contact with the electrodes to provide a metal ion conduction path which extends substantially the entire distance between the electrodes; (C) an electric circuit connected to the electrodes for removal of electrical energy from the system; and (D) means for establishing a temperature gradient within said electrolyte whereby the average temperature of one of said electrodes will be greater than that of the other of said electrodes to thereby produce a voltage across the electrodes

  3. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  4. In vivo synthesized 34S enriched amino acid standards for species specific isotope dilution of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gerrit; Moller, Laura Hyrup; Gammelgaard, Bente;

    2016-01-01

    with the concept of species specific isotope dilution analysis (IDA). The method relies on the determination of the two sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine by sulfur speciation analysis and is hence applicable to any protein containing sulfur. In vivo synthesis using 34S as sulfur source...... (ICP-MS) combined to anion exchange showed that very high concentrated spike material could be produced with [small mu ]mol amounts of proteinogenic sulfur containing amino acids per g cell dry weight. An enrichment of 34S to 96.3 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) and 98.5 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) for cysteic acid......A generic quantification approach was introduced addressing the characterization of protein standards while fulfilling the principles of metrology. Traceable absolute quantification was achieved combining a proven biochemical method, i.e. protein hydrolysis followed by amino acid quantification...

  5. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  6. Effects of carnosine on the evoked potentials in hippocampal CA1 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-yan FENG; Xiao-jing ZHENG; Jing WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To directly examine the effects of carnosine on neuronal excitation and inhibition in rat hippocampus in vivo. Methods: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid with carnosine was directly administrated over the exposed rat hippocampus. The changes of neuron activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus were evaluated by orthodromically- and antidromically-evoked potentials, as well as paired-pulse stimulation paradigm. Results: In both orthodromic and antidromic response potentials, carnosine transformed population spikes (PSs) with single spike into epileptiform multiple spikes. In addition, similar to the effect of γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) antagonist picrotoxin, carnosine decreased paired-pulse stimulating depression significantly.However, no significant change was observed in the spontaneous field potentials during the application of carnosine. Conclusion:The results indicate a disinhibition-induced excitation effect of carnosine on the CA1 pyramidal neurons. It provides important information against the application of carnosine as a potential anticonvulsant in clinical treatment.

  7. Decay and durability of building stones in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of some pollutant agents in urban environments -gaseous SO2, acid rain and solid particles- on carbonate and siliceous building stones with different petrophysic characteristics. The selected environments have been London, Garston (UK and Burgos (Spain and the exposed materials have been Portland, Combe Down and Hontoria limestones, Laspra dolomite and Rosa Porriño granite. Products generated by the action of gases, acid rain and solid particles on stones have been analyzed. To point out the properties of stones that influence their decay, the results obtained on the stones exposed to the above environments have been compared to those from some laboratory accelerated ageing tests.

    Se estudia el efecto de ciertos agentes de contaminación presentes en ambientes urbanos –SO2 gaseoso, lluvia acida y partículas sólidas- sobre rocas de naturaleza carbonatada y silicatada con características petrofísicas distintas, utilizadas en edificación. Los ambientes seleccionados han sido Londres, Garston (UK y Burgos, y los materiales expuestos han sido las calizas de Portland, Combe Down y Hontoria, la dolomía de Laspra y el granito Rosa Porriño. Se analizan los productos generados por la acción de los gases, la lluvia acida y las partículas sólidas sobre los diferentes tipos de piedra. Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en la piedra expuesta a los ambientes antes citados, y los daños generados en algunos ensayos de envejecimiento artificial acelerado con el fin de resaltar las características intrínsecas de las piedras que condicionan su degradación.

  8. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  9. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications. PMID:23987454

  10. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  11. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H2SO4 and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses. At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H2SO4 doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  13. "Essential oils of Heracleum Persicum Desf.ex Fischer leaves "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojab F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Heracleum persicum Desf ex Fischer (Syn. H glabrascens Boiss. & Hohen, H. prbescens Rech. (Fam Apiaceae were collected in July - Auguest 1993 from kandavan area in north of Tehran. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation (0.13% from leaves and was analyzed by GC, GC/CS and 1H-NMR. The major component was trans - anethole (82.8% Other components were β - pinene, p-cymene and terpinolene (monoterpenes , α- caryophylene, α- bergamotene, α- farnesene, zingiberene, spathulenol (sesqiterpenes. Cis - anethole, stragole, 2,5-dimethyl styrene (aromatic compounds, and β- springene ( an aliphatic and hydrocarbonic diterpene . It is concluded that this oil is a source of trans - anethole .

  14. Chemical composition and variability of the volatile components from inflorescences of Cirsium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, Małgorzata; Mardarowicz, Marek; Kochmańska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils of inflorescences Cirsium spp. (Asteraceae) by GC/MS method. Essential oils were extracted from the inflorescences of Cirsium pannonicum (Link), Cirsium ligulare Boiss., Cirsium heterophyllum (L.) Hill., Cirsium acaule (L.) Scop., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop., Cirsium dissectum (L.) Hill., Cirsium decussatum (Janka) and Cirsium eriophorum (L.) Scop., using the steam distillation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was employed for the analysis of essential oils. Our study shows the differences in chemical composition of volatile oils in the inflorescences of Cirsium spp. The main components of the essential oil were ketones and aldehydes with a long carbon side-chain. Volatile oils also contained small amounts of terpenes: thymol, β-linalool, eugenol, carvacrol and fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms-waxes. The compounds in the essential oils obtained from inflorescences Cirsium L. species have been identified for the first time. PMID:25674834

  15. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given. PMID:26266306

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  17. SOAP-T: A tool to study the light-curve and radial velocity of a system with a transiting planet and a rotating spotted star

    CERN Document Server

    Oshagh, M; Boué, G; Montalto, M; Santos, N C; Bonfils, X; Haghighipour, N

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved version of SOAP (Boisse et al. 2012) named "SOAP-T", which can generate the radial velocity variations and light-curves for systems consisting of a rotating spotted star with a transiting planet. This tool can be used to study the anomalies inside transit light-curves and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, to better constrain the orbital configuration and properties of planetary systems and active zones of their host stars. Tests of the code are presented to illustrate its performance and to validate its capability when compared with analytical models and real data. Finally, we apply SOAP-T to the active star, HAT-P-11, observed by the NASA Kepler space telescope and use this system to discuss the capability of this tool in analyzing light-curves for the cases where the transiting planet overlaps with the star's spots.

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  19. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibranchiatum Qm9-41 4 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-07-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs.

  20. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM 9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs

  1. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Michel Sobottka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the family of Euphorbiaceae,the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi(Klotzsch & Garcke Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong, plants native from Brazil, were examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF. Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE, the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  2. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications.

  3. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIII. Isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Geppert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the genus Centaurea L.: salonitenolide (I was found in C. crithmifolia Vis., C. friderici Vis., C, paniculata L., C. calcitrapa L., C. pontica Prodan et E. L' Nyarady, C. eriophora L., C. alba L. subsp. deusta (Ten. Nyman, C. alba L. subsp. caliacrae (Prodan Dostal and C. weldeniana Reichenb.; cnicin (II was found in: C. vallesiaca (DC. Jordan, C. calcitrapa L., C. aspera L. subsp. aspera, C. sphaerocephala L. subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman, C. sulphurea Willd., C. eriophora L. and C. rocheliana (Heuffel Dostal; cynaropicrin (III was detected in C. debeauxii Gren. et Gordon subsp. thuillieri Dostal; acroptillin (V, repin (VI and janerin (VII in C. bella Trautv. Other unidentified sesquiterpene lactones were also found to be present in the examined plants.

  4. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  5. The taxonomic status of Scilla beirana Samp. (Hyacinthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldas, Francisco B.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Scilla beirana Samp. were sampled in NW Portugal and compared with its relatives S. ramburei Boiss, and S. peruviana L. Leaf and scape anatomy, morphology, chromosome number and idiogram were identical in S. beirana and S. ramburei, but differed from S. peruviana. Diagnostic characters previously used to discriminate S. beirana (width of leaves and flower number showed continuous, but not clinal, variation, and failed to provide a clear-cut basis for identification and no other morphological attributes were found to separate the taxa. All available evidence suggests that S. beirana should be put into synonymy with S. ramburei, as was earlier suggested by COUTINHO (1935.Se muestreó Scilla beirana Samp. en diversas poblaciones del noroeste de Portugal y se comparó con dos táxones con los que se había relacionado previamente, S. ramburei Boiss, y S. peruviana L. La macromorfología, la anatomía de la hoja y escapo, el número cromosomático y el idiograma de S. beirana y S. ramburei fueron indistinguibles, pero diferentes de los de S. peruviana. Los caracteres diagnósticos que se habían utilizado previamente para discriminar a S. beirana -anchura foliar y número de flores- revelaron una variación continua y no permitieron diferenciarla de S. ramburei, en la cual debería ser incluida como sinónimo, tal como había sugerido COUTINHO (1935.

  6. Identification of volatile components in two Thymus species from Iran and their antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekitabar, Elaheh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymus species are well known to have significant amount of phenolic compounds and exhibit strong antioxidant activities. This study is designed to analyze the essential oils of two Iranian Thymus species, (T. kotschyanus Boiss. et Hohen and T. pubescense Boiss. et Kotschy ex Celak obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial part of this plants, using GC-FID and GC/MS and evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activities in two quantitative methods (namely DPPH. and ABTS.+ assay to determine the total phenolic content of the species (assayed by colorimetric techniques and to study the possible compositionantioxidant activity relationship. The major aroma constitutes in the essential oil of T. pubescense were found to be thymol (38.7 %, γ-terpinene (7.5 %, p-cymene (5.5 %, α-terpenyl acetate (3.8 % and β-bisabolene (3.7 % while in the essential oil of T. kotschyanus, -terpineol (16.9 %, 1,8-cineol (14.4 %, linalool (9.6 %, thymol (7.2 % and geranyl acetate (5.4 % were the main compounds. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. T. pubescense showed more activity in both DPPH. [IC50= 285.2 (236.5-344.0 μg/mL] and ABTS.+ methods [IC50= 1.956 (1.810-2.113 μg/mL], as well as total phenolic content of T. pubescence [70254 ± 0.0049 μg/mg] was found to be slightly higher than T. kotschyanus [62933 ± 0.0026 μg/mg].

  7. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  8. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  9. Dry and wet "deposition" studies of the degradation of cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of portland cement mortars with SO2 gaseous pollutant and artificial 'acid rain' solution has been examined using laboratory exposure chambers, with realistic presentation rates of pollutants. The mortar were previously carbonated to produce superficial carbonation. Two mortars with different w/c ratio and hence specific surface were prepared and exposed into the chambers. For dry deposition of SO2 pollutant gas, the important roles of water and water plus oxidant in increasing chemical reaction are readily revealed. Further, accessible porosity also increases reaction through increased times of reaction of pollutant with the mortars. Interestingly, in the absence of deliberate surface wetting, the presence of oxidant, ozone, leads to a reduction in the already limited extent of reaction. Wet deposition studies using artificial 'acid rain' solution result in gypsum formation, which is more extensive for mortars of increased w/c ratios.

    Se han realizado ensayos de laboratorio de simulación de los procesos ambientales de "deposición" seca y húmeda sobre morteros de cemento portland, estudiándose las reacciones que se producen con el contaminante SO2 ("deposición" seca y la disolución de 'lluvia acida' ("deposición" húmeda. Los morteros de cemento se carbonataron para favorecer la carbonatación superficial de los mismos. Se prepararon morteros con dos relaciones a/c con el fin de estudiar la influencia que la variable superficie específica tenía en el proceso de deterioro de dichos materiales. En los estudios de deposición seca con SO2 como gas agresivo se ha visto la importancia que el agua y el agua junto a un oxidante tienen en la reacción del contaminante con los componentes del mortero. La superficie específica Juega un papel importante, ya que al aumentar, aumenta la reacción con el contaminante. La reacción en presencia de oxidante, (SO2+O3

  10. Preliminary study for the determination of heavy metal in ground samples by GF-ASS Zeeman; Studio preliminare per la determinazione di metalli pesanti in campioni di suolo mediante analisi GF-AAS Zeeman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casabianca, T.; Bitonte, R.; Epifani, M.; Ubaldi, C. [ENEA, Divisione Tecnologie Ingegneria e Servizi Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, MT (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of SIMOA project have been investigated methods to evaluate the level of soil contamination due to heavy metals. In this wok, it is discussed a procedure to measure topsoil bioavailable fraction of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Hg). The adopted procedure is based on acid digestion followed by instrumental detection by means of graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) using Zeeman effect to reduce background contribution. Details of samples preparation and analysis, experimental setup optimization and statistical data analysis are presented, together with a discussion on method accuracy and data interpretation. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto SIMOA (Sistema Integrato di Monitoraggio Ambientale) per il monitoraggio ambientale nel bacino del Basento (Regione Basilicata, Italia), vengono investigati i metodi per il controllo dei livelli di inquinamento del suolo da parte di metalli pesanti. Nel presente lavoro viene proposta una procedura per determinare il livello di concentrazione della frazione biodisponibile di sette metalli pesanti (Cadmio, Rame, Piombo, Nickel, Cromo, Mercurio) in campion di suolo superficiale. Il metodo e' basato su di un trattamento di digestione acida in forno a microonde cui segue la rivelazione strumentale mediante spettrofotometria di assorbimento atomico in fornetto di grafite (GFAAS) con effetto Zeeman per la correzione del fondo. Si descrivono in dettaglio le fasi di preparazione dei campioni, la metodologia di misura e l'analisi statistica dei dati, oltre ad una discussione sull'attendibilita' del metodo e sui futuri sviluppi.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide-induced changes in intracellular pH of guard cells precede stomatal closure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Epidermal bioassay demonstrated that benzylamine,a membrane-permeable weak base,can mimick hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce stomatal closure,and butyric acid,a membrane-permeable weak acid,can partly abolish the H2O2-induced stomatal closure.Confocal pH mapping with the probe 5-(and-6)-carboxy seminaphthorhodafluor-1-acetoxymethylester (SNARF-1-AM) revealed that H2O2 leads to rapid changes in cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH in guard cells of Vicia faba L,i.e.alkalinization of cytoplasmic areas occur red in parallel with a decrease of the vacuolar pH,and that butyric acid pretreatment can abolish alkalinization of cytoplasmic areas and acidification of vacuolar areas of guard cells challenged with H2O2.These results imply that the alkalinization of cytoplasm via efflux of cytosol protons into the vacuole in guard cells challenged with H2O2 is important at an early stage in the signal cascade leading to stomatal closure.

  12. Recovery of tetrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of the tetrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q = kCn. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20°C. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin.

    Se estudia la recuperación del ion tetracloroaurato mediante la resina aniónica Dowex 11. La extracción de oro depende tanto de las concentraciones del metal y la resina como de la temperatura. La isoterma de adsorción responde a la ecuación Q = kCn. La resina cargada con oro puede ser eluida con una disolución acida de tiourea a 20°C. Después de varios ciclos de adsorción-desorción no hay pérdida de carga por parte de la resina.

  13. [Variability in the clinical presentation of Pompe disease: development following enzyme replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Martos, Myriam; Salado-Reyes, María J; Espinosa-Rosso, Raúl; Solera-García, Jesús; Jiménez-Jiménez, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Pompe es un trastorno generalizado progresivo producido por el deficit de la enzima alfa-glucosidasa acida (AGA) de los lisosomas. Se presentan tres casos manifestados de forma muy diferente y tratados con terapia enzimatica sustitutiva (TES), con evolucion favorable. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon de 3 meses, con debilidad y rechazo de la alimentacion, hepatomegalia leve, ligera macroglosia e hipotonia, y aumento de las enzimas musculares. Caso 2: varon de 5 meses, con retraso del desarrollo motor, sordera neurosensorial grave, trastornos respiratorios de repeticion de evolucion torpida, hipotonia y leve elevacion de la creatincinasa. Caso 3: varon de 22 años con disnea progresiva, con antecedentes de elevacion de la creatincinasa y las transaminasas, e hipercolesterolemia. Sufrio insuficiencia respiratoria grave que preciso intubacion endotraqueal. La biopsia muscular presento depositos de glucogeno sugestivos de la enfermedad. En los tres casos, el estudio electromiografico dio un patron caracteristico, con descargas pseudomiotonicas, y se confirmo el deficit de AGA en los linfocitos. Se encontro una mutacion en un caso y dos mutaciones en los otros dos. Todos recibieron TES con evolucion favorable: desaparicion de las alteraciones cardiacas en el caso 1, mejoria en los hitos motores en los dos casos infantiles y retirada del respirador en el caso 3. Conclusion. La enfermedad de Pompe tiene una amplia variabilidad en la expresion clinica. La TES consigue una buena respuesta, especialmente en las formas infantiles. La supervivencia a largo plazo de las formas infantiles tratadas permitira conocer mas aspectos del curso de la enfermedad.

  14. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  15. Aplicación del proceso BRISA al tratamiento de menas de cobre conteniendo atacamita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of copper ores containing atacamite and secondary copper sulphides consists of heap leaching, by the TL process. Copper recoveries by this treatment are very low (less than 50 % for operating times higher than six months. In order to improve the copper extraction yields, several treatment options are presented in this work, wich consist on promoting the acid leaching of the atacamite and the indirect bioleaching (BRISA process of the secondary copper sulphides. All the options lead to improved copper recoveries in comparison with the current treatment. An economic estimation of each option of treatment is included, with really attractive results.

    El tratamiento actual de minerales que contienen atacamita y sulfures secundarios de cobre tiene lugar según el proceso TL. La recuperación de cobre en estos procesos es escasa (inferior al 50 %, para tiempos de operación superiores a seis meses. Para mejorar el rendimiento de extracción de cobre, se plantean, en este trabajo, diferentes alternativas de tratamiento que incluyen la potenciación de la lixiviación acida de la atacamita y la biolixiviación por contacto indirecto (proceso BRISA de los sulfuros secundarios de cobre. Todas las alternativas ofrecen aumentos sustanciales de la recuperación de cobre. Se incluye la evaluación económica preliminar de cada una de ellas, con resultados francamente atractivos.

  16. Modeling of solvent extraction equilibrium of Cu(II from sulphuric Acid solution with MOC-55TD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Cu(II from acidic sulphate aqueous solutions using the commercial MOC-55TD extractant is studied. A predictive model, which consists in a set of non-linear mass action and mass balance equations is proposed. The model was solved using a tailor-made equation-solving program. The extraction of copper can be described by the formation of CuR2 species (log Kext= 0.717 ± 0.03 in the organic phase. The copper equilibrium isotherm was also obtained at 20°C.

    Se estudia la extracción de Cu(II de disoluciones acuosas acidas, en medio sulfato, mediante la oxima comercial MOC-55TD. Se propone un modelo para predecir la extracción del metal; este modelo consiste en una serie de ecuaciones no lineales de acción de masas y balance de masas. El modelo se resolvió empleando un programa de ordenador específicamente definido para este tipo de equilibrios. La extracción de cobre se describe por la formación de la especie CuR2 (log Kext= 0,717 ± 0,03 en la fase orgánica. Se ha obtenido la isoterma de extracción de cobre a 20 °C.

  17. Structural modification of regenerated fuller earth and its application in the adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Dario Beltran-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tierra Fuller es un material inorgánico usado en la industri a eléctrica para la regeneración del aceite dieléctrico. Despué s de un tratamiento de descontaminación, la tierra Fuller se regenera y reutiliza. En este estudio se evaluó la capacidad de remoción de la tierra Fuller regenerada para el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con colorantes de diferente naturaleza y a su vez, como esta capac idad puede ser aumentada mediante la modificación estructural del ma terial. Así, la tierra Fuller regenerada sin ninguna modificaci ón alcanzó remociones del 99% de azul de metileno. Sin embargo, para el tr atamiento de efluentes contamina dos con rojo 40 se requirió la modificación acida y térmica del material para obtener adsorcio nes superiores al 94% del colorante. En conclusión, la tierra F uller regenerada es un material adsorben te adecuado para el tratamien to de efluentes contaminados con colorantes de naturaleza catió nica. No obstante, la remoción de colorant es aniónicos no es eficiente, siendo necesaria la modificación estructural del material para mejorar la remoción de este tipo de colorantes.

  18. Isolation and characterization of facultative mixotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soulwène Kouki; Neila Saidi; Fadhel M'hiri; Houda Nasr; Hanène Cherif; Hadda Ouzari; Abdermaceur Hassen

    2011-01-01

    Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been widely studied in constructed wetlands systems,while mixotrophic AOB have been less thoroughly examined.Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from wastewater and rhizospheres of macrophytes of constructed wetlands,and then cultivated in a mixotrophic medium containing ammonium and acetic acid.A molecular characterization was accomplished using ITS-PCR amplification,and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.Results showed the presence of 35 bacteria,among 400 initially heterotrophic isolates,that were able to remove ammonia.These 35 isolates were classified into 10 genetically different groups based on ITS pattern.Then,a collection of 10 isolates were selected because of their relatively high ammonia removal efficiencies (ARE ≥ 80%) and their phylogenetic diversity.In conditions of mixotrophy,these strains were shown to be able to grow (increase of optical density OD660 during incubation with assimilation of nitrogen into cellular biomass) and to oxidize ammonia (important ammonia oxidation efficiencies,AOE between 79% and 87%).Among these facultative mixotrophic AOB,four isolates were genetically related to Firmicutes (Bacillus and Exiguobacterium),three isolates were affiliated to Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) and three other isolates were associated with Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas,Ochrobactrum and Bordetella).

  19. SCREENING OF PLANTS FOR ANTI DERMATOPHYTE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Chauhan, A. Suthar, V. Naik and K. Salkar*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic infections of skin are caused by dermatophytes. Screening of plants for anti dermatophyte activity was carried out based on the literature search done. Native plants of Maharashtra (India were screened for anti dermatophyte activity. Various plant parts from different regions were collected and then extracted with three different solvents viz. alcohol, hydro-alcohol and aqueous. The obtained extracts were subjected for anti dermatophyte activity using agar-well diffusion technique. Three different concentrations of extract were checked for activity. Two species of dermatophytes, viz. - Trichophyton and Microsporum were used in the screening assay. Out of the twenty-eight plants screened by agar diffusion method, seven were found to be active with different activity profile. Methanol extract was the most active extract. Pterospermum suberifolium, Trachyspermum ammi, Peltaphorum pterocarpum, Ixora coccinia, Persicaria glabra, Terminallia elliptica and Cicca acida showed activity at different concentrations against the two species of dermatophytes. The data obtained can be used for further studying the anti dermatophyte potential of active plants.

  20. Identification and expression of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shifeng Li; Yunbin Zhang; Haixiong Liu; Yuanchang Yan; Yiping Li

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and GABAB receptors are involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction induced by progesterone or GABA. Here,we report the presence of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa.Full-length complementary DNA encoding the ρ1,ρ2 and ρ3 subunits of GABAc receptor were cloned from rat testis;their sequences are identical to those of rat GABAc receptor in retina.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that during the development of rat testis,the transcript levels of the ρ1 and ρ2 subunits showed little change,while the expression of ρ3 was gradually up-regulated.Immunofluorescence analysis using an anti-ρ1 antibody revealed that GABAc receptor exists on the elongated spermatid and sperm.Using a chlortetracycline assay,we found that N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside, a GABAc receptor agonist,triggered rat sperm acrosome reaction;whereas(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid,a GABAc receptor antagonist, inhibited the ability of N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside to induce acrosome reaction.These results suggested that GABAc receptors are also involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction.

  1. Application of vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder%植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房新平; 翟红梅; 胡长利

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid contents of seven vegetable oils ( soybean oil, corn oil, walnut oil,sunflower seed oil, high oleic sunflower seed oil, palm oil and coconut oil) often used in infant formula milk pow-der were determined, and linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid,as the important indicators of fatty acid were analyzed. Furthermore, these results were compared with the fatty acid compositions of three noval vegetable oils(double - low rapeseed oil, rice bran oil and safflower seed oil), and the applications of the noval vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder were discussed.%从婴儿配方乳粉在用的7种植物油(大豆油、玉米油、核桃油、葵花籽油、高油酸葵花籽油、棕榈油和椰子油)入手,通过检测植物油的脂肪酸含量,对亚油酸、亚麻酸和油酸等几个主要指标进行了分析,进而与3种新型植物油(双低菜籽油、米糠油和红花籽油)的脂肪酸组成进行了比较,对新型植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用进行了探讨。

  2. Transient inactivation of the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus blocks cocaine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzeu, A; Weiss, F; Martin-Fardon, R

    2015-11-01

    Originally studied for its role in energy homeostasis, the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) has recently gained attention because of its involvement in the modulation of drug-directed behavior. The posterior part of the PVT (pPVT) is connected with brain structures that modulate motivated behavior, and we tested whether the pPVT plays a pivotal role in cocaine seeking. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether transient inactivation of the pPVT prevents cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking but not natural reward seeking. Male Wistar rats were trained to associate a discriminative stimulus (S(+)) with the availability of cocaine or a highly palatable conventional reinforcer, sweetened condensed milk (SCM). Following extinction, the cocaine S(+) and SCM S(+) elicited comparable levels of reinstatement. Intra-pPVT administration of the γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) and GABAB receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen (0.06 and 0.6mM, respectively) prior to the presentation of the cocaine or SCM S(+) completely prevented the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, with no statistically significant effects on SCM seeking. These data show that the pPVT plays an important role in neuronal mechanisms that drive cocaine-seeking behavior. PMID:26455867

  3. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramar Perumal Samy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L. Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study.

  4. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAAR) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABAAR agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 μg/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 μg/g body weight) have corroborated a GABAAergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p AR was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABAAR inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  5. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S;

    2001-01-01

    )beta2gamma2 subunit combinations formed functional receptor complexes as shown by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and [3H]muscimol and [3H]flunitrazepam binding. Moreover, the surface immunofluorescence staining of Sf-9 cells expressing the (alpha1/gamma2)-containing receptors was pronounced......Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gamma......2 and the remainder of the gamma2 or alpha1 subunits, respectively, were expressed with beta2 and beta2gamma2 in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells using the baculovirus expression system. The (alpha1/gamma2)beta2 and (alpha1/gamma2)beta2gamma2 but not the (gamma2/alpha1)beta2 and (gamma2/alpha1...

  6. Allopregnanolone microinjected into the lateral septum or dorsal hippocampus reduces immobility in the forced swim test: participation of the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Contreras, Carlos M; García-Ríos, Rosa Isela

    2009-10-01

    Allopregnanolone is a 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone with actions on γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors that produce antidepressant-like effects. However, little is known about the target brain regions that mediate its antidepressant-like effects. In this study, allopregnanolone (2.0 μg/0.3 μl/rat) or its vehicle (35% cyclodextrin solution) were microinjected into the lateral septum, septofimbrial, or dorsal hippocampus of male Wistar rats that had previously received intraperitoneal injections of either saline or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1.0 mg/kg), and its effects were evaluated in the open field and forced swim tests. Allopregnanolone microinjected into the lateral septum or dorsal hippocampus, but not septofimbrial nucleus, induced a longer latency to the first immobility and a shorter total immobility time in the forced swim test compared with vehicle. Bicuculline pretreatment reversed the effect of allopregnanolone. None of the treatments produced significant changes in crossings in the open field test. In conclusion, allopregnanolone produces an antidepressant-like effect in rats submitted to the forced swim test through actions on GABAA receptors located in the lateral septum and dorsal hippocampus, which is consistent with the antistress effect of GABAA agonists in these particular brain structures.

  7. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Compound Zhi Zhu Xiang in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether compound zhi zhu xiang (CZZX exerts anxiolytic-like effects in rats. The animals were orally administered CZZX (0.75, 1.5, and 3 g/kg daily for 10 days and tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM, Vogel conflict test (VCT, and open field. Repeated treatment with CZZX (3 g/kg/day, p.o. significantly increased the percentage of both entries into and time spent on the open arms of the EPM compared with saline controls. In the VCT, repeated treatment with CZZX (1.5 and 3 g/kg/day, p.o. significantly increased the number of punished licks. The drug did not change the total entries into the open arms of the EPM or interfere with water consumption or nociceptive threshold, discarding potential confounding factors in the two tests. In the open field, locomotion was not reduced, discarding the possible sedative effect of CZZX. In the binding assay, the binding of [3H] Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil to the benzodiazepine binding site in washed crude synaptosomal membranes from rat cerebral cortex was affected by CZZX. These data indicate an anxiolytic-like profile of action for CZZX without sedative side effects, and this activity may be mediated by benzodiazepine binding site modulation at γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

  8. Electrosynthesis of succinic acid in non-membrane electrolyzer%无隔膜电化学合成丁二酸清洁工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洋洲

    2013-01-01

    通过对合成丁二酸新电化学体系的研究,设计了无隔膜电解装置,开发出了低能耗、高收率、无污染的丁二酸电化学合成高效清洁工艺.产品总收率可达98.5%,吨产品直流耗电量小于1 500 kW·h,母液可循环利用.%On the basis of the study on new electrochemical systems for synthesizing succinic acid,a new nonmembrane electrolyzer is designed.A new effective and clean electrosynthesis process with advantages such as energysaving,high yield and non-pollution is developed to prepare succinic acid.The total yield of the succinic acid reaches 98.5%.DC power consumption is less than 1 500 kwh/t and the mother liquor can be recycled.

  9. Purification and characterization of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-dong; LI Bo; YU Zheng-ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the physical and chemical properties of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China. Methods :The arginine ester hydrolase (AEH) was isolated from the venom of Chinese Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus by a combination of ionexchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sepharose Cl-6B and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Results: The purified protein named TM-AEH,a glycoprotein with carbohydrate content of 0.5 % neutral hexose and 0. 75 % sialic acid,a relative molecular mass of 29.0 kDa,and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5. 2. It shares with an extinction coefficient (E0.1%/cm) of 1.332 at 280 nm,consisted of 225 amino acid residues ,and migrated as a band under reduced or non-reduced condition in basic PAGE. TM-AEH was a highly thermostable protein and was stable to pH changes between 5 and 9. The optimum temperature and optimum pH were 55℃ and 8. 4 for its catalytic activity respectively,which was inhibited by Fe3+ and Cu2+. Conclusion:This protein can exhibit higher BAEE-hydrolysing activity and fibrinogenolytic activity as compared to that of whole venom.

  10. Ionic composition and levels of acidity in rainfall in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between 1989 and 2001; Composicion ionica y niveles de acidez de las lluvias en Maracaibo, Venezuela, entre 1989 y 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Ligbel; Morales, Jose; Velasquez, Harvi; Portillo, Dennis; Cano, Yulixis; Montilla, Brinolfo; Iriarte, Nelkis, Mesa, Johan [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ligbels@hotmail.com

    2009-08-15

    de emision naturales y antropicas, se incorporan en las gotas de lluvia a traves de varios procesos fisicoquimicos durante los eventos de precipitacion. El conocimiento de la composicion quimica de las precipitaciones es critico para el entendimiento de la contaminacion regional y local y sus efectos sobre los ecosistemas. Entre las sustancias acidas o potencialmente acidas envueltas en la formacion de la lluvia acida, se puede senalar los compuestos de azufre, nitrogeno y cloro. Un factor importante en las caracteristicas acido-base de la lluvia es la emision de materiales alcalinos como carbonato de calcio, magnesio y amoniaco, que se encuentran generalmente como un vapor capaz de neutralizar los acidos sulfurico y nitrico. Los datos de la quimica de las lluvias, en este trabajo, provienen de varios sitios de la ciudad de Maracaibo, las muestras de agua de lluvia fueron recolectadas en tres periodos repartidos entre los anos 1989 y 2001, con equipos de muestreo manuales y automaticos. Para los diferentes analisis realizados se utilizaron un espectrometro de absorcion atomica modalidad llama, Perkin-Elmer 3110 y un cromatografo ionico con detector de conductividad, marca Dionex 2000i/SP. El pH-PPV en la lluvia de Maracaibo es 4.8, indicativo de una atmosfera ligeramente acida e influenciada por: SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} en 86 %. La especie neutralizante mas importante es el NH{sub 3}, aunque las concentraciones de Ca{sup +2} y Mg{sup +2} son aportes adicionales al proceso de neutralizacion atmosferica. El mayor flujo de depositacion humeda fue exhibido por: NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con 67.5 %. Estadisticamente, se evidencio una alta correlacion entre SO4{sup *}, Cl{sup *} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con el ion H{sup +} (p<0.05), ratificando su influencia en la acidez de las lluvias de Maracaibo. Se concluye que solo una pequena fraccion de los iones potencialmente acidos contribuyen a la acidez libre de las

  11. Control of programmed cell death by distinct electrical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbs, Antje; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sava, Irina E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-01

    Electrical activity and sufficient supply with survival factors play a major role in the control of apoptosis in the developing cortex. Coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, which efficiently releases neurotrophins, is essential for the survival of immature neurons. We studied the influence of neuronal activity on apoptosis in the developing cortex. Dissociated cultures of the newborn mouse cerebral cortex were grown on multielectrode arrays to determine the activity patterns that promote neuronal survival. Cultures were transfected with a plasmid coding for a caspase-3-sensitive fluorescent protein allowing real-time analysis of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in individual neurons. Elevated extracellular potassium concentrations (5 and 8 mM), application of 4-aminopyridine or the γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist Gabazine induced a shift in the frequency distribution of activity toward high-frequency bursts. Under these conditions, a reduction or delay in caspase-3 activation and an overall increase in neuronal survival could be observed. This effect was dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, as blockade of this enzyme abolished the survival-promoting effect of high extracellular potassium concentrations. Our data indicate that increased network activity can prevent apoptosis in developing cortical neurons.

  12. Evaluation of anti-apoptotic activity of different dietary antioxidants in renal cell carcinoma against hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garg; Neeraj; K; Mangal; Sharad; Sahu; Tejram; Mehta; Abhinav; Vyas; Suresh; P; Tyagi; Rajeev; K

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-apoptotic and radical scavenging activities of dietary phenolics, namely ascorbic acid,a-tocopherol acetate,citric acid,salicylic acid,and estimate H2O2induced apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma cells.Methods:The intracellular antioxidant potency of antioxidants was investigated.H2O-2-induced apoptosis in RCC-26 was assayed with the following parameters:cell viability(%apoptosis),nucleosomal damage and DNA fragmentation, bcl-2 levels and flow cytometery analysis(ROS production evaluation).Results:Ine anticancer properties of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid,a- tocopherol acetate,citric acid,salicylic acid with perdurable responses were investigated.It was observed that these antioxidants had protective effect(anti-apoptotic activity) against hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) in renal cell carcinoma(RCC-26) cell line.Conclusions:This study reveals and proves the anticancer properties.However,in cancer cell lines anti-apoptotic activity can indirectly reflect the cancer promoter activity through radicals scavenging,and significantly protect nucleus and bcl-2.

  13. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  14. Erythrocyte membrane modifying agents and the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth: structure-activity relationships for betulinic acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Hanne L; Franzyk, Henrik; Sairafianpour, Majid; Tabatabai, Mehrnoush; Tehrani, Mahboubeh D; Bagherzadeh, Karim; Hägerstrand, Henry; Staerk, Dan; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2004-01-01

    The natural triterpene betulinic acid and its analogues (betulinic aldehyde, lupeol, betulin, methyl betulinate and betulinic acid amide) caused concentration-dependent alterations of erythrocyte membrane shape towards stomatocytes or echinocytes according to their hydrogen bonding properties. Thus, the analogues with a functional group having a capacity of donating a hydrogen bond (COOH, CH(2)OH, CONH(2)) caused formation of echinocytes, whereas those lacking this ability (CH(3), CHO, COOCH(3)) induced formation of stomatocytes. Both kinds of erythrocyte alterations were prohibitive with respect to Plasmodium falciparum invasion and growth; all compounds were inhibitory with IC(50) values in the range 7-28 microM, and the growth inhibition correlated well with the extent of membrane curvature changes assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Erythrocytes pre-loaded with betulinic acid or its analogues and extensively washed in order to remove excess of the chemicals could not serve as hosts for P. falciparum parasites. Betulinic acid and congeners can be responsible for in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts, as shown for Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Labiatae) and Zizyphus vulgaris Lam. (Rhamnaceae). The activity is evidently due to the incorporation of the compounds into the lipid bilayer of erythrocytes, and may be caused by modifications of cholesterol-rich membrane rafts, recently shown to play an important role in parasite vacuolization. The established link between erythrocyte membrane modifications and antiplasmodial activity may provide a novel target for potential antimalarial drugs. PMID:14697777

  15. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively. PMID:22179264

  16. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  17. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (peffective than the small one. The antidiarrhoeal effect was confirmed by the reported dose dependent inhibition of the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. The EP and PM methanol extract produced a transient stimulation followed by inhibition in doses of less than 0.05 and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Higher concentrations caused rapid muscle relaxation. Tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids were reported as major active constituents of the tested plants. PMID:16114083

  18. Relationships among the A Genomes of Triticum L. Species as Evidenced by SSR Markers, in Iran

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    Simon G. Krattinger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among 55 wheat accessions (47 accessions collected from Iran and eight accessions provided by the Institute of Plant Biology of the University of Zurich, Switzerland belonging to eight species carrying A genome (Triticum monococcum L., T. boeoticum Boiss., T. urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan, T. durum Desf., T. turgidum L., T. dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler, T. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebner Schweinf. and T. aestivum L. were evaluated using 31 A genome specific microsatellite markers. A high level of polymorphism was observed among the accessions studied (PIC = 0.77. The highest gene diversity was revealed among T. durum genotypes, while the lowest genetic variation was found in T. dicoccoides accessions. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed a significant genetic variance (75.56% among these accessions, representing a high intra-specific genetic diversity within Triticum taxa in Iran. However, such a variance was not observed among their ploidy levels. Based on the genetic similarity analysis, the accessions collected from Iran were divided into two main groups: diploids and polyploids. The genetic similarity among the diploid and polyploid species was 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. There were no significant differences in A genome diversity from different geographic regions. Based on the genetic diversity analyses, we consider there is value in a greater sampling of each species in Iran to discover useful genes for breeding purposes.

  19. Overcoming seed dormancy of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium) through cold stratification, gibberellic acid, and acid scarification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Dashti; Hojat Ghahremani-Majd; Mahmood Esna-Ashari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) is bulbous perennial herb widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry in Iran.We studied germination of mooseer seeds in two separate experiments.In the first experiment,we evaluated four treatments:sulfuric acid scarification,sandpaper scarification,cold stratification,and gibberellic acid (GA3)application.In the second experiment,we evaluated combinations of these treatments.All treatments in the first experiment had no effect on seed germination,suggesting that mooseer seeds have physical and physiological dormancy.In the second experiment,the highest germination percentage (86.6%) was observed after five minutes scarification with sulfuric acid (75% v/v),followed by 60 days of cold stratification.Duration of sulfuric acid scarification (5,10,and 20 min) did not affect germination rates,but increasing duration of cold stratification (from 15to 60 days),increased germination from 28.3% to 86.6%.Our study showed that mooseer seeds have both physical and physiological dormancy.

  20. Combining bioengineering and plant conservation on a Mediterranean islet

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    La Mantia T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a bioengineering intervention within the Mediterranean Basin carried out at Lampedusa Island (Strait of Sicily on the “Spiaggia dei Conigli”, the only sand shore of all Sicilian territory where the sea turtle Caretta caretta lays its eggs every year. The erosion of the steep slope over the beach itself caused sensitive changes in the grain size of shore’s sediment and reduced the area of the beach with fine sand suitable for C. caretta oviposition. In order to reduce surface water flow and to stop erosion, several bioengineering options were adopted using only native plant species to preserve local botanical heritage and to prevent the local extinction of some species. One year after interventions, average plant establishment was about 90% and many species which were severely endangered before the action (i.e., Jacobaea maritima (L. Pelser & Meijden subsp. bicolor (Willd. B. Nord. & Greuter and Limoniastrum monopetalum (L. Boiss. are now at low risk. Micropropagation and inoculation with beneficial root microbial symbionts were successfully applied to selected species. Regular demographic and phytosociological monitoring on permanent plot areas enabled to quantify the effect of bioengineering techniques on plant percentage cover and plant survival. The combination of bioengineering, biotechnology, and agronomic practices applied on plants appears to be effective in increasing plant cover and preserving several locally endangered plant species. Results presented here suggest that erosion can be controlled without moving large quantities of soil and without planting tree species.

  1. Palynological characters of Glycyrrhiza,Glycyrrhizopsis,and Meristotropis(Leguminosae),with special reference to their taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MENG; Xiang-Yun ZHU

    2010-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 11 species of the genus Glycyrrhiza L.with one from each of the genera Glycyrrhizopsis Boiss.& Bal.and Meristotropis Fisch.& C.A.Mey.was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.In pollen morphology,the main differences between Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza are: Glycyrrhizopsis-pollen grains 36.63× 40.42 μm in size,oblate spheroidal in shape; and Glycyrrhiza-pollen grains 24.47-33.18 × 23.82-31.83 μm in size,prolate spheroidal in shape.Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza should be recognized as two distinct genera based on palynologicai and morphological characters.Meristotropis and Glycyrrhiza are similar in many important palynological and morphological characters,suggesting that the two should be merged.In Glycyrrhiza,two types of pollen grains,3-lobed-circular or subtriangular in polar view,are found in different species,in accordance with morphological differences in the two groups,shedding light on the classification and evolution of the genus.

  2. Otostegia persica (Lamiaceae: A review on its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The current study summarizes the updated information concerning the ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Otostegia persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae, an endemic medicinal plant in south and southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Information was collected through bibliographic investigation from scientific journals, books, theses, reports, and electronic search (databases SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Moreover, documentation from unpublished resources and ethnobotanical surveys has been used. The present review covers the literature available from 2003 to 2013. Results: In traditional systems of medicine, this plant is reputed for treating diabetes, arthritis, gastric discomfort, headache, rheumatism, sedative activities, regulating blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Phytochemical screening of active components and mineral element evaluation of this species have been reported. Several types of diterpenoids and flavonols including morin, kaempferol, and quercetin are identified from the plant. Most of the pharmacological activity of this plant resides in its flavonoid fraction which causes antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Various pharmacological studies on O. persica show antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-aphid, and hepatoprotective activities. Conclusion: Being an endemic plant of Iran, this species is an important medicinal herb which can be used for various purposes. This review might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses and discover new lead compounds for diseases mentioned.

  3. Soap, A Free-code Tool To Study The Impact Of Stellar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisse, Isabelle; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N.

    2011-09-01

    Dark spots and bright plages are present on the surface of all stars, even low-active stars (like the Sun in its low-active phase). Their appearance and disappearance on the stellar photosphere, combined with the stellar rotation, may lead to errors and uncertainties in the characterization of planets both in radial velocimetry and photometry. SOAP is a tool offered to the community (Boisse, Bonfils and Santos, in prep.) that enables to simulate spots and plages on rotating stars and computes their impact on RV and photometric measurements. This talk will discuss the challenges related to the knowledge of stellar activity for the next decade: detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their stars (from G to M dwarfs), understand the activity in the low-mass end of M dwarf (on which will focus future projects like Elektra, SPIRou or CARMENES), limitation to the sum of different transit observations in order to characterize the atmospheric components (from the ground or with Spitzer, JWST), planets around young stars,... and how this can be simulated with SOAP in order to search for indices and corrections. IB and NCS would like to thank the support by the European Research Council/European Community under the FP7 through a Starting Grant, as well from Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.

  4. Dracocephalum: Novel Anticancer Plant Acting on Liver Cancer Cell Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Talari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. (Labiatae is a native Iranian medicinal plant which has been used in combination with Peganum harmala L. as a remedy for many forms of human cancer especially leukemia and gastrointestinal malignancies. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In this investigation HCC was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN in corn oil at 200 mg/kg body weight to rats. Two weeks after DEN administration, cancer development was promoted with dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF (0.02%, w/w for 2 weeks. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP concentration, serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities were also determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Then rat hepatocytes were isolated with collagen perfusion technique and tumoral hepatocytes were sorted by flow cytometry. Finally isolated mitochondria obtained from both tumoral and nontumoral hepatocytes were used for any probable toxic effect of Dracocephalum kotschyi ethanolic extract. Our results showed that D. kotschyi extract (250 µg/mL induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release only in tumoral but not nontumoral hepatocyte. These findings propose Dracocephalum kotschyi as a promising candidate for future anticancer research.

  5. Comparison of Two Species of Notopterygium by GC-MS and HPLC

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    Yaping Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix (Qianghuo, including Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang (NI and Notopterygium franchetii H. de Boiss (NF, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Of these two plants, NI, is more commonly used and has a much higher price in the marketplace. To compare these two plants, a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was carried out, thus obtaining an overall characterization for both volatile and none-volatile compounds. Combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis, GC-MS was successfully applied to distinguish NF and NI. The chemical constitutes of volatile oil in NI and NF were firstly compared in detail, and 1R-alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 4-isopropyl-1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene had great contribution to the discrimination. Fingerprints of 14 batches of Qinghuo samples were also established based on HPLC, and an obvious difference was found between the two species. The chromatographic fingerprints were further analyzed by similarity analysis and HCA. The present study is the first reported evaluation of two origins of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix by GC-MS and HPLC, which will facilitate quality control and its clinical application.

  6. Analysis of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu seed defensins: To the problem of the origin of polyploid wheat genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Odintsova, Margarita S; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2008-06-01

    The origin of polyploid wheat genomes has been the subject of numerous studies and is the key problem in wheat phylogeny. Different diploid species have been supposed to donate genomes to tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. To shed light on phylogenetic relationships between the presumable A genome donors and hexaploid wheat species we have applied a new approach: the comparison of defensins from diploid Triticum species, Triticum boeoticum Boiss. and Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., with previously characterized Triticum kiharae defensins [T.I. Odintsova et al., Biochimie 89 (2007) 605-612]. Defensins were isolated by acidic extraction of seeds followed by three-step chromatographic separation. Isolated defensins were identified by molecular masses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. For the first time, we have shown that T. urartu defensins are more similar to those of the hexaploid wheat than T. boeoticum defensins, although variation among samples collected in different regions of the world was revealed. Our results clearly demonstrate that T. urartu of the Asian origin contributed the A genome to polyploid wheat species.

  7. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-01-01

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria. PMID:27650980

  8. NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SOME ANNUAL CLOVERS (Trifolium sp. AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

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    A TEKELI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted between the years of 2001-2002 in the experimental area and laboratory of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty in Trakya University, Tekirdağ (Turkey. Five different clovers [Persian (Trifolium resupinatum L. var. majus Boiss., Mediterranean (T. spumosum L., narrow-leaved (T. angustifolium L., hedgehog (T. echinatum M. Bieb. and lappa (T. lappaceum L. clovers] were used. Each plot consisted of 8 rows with a length of 5 m. Row spacing of 30 cm and sowing rate of 10 kg ha-1 were used. Sowing times were on 2.25.2001 and on 2.28.2002. Plots were not irrigated and fertilized after sown and harvest. One cut was taken in both years at 4 growing stages such as pre-bud, pre-bloom, 50% bloom and full-bloom. The central 1 m-2 sections was cut at ground level for dry matter. Approximately 500g samples were dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and stored for one day at room temperature then found dry matter. Crude protein (% was determined by Kjeldahl method.

  9. Immunosuppressive principles from Achillea talagonica, an endemic species of Iran

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    S Saeidnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of study: Achillea talagonica Boiss. (Asteraceae grows in the western and central parts of Iran. This plant has long been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of rheumatic pain. Previously, the immunosuppressive activity of the aqueous extract of this endemic plant in experimental animals was reported. In this research, isolation of the main immunologically active components of A. talagonica, which were effective on humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice is elucidated. Methods: In order to find the main immunosuppressive components of A. talagonica, methanol and methanol-water (80% and 50% v:v extracts were injected to BALB/c mice and the hemagglutinating antibody titer was assayed after immunization with SRBC (sheep red blood cells. Guided by this assay, active principles were separated by chromatographic methods. Results: Isolated compounds were identified as caffeic acid 9-O-glucoside (1, quercetin (2, luteolin (3, 3'-methoxy luteolin (4, proline (5 and choline (6 by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported in literatures. Immunosuppressive property of choline (5 mgkg-1 was comparable to those of prednisolone (10 mgkg-1; although, quercetin (20 mgkg-1 and caffeoyl glucoside (20 mgkg-1 decreased anti-SRBC titer in comparison with control groups. Major conclusion: Immunosuppressive effects of A. talagonica are due to some components belonging to betaine, flavonol and phenoilc esters.

  10. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Three Onobrychis Species from Iran

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    Roya Karamian , Mostafa Asadbegy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant phenolic compounds are a main group of plant natural products and flavonoids are the largest and best studied natural phenols. These substances possess a series of biological properties and act on biological systems as antioxidants. In present research, the aim is to determine in vitro total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of three Onobrychis species belonging to the family Fabaceae, namely O. sosnovskyi Grossh., O. viciifolia Scop. and O. melanotricha Boiss. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify any correlations between total phenolic content of the extracts with their antioxidant activities Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different test systems, namely 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH, metal-chelation activity and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model. Results: Results indicated that O. viciifolia extract contains the highest total phenolic content (10.38 ± 0.33mg GAE/g of dry extract. However, the species are not remarkable different (P 0.55 to 0.98. Conclusion: Our results showed that the examined Onobrychis extracts represent strong antioxidant activity; hence, they can be suggested as antioxidant agents for special use in future.

  11. Effect of Phlomis persica on glucose levels and hepatic enzymatic antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Parisa Sarkhail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extract of the aerial parts of Phlomis persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae (PPE was studied to evaluate the effects of antidiabetic potential, by measuring fasting blood glucose, insulin, total antioxidant power (TAP, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, lipid peroxidation (using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Oral administration of PPE at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once a day for 10 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase in serum insulin levels, in comparison with diabetic control group. It also prevented diabetes-induced loss in body weight. Hepatic TAP increased and TBARS decreased following PPE treatments. The extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the activity of hepatic SOD, CAT, and GPx in diabetic rats. It is concluded that PPE has antidiabetic potential that is comparable with glibenclamide. In conclusion, the results of the present study show positive effects of P. persica on experimental diabetes and thus the antidiabetic effect of PPE is related to its potential to inhibit hepatocellular oxidative stress.

  12. Dicaffeoylquinic Acid-Enriched Fraction of Cichorium glandulosum Seeds Attenuates Experimental Type 1 Diabetes via Multipathway Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Ma, Bingxin; Ge, Lanlan; Mo, Qigui; Zhou, Gao; He, Jingsheng; Wang, Youwei

    2015-12-23

    Chicory has a major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet, a genus Cichorium, is used for medicinal and food purposes in Asia. In this study, a dicaffeoylquinic acid-enriched fraction of C. glandulosum seeds n-BuOH fraction (CGSB) could ameliorate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice with continuous administration for 2 weeks. CGSB treatment showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels but lower free fatty acids in adipose tissue and liver. Moreover, CGSB improved pancreatic islet mass. In vitro, different fractions of C. glandulosum seed (CGS) induced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The mRNA level for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha increased in high glucose treatment group in HepG2 cells, while CGSB significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression. The main compound of CGSB, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, was isolated and identified, which exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated that CGSB attenuated experimental T1DM via multipathway protection. PMID:26586022

  13. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

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    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  14. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

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    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  15. Comparative anatomical and ecological investigations on some centaurea (asteracae) taxa from turkey and their taxonomic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomical and ecological characteristics of 7 Centaurea L. s. l. taxa (C. urvillei DC. ssp. stepposa Wagenitz, C. pseudoreflexa Hayek, C. simplicicaulis Boiss. and Huet, C. pecho Albow, C. hypoleuca DC., C. cheiranthifolia Willd.var. purpurascens (DC.) Wagenitz, C. woronowii Bornm.), which three of them are endemic (C. pseudoreflexa, C. pecho, C. woronowii) to Turkey has been carried out. Cross sections of stem, leaf blade and midrib and peripheral sections of the leaves, and pH, total N, P, K and organic matter contents of soil samples have been investigated. Variance analysis and Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test were performed on ecological and anatomical data. Ecological characteristics obtained in this investigation were found mostly similar. On the other hand, anatomically important differences were determined in diversity of anticlinal cell walls, length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of bundles in the midrib and number of stomata per mm/sup 2/ both on the epidermis of the leaf, and the shape of transverse section of stem. According to Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test, especially length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of stomata both on the adaxial and abaxial epidermises have displayed three distinct groups. These results are in accordance with sectional delimitation in the Flora of Turkey and also support upgrading the sum of species of the genus Centaurea. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and intracellular growth inhibition of Portuguese Thymus essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Dandlen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyme essential oils are well recognized by their excellent biological activities and the antimicrobial activity of Portuguese thyme essential oils has been investigated with promising results, particularly against food borne pathogens. In this study the potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of five species of Thymus (Lamiaceae, namely Th. caespititius Brot., Th. camphoratus Hoffmanns. & Link, Th. capitellatus Hoffmanns. & Link., Th. carnosus Boiss. and Th. zygis L. was evaluated against Candida albicans, Haemophilus influenza, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Streptococcus pneumoniae. H. pylori strains were the most susceptible bacteria, particularly to the essential oils of Th. caespititius (Planalto Central, Th. zygis (Rebordãos and Th. caespititius (Pico which minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 mg.mL-1. Th. caespititius essential oil from Planalto Central or its main component, carvacrol significantly (p<0.05 inhibited the intracellular growth of H. pylori, and showed no citotoxicity to the gastric cell line. Our results suggest the potential of this essential oil and its main component as a promising tool as anti-Helicobacter agent potentiating the eradication of this important gastroduodenal pathogen.

  17. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Salas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the essential oils of cultivated material of Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parents, Th. mastichina (L. L. and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss. Coutinho, with seeds from the same locality in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The essential oil of Th. xtoletanus, which had not been analyzed previously, presented 1,8-cineole as the major component (25.5%, as was also the case for Th. mastichina (76.1%. Other components with a major presence in Th. xtoletanus and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus were [(Z-β-ocimene (8.1%; camphor (4.5%; sabinene (3.2%; α-pinene (2.8%], and [(Z-β-ocimene (4.1%, camphor (9.8%, sabinene (2.8%, α-pinene (7.1%], respectively. However, in the hybrid the components β-phelandrene (14.5%, limonene (6.9%, (E-γ-bisabolene (3.5%, and viridiflorol (3.3% stood out, inter alia, whereas their presence in the parents was limited. The study confirms the hybrid origin of Th. xtoletanus as intermediate between Th. mastichina and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus.

  18. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with desert ephemerals growing under and beyond the canopies of Tamarisk shrubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zhaoyong; ZHANG Liyun; FENG Gu; Christie Peter; TIAN Changyan; LI Xiaolin

    2006-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status of the four most common ephemeral plant species, Chorispora tenella (Pall.) DC., Ceratocephalus testiculatus (Crantz) Bess., Eremopyrum orientale (L.) Jaub et. Spash and Veronica campylopoda Boiss growing in an area dominated by Tamarisk shrubs (Tamarix spp.) was investigated.Samples of the four ephemerals and their rhizosphere soils were collected from underneath and beyond the canopies of the Tamarisk shrubs.Plant mycorrhizal status and soil AM fungal spore densities and community structures were analyzed and compared under and beyond the shrub canopies.The mycorrhizal colonization rates of the ephemerals and spore densities in their corresponding rhizosphere soils were significantly lower under the shrub canopies than beyond. The number of AM fungal species under the shrubs (12) was also lower than beyond the canopies (19). When soil properties in the rhizospheres of the four ephemerals were examined, available N and P and total P, organic matter content, total salt content and electrical conductivity (EC) were all higher under the canopies than beyond. In contrast, soil available K and pH showed no such trend. A total of 21 AM fungal species were isolated from rhizosphere soils of the four ephemerals. Five belonged to Acaulospora, one to Archaeospora, thirteen to Glomus and two to Paraglomus. We conclude that the canopies of Tamarix spp. exerted some influence on the AM status of the ephemerals and on the AM fungal communities and some of the properties of their rhizosphere soils.

  19. 亚临界水萃取植物精油的模型%Proposed Models for Subcritical Water Extraction of Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Khajenoori; A.Haghighi Asl; F.Hormozi

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms that control the extraction rate of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Z. Multiflora) with subcritical water (SW) were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent (I.e. Partitioning thermodynamics) or by the rates of analyte desorption from the matrix (I.e. Kinetics). Four simple models have been applied to describe the extraction profiles obtained with SW: (1) a model based solely on the thermodynamic distribution coefficient KD, which assumes that analyte desorption from the matrix is rapid compared to elution; (2) one-site kinetic model, which assumes that the extraction rate is limited by the analyte desorption rate from the matrix, and is not limited by the thermodynamic (KD) partitioning that occurs during elution; (3) two-site kinetic model and (4) external mass transfer resistance model. For SW extract ion, the thermodynamic elution of analytes from the matrix was the prevailing mechanism as evidenced by the fact that extraction rates increased proportionally with the SW flow rate. This was also confirmed by the fact that simple removal calculations based on determined KD (for major essential oil compounds) gave good fits to experimental data for flow rates from 1 to 4 ml·min-1. The results suggested that the overall extraction mechanism was influenced by solute partitioning equilibrium with external mass transfer through liquid film.1

  20. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  1. Obtención y caracterización de aislados proteicos de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, N.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for the obtention of protein isolates from defatted rapeseed flour has been designed. The process includes a basic extraction followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point of the proteins. The precipitate is washed with water (pH 4.5, ethanol and acetone, obtaining a protein isolate with 86% of protein and reducing the contents in polyphenols and soluble sugars in more than 90% with respect to the defatted flour. The final product have physico-chemical characteristics that make it atractive to be used as food and for the obtention of protein hydrolizates.

    Se ha diseñado un proceso de obtención de aislados proteicos a partir de harina de colza desengrasada. El método incluye la extracción básica de las proteínas solubles seguido de una precipitación acida en el punto isoeléctrico. El precipitado es lavado con agua (pH 4.5, etanol y acetona, obteniéndose un aislado proteico con un 86% de proteína y reduciéndose el contenido en polifenoles y azúcares solubles en más de un 90% respecto a la harina desengrasada. El aislado final presenta unas características físico-químicas que lo hacen atractivo para su uso en alimentación y obtención de hidrolizados proteicos.

  2. Organic Ligand, Competing Cation, and pH Effects on Dissolution of Zinc in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of an organic ligand,a competing cation,and pH on the dissolution of zinc(Zn)from three California soils,Maymen sandy loam,Merced clay,and Yolo clay loam.The concentrations of soluble Zn of the three soils were low in a background solution of Ca(NO3)2.Citric acid,a common organic ligand found in the rhizosphere,was effective in mobilizing Zn in these soils; its presence enhanced the concentration of Zn in soil solution by citrate forming a complex with Zn.The ability of Zn to form a complex with citric acid in the soil solution was dependent on the concentration of citric acid,pH,and the concentration of the competing cation Ca2+.The pH of the soil solution determined the extent of desorption of Zn in solid phase in the presence of citric acid.The amounts of Zn released from the solid phase were proportional to the concentration of citric acid and inversely proportional to the concentration of Ca(NO3)2 background solution,which supplied the competing cation Ca2+ for the formation of a complex with citrate.When the soil suspension was spiked with Zn,the adsorption of Zn by the soils was retarded by citric acid via the formation of the soluble Zn-citrate complex.The dissolution of Zn in the presence of citric acid was pH dependent in both adsorption and desorption processes.

  3. Neurochemistry of Pressure-Induced Nitrogen and Metabolically Inert Gas Narcosis in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lavoute, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Gases that are not metabolized by the organism are thus chemically inactive under normal conditions. Such gases include the "noble gases" of the Periodic Table as well as hydrogen and nitrogen. At increasing pressure, nitrogen induces narcosis at 4 absolute atmospheres (ATAs) and more in humans and at 11 ATA and more in rats. Electrophysiological and neuropharmacological studies suggest that the striatum is a target of nitrogen narcosis. Glutamate and dopamine release from the striatum in rats are decreased by exposure to nitrogen at a pressure of 31 ATA (75% of the anesthetic threshold). Striatal dopamine levels decrease during exposure to compressed argon, an inert gas more narcotic than nitrogen, or to nitrous oxide, an anesthetic gas. Inversely, striatal dopamine levels increase during exposure to compressed helium, an inert gas with a very low narcotic potency. Exposure to nitrogen at high pressure does not change N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta and striatum but enhances gama amino butyric acidA (GABAA) receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta. The decrease in striatal dopamine levels in response to hyperbaric nitrogen exposure is suppressed by recurrent exposure to nitrogen narcosis, and dopamine levels increase after four or five exposures. This change, the lack of improvement of motor disturbances, the desensitization of GABAA receptors on dopamine cells during recurrent exposures and the long-lasting decrease of glutamate coupled with the higher sensitivity of NMDA receptors, suggest a nitrogen toxicity induced by repetitive exposures to narcosis. These differential changes in different neurotransmitter receptors would support the binding protein theory. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1579-1590, 2016. PMID:27347903

  4. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Kpodékon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05 and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92% (p<0.05 in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78% (p<0.05 in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category.

  5. Formation of hydrocarbons from acid-Clay suspensions by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    The adsorption of certain organic compounds by clays gives rise to the transformation of the adsorbate through the action of the clays. This phenomenon can be enhanced using ionizing radiation. In this context, these kinds of reactions play an important role in many natural and industrial processes. For example, in oil and gas exploration, the source and trap of petroleum hydrocarbons is frequently clay-rich rocks. Clay-water-based muds are also seen as environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic oil-based fluids. The principal processes that occur in sediments are usually held to be of bacterial action and thermal transformation, which may include thermally induced catalytic alteration of the organic debris. On the other hand, radioactive materials are widely distributed throughout Earth. They were more abundant in the past, but are present in petroleum reservoirs. Their presence induced radioactive bombardment, which may have altered these sediments. This important subject has not been extensively studied. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of fatty acids-like behenic acid-and dicarboxylic acids-like fumaric acid-as model compounds, which are adsorbed in a clay mineral (Na-montmorillonite) and exposed to gamma radiation. The results show that the radiation-induced decomposition of the clay-acid system goes along a definitive path (oxidation), rather than following several modes of simultaneous decomposition, as happens in radiolysis without clay or by heating the system. The main radiolytic products for fatty acids are their corresponding hydrocarbons, with one C-atom less than the original acid.

  6. 二次正交旋转组合设计优化黑曲霉菌株F1降解酒石酸的条件研究%Research of degradation of tartaric acid by Aspergillus niger F1 by using the quadratic orthogonal rotational combination design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文连奎; 董昕; 徐璐; 路鑫

    2013-01-01

    为提高酒石酸降解率,以黑曲霉降酸菌株F1为研究对象,采用四元二次正交旋转组合设计研究黑曲霉菌株F1培养温度、孢子悬浮液接种量、培养基装液量及酒石酸浓度4个因素对酒石酸降解率的影响,用Design Expert 7.1软件分析得出4个因素的回归方程.结果表明,黑曲霉降酸菌株F1对酒石酸的最佳降解条件为:培养温度34.7℃、接种量4.3%、装液量163mL、酒石酸浓度9.3g/L.在此条件下,其降解率可达到98.3%.%A quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design was used to explore the effects of incubation temperature,inoculation amount of spore suspension,medium volume,tartaric acid concentration of Aspergillus niger F1 on degradation rate of tartaric acid.A regression equation was established using Design Expert 7.1 software.The optimum tartaric acid-degrading conditions were incubation temperature of 34.7℃,inoculation amount of 4.3%,medium volume 163mL,tartaric acid concentration 9.3g/LUnder such conditions,its degradation rate was 98.3%.

  7. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate the elaborated defensive behavior and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Medeiros, Priscila; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors of the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on the panic attack-like reactions evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus (MH). Rats were pretreated with NaCl 0.9%, LY235959 (NMDA receptor antagonist), and NBQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) in the PL at 3 different concentrations. Ten minutes later, the MH was treated with bicuculline, and the defensive responses were recorded for 10 min. The antagonism of NMDA receptors in the PL decreased the frequency and duration of all defensive behaviors evoked by the stimulation of the MH and reduced the innate fear-induced antinociception. However, the pretreatment of the PL cortex with NBQX was able to decrease only part of defensive responses and innate fear-induced antinociception. The present findings suggest that the NMDA-glutamatergic system of the PL is critically involved in panic-like responses and innate fear-induced antinociception and those AMPA/kainate receptors are also recruited during the elaboration of fear-induced antinociception and in panic attack-related response. The activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission of PL division of the MPFC during the elaboration of oriented behavioral reactions elicited by the chemical stimulation of the MH recruits mainly NMDA receptors in comparison with AMPA/kainate receptors. PMID:23349224

  8. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  9. Involvement of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Quercitrin and Evidence of the Involvement of the Monoaminergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Qian-tong; Chen, Yi; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jin-li; Liu, Yong; Guo, Jian-you

    2016-01-01

    Quercitrin is a well-known flavonoid that is contained in Flos Albiziae, which has been used for the treatment of anxiety. The present study investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in experimental models of anxiety. Compared with the control group, repeated treatment with quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for seven days significantly increased the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In the light/dark box test, quercitrin exerted an anxiolytic-like effect at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In the marble-burying test, quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) also exerted an anxiolytic-like effect. Furthermore, quercitrin did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity. The anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box test were blocked by the serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A)) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) but not by the γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor antagonist flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The levels of brain monoamines (5-HT and dopamine) and their metabolites (5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid) were decreased after quercitrin treatment. These data suggest that the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin might be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors but not by benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors. The results of the neurochemical studies suggest that these effects are mediated by modulation of the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters. PMID:27298626

  10. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying An; Xing Zhang; Ziqiang Zhu; Yusi Ji; Wenrong He; Zhiqiang Jiang; Mingzhe Li; Hongwei Guo

    2012-01-01

    Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil,which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil.Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process.Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development,although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown.Here we showed that GA3 enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature,and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature,which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway.Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1),a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development.We further found that GA3 induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner,whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter.Additionally,DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression.Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid,a polar auxin transport inhibitor,repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant,supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development.Taken together,our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions.

  11. Evaluation of yield, quality and antioxidant activity of essential oil of in vitro propagated Kaempferia galangaLinn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suprava Sahoo; Reena Parida; Sikha Singh; Rabindra N Padhy; Sanghamitra Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine chemical constituents and antioxidant properties of essential oil from rhizome of the medicinal plant,Kaempferia galanga(K. galanga)Linn.(Zingiberaceae) in conventionally propagated(CP) andin vitro propagated(IVP) plants.Methods:In vitro(micro) propagation ofK. galanga was done by inoculating explants on toMurashige andSkoog agar medium, supplemented with suitable combinations of phytohormones; the regenerants were transferred to soil for further growth.Essential oil preparations of bothCP andIVP rhizomes grown in soil, obtained by the hydro-distillation method were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Antioxidant activities of essential oil samples were monitored. Results:Maximum numbers of regenerated shoots were found in the medium supplemented with1 mg/L benzyl adenine and0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid.A total of6 compounds were identified from rhizomes fromCP andIVP plants that yielded96.9% and97.81% of the total oil contents, respectively.The major compound of rhizome oil identified fromCP andIVP rhizomes was ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate in quantities,82.01% and71.77%, respectively, without any compositional variation.Antioxidant properties of essential oil preparations were assessed by the2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays.Moreover, antioxidant activities of rhizome-oil fromIVP plants were better than that ofCP oil samples.Conclusions:As IVP rhizomes had better oil yield, those could be used for a large scale commercial propagation for sustainable use of essential oil.The principal chemical in the essential oil, ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate could help apothecary, for several ailments.

  12. Intrathecal 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in mice modulates 5-HT1 and 5-HT3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, A A; Hamon, M; Wilcox, G L

    1993-11-01

    The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), a potent 5-HT receptor agonist, were studied in three behavioral tests in mice: the tail-flick test and the intrathecal substance P and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) assays. Intrathecal administration of 5-MeO-DMT (4.6-92 nmol/mouse) produced a significant prolongation of the tail-flick latency. This action was blocked by 5-HT3 and gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor antagonists but not by 5-HT2, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1S receptor antagonists. Binding studies indicated that 5-MeO-DMT had very low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors. 5-MeO-DMT inhibited biting behavior while increasing scratching behavior induced by intrathecally administered substance P. The inhibition of biting behavior was antagonized by intrathecal co-administration of 5-HT1B and GABAA receptor antagonists while 5-HT1A, 5-HT1S, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists had no effect. 5-MeO-DMT-enhanced scratching behavior was inhibited by all the antagonists used except ketanserin and bicuculline, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1S, 5-HT3 and GABAA receptors. NMDA-induced biting behavior was inhibited by 5-MeO-DMT pretreatment; this action was antagonized by 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 and GABAA receptor antagonists. The involvement of these receptors in 5-MeO-DMT action suggests that it may promote release of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin). PMID:7507056

  13. A comparative study on aluminum induced oxalate secretion in Polygonum aviculare L and citrate secretion in Vigna umbellata [Thunb] Ohwi & Ohashi%铝胁迫下萹蓄与饭豆根系有机酸分泌特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤江峰; 张蕾; 杨建立; 郑绍建

    2007-01-01

    以萹蓄和饭豆为试验材料,从对Al胁迫的响应时间、蛋白质合成抑制剂的影响、体内有机酸含量变化及阴离子通道抑制剂的影响等方面,比较研究了Al诱导根系分泌有机酸的差异,以进一步明确铝(Al)诱导植物根系有机酸分泌的过程.结果表明,萹蓄根系在Al胁迫后30 min内分泌出草酸,而Al胁迫至少4 h后饭豆根系才开始分泌柠檬酸;蛋白质合成抑制剂环己亚酰胺(Cycloheximide,CHM)不影响萹蓄根系草酸的分泌,但抑制了84% Al诱导的饭豆根系柠檬酸的分泌,表明前者不需要新蛋白质的诱导合成,却是后者所必需的.Al处理不改变萹蓄根尖草酸的含量,但明显提高了饭豆根尖柠檬酸的含量;阴离子通道抑制剂苯甲酰甲醛(Phenylglyoxal,PG)和蒽-9-羧酸(Anthrancene-9-carboxylic acid,A-9-C)分别有效抑制Al诱导萹蓄根系草酸的分泌及饭豆根系柠檬酸的分泌,再次证明两者有机酸的分泌是通过某种被Al所诱导或激活的阴离子通道所实现的.

  14. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, K.W.; Bolger, M.B.; Brinton, R.E.; Coirini, H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1988-08-01

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by (35S)-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((35S)TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of (35S)TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of (35S)TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates (35S)TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All (35S)TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of (3H)promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex.

  15. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of [35S]TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of [35S]TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates [35S]TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All [35S]TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex

  16. Participation of GABAA Chloride Channels in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of a Fatty Acid Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid and a mixture of eight fatty acids (FAT-M identified in this maternal fluid (C12:0, lauric acid, 0.9 μg%; C14:0, myristic acid, 6.9 μg%; C16:0, palmitic acid, 35.3 μg%; C16:1, palmitoleic acid, 16.4 μg%; C18:0, stearic acid, 8.5 μg%; C18:1cis, oleic acid, 18.4 μg%; C18:1trans, elaidic acid, 3.5 μg%; C18:2, linoleic acid, 10.1 μg% produce anxiolytic-like effects that are comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats, suggesting the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptors, a possibility not yet explored. Wistar rats were subjected to the defensive burying test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. In different groups, three GABAA receptor antagonists were administered 30 min before FAT-M administration, including the competitive GABA binding antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, GABAA benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (5 mg/kg, and noncompetitive GABAA chloride channel antagonist picrotoxin (1 mg/kg. The FAT-M exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the defensive burying test and elevated plus maze, without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test. The GABAA antagonists alone did not produce significant changes in the behavioral tests. Picrotoxin but not bicuculline or flumazenil blocked the anxiolytic-like effect of the FAT-M. Based on the specific blocking action of picrotoxin on the effects of the FAT-M, we conclude that the FAT-M exerted its anxiolytic-like effects through GABAA receptor chloride channels.

  17. Role and regulation of EGFR in actin remodeling in sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haim Breitbart; Nir Etkovitz

    2011-01-01

    To bind and fertilize the egg,the spermatozoon should undergo few biochemical and motility changes in the female reproductive tract collectively called capacitation.The capacitated spermatozoon binds to the egg zona pellucida,and then undergoes the acrosome reaction(AR),which allows its penetration into the egg.The mechanisms regulating sperm capacitation and the AR are not completely understood.In the present review,we summarize some data regarding the role and regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)in these processes.In the capacitation process,the EGFR is partially activated by protein kinase A(PKA),resulting in phospholipase D(PLD)activation and actin polymerization.Protein kinase C alpha(PKCα),which is already activated at the beginning of the capacitation,also participates in PLD activation.Further activation of the EGFR at the end of the capacitation enhances intracellular Ca2+concentration leading to F-actin breakdown and allows the AR to take place.Under in vivo conditions,the EGFR can be directly activated by its known ligand epidermal growth factor(EGF),and indirectly by activating PKA or by transactivation mediated by G protein-coupled receptors(GPCRs)activation or by ouabain.Under physiological conditions,sperm PKA is activated mainly by bicarbonate,which activates the soluble adenylyl cyclase to produce cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP),the activator of PKA.The GPCR activators angiotensin ll or lysophosphatidic acid,as well as ouabain and EGF are physiological components present in the female reproductive tract.

  18. Antibacterial activity of chitosan and the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of chitosan and water soluble interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan was studied. Chitosans of two different molecular weights were tested at different concentration for 0.5 to 5 g·L-1 as antimicrobial agents against P. aeruginosa and P. oleovorans. In both cases, the best microbial inhibition was obtained with the concentration of 5 g·L-1. However, the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan with composition φ =2 produced higher antibacterial activity than the two chitosans at the concentration of 0.5 g·L-1. The NPEC2 complex was more effective than chitosans. This could be attributed to the number of moles of the amino groups of chitosan and the carboxylic acid groups of the interpolyelectrolyte complexes poly(acrylic acid.A atividade antimicrobiana de quitosana e complexos interpolieletrolíticos hidrossoluvéis de poli(ácido acrílico-quitosana foi estudada. Quitosanas de dois diferentes pesos moleculares foram testados em diferentes concentrações, 0,5 a 5 g • L-1, como agentes antimicrobianos nas P. aeruginosa e P. oleovorans. Em ambos os casos, obteu-se a melhor inibição microbiana com a concentração de 5 g • L-1, no entanto os complexos interpolieletrolíticos de poli (ácido acrílico-quitosana com composição φ = 2 apresentaram maior atividade antibacteriana do que os dois quitosans na concentração de 0,5 g • L-1. O complexo NPEC2 foi mais eficaz do que as quitosanas, sendo que o resultado pode ser atribuído ao número de moles dos grupos aminos da quitosana e aos grupos carboxílicos dos complexos de poli(ácido acrílico.

  19. 亚油酸对Lipstatin发酵生产的影响研究%Effects of Linoleic Acid on Fermentative Production of Lipstatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永青; 张小琴; 王宇池; 韩力挥

    2013-01-01

    亚油酸作为一种前体物质,对Lipstatin的生物合成有重要的影响.通过研究发酵培养基中亚油酸浓度对毒三素链霉菌发酵的影响,表明合适的亚油酸浓度能显著促进Lipstatin的生物合成.在此基础上,进一步研究了不同补料时间和补料速率对毒三素链霉菌发酵生产Lipstatin的影响,最终确定了最佳的补料时间和补料速率.在亚油酸浓度为20 g· L-1的发酵培养基中,接种后发酵36 h时开始补料、补料速率为0.35g· L-1·h-1时,Lipstatin的发酵效价最高,为6.8g·L-1.%Linoleic acid,as a precursor of lipstatin,has a great effect on the production of lipstatin.The effect of linoleic acid concentration in the fermentation medium on the fermentation of Streptomyces toxytricini was studied.The results demonstrated that the addition of proper linoleic acid to the fermentation medium could greatly promote the biosynthesis of lipstatin.The fed-batch process of linoleic acid was further optimized.The result showed that in the fermentation medium containing 20 g · L-1 linoleic acid,when linoleic acid was fed after fermentation for 36 h at a feeding rate of 0.35 g · L-1 · h-1,the highest lipstatin titer of 6.8 g · L-1 was obtained.

  20. Effect of growth stages and systems on range vegetation characteristics in el Rosa, north Kordofan, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M.A. El Hag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation characteristics were studied in closed and open systems at flowering and seeding in (El Rosa El khuwei locality at September and November 2009. Sampling was using 2Km2 plots in a radiating manner from the centre of plot. CRD was used to analyses all parameters. Results of biomass, plant density and plant cover in the closed systems at the flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher. These parameters were significantly lower in the open system at seeding. Bare soil and litter were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in the open system at seeding. Total forage productivity kg/ha was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in the closed system at the flowering and least in the open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in closed system at seeding and leas in open at flowering. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher and least in the open system at seeding. Plant frequencies were higher in the closed system at the two growth stages than open system like Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus Bano (Eragrostis tremula Gaw (Aristida sp Difra (Echinocloa colonum Aboelrakhus (Andropogon gayanus Fisiya (Fimbristyls hispidula and Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis had higher frequencies. However leflef (Luffa aegyptiaca and Himeira (Hymenocardia acida had lower frequencies.  Simeima (Sesamum alatum Buid (Commelinia subulata Abodaib (Ceraotheca sesamoid Shuleny (Zornia glochidiata and Rabaa (Zalea sp were found only in the closed system at flowering. Nuida (Sida cordofolia were only found in the open system at the two growth stages. It was concluded that the closed system had higher plant density and cover, biomass, plant frequencies and forage production. Bare soil and litter were higher in open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was higher in the closed system at seeding. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were higher. Indicate that direct effects on

  1. Zona Pellucida Induces Activation of Phospholipase A2 During Acrosomal Exocytosis in Guinea PigSpermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉英; 陈文颖; 石其贤; 毛丽珍; 俞淑清; 方昕; E.R.S.Roldan

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether PLA2 is involved in ZP-stimulated acrosomal exocytosis,if Ca2+ is required for activation of PLA2,and sigal transduction pathways modulating PLA2. Methods Guinea-pig spermatozoa were capacitated and labeled in low Ca2+ medium with [14C]choline chloride or [14C] arachidonic acid,and were then exposed to millimolar Ca2+ and various reagents and stimulated with ZP. Results Precapacitated spermatozoa exposed to millimolar Ca2+ and stimulated with ZP experienced increases in arachidonic acid(AA)and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and a parallel decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC);these chages are indicative of PLA2 activation.Simulation with ZP also led to acrosomal exocytosis in a high proportion of spermatozoa. Lipid changes and exocytosis were prevented if spermatozoa were exposed to aristolochic acid,a PLA2 inhibitor, before treatment with ZP.Stimulation with ZP in medium without added Ca2+,or in medium with millimolar Ca2+ and EGTA or La3+ resulted in no lipid changes or exocytosis. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin,a G1 protein inhibitor, before stimulation with ZP,blocked the release of AA and lysoPC and acrosomal exocytosis.Exposure of spermatozoa to the DAG kinase inhibitor R59022 before ZP stimulation led to a significant increase in the generation of lysoPC and exocytosis.Conclusion These results indicate very strongly that PLA2 plays an essential role in ZP-induced exocytosis in spermatozoa, that PLA2 activation requires Ca2+ internalization,and that it is regulated by signal transduction pathways involving G proteins and DAG.

  2. [Variability in the clinical presentation of Pompe disease in infancy: two case reports and response to treatment with human recombinant enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Medinilla, Esther; Berzosa-López, Raquel; Mora-Ramírez, M Dolores; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Martínez-Antón, Jacinto

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Pompe o glucogenosis tipo II es un error innato del metabolismo, de herencia autosomica recesiva, causado por un deficit de la enzima lisosomal alfa-glucosidasa acida (GAA), que ocasiona un acumulo multisistemico de glucogeno. Describimos dos casos de inicio temprano (infantil) con diferentes formas de presentacion. Casos clinicos. El primer caso se trata de un neonato que presento una bradicardia mantenida desde el nacimiento, lo que motivo el estudio cardiologico, en el que se evidencio una hipertrofia biventricular grave. El segundo caso se trata de un niño de 14 meses con retraso motor e hipotonia con arreflexia. En la analitica destacaban una creatincinasa, lactato deshidrogenasa, transaminasa glutamico oxalacetica y transaminasa glutamico piruvica elevadas. El electromiograma mostro signos de afectacion miopatica, y la biopsia muscular, una miopatia vacuolar con deposito de glucogeno. En ambos, la actividad de la GAA estaba disminuida y el analisis genetico del gen GAA evidencio que eran portadores heterocigotos de mutaciones descritas en la enfermedad de Pompe. Iniciaron tratamiento con enzima recombinante humana al mes y a los 18 meses de vida, respectivamente, con mejoria evidente de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica, aunque mas limitada a nivel motor. En la actualidad tienen, respectivamente, 9 meses y 5 años, y este ultimo presenta un nivel III de la escala GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure). Conclusion. La GAA recombinante humana es la unica opcion terapeutica autorizada para estos pacientes. Los efectos que hemos observado son similares a los descritos en otros casos, con una excelente evolucion de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica y un efecto variable sobre la musculatura esqueletica.

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  4. Proliferación y expresión de marcadores por células de Schwann de rata adulta en cultivo Schwann cells proliferation and marker expression on adult rat in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Constanza

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúan diferentes técnicas para obten-ción y cultivo de células de Schwann provenientes del nervio periférico de rata adulta, de las cuales la que evi-dencia mejor respuesta es la que combina una degenera-ción walleriana durante 14 días in vitro, seguida de una disociación enzimática. La adición de mitógenos como la forskolina y extracto de pituitaria no muestra un efecto sobre estas células. Los niveles de enriquecimiento en células de Schwann, defi-nidos de acuerdo con patrones morfológicos y de expre-sión de marcadores tales como la proteína S-100 o la pro-teína acida fíbrilar glial (GFAP, son buenos (del orden de 80-88% hasta los ocho días de cultivo. La detección de bromodeoxiouridina (BrdU incorporada por células en fase S del ciclo celular, demuestra que en términos ge-nerales la tasa de incorporación de BrdU de las células guales del sistema nervioso periférico no cambia.This study evaluated some techniques for culture and growth of Schwann Cells from adult rats peripheral nerves. The best of these methods is a combination of in vitro Wallerian degeneration during 14 days, followed by an enzimatic dissociation with collagenase and dispase Mitogens like forskolin and pituitary extract do not have any effects on these cells. Enrichement of the culture (measure by morphological and inmunocitochemical criteria was about 80-88% until 8 days in culture. Stable Level of BrdU incorporation suggested that the population of cells entering S phase does not change.

  5. The Fobrication of Cus/RGO Nanocomposite and Its Electrochemical Non-enzyme Sensing of Glucose%CuS/RGO纳米复合物的制备及对葡萄糖的无酶电化学传感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦守峰

    2015-01-01

    以 L-半胱氨酸作为硫的供应体、还原剂、联接剂采用一锅法合成了硫化铜修饰的还原石墨烯纳米复合材料,发现此纳米复合物修饰电极对葡萄糖有良好的电催化效果,并且表现出很高的抗干扰能力、优良的选择性,适用于人体中血清的检测有很好的准确性,有望应用于葡萄糖的无酶传感。%One-pot synthesis of CuS nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (CuS/RGO)nano-composites was prepared with the use of L-cysteine,an amino acid,as a reducing agent,sulfur source, and linker to anchor CuS nanoparticles onto the surface of RGO sheets.It was found that the CuS nano-particles decorated reduced graphene exhibit a remarkable catalytic performance for glucose oxidation. The proposed sensor also showed high anti-interference ability,excellent selectivity and was successfully used for glucose detecting in human serum with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery.It is believed that CuS/RGO composites show good promise for further application on non-enzymatic glucose biosen-sors.

  6. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  7. Study on comparative anatomy of mericarp structure of some species in Pleurospermum Hoffm.(Apiaceae)%伞形科棱子芹属部分种类果实结构的比较解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珂; 张勇; 刘启新; 宋春凤

    2011-01-01

    Using the paraffin section method, the transection anatomical characters of mericarps of six species including Pleurospermum benthamii (Wall. ex DC.) Clarke and P. franchetianum Hemsl., P. hookeri Clarke var. thomsonii Clarke and P. giraldii Diels, P. prattii Wolff and P. wrightianum de Boiss. of Pleurospermum Hoffm. in Apiaceae were observed in detail and analyzed comparatively. The results show that although the external morphological characters of every two species in six species are similar, but the anatomical structures of mericarps were different. The common features of them are relatively developed ribs, separation of exocarp and mesocarp, with a cavity and one obvious vascular bundle in each rib, highly reductive mesocarp, thin mericarp wall, with vittae in vallecular and commissure, vitta number of commissure one time more than that of vallecular. The different features include the shape of mericarp transection, compressed degree of mericarp body, development degree of rib, arching degree of exocarp, with or without corneous layer and its thickness, size and position of vascular bundle, vitta number in vallecular and the relationship between commissure and lateral ribs. According to these observation results, it is suggested that the combination of P. prattii and P. wrightianum seems inappropriate, whereas the merger of P. hookeri var. thomsonii and P. giraldii should be proposed.%采用石蜡切片法对伞形科(Apiaceae)棱子芹属(Pleurospermum Hoffm.)的宝兴棱子芹[P.benthamii(Wall.ex DC.)Clarke]和松潘棱子芹(P.franchetianum Hemsl.)、西藏棱子芹(P.hookeri Clarke var.thomsonii Clarke)和太白棱子芹(P.raldii Diels)、康定棱子芹(P.prattii Wolff)和瘤果棱子芹(P.wrightianum de Boiss.)的果实横切面的解剖结构特征进行了详细观察和比较分析.结果表明:6种植物虽然在外部形态上两两相似,但彼此间的果实解剖结构特征却存在一定的差异.共同特征是果

  8. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Hudaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%. These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml, Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml, Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml, and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml. Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition, Helianthemum ledifolium (L. Mill. (28.4%, Majorana syriaca (L. Kostel. (25.1%, and Mentha spicata L. (22.5% showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

  9. New models for estimating the carbon sink capacity of Spanish softwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Rio, M. del; Montero, G.

    2011-07-01

    Quantifying the carbon balance in forests is one of the main challenges in forest management. Forest carbon stocks are usually estimated indirectly through biomass equations applied to forest inventories, frequently considering different tree biomass components. The aim of this study is to develop systems of equations for predicting tree biomass components for the main forest softwood species in Spain: Abies alba Mill., A. pinsapo Boiss., Juniperus thurifera L., Pinus canariensis Sweet ex Spreng., P. halepensis Mill., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L., P. uncinata Mill. For each species, a system of additive biomass models was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression. Diameter at the breast height and total height were used as independent variables. Diameter appears in all component models, while tree height was included in the stem component model of all species and in some branch component equations. Total height was included in order to improve biomass estimations at different sites. These biomass models were compared to previously available equations in order to test their accuracy and it was found that they yielded better fitting statistics in all cases. Moreover, the models fulfil the additivity property. We also developed root:shoot ratios in order to determine the partitioning into aboveground and belowground biomass. A number of differences were found between species, with a minimum of 0.183 for A. alba and a maximum of 0.385 for P. uncinata. The mean value for the softwood species studied was 0.265. Since the Spanish National Forest Inventory (NFI) records species, tree diameter and height of sample trees, these biomass models and ratios can be used to accurately estimate carbon stocks from NFI data. (Author) 55 refs.

  10. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  11. Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Salviajudaica and S. multicaulis from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abu-Irmaileh, Barakat E; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abazaa, Ismail F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil of Salvia judaica Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. (Lamiaceae) from Jordan by GC and GC-MS and to report the actual composition of their fresh leaves and flowers using SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction).Their dual alpha-amylase/alpha glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities as well as their anti-proliferative potential were screened. The aroma profile of the leaves, flowers, and flowers at pre-flowering stages of S. judaica, obtained through SPME was composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.7 %, 71.8 %, and 86.2 %, respectively) while the hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.8%). Fresh leaves of S. multicaulis were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (58.1%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the blooming flowers (57.2%) and the flowers at the pre-flowering stage (64.7%). The hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (77.6%). With doxorubicin as a positive control, no anti-proliferative activity was observed against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116, and SW620 using SRB assay for either Salvia spp. In vitro enzymatic starch digestion was evaluated with Acarbose (IC50: 0.2 ± 0.0 µg /mL) as the reference drug. The respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of S. judaica and S. multicaulis aqueous extracts were 4.9 ± 0.4 and 10.3 ± 0.9. Modulation of pancreatic lipase activity (PL) was determined by colorimetry and compared with Orlistat (IC50 : 0.11 ± 0.0 µg/mL). PL-IC50 values (µg/mL) obtained for S. judaica and S. multicaulis were 108.5±6.4 and 31.8 ± 0.8, respectively.

  12. Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Salviajudaica and S. multicaulis from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abu-Irmaileh, Barakat E; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abazaa, Ismail F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil of Salvia judaica Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. (Lamiaceae) from Jordan by GC and GC-MS and to report the actual composition of their fresh leaves and flowers using SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction).Their dual alpha-amylase/alpha glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities as well as their anti-proliferative potential were screened. The aroma profile of the leaves, flowers, and flowers at pre-flowering stages of S. judaica, obtained through SPME was composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.7 %, 71.8 %, and 86.2 %, respectively) while the hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.8%). Fresh leaves of S. multicaulis were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (58.1%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the blooming flowers (57.2%) and the flowers at the pre-flowering stage (64.7%). The hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (77.6%). With doxorubicin as a positive control, no anti-proliferative activity was observed against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116, and SW620 using SRB assay for either Salvia spp. In vitro enzymatic starch digestion was evaluated with Acarbose (IC50: 0.2 ± 0.0 µg /mL) as the reference drug. The respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of S. judaica and S. multicaulis aqueous extracts were 4.9 ± 0.4 and 10.3 ± 0.9. Modulation of pancreatic lipase activity (PL) was determined by colorimetry and compared with Orlistat (IC50 : 0.11 ± 0.0 µg/mL). PL-IC50 values (µg/mL) obtained for S. judaica and S. multicaulis were 108.5±6.4 and 31.8 ± 0.8, respectively. PMID:27396212

  13. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications.

  14. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  15. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  16. Plastic responses of Abies pinsapo xylogenesis to drought and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio; Carreira, José Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Radial growth and xylogenesis were studied to investigate the influence of climate variability and intraspecific competition on secondary growth in Abies pinsapo Boiss., a relic Mediterranean fir. We monitored the responses to three thinning treatments (unthinned control -C-, 30% -T30- and 60% -T60- of basal area removed) to test the hypothesis that they may improve the adaptation capacity of tree growth to climatic stress. We also assessed whether xylogenesis was differentially affected by tree-to-tree competition. Secondary growth was assessed using manual band dendrometers from 2005 to 2007. In 2006, xylogenesis (phases of tracheid formation) was also investigated by taking microcores and performing histological analyses. Seasonal dynamics of radial increment were modeled using Gompertz functions and correlations with microclimate and radiation were performed. Histological analyses revealed it as fundamental to calibrate the dendrometer estimates of radial increment and to establish the actual onset and end dates of tracheid production. The lower radial-increment rates and number of produced tracheids were observed in the trees subjected to high competition in the unthinned plots. The growing season differed among the plots, and its duration ranged from an average of 78 days in unthinned plots to 115 days in thinned ones (T60). Variations in the beginning of the growing season (13 April to 22 May) and earlywood-latewood transition (early August) were mainly determined by the temperature pattern, while the onset and the end of the growing season were related to both annual precipitation and tree-to-tree competition. The tracheid-formation phases of radial enlargement and cell-wall thickening showed similar patterns in the trees from thinned and unthinned plots subjected to low and high competition, respectively, but the mean number of tracheids in each phase was always higher in the trees from the thinned plots. The reduction of competition through thinning

  17. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  18. Investigation of Cytotoxic Activity in Four Stachys Species from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Manayi, Azadeh; Lotfi, Mahnaz; Abbasi, Rofeyde; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of Stachys laxa Boiss. and Buhse. from Siah-bishe in Mazandaran province, Stachys trinervis Aitch. and Hemsl. from Karaj in Alborz province, Stachys subaphylla Rech. F. and Stachys turcomanica Trautv. from Golestan province have been collected in May 2008. Total extracts were obtained through MeOH/H2O (80/20) and then partitioned between CHCl3, EtOAc and MeOH. These fractions and total extracts have been investigated for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against the colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D) and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines using MTT assay (3-(4,5-di methyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide). At each cell line, doses of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL in 1% (v/v) DMSO of all samples were tested. Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys laxa against proliferation of T47D and HT-29 cell lines and chloroform fraction of Stachys subaphylla and Stachys subaphylla ethyl acetate fraction toward T47D cell line exhibited highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 50 µg/mL). Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys turcomanica against HT-29 cell line, except methanol fraction of Stachys subaphylla, the other extrcts on T47D cell line, represented moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 70 µg/mL). All fractions of S. trinervis demonstrated no effective cytotoxic activity. IC50 values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of HT-29 and T47D cells were most affected by chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of Stachys laxa and Stachys turcomanica due to their nonpolar compounds. PMID:24250483

  19. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  20. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arzu Birinci Yildirim; Fatma Pehlivan Karakas; Arzu Ucar Turker

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Methods:Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Results: Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100%tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O

  1. Comparison of antifungal activities of various essential oils on the Phytophthora drechsleri, the causal agent of fruit decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The efficacy of Mentha piperita L, Zataria multiflora Boiss and Thymus vulgaris L essential oils (EOs was evaluated for controlling the growth of Phytophthora drechsleri, the causative agent of damage to many crops that is consumed directly by humans.Materials and Methods: The EOs used in this study was purchased from Magnolia Co, Iran. The pour plate method in petri dishes containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA was used to evaluate the antifungal properties of EOs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC as well as mycelial growth inhibition (MGI were measured. The IC50 value (the concentration inhibited 50% of the mycelium growth was calculated by probit analysis.Results and Conclusion: The fungal growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of tested EOs. The complete reduction was obtained with Shirazi thyme at all concentrations, whereas the complete reduction for peppermint and thyme was observed at 0.4% and 0.8% (v/v concentrations, respectively. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibition wasobserved when 0.1% peppermint (MGI values of 9.37% was used. The IC50, MIC and MFC values of Shirazi thyme was 0.053, 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Similarly, MIC and MFC values of peppermint and thyme were recorded 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from this pathogenic fungus and many agricultural plant pathogens causing drastic crop losses.

  2. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  3. Protective effects of Scrophularia striata in Ovalbumin-induced mice asthma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrophularia striata Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) is a plant growing in the northeastern part of Iran and being used as a traditional herb for various inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the Scrophularia striata extract in Ovalbumin (OVA) induced-asthma mice model. Methods OVA-sensitized mice were intrapritonealy treated with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract on days 8 to 14 separately. Broncoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge and then the number of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were assessed by direct microscopic counting. In addition, total immunoglubolin (Ig) E and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum, IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines in BALF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Moreover, phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were used to evaluate the main compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract, respectively. Results The results showed that the main components; including flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the S. striata extract. In addition, the treatment with extract significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells and suppressed T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF. Also, total IgE and OVA-specific IgE levels in the serum decreased. Conclusion Collectively, it is concluded that the extract has the potential to modulate the Th2 cytokines and could be used as immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:23837463

  4. Expansion of the gamma-gliadin gene family in Aegilops and Triticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryunova Svetlana V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gamma-gliadins are considered to be the oldest of the gliadin family of storage proteins in Aegilops/Triticum. However, the expansion of this multigene family has not been studied in an evolutionary perspective. Results We have cloned 59 gamma-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species (Aegilops caudata L., Aegilops comosa Sm. in Sibth. & Sm., Aegilops mutica Boiss., Aegilops speltoides Tausch, Aegilops tauschii Coss., Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., Aegilops uniaristata Vis., and Triticum monococcum L. representing eight different genomes: Am, B/S, C, D, M, N, T and U. Overall, 15% of the sequences contained internal stop codons resulting in pseudogenes, but this percentage was variable among genomes, up to over 50% in Ae. umbellulata. The most common length of the deduced protein, including the signal peptide, was 302 amino acids, but the length varied from 215 to 362 amino acids, both obtained from Ae. speltoides. Most genes encoded proteins with eight cysteines. However, all Aegilops species had genes that encoded a gamma-gliadin protein of 302 amino acids with an additional cysteine. These conserved nine-cysteine gamma-gliadins may perform a specific function, possibly as chain terminators in gluten network formation in protein bodies during endosperm development. A phylogenetic analysis of gamma-gliadins derived from Aegilops and Triticum species and the related genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum showed six groups of genes. Most Aegilops species contained gamma-gliadin genes from several of these groups, which also included sequences from the genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum. Hordein and secalin sequences formed separate groups. Conclusions We present a model for the evolution of the gamma-gliadins from which we deduce that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA of Aegilops/Triticum-Dasypyrum-Lophopyrum-Crithopsis already had four groups of gamma-gliadin sequences, presumably the result of two

  5. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  6. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  8. Physio-ecological response of Haloxylonpersicum photosynthetic shoots to drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Xiao; Wang Qiang; Chen Yaning; Huang Junhua

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the seasonal characteristics to resist the drought stress of Haloxylon persicum Bge.Ex Boiss.et Buhse photosynthetic shoots at habitat.The results showed that the predominant drought resistance factors were varied at the different stage from growth to development.In the blooming season (from May 31 to June 29),endogenous ABA contents were rare;stomatal conductance and photosynthesis intensity were the highest at the whole stage from growth to development;soluble sugars contents had a decreasing trend and proline contents increased a little that made proline become the predominant factor to resist the drought under this light water stress.In the hot summer (from June 29 to July 26),ABA contents accumulated rapidly;stomatal conductance dropped to the lowest level of the growth and development;chlorophyll was also decomposed;both soluble sugars and proline contents showed the trend of quickly accumulating,but the former was faster than the latter.It was due to stomatal limitation and osmotic organic molecules accumulation that would affect the photosynthetic shoots to resist severe drought stress.At the late period of the development (from Aug 9 to Aug 22),ABA rapidly accumulated,its contents got to the highest level of whole life-span;stomatal conductance increased a little;proline and soluble sugars contents changed little at high level;while the ratios of ABA to CTK content and ABA to IAA content got up obviously,the effect to resist drought stress on high content ABA was inhibited by endogenous plant hormone CTK and IAA,then the continuing accumulation of proline and soluble sugars would be prevented,Osmosis of organic molecules was the most important factor to adjust leaves to severe water stress at this period.

  9. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  10. Thermal Property and Flame Retardancy of Cured Epoxy Resins Containing Hybrid of Silicon-Phosphorus%一种含有硅磷杂化物的环氧树脂固化物的热性能与阻燃性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振杰; 刘伟区; 李宏静; 马松琪

    2012-01-01

    A kind of hybrid of silicon-phosphorus was synthesized by the hydrolysis and polycondensation reaction of tetraethoxysilane,methyltriethoxysilane and phosphorus-containing silicon coupling agent which was synthesized by γ-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane and phosphoric acid.A cured epoxy resin containing hybrid of silicon-phosphorus was prepared via the in situ curing of the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane with the hybrid of silicon-phosphorus.Thermogravimetric analysis,determinations of differential scanning calorimetry and limited oxygen index were carried out to characterize the cured products.It is found that the flame ratardance and thermal property of the cured epoxy resin is remarkablely improved.The limiting oxygen index(LOI) is 27.2,the residual char yield under 700 ℃ and Tg are higher than those of the pure epoxy resin 68.4% and 5 ℃,respectively,when 30% of the hybrid is doped into epoxy resin.This indicates that the cured epoxy resin possesses better flame retardancy and thermal stability.%利用γ-环氧丙氧基三甲氧基硅烷与磷酸合成了一种含磷硅烷偶联剂,将其与正硅酸乙酯和甲基三乙氧基硅烷反应得到一种硅磷杂化物(HSP)。将HSP加入到双酚A型环氧树脂,以4,4′-二氨基二苯基甲烷为固化剂制备了一种含有硅磷杂化物的环氧树脂固化物。对此固化物的玻璃化转变温度(Tg)、热降解性能和极限氧指数(LOI)进行了测试。结果显示,该固化物的热性能与阻燃性能得到明显改善。当HSP含量占环氧树脂用量的30%时,与纯环氧树脂固化物相比,Tg提高了5℃,700℃残炭率提高了68.4%,LOI达到27.2,获得了明显的阻燃和提高热稳定性等效果。

  11. Evaluación de la actividad desulfurizadora de aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. en presencia de hidrocarburo Desulfurization activity evaluation of native strains of Pseudomonas spp. in the presence of hydrocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alméciga-Díaz Carlos Javier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El principal inconveniente en la combustión de los hidrocarburos es la conversión del azufre y el nitrógeno a sus respectivos óxidos, los cuales participan en la formación de lluvia acida y deterioran el medio ambiente e infraestructuras. La remoción de azufre a partir de compuestos órgano-azufrados mediante el uso de microorganismos ha surgido como una alternativa frente al proceso catalítico de hidrodesulfurización (HDS. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora de veintitrés aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. sobre dibenzotiofeno (DBT, usando un sistema de fermentación con igual proporción de fase acuosa y orgánica (n-hexano en presencia de oleato de etanolamina. Los aislados 02,05 y 06 conservaron su viabilidad en este medio y presentaron una remoción de azufre entre 6,0 y 9,4%, generando los metabolitos DBT-sulfona, DBT-sulfóxido, 2-hidroxibifenilo (2-HBP y sulfato presentes en la ruta metabólica 4S. Con estos aislados se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora sobre keroseno y se observó una remoción de azufre entre 19,9 y 62,6% y una disminución del poder calorífico entre 0,45 y 5,55%. Palabras clave: dibenzotiofeno, desulfurización, Pseudomonas spp., keroseno.The main difficulty with fossil fuel combustión lies in sulphur and nitrogen becoming converted to their respective oxides, forming part of the acid rain which deteriorates the environment and infrastructure. Removing sulphur from organo-sulfur compounds by using micro-organisms has become an alternative to hydrodesulphurisation (HDS. Twenty-three Pseudomonas spp. native strains' desulphurisation activity on dibenzothiophene (DBT was evaluated by using a fermentation system having equal proportions of aqueous and organic (n-hexane phases in the presence of ethanolamine oléate. The 02, 05 and 06 strains maintained their viability in this médium, presenting 6,0% to 9,4% sulphur removal, producing DBT-sulphone, DBT-sulphoxide, 2

  12. CaO对Pt/C催化硬脂酸脱羧反应性能的影响%Effect of CaO on decarboxylation of stearic acid over Pt/C catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡慧敏; 程乐明; 张荣; 毕继诚

    2013-01-01

    以硬脂酸(C17H35COOH)脱羧为探针反应,研究了亚临界水中CaO对Pt/C催化脱羧反应性能的影响.实验表明,CaO可以促进脱羧反应,对十七烷选择性没有影响.CaO/硬脂酸物质的量比为0.5时,在330℃反应1h,硬脂酸转化率由未添加CaO时的46.06%提高到66.99%.硬脂酸催化脱羧的最佳反应温度为350℃,高于这一温度时,烷基链上碳碳键断裂的副反应增加,导致十七烷选择性降低.亚临界水中硬脂酸脱羧反应符合一级动力学,建立的动力学方程可以较好地预测不同反应条件下十七烷的产率.根据实验结果推测,氧化钙与硬脂酸反应生成硬脂酸钙,催化剂表面的吸附态羧酸盐增加,从而提高了脱羧反应的速率.%The effects of CaO addition and temperature on decarboxylation of stearic acid over Pt/C catalyst in subcritical water were investigated.The conversion of stearic acid increased dramatically,while the selectivity to heptadecane hardly changed with the addition of CaO.At 330 ℃ the conversion of stearic acid reached a maximum with Ca/stearic mol ratio of 0.5.Moreover,Pt/C catalyzed decarboxylation of stearic acid in subcritical water exhibited first-order kinetics.It was proposed that dissociative stearic acid was adsorbed on Pt/C catalyst,forming surface octadecanoate species and adsorbed H.The C-C bond dissociated via H insertion,resulting in the formation of heptadecane and CO2.The addition of CaO promoted the dissociation of stearic acid.As a result,the amount of adsorbed octadecanoate increased and the reaction was accelerated.

  13. Heavy metals determination in aquatic species for food purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2001-02-01

    New analytical procedures and sample mineralizations are proposed regarding the determination of arsenic, selenium, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury in matrices involved in food chain as mussel, clams and fishes. As regards As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn determinations. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3} acidic mixture is used for the digestion is performed using a concentrated supra pure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} mixture and the results are compared with those from other conventional methods (DPASV) are employed for determining simultaneously selenium, arsenic and copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, respectively, while mercury determination is carried out by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The voltammetric measurements were performed using a conventional three-electrode cell and the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer (ph 9.3) as supporting electrolyte. For all the elements, in addition to the detection limits, precision and accuracy data are also reported: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (S{sub r}), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), are in all cases between 3 to 6%. [Italian] Viene proposta una nuova procedura analitica ed una nuova mineralizzazione del campione per la determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco e mercurio in matrici coinvolte nella catena alimentare come mitili e pesci. Per la determinazione di As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, le matrici sono state mineralizzate con una miscela acida H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}. Nel caso del Hg, la mineralizzazione del campione e' stata effettuata mediante una miscela H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ed i risultati confrontati con quelli ottenuti impiegando altri metodi convenzionali. Per la simultanea determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco, sono state impiegate la voltammetria differenziale pulsata catodica (DPCSV) ed anodica (DPASV), mentre il mercurio e

  14. Pérdidas Humanas y Económicas Causadas por el Vulcanismo en Costa Rica entre 1953 y 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez una aproximación integrada de los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas en el periodo comprendido entre los años 1953 y el 2005. El detalle de los daños en (puentes, casas, ferrocarril, fábricas, las pérdidas económicas (agricultura, ganadería, suministro de agua potable, interrupción de las actividades, pérdidas de vidas humanas y las inversiones (donaciones, medidas paliativas, se presenta en los correspondientes cuadros, los que se centran en los desastres y efectos económicos, sin embargo los efectos sociológicos y psicológicos no fueron evaluados. Tres emergencias nacionales se han producido, una debido a la erupción del Irazú en 1963-1965, la otra con el Arenal en 1968 y la del volcán Poás en 1990. Pero también varias crisis volcánicas ocurrieron en otros volcanes como el Poás (1953-1955, 1989-1994, Rincón de la Vieja (1967,1991, 1995 y 1998 y de nuevo en Arenal (1975, 1988 y 2000, que produjo las pérdidas económicas debidas a la lluvia acida y/o lahares, otras personas murieron debido a depósitos de flujos piroclásticos. La actividad volcánica es la responsable de al menos 48,7 millones dólares en el último siglo, cantidad que será necesaria escalar en un futuro estudio. En el presente siglo, el daño por la lluvia ácida es de más de $200 mil. Por el momento, se tiene certeza que 103 personas fueron muertas por la actividad volcánica en el siglo XX; no hay informes adicionales de muertes o personas heridas desde 1700. Este documento es la base para un trabajo futuro más centrado en la evaluación socioeconómica, el análisis del riesgo y su proyección hacia el futuro. Si una nueva erupción similar a la del Irazú en 1963-1965 o del Arenal en 1968, sucediera durante el presente siglo, las pérdidas económicas serán significativamente mayores que las anteriores.

  15. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  16. Aglomeración y lixiviación en lecho fijo de colas de proceso de flotación de cobre a escala de laboratorio: efecto del contenido de humedad en la aglomeración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera, C. A.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of moisture on the agglomeration of copper tailing material which could be processed by leaching in heaps in order to recover valuable metals, is evaluated. The efficiency of leaching performed in columns at laboratory scale was quantified as a function of moisture content in prepared agglomerates. Main hydrometallurgical variables, hydrodynamics, and hydrodispersive properties of agglomerates were obtained. Results indicate that samples agglomerated with a moisture close to 10 % exhibited the best copper recovery in the shortest time and presented the highest ore bed hydrodynamic properties for the flux of acid solution. The main conclusion is that moisture content is the key process variable, which shows an important effect on the efficiency of both the agglomeration and the leaching stages. Therefore, a careful control of this variable must be taking into account during the hydrometallurgical processing of copper tailings.

    Se evalúa el efecto que tiene el contenido de humedad de las colas (relaves, generadas en el proceso de flotación de minerales de cobre, en la fabricación de un material aglomerado apropiado para el proceso de lixiviación en pilas. Se cuantifica cómo varía la eficiencia de la lixiviación respecto de la humedad con que se fabrican los aglomerados, mediante la realización de pruebas de lixiviación en lecho fijo a escala de laboratorio, para distintas condiciones de humedad. Se determinaron las principales variables hidrometalúrgicas y las propiedades hidrodinámicas e hidrodispersivas de los aglomerados, y se observó que las muestras aglomeradas con un contenido de humedad cercano al 10 % presentaron la mayor recuperación de cobre, en el menor tiempo y con las mejores propiedades hidrodinámicas para el flujo de la solución acida. Se concluye que las condiciones de humedad tienen un importante efecto en la eficacia de la lixiviación por lo que se recomienda un mayor control de ella

  17. The Research of HPLC Fingerprint of Strychni Semen Ultrafine Powder%马钱子超微粉体HPLC指纹图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐正平; 杨蕙; 王宇红; 张秀丽; 韩远山

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立马钱子超微粉体的HPLC指纹图谱分析方法.方法 采用HPLC法测定,色谱柱C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈-0.2%甲酸溶液梯度程序洗脱;检测波长为254 nm,流速:1.0 mL/min,柱温为30℃,进样量为10μL.使用“中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统2004A版”软件计算处理.结果 所建立的指纹图谱测定系统,对马钱子超微粉分离良好,10批样品共匹配了12个共有峰,相似度>0.9.结论 该方法简便、快速,回收率高,精密度、稳定性和重复性好,为马钱子超微粉体的质量控制提供了方法.%Objective: To establish a fingerprint chromatogram for the evaluation of ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen by HPLC. Methods: The analysis was performed On a C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm) with acetonitrile-water (containing 0.2%formic acid)as the mobile phase at 1.0 mL·min-1,254 nm wave-length detector was adopted.The analysis at 30℃. The 12 mutual fingerprints of ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen were established using the similarity calculation software of Chinese herbal fingerprint. Results:The HPLC fingerprints of the active component preparation in ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen were obtained with very good resolution under the established chromatographic system. The quality of 10 batches of samples were assessed by comparing their chromato-graphic fingerprints with the reference fingerprints obtained at the same time,The similarity analysis was above 0.9. Conclusion: The methodis reliable, accurate and steady with good reproducibility, and is helpful in effectively controlling the quality of ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen.

  18. 氨甲环酸治疗黄褐斑的研究进展%Tranexamic acid for the treatment of chloasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟倩雅; 林彤

    2015-01-01

    黄褐斑是一种常见的获得性色素增加性疾病,病因复杂,多种治疗方法均可改善黄褐斑,但疗效差及复发是临床常见的难题.氨甲环酸是一种抗纤溶药物,在临床上广泛用于治疗各种出血性疾病,近年来许多研究证实其治疗黄褐斑安全、有效.口服小剂量氨甲环酸治疗黄褐斑,可单独用药,或联合其他口服、外用药及激光治疗.用药时间的长短与疗效相关,一般用药1~2个月开始起效,治疗时间越长,疗效越好.静脉用药与口服药疗效无明显差别,但起效更快.氨甲环酸外用治疗黄褐斑与赋形剂无明显差异,局部微针和显微注射氨甲环酸有显著疗效,以前者疗效更佳.%Chloasma is a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation with complex etiology.Although there are many different therapies for chloasma,poor response and recurrence remain common clinical problems.Tranexamic acid,a kind of antifibrinolytic agent,is widely used to treat various kinds of hemorrhagic diseases.Many recent studies have proved it to be effective and safe in the treatment of chloasma.Small doses of oral tranexamic acid,alone or in combination with other oral medicines,externally applied drugs and lasers,can be used to treat chloasma.The therapeutic effect of tranexamic acid is related to the duration of medication treatment.The onset of action of tranexamic acid often takes 1 to 2 months,and the longer the treatment course,the better the outcome.Intravenous tranexamic acid does not differ from oral tranexamic acid in therapeutic effect,but the former shows a more rapid onset of action than the latter.There is no significant difference in efficacy for chloasma between topical tranexamic acid and vehicles,while microneedle injection of tranexamic acid exerts better efficacy than microinjection of it.

  19. Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds in Red Rice Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%红米酒中多酚类化合物的高效液相色谱法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜莉; 王玉堂; 周元; 张强

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eleven polyphenolic compounds in red rice wine,they were separated by HPLC on a Venusil C18 (250 mm ×4.6 mm,φ5μm) column 30℃,Gradient elution was employed with a moble phase consisting of 50%acetonitrile and water,and add to 1 %acetic acid,a solvent flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and an injection volume of 20μL.Eleven polyphenolic compounds were identified at 260 nm and 320 nm.The method showed good linear correlations between the concentration and areas of the eleven components with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999 6,and were separated well in 45 min.The average recoveries were 88.6%-102.5%,with relative standard deviations of 0.76%-1.60%.The method can be applied to the rapid determination of polyphenolic compounds in red rice wine.%建立高效液相色谱同时测定红米酒中11种多酚类化合物的方法.采用Venusil C18色谱柱(250 mm × 4.6 mm,φ5μm)分离11种酚类物质,流动相为50 %乙腈和超纯水,分别加1 %乙酸,进样量20μL,采用梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长260、320 nm.各组分的质量浓度与其峰面积具有良好的线性关系,相关系数均大于0.999 6,且11种酚类物质在45 min内得到了较好分离.方法回收率在88.6%~102.5%之间,相对标准偏差为0.76%~1.60 %.本方法可用于红米酒中多酚类化合物的快速分析.

  20. 壳聚糖/二醋酸纤维素酯复合薄膜的制备%Synthesis of Composite Membrane of Chitosan/Cellulose Diacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱超; 姚铭; 张远方; 石红

    2011-01-01

    以香烟嘴棒制备过程废弃的二醋酸纤维素酯丝束和壳聚糖丝束为原料,制备了具有良好稳定性、环境友好、易降解的复合薄膜.探讨了溶解方法、溶剂浓度、干燥条件等对成膜质量的影响.对复合薄膜拉伸强度、断裂伸长率、吸水性进行了表征.结果表明:共混液配制以壳聚糖和二醋酸纤维素酯交替溶入醋酸溶液,并辅以超声混合助溶为佳;共混液流延成膜,用沉淀剂处理并在10~30℃下干燥成膜效果较好.与纯壳聚糖膜相比,随着二醋酸纤维素酯含量的增加,复合薄膜的断裂伸长率逐渐增大,在二醋酸纤维素酯和壳聚糖质量比为3∶1时,最大断裂伸长率比纯壳聚糖膜高7.85%.%Used the cellulose diacetate and chitosan as material,to make the composite mem-brane which had the features of good stability,environmental friendliness,easy degradation.Ex-plored the influence of dissolving method,solvent concentration,drying conditions on membrane quality.Described the tensile-strength,breaking elongation,water imbibition of the composite membrane.The results showed that preparation was good with chitosan and cellulose diacetate in turns dissolved into acetic acid,as well as supersonic assisting;the blending liquid flowed to be membrane,and the quality of membrane was good with 10~30℃ drying and precipitator treatment.Compared with chitosan membrane,as the increase of cellulose diacetate,the breaking elongation of composite membrane gradually increased.When the mass ratio of cellulose diacetate to chitosan was 3∶1,the biggest breaking elongation of composite membrane was 7.85% higher than that of chitosan membrane.

  1. GABA(A) receptors on calbindin-immunoreactive myenteric neurons of guinea pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Galligan, J J

    2000-01-14

    These studies were carried out to characterize the properties of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptors on guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons maintained in primary culture. In addition, the type of neuron expressing GABA(A) receptors was identified using immunohistochemical methods. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of currents elicited by GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained using pipettes containing Neurobiotin. After electrophysiological studies, neurons were processed for localization of calbindin-D28K-immunoreactivity (calbindin-ir). GABA (1 mM) and ACh (3 mM) caused inward currents in most cells tested. GABA currents were mimicked by muscimol (1-300 microM) and were blocked by bicuculline (10 microM) indicating that GABA was acting at GABA(A) receptors. GABA currents were associated with a conductance increase and a linear current/voltage relationship with a reversal potential of 1 +/- 1 mV (n = 5). Pentobarbital (PB, 3-1000 microM) and diazepam (DZP, 0.01-10 microM) potentiated GABA-induced currents. A maximum concentration of DZP (1 microM) increased GABA-induced currents 3.1 +/- 0.3 times while PB (1000 microM) increased GABA currents by 11 +/- 2 times. In outside-out patches, the amplitude of GABA-activated single-channel currents was linearly related to membrane potential with a single-channel conductance of 28.5 + 0.5 pS (n = 10). PB and DZP increased the open probability of GABA-induced single-channel currents. Neurons containing calbindin-ir were large, were isolated from other neurons and had GABA current amplitudes of -3.4 +/- 0.3 nA (n = 48). Neurons with weak or absent calbindin-ir were smaller, were localized in clusters of cells and had GABA-induced current amplitudes of -0.6 +/- 0.1 nA (n = 20). ACh-induced currents were smaller in calbindin-ir neurons (-0.7 +/- 0.1 nA) compared to weakly calbindin-ir neurons (-1.4 +/- 0.1 nA). These results indicate that myenteric calbindin-ir neurons express a high density of GABA

  2. Anterograde Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  3. Efecto de la serpentina en la formación de fases mineralógicas y su relación con la resistencia mecánica en sinterizados de mineral de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, E.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructures formed by serpentine addition on mechanical strength is investigated. It was found that the microstructure formed depends mainly on firing temperature, basicity and serpentine percent. The mineralogical phases present were quantified by the point-count method. The addition of serpentine on acid briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 0.3, mainly on those fired at 1,275, 1,300 and 1,325 °C, leads to the formation of magnesio-ferrite that diminishes the mechanical strength of fired briquettes, and at the temperature of 1,250 °C the mechanical strength decreases because of the presence of glassy slags. On the other hand, the addition of serpentine on basic briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 1.2 leads to the formation of olivines and ferrites that improve the mechanical strength of fired briquettes.

    Se estudia la influencia de las microestructuras formadas sobre la resistencia mecánica de mineral de hierro aglomerado con serpentina. Se deduce que la microestructura formada depende de la temperatura de sinterización, de la basicidad y del valor porcentual de serpentina, principalmente. Las fases mineralógicas presentes se cuantificaron utilizando la técnica de conteo por puntos. En briquetas acidas (CaO/SiO2 = 0,3 sinterizadas a 1.275, 1.300 y 1.325 °C, se encontró que la serpentina induce la formación de magnesio-ferritas que traen, como consecuencia, una disminución de la resistencia mecánica, mientras que, a la temperatura de sinterización de 1.250 °C, la aparición de escorias vítreas es la causa principal de la disminución de resistencia. En el caso de briquetas básicas (CaO/SiO2 = 1,2, la adición de serpentina produce la formación de olivinas y calcio-ferritas que originan un aumento de la resistencia mecánica de los sinterizados.

  4. Research and development of hydrogen and fuel cells technology at the IIE; Investigacion y desarrollo de tecnologia de hidrogeno y celdas de combustible en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano C, Ulises; Arriaga H, Gerardo; Romero C, T; Medrano V, M. Consolacion; Gonzalez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    D relacionados con celdas de combustible iniciaron a partir de estudios basicos electroquimicos de electrodos de platino sobre carbon vitreo en soluciones acidas, para determinar parametros cineticos y propiedades estructurales. Puesto que los principales componentes de las celdas PEM definen en gran medida el costo de la tecnologia, otros esfuerzos adicionales ligados a estudios basicos para el desarrollo de componentes como placas bipolares, estan descritos por el mismo autor en el 2001. Otros trabajos sobre investigacion basica estan ligados a la repuesta de monoceldas de combustible a diferentes condiciones de operacion, y que tambien se revisaran en este articulo.

  5. Development and Appl ication of Continuous Packing-tower Surface Fermentation Device%填料塔式连续表面发酵装置的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅亮; 陈宇哲; 彭英

    2014-01-01

    The research developed a kind of continuous packing-tower surface fermentation device,in which the RF4 Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain fermented the broth with ethanol into acetic acid.A comparison of total acidity and ADH enzyme activity of fermentation broth in continuous packing-tower sur-face fermentation device and static flask by single-batch fermentation and fed-batch fermentation is made.The results show that the ADH enzyme activity of fermentation broth reaches to 4.13 × 10-3 U/g and the total acidity peaks to 7.07 g/dL on the 13th day by fed-batch fermentation in contin-uous packing-tower surface fermentation device,whose total acidity increased by 1 3% and the fermen-tation time shortened by 1 5% compared with static fed-batch fermentation.The total acidity increased by 7 1% compared with static single-batch fermentation.%研制了一种填料塔式连续发酵装置,以木醋杆菌(Gluconacetobacter xylinus )RF4为菌种,用含乙醇培养液进行醋酸发酵。比较了该填料表面发酵装置与静置三角瓶各自进行单批和分批发酵的产酸和乙醇脱氢酶的活力。结果表明:在连续填料发酵装置中进行分批补料发酵,发酵液中的乙醇脱氢酶活力为4.13×10-3 U/g,总酸度在第13天达到峰值7.07 g/dL。比静置分批补料发酵酸度提高13%,时间缩短15%,比静置单批发酵酸度提高71%。

  6. RP-HPLC法测定莽吉柿果皮中3个氧杂蒽酮类化合物的含量%RP-HPLC determination of 3 xanthones content in mangosteen fruit skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶静; 肖美添; 张学勤; 黄雅燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立一种莽吉柿果皮中3个氧杂蒽酮类化合物的RP-HPLC含量测定方法.方法:色谱柱为Waters XTerra RP18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),以水-0.5%醋酸(A)、甲醇-0.5%乙酸(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为317 nm,柱温为30℃.结果:3-异倒捻子素、α-倒捻子素、β-倒捻子素浓度分别在21.3~213,107.7~1077,10.6 ~106μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.9991);平均回收率分别为102.6%,98.5%,103.5%,RSD分别为1.7%,1.2%,2.0%(n=6).结论:所建立的方法便捷、准确,重复性好,可以为莽吉柿果皮的质量控制提供一定的参考.%Objective:To establish an HPLC method of the determination of 3 xanthones content in mangosteen fruit skin. Methods:The content of 3 xanthones were determined by Waters XTerra RP18(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm) column,the mobile phase consisted of water -0. 5% acetic acid(A) and methanol -0.5% acetic acid(B) with gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL o min-1,the detection wavelength was 317 nm.and the temperature of column was 30 ℃. Results:The calibration curves of 3-isomangostin, α-mangostin,β-mangostin were linear in the ranges of 21. 3 -213,107.7-1077,10.6-106 (μg · mL-1(r≥ 0.9991),respectively. The average recoveries of3 xanthones were 102. 6% ,98. 5% , 103. 5% and RSDs(n=6) were 1. 7% , 1. 2% ,2. 0% .respectively. Conclusion:The method is easy, sensitive, specific, and accurate with good reproducibility. It can be used for quality control of mangosteen fruit skin.

  7. Energy value as a factor of agroforestry wood species selectivity in Akinyele and Ido local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erakhrumen, A.A. [Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2009-10-15

    Wood usage for cooking and heating is still very relevant in most developing countries especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia. Therefore, sustainable means of generating it for this and other purposes are necessary bearing in mind the influence of indigenous knowledge/users' perspective on any production method regarding success and sustenance. In conformity with this view, questionnaires were administered on 240 respondents in 8 rural communities of Akinyele and Ido Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria, to elicit information on species that can be used as fuelwood, preferred by the respondents for incorporation into and/or retention in agroforestry plots, out of which 179 (i.e. 75% of the total number of questionnaires administered) were successfully retrieved for statistical analyses. Twelve woody species namely: Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Bridelia ferruginea, Daniellia oliveri, Detarium microcarpum, Gardenia ternifolia, Hymenocardia acida, Lophira lanceolata, Parkia biglobosa, Terminalia avicennioides, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Vitellaria paradoxa were prioritized on the basis of respondents' preference using a ranking pattern. Friedman chi-square analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the ranking pattern of the respondents from the two LGAs. The mean net calorific values (NCV) of the 12 species were found to be 17.71, 18.63, 18.04, 16.03, 17.67, 18.46, 19.00, 21.68, 19.63, 18.25, 14.65, and 19.47 MJ kg{sup -1} respectively. The result of a two-way analysis of variance indicated a significant variation (p < 0.05) in NCV data for all the species pooled together but not for each species except for D. oliveri with a follow-up test using Fisher's Least Significant Difference. The Pearson's moment correlation analysis gave positive coefficient values (r = 0.868 and 0.874, p < 0.05) between NCV and the cumulative ranking values in Akinyele and Ido LGAs

  8. Renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gases within the framework of the Kyoto protocol; Energias renovables y reduccion de gases invernadero en el marco del protocolo de Kioto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Castellanos, Carolina [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The modern societies face diverse environmental problems among which appear the air pollution, the deterioration of seas and coasts, the acidification of soils, acid rain and the climatic change, phenomena, all of them, related in greater or smaller degree to the conventional practices of production and consumption of energy. Specifically, the climatic change puts in risk the well-being of the future generations, and even, the future of the life in the planet. Although uncertainty around the possible repercussions of this phenomenon exists, one knows that one of its main sources is burning of fossil fuels, when affecting the increase of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, in spite of the achievement that represents the creation of an instrument so sophisticated as the commonly denominated Kyoto Protocol, reluctance on part of some developed countries exists to ratify it and assume their commitments, and in the last session of the Conference of the Parts, (COP-6), celebrated at The Hague, Holland, it was not managed to consolidate to put in action the mechanisms that Kyoto establishes. [Spanish] Las sociedades modernas enfrentan diversos problemas ambientales entre los que figuran la contaminacion del aire, el deterioro de mares y costas, la acidificacion de suelos, la lluvia acida y el cambio climatico, fenomenos, todos ellos, relacionados en mayor o menor medida con las practicas convencionales de produccion y consumo de energia. De manera especifica, el cambio climatico pone en riesgo el bienestar de las futuras generaciones, e incluso, el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Si bien existe incertidumbre en torno a las posibles repercusiones de este fenomeno, se sabe que una de sus principales fuentes es la quema de combustibles fosiles, al incidir en el aumento en las concentraciones atmosfericas de gases invernadero. No obstante, pese al logro que representa la creacion de un instrumento tan sofisticado como el comunmente denominado

  9. Comparison of energy expenditure and closed-loop performance of thermal and reactive distillation sequences coupled for biodiesel production; Comparacion de gasto energetico y desempeno a lazo cerrado de secuencias de destilacion reactiva y termicamente acopladas para produccion de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Jacob, J.L [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Vazquez-Ojeda, M; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G; Hernandez, S [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Biodiesel is the common name for fatty acid methyl esters, obtained by esterification (basic catalysis) or trans-esterification (acid catalysis) of vegetable or animal oils with alcohols, and used as liquid fuel. Production involves the reaction, under mild conditions, between the oil and, typically, excess of methanol. Traditional production of biodiesel exhibits some handicaps, such as the shift of equilibrium to fatty acids by using excess of alcohol that must be separated and recycled. As alternative, it is possible to integrate reaction/separation operations into a single intensified unit, a reactive distillation column, followed by a second separation unit. These configurations exhibit several advantages such as shifting equilibrium in the reactive region and, because of the thermal integration with the second unit, energy savings during products separation. In order to design these production sequences taking advantage of steady state knowledge (energy savings) and considering dynamic performance, this work performs a controllability analysis for six possible configurations; open-loop control properties, evaluated by single value decomposition, are probed by implementing PI controllers to the system. The reactive distillation column coupled to a stripper, without reboilers, shows to be the best option in terms of closed-loop performance and energy savings. [Spanish] Biodiesel es el nombre comun dado a metil esteres de acidos grasos obtenidos por esterificacion (catalisis basica) o trans-esterificacion (catalisis acida) de aceites animales o vegetales con alcoholes, y usados como combustibles liquidos. Su produccion involucra la reaccion entre el aceite y, tipicamente, exceso de metanol a condiciones moderadas. La produccion tradicional de biodiesel exhibe algunas desventajas como el desplazamiento del equilibrio hacia acidos grasos debido al exceso de alcohol, que debe ser separado y reciclado. Alternativamente, es posible integrar las operaciones reaccion

  10. The role of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in the NTS in mediating three distinct sympathoinhibitory reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Daniela M; Verberne, Anthony J M

    2007-12-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) elicits a sympathetic vasomotor reflex that is implicated in gastrointestinal circulatory control. We sought to determine (1) the site in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) responsible for mediating this reflex and (2) the possible involvement of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In addition, we sought to determine whether the NTS site responsible for mediating the baroreflex (phenylephrine, PE, 10 microg/kg i.v.) and the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex (phenylbiguanide, PBG, 10 microg/kg i.v) overlap with that involved in the CCK-induced reflex (CCK, 4 microg/kg, i.v.), and to compare the relative importance of NMDA and non-NDMA receptors in these reflexes. In separate experiments, the effects of PE, PBG, and CCK on mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge were tested before and after bilateral microinjection into the NTS of the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) agonist muscimol, the EAA antagonist kynurenate, the NMDA receptor antagonist D: (-)-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP-5), the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), AP-5 + NBQX, or vehicle. While all treatments (except vehicle) significantly attenuated/abolished/reversed the splanchnic sympathoinhibitory responses to PE, PBG, and CCK, the extent of blockade varied between the different treatment groups. Both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors were essential to the baroreflex and the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex, whereas the CCK reflex was more dependent on non-NMDA receptors. Muscimol, kynurenate, and AP-5 + NBQX significantly attenuated the bradycardic responses to PE and PBG (P NTS responsible for eliciting all three reflexes, NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are recruited differentially for the full expression of these reflexes. The CCK-induced sympathoinhibitory reflex is unique in that it relies predominantly on non-NMDA receptors in the NTS and elicits bradycardic effects that

  11. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in biosolids from urban origin; Concentracion total y especiacion de metales pesados en biosolidos de origen urbano origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Flores, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: egonz1962@yahoo.com.mx; Tornero Campante, Mario Alberto [Colegio de Postgraduados - Campus Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Angeles Cruz, Yolanda [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bonilla y Fernandez, Noemi [Departamento de Agroecologia y Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias - Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    . El objetivo fue determinar las concentraciones en las fracciones biodisponibles. Se obtuvieron las concentraciones totales de metales pesados por medio de una digestion acida en sistema cerrado y fueron determinadas por espectrofotometria de absorcion atomica. Las concentraciones totales fueron mas bajas que los niveles maximos permisibles establecidos por la legislacion mexicana. Los metales pesados estan asociados principalmente a la fraccion mineral y a la materia organica y consecuentemente muestran muy baja biodisponibilidad.

  12. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1794 the German physicist Chladni published a small book in which he suggested the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. The response was skepticism and disbelief. Only after additional witnessed falls of meteorites did scientists begin to consider Chladni's hypothesis seriously. The first chemical analyses of meteorites were published by the English chemist Howard in 1802, and shortly afterwards by Klaproth, a professor of chemistry in Berlin. These early investigations led to the important conclusion that meteorites contained the same elements that were known from analyses of terrestrial rocks. By the year 1850, 18 elements had been identified in meteorites: carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and tin (Burke, 1986). A popular hypothesis, which arose after the discovery of the first asteroid Ceres on January 1, 1801 by Piazzi, held that meteorites came from a single disrupted planet between Mars and Jupiter. In 1847 the French geologist Boisse (1810-1896) proposed an elaborate model that attempted to account for all known types of meteorites from a single planet. He envisioned a planet with layers in sequence of decreasing densities from the center to the surface. The core of the planet consisted of metallic iron surrounded by a mixed iron-olivine zone. The region overlying the core contained material similar to stony meteorites with ferromagnesian silicates and disseminated grains of metal gradually extending into shallower layers with aluminous silicates and less iron. The uppermost layer consisted of metal-free stony meteorites, i.e., eucrites or meteoritic basalts. About 20 years later, Daubrée (1814-1896) carried out experiments by melting and cooling meteorites. On the basis of his results, he came to similar conclusions as Boisse, namely that meteorites come from a single, differentiated planet with a metal core, a silicate mantle

  13. A HIRES Detection of NA I D Absorption in the Spectrum of the QSO PKS 2020-370 Due to the Galaxy Klemola 31A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, V. T.; Barlow, T. A.

    1994-12-01

    By using the Keck telescope and HIRES spectrograph we have detected Na I D absorption lines in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 2020-370 (V = 17.5, z = 1.048) due to the galaxy Klemola 31A (z = 0.0288). The PKS 2020-370 line of sight is near an apparent spiral arm only 20" from the nucleus of Klemola 31A which corresponds to 17 kpc (H_o = 50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) ). The spectrum of PKS 2020-370 has strong Ca II absorption lines (W_λ ~ 350 m Angstroms \\ for the K line) at the galaxy redshift (Boksenberg et al, 1980, ApJ, 242, L145), but previous attempts to detect Na I have resulted in upper limits (Boisse et al. 1988, A&A, 191, 193, Womble, 1992, thesis UCSD). We observed PKS 2020-370 with HIRES in May 1994 at a resolution of 8 km s(-1) FWHM for a total of 90 minutes. The Na I D doublet is detected with a total W_λ for the Na I 5891.6 Angstroms \\ (vac) absorption line of about 160 m Angstroms . The absorption appears as two main velocity components separated by 23 km s(-1) . The optically thin estimate for N(Na I) = 1.0 times 10(12) cm(-2) gives an estimated N(Ca II)/N(Na I) = 5. This value suggests that the gas in Klemola 31A along the QSO line of sight is ``halo like''. Along ``disk like'' lines of sight where Ca is thought to be depleted onto grains in our Galaxy, the N(Ca II)/N(Na I) ratio is usually small (Ca II)/N(Na I) ratios when the line of sight intersects starlight at 25 mag per sq. arcsec (Womble, 1992 thesis UCSD). The PKS 2020-370 sightline is near the optical extent of Klemola 31A but the N(Ca II)/N(Na I) is consistent with the sightline passing through two clouds in the halo. This research has been supported in part by NASA NAS5--29293 and NAG5--1630.

  14. El pinsapo, abeto endémico andaluz. O, ¿Qué hace un tipo como tú en un sitio como éste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Linares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El pinsapo (Abies pinsapo, Boiss. es un abeto, relicto del Terciario, endémico de tres sierras de las provincias de Málaga (Sierra de las Nieves, Sierra Bermeja y Cádiz (Sierra de Grazalema, en la zona occidental de las Cordilleras Béticas. Se distribuye entre 1000 y 1700 m de altitud, ocupando poco más de 2000 Ha, siempre en laderas umbrías con orientación norte, donde recibe abundante precipitación orográfica (desde 1000 hasta incluso 3000 mm anuales. En la franja basal de su distribución forma bosques mixtos con encinas, quejigos e incluso alcornoques; mientras que, en bandas altitudinales más elevadas, tiende a formar bosques puros, los pinsapares, cuya fisiognomía asemeja la de un bosque de coníferas templado-boreal, a pesar de encontrarse inmersos en una región de clima Mediterráneo. La excepcionalidad y singularidad biogeográfica del pinsapo, compartida con la del resto del grupo de abetos circum-mediterráneos, deriva de una extraordinaria concatenación de eventos que incluye el levantamiento de cordilleras costeras con el choque de las placas tectónicas eurosiberiana y africana, la progresiva aridificación del clima en la cuenca mediterránea que se inicia a mediados del Mioceno, seguida de la alternancia de periodos glaciares y de calentamiento climático interglaciar durante el Cuaternario; y de la existencia, entre tantos avatares que jugaban en su contra, de refugios locales que permitieron su pervivencia como especie relicta. Como resultado de su singularidad biogeográfica, los pinsapares constituyen islas de biodiversidad, con numerosas especies asociadas, tanto de plantas como de animales, muchas de ellas también endémicas. Asimismo, representan un modelo excepcional para el seguimiento de síntomas tempranos del calentamiento climático.

  15. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae family, which has been used in traditional medicine of Iran as anti vaginal infection, anti-sinusitis, sedative, and anti-inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Results showed that a total of 39 components have been identified in the plant sampl oil, representing 81% of the total oil and β-pinene (19.88%, guaiol (8%, shyobunone (6.96%, delta-cadinene (4.65%, α-pinene (3.16 %, β-phellandrene (3.28% and myrtenol (2.8%, were the main essential oil composition, respectively. The results from antibacterial screening (Table 2, were showed that C. albicans (25.2 ± 1.6, Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.6 ± 0.7 mm, Staphylococcus aureus (21.3 ± 0.2 mm, Escherichia coli (16.5 ± 0.8 mm, Bacillus cereus (19.5 ± 0.1 mm, Enterococcus faecalis (17.2 ± 0.8 mm and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ( 17.8 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone and MIC (35.4-112 μg/ml were the most sensitive pathogenes to the plant extract respectively, which followed Shigella (12.3 ± 0.3 mm and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.5 ± 0.2 mm were found to be moderate sensitive bacteria and then the Salmonella typhymorium which completely was resistant to plant root extract. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be concluded that the extract of F. gummosa L. have suitable antimicrobial and anti-Candidacies activity, which can be

  16. 铁线莲属黄花铁线莲组修订%A revision of Clematis sect. Meclatis (Ranunculaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采

    2006-01-01

    Clematis sect. Meclatis is revised in this paper. Brief taxonomic history and geographical distribution of the section are given, its systematic position and the relationships among the species are discussed, and the evolutionary trends of some characters in the section are evaluated. Clematis akebioides (Maxim.) Veitch and C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. are considered the primitive species in the section, whereas C. caudigera W. T. Wang and C. corniculata W. T. Wang are considered the advanced ones. The western edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau with the Pamirs and the adjacent mountains, the highest land mass in the world, where 10 species of the section are concentrated, is regarded as the distribution center, and the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau, where the two primitive species, C. akebioides and C. tangutica, sympatrically occur, may be the center of origin of the section. The inclusion of C. ispahanica Boiss. and C. graveolens Lindl. in sect. Meclatis by some authors is not accepted, with the former being a member of sect. Clematis, and the latter a member of sect. Brachiatae Snoeijer. A new variety, C. intricata Bunge var. intrapuberula W. T. Wang, is described, and two new combinations, C. tangutica var. mongolica (Grey-Wilson) W. T. Wang and C. tibetana Kuntze var. pamiralaica (Grey-Wilson) W. T. Wang, is proposed. As a result, 13 species and 13 varieties are recognized in sect. Meclatis. They are keyed, described, and illustrated.%对毛茛科铁线莲属Clematis的黄花铁线莲组sect. Meclatis进行了全面修订, 确定此属含13种和13变种(包括1新变种和2新变种等级);写出了此组的分类学简史和地理分布, 并对其在铁线莲属中的系统位置和组内诸种的亲缘关系进行了讨论;还写出了此组的分种、分变种检索表, 以及各种植物的形态描述、地理分布、生长环境等, 并附有各种的插图.此组的花构造与对枝铁线莲组sect. Brachiatae

  17. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  18. Determining the optimal dose of Fenton reagent in a leachate treatment by Fenton-adsorption; Determinacion de la dosis optima de reactivo Fenton en un tratamiento de lixiviados por Fenton-adsorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Novelo, Roger Ivan; Pietrogiovanna Bronca, Jose Alfredo; Santos Ocampo, Beatriz; Sauri Riancho, Maria Rosa; Giacoman Vallejos, German; Castillo Borges, Elba Rene [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Ingenieria, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)]. E-mail: mnovelo@uady.mx

    2010-07-01

    tipo Fenton-adsorcion con el que se obtuvieron mejores resultados que con otros tratamientos fisicoquimicos o biologicos reportados en la literatura. El proceso Fenton consiste en tratar la carga contaminante con una combinacion de H{sub 2}O{sub 2} y FeSO4 en condiciones acidas. Se evaluo si la filtracion de los lodos producidos durante el proceso Fenton es un proceso mas eficiente que la sedimentacion. Se determino el tiempo de contacto optimo de la oxidacion Fenton, asi como la dosis optima de los reactivos usados en funcion de la DQO del lixiviado, mediante la determinacion de las mejores relaciones [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]. Despues de optimizar el proceso, se filtraron las muestras oxidadas y se ensayo la adsorcion mediante columnas empacadas con carbon activado granular. Se concluyo que el lodo generado por el proceso Fenton se remueve mas eficientemente mediante filtracion que por sedimentacion. Los tiempos de contacto optimos fueron de 5 min para la remocion de la DQO y una hora para la remocion de color, tiempo elegido para proteger el carbon activado. Las mejores relaciones para [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] fueron 0.6 y 9, respectivamente. La eficiencia maxima de remocion despues del proceso de adsorcion fue de 98.9 % para la DQO y 100 % para el color. El indice de biodegradabilidad final alcanzado despues de las pruebas de Fenton-adsorcion fue de 0.24.

  19. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of polystyrene membranes for use in fuel cells; Sintesis y evaluacion de membranas base poliestireno para uso en celdas a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)] e-mail: robertob@ciqa.mx; Paula, M.M.S.; Da Silva, L.; Fiori, M.; Coronetti, J.C.; Silvano, W.F. [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); B.M. Huerta [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    DSC), nivel de entrecruzamiento mediante % Gel y funcion acida mediante titulacion con hidroxido de sodio. Los espectros IR de las membranas antes de sulfonar muestran la existencia de bandas tradicionales de los polimeros utilizados con dos senales de los homopolimeros que se pierden y dos nuevas que aparecen, corroborando las reacciones de copolimerizacion. La termogravimetria muestra una temperatura de descomposicion mayor para las membranas entrecruzadas con el DVB, mientras que el DSC no es muy util para observar transiciones debido a la higroscopicidad de las membranas. Finalmente, el porcentaje de gel esta efectivamente relacionado con la cantidad de DVB utilizado y la acidez de las membranas es mayor con el contenido de acido acrilico, con el tiempo de sulfonacion y el porcentaje de DVB; aunque este valor depende mucho de la facilidad de solubilizar el material. Las propiedades ionicas de las membranas con mejores propiedades mecanicas fueron evaluadas en un prototipo de celda a combustible.

  1. Lactic acid production by L. curvatus in sugarcane molasses/ Produção de ácido lático por Lactobacillus curvatus em melaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is important due to its various applications. The bulk of world lactic acid production is used by the food industry and the rest is used in pharmaceutical, textile, leather, cosmetic and chemical industries. In this work, a 33 incomplete factorial design of the response-surface methodology was used to determine the best concentration of sugarcane molasses, yeast extract and peptone in the culture medium for the development of batch lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus curvatus. The fermentation was carried out at 37 ºC for 48 hours without agitation. The mathematical model given by the responsesurface methodology indicated a concentration of 10% (w/v of sugarcane molasses, 2% (w/v of yeast extract and 4% (w/v of peptone as the best conditions for the composition of culture medium for the lactic acid production by L. curvatus. Under these conditions, lactic acid production was 30,5 g/L, comparable with the result obtained in MRS medium, which produced 32,0g/L of lactic acid. Considering the low cost and high availability of the sugarcane molasses, it was concluded that it represented a good culture medium for lactic fermentation. Sugarcane molasses at 10% (w/v supplemented with yeast extract at 2% (w/v and peptone at 4% (w/v was used in the 3L batch lactic fermentation producing 37,5g/L of lactic acid.A maior parte da produção mundial de ácido lático é utilizada pela indústria de alimentos e o restante em indústrias farmacêutica, têxtil, de couro, cosmética e química. A Metodologia da Superfície de Resposta, planejamento fatorial incompleto 33, foi utilizada para estabelecer as melhores condições, relativas às concentrações, do meio de cultivo contendo melaço de cana-de-açúcar, extrato de levedura e peptona para desenvolvimento da fermentação descontínua por Lactobacillus curvatus. A fermentação se desenvolveu durante 48 horas sob temperatura de 37 ºC. O modelo matemático fornecido pela Metodologia da

  2. Effect of Auxin on Al-Induced Malic Acid Efflux in Wheat with Differential Al Tolerance%生长素对铝胁迫下不同耐铝性小麦根苹果酸分泌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨野; 王巧兰; 耿明建; 郭再华; 赵竹青

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究Indole-3-acetic acid(IAA)对铝胁迫下小麦根苹果酸分泌的影响,探讨不同耐铝性小麦品种间苹果酸分泌差异机理.[方法]采用溶液培养的方法,以不同耐铝性小麦品种为材料(ET8,耐铝型和ES8,铝敏感型),研究IAA、N-1-napthyl-phtalamic acid(NPA)、2,3,5-triiodobenzoic(TIBA)、Anthracene-9carboxylic acid(A9C)及Niflumic acid(NIF)对ET8和ES8苹果酸分泌的影响.[结果]ET8和ES8经不同浓度IAA(0、25、50和100 μmol·L-1)处理,苹果酸分泌速率均无显著差异;而当ET8和ES8经50μmol·L-1 Al处理3 h后,无铝条件下,再经不同浓度IAA处理,ET8苹果酸分泌速率随IAA浓度的升高而显著升高,ES8苹果酸分泌速率却无显著变化;与Al(50μmol·L-1)处理相比,BT8经IAA(50、100μmol·L-1)和50 μml·L-1 Al共处理,苹果酸分泌速率显著升高,但ES8经IAA(25、50μmol·L-1)和 50μmpl·L-1 Al共处理,苹果酸分泌速率均无显著变化;与Al(50μmol·L-1)处理相比,ET8和ES8经IAA转运抑制剂NPA(TIBA)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理,苹果酸分泌速率显著降低,以上结果表明,IAA参与调节铝胁迫下苹果酸分泌.与AI(50μmol·L-1)处理相比,ET8和ES8经50μmol·L-1 A9C(NIF)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理,苹果酸分泌显著降低;与5μmol·L-1 A9C(NIF)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理相比,ET8和ES8经不同浓度IAA、5μmol·L-1 A9C(NIF)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理,苹果酸分泌速率随IAA浓度升高而显著升高,表明IAA可能通过调节阴离子通道参与铝胁迫下小麦根苹果酸分泌.[结论]只有在Al激活苹果酸分泌后,IAA才能增加耐铝型小麦品种分泌苹果酸,不同耐铝性小麦品种苹果酸分泌的显著差异与IAA对不同耐铝性小麦品种苹果酸分泌调节作用的差异有关.

  3. Research on the Technology of Producing CaF2 with Fluoride Sludge and Fluoride Sulfuric Acid%用含氟污泥和含氟硫酸生产氟化钙的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明; 马小华

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride sludge generated in the process of treating F -containing wastewater by lime chemical sediment , and much waste liquid generated in the other process of decomposing tantalum and niobium ore , which was fluoride sulfuric acid.A new technology that producing CaF 2 with fluoride sludge and fluoride sulfuric acid was studied , which included five processes of the atmospheric distillation , the first acidification , precipitation transformation , secondary acidification and drying calcination.There was no secondary pollution to environment that caused by waste water , waste gas and waste residue.What's more, the process was simple and easy to control , and the quality of CaF 2 had completely met the requirement of enterprises that producing hydrofluoric acid with fluorite.The yield of CaF 2 and the mass fraction was greater than 97%and 91%respectively , meanwhile , the mass fraction of silicon dioxide was lesser than 1.0%.Not only much load of treating F -containing wastewater tremendously reduced , but also solved the fluoride sludge covering problem and the secondary pollution for the underground water which caused by fluoride sludge deposited in the open air , and fluorine got fully recycling of resources.%含氟污泥,指的是用石灰化学沉淀法处理含氟废水后产生的底泥。含氟硫酸,指的是分解钽、铌矿石后排出的废液。研究了以含氟污泥和含氟硫酸为原料生产氟化钙的新工艺。该工艺由常压蒸馏、一次酸化、沉淀转化、二次酸化和烘干煅烧五个工序组成。工艺流程简单,生产易于控制。工艺过程中没有废水、废气和废渣对环境的二次污染。产品氟化钙的收率可达97%以上,氟化钙的质量分数在91%以上,二氧化硅的质量分数在1.0%以下。产品的质量完全可以满足生产氢氟酸等以萤石作原料的企业的要求。该工艺不但减轻了生产钽、铌企业处理含氟废水的负荷,而且有效的解

  4. Deposition of elements in a beechwood in the Central Apennines (National Park of Abruzzo) and their interaction with the crowns; Deposizione di elementi in una faggeta del parco Nazionale d`Abruzzo ed interazione chimica con le chiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talone, F.; Bussotti, F.; Grossoni, P. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Biologia Vegetale, lab. Botanica Applicata e Forestale

    1998-03-01

    precipitazioni avviene anche durante l`inverno, grazie ai rametti. Il passaggio attraverso le chiome svolge un`azione di neutralizzazione delle precipitazioni. Le concentrazioni di elementi nelle deposizioni in area aperta seguono, sia pure con concentrazioni inferiori, lo stesso andamento delle deposizioni sottochioma, testimoniando in tal modo che l`influenza del bosco si estende oltre i propri confini. L`acqua di scorrimento lungo il fusto e` sempre piu` acida delle precipitazioni in area aperta ed e` anche molto abbondante; in tal modo vengono convogliate al piede della pianta grandi quantita` di elementi e puo` svolgersi una potenziale azione di acidificazione. E` stato evidenziato l`apporto di sale marino, di cui viene ipotizzato un possibile impatto sull`ecosistema. Le deposizioni di elementi antropici quali zolfo e azoto sono invece risultate assai limitate, lontane sia dai carichi critici che da quelle rilevate in altre aree forestali italiane.

  5. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  6. Fifteen years of seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field; Quince anos de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prieto, Irais; Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    -5000, con tres canales de registro (N-S, E-W y vertical); esta fue la base para el desarrollo de un programa de correcciones a los datos de tiempo de arribo de las ondas P y S por deriva de los instrumentos. En los periodos enero-abril de 1994 y mayo-agosto de 1995 se registraron 170 eventos sismicos, con lo que se propuso un modelo de velocidades, y de diciembre de 1995 a julio de 1996 se realizo un procesado e interpretacion de datos sismicos, definiendo las zonas de ocurrencia de eventos de acuerdo a sus magnitudes y caracterizando el ruido predominante en el campo. Entre septiembre de 2003 y diciembre de 2004 se instalaron diez estaciones sismicas (temporales y permanentes) cuyo monitoreo permitio concluir que el sistema de fallas mas activo era el de El Volcan. De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se llevo a cabo un monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13, lograndose definir dos zonas sismicas de importancia asociadas al sistema de fallas El Volcan y al pozo inyector LV-8 y concluyendose que existia un aumento de la actividad sismica despues de la induccion de los pozos. Entre mayo y agosto de 2006 se recopilo informacion de la red sismica, con la cual se concluyo que el sistema de fallas mas activo en ese periodo fue El Partido. Actualmente la red sismica del campo consta de un equipo SARA y cuatro K2, y se ha conseguido que la estacion SARA se comunique telemetricamente con la estacion base.

  7. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  8. RP-HPLC-UV波长切换法同时测定复方吡拉西坦尼莫地平胶囊中3种成分的含量%Simultaneous Determination of Three Components in Compound Piracetam and Nimodipine Capsules by RP-HPLC-UV Wavelength Switching Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a RP-HPLC-UV wavelength switching method for the simultaneous determination of captopril, aspirin and nimodipine in compound piracetam and nimodipine capsules. Methods:The separation was carried out on a YMC-Pack Pro-C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5μm) with acetonitrile-water(adjusting pH to 2. 5 with phosphpric acid)as the mobile phase with gra-dient elution. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml·min-1 . During 0-4. 3 min, the detection wavelength was 215 nm, during 4. 3-11. 0 min, the detection wavelength was 276 nm and during 11. 0-18. 0 min, the detection wavelength was 235 nm. The column temperature was 40℃. Results:The linear range of captopril, aspirin and nimodipine was 0. 054 7-1. 641 8 μg(r=0. 999 9),0. 055 3-1. 654 8 μg(r=0. 999 9) and 0. 077 7-2. 331 6 μg(r=0. 999 7), and the average recovery was 100. 69%(RSD=0. 69%,n=6),101. 04%(RSD=1. 05%,n=6)and 102. 56%(RSD=1. 14%,n=6), respectively. Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can be used in the content determination of compound piracetam and nimodipine capsules.%目的::建立同时测定复方吡拉西坦尼莫地平胶囊中卡托普利、阿司匹林、尼莫地平含量的HPLC法。方法:采用YMC-Pack Pro-C18色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),以乙腈为流动相A、水(磷酸调节pH至2.5)为流动相B进行梯度洗脱,流速:1.0 ml·min-1,柱温:40℃,检测波长:215 nm(0~4.3 min),276 nm(4.3~11.0 min),235 nm(11.0~18.0 min)。结果:卡托普利、阿司匹林、尼莫地平分别在0.0547~1.6418μg(r =0.9999),0.0553~1.6548μg(r =0.9999),0.0777~2.3316μg(r=0.9997)范围内线性良好,平均加样回收率分别为100.69%(RSD=0.69%,n=6),101.04%(RSD=1.05%,n=6),102.56%(RSD=1.14%,n=6)。结论:该分析方法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,可用于复方吡拉西坦尼莫地平胶囊中卡托普利、阿司匹林、尼莫地平的含量测定。

  9. Bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolated from boza Bacteriocina produzida por Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolad de boza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav D. Todorov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin ST712BZ (14.0kDa in size inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Lactobacillus curvatus. Growth of strain ST712BZ in BHI, M17, soy milk and molasses was similar to growth in MRS, with optimal bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL recorded in MRS after 24h. The same level of bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL was recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5. However, MRS broth (pH 6.5 supplemented with 1mM EDTA, yielded only 6400AU/mL. Low levels of bacteriocin activity were recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 5.0 and 4.5. Of all media compositions tested, MRS supplemented with tryptone (20.0g/L, glucose (20.0 to 40.0g/L, mannose (20.0g/L, vitamin B12, or vitamin C yielded 12800AU/mL. Glycerol concentrations of 1.0g/L and higher repressed bacteriocin production. Maximal bacteriocin activity (25600AU/mL was recorded in MRS supplemented with Vit. B1 or DL-6,8-thioctic acid.A bacteriocina ST712BZ produzida par Lactobacillus pentosus (peso molecular de 14,0kDa inibe o crescimento de Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Lactobacillus curvatus. O crescimento de L. pentosus ST712BZ em BHI, M17, leite de soja e melaços foi semelhante ao observado em MRS, registando-se a produção máxima de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em MRS após 24 h. Observou-se o mesmo nível de produção de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em caldo MRS com pH inicial de 6,5, 6,0 e 5,5. No entanto, em caldo MRS (pH 6,5 suplementado com 1 mM de EDTA a produção apenas atingiu 6400UA/mL. Os níveis de atividade bacteriocinogênica detectados em caldo MRS com um pH inicial de 5,0 e 4,5 foram baixos. De todas as fórmulas de meios de cultura testadas a que apresentou a atividade máxima 12800UA/mL foi MRS suplemento de triptona (20,0g/L, glicose (20,0 e 40,0 g/L, manose (20.0 g/L, vitamina B12 e

  10. The value of serum bile acid in diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy%血清胆汁酸在妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丽; 李博; 赵彦梅; 王昕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血清胆汁酸在妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症(ICP)诊断中的应用价值.方法 对待产的92例ICP患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,按血清胆汁酸水平将患者分为两组,血清胆汁酸>40μmol/L为观察组(46例),血清胆汁酸≤40μmol/L为对照组(46例),观察比较两组患者皮肤瘙痒出现时间,黄疸程度,血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST),羊水污染程度.结果 观察组皮肤瘙痒出现时间早于对照组[(29.1±3.4)周比(33.9±3.2)周,P<0.05];重度黄疸、ALT>100 U/L、AST>100 U/L及羊水Ⅲ度污染例数均多于对照组[27例比15例、28例比20例、28例比18例、23例比15例,P<0.01或<0.05].结论 血清胆汁酸可作为评估ICP的敏感指标,对孕妇病情的判断、预后分析具有重要的意义,具有反映其发生妊娠不良结局的可能性.%Objective To evaluate the application value of serum bile acid in diagnosing intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP).Methods The clinical data of 92 prepartal patients with ICP was analyzed retrospectively.The patients were divided into observation group ( > 40 μ mol/L ) and control group ( ≤40 μ mol/L) with 46 cases each according to serum bile acid level.The nccurrence time of skin pruritus,jaundice degree,serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and degree of polluted amniotic fluid of two groups were observed and compared.Results The occurrence of skin pruritus in observation group was earlier than that in control group [(29.1 ± 3.4) weeks vs.(33.9 ± 3.2) weeks,P<0.05 ] ;the cases with severe jaundice,ALT > 100 U/L,AST > 100 U/L and amniotic fluid contamination Ⅲ degree in observation group were more than control group [27 cases vs.15 cases,28 cases vs.20 cases,28 cases vs.18 cases,23 cases vs.15 cases,P< 0.01 or < 0.05].Conclusions Serum bile acid,as a sensitive indicator to assess TCP,has important value in determining the

  11. Synthesis and urease inhibition studies of aromatic carboxylates silver(I) complexes%芳香族羧酸银(I)配合物的合成及其抑制脲酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马承富; 靖海瑞; 刘慈; 李玉广

    2015-01-01

    Four new silver(I) complexes with aromatic carboxylates,[Ag2(L1)2(A1)2]2·H2O(1),[Ag2(L2)2(A2)3]· H2O(2),[Ag(A3)2]2(L3)·10H2O(3) and [Ag2(A4)2](L4)·4H2O(4)(HL1=3-pyridinemethanoic acid;HL2=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid;H2L3=p-phthalic acid;H2L4=4,4’-biphthalic acid;A1=2-aminopyridine;A2=2-aminopyrimidine;A3=4-aminopyridine;A4=1,6-hexyldiamine),have been synthesized and structurally characterized.Inhibition of jack bean urease by these Ag(I) complexes have been investigated.The Ag(I) complexes (1) (4) possess urease inhibitory activities and complex 3 has the best activity to inhibit urease.It was found that the urease inhibition activity of Ag(I) complexes would decrease with their structural polymerization degree increasing.%合成并表征了4种羧酸银(I)配合物:[Ag2(L1)2(A1)2]2·H2O(1),[Ag2(L2)2(A2)3]·H2O(2),[Ag(A3)2]2(L3)·10H2O(3)和[Ag2(A4)2](L4)·4H2O(4)(HL1=3-吡啶甲酸;HL2=3,5-二硝基苯甲酸;H2L3=对苯二甲酸;H2L4=4,4’-联苯二甲酸;A1=2-氨基吡啶;A2=2-氨基嘧啶;A3=4-氨基吡啶;A4=1,6-己二胺)。测定了这4种羧酸银(I)配合物抑制脲酶(urease)的效果。实验结果表明4种羧酸银(I)配合物均具有抑制脲酶的生物活性,其中配合物3的抑制活性最强。研究发现它们抑制脲酶的能力随着羧酸银(I)配合物分子聚合程度的增大而减弱。

  12. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  13. 铁线莲属威灵仙组修订%A revision of Clematis sect.Clematis(Ranunculaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采

    2003-01-01

    果,其瘦果强烈扁压,扁平,有膨胀的框状边缘.主要分类学处理为:(1)披针叶铁线莲C. lancifolia Bur. & Franch.、准噶尔铁线莲C. songarica Bunge、C. ispahanica Boiss.、银叶铁线莲C. delavayi Franch.和C. phlebantha Williams 5种过去被Tamura和其他学者与灌木铁线莲C. fruticosa Turcz.等同置于灌木铁线莲组sect. Fruticella Tamura中,但这5种的花构造(萼片水平方向开展,白色,边缘不展宽;花丝条形或狭条形)与灌木铁线莲(萼片斜上方开展,黄色,在花开放后边缘展宽成狭翅;花丝较宽,条状披针形)不同,而与棉团铁线莲C. hexapetala Pall.的花构造相似.据此,本修订将此5种从灌木铁线莲组移到威灵仙组的棉团铁线莲亚组subsect. Angustifoliae Tamura中.(2)在欧洲铁线莲群C. vitalba group与威灵仙群C. flammula group之间有不少过渡类型,因此,这两个群不易区分.根据这种情况,本修订将这两个群作为亚组处理,同置于威灵仙组sect. Clematis中,而未采用Tamura和Grey-Wilson将这两个群分别置于两个亚属中,以及Johnson将这两个群分别置于两个组中的分类学处理.描述了2新系、6新种和1新变种;建立了5个新等级.%Clematis sect. Clematis is revised in this paper. Seventy-three species and 45 varieties are recognized. They are keyed, described, and illustrated in some cases, and are classified into five subsections. Brief taxonomic history and geographical distribution of the section are given, and the relationships of its subsections and with its close allies of the C. vitalba evolutionary stock of the subgenus Clematis are discussed. Main taxonomic changes are made as follows: (1) C. lancifolia Bur. & Franch., C. songarica Bunge, C. ispahanica Boiss., C. delavayi Franch. and C. phlebantha Williams, which have been previously regarded to be close to C. fruticosa Turcz. and its allies, and placed in sect. Fruticella Tamura by Tamura and some other authors, are here

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of Nanogold Bioconjugated with Trastuzumab as a Drug for Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer had been registered as the first order of cancer's leading cause of carcinoma death among Iraqi women. There are different trials to use bionanotechnology in medicine especially in the treatment of breast cancer. This work aimed to use different types of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in application and evaluation of breast cancer cell through the following parts:- Part I: Synthesis three types of GNPs included: 1- Gold nanospheres (GN spheres) by modification of the chemical method and using different reducing agent (sodium borohydride then capping with glutathione (GSH), the other method by using GSH and the last using new reducing agent (2-Oxoglutaric acid). To the our present knowledge, this is the first report about using 2-Oxoglutaric acidas reducing agent in the synthesis of GN spheres. 2- Gold nanorods (GNRs)by using seed - mediated growth method capped with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). 3- Gold nano shells (GNSs) by using silica nanoparticles as core and seeded with gold as shell (silica-gold core shells). All the prepared types GNPs were characterized by using eight different techniques including: Atomic force microscopy (AFM),Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), and zeta nanosizer. The measurements were done in Tarbiat Modares University (Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Biological sciences) and Tehran University in Islamic Republic of Iran, except the techniques of ICP-OES it was done in Al-Sulaimani Universityandthat of AFM was accomplished in the Ministry of Science and Technology in Iraq . Part II: This part includes two steps: 1- Biofunctionalization i.e., modification of the surfaces of the three types of prepared GNPs by coating with thiol-poly ethylene glycol -carboxy (SH-PEG-COOH) then activation of the

  15. Synthesis and application properties of phosphate trisiloxane surfactants%磷酸酯型三硅氧烷表面活性剂的合成及应用性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄良仙; 李顺琴; 李婷; 贾银银; 张乐

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl-terminated polyether modified trisiloxanes (TPETS)was prepared by hydrosilylation of 1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyltrisiloxane(HTSO)with allyl polyoxyethylene ether (FAE-10)in the presence of chloroplatinic acid.A new kind of phosphate trisiloxane surfactants (PTSS)was synthesized by the esterification reaction of TPETS with phosphoric acid(H3 PO4 ).The esterification reaction conditions of PTSS synthesis were optimized using orthogonal test.The structure of PTSS was characterized by infrared spectra (IR).The criti-cal surface tension (γcmc )and critical micelle concentration (cmc)of PTSS solution were measured.And its application was investigated in pesticide.Experimental results were showed as follows.Optimum conditions of the esterification reaction for the PTSS are that reaction temperature is 80 ℃,reaction time is 4 h,n(TPETS)∶n(H3PO4)=1∶1.1.Theγcmcof PTSS solution is 21.9 mN/m,the cmc of PTSS solution is 5.0×10-4 g/mL.When PTSS solution was added with 0.1% into glyphosate isopropylamin 41% AS and thiophanate-methyl 36% SC diluted to 1 000 times with water,the surface tension of glyphosate isoprop-ylamin solution and thiophanate-methyl solution decreased from 54.83 mN/m and 45.48 mN/m to 20.38 mN/m and 17.40 mN/m,respectively.It′s the spreading area on the ginkgo leaves,horse chestnut leaves,french phoenix tree leaves and plastic film is increased 4~8 times and 2~4 times,respectively.%在 H2PtCl6催化下,1,1,1,3,5,5,5-七甲基三硅氧烷(HTSO)和烯丙基聚氧乙烯醚(FAE-10)经硅氢加成反应先制得端羟基聚醚改性三硅氧烷(TPETS),再与 H3 PO4进行酯化反应,合成了一种磷酸酯型三硅氧烷表面活性剂(PTSS).用正交试验对其酯化反应条件进行了优化,用红外光谱(IR)对PTSS的结构进行了表征,并对 PTSS 的临界表面张力、临界胶束浓度以及在农药中的应用性能等进行了测定.结果表明:酯化反应的优化条件为n(TPETS)∶n(H3PO4)=1∶1.1、反应温度80

  16. Tart Cherry Juice as a Treatment for Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cindy Alberts

    2015-01-01

    are on more than 1 of these medications but, even with polypharmacy and optimal dosing, only 40%–60% of patients report partial relief of symptoms, and many have significant adverse effects, such as somnolence, constipation, and drug dependence. Objective Tart cherry juice has been shown to be effective in the treatment of some inflammatory conditions and has a very low incidence of adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tart cherry juice is an effective treatment for neuropathic pain from nondiabetic peripheral polyneuropathies. Methods The study group consisted of 12 primary care patient volunteers with painful lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were excluded due to the potentially confounding effect of the increased glycemic load from cherry juice. All study patients had carried a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy for 5–10 y. All patients described 9–10 out of 10 pain more than 50% of the time. All study patients had been on multiple antiepileptics, analgesics, and antidepressants for more than 2 y without significant improvement of symptoms. All study patients were allowed to remain on their prescribed doses of gabapentin, pregabalin, SNRIs, tricyclics, and SSRIs during the study. The patients agreed not to use NSAIDs, steroids, lidocaine, and narcotic pain relievers during the study. There were no restrictions on diet or activity. Presumed etiologies of the peripheral neuropathies in the study group were: 3 HIV, 2 chemotherapy-induced, 5 spinal disorders, and 2 idiopathic. All patients drank 4 oz of tart cherry juice 2 ×/d for 14 d. The juice used was a combination of Prunus cerasus, Prunus acida, Prunus avium, and Prunus fructicosa, imported from the Caucasus and sold commercially as “100% cherry juice from concentrate.” Results After 14 d of treatment, the patients were questioned regarding the level of their peripheral neuropathy pain. Two patients (HIV and spinal DJD

  17. 千根草甲醇提取物的抗高血糖及镇痛作用%Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia L.whole plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah; Sumaiyah KanijHasan; Zulfiquar Ali; Shahnaz Rahman; Rownak Jahan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia thymifolia L.,a plant used in folk medicine of Bangladesh for treatment of diabetes and pain.METHODS: Antihyperglycemic activity studies were conducted in glucose-loaded mice by oral glucose tolerance tests.Mice were given various doses of the extract,followed by glucose (2 g/kg body weight),1 h after administration of the extract.Serum glucose levels were measured 2 h after glucose administration.Antinociceptive activity studies were conducted in intraperitoneally acetic acid-injected mice through measurement of reductions in abdominal writhing times caused by acetic acid-induced gastric pain.Following a period of 1 h after oral administration of various doses of the extract,all mice received intraperitoneal injection of 1% acetic acid at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight.To ensure bioavailability of acetic acid,a period of 5 min was given to each animal following which period the number of writhings was counted for 10 min.RESULTS: The extract caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose levels in mice,when administered at doses of 50,100,200 and 400 mg/kg body weight as compared to the control animals (P<0.05).The highest reduction of serum glucose (60.5%) was observed at a dose of 400 mg/kg.In comparison,a standard antihyperglycemic drug glibenclamide,when administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight,lowered serum glucose levels by 48.6 %.The extract also demonstrated a significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity compared to control animals (P<0.05).At a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight,the number of abdominal writhings was inhibited by 40.9% as compared to 49.0% inhibition obtained with a standard antinociceptive drug aspirin,administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight.CONCLUSION: The significant antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities demonstrated by the extract validate the use of E

  18. 不同剂量木糖醇对糖尿病大鼠肾小球Ⅳ型胶原表达的影响%Effect of xylitol on the collagen-Ⅳ expression of glomeruli in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽津; 尹彦斌; 郝久营; 王华; 孙丽荣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of xylitol on the collagen-Ⅳ expression of glomeruli in diabetic rats. Methods Fourty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups(8 rats in each grarp):normal control group( group NC) ,diabetes control group( group DC), 5% xylitol-treated group (group lowdose), 10% xylitol-treated group ( group medium-dose) and 20% xylitol-treated group ( group high-dose).At the end of 8 weeks, the level of serum uric acid in each group was tested using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The rats were sacrificed, and the collagen-Ⅳ expression of glomeruli were determined by immunohistorical chemistry. Results At the end of 8 weeks,the concentration of serum uric acid was increased in the diabetes groups compared with group NC. Group low-dose and group mediumdose had higher concentration of serum uric acid compared with group DC(P < 0.05 ). Whereas, group highdose had lower concentration of serum uric acid compared with group DC(P <0.05). The expression of Col-Ⅳ in glomeruli was up-regulated in all diabetes groups at the end of 8 weeks ( P < 0.05 ). Compared with group DC, the expression of Col-Ⅳ was significantly increased in group low-dose and group medium-dose,and decreased in group high-dose(P < 0.05). Conclusions Low and medium dose of dietary xylitol supplementation could raise the level of serum uric acid and deposition of Col-Ⅳ in glomeruli. Diabetic nephropathy would be worsen. High dose of xylitol can decrease the level of serum uric acid,as well as the expression of Col-Ⅳ in glomeruli. The injuries to the kidney could be protected.%目的 探讨不同剂量木糖醇对糖尿病大鼠肾小球Ⅳ型胶原表达的影响.方法 将40只大鼠随机分为5组(每组8只):正常对照组(NC组),糖尿病对照组(DC组),糖尿病5%木糖醇组(低剂量组),糖尿病10%木糖醇组(中剂量组),糖尿病20%木糖醇组(高剂量组).第8周末处死大鼠,用反相高效液相法(RP-HPLC)测定

  19. Serum biochemistry of 4-day-old ostriches (Struthio camelus Bioquímica sérica de avestruzes (Struthio camelus com quatro dias de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata L. Miranda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of 30 four-day-old ostriches to evaluate their protein, metabolite, mineral, and serum enzyme profiles, to correlate them with the birds' sex. The values obtained were: Total proteins 3.59±0.72g/dL, albumin 1.04±0.14g/dL, globulins 2.51±0.56g/dL, A:G ratio 0.43± 0.07, total cholesterol 615.10±101.15mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 132.72±20.33mg/dL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C 454.93±90.81mg/dL, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C 27.45±9.96mg/dL, triglycerides 137.23±49.78mg/dL, uric acid 6.24±2.15mg/dL, urea 18.27±12.33mg/dL, creatinine 0.30±0.04mg/dL, total calcium 9.38± 0.76mg/dL, ionized calcium 7.17±0.64mg/dL, phosphorus 6.96±0.91mg/dL, Ca:P ratio 1.37±0.21, iron 24.74±13.02µg/dL, sodium 142.03±6.17mEq/L, chlorides 109.59± 4.99mEq/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST 200.67±31.42 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT 3.90±1.92 U/L, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT 1.18±0.73 U/L, alkaline phosphatase (ALP 597.30± 231.36 U/L, and creatine kinase (CK 2348.30±755.60 U/L. Males and females showed significant differences in total proteins, globulins, alkaline phosphatase, A:G ratio, and uric acid.A fim de avaliar o perfil de proteínas séricas, metabólitos, minerais e enzimas séricas e correlacionar com o sexo das aves, este estudo analisou 30 avestruzes de quatro dias de idade. Os valores obtidos foram: proteínas totais 3,59±0,72g/dL; albumina 1,04±0,14g/dL; globulinas 2,51±0,56g/dL; relação A:G 0,43± 0,07; colesterol total 615,10±101,15mg/dL; lipoproteína de alta densidade colesterol (HDL-C 132,72±20,33mg/dL; lipoproteína de baixa densidade colesterol (LDL-C 454,93±90,81mg/dL; lipoproteína de muito baixa densidade colesterol (VLDL-C 27,45±9,96 mg/dL; triglicérides 137,23±49,78mg/dL; ácido úrico 6,24±2,15mg/dL; uréia 18,27±12,33mg/dL; creatinina 0,30±0,04mg/dL; cálcio total 9,38±0,76mg/dL; cálcio ionizado 7,17±0,64mg/dL; fósforo 6,96

  20. Obtención, cultivo y caracterización de células de Schwann: un modelo de terapia celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Spinel

    2000-02-01

    -85%, determinados tanto por parámetros morfológicos como inmunocitoquímicos. Estos parámetros inmunocitoquímicos incluyen la evaluación para marcadores tales como la proteína S-100 y GFAP (Proteína Glial Fibrilar Acida. Adicionalmente, se realizó la evaluación inmunocitoquímica para bromodeoxiuridina (BrdU incorporada por células en su fase S, la cual nos permite obtener una aproximación del comportamiento proliferativo de los diferentes fenotipos celulares presentes en nuestros cultivos. Al realizar la cuantificación para la inmunodetección de BrdU incorporada, se encontró un índice de marcaje del 60 % en ratón, del 80% en rata y del 20 % en células humanas, relativo a la población de células de Schwann totales. Otro parámetro de caracterización ha sido la morfología, la cual se ha evaluado en cultivo por contraste de fase, en la que se puede observar la refringencia y la formación de estructuras a manera de rosarios, típicas de las células de Schwann en cultivo, en material fijado por microscopía de luz en donde se evidencia la inmunoreactividad para los diferentes marcadores y ultraestructuralmente por microscopía electrónica, en donde se han podido observar inclusiones de mielina, abundantes ribosomas libres, estructuras de endocitosis y retículo endoplásmico dilatado al parecer propio en cultivo entre otros detalles.

    Así, las células de rata ya han sido utilizadas en implantes autólogos, en modelos de regeneración en nervio dentario y en nervio ciático crónicamente denervado. En el caso del nervio dentario en el que se aprovechó el canal intraoseo por el que se conduce el nervio a través de la mandíbula, para que funcionara como una cámara de regeneración. En el caso del nervio ciático se utilizaron cámaras en las que se implantaron las células. En ambos casos el efecto de las células en la regeneración nerviosa está siendo actualmente evaluado.