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Sample records for boiss prehidrolisis acida

  1. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C; Paz Saa, D; Diaz Palma, A

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulose Biomass of Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Hidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C; Diaz Palma, A; Paz, M D

    1985-07-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Salvianolic Acid-A Induces Apoptosis, Mitochondrial Membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using Hoechst 33258 staining. The effect of the compound on mitochondrial membrane potential loss ... Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that salvianolic acid-A induced dose- dependent ..... aggregation and anticancer properties. It has.

  4. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale. (Boiss.& Bal.) Greuter & Burdetvar. sepulcrale and Symphytum aintabicum Hub.- Mor. & Wickens

    OpenAIRE

    KURUCU, Semra; KARTAL, Murat

    2002-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine-N-oxide) was isolated from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale (Boiss. & Bal.) Greuter & Burdet var. sepulcrale and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine) was isolated from Symphytum aintabicum Hub. - Mor. & Wickens. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on IR, EIMS, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis and also on 2D NMR (COSY, HMBC, HMQC) experiments.

  5. Secondary Metabolites of Centaurea cadmea Boiss.

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    Kaveh Alizadeh Astari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (1, scutellarin (2, syringin (3, 6S, 9R-roseoside (4 and b -sitosterol-3- O - b - D-glucopyranoside (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea cadmea Boiss. (Asteraceae. S tructure elucidation of the compounds were performed by using spectroscopic methods (1-D and 2-D NMR and LC-MS-MS. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1 , 2, 3 and 4 have been isolated for the first time from this endemic species. C ompound 4 is new for the genus Centaurea.

  6. In vitro microtuberization of Black Zira (Bunium persicum Boiss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... fungus (Sharififar et al., 2010). Several remedial ... tive phase (seed production) of B. persicum starts after 4 years and may maintain up to ..... Extraction of essential oils from Bunium persicum Boiss. using superheated water.

  7. Acid hydrolysis of Biomass lignocellulose Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs

  8. In vitro propagation of female Ephedra foliata Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss.: an endemic and threatened Gymnosperm of the Thar Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Deepika; Rathore, Nisha; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ephedra foliata Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss., (family - Ephedraceae), is an ecologically and economically important threatened Gymnosperm of the Indian Thar Desert. A method for micropropagation of E. foliata using nodal explant of mature female plant has been developed. Maximum bud-break (90 %) of the explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) of benzyl adenine (BA) + additives. Explant produces 5.3 ± 0.40 shoots from single node with 3.25 ± 0.29 cm length. The multiplication of shoots in culture was affected by salt composition of media, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR's) and their interactions, time of transfer of the cultures. Maximum number of shoots (26.3 ± 0.82 per culture vessel) were regenerated on MS medium modified by reducing the concentration of nitrates to half supplemented with 200 mg l(-1) ammonium sulphate {(NH4) 2SO4} (MMS3) + BA (0.25 mg l(-1)), Kinetin (Kin; 0.25 mg l(-1)), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.1 mg l(-1)) and additives. The in vitro produced shoots rooted under ex vitro on soilrite moistened with one-fourth strength of MS macro salts in screw cap bottles by treating the shoot base (s) with 500 mg l(-1) of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 5 min. The micropropagated plants were hardened in the green house. The described protocol can be applicable for (i) large scale plant production (ii) establishment of plants in natural habitat and (iii) germplasm conservation of this endemic Gymnosperm of arid regions.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Alberto, Maria Rosa; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria del Pilar Caramantin; Theoduloz, Cristina; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Isla, Maria Ines; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.

  10. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THYMUS KOTSCHYANUS BOISS. & HOHEN. FROM IRAN

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    ABDOLHOSSEIN RUSTAIYAN

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oil of Thymus kotschyarms Boiss<& Hohen. was examined by GC and GC/MS. Fifteen constituents representing 80.7% of the oil were characterized of which thymol (38.0%, carvacrol (14.2% and 1,8- cineole (13.2% were the main compounds which were identified.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hashemi; Saber Barkhori-Mehni; Saeed Khanzadi; Mohammad Azizzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO) against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas h...

  12. Acid hydrolysis of the biomass of resistant cellulose of thistle ''Onopordum nervosum boiss''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz Saa, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of ''Onopordum nervosum boiss'' (thistle) to reduce sugar in diluted sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times have been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data the yield can be predicted and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 deg C, 1.6% acid and 6.1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (author)

  13. Phytochemical screening and biological activity of extracts of plant species Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl.

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    Mašković Pavle Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at examining total polyphenol, flavonoid, gallotannin and condensed tannins content in acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl., their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as identifying and quantifying the phenolic components. The antioxidant activity is consistent with the results of total quantity of phenolic compound. The results showed that the acetone extract of plant species Halascya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl. possessed the highest antioxidant activity. IC50 values were determined: 9.45��1.55 μg/mL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, 13.46±1.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 59.11±0.83 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 27.91±0.88 μg/mL for ferrous ion chelating ability. The antimicrobial activity was tested using broth dilution procedure for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MICs were determined for 8 selected indicator strains. All of the extracts showed strong to moderate strong antimicrobial activity. The phenolic composition of Halacsya sendtneri extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The dominant phenolic compound in acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract is rosmarinic acid. Ethyl acetate extract was also abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid. The main compounds in petrol ether extract were chlorogenic acid and quercetin.

  14. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

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    Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H2O2 scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p2O2 induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments.La actividad antihemolítica y antioxidante de extractos hidroalcohólicos de flores, tallos y hojas de Ferula gummosa Boiss fueron investigados empleando diferentes ensayos in vitro. Los extractos de hojas mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de radicales libres. Además, mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de óxido nítrico y H2O2 y actividad quelatante de Fe2+ que las otras partes. Los extractos exhibieron una buena actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con ácido linoleico pero no comparable con la vitamina C (pF. gummosa mostraron una mejor actividad antihemolítica contra la hemolisis inducida con H2O2. Entre los extractos, las flores tienen los más altos contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides. Esta planta es muy prometedora para futuros experimentos bioquímicos.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory (MIC and minimum bactericidal (MBC concentrations. Results: GC-MS results showed that phenolic components such as carvacrol (51.55% and thymol (25.49% were predominant constituents of the EO. Zataria multiflora Boiss EO exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Shewanella Putrefaciens was the most sensitive bacteria with MBC value of 0. 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: According to the results, this EO could be used as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food specially seafood products to preserve them against bacterial spoilage.

  16. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  17. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  18. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

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    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  19. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavi, S. F.; Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The Antioxidant and anti hemolytic activities of hydro alcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p< 0.001). The extracts showed weak reducing power activity. The F. gummosa stem extract showed better anti hemolytic activity against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments. (Author) 43 refs.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

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    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  1. Incorporating Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil and sodium bentonite nano-clay open a new perspective to use zein films as bioactive packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiri, Mahboobeh; Maghsoudlo, Yahya; Khomeiri, Morteza

    2017-10-01

    Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the zein matrix. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of zein film were verified by the exfoliation of the layers of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. Stronger films with lower water vapor permeability and water solubility were evident of good distribution of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. According to the results, 2% sodium bentonite clay was selected for evaluation of nano active film properties. Water vapor permeability, UV light barrier, tensile strength, and Young's modulus values of active films were improved by incorporation of 2% sodium bentonite clay. The antibacterial activity of different contents of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in vapor phase demonstrated that use of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the liquid phase was more effective than in vapor phase. The antibacterial zein-based films showed that active zein film with 5 and 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil had reductions of 1.68 log and 2.99 log, respectively, against Listeria monocytogenes and 1.39 and 3.07 log against Escherichia coli. Nano active zein film containing 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil and 2% sodium bentonite clay showed better antibacterial properties against L. monocytogenes (3.23 log) and E. coli (3.17 log).

  2. Effect of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Germination Stage and Growth of Black Cumin (Bunium Persicum Boiss)

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Saeedi Goraghani; A Ranjbar Fordoei; M Soleimani Sardo; M. J Mahdavi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Range plants have important and crucial roles in medicinal industry andtogether with scarcity and low quality of the water and soil resources, prevent a quick recovery of the soil plant covering. Because of these restrictions, it is important to consider the use of salt and drought tolerant species for plantation and to preserve plant cover. In this sense, the use of native species such as black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss) may be of interest due to their medicinal charact...

  3. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, and Allium hirtifolium Boiss Against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Seyed Amir Razavi Satvati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium which can cause life-threatening infections in humans. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth and is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. Nowadays modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine. Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Allium hirtifolium Boiss are commonly found in Iran and used as antimicrobial agents in folklore medicine. Objectives: In this study, antimicrobial activities of aqueous extracts of some plants were examined in vitro against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts of T. terrestris, A. sativum, S. officinalis and A. hirtifolium Boiss were examined using disc and well diffusion methods, and the19 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of aqueous extracts were determined against E. faecalis using agar and broth dilution methods. Results: The obtained results showed that the extract of A. hirtifolium Boiss inhibited the growth of E. faecalis (MIC of 10 mg/mL. Other plants had no effect on the target bacterium. Conclusion: According to the best effect of A. hirtifolium extract on E. faecalis and stability of this extract in thermal condition, we may purify this extract and use it for treatment of infections.

  4. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

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    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  5. Biological, chemical and in silico fingerprints of Dianthus calocephalus Boiss.: A novel source for rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Sengul; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Picot-Allain, Carene M N; Unuvar, Hamiyet; Mollica, Adriano; Georgiev, Milen I; Zengin, Gokhan; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2018-03-01

    Extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) from Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. prepared by different extraction techniques (maceration, Soxhlet, and ultrasonication) were studied for possible inhibitory action against key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase, and tyrosinase). Antioxidant potential was established using a battery of assays and phenolic compounds profiled by RP-HPLC. Binding pose of tyrosinase with rutin was studied by means of molecular docking. Methanol extracts showed the highest phenolic (39.35-40.25 mgGAE/g) content and rich in rutin (61.38-72.07 mg/g extract). Ethyl acetate extracts of D. calocephalus were potent inhibitors of acetyl (1.45-1.48 mgGALAE/g) and butyryl (2.44-2.74 mgGALAE/g) cholinesterases. Docking studies showed that rutin interacts with the side chains of the key amino acid residues and to the copper atom found at the active site of tyrosinase. Methanol extracts showed highest antioxidant capacity. D. calocephalus showed interesting biological properties that could be further studied to manage diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the Seed Oils of Ferulago trachycarpa Boiss . Different Localities with Respect to Fatty Acids

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    Gökhan Bilsel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the seed oil of Ferulago trachycarpa Boiss., collected from two different localities (Balıkesir-Edremit and Konya-Seydişehir, was analyzed for derived methyl esters of their fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventeen components representing 98.7 % of Balıkesir sample and 98.6 % of Konya sample of F. trachycarpa seed oils were identified. GC-MS data showed that the main fatty acids were 9-octadeceneoic acid (68.1 and 73.6 %, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (23.0 and 18.0 %, 9-hexadeceneoic acid (4.1 and 3.5 % and 11-octadecenoic acid (2.0 and 1.8 % in both oils, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids were found as high as 97.7 and 97.4 %, while the percentage of the saturated fatty acids was found as low as 1.0 and 1.2 % in both seed oils, respectively.

  7. Determination of the carbohydrates from Notopterygium forbesii Boiss by HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijuan; Li, Chunli; Zhou, Guoying; Che, Guodong; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2013-09-12

    A sensitive pre-column derivatization method was developed for analysis of carbohydrates by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The introduction of 2-(12-benzo[b]acridin-5(12H)-yl)-acetohydrazide (BAAH) with excellent fluorescence property into the molecules of monosaccharides greatly enhanced the HPLC sensitivity of the analytes. Meanwhile, derivatization with BAAH also greatly increased the hydrophobicity of the monosaccharides and made them elute at increased retention times. The monosaccharides with similar properties therefore could be completely separated due to the increased interaction between the analytes and the column. Component monosaccharides of the polysaccharides obtained from the roots, stems and leaves of Notopterygium forbesii Boiss (NF) were analyzed by the developed method. The results indicated that the polysaccharides of NF were mainly composed of d-galactose and d-glucose. This is the first systematic study of the sugar composition of the polysaccharides of NF. It will be helpful for the quality control of NF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INVESTIGATION ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM DRACOCEPHALUM KOTSCHYI BOISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Behnam; Ramak, Parvin; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Talei, Gholam Reza

    2017-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss is a herb with wide-spread applications. Lorestan traditional healers have applied it for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases and stomach disorders. Hydrodistillation process was used for essential oil extraction, the extracted essential oil was then analyzed through combination of capillary GC-FID, GC-MS and RI. The in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of this essential oil were examined. Results indicate that the essential oil has a broad range of anti-microbial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. The 50% of cytotoxic concentrations was 26.4 μg/ml and 4266.7 μg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The oil cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell line was far higher than the amount required for human healthy cells. Conversely, the essential oil's IC 50 value of 49.2 μg/ml in the DPPH assay, could be regarded as its strong antioxidant potential. According to the data obtained, it can be concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil could be applied as a safe antibacterial and antioxidant agent for food and pharmaceutical purposes.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of various extracts of Verbascum antiochium Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Birgul; Yilmaz, Miray; Caliskan, Mahmut

    2010-10-01

    Verbascum antiochium Boiss., a member of the Scrophulariaceae family, is endemic to Turkey. The extracts obtained from V. antiochium by increased polarity and direct methanol extraction were tested by the agar well diffusion method against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The methanol/water extract exhibited a larger inhibition zone against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria than the other extracts. Haemophilus influenzae was found to be the most sensitive bacterium among the bacteria tested. The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of V. antiochium were examined by two complementary test systems. The 50% inhibition activity of the methanolic extract of V. antiochium against the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was determined as 4.80 mg/mL. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of linoleic acid was inhibited by the methanolic extract of V. antiochium with 79.92% inhibition, which is close to the value of the synthetic antioxidant reagent, tert-butylated hydroxytoluene. The total phenolic components of V. antiochium were determined to be 92.71 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g. Iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins were detected as the major chemical constituents in the extract.

  10. On the distribution and intraspecific taxonomy of Scrophularia olympica Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae

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    M. B. Sheludyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the distribution and intraspecific systematics of Scrophularia olympica Boiss., one of taxonomically problematic species of figworts. The special attention is given to the record of thisspecies from the Crimea from where it had been reported based on the single herbarium specimen collected “infra Baidara” by F. J. Ruprecht in 1861. This collection was previously regarded as made near the village of Orlinoye (former Baydary in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Actually, the locality “infra Baidara” should be referred to the river Baydara in Georgia, and S. olympica should be excludedboth from the floras of the Crimea and Europe as a whole. Six varieties are recognized within the species; a key to their identification is proposed. Lectotypes of S. olympica var. integrifolia Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. macrophylla Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. pinnatifida Trautv. ex Grossh. and S. olympica var. platyloma Grossh. are designated. A new name, S. olympica var. bordzilowskii Sheludyakova, nom. nov. ≡ S. olympica var. integrifoliaBordz., non Freyn et Sint., is proposed.

  11. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. from Turkey

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    Hilal Özbek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. Its chemical content and composition were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Total phenolic content of the essential oil was determined as 132.39 µg gallic acid equivalent by Folin–Ciocalteu’s method and the major component was identified as carvacrol (56.8 % along with p-cymene (13.1 %, (Z- b -ocimene (5.4 %, b -caryophyllene (3.9 %, borneol (3.4 % and thymol (3.2 %. After chemical characterization, the essential oil was evaluated for its antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities as well as ferrous ion-chelating power test, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric thiocyanate methods. Besides antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the essential oil were also evaluated by Ellman’s method. It demonstrated inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE, key enzymes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, in addition to significant antioxidant activity.

  12. Cytotoxicity effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. on two human colon carcinoma cell lines

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    F. Sharififar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Natural products are one of the major sources for investigations of novel medicines. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM has shown pharmacological activities especially in gastrointestinal tract; however, there are limited studies about its cytotoxicity effects. In this study, the effect of Zataria multiflora was examined on two colon cancer cell lines (SW-48 and HT-29. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extract of ZM and its fractions including chloroform, petroleum ether and methanol extract were prepared by warm maceration method. Different concentrations were prepared and examined on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines using 2-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: The results of the present study have shown the cytotoxic effect of some fractions of ZM. The most considerable cytotoxic effect was shown against HT-29 cell line. Also, total ZM extract and the petroleum ether fraction demonstrated cytotoxic effects with IC50 values of 44.22 and 33.42 µg/ml on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. Conclusion: Zataria multiflora was cytotoxic to against colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-48.

  13. Chemical constituents of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran

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    Ahmad Reza GOLPARVAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. are aromatic plants belonging to Lamiaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical components of D. kotschyi and D. moldavica from Iran. The aerial parts of D. kotschyi were collected from (Kamu Mountain Isfahan province and the aerial parts of D. moldavica were collected from Sari (Mazandaran province North of Iran, during 2014. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In total, 32 and 24 compounds were identified in the essential oil from the aerial parts D. kotschyi and D. moldavica, respectively. The results obtained in our study indicated that the major components in the oil D. kotschyi were limonene (23.56 %, carvacrol (14.65 %, γ-terpinene (12.99 %, α -pinene (12.62 %, 2-methyl-1-octen-3-yne (9.73 %, camphene (4.66 %, myrcene (3.65 % and α -terpinene (3.12 %. The major constituents of the oil D. moldavica were geranyl acetate (36.62 %, geraniol (24.31 %, neral (16.25 % and geranial (11.21 %. D. kotschyi is one of the important sources of limonene and D. moldavica is one of the important sources of geranyl acetate.

  14. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  15. [The use of RAPD and ITE molecular markers to study genetical structure of the Crimean population of Triticum boeoticum Boiss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallabaeva, D Sh; Ignatov, A N; Sheĭko, I A; Isikov, V P; Geliuta, V P; Boĭko, N G; Seriapin, A A; Dorokhov, D B

    2007-01-01

    Wild wheat Triticum boeoticum Boiss. is the rare species are included in the Red Book of Ukraine. This species are reducing the magnitude of population and the area of distribution under anthropogenic activity. We studied genetic structure of two populations of T. boeoticum, located on Sapun Mountain and in Baidar Valley in Crimea. According RAPD and ITE molecular analysis we have estimated that the population of T. boeoticum on Sapun Mountain is genetically more impoverished than a population from the Baidar Valley. For preservation of maximal natural genetic polymorphism of the rare species it is recommended to direct efforts to preservations of a population of T. boeoticum from the Baidar Valley.

  16. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of the essential oil from Ferula gummosa Boiss. roots

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    T. Saadattalab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Umbelliferae is a popular medicinal plant, which is known mostly for therapeutic uses of its oleo-gum-resin (Barijeh in Persian. In the present study, the essential oil of F. gummosa roots was investigated for its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of the essential oil (extracted by hydrodistillation method were analyzed using GC-MS. Antioxidant and toxicity properties of the oil were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test, respectively. Results: Forty-two compounds, representing 87.7% of total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis of the plant roots oil. The essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons (55.9%, mainly β-pinene (33.2%, β-phellandrene (8.0% and α-pinene (6.9%. In DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, the oil sample did not demonstrate any activity at the highest tested concentration (1.0 mg/mL. However, it was found very toxic in brine shrimp lethality test with LD50 value of 2.4 µg/mL. Conclusion: The results of this study introduced the F. gummosa roots oil as a source of monoterpene hydrocarbons, especially β-pinene. Considering the high yield of essential oil extraction (12.1% v/w, these compounds may be involved in anticonvulsant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of F. gummosa root. Moreover, considerable toxicity of the root oil highlights it as an appropriate candidate for further mechanistic toxicological studies.

  17. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of Ferula gummosa Boiss. to reveal major biosynthetic pathways of galbanum compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani Najafabadi, Ahmad; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Farahmand, Hamid; Abbasi, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. is an industrial and pharmaceutical plant that has been highly recognized for its valuable oleo-gum-resin, namely galbanum. Despite the fabulous value of galbanum, very little information on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of its production existed. In the present study, the oleo-gum-resin and four organs (root, flower, stem, and leaf) of F. gummosa were assessed in terms of metabolic compositions and the expression of genes involved in their biosynthetic pathways. Results showed that the most accumulation of resin and essential oils were occurred in the roots (13.99 mg/g) and flowers (6.01 mg/g), respectively. While the most dominant compound of the resin was β-amyrin from triterpenes, the most abundant compounds of the essential oils were α-pinene and β-pinene from monoterpenes and α-eudesmol and germacrene-D from sesquiterpenes. Transcriptome analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for the plant roots and flowers. Differential gene expression analysis showed that 1172 unigenes were differential between two organs that 934 (79.6%) of them were up-regulated in the flowers and 238 (20.4%) unigenes were up-regulated in the roots (FDR ≤0.001). The most important up-regulated unigenes in the roots were involved in the biosynthesis of the major components of galbanum, including myrcene, germacrene-D, α-terpineol, and β-amyrin. The results obtained by RNA-Seq were confirmed by qPCR. These analyses showed that different organs of F. gummosa are involved in the production of oleo-gum-resin, but the roots are more active than other organs in terms of the biosynthesis of triterpenes and some mono- and sesquiterpenes. This study provides rich molecular and biochemical resources for further studies on molecular genetics and functional genomics of oleo-gum-resin production in F. gummosa.

  18. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Teucrium persicum Boiss. Extract in Mice

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    Abdolhossein Miri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Therapeutic properties of Teucrium species as antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, anticancer, diuretic, and tonic compounds have been proved earlier. Materials and Methods. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium persicum on chronic pain, sciatic nerve ligation as a model of neuropathic pain, and inflammatory models were investigated by formalin, hot-plate, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in mice, respectively. T. persicum aqueous extracts (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg were orally gavaged for one week. On 8th day, the time spent and the number of lickings were recorded in formalin test. Morphine and Diclofenac were used intraperitoneally as positive controls. In sciatic nerve ligated animals, as a model of neuropathic pain, doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of T. persicum extract (TPE were orally gavaged for 14 consecutive days. The analgesic effect of this extract was examined 14 days after sciatic nerve ligation using the hot-plate test. Controls received saline and Imipramine (40 mg/kg, i.p. was used a positive control for neuropathic pain model. Results. In the formalin test, a week oral gavage of all TPE doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg caused a significant decrease on the licking response compared to the control negative animals. In the hot-plate test, doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant analgesic effects in sciatic nerve ligated animals. Oral gavaged of TPE revealed significant analgesic effect on chronic pain in both formalin test and sciatic nerve ligated animals. The TPEs did not have any significant anti-inflammatory effects in cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice. Conclusions. These results suggest that the aqueous extract from T. persicum Boiss. produced antinociceptive effects. Its exact mechanism of action still remains indistinct.

  19. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.

  20. Phytochemical screening, anticancer and antioxidant activities of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek, a plant of traditional usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldaş, Serkan; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Ozen, Tevfik; Demirci, Mehmet Ali; Behçet, Lütfi

    2015-03-15

    A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). Differences between the essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were shown. The main component of the essential oil was caryophyllene oxide, while the main volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol as determined by HS-GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF-MS. Ten phenolic compounds were found in the extracts from O. vulgare and Origanum acutidens: rosmarinic acid (in highest abundance), chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin-7-glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This study provides first results on the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of O. vulgare ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of Ferula gummosa Boiss gum against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Acinetobacter clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Fatemeh Farid; Saffarian, Parvaneh; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Sattarian, Fereshteh; Amin, Mohsen; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-08-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss. 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011-2012. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the isolates using disk diffusion method. To detect and confirm the ESBL-positive isolates, phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed. Three types of F. gummosa oleo-gum-resin extracts and essential oils were prepared and the bioactive components of F. gummosa Boiss extracts were determined by GC-Mass chromatography. F. gummosa antimicrobial activity was evaluated against standard strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606) as well as Acinetobacter clinical isolates using well and disk diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by broth microdilution method. 46 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. All clinical isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. 12.94% of the isolates were phenotypically ESBL-producing among which 94.2% carried ESBL genes ( bla PER-1 , bla OXA-4 and bla CTX-M ) detected by PCR. Oleo-gum-resin of F. gummosa had significant antibacterial activity and alcoholic essential oil had higher inhibitory effect on Acinetobacter strains (MIC of 18.75 mg/ml). Ferula gummosa extract contained components with well-known antimicrobial effects.

  2. Comparative study of the chemical profiling, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of different parts of Thymus willdenowii Boiss & Reut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouknin, Mohamed; Romane, Abderrahmane; Costa, Jean; Majidi, Lhou

    2018-02-27

    The analysis of Thymus willdenowii Boiss & Reut essential oils (TW EOs) shows 33 components accounting for (96.3-97.7%) of all identified. The main constituents of TW EOs were thymol (35.5-47.3%), p-cymene (13.9-23.8%), γ-terpinene (8.9-20.3%). The antioxidant assays revealed that all TW EOs tested showed strong activities, the antimicrobial effect of TW EOs has been tested against isolated clinical strains of Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 35659), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), and Aspergillus brasilliensis (ATCC 16404). The antimicrobial test indicates that TW EOs show an inhibition effect against all the tested bacteria with a MIC of 6.9 to 27.6 μg/mL -1 . These results proving that the essential oils extracted from Thymus willdenowii Boiss & Reut may be a new potential source of natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  3. Antioxidant properties of cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss.) extract and its protective role against abiotic stress tested by microRNA markers

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Ražná; Nishonoy Khasanova; Eva Ivanišová; Davranov Qahramon; Miroslav Habán

    2018-01-01

    Bunium persicum Boiss. seeds have been used for medicinal and nutritional properties such as antioxidant, antihelmetic and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to to tested protective role of cumin extract against abiotic stress by microRNA markers. Secondary also was to evaluate antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid content of cumin extract. We observed that cumin DNA itself has not been damaged by sonication teratment. This protective im...

  4. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  5. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C; Paz, M D; Diaz, A

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Genetic diversity in populations of Isatis glauca Aucher ex Boiss. ssp. from Central Anatolia in Turkey, as revealed by AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Özlem; Görgülü, Elçin; Yıldırımlı, Şinasi

    2013-12-01

    Isatidae L. is a complex and systematically difficult genus in Brassicaceae. The genus displays great morphological polymorphism, which makes the classification of species and subspecies difficult as it is observed in Isatis glauca Aucher ex Boiss. The aim of this study is characterization of the genetic diversity in subspecies of Isatis glauca Aucher ex Boiss. distributed widely in Central Anatolia, in Turkey by using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Eight different Eco RI-Mse I primer combinations produced 805 AFLP loci, 793 (98.5%) of which were polymorphic in 67 accessions representing nine different populations. The data obtained by AFLP was computed with using GDA (Genetic Data Analysis) and STRUCTURE (version 2.3.3) software programs for population genetics. The mean proportion of the polymorphic locus (P), the mean number of alleles (A), the number of unique alleles (U) and the mean value of gene diversity (He) were 0.59, 1.59, 20, and 0.23 respectively. The coancestry coefficient (ϴ) was 0.24. The optimal number of K was identified as seven. The principal component analysis (PCA) explained 85.61% of the total genetic variation. Isatis glauca ssp. populations showed a high level of genetic diversity, and the AFLP analysis revealed that high polymorphism and differentiated subspecies could be used conveniently for population genetic studies. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on the dissimilarity matrix, the dendrogram drawn with UPGMA method and STRUCTURE cluster analysis distinguished the accessions successfully. The accessions formed distinctive population structures for populations AA, AB, E, K, and S. Populations AG1 and AG2 seemed to have similar genetic content, in addition, in both populations several hybrid individuals were observed. The accessions did not formed distinctive population structures for both populations AI and ANP. Consequently, Ankara province might be the area, where species Isatis glauca Aucher

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of essential oil and fatty acids of different parts of Ligularia persica Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Hosseini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the fatty acids and essential oil from various parts of Ligularia persica Boiss (L. persica) growing wild in north of Iran. Essential oils were extracted by using Clevenger-type apparatus. Antibacterial activity was tested on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by using micro dilution method. GC and GC∕MS analysis of the oils resulted in detection of 94%, 96%, 93%, 99% of the total essential oil of flowers, stems, roots and leaves, respectively. The main components of flowers oil were cis-ocimene (15.4%), β-myrcene (4.4%), β-ocimene (3.9%), and γ-terpinene (5.0%). The major constituents of stems oil were β-phellandrene (5.4%), β-cymene (7.0%), valencene (3.9%). The main compounds of root oil were fukinanolid (17.0%), α-phellandrene (11.5%) and Β-selinene (5.0%) and in the case of leaves oil were cis-ocimene (4.8%), β-ocimene (4.9%), and linolenic acid methyl ester (4.7%). An analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS on the fatty-acid composition of the different parts of L. persica showed that major components were linoleic acid (11.3-31.6%), linolenic acid (4.7-21.8%) and palmitic acid (7.2-23.2%). Saturated fatty acids were found in lower amounts than unsaturated ones. The least minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of the L. persica was 7.16 μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our study indicated that the essential oil from L. persica stems and flowers showed high inhibitory effect on the Gram negative bacteria. The results also showed that fatty acids from the stems and leaves contained a high amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

  8. Agronomical and Botanical Characteristics of Cuminum setifolium (Boiss. Kos.-Pol. a Plant with Potentially Medicinal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas SAFARNEJAD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine. Cuminum setifolium ( Boiss. Kos.-Pol. with common name of white cumin, a member of the Apiaceae family, growing wild on mountains was investigated as a species having capability for cultivation and crop breeding. Generally, there is not information about Cuminum setifolium species. The aim of this study was to found plant identification and distribution in Iran, phenology, best treatment for seeds germination, farm cultivation and anatomical description. Cuminum setifolium plant is a annual herb which is distributed in Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tien-Shan and central Asia. In our studied region, the plant is generally grown on calcareous marl soils with climatic conditions of desert cold, semi-arid to arid having hot summer and cold winter. The effects of different treatment on seed germination showed significant highest germination percentage (54.4%, germination rate (6.4% were obtained from seeds that had exposed for 3 weeks at 4�C after omit of seeds hairs. The experiment of cultivation showed the best time for sowing in Mashhad was autumn and growing time was from middle of March until end of June and ripening seeds were end of June at 2005. Microscopic observation of the root structure showed lacking secondary structures and having epidermis tissue with only a row of cells along with relatively thick cuticle and for stem and leaf structure with stomata without any hairs. Parenchyma cells contained 2-3 rows of irregular oblong cells. Stomata type of epidermis was diacytic and distance between stomata was measured 5 ?m in average.

  9. Euphorbia L. subsect. Esula (Boiss. in DC. Pax in the Iberian Peninsula. Leaf surface, chromosome numbers and taxonomic treatment

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    Molero, Julià

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the representatives or Euphorbia subsect. Esula in the Iberian Peninsula. Prior to this, a first section is included on the study of the leaf surface and a second section on chromosome numbers.
    The section on leaf surface is based on a study of the leaves or 45 populations of Iberian and European taxa of the subsections using a light microscope and SEM. The characters analyzed are cell shape, morphology of the cells and stomata (primary and secondary sculpture and epicuticular waxes (tertiary sculpture. Some microcharacters of the leaf surface proved particularly usefu1for taxonomical purposes. Thus the basic type of stoma and the distribution model of the stomata on the two sides of the leaf are characters which make it possible to separate taxa as closely related as E. esula L. subsp. esula and E. esula L. subsp orientalis (Boiss. in DC. Molero & Rovira. The morphological type of the epicuticular waxes also enables us to differentiate between E.graminifolia Vill. and E. esula aggr. And to distinguish subsp. bolosii Molero & Rovira from the remaining subespecies in E. nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter.
    Cytogenetic investigation reveals the presence of only the diploid cytotype (2n=10 in E. cyparissias L. and E. esula L. subsp. esula in the Iberian Peninsula. We describe for the first time in E. nevadensis s.1. a polyploidy complex with a base of x= 10 in which the diploid level (2n=20 is present in all subspecies; the tetraploid level (2n=40 is present in E. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis and the hexaploid level (2n=60 is found in E. nevadensis subsp. bolosii. Chromosome number is not a parameter that can be used for taxonomic purposes. In E. nevadensis, cytogenetic differentiation has followed its own course, with no apparent relationship to the process of morphological

  10. Effect of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Germination Stage and Growth of Black Cumin (Bunium Persicum Boiss

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    H. R. Saeedi Goraghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Range plants have important and crucial roles in medicinal industry andtogether with scarcity and low quality of the water and soil resources, prevent a quick recovery of the soil plant covering. Because of these restrictions, it is important to consider the use of salt and drought tolerant species for plantation and to preserve plant cover. In this sense, the use of native species such as black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss may be of interest due to their medicinal characteristics and potential ability to adapt to adverse conditions (dry and saline conditions. Black cumin (B. persicum as a medicinal plant plays a vital role in Iranian medicine so there is a need to know about the factors affecting their growth and propagation. Materials and Methods To investigate the effects of drought and salt stresses on germination and growth in black cumin two separate experiments were conducted. Drought stress was applied through incubation in four different concentrations of PEG 6000 that provide solutions with water potentials ranging from -0.2 to -0.8 MPa (including control and four levels of dryness. Salinity treatments (including control and four levels of salinity were prepared by adding molar concentrations of NaCl to provide a range of salinity from 50 to 300 mM. Germination percentage and speed was calculated by computation of germinated seeds every day. Growth parameters (rootlet, shoot and seedling length total, allometric index and seed vigority were obtained accordingly. Results and Discussion Seeds under both drought and salt stress showed significant reduction in germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, and alometric and seed vigor indices. This trend was much pronounced under high levels of NaCl and low levels of water potentials, so that germination at Ψs = -0.6 MP was completely stopped. Conclusions Assessment of drought and salt stresses on germination and growth in black cumin is very

  11. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits

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    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.

  12. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi Faezeh; Dini Salome; Dadkhah Abolfazl; Zolfaghari Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities. - Highlights: • Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil has potential in vitro antimicrobial effect. • Z. multiflora oil has potential antimicrobial effect in vivo system. • The antibacterial activities of the oil remained after irradiation treatments

  13. Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Copao Fruit (Eulychnia acida Phil. Unswe Thee Environmental Conditions in the Coquimbo Region Características Químicas y Composición Nutricional de los Frutos de Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. Bajo tres Condiciones Ambientales de la Región de Coquimbo

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    Lilia Masson S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. is an endemic arborescent cactus restricted mainly to the semi-arid Coquimbo Region (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" W, Chile. The area of distribution is from sea level to 1200 m.a.s.l. The edible fruit called rumpa is generally round, with green or pink peel and small scales on its surface, showing wide variability in size and weight. The aim of this work was to characterize the rumpa harvested in January 2009 and 2010 in three sectors of Coquimbo Region to determine chemical and nutritional composition in three fractions: pulp with seeds, juice, and peel. The research showed that this fruit is a good natural source of mainly soluble dietary fiber, which has a jellied texture and is present in the three fractions analyzed: 2% for juice, 3% for pulp with seeds, and approximately 5% for peel, making it potentially a good source of hydrocolloids for the food industry. The fruit is also a good source of vitamin C; around 55 mg 100 g-1 in peel, and 30 mg 100 g-1 in pulp with seeds and juice, values considered high compared to 18 mg 100 g-1 for prickly pear (Opuntiaficus-indica [L.] Mill. The main minerals were: K, Mg, Ca, and P. Total polyphenols and betalain pigments were also determined in the pulp with seeds and pink peel fractions, respectively. The nutritional characteristics, together with its high water content of around 96%, make rumpa a promising raw material for agro-industrial development of natural juices or isotonic drinks. This characterization helps in the recovery of an endemic native species by reducing potential threats to destroy wild populations of E. acid, especially near agricultural areas, and by promoting habitat conservation of the species in the region.El copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. es un cactus arborescente endémico restringido principalmente a la región semi árida de Coquimbo (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" O, Chile. El área de distribución comprende desde el nivel del mar hasta los 1200 m de

  14. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits Substâncias eliminadoras de radicais livres das partes aéreas de Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae e análise por CG-MS dos óleos essenciais de seus frutos

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    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae é uma das três espécies endémicas no Irã do gênero Grammosciadium DC. Consumo da parte aérea da planta afeta a função renal e causa diurese. No ensaio por DPPH o extrato metanólico apresentou o maior nível de atividade de antioxidante por radicais livres (RC50 = 1,196 x 10-2 mg/mL entre os extratos. Análises por HPLC preparativa de fase reversa do extrato metanólico resultou no isolamento de nove flavonóides, os quais foram responsáveis pela atividade de antioxidante do extrato metanólico. A análises por CG-EM dos óleos essenciais levou à identificação de 29 terpenóides, principalmente monoterpenos (não-oxigenados 3,97% e oxigenados, 77,49%, os quais representam mais de 96% do total de óleos.

  15. Effectiveness of Cuscuta planiflora Ten. and Nepeta menthoides Boiss. & Buhse in major depression: a triple-blind randomized controlled trial study.

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    Firoozabadi, Ali; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Salehi, Alireza; Jahanbin, Saye; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2015-04-01

    Depression is one the most common mental disorders that can be seen all over the world. In traditional Persian medicine, some medicinal herbs are recommended for depression treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Cuscuta planiflora Ten. and Nepeta menthoides Boiss. & Buhse in patients with major depression. This study is a randomized triple-blind controlled clinical trial conducted in the year 2010 in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences on patients with major depression. Pharmaceutical capsules of Cuscuta planiflora (500 mg) and Nepeta menthoides (400 mg) were prepared by a pharmacist. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group A (treated with Nepeta menthoides capsules and conventional drugs), group B (treated with Cuscuta planiflora capsules and conventional drugs), and group C (treated only with conventional drugs). The study period was 8 weeks and depression was measured before and after the study by Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Inventory. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 and the P Cuscuta planiflora and Nepeta menthoides capsules could be effective, affordable herbal medicines with improved cost-benefit in treatment of major depression and it is worth designing further and more extensive studies to get to a more accurate conclusion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Study of Dormancy Type and Effect of Different Pre-Sowing Treatments on Seed Germination of Bladder-Senna (Colutea bohsei Boiss. in Laboratory Conditions

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    Ahmad BEIKMOHAMMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the existence and type of the dormancy and effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on seed germination of Colutea buhsei Boiss. (Fabaceae as one of the Iran native plants, arid-land and ornamental shrub with ability of usage in the urban landscape design. The experiment was performed with 15 treatments and 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, concentrated (98% H2SO4, cold stratification (CS, soaking with tab water, floating in hot water (100�C followed by continual cooling for 24 hr in the same water and combined treatments. Afterwards seeds were sown in laboratory conditions to determine the factors� effects on germination percentage (GP, germination rate (GR, root and shoot length of Colutea bohsei seeds. All of these treatments, except for GA3 (250 and 500 ppm, increased the percentage and rate of the seed germination. Maximum germination percentage (66.25% and rate (14.9 seeds per day in 7 days was obtained at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min. Maximum root and shoot length was observed at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min plus GA3 (100 ppm, 24 hr. Use of GA3 (100 ppm in 24 hr after H2SO4 increased the germination rate and shoot length but this additive effect was not significant.

  17. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

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    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-β-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

  18. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

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    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  19. Verbascum bombyciferum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) as possible bio-indicator for the assessment of heavy metals in the environment of Bursa, Turkey.

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    Arslan, Hülya; Güleryüz, Gürcan; Leblebici, Zeliha; Kirmizi, Serap; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we determined the heavy metal content (Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the soil surrounding the roots and different organs of Verbascum bombyciferum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae), which is endemic to Uludağ Mountain, Bursa, Turkey. Plant samples were collected from roadsides, and heavy metal accumulation capabilities were tested. This is one of the pioneer species of ruderal plant communities on roadsides, building sites, rubbish dumps, etc. Different organs of plant samples (roots, stems, leaves, and flowers) and their soils were analyzed by inductively couple plasma optical emission spectroscopy for their heavy metal contents. Some of the analyzed heavy metals (Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+)) were usually increased depending on the traffic in the sample sites, and this variation was also reflected in heavy metal content of plant samples. Our results show that this plant can be used as a bio-indicator species in the monitoring of increased Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) in the environment. We also concluded that V. bombyciferum have the capability of Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) accumulation.

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

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    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Centaurea tomentella Hand.-Mazz. and C. haussknechtii Boiss. (Asteraceae) collected wild in Turkey and their activity on microorganisms affecting historical art craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Maurizio; Modica, Aurora; Catinella, Giorgia; Canlı, Cem; Arasoglu, Tülin; Çelik, Sezgin

    2018-04-18

    In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts of Centaurea tomentella Hand.-Mazz. and C. haussknechtii Boiss. collected in Turkey was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of C. tomentella L. were hexadecanoic acid (19.7%), caryophyllene oxide (6.6%) and spathulenol (4.8%) whereas C. haussknechtii was rich in hexadecanoic acid (26.2%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (19.3%), heptacosane (5.3%) and nonacosane (5.1%). Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical art craft, were also determined.

  2. Antioxidant properties of cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss. extract and its protective role against abiotic stress tested by microRNA markers

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    Katarína Ražná

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bunium persicum Boiss. seeds have been used for medicinal and nutritional properties such as antioxidant, antihelmetic and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to to tested protective role of cumin extract against abiotic stress by microRNA markers. Secondary also was to evaluate antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid content of cumin extract. We observed that cumin DNA itself has not been damaged by sonication teratment. This protective impact indicates that cumin antioxidant properties can efficiently quench free radicals induced by sonication. On the other side, ultrasound-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species did induce the DNA polymorphism of lettuce samples which was detected by miRNAs-based markers. The range of sonication impact was time-dependent. Markers based of miRNA-DNA sequences has proven to be an effective tool. We have confirmed statistically significant differences (p ≤0.01 in miRNAs markers ability to detect the polymorphism due to sonication treatment.  The antioxidant activity was determined by a method using DPPH radical and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin - Ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoid with aluminium-chloride mehod and total phenolic acid with Arnova reagent. Results showed that cumin is rich for biologically active substances and can be used more in different kind of industry as a cheap source of these substances. Antioxidant activity with DPPH method was 1.18 mg TEAC.g-1 (TEAC - Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method 45.23 mg TEAC.g-1. Total polyphenol content achieved value 4.22 mg GAE.g-1 (GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of sample, total flavonoid content value 10.91 mg QE.g-1 (QE - quercetin equivalent per g of sample and total phenolic acid content value 5.07 mg CAE.g-1 (CAE - caffeic acid equivalent per g of sample.

  3. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Oil and Extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.: Wild and Cultivated Fruits

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    Arezoo Rustaie 1,2, Roya Keshvari 1, Nasrin Samadi 3, Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi 4, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani 1,5, Mahnaz Khanavi 1,2,6 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch (Apiaceae has been used as spice, anti-flatulence and antiseptic agent for many years. In recent years the wild resources of the plant have been threatened by extinction. Domestication of such a plant saves its genetic resources from depletion. However, concerns remain about the possible changes due to development of chemotypes and changes in the composition and biological and pharmacological potentials. Methods: Analyses of essential oils from fruits of wild and cultivated types was performed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Antimicrobial assessment was done by agar diffusion method Results: The main compounds of both oils were included γ-terpinene (30.77% and 27.57%, cuminaldehyde (20.49% and 21.1%, ρ-cymene (20.1% and 18.32% and γ-terpinen-7-al (8.29% and 7.84% respectively. Analytical results of both tested oils exhibited very close similarities in major compounds, whereas some differences in their percentages were observed. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of volatile oils, total extract and the resultant fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans demonstrated some similarities and differences. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of wild grown fruits essential oils ranged between 0.375-1.5 mg/ml, while those of cultivated one were 0.75-6.25 mg/ml. All extracts and fractions showed similarly minor antibacterial potential while anti-Candida albicans activity was much remarkable with MICs calculated 2.5-5 mg/ml for cultivated and 5 mg/ml for wild grown extracts and fractions. Conclusion: In conclusion, despite the substantial similarities in composition of both oils, the alteration in antimicrobial results may be caused by variety in concentration of major and minor compounds and their synergism or antagonism in mixture.

  4. Alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds used as novel eco-friendly inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution: Electrochemical and surface studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hamdani, Naoual; Fdil, Rabiaa [Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Tourabi, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Jama, Charafeddine [UMET-PSI, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, Université Lille 1, CS 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, Fouad, E-mail: fbentiss@enscl.fr [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); UMET-PSI, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, Université Lille 1, CS 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AERS is good eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • AERS acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • AERS adsorption is well described by Langmuir isotherm. • Surface analyses were used to explain the AERS mechanism of carbon steel corrosion inhibition. - Abstract: Current research efforts now focus on the development of non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors as alternatives to different organic and non-organic compounds. In this field, alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds (AERS) was tested for the first time as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. The obtained results showed that this plant extract's acts as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl and an inhibition efficiency of 94.4% was reached with 400 mg/L of AERS at 30 °C. Ac impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Impedance results demonstrated that the addition of the AERS in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Polarization curves indicated that AERS is a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of such alkaloid extract on the steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by AERS is mainly controlled by a physisorption process and the inhibitive layer is composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture where AERS molecules are incorporated.

  5. Amelioration of amyloid β-induced cognitive deficits by Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlessi, Nahid; Choopani, Samira; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Azizi, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    The limitations of current Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics have prompted investigation into innovative therapeutics focused on antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective agents including those from medicinal plants. Numerous plants have been tested for their potential for alleviating symptoms of AD. Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZM) a member of Lamiaceae family has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for its beneficial effects on mental abilities. Therefore, the effect of its essential oil was evaluated in a rat model of AD. Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) fragment 25-35 was injected bilaterally in the CA1 region of rats hippocampus and the effect of different doses of ZM essential oil (50, 100, or 200 μL/kg) on cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze. Acute toxicity of the essential oil was also studied. The results showed increases in escape latency, traveled distance, heading angle, and decreases in target quadrant entries in Aβ-received groups as compared to the control group. This impairment was reversed by ZM essential oil. The results of acute toxicity testing revealed that the calculated LD50 (1264.9 μL/kg) is much higher than the therapeutic dose (100 μL/kg). It seems that antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticholinesterase activities of ZM or its main constituents might contribute to its beneficial effects in this model. Our findings suggest that ZM may be a potentially valuable source of natural therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. However, further investigations are necessary to establish its clinical efficacy and potential toxicity, before any recommendations concerning its use as a medication in the treatment of AD. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Antioxidant, Color and Antibacterial Properties of Edible Chitosan Film Incorporated with Zataria Multiflora Boiss ٍEssential Oil against Listeria Monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The film containing antimicrobial agents are a type of active packaging which is mainly designed to control microbial and chemical spoilage of food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and color properties of chitosan film incorporated with essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZEO. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Urmia University of Medical Sciences between 2009-2010, the chemical composition of ZEO was analyzed using GC-MS. Chitosan films containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% ZEO, were obtained by casting method and subsequently, total phenol (TP, antioxidant, color (accordance with hunter system (L* (luminosity, * (redness, and b* (yellowness and antimicrobial characteristics of films on Listeria monocytogenes were studied. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: The order of TP for all films in the experiment was 2% ZEO1% ZEO 0.5% ZEO unsupplemented chitosan film, respectively. It was also concluded that the antioxidant activity of chitosan films was increased by adding various concentrations of ZEO. These increases were significant for film containing 1% (33.98% and 2% (37.77% ZEO (p0.05. Regarding the color luminosity (L* of the chitosan film, results indicated no significant changes by incorporating ZEO, whereas the incorporation of ZEO into films had a significant effect on film yellowness, evidenced by lower b* values. Finally, it was shown that the presence of ZEO in chitosan films significantly modified the anti- listerial activity of chitosan, (p0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that an active film from chitosan could be achieved by incorporating ZEO. Addition of ZEO improves functional and antibacterial characteristics of chitosan film.

  7. Establecimiento de una red de equilibrios biológicos en ecosistemas con presencia de pinsapo (Abies pinsapo Boiss. en Andalucía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía established a Monitoring Network on ecosystems of Abies pinsapo Boiss.for evaluating the phytosanitary state in the natural range areas of A. pinsapo in the Iberian Península: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Spain, Sierra de Grazalema (Cadiz, Spain and Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Spain. This network is based on a 1 x 1 Km grid established throughout the forest stands where Abies pinsapo is present, given by the Mapa Forestal de España (Spanish land cover map, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. The Network has been constructed from 35 sample plots, which will be visited annually (in summer in order to assess the state of trees. This article describes the network design process and the main results from the first campaign of sampling.

    [fr]
    En mai 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente-Junta de Andalucía a mis sur pied un Réseau pour la surveillance systématique et multitemporelle de l'état de santé et vitalité des forets de Abies pinsapo Boiss. dans ses aires de répartition naturelle dans la Péninsule Ibérique: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Espagne, Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz, Espagne et Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Espagne. Cet inventaire a été réalisé à partir d'un réseau d'échantillonnage systématique selon un maillage de 1 x 1 kilomètres couvrant la surface des forêts avec présence de Abies pinsapo, d'après la Mapa Forestal de España (Carte Forestière Espagnole, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. Après Rétablissement, l'inventaire a été constitué par 35 parcelles d'observation, qui seront visitées annuellement (en été pour évaluer l'état des arbres. Cette note présente le dessin de ce réseau et les résultats de la première campagne de terrain.
    [es]
    En la primavera del año 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía estableció una Red de Equilibrios Biol

  8. Sclerorhachis Platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech Ex Rech. F.: an Indigenous Medicinal Plant from Northeastern Iran; Essential Oil Composition, Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Sclerorhachis platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech ex Rech. f. (Compositae, growing wild in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The total yield of volatiles was 0.38% (w/w. Sixty- three compounds representing 89.2% of the aerial parts oil were identified.  The main components of the oil were β-pinene (17.5% and γ-terpinene (15.4%. The oil was rich in monoterpenoids, and among them, monoterpene hydrocarbons (48.7% predominated over oxygenated monoterpenes (11.8%. The total flavonoid content of different extracts of the plant was in the range 52.4-172.3 mg/g, with the maximum amount being in the methanol extract. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were also measured based on radical scavenging activity of antioxidants using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results showed that IC50 values of extracts of S. platyrachis are higher than for the standard synthetic antioxidants, BHT, ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  9. de Thymus fontanesii Boiss & Reut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Les huiles essentielles sont conservées à 4°C et à l'abri de la lumière. 2-3. Analyse physicochimique de l'huile essentielle du. Thymus fontanesii. Ces analyses sont faites en conformité aux normes A.F.N.O.R [4] Nous avons déterminé les: Caractères physiques : densité, indice de réfraction, pouvoir rotatoire, solubilité dans.

  10. Using Oxytetracycline, Amikacin and Erythromycin in Controlling Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Rhytisma acerinum as Pathogen in Tar Spot Disease at Acer velutinum Boiss in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mehdi Karami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There are seven species and sub-species of Acer sp. in the Northern forest of Iran. One of the most important diseases of this tree in all over the world is tar spot. Two species of fungi, which cause this disease, are Rhytisma acerinum and R. punctatum from the category of Ascomycetidae. Studies on the Acer platinum sp. show that causative agent of this disease is R.punctatum which cause the early fall and make leaves turning yellow especially in the plant nurseries and forested areas. Therefore, investigating the use of antibiotics in treating this disease in the forest areas is necessary. The objective of the current research was to use Oxytetracycline, Amikacin and Erythromycin in Controlling mycelial growth and spore germination of R. acerinum as Pathogen in tar spot disease at Acer velutinum Boiss in vitro. Materials and methods: To control the disease of Maple tar spot in the condition of light and darkness, the medium containing oxytetracycline, Amikacin and Erythromycin were used. Four different dosage of 50, 100, 200, 500 microliter, of oxytetracycline 10% in the light and dark conditions in 100cc of distilled water and Amikacin 5% in four different dose of, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 microliter, light and dark conditions in 100 cc of distilled water and for erythromycin 5% four different dose of, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 microliter in 100 cc of distilled water in light and dark conditions each in three repetitions of medium were prepared. In this step, to evaluate the effect of light on the rate of the growth of mycelium and fungal colonies of R. acerinum, for each of the treatments with the different dosage, half of the repetitions were under the light condition and another half in dark condition (incubator. Then, after the growth, radiant growth was measured over one week. To investigate the fungi spore germination, above steps, were performed, as well. Results and Discussion: The results showed that among the mentioned

  11. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  12. Corología de tres táxones de interés en el macizo del Castro Valnera: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. [Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Alejandre Sáez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ofrece una visión actualizada de la situación en el macizo del Castro Valnera de tres especies de alto interés regional: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. Se comentan datos sobre la historia de su descubrimiento en ese macizo. Se recogen y enumeran para cada uno de ellos los datos de recolecciones, citas bibliográficas y de campo. Con el conjunto de todas ellas se elaboran varios mapas. Finalmente, se aportan comentarios que contribuyen al conocimiento de su comportamiento ecológico y se apuntan algunas pautas y criterios a tener en cuenta para su protección. ABSTRACT: Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain. An updated view of the situation within the Castro Valnera mountain range of three species of high regional interest is provided: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. The history data of their discovery within that mountain range is discussed. Collections data and field citations are gathered and listed for each of them and several maps are drawn with the whole of them. Finally, comments that contribute to the knowledge of their environmental performance are provided, as well as some guidelines and criteria to be considered for their protection.

  13. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  14. Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2013-09-02

    Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety. © 2013.

  15. Treatments of acid waters; Tratamientos pasivos de aguas acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Fernandez, J. L.

    2000-07-01

    The exploitation of coal mining locations causes acid effluents due to the oxidation of the sulfurous minerals content of the rocks, denominated acid waters. There are Pyritic materials, pyres and sulphates associated to acid waters that in presence of water, oxygen and certain bacteria (mainly Thiobacillus ferro oxidants), are oxidized, by means of a chemistry reaction, yielding different products. (Author)

  16. [Progress on biodegradation of polylactic acid--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Wang, Sha; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun

    2008-02-01

    Polylactic acid is a high molecular-weight polyester made from renewable resources such as corn or starch. It is a promising biodegradable plastic due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. To achieve natural recycling of polylactic acid, relative microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in the biodegradation has become an important issue in biodegradable materials. Up to date, most isolated microbes capable of degrading polylactic acid belong to actinomycetes. Proteases secreted by these microorganisms are responsible for the degradation. However, subtle differences exist between these polylactic acid degrading enzymes and typical proteases with respect to substrate binding and catalysis. Amino acids relative to catalysis are postulated to be highly plastic allowing their catalytic hydrolysis of polylactic acid. In this paper we reviewed current studies on biodegradation of polylactic acid concerning its microbial, enzymatic reactions and the possible mechanisms. We also discussed the probability of biologically recycling PLA by applying highly efficient strains and enzymes.

  17. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Mohammed Farid

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  18. Optimization of mooseer (A. hirtifolium Boiss.) dehydration under infrared conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Fealekari, Mosayeb

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, infrared drying has gained popularity as an alternative drying method for a va- riety of agricultural products. The use of infrared radiation technology in drying agricultural products has several advantages. These may include decreased drying time, high energy efficiency, high-quality finished products and uniform temperature in the product. With intermittent infrared and convection heating of a thick porous material, the drying time can be reduced compared to convection alone, while keeping good food quality and high energy efficiency. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the drying con- ditions of mooseer under infrared-convective drying. Experiments were performed at air temperatures of  40, 55 and 70°C, infrared powers of 500, 1000 and 1500 W, air velocities of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s and slice thicknesses of 2, 4, and 6 mm. In this study, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), shrinkage, color changes and specific energy consumption (SEC) were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was selected for the design and optimization of the process. Deff was obtained between 1.4×10 and 3.57×10    m /s. With increasing air temperature and slice –10                                  –9       2 thickness, Deff also increased. The level of shrinkage rose as slice thickness increased. The highest and lowest values of color changes were calculated at air temperatures of 70°C (52.3%) and 40°C (5.65%), respectively. Increasing air velocity led to an increase in SEC. Optimum conditions for mooseer drying were achieved at air temperature of 70°C, infrared power of 867.46, air velocity of 0.59 m/s and slice thickness of 2 mm. At this point, Deff, shrinkage, color changes and SEC was obtained as 1.32×10–9 m2/s, 29.58%, 17.62% and 4.64 MJ/kg, respectively. The desir- ability value of 0.689 was achieved for the drying process.  .

  19. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percent and decrease in heterophils percent that indicates positive effect the on enhancement of body immune system by Satureja bachtiarica. In present study Satureja bachtiarica extract did not show a significant increase in IgM compared to control group. Satureja bachtiarica showed a significant increase in neutrophils ...

  20. In vitro microtuberization of Black Zira (Bunium persicum Boiss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... Bunium persicum or Black Zira is one of the endangered species in the land of Persia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate microtuberization of B persicumin in order to use in germplasm storage and commercial production. Seeds of B. persicum were used as explant. Different culture media.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  2. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.

  3. Analogos sinteticos para a estrutura do sitio ativo das Fosfatases Acidas Purpuras

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marcos Aires de

    1994-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciencias Fisicas e Matematicas Foram sintetizados e caracterizados cinco novos complexos, binucleares de ferro como análogos sintéticos para a estrutura do sítio ativo das Fosfatases Ácidas Púrpuras: [Fe2III(BBPMP)(OAC)2][ClO4],(1). [Fe2III(BBPMP)(OAC)(OH)][ClO4],(2); [Fe2III/II(BBPMP)(OAC)2],(3); [Fe2III(BPBPMP)(OAC)2][ClO4]2,(4); e [Fe2III/II(BPBPMP)(OAC)2][ClO4],(5), onde OAC = acetato e BBPMP e BPBPMP representam, res...

  4. Electrochemical studies for an acid fuel cell; Estudos eletroquimicos de uma celula a combustivel acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.R.; Avaca, L.A.; Ticianelli, E.A.; Ferreira, A.C.; Oliveira, J.C.T. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1984-12-31

    This work describes the main steps for the development of the components of an one-kilowatt phosphoric acid H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell stack. The electrochemical characteristics of fundamental components-electrodes and electrolyte-matrix have been evaluated in unitary fuel cell prototype by stationary polarization curves and continuous operation curves. The results confirmed the better efficiency of the hydrogen electrode and anticipated a very fair performance for the one-kilowatt stack. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  5. Acid leaching of scheelite concentrates; Lixiviacion acida de concentrado de scheelita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    The acid leaching in hydrochloric media of a tungsten concentrate (scheelite, CaWO{sub 4}) was studied. Of the above-mentioned, an insoluble solid (H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was obtained which were treated with an alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide, achieving the complete solubilization of the tungsten as wolframate ion (WO''2{sub 4}). The transformed fraction of tungsten increases with the temperature, as well as with a finer grain. A maximum dissolution of 88.5% (400 g/l HCL, 363 K and 20 {mu}m of particle size) was achieved for a 3 h process, of the dissolution process was interpreted by the recessive core model with formation of a layer of solid product for the whole range of variation of the parameters in study. the activation energy value was found to be 28.0kJ/mol. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Cicca disticha L. Syn. C. AcidaMerr. (English: Gooseberry-tree ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -size tree, which is often cultivatedfor itsfruits. Older branches show large scars where foliage branches ... Fruit is a depressed globose berry, lobed with fleshy outer and hard inner portions. The fleshy edible part of the fruit is sour and is pickled.

  7. Actividad antibacteriana de soluciones acidas de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of chitosan acid solutions obtained from shrimp exoskeleton  Título: quitosano actividad antibacteriana Resumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de soluciones ácidas de quitosano obtenido a partir del exoesqueleto de camarón, sobre siete bacterias patógenas, cinco de las cuales corresponden a patógenas de humanos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 43863 y  K.  oxytoca ATCC 43086 y las fitopatógenas (Pectobacterium sp UDS y  Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Concentraciones de soluciones de quitosano  de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 3.5 % (v/v disuelto en  ácido acético de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 % (v/v fueron preparadas; a partir de estas concentraciones, mediante la técnica de Kirby-Bauer se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana in vitro. Los resultados de actividad antimicrobiana mostraron diferencias altamente significativas entre la especie de bacteria y los tratamientos de quitosano. Las bacterias P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 y ATCC 43863 fueron las más susceptibles a los tratamientos, mientras que E. faecalis, Pectobacterium sp y B. glumae mostraron resistencia. Los tratamientos T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9 en donde las concentraciones de quitosano estuvieron por encima a las del ácido acético, se presentaron mayores valores medios de actividad de antimicrobiana en mm y aumentó este valor para los tratamientos  T9 (5.8095 mm, T8 (6.00 mm para y  T9 (5.8095 mm, donde las concentraciones  de quitosano  de 2.5 y 3.5%, disuelta en ácido acético fueron igual a 2%.  Los resultados de este estudio en el Caribe Colombiano permitirán a futuro el reaprovechamiento del exoesqueleto de camarón como fuente de quitosano como un compuesto potencial frente al manejo al problema de salud pública ocasionada por las enfermedades bacterianas.  Palabras claves: camarón, quitosano, bacterias, patógenas. Abstract: The work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan obtained from exoskeleton of shrimp, on seven pathogenic bacteria, five of which corresponded to human pathogenic strain (ATCC 29212 Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. oxytoca ATCC 43863 and ATCC 43086 and two phytopathogenic strain (Pectobacterium sp UDS and Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Solution of chitosan of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5% (v/v dissolved in 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (v / v acetic acid was prepared, and with these concentrations through the Kirby-Bauer technique and the antibacterial activity in vitro was evaluated. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed significant differences between the species of bacteria and chitosan treatments evaluated. P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 and ATCC 43863 were the most susceptible to the treatments, while E. faecalis, B. glumae and Pectobacterium sp were resistant. The treatments T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9, where chitosan concentrations were above the acetic acid, showed higher mean mm antimicrobial activity and this value increased to T9 treatments (5.8095 mm , T8 (6.00 mm and T9 (5.8095 mm, where chitosan concentrations 2.5 and 3.5% solution in acetic acid was equal to 2%. The results of this study in the Colombian Caribbean enable future reuse of the exoskeleton of shrimp as a source of chitosan as a potential compound to handle the public health problem caused by bacterial diseases. Key words: shrimp, chitosan, bacteria, pathogens.

  8. Electrochemical studies for an acid fuel cell; Estudos eletroquimicos de uma celula a combustivel acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E R; Avaca, L A; Ticianelli, E A; Ferreira, A C; Oliveira, J C.T. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1985-12-31

    This work describes the main steps for the development of the components of an one-kilowatt phosphoric acid H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell stack. The electrochemical characteristics of fundamental components-electrodes and electrolyte-matrix have been evaluated in unitary fuel cell prototype by stationary polarization curves and continuous operation curves. The results confirmed the better efficiency of the hydrogen electrode and anticipated a very fair performance for the one-kilowatt stack. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  9. Absence of c-Aminobutyric Acid-A Receptor Potentiation in Central Hypersomnolence Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Evangelista, Elisa; Lopez, Regis; Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Cens, Thierry; Rousset, Matthieu; Charnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Objective: The pathophysiology of idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) remains unclear. Recently, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-induced enhancement of c-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor activity was found in patients with IH compared to controls. Methods: Fifteen unrelated patients (2 males and 13 females) affected with typical IH, 12 patients (9 males and 3 females) with narcolepsy type 1, and 15 controls (9 males and 6 females) with unspecified hypersomnolence (n 5 7) and misc...

  10. Processing gaseous acid mixtures - sulphur recovery by the Claus process. Tratamiento de mezalas gaseosas acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulgar, A; Orlay, R [Escuela Mineria Oviedo (Spain). Dep. Energia

    1989-04-01

    This is the most common method for processing both natural and manufactured acidic gases. It is also used for 'sweetening' refinery gases. The process cannot be applied directly to gases from a coal gasifier, as it requires an H{sub 2}S concentration of at least 15% by volume. This requirement is explained by the fact that the Claus process is a process of partial combustion and that a low concentration of this combustible gas would, therefore, not give adequate thermal output. This is because of the considerable loss of heat within the diluter gas and because in a coal conversion plant, this gas is CO{sub 2}. For these reasons, the prime objective is to achieve a H{sub 2}S/CO{sub 2} balance of 15% or greater. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Radiochemically pure [1-14C]valproic acid--a mixture of labeled structural isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.G.; Wood, B.T.; Kluck, R.M.; Hooper, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ongoing studies of the disposition of valproic acid (VPA) and its glucuronide conjugate required the radiolabeled drug for greater sensitivity and tracing of oxidation metabolites. [1- 14 C]VPA hereinafter called LABEL (radiochemical purity greater than 98% as determined by paper and thin layer chromatography) was purchased from Amersham International, U.K. Quantitative analysis of VPA and VPA-glucuronide in bile and urine samples from rats given VPA and tracer LABEL by our standard gas chromatographic assay showed gross discrepancies with the results obtained by liquid scintillation counting of the same extracts. Examination of the purity of LABEL was therefore undertaken. Equilibration of LABEL between various organic-aqueous solvent pairs was identical to that of authentic VPA. However, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivative of LABEL revealed it to be a mixture of labeled 2-methylheptanoic acid (approximately 60%), 2-ethylhexanoic acid (approximately 30%), and 2-propylpentanoic acid (i.e., VPA, 5-10%). The origin of the isomers of VPA in LABEL was logically traced to the synthetic procedure--coupling of the Grignard reagent of (an isomeric mixture of 2-, 3-, and 4-) chloroheptane(s) with [ 14 C]carbon dioxide. This result highlights the inadequacy of the quality control procedures used and reinforces the necessity for caution in accepting the quoted purity of radiolabeled drugs

  12. Seasonal variation of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components in the essential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Asghari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dracocephalum kotschyi is a plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family and exists mostly in south-west Asian countries, including Iran. This plant is used as antispasmodic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory to treat rheumatoid diseases. Methods: In order to investigate the impact of the harvesting time changes on the quantity and quality of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components of D. kotschyi aerial parts, ten samples were collected from cultivated plants from 19 April to 27 August 2013. Also samples of flower and root were harvested in order to investigate their essential oil components. The essential oils were obtained through hydrodistillation method. The components were studied and identified by GC and GC ⁄ MS systems. Results: The highest yield of the essential oil was obtained on 3 May (1.10% V.W and the lowest on 28 July (0.29% V.W. Totally 55 compounds were identified in the essential oil while the highest percentage belonged to monoterpenes especially the oxygenated ones. Most variations were observed in geraniol (1.40-15.34%, geranyl acetate (trace-14.41% and neryl acetate (0.62-17.51%. The major value in most cases belonged to geranial. Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that the harvesting time of plant is an effective factor in the quality and quantity of theessential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi.

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa Boiss

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    B. S. Fazly Bazzaz

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa, various parts of the plant were collected at specific seasons. Aerial parts and root of the plant were dried in shady place and grinded to desirable. Unnatural and natural gum resins did not have the drying and grinding stages. The alcohol-aqueous (33%extract was obtained by masuration and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporator at low temperature and vaccum condition. The essential oil was extracted by water and steam distillation. Its antinociceptive effect was investigated in mice using hot plate method. Antibacterial effect was determined using paper disk method. The results suggest that the maximum antinociceptive effect (efficacy of root and aerial parts extract was higher than morphine and maximum effect of unnatural and natural gum resins extract was equal to morphine. The maximum effect of essential oil and unnatural gum resin was less than morphine but potency of these preparations were less than morphine. The amount of microbial growth inhibition of all extracts was less than chloramphenicol (30 ;ug on gram positive bacteria, but these extracts have not any growth inhibitory effect on gram negative baceria. These extracts inhibited fungus growth equal to nystatin (100units. "nThese results in conjunction with economic considerations suggest the usefulness of aerial parts of plant for medical treatment.

  14. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-01-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H 2 SO 4 , 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs

  15. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

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    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  16. Optimization of Regeneration Conditions and In Vitro Propagation of Sideritis Stricta Boiss & Heldr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Dudu Özkum

    2016-09-01

    In this study the micropropagation of endemic species Sideritis stricta was investigated. Leaf segments and shoot explants (hypocotyl, single node and shoot tips) taken from in vitro growing plantlets and cultured on MS and B5 media containing different growth regulators combinations BAP (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/l) and NAA (0.0, 0.1 and 0.5mg/l). MS and B5 media supplemented with BAP (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/l) and NAA (0.1mg/l) combinations or only BAP and kinetin (2.0 and 3.0mg/l) were used at the subculture experiments of shoots and MS and B5 media supplemented with different concentrations of IBA (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 10.mg/l) were used at the rooting experiments. S. stricta seeds germinated at the rate of 100% when the seed coat was removed and endoperm with embryo part cultured on B5 medium. The single node explants taken from in vitro germinated and grown 30-40 days plantlets on B5 medium have been determined as the most successful explant at all used hormone combinations. B5 medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BAP+0.1mg/l NAA and 2.0mg/l BAP+0.5mg/l NAA was determined as the most effective medium on shoot formation. At the first and second subculture, the highest shoot formation was maintained on medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BAP+0.1mg/l NAA and the number of shoots per explant were 4 and 2.11, respectively. The highest multiplication rate has been determined as 33.76 at the end of second subculture. The best rooting was achieved on B5 medium supplemented with 4.5mg/l IBA. The rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized to outdoor conditions and survival rate was determined as 90%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The investigation of hydroalcholic extract of Ducrosia anethifolia boiss on the testis tissue and testosterone hormone

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    N Rahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Medicinal plants with natural active substances and with lower side effects could be used as effective drugs in the treatment of many diseases. In recent years, the effects of reducing blood sugar, lipids, pain relief back pain of Ducrosia anethifolia has have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ducrosia anethifolia on Testosterone hormone and the histological changes of testicle in male adult rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 56 male adult Wistar rats.  The animals were divided into five groups: the control group (without treatment, the sham group (received the solution via gavage for 21 days. The experimental group 1, 2, 3 received hydro-alcoholic extract of Ducrosia anethifolia with 140,280,560 mg/kg dose per the body weight were gavaged for 21 subsequent days. On 22nd day, the animals were euthanized and the rat testes placed in 10% formalin for evaluating the histological changes. The 5 micron- sections from testicle were provided and stained by the hematoxylin - eosin method. The blood serums were collected and the level of testosterone was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Duncan test and ANOVA at the significant level (p <0.05. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa and testosterone levels in Groups 1, 2 and 3 compared with the control group and the sham group. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the Ducrosia anethifolia extract reduces the number of germ cells, the level of testosterone and spermatogenesis in male Wistar rats.

  18. valuation of Germination Characteristics for Hedysarum Criniferum Boiss in Alternative Temperature and Drought Stress Conditions

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    A. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    24-26 °C day-night and four drought levels (0, -2, -4, and -6 bar with three replications. According to the results, different levels of drought stress and alternative temperature had significant effects on germination percentage and germination speed of the species seeds (α=5%. The study showed that increasing temperature and drought levels leads to reducing the germination percentage and germination speed of the species. Higher germination percentage of H. criniferum seeds in different drought levels compared to alternative temperature levels of 24-26 °C indicated that this species is more sensitive to higher temperature than high levels of drought condition. Therefore, it could partly be concluded that the H. criniferum is a relatively drought resistance species.

  19. Natural hybridization between Phlomis lycia D. Don x P. bourgaei Boiss., (Lamiaceae) revealed by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzbaşioğlu, Ertuğrul; Dadandi, Mehmet Yaşar; Ozcan, Sebahattin

    2008-05-01

    Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD) were used to assess the hybrid identity of individuals sampled as Phlomis x termessi Davis. Out of 95 primers screened, 11 primers produced reproducible amplification patterns used for discrimination of P. x termessi and their parents. Eleven primers produced 81 bands. Forty two percent of the RAPD bands existed in parents. Of the 54 bands found in P. lycia, 19 were found only in this species and 7 of these were monomorphic. Similarly, of 57 RAPD bands observed in P. bourgaei, 18 were found only in P. bourgaei and 6 of these were monomorphic. Among hybrid individuals, 35 of the 73 markers were monomorphic. Fifteen of these existed in individual parents showing that parents were homozygous for these markers. Of the 35 monomorphic bands observed among hybrid individuals, 5 were present in the samples of one of the parents and completely absent from the samples of the other; therefore, additive inheritance is indicated. Of the 5 additive bands, 1 was inherited from P. bourgaei and 4 were inherited from P. lycia. Among 38 polymorhic markers observed in hybrid individuals, 9 were new and hybrid-specific. Pollen fertility was also investigated. Mean pollen fertility for P. lycia and P. bourgaei was 93% and 97% respectively. However, mean pollen fertility for hybrids was 65% (+/-10.5).

  20. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  1. Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium Boiss, induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Farzaneh Sadat; Falahati-Pour, Soudeh Khanamani; Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Khoshdel, Alireza; Mirzaei, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadirad, Hadis; Behroozi, Reza; Jafari, Nesa; Mahmoodi, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the potential of Persian shallot extract as an anticancer agent in HepG2 tumor cell line, an in vitro human hepatoma cancer model system. The inhibitory effect of Persian shallot on the growth of HepG2 cells was measured by MTT assay. To explore the underlying mechanism of cell growth inhibition of Persian shallot, the activity of Persian shallot in inducing apoptosis was investigated through the detection of annexin V signal by flow cytometry and expression of some apoptosis related genes such p21, p53, puma, caspase-8 family-Bcl-2 proteins like bid, bim, bcl-2 and bax were measured by real-time PCR in HepG2 cells. Persian shallot extract inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The IC 50 value (inhibiting cell growth by 50%) was 149 μg/ml. The results of real-time PCR revealed a significant up-regulation of bid, bim, caspase-8, puma, p53, p21 and bax genes and a significant downregulation of bcl-2 gene in HepG2 cells treated with Persian shallot extract significantly. Therefore, this is the first report on an increased expression of bid, bim, caspase-8, puma, p53, p21 and bax genes and down regulation of bcl-2 gene indicating that the Persian shallot extract possibly induced the process of cell death through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways and triggers the programmed cell death in HepG2 tumor cell lines by modulating the expression of pro-/anti-apoptotic genes. Furthermore, we showed that Persian shallot extract increased annexin V signal and expression, resulting in apoptotic cell death of HepG2 cells after 24 h treatment. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the Persian shallot extract could be considered as a potential candidate for production of drug for the prevention or treatment of human hepatoma.

  2. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the various extracts of Verbascum pinetorum Boiss. O. Kuntze (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, B; Esen, M; Caliskan, M; Mothana, R A; Cihan, A C; Yolcu, H

    2011-08-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of various extracts of Verbascum (V.) pinetorum, a member of Scrophulariaceae family. While the antimicrobial activity of various extracts of V. pinetorum was determined with agar-well diffusion method, the antioxidant activity was examined with two complementary test systems, namely 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid test systems. The hexane extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against few microorganisms. However, dichloromethane, direct methanol and methanol/chloroform extracts are effective on a broad range of microorganisms. Among the tested bacteria Haemophilus influenzae was found to be the most sensitive bacterium. The 50% (IC50) inhibition activity of the methanolic extract of V. pinetorum on the free radical DPPH was determined as 13.04 mg/ml. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of linoleic acid was inhibited by methanolic extract of V. pinetorum, which showed 89.39% inhibition that is quite close to the value of the synthetic antioxidant reagent butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), 92.46%. Iridoid glycosides, flavonoids and saponins were determined as the major natural compounds in the methanolic extracts. The total phenolic components of V. pinetorum were found as 42.45 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. The results provide evidence that the extracts of V. pinetorum contained iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds which may be responsible for the substantial antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  3. Extraction of saponins and toxicological profile of Teucrium stocksianum boiss extracts collected from District Swat, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Mukarram Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current era is facing challenges in the management of neoplasia and weeds control. The currently available anti-cancer and herbicidal drugs are associated with some serious side effects. Therefore numerous researchers are trying to discover and develop plant based alternative particularly for the rational management of cancer and weed control. Teucrium stocksianum possess antioxidant and analgesic activities. The current study was designed to evaluate crude saponins (CS, methanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum for cytotoxic and phytotoxic potentials. CS, methanolic extract and sub-fractions were extracted from powdered plant material using different solvents. Cytotoxic potential of the extracts at a dose of 10, 100 and 1000 μg/ml were evaluated against Brine shrimp's nauplii. Phytotoxic assay also performed at the same concentration against Lemna minor. Etoposide and Paraquat were used as positive controls in cytotoxic and phytotoxic assays respectively. RESULTS: The percent yield of crude saponins was (5%. CS demonstrated tremendous brine shrimp lethality showing < 10 μg/ml LC50. The n-hexane (HF and chloroform fractions (CF demonstrated excellent cytotoxicity with 80 and 55 μg/ml LC50 respectively. Whereas the methanolic extract (TSME, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous fractions (AF revealed moderate cytotoxicity showing 620, 860 and 1000 μg/ml LC50 values respectively. In phytotoxic assay profound inhibition was displayed by HF (96.67% and TSME (95.56%, 30 μg/ml LC50 against the growth of Lemna minor at 1000 μg/ml respectively. Both CF and EAF demonstrated profound phytoxicity (93.33% respectively at highest concentration (1000 μg/ml, while AF and CS demonstrated weak phytotoxicity with 1350 and 710 μg/ml LC50 values respectively. CONCLUSION: Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays indicated that the crude saponins, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of T. stocksianum could play a vital role in the treatment of neoplasia and as potential natural herbicides. Therefore these sub-fractions are recommended for further investigation with the aim to isolate novel anti-cancer and herbicidal compounds.

  4. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

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    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  5. Bioactivity-guided isolation of spasmolytic components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Behzad, S

    2011-07-01

    Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has spasmolytic effect in vitro and antidiarrhoeal action in vivo. The aim of this research was to separate fractions of total hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa guided by their spasmolytic activity. Aerial parts of P. spinosa were extracted with ethanol. The concentrated extract was subjected to column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Initially four fractions were obtained (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and their spasmolytic activities were determined on ileum contraction induced by KCl (80 mM). The more active fraction was subjected to further isolation and tested to find its most active components. The active component was phytochemically characterized using phytochemical methods including ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa (10-320 μg/ml) in a concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contraction with the IC(50) value of 47 ± 8.1 μg/ml (mean ± S.E.M., n=6). Fraction F2 was the most potent inhibitor of ileum contraction (IC(50)= 3.4 ± 0.33 μg/ml). From five sub-fractions separated from fraction F2 (F2a, F2b, F2c, F2d, and F2e, respectively), F2c was a more active component with the IC(50) value of 2.6 ± 0.27 μg/ml. The primary results of target fraction (F2c) showed sugar moiety in its structure or in one of its components. In this research we have isolated pharmacological active fraction which is most likely responsible for antispasmodic action of P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract.

  6. Systematic review: The potency of Zataria multiflora Boiss in treatment of vaginal infections

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    Mohaddese Mahboubi Mahboubi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis as female infectious disease is accompanied with some clinical symptoms such as vaginal abnormal discharges, itching, burning and many other unpleasant signs in patients. The responsable microorganisms in vaginitis are belonged to different kind of microorganisms including bacteria (Gardenella vaginitis, yeast (Candida albicans and protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis. The current treatments of these infections are chemical oral and vaginal drugs with many adverse effects for patients. Furthermore, appearance of resistant microorganisms to these drugs has intensified the treatment’s problem. The aim of this review article was to evaluate the potency of “Zataria multiflora” essential oil in treatment of women’s vaginitis. For preparing this manuscript, the information was extracted from different electronic and published resources. Investigation in different resources showed there were 6 clinical trials that evaluate it as suitable treatment for vaginitis. 5 clinical studies have been focused on 0.1% Z. multiflora essential oils in treatment of bacterial vaginosis (n=1, candidiasis (n=1 and trichomoniasis (n=1. Two clinical studies were related to treatments of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and mixed infection. There is one clinical study for treatment of candidiasis by 1% Z. multiflora methanol extract. Z. multiflora was formulated in cream form and applied for 5-7 continuous days. The results of clinical trials showed that Z. multiflora essential oil (0.1% can be used as safe and efficient alternative treatment for treatment of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and to a lesser extent for trichomoniasis.

  7. Comparison of Cuminaldehyde Contents from Cell Suspension Cultures and Seeds of [Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KHOSRAVINIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell suspension culture and seed samples of Bunium persicum were extracted by supercritical fluid, hydrodistillation and solvent methods and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. In this study to compare the different methods of extractions, cuminaldehyde was targeted as one of the Black zira essential oil constitute. For callus induction the germinated seeds were cultured as explants on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l kinetin (treatment A as well as 2 mg/l ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyl aminopurine (treatment B and followed by cells suspension cultures establishment for the first time. The results of cell culture showed that cells from treatment B have a growth rate higher than A. All extracts were dissolved in 1 ml hexane and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. According to the Gas Chromatography analysis, cuminaldehyde was not detected in the supercritical fluid samples, while it was present in hydrodistillation and solvent extract. Cuminaldehyde percentage in cell and seed solvent extracts was 4.65% and 18.61% respectively. Gas Chromatography results also showed that no cuminaldehyde is present in media extracts, means no cuminaldehyde has been secreted into the medium.

  8. Antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant properties of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Yavuz Bulent; Iscan, Gokalp; Goger, Fatih; Demirci, Betul; Elmacı, Ceren

    2017-11-01

    In the present study hydrodistilled essential oil and total methanol extracts of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium have been evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. The chemical composition of the oil and the crude extract were determined by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/DAD/ESI-MS systems respectively. β-thujone (47.1%), α-pinene (19.1%) and α-thujone (10.5%) were the main compounds of the essential oil while the 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid were identified as flavonoid content of the crude extract. The oil and the methanol extract were demonstrated moderate antimicrobial effects (MIC range; 0,062-2,0 mg/mL) against 21 different pathogenic micro organism. Total phenolic content was determined as 63 mg GAE in g extract and the DPPH radical scavenging effect was determined as 0.16 mg/mL (IC 50 ) and TEAC was determined as 0.21mMol.

  9. Affective and cognitive effects of global deletion of alpha3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Roberto; Rudolph, Uwe; Straub, Carolin J; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2008-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors characterized by the presence of the alpha3 subunit are the major GABAA receptor subtype expressed in brain stem monoaminergic nuclei. These alpha3-GABAA receptors are therefore in a unique position to regulate monoaminergic functions. To characterize the functional properties of alpha3-GABAA receptors, we present a preliminary assessment of the expression of affective and cognitive behaviour in male mice with a targeted deletion of the Gabra3 gene encoding the alpha3 subunit [alpha3 knockout (KO) mice] on a C57BL/6Jx129X1/SvJ F1 hybrid genetic background. The alpha3 KO mice did not exhibit any gross change of anxiety-like behaviour or spontaneous locomotor behaviour. In the Porsolt forced swim test for potential antidepressant activity, alpha3 KO mice exhibited reduced floating and enhanced swimming behaviour relative to wild-type controls. Performance on a two-choice sucrose preference test, however, revealed no evidence for an increase in sucrose preference in the alpha3 KO mice that would have substantiated a potential phenotype for depression-related behaviour. In contrast, a suggestion of an enhanced negative contrast effect was revealed in a one-bottle sucrose consumption test across different sucrose concentrations. These affective phenotypes were accompanied by alterations in the balance between conditioned responding to the discrete conditioned stimulus and to the context, and a suggestion of faster extinction, in the Pavlovian conditioned freezing paradigm. Spatial learning in the water maze reference memory test, however, was largely unchanged in the alpha3 KO mice, except for a trend of preservation during reversal learning. The novel phenotypes following global deletion of the GABAA receptor alpha3 subunit identified here provided relevant insights, in addition to our earlier study, into the potential behavioural relevance of this specific receptor subtypes in the modulation of both affective and cognitive functions.

  10. Taratura di un 'apparecchiatura per misura di piccole percentuali di uranio in soluzione acida di acqua distillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d. Diana

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Si descrive una tecnica elio permette di misurare ilnumero di atomi di Uranio di una soluzione, con un errore non superioreal 10%.Il sistema consiste in un tubo di Geiger (Philips 18503 sistemato inun contenitore di vetro nel quale viene diluita una certa quantità di peso dinitrato di Uranile, misurato con una precisione migliore dell'1%. Al variaredella diluizione si registra il numero di particelle che il Geiger conta, e quindisi riporta in grafico. Da questi per diverse quantità di sale sciolto si determinala retta di taratura.

  11. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  12. Status of the art: hydraulic conductivity of acid- fractures; Condutividade hidraulica de fratura acida: estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Valdo Ferreira [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). E and P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Completacao e Avaliacao], e-mail: wcampos@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a review of the hydraulic conductivity models developed for acid fractures in almost four decades of studies in petroleum engineering. These studies have often benefited from theories and experiments carried out in areas of knowledge such as physics, geology, hydrology, fluid mechanics, rock mechanics and tribology. The review showed that the pioneer study of Nierode and Kruk (1973) is still used in commercial software and influences the current studies. There was significant evolution on the quantitative surface topography characterization of the fractures and their impact on the hydraulic conductivity. The same occurred for the effects of acid dissolution on the rock resistance. Improvements on correlations similar to the Nierode and Kruk can be applied at once on the acid fracturing project and evaluation practice for the cases of rough dissolution pattern. A method to consider the overall conductivity from heterogeneous channels and roughness pattern was recently proposed. The complexity of the theoretical fundaments, specially the range of validity of the equations in face of the simplifications assumed, the difficulty of performing representative laboratory and field experiments, the difficulty of characterizing quantitatively the fractures surface topography and its effects on the conductivity, and the large variety of rocks and acid systems keep this subject open for research. (author)

  13. Estudo das condições de hidrolise acida para obtenção de dextrana clinica

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Mendes Santos

    1996-01-01

    Resumo: A dextrana é um biopolímero formado por resíduos de glicose unidos por ligação et-1,6 maioritariamente. É sintetizada peia enzima dextrana-sacarase, enzima esta produzida extracelularmente por algumas bactérias, principalmente do genêro Leuconosíoa A apiicacão deste polímero está diretamente relacionada com o seu peso molecular- As dextranas de peso molecular na faixa de 20,000 a 100,000 daltons (dextrana clínica) possui notáveis aplicações no ramo da medicina como expansor do plasma ...

  14. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellanas, B.; Abellanas, M.; Pommerening, A.; Lodares, D.; Cuadros, S.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. a) To present a new version of the forest simulator Vorest, an individual-based spatially explicit model that uses weighted Voronoi diagrams to simulate the natural dynamics of forest stands with closed canopies. b) To apply the model to the current dynamics of a Grazalema pinsapo stand to identify the nature of its competition regime and the stagnation risks it is currently facing. Area of study: Sierra del Pinar de Grazalema (S Spain) Material and methods: Two large plots representative of Grazalema pinsapo stands were used to fit and validate the model (plus 6 accesory plots to increase the availability of mortality data). Two inventories were carried out in 1998 and 2007 producing tree size and location data. We developed a forest simulator based on three submodels: growth, competition and mortality. The model was fitted, evaluated and validated for Grazalema plots. The simulation outputs were used to infer the expected evolution of structural diversity of forest stands. Main results: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating dynamics of natural closed stands. The application to Grazalema pinsapo stands has allowed assessing the nature of the main processes that are driving its development pathway. We have found that the prevailing size-asymmetric competition dominates the self-thinning process in small-sized trees. At the same time, there is an active tree-size differentiation process. Research highlights: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating natural stands with closed canopies. The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. (Author)

  15. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  16. Essential Oil Content and Constituents of Black Zira (Bunium persicum [Boiss.] B. Fedtsch.) from Iran During Field Cultivation (Domestication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizi, Majid; Davareenejad, Gholamhossain; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Bunium persisum fruit oils from wild type MM, first (CY1) and second year (CY2) cultivars; (fourth and fifth year plants) were analyzed by GC and GUMS. The essential oil content of the WT (9.1% v/w) was higher than the oil content of the CY1 (6.2% v/w) and CY2 (5.1% v/w). No significant differences

  17. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H.; Ghanadian, M.; Asghari, G.; Azali, N.

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice (25-30 g), fasted over night with free access to water, were treated with test compounds or control (p.o.). Thirty min later castor oil (0.5 ml) was given orally to the animals. In another groups of animals MgSO4 (0.5 ml of 10% solution) was given first and half an hour later the test drugs were administered. Onset and number of wet defecations were recorded for each animal over 3.5 h after treatment with diarrhoea inducing agents. In another groups, intestinal transit of charcoal meal was determined following administration of the compounds. Isovanillin (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg), iso-acetovanillon (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg) and P. spinosa extract (5 mg/kg) delayed onset of diarrhoea and significantly reduced wet defecation induced by castor oil and MgSO4. They all had antidiarrheal effect similar to propantheline (5 mg/kg). Isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and P. spinosa extract compared to control groups, significantly reduced small intestinal transit of charcoal meal. This study shows that antidiarrheal effect of P. spinosa extract is at least partially due to presence of two active compounds isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon. PMID:25657776

  18. Growth performance and haematological and immunological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings supplemented with dietary Ferulago angulata (Schlecht Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bohlouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Ferulago angulata extract on the growth, haematological, and immunological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings were evaluated. Basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control, 0.5, 1, and 2 g·kg-1 F. angulata and was randomly allocated to experimental fish of an initial average weight of 7.45 ± 0.02 g. After 8 weeks of experiment, the fish supplemented with F. angulata extract showed increased but non-significant (P > 0.05 growth performance. No significant differences were found between trial control groups in haematological indices such as red blood cell count, haematocrit, and haemoglobin, but there was a significant increase in white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes in the F. angulata extract groups (P < 0.05. Also, there were significant differences between the fish supplemented with dietary F. angulata extract and the control group regarding immunological indices, including immunoglobulin M, lysozyme, and classical and alternative complement pathway (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that the administration of F. angulata extract has a positive effect on the immunological indices and the immune system activity in rainbow trout fingerling.

  19. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Ni-Zn electrodes for hydrogen production by acid electrolysis; Eletrodos de Ni-Zn para producao de hidrogenio por eletrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C.S.; Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: camilator@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil). Departamento de Metalurgia. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen production by electrolysis of water, have an important role in countries that have great renewable potential for electricity production. The electrolysis of water has been proposed to use the excess capacity of hydroelectric plants. However, to improve process efficiency, research has been undertaken to improve the catalytic reduction reaction of hydrogen from the development of electrodes with better performance. Thus, the selection of low cost electrode materials with good electrocatalytic activity is required. In this work, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) employing electrodes of Ni-Zn and Ni was investigated. Morphological characterization of the electrodes was performed using SEM/ EDX and profilometry and electrochemical behavior was evaluated by cathodic polarization curves. The results showed that the addition of Zn promotes the increase the electrocatalytic activity of HER compared to nickel electrode. (author)

  1. Thiolated and S-protected hydrophobically modified cross-linked poly(acrylic acid)--a new generation of multifunctional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonengel, Sonja; Haupstein, Sabine; Perera, Glen; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to create a novel multifunctional polymer by covalent attachment of l-cysteine to the polymeric backbone of hydrophobically modified cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) (AC1030). Secondly, the free thiol groups of the resulting thiomer were activated using 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA) to provide full reactivity and stability. Within this study, 1167.36 μmol cysteine and 865.72 μmol 2-MNA could be coupled per gram polymer. Studies evaluating mucoadhesive properties revealed a 4-fold extended adherence time to native small intestinal mucosa for the thiomer (AC1030-cysteine) as well as an 18-fold prolonged adhesion for the preactivated thiomer (AC1030-Cyst-2-MNA) compared to the unmodified polymer. Modification of the polymer led to a higher tablet stability concerning the thiomer and the S-protected thiomer, but a decelerated water uptake could be observed only for the preactivated thiomer. Neither the novel conjugates nor the unmodified polymer showed severe toxicity on Caco-2 cells. Evaluation of emulsification capacity proofed the ability to incorporate lipophilic compounds like medium chain triglycerides and the preservation of the emulsifying properties after the modifications. According to these results thiolated AC1030 as well as the S-protected thiolated polymer might provide a promising tool for solid and semisolid formulations in pharmaceutical development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  3. Transformación de pet mediante hidrolisis acida y Bacillus subtilis para obtener materiales con capacidad de absorcion de metales pesados como cobre y mercurio.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Sánchez, María Teresa; Vera Barros, Susana Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals present in industrial effluents represent a major environmental problem due to mismanagement in the unloading process toward producing watershed pollution at different scales. To develop methods for the removal of copper and mercury, using waste materials that are produced in large quantities in our country such as from PET plastic bottles for water and soft drinks. In this research we studied the sorption capacity of copper and mercury using PET modified by acid hydrolysis an...

  4. Geochemical processes in acidic water caused by the weathering of metal sulphides; Procesos geoquimicos en aguas acidas por meteorizacion de sulfuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta Andres, M. P.; Acero Salazar, P.; Auque Sanz, L. F.; Gimeno Serrano, M. J.; Gomez Jimenez, J. B.

    2011-07-01

    Acid generated by the oxidative dissolution of metal sulphides is one of the main sources of pollution in runoff water, groundwater, soils and sediments throughout the world. These types of water are very acidic and contain high concentrations of sulphate and other potentially contaminating elements such Fe, As, Cd, Sb, Zn and Cu. The acidity generated by sulphide oxidation processes is mainly controlled by the type, quantity and distribution of the sulphide-rich rocks, by the physical characteristics of the rocks (since they determine the accessibility of aqueous solutions and gases to the sulphides), by the presence of microorganisms able to catalyze the main chemical reactions involved in the formation of acid drainage, and by the existence of minerals capable of neutralizing acidity. As a result, the generation of acidic water is a very complex problem, the study of which must be undertaken via a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological aspects among others. The aim of our work is to provide a general overview of these processes and other factors that influence the generation and evolution of these systems, together with information concerning current scientific knowledge about each of these approaches. Thus we hope to provide a basic background to the understanding and study of acid-water systems associated with the weathering of metal sulphides and the processes involved in the generation, migration, evolution and natural attenuation of acidic waters in these environments. (Author) 65 refs.

  5. Uranium recovery and uranium remove from acid mine waters by ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina com resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao do Laborarorio; Fatibello Filho, Orlando [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of few processes capable of reducing contaminants in effluents to very low levels according to environmental legislation. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The presence of pyrite in the waste rock piles, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants. Including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by an anionic exchanger. Studies of uranium sorption without treatment, and with lime pretreatment of water to precipitate the iron and recovery uranium as commercial product, are presented. Uranium elution was done with NaCl solutions. Saline concentration and retention time were the parameters studied. the uranium decontaminations level in the effluents from acid mine water was 94%. (author) 10 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Analysis of the structural steels corrosion resistance in sour water from petroleum refineries; Analise da resistencia a corrosao de acos estruturais em aguas acidas de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Marcos B.; Freire, Celia M. de A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Margatita B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    1994-07-01

    The presence of H{sub 2} S in refineries FCC sour water provokes the formation of a passive Fe S scale. The cyanides present on sour water remove this scale, raising the corrosion rate in pipping and vessels. In this work it was measured the corrosion rate of structural steels in this water by electrochemical methods. Anodic polarization curves were plotted and the corrosion rates of the steels were determined. (author)

  7. Anoxic limestone drain (ALD) treatment of acid pit waters; Tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina mediante drenaje anoxico en caliza (ALD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Masferrer, J. A.

    2001-07-01

    As a consequence of the weathering, the pyrite is combined together with the oxygen and water, Mine Acid Drainage is produced, with rather low pH and dissolved metals. In order to treat this kind of polluted water it could be good to increase its alkalinity (capacity to neutralize the acid). There are several ways to increase the water alkalinity. One of them is the ALD. limestone beds buried through which the polluted water flows, in which carbonates are dissolved. (mostly calcium carbonate), in a media lacking of oxygen. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of petroleum refinery sour waters; Processos oxidativos avancados para tratamento de aguas acidas de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio V.; Coelho, Alessandra D.; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the waste water generated by the petroleum refineries are related to the type and amount of processed oil, to the nature and the efficiency of the refining operation. The effluents are composed basically of oily waters, originating from of the contact with the oil. Among them, the current of sour water is one of the most preoccupying due to its composition: sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, dissolved oil, basic pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) high. The aim of this work was to evaluate the advanced oxidation processes to degrade sour water (UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton). All process, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not supply satisfactory results, reducing 25% of initial DOC, which it is of 450 mg/L. The results using the Fenton process reached removal of 50% of the initial COD, and when photo- Fenton process obtaining removal of 90%. The processes Fenton and photo-Fenton were shown capable to degrade this kind of waste water, minimizing the environmental problems and corrosion, operating as a pre-treatment for the biological system, or acting alone to degrade the organic matter contained, seeking the water reuse. The effluent used in this work came from Duque de Caxias Refinery (Reduc)/PETROBRAS. (author)

  10. Characterization of two clays - attapulgite and sepiolite - before and after acid activation; Caracterizacao de duas argilas - atapulgita e sepiolita - antes e apos ativacao acida com HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: renataoliveira@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Among the special clays, two of them are distinguished by their large surface area: attapulgite and sepiolite. Although, being natural clays, when they are removed from the formation sites, their structural channels may be filled of impurities. The process done to clean these channels is called acid activation. The present work aim to treated samples from both clays by using 3M and 5M HCl solution under ultrasonic waves for 1 hour. The characterization of the clays before and after activation was carried out by SEM/EDS, XRD and surface area measure by method BET. The acid treatments employed were too aggressive, in special that with 5M HCl solution, which results in partial lixiviation of these clays. (author)

  11. Methods and instrumental techniques for the study of acidic water systems; Metodologias y tecnicas instrumentales para el estudio de sistemas de aguas acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero Salazar, P.; Asta Andres, M. P.; Torrento Aguerri, C.; Gimeno Serrano, M. J.; Auque Sanz, L. F.; Gomez Jimenez, J. B.

    2011-07-01

    From a geochemical point of view acidic waters are very complex systems in which many interaction processes take place between surface and ground waters, gases (particularly atmospheric oxygen), acid-generating minerals, solid phases responsible for the natural attenuation of elements in solution and also many types of biological activity. Owing to this high complexity, the quality and reliability of any geochemical study focusing on this type of system will depend largely upon the use of appropriate methods of sampling, preservation and analysis of waters, minerals, gases and biological samples. We describe here the main methods and techniques used in geochemical studies of acid waters associated with sulphide mineral environments, taking into account not only the various sample types but also the features of the main types of system (open pits, tailings ponds, acid streams etc.). We also explain the main applications and limitations of each method or technique and provide references to earlier technical and scientific studies in which further information can be obtained. (Author) 97 refs.

  12. The adjustment of γ-aminobutyric acidA tonic subunits in Huntington's disease: from transcription to translation to synaptic levels into the neostriatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Rosas-Arellano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA, plays a key role in all stages of life, also is considered the main inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA activates two kind of membrane receptors known as GABAA and GABAB, the first one is responsible to render tonic inhibition by pentameric receptors containing α4−6, β3, δ, or ρ1−3 subunits, they are located at perisynaptic and/or in extrasynaptic regions. The biophysical properties of GABAA tonic inhibition have been related with cellular protection against excitotoxic injury and cell death in presence of excessive excitation. On this basis, GABAA tonic inhibition has been proposed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention of Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a genetic mutation of the huntingtin protein. For experimental studies of Huntington's disease mouse models have been developed, such as R6/1, R6/2, HdhQ92, HdhQ150, as well as YAC128. In all of them, some key experimental reports are focused on neostriatum. The neostriatum is considered as the most important connection between cerebral cortex and basal ganglia structures, its cytology display two pathways called direct and indirect constituted by medium sized spiny neurons expressing dopamine D1 and D2 receptors respectively, they display strong expression of many types of GABAA receptors, including tonic subunits. The studies about of GABAA tonic subunits and Huntington's disease into the neostriatum are rising in recent years, suggesting interesting changes in their expression and localization which can be used as a strategy to delay the cellular damage caused by the imbalance between excitation and inhibition, a hallmark of Huntington's disease.

  13. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  14. Combined Activity of Colloid Nanosilver and Zataria Multiflora Boiss Essential Oil-Mechanism of Action and Biofilm Removal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirdel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and biofilm removal potential of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO and silver nanoparticle (SNP alone and in combination on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and evaluate the mechanism of action. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and optimal inhibitory combination (OIC of ZEO and SNP were determined according to fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC method. Biofilm removal potential and leakage pattern of 260-nm absorbing material from the bacterial cell during exposure to the compounds were also investigated. Results: MICs of SNP for both bacteria were the same as 25 μg/ mL. The MICs and MBCs values of ZEO were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective OIC value for SNP and ZEO against Salm. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus were 12.5, 625 and 0.78, 1250 μg/ mL, respectively. ZEO and SNP at MIC and OIC concentrations represented a strong removal ability (>70% on biofilm. Moreover, ZEO at MIC and OIC concentrations did a 6-log reduction of primary inoculated bacteria during 15 min contact time. The effect of ZEO on the loss of 260-nm material from the cell was faster than SNP during 15 and 60 min. Conclusion: Combination of ZEO and SNP had significant sanitizing activity on examined bacteria which may be suitable for disinfecting the surfaces.

  15. Effect of light, temperature and different pretreatments on seed germination of gentiana boissieri schott et kotschy ex boiss. (gentianaceae) and endemic to turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erken, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the germination characteristics of Gentiana boissieri (Gentianaceae), an endemic species. The effects of light, temperature and different pretreatments on the germination of seeds collected from nature were investigated. Two different experiments were run to determine germination characteristics of seeds and the final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT) and germination index (GI). The first experiment involved twenty different treatments including soaking in water, soaking in gibberellic acid (GA3), dry stratification, moist cold stratification, moist warm stratification + moist cold stratification, moist cold stratification + soaking in GA3 and control. The germination test was carried out at +20 degree C in dark. The highest final germination percentages were obtained from the treatments of soaking in 500, 750, 1000 ppm GA3, soaking in 250, 500 ppm GA3 + 4 weeks of moist cold stratification (89.00; 95.00; 93.50; 91.33; 94.00%, respectively). In the control group with no pretreatment, the final germination percentage of seeds was found to be 13.50%. In the second experiment, seeds treated with 750 ppm GA3 pretreatment, providing highest germination rate in the first experiment, were germinated under dark and light conditions (12/12 h; dark/light) at 15, 20, 25 and 10/20 degree C. At the end of 28 days under four different temperatures, it was found that light significantly increased the final germination percentage and the highest final germination percentages were found at 15 and 20 degree C (87.00; 89.50%, respectively). (author)

  16. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  17. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  18. Karyotyping and in situ chromosomal localization of rDNA sites in black cumin Bunium persicum (Boiss B. Fedtsch,1915 (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chahota

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique has been applied to somatic chromosomes in the medicinally important species, Bunium persicum, to elucidate its karyotypes. The bicolour FISH technique involving 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes as probes was used to assign physical localization and measurement of rDNA sites on homologous pairs of chromosomes. The two 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene sites were at the terminal regions of the short arms of the chromosomes 1 and 2 involving NOR region of chromosome 1. The 5S rDNA sites were found on subtelomeric region of the long arm of the chromosome number 5 and at interstitial regions of the short arm of chromosome 7. Based on direct visual analysis of chromosome length, morphology and position of FISH signals, a pioneer attempt has been made to construct metaphase karyotype in B. persicum, an endangered medicinal plant of North Western Himalayas.

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    data, particularly on African tree species and their fruit consumers are rare. Removal efficiency in the two dioecious trees, Lannea acida A. Rich. and L. welwitschii (Hiern) Engl. (Anacardiaceae), was investigated. L. acida is widespread throughout West African savanna and may. Fruit Removal and Seed Predation in Two ...

  20. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenocardia acida is a plant used in African folkloric medicine in the treatment of headache, rheumatic pain, sickle cell crisis, malaria, epilepsy and cancer. This study was aimed at investigating the anticonvulsant potential of the methanol leaf extract of H. acida (MLEHA) in chicks and mice. Preliminary phytochemical ...

  1. Acid drainages of the pyritic sterile from the Pocos de Caldas uranium mine: environmental interpretation and implications; Drenagens acidas do esteril piritoso da mina de uranio de Pocos de Caldas: interpretacao e implicacoes ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-12-01

    Considering the planned closure of the first uranium mine and milling plant operating in Brazil, located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, in the State of Minas Gerais, in the next two years, there is the need to obtain basic information for its decommissioning. Special attention has been directed to the following critical areas: open pit, tailing, dam and waste rock piles, because these are the main sources of acid drainage generation. These waters cannot be allowed to flow in the external environment because in addition to sulphuric acid, there is a number of elements in concentration above those allowed by regulations. Among the waste piles (bota-foras BF) two of them BF-4 and BF-8, are in a process of acid generation, thus requiring more attention. The objective of this work was to simulate at the laboratory scale the oxidation and the reduction zones of BF-4. The experiments were conducted in acrylic columns, where the waste sample was kept under aerated and saturated conditions, in different columns. The control of the chemical (solubilized chemical species), physico-chemical (redox potential, pH, conductivity) and biological (bacterial activity) parameters has been carried out on the acid solutions generated by the chemical and biological reactions that occur at the waste. Although the results refer to a four month period, some relevant points can be highlighted, which will serve as a basis for further research. The mineralogical characterization identified the existence of other sulphides associated to pyrite with lower oxidation potential than the latter. The results obtained with the biological characterization for the two conditions studied revealed that the bacterial activity is more intense in the region in contact with air, than in saturated region. (author) 30 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Sub products form a depuratives process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. part I; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos organicos como fuente carbonada, Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2002-07-01

    Subproducts from the biological depurative process of acid mine water, such as H{sub 2}S in the biogas and HCO{sub 3} in the effluents are applied for the selective precipitation of metallic sulphides of Pb, Zn, Cu, Al an Mn, as a function of pH. To obtain the maximum H{sub 2}S concentration is principal,so several studies have been made to found the best working conditions between microorganisms and the carbon source choice. In this work,the results of the digestion process with an inoculum from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure and cheese whey as carbon source are showed. The optimal conditions obtained are: for a SO{sub 4}''=COD of 1:1,5 in HRT of 12 days, 65% of sulphate reduction, 30% of H2S in biogas. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 98,3% of Fe, 96,1% Cu, 79% Zn and 99% Al are obtained. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Ni, Co recovery study and Fe by acid leaching in columns; Estudio de la extraccion de Ni, Co y Fe en lateritas por medio de lixiviacion acida en columnas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, C. di; Betancourt, E.; Vivas, R.; Rus, J.

    2006-07-01

    In the following work the possibility of the mic kel recovery by hydrometallurgy extraction for nickeliferous laterite is studied. The work looks for to study the technical viability of the extraction of nickel and cobalt by means of the application of heap leaching. The ore is chemically and physically characterized with the purpose of analyzes its composition and mineral phase, by means of x-rays diffraction, quantitative chemical analysis and elementary chemical analysis by electronic microscopy. One the ore is characterized, it is mixed with sulfuric acid to relations 0.05; 0.1 and 0.2 g acid/g to agglomerated pellets and paste, with the aim to improve the percolation in column, due to the argillaceous nature of the ore leaching rate ranged from 0.305 to 1.06 x 10 l/h m''2 and in the agglomerate condition of the percolation l/h m''2 improves at interval 3.05 to 6.11 x 100 l/h m''2. (Author)

  4. Biological treatment of acid mine water: selection of a biomass population enriched in sulphate-reducing bacteria; Tratamiento biologico de aguas acidas de mineria: seleccion de una poblacion bacteriana enriquecida en bacterias sulfatoreductoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel Villagran, F. J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the biological sulphate reduction. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the metal mining industry. This wastewater is formed when sulphide ores undergo chemical and biological oxidation processes and is characterized by low pH-values and high levels of sulphate and metals. The effect of stimuling bacteria sulphate reduction in such systems in order to improve water quality was examined in a laboratory scale experiment, in 250 mL, magnetically stirred, batch, anaerobic reactors, to 25 degree centigree. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. Subproducts from a depurative process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. Part II; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos orgnicos como fuente carbonada (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    The biological depurative process of acid mine water reducing sulphate concentration from Tinto River produces the alkalinity needed for the selective precipitation of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. But a suitable carbon source for the working conditions of microorganisms to reduce sulphates is needed. In this work, the results obtained using urban sewage as a carbon source are presented. the optimal conditions obtained are: 65,5% of sulphate reduction in HRT of 10 days for a SO{sub '}'2{sub 4} COD of 1:1 and 580 mg HS/L in the reactor effluent. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 77,6% of Fe, 88,6% of Cu, 70,7% of Zn and 71,5% of Al, are obtained depending on the assay applied. Ayesa is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Resistance evaluation expanded perlite the leaching acid: variation of parameters concentration, time and leaching agent; Avaliacao da resistencia da perlita expandida a lixiviacao acida: variacao dos parametros concentracao, tempo e agente lixiviante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J.M.F. de; Damasceno Junior, E.; Oliveira, E.S.; Fernandes, N.S., E-mail: janielequimicaufrn@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Meio Ambiente

    2016-07-01

    The expanded perlite is an amorphous aluminosilicate which presents in its composition about 75.0% silicon oxide (SiO2), also having other species in the composition as oxides of some metals. Silicas and silicates have been used in the environmental field, in relevant anti-corrosive activity. In this context, materials that exposes too many highly acidic media, require preservation against this type of wear, as this type of damage causes a great financial loss, thereby requiring low-cost, abundant materials, non-toxic and easy to purchase as some silica coating. The study evaluated the perlite expanded resistance against an acid leaching process. With undeniability the use of strong acids and different working conditions were not able to remove the oxides present on the expanded perlite sample, thus demonstrating the high strength of the expanded perlite against acid attacks. (author)

  7. Recovery of tungsten from wolframite from the Igarape Manteiga mine (Rondonia - Brazil) via acidic leaching; Isolamento do tungstenio da volframita da mina de Igarape Manteiga (Rondonia - Brasil) por lixiviacao acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Vianna, Claudio Augusto; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We report results of the efficiency of tungsten extraction from wolframite concentrate (containing 61.5 wt % WO{sub 3}) from the Igarape Manteiga mine (state of Rondonia, Brazil) through acid leaching with strong mineral acids at 100 deg C and 400 rpm for 2-4 h. HCl yielded insoluble matter containing the highest WO{sub 3} content (90 wt %). This solid was dissolved in concentrated NH{sub 3(aq)} at 25 deg C and the insoluble matter filtrated. The filtrate was slowly evaporated. 70 wt % of the tungsten present in the starting concentrate material was recovered as ammonium paratungstate (APT). (author)

  8. Acid pre-hydrolysis of biomass as a preparation process for its utilization as thermoelectric power plants fuel; Pre-hidrolise acida da biomassa como preparacao de combustivel para termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, D G; Resende, R L [Fundacao de Tecnologia Industrial (FTI), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    It is described a process of production of celulignin from biomass through acid pre-hydrolysis in continuous reactor made of advanced materials such as niobium, titanium and monel. The celulignin is a fuel of 28.50 MJ/kg of heating power. The utilization of this technology together with eucalyptus reforestation by vegetative propagation and high efficiency thermoelectric plant (triple cycle of steam turbine, gas turbine and MHD electrical generation) allow electric power production with competitive cost when compared to hydroelectric power. (author). 1 ref. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Gastric acid secretion response in the Cebus apella: a monkey model of chronic Chagas disease Respuesta secretora acida gastrica en el Cebus apella, un modelo animal de la enfermedad de Chagas cronica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the secretory pattern, both basal and stimulated either by histamine (0.1 mg/kg or pentagastrin (64 ug/kg in eighteen Cebus apella monkeys chronically infected with different T. cruzi strains (CA1, n=10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4 and to describe the morphological findings in the gastrointestinal tract in twelve infected (6 sacrificed and 6 spontaneously dead and four healthy monkeys. All infected monkeys and 35 healthy ones were evaluated by contrast X-ray examination. No differences were observed in basal acid output between control and infected groups. Animals infected with the Tulahuen and Colombian strains showed significant lower values of peak acid output in response to histamine or pentagastrin (pEl objetivo fue estudiar la respuesta secretora basal y estimulada por histamina (0.1 mg/kg o pentagastrina (64 ug/kg en 18 monos Cebus apella cronicamente infectados con diferentes cepas de T. cruzi (CA1 n=10; Colombiana n=4 y Tulahuén n=4. Además se describieron los hallazgos morfológicos en el tracto gastrointestinal de 12 animales muertos (6 sacrificados y 6 espontaneamente. Se evaluó radiológicamente el tracto gastrointestinal de 35 Cebus sp. sanos (controles y 18 infectados crónicamente. Se estudiaron histopatologicamente 4 controles y 12 infectados. No hubo diferencias en la secreción basal ácida entre los grupos control e infectado. Los animales infectados con la cepa Tulahuén y Colombian tuvieron valores más bajos en el pico de secreción ácida, como respuesta a la histamina o a la pentagastrina (p<0.01 y p<0.05 respectivamente; test "t" con respecto a los controles. Los estudios con contraste de bario mostraron agrandamiento y dilatación del colon en 3 animales infectados. En las autopsias de los chagásicos se encontraron lesiones histologicas en el 75% de los casos (solo en colon, 33%; en colon y esofago, 42%. En el grupo CA1, la secreción ácida estuvo dentro de los parámetros normales y esto se podría deber a una baja virulencia de la cepa, a un menor tropismo esofágico o a que el tiempo post-infección fue demasiado corto para causar lesiones.

  10. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  11. Use of wetlands for the treatment of acidic mining drainage: the processes in the wetland; Utilizacion de humedales para el tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina: procesos que tienen lugar en el humedal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lastra, M.; Loredo Perez, J. [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas. Escuela de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    Wetlands constitute an alternative method for the treatment of acidic mining drainage, through the utilization of some plant species complex physico-chemical and biological processes take place, producing and improvement of the quality of waters moving through. The inherent characteristics of a wetland in operation will originate an horizontal zonation as for the quality of waters due to their progressive ameliorations of pH increase and heavy metals concentration decreases, anyway a vertical zonation, giving rise to oxidation and reduction zones on the wetland. From the different physical processes occurring on the wetland, the plant roots filtering, the dilution of effluents with superficial and underground waters and aeration phenomena can be considered very important. Oxidation, hydrolysis and sulphate reduction constitute important chemical processes leading to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated effluents. Wetlands have plants as sphagnum, typha and algae advantageous for the treatment of acidic waters provided that they retain heavy metals in their tissues and the contribute furthermore to modify the substrate conditions favoring the creation of reduction zones. The aerobic-anaerobic mixed systems are from the different wetland types those are prevailing because of the advantages of sulphate reduction as contrasted with oxides precipitation for the removal of heavy metals. Wetlands although are not the panacea for the treatment of acidic mining waters they offer advantages and some disadvantages too, over other treatment methods, and they constitute a real alternative for the conventional methods of chemical neutralization. (Author)

  12. Physical and chemical treatment of the acid wastewater poured from Aznalcollar quarnx (Sevilla-Spain); Tratamiento fisicoquimico de las aguas acidas vertidas tras la rotura de la balsa minera de Aznalcollar (Sevilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Mediavilla, B.; Medialdea, J. M.; Montes, M. A.; Garcia Martinez de Simon, I.; Lopez, C. M.; Moron, M. J.; Escot, E.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla. Sevialla (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    In this work, laboratory results of physical and chemical treatment of the acid wastewater poured from Aznalcollar quarry (Sevilla, Spain) the last april 25, 1998, are presented. Experiments were carried out in the facilities of the Wastewater Treatment Research Group, University of Sevilla. Objectives were to adjust pH and to remove heavy metals from the water. Comparative results showed application of calcium hydroxide and aluminium policyholder as the most effective physical and chemical treatment for the water, in terms of pH adjustment and heavy metal removal. Data suggest that treatment systems including preliminary adjustment of water pH followed by addition of chemical coagulants, significantly alter the physical state of dissolved heavy metals and facilitate their removal by sedimentation. Such procedures might be useful for the treatment of surface waters polluted with high concentrations of heavy metals. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  14. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  15. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  16. γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin; Zhang Yun; Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang; Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu; Luo Wenjing; Chen Jingyuan

    2009-01-01

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA A receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA A receptor α1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA A receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  17. Comparative efficacy of herbal essences with amphotricin B and ketoconazole on Candida albicans in the in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, essential oils with different components showed antifungal activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil. They can therefore be used as new antifungal substances.

  18. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-12

    Jun 12, 2015 ... Addition of Z. multiflora boiss essential oil, resulted in decreasing the count of viable Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the produced cheese. This investigation concludes that the biofilm containing Z. multiflora boiss essential oil can be highly.

  19. Karyotype analyses of the species of the genus Jurinea Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, karyotype analyses of 13 species belonging to the genus Jurinea Cass. (Compositae) and grown naturally in Turkey were conducted. These taxa include Jurinea alpigena C. Koch, Jurinea ancyrensis Bornm., Jurinea aucherana DC., Jurinea cadmea Boiss., Jurinea cataonica Boiss. and Hausskn., Jurinea ...

  20. Inter-specific relationships among two Tunisian Thymus taxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between two sympatric species Thymus capitatus Hoffm. et Link. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Thymus hirtus Willd. subsp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut.) were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eighteen natural populations from different geographical and ...

  1. Fine mapping of powdery mildew resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 in Triticum boeoticum (Boiss.) using the shotgun sequence assembly of chromosome 7AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhuneja, Parveen; Yadav, Bharat; Stirnweis, Daniel; Hurni, Severine; Kaur, Satinder; Elkot, Ahmed Fawzy; Keller, Beat; Wicker, Thomas; Sehgal, Sunish; Gill, Bikram S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2015-10-01

    A novel powdery mildew resistance gene and a new allele of Pm1 were identified and fine mapped. DNA markers suitable for marker-assisted selection have been identified. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat and causes significant yield losses worldwide. Diploid A genome species are an important genetic resource for disease resistance genes. Two powdery mildew resistance genes, identified in Triticum boeoticum (A(b)A(b)) accession pau5088, PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 were mapped on chromosome 7AL. In the present study, shotgun sequence assembly data for chromosome 7AL were utilised for fine mapping of these Pm resistance genes. Forty SSR, 73 resistance gene analogue-based sequence-tagged sites (RGA-STS) and 36 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were designed for fine mapping of PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2. Twenty-one RGA-STS, 8 SSR and 13 SNP markers were mapped to 7AL. RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a genetic distance of 0.6 and 6.0 cM, respectively. The present investigation established that PmTb7A.1 is a new powdery mildew resistance gene that confers resistance to a broad range of Bgt isolates, whereas PmTb7A.2 most probably is a new allele of Pm1 based on chromosomal location and screening with Bgt isolates showing differential reaction on lines with different Pm1 alleles. The markers identified to be linked to the two Pm resistance genes are robust and can be used for marker-assisted introgression of these genes to hexaploid wheat.

  2. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss.) to Triticum aestivum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkot, Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby; Chhuneja, Parveen; Kaur, Satinder; Saluja, Manny; Keller, Beat; Singh, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS), the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection) and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.

  3. Antioxidant activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L. and black caraway (Buniumpersicum Boiss extracts, individually and in combination on chemical changes and sensory properties of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthysmolitrix stored in refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gholamzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbs due to having natural antioxidant compounds are widely used by food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. The purpose of this study was to study the effects of antioxidant activities of black cumin as well as black caraway extracts individually and in the combination form on chemical and sensory properties of silver carp during refrigerator storage. To do this, fish was cut into four parts. Three parts were dipped in 1% solution of black cumin and black caraway extracts, and their combination. The forth part was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. All fish cuts were packed up in polyethylene bags and were stored at refrigerator (4±1°C. Chemical indices (i.e., PV, TBA and FFA and sensory properties were measured over a period of 15 days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days. According to the results, in all three treatments lipid oxidation was delayed significantly (p

  4. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.

  5. Quality in the organizations (enterprises and institutions of production and of services). Validation of the determination by atomic absorption of sodium and potassium in acid rain; Calidad de las organizaciones (empresas e instituciones de produccion y de servicios). Validacion de la determinacion por absorcion atomica de sodio y potasio en lluvia acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola T, D.L

    2005-07-01

    The present work is focused to the environmental area and in specific to the validation of an analytical method by means of one of the techniques more used for the determination of metals, the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Applied to the study of the acid rain and its diverse forms in the nature. As well as their consequences and the role that the man carries out in the contribution toward this phenomenon. To approach the following text it will be mention shortly how is distributed, beginning with the introduction that is about the importance of the role of the acid rain, its effects and repercussions in the environment. In the first chapter the points that we should be evaluated to carry out a validation are analyzed. Being the main ones, the precision, accuracy, lineal interval, among others. Continuing in the second chapter with the foundation study, equipment and interferences of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The last chapter contains the experimental part, continuing for each evaluated point, from the experimental development, results and its analysis. (Author)

  6. Otimização das condições de hidrolise acida do amido de mandioca para obtenção de substituto de gordura : Caracterização de hidrolisados e aplicação em bolos

    OpenAIRE

    Francy Magdalena Zambrano Sarmiento Console

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: Estudos internacionais têm demonstrado que existe relação entre os ataques cardíacos e o elevado consumo de gordura. Para reduzir estes riscos, têm sido utilizados substitutos de gordura a base de amido com características funcionais similares às da gordura e com menor valor caiórico. Neste estudo, foi avaliado, em dois ensaios, o efeito da hidrólise ácida do amido de mandioca nativo visando obter um produto com características de substituto de gordura para aplicação em bolos. No ensa...

  7. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  9. Quantitative Autoradiography on [(35)S]TBPS Binding Sites of Gamma- Aminobutyric Acid(A) Receptors in Discrete Brain Regions of High- Alcohol-Drinking and Low-Alcohol- Drinking Rats Selectively Bred forHigh- and Low-Alcohol Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, B.H.; Kunkler, P.E.; Lumeng, L.

    1997-01-01

    It has been documented that ethanol can potentiate brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic function, and there is a close link between the GABA(A) receptor complex and effects of ethanol, including reinforcement of alcohol which is a fundamental element of alcohol preference. However, it is unknown in what discrete brain regions GABA(A) receptors might be associated with alcohol preference. In the present study, [(35)S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([(35)S]TBPS) was used to localize GABA(A) receptors in high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats and low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats which were selectively bred for high and low alcohol preference, respectively. Initial qualitative observations indicated that [(35)S]TBPS binding sites were abundant in many brain areas including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala of HAD and LAD rats. Furthermore, the quantitative autoradiographic analysis revealed fewer [(35)S]TBPS binding sites of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdaloid complex, central medial thalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic nucleus and anterior hypothalamic nucleus of HAD rats than LAD rats. Collectively, this study has indicated that HAD rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference possess lower [(35)S]TBPS binding in the brain. Since lower TBPS binding has been proposed to reflect enhanced GABAergic function, as evidenced in rats with seizure or under alcohol withdrawal, the results from the present study suggest that HAD rats might have an enhanced GABAergic function. It is thus likely that enhanced GABAergic function in the brain might be related to high alcohol preference which is characteristic in HAD rats. In addition, the present result showing no difference of [(35)S]TBPS binding in the nucleus accumbens is also in agreement with a notion that [(35)S]TBPS binding may represent only a small spectrum of the GABA(A) receptor complex which is constituted of a sophisticated subunit combination whose functional compositions are still unknown. In conclusion, the present study supports the working hypothesis that GABA(A) receptors are involved in alcohol preference in HAD rats.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 14, No 50 (2015), Application of solar treatment for the disinfection of ... of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil for ... conditions of ultrasonic-assisted extraction from plant-chicory, Abstract PDF.

  11. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ( Colutea armena Boiss. and Huet.) seeds.

  12. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The essential oils used in the present study with different components showed antibacterial activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil, and therefore they can be used as a new antibacterial substance.

  13. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  14. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  15. Aportaciones a la flora Granatense, III

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Parras, J.Mª.; Molero Mesa, J.

    1983-01-01

    Se comentan algunas especies nuevas o críticas para la provincia de Granada. Se establecen las nuevas combinaciones siguientes: Cerastium alpinum subsp. aquaticum (Boiss.) Martínez Parras & Molero Mesa y Cerastium alpinum subsp. nevadense (Pau) Martínez Parras & Molero Mesa. In this paper, some plants from Granada province are studied. The following new combinations are stablished: Cerastium alpinum subsp. aquaticum (Boiss.) Martínez Parras & Molero Mesa and Cerastium alpinum subsp. ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tope, SF. Vol 4, No 4 (2010) - Articles Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mbianda, AP. Vol 4, No 4 (2010) - Articles Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL ...

  18. 1841-IJBCS-Article-Piana Pius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2012). Les pertes en vies humaines dans le monde dues à la drépanocytose sont ... 2010b ; Mpiana et al., 2012). ... éthanoliques, et à l'étuve (45 °C) pour les ..... Hymenocardia acida. Tul. (Ehphorbiaceae) Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10(5):. 788-791.

  19. Radial variation in fiber length of some lesser used wood species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in fibre length of ten lesser used wood species were investigated. The mean fibre length varied from 1.07mm in Lannea acida to 2.41mm in Sterculia setigera. Four patterns of within tree radial variations in fibre length were observed in the studied species. In pattern one, fibre length increased from the pith to the ...

  20. Chemotype common planets in Lebanon gender and gender Micromeria Origanum (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilan, Ch.; Rabiha, S.; Aitour, S.

    2011-01-01

    The chemotype or (chimiotype) is the original denomination, meant to characterizean essential oil from the botanic and biochemical view point. It is so important that it is today acknowledged and used in the whole biological and botanic classification, earmarking the wildly present molecule in an essential oil. This classification is linked to factors directly related to the specific life conditions of the plant namely: the country, climate, soil and the harvest period which can influence the essential oil composition. One speaks about a chemotype essential oil (Zhiri and Baudoux, 2005). This study shows the classification of four Origanums: Origanum syriacum L.,Origanum majorana L., Origanum ehrenbergii Boiss. and Origanum libanoticum Boiss., the last 2 being endemic to Lebanon; and four Micromeria: Micromeria barbata Boiss., wild and endemic, Micromeria barbata, domesticated, Micromeria libanotica Boiss., also endemic to Lebanon and Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss Origanum of Lebanon is 'thyme of thymo' and Micromeria grown in Lebanon contain less pulegone rate than in other countries These endangered species could find a field of valorization in the food industry sector, which will definitely help in preserving them and will lead to a potential new income to the Lebanese industry . (author)

  1. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  2. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... for Rhamnus kurdica Boiss in flowering were evaluated in this work. The polar extraction of ... INTRODUCTION. Antioxidant activity is essential for life, to counteract the strongly ... balance (Erkan et al., 2011). Phenolic ... were procured from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie (Steinheim, Germany). Analytical grade ...

  3. Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantification of Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of Thymus sipyleus Boiss and also to determine some phenolic compounds using a newly developed and validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.

  4. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 36 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-specific relationships among two Tunisian Thymus taxa: Thymus capitatus Hoffm. et Link. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. using molecular markers · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Imen BEN EL HADJ ALI, Arbi GUETAT, Mohamed ...

  5. Patterns of resource use by milkweed insects in Sinai | Elbanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant morphology and defensive chemistry are related to the insect community of herbivores on Gomphocarpus sinaicus (Boiss.) (Apocynaceae) in Sinai (Egypt). There appears to be significant variation among individual plants in the components of their chemical defences. The different components of the community ...

  6. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  7. New pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium crassifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsam, H; Yassa, N; Sarkhail, P; Shafiee, A

    2000-05-01

    Heliotropium crassifolium Boiss, (Boraginaceae) from a population of Ilam, western region of Iran was studied for pyrrolizidine alklaoids (PAs). Four alkaloids have been identified: europine 1, europine N-oxide 2 and a new pyrrolizidine alkaloids ilamine 3 and its N-oxide 4, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS data.

  8. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  9. Essential oil composition of Pimpinella cypria and its insecticidal, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Pimpinella cypria Boiss. (Apiaceae), an endemic species in northern Cyprus, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-five compounds were identified in the oil and these comprised 81.7% of the total composition. The compound classes in the oil were ...

  10. Biological Evaluation, Overpressured Layer Chromatography (OPLC) separation and Isolation of a New Acetylenic Derivative Compound from Prangos platychlaena ssp. platychlaena Fruit Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present work, fruits of Prangos platychlaena Boiss. ex Tchihat. ssp. platychlaena (Apiaceae) collected from eastern (Sample A) and central (Sample B) parts of Turkey were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield essential oils (EOs). The chemical composition of P. platychlaena ssp. platychlaen...

  11. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae). Several species of this genus have been used since ancient times as folk remedies for ailments such as scrophulas, scabies, eczema, psoriasis, tumors, etc. We have previously demonstrated the inhibitory effect of S. striata extract on nitric oxide production in vitro and ex vivo model [5].

  12. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... root extract of Sorghum halepense stimulated seedling shoot length of Parthenium hysterophorus. Similar effects of the aqueous extracts of Inula grantioides Boiss. and. Capsicum annuum L. on seedling growth of test species have also been demonstrated against various test species by Shaukat et al.

  13. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 11090 ... C Ko, J Kung, R Mc Donald. Vol 14, No 25 (2015), In vitro microtuberization of Black Zira (Bunium persicum Boiss.) .... Sujing Fu, Hengkang Hu, Qixiang Zhang, Yanming Fang, Zhengxiong Shen, Yuqiong Gao. Vol 7, No 3 (2008), In vitro propagation of miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificuDaniel) ...

  15. A Balanced Chromosomal Translocation Disrupting ARHGEF9 Is Associated With Epilepsy, Anxiety, Aggression, and Mental Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng; Hoffmann, Kirsten; Fuchs, Celine; Carta, Eloisa; Deas, Emma; Venkateswarlu, Kanamarlapudi; Menzel, Corinna; Ullmann, Reinhard; Tommerup, Niels; Dalprà, Leda; Tzschach, Andreas; Selicorni, Angelo; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a “scaffolding” protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation in a female patient presenting with a disturbed sleep-wake cycle, late-onset epileptic seizures, increased anxiety, aggressive behavior, and mental retardation, but not hyperekplexia. Fine mapping of the brea...

  16. Midazolam inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning through dual central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activation and neurosteroidogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O’Dell, Kazuko A.; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) enhance γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor inhibition by direct actions on central BDZ receptors (CBRs). Although some BDZs also bind mitochondrial receptors (translocator protein 18kDa, TSPO) and promote the synthesis of GABA-enhancing neurosteroids, the role of neurosteroids in the clinical effects of BDZs is unknown. In rat hippocampal slices, we compared midazolam, an anesthetic BDZ with clonazepam, an anticonvulsant/anxiolytic BDZ that activates CBRs selectivel...

  17. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in villages of Çatak (Van-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mükemre, Muzaffer; Behçet, Lütfi; Çakılcıoğlu, Uğur

    2015-05-26

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in the villages of Çatak in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Recording such data calls for urgency. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of FIC method in Eastern (Van) part of Turkey. This study aims to identify the wild plants collected for medicinal purposes by locals of Çatak which is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to identify the uses and local names of these wild plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2012). During this period, 78 plants taxa were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant taxa were collected within the scope of the study; and herbarium materials were prepared. In addition, the relative significance value of the taxa was determined, and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We have found out in the literature review of the plants included in our study that 78 plant taxa are already used for medicinal purposes while 19 plants are not available among the records in the literature. The most common families are Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae. We include in our study and report for the first time the medicinal uses of Alchemilla buseriana Rothm., Astragalus longifolius Lam., Cephalaria microcephala Boiss., Euphorbia grisophylla M.S. Khan, Fritillaria crassifolia Boiss. & Huet. subsp. kurdica (Boiss. & Noe) Rix, Fritillaria pinardii Boiss., Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss., Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Mey., Onobrychis altissima Grossh., Onobrychis carduchorum C.C. Townsend, Papaver bracteatum Lindl., Phlomis tuberosa L., Psephellus karduchorum (Boiss.) Wagenitz, Scutellaria orientalis L. subsp. pichleri

  18. Isolation and recrystallization of epicuticular waxes from Sorbus and Cotoneaster leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Ganeva Tsveta; Stefanova Miroslava; Koleva Dimitrina; Ruiz Segundo Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Wax morphology and chemical composition are widely accepted to be important for the protective properties of the leaf’s surface and also valuable characteristics in plant systematics. The leaves of Sorbus domestica L. and Cotoneaster granatensis Boiss., species of two large genera with intricate taxonomy referred to subtribe Pyrinae, Rosaceae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and performing different methods of wax isola...

  19. Nitrogen vs argon: what is the most effective atmosphere for shelf-life extension of buckler sorrel leaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barreira, João C.M.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Buckler sorrel (Rumex induratus Boiss. & Reut.) is an underutilized leafy vegetable with peculiar sensory properties and potential as a gourmet food. In the food industry, different packaging methods have been used for shelf-life extension, but it is important to know how the quality of minimally processed vegetable is affected by these treatments. Recently, nitrogen and argon have been used for food packaging. Nitrogen is low soluble in water and other food constituents and does ...

  20. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXX. Cynaropicrin in species of the subtribe Centaureanae Dumort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cynaropicrin was determined in 13 species of the subtribe Centaureinae Dumort.: Centaurea declinata M. B.- C. leucophylla M. B.. C. dealbata Willd.. C. zangezuri (Sosn. Sosn., C. carthalinica (Sosn. Sosn., C. thracica (Janka Hayek, C. exarata Boiss. ex Cosson, C. phaeopappoides Bordz., Chartolepis intermedia Bioss., Ch. glastifolia (L. Cass., Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin, Rh. serratuloides (Georgi Bobr., Leuzea rhapontica (L. Holub.

  1. Efficiency of Floristic and Molecular Markers to Determine Diversity in Iranian Populations of T. boeoticum

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Naghavi; M. Maleki; S. F. Tabatabaei

    2009-01-01

    In order to study floristic and molecular classification of common wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.), an analysis was conducted on populations of the Triticum boeoticum collected from different regions of Iran. Considering all floristic compositions of habitats, six floristic groups (syntaxa) within the populations were identified. A high level of variation of T. boeoticum also detected using SSR markers. Our results showed that molecular method confirmed the groupin...

  2. Trichomes morphology as a taxonomic marker in the subfamily heliotropioideae (boraginaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes morphology of the subfamily heliotropioideae (Boraginaceae representing by 18 spectes has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium ohioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae 1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually comical with pointed tims and distinct trichomes base. However few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae. (author)

  3. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  4. Synthesis of the reported structure of piperazirum using a nitro-Mannich reaction as the key stereochemical determining step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piperazirum, isolated from Arum palaestinum Boiss, was originally assigned as r-3,c-5-diisobutyl-c-6-isopropylpiperazin-2-one. The reported structure was synthesised diastereoselectively using a key nitro-Mannich reaction to set up the C5/C6 relative stereochemistry. The structure was unambiguously assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction but the spectroscopic data did not match those reported for the natural product. The structure of the natural product must therefore be revised.

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracted from new verbascum species growing in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltan, F.Z.; Sokmen, M.; Akin, M.; Saracoglu, H.T.; Gokturk, R.S.; Ahmad, M.; Ali, M.; Shah, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the aerial parts of four new Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae) species namely, Verbascum bellum Hub.-Mor., Verbascum detersile Boiss. and Heldr., Verbascum myriocarpum Boiss. and Heldr. and Verbascum pestalozzae Boiss., growing in Turkey. Plant materials were extracted with chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol for antimicrobial tests. These extracts were assayed against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by the microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the Verbascum species varied between 150-0.59 mg/ml. In general, ethylacetate extract was effective for E. coli (ATCC 25922, 1.88 mg/ml). Ethyl acetate extract of V. pestalozzae exhibited the highest effect on P. aeroginosa (ATCC 29853, 0.59 mg/ml). The antioxidant capacity of the studied species was only tested with methanol extracts. Their antioxidant action was tested by DPPH and beta-carotene-linoleic acid methods. While V. pestalozzae (IC/sub 50/=15 mu g/ml) exhibited the strongest activity in DPPH assay, V. detersile and V. pestalozzae provided an excellent inhibition effect (100% RAA) in the beta-caroten- linoleic acid system. HPLC analysis of methanol extracts was also carried out to determine the composition of the phenolic compounds responsible for the activity. Methanol extracts were also subjected to HPLC analysis to determine their phenolic compound profile. (author)

  6. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Antimicrobial Activity of Scaligeria DC. Taxa and Implications for Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Baldemir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Six different Scaligeria DC. taxa (Apiaceae essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation from herba with the flowers collected from different sites from Turkey. The oils were analyzed and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS simultaneously. A total of 133 different compounds were identified and relative qualitative and quantitative differences were observed among the evaluated samples. Analytical profiles of the Scaligeria EOs showed characteristic differences in terms of different main chemical constituents, between the two taxa S. lazica Boiss. and S. tripartita (Kalen. Tamamsch; and S. napiformis (Sprengel Grande, S. meifolia (Fenzl Boiss., S. capillifolia Post, S. hermonis Post, S. glaucescens (DC. Boiss. taxa, respectively. The main component germacrene D can be utilized as marker for the chemical discrimination of the Scaligeria genus. In addition, Scaligeria EOs were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei standard strains by using a micro-dilution assay. As a general result, the oils showed moderate inhibitory range when compared with standard antimicrobial agents.

  7. Screening of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activity of Section Brevifilamentum of Origanum (L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Yılmaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six Origanum species, Origanum acutidens (Hand. -Mazz. Ietsw. (OA, Origanum brevidens (Bornm. Dinsm. (OB, Origanum haussknechtii Boiss. (OC, Origanum husnucan-baseri H.Duman, Aytaç & A.Duran (OHB, Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (OL, Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. (OR, belonging to sect. Brevifilamentum were analyzed for their essential oil and phenolic components. For the essential oil analyses, GC-MS and GC-FID were used. Phenolic contents of the aerial parts of the chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity of the species was investigated by three methods; DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene linoleic acid assays and CUPRAC assays. Also, acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition of the extracts were investigated. While the essential oil contents of the section Brevifilamentum showed difference in chemotype, the phenolic contents were found to be coumaric acids and derivatives. These groups were the most abundant components of the extracts. Especially rosmarinic acid was detected in high amounts in acetone and methanol extracts. OA had the best activity both in antioxidant and anticholinesterase assays.

  8. Unidad de recuperación de azufre

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués Sancho, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    En este proyecto se trata del diseño de una unidad de recuperación de azufre, dentro de una refinería de petróleo, ubicada cerca de Tarragona. En esta unidad se pretende recuperar gran parte del azufre generado en toda la planta, para evitar que se filtre en modo de dióxido de azufre a la atmosfera, evitando así la posible creación de lluvia acida. También se pretende aprovechar el azufre en estado líquido, y el vapor sobrantes, para diversas aplicaciones, dentro y fuera de la refinería. ...

  9. Caracterização de atapulgita visando aplicação para reforço de materiais poloméricos

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Antonio Carlos Silva da

    2011-01-01

    A atapulgita é um argilomineral do grupo das hormitas, que tem suas estruturas formadas por microcanais, que lhe conferem propriedades tecnológicas superiores a argilas classificadas industriais, esse grupo de argilas tem um leque de aplicações muito versátil, que vai de fluido de perfuração para poços de petróleo até aplicações na indústria farmacêutica. Tais propriedades podem ser melhoradas por ativação acida e/ou ativação térmica. A atapulgita quando ativada pode melhora...

  10. Functional microdomains in bacterial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    The membranes of eukaryotic cells harbor microdomains known as lipid rafts that contain a variety of signaling and transport proteins. Here we show that bacterial membranes contain microdomains functionally similar to those of eukaryotic cells. These membrane microdomains from diverse bacteria harbor homologs of Flotillin-1, a eukaryotic protein found exclusively in lipid rafts, along with proteins involved in signaling and transport. Inhibition of lipid raft formation through the action of zaragozic acid--a known inhibitor of squalene synthases--impaired biofilm formation and protein secretion but not cell viability. The orchestration of physiological processes in microdomains may be a more widespread feature of membranes than previously appreciated.

  11. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Essential oil composition and enantiomeric distribution of fenchone and camphor of Lavandula cariensis and L. stoechas subsp. stoechas grown in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzakou, Olga; Bazos, Ioannis; Yannitsaros, Artemios

    2009-08-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of L. cariensis Boiss. and L. stoechas L. subsp. stoechas collected in Greece were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In the inflorescences and leaves essential oils of L. cariensis the most abundant metabolite was camphor (51.8, 48.8% respectively), whereas in the essential oils of L. stoechas subsp. stoechas, the main constituents were fenchone (39.9, 21.0% respectively) and camphor (24.2, 26.3% respectively). Both enantiomers of camphor were present, whereas only (+) fenchone was detected.

  13. Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Chorianopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of the wild growing plants of Greek S. spinosa L., S. parnassica subsp. parnassica Heldr.& Sart ex Boiss., S. thymbra and S. montana were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal activities of the essential oils were assayed against Culex pipiens biotype molestus. The analytical data indicated that various monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes constitute the major constituents of the oils, but their concentration varied greatly among the oils examined. The bioassay results indicated that the oils possess significant larvicidal activities and represent an inexpensive source of natural substances mixture that exhibit potentials for use to control the mosquito larvae.

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  15. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografidis, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this study is a new variety of subsp. delphicum from Mt Ochi of southern Evvia.

  16. Notes i contribucions al coneixement de la flora de Menorca (X). Notes florístiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga-Arguimbau, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Es donen a conèixer noves dades corològiques i observacions taxonòmiques per a la flora de Menorca referents a 50 tàxons. D'aquests 13 són novetat per a la flora de les Balears: Agrostis stolonifera subsp. gaditana (Boiss. & Reut.) Valdés & H. Scholz, Asteriscus pygmaeus (DC.) Coss. & Durieu, Callitriche obtnsangula Le Gall, Dactylis glomerata subsp. hackelii (Asch. & Graebn.) Cif. & Giacom., Daucus muricatus (L.) L., Ehrharta calycina J.E. Sm., Eleocharis palustris subsp. waltersii Bures & D...

  17. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  18. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXII. Guaianolides in species from the genus Chartolepis Cass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the composition of the "lactone fraction" of 4 species from the genus Chartolepis Cass. were observed. Cynaropierin was isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. and the occurrence there of grossheimin was confirmed. The following compounds were isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis glastifolia (L. Cass.: centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cebellin D, cynaropicrin, cebellin F and janerin. Centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cynaropicrin, janerin and a new guaianolide, pterocaulin were isolated from the herb Chartolepis biebersteinii Jaub. et Spach. In addition to the lactones found in Chartolepis biebersteinii, Chartolepis pterocaula (Trautv. Czer. also accumulated grossheimin.

  19. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  20. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30. Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  1. The use of ethnobotanicals in the management of inflammation in Nigeria: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Fasola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, one of the leading health issues in recent times call for concern. Many plants used in the management and treatment of inflammation in various parts of Nigeria have not been properly harnessed hence this review. The result of this review revealed that plants commonly used for the treatment of inflammation include: Zingiber officinale, Alstonia boonei, Plumbago zeylanica, Ocimum basilicum, Parquetina nigrescens, Peperomia pellucida, Abrus precatorius, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Alchornea cordifolia, Terminalia ivorensis, Aspilia africana, Ageratum conyzoides and Hymenocardia acida. Altogether 74 plant species are ethnobotanicals used in the management and treatment of inflammation. The plants were enumerated with their family names, common and local names, possible chemical constituents, part(s used, route of administration and subsequent references where available.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12620 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 1-18

  2. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S

    2001-01-01

    Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gamma......, as opposed to the staining of the (gamma2/alpha1)-containing receptors, which was only slightly higher than background. To explain this, the (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeras may act like alpha1 and gamma2 subunits, respectively, indicating that the extracellular N-terminal segment is important...... for assembly. However, the (alpha1/gamma2) chimeric subunit had characteristics different from the alpha1 subunit, since the (alpha1/gamma2) chimera gave rise to no desensitization after GABA stimulation in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, which was independent of whether the chimera was expressed...

  3. Relación de la carga ácida de la dieta y el estado acido-base en niños con Enfermedad Renal Crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo, Gustavo; Moreno, Greysi; Marcano, Gilmary; López, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    La progresión de la Enfermedad Renal Crónica (ERC) es acelerada por la acidosis metabólica, la cual puede ser agravada por la dieta. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la Carga Acida Potencial Renal (CAPR) de la dieta en niños con ERC y establecer su relación con el estado ácido base. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 26 pacientes (10 meses-17 años) con ERC atendidos en la consulta del Servicio de Nefrología del Hospital de Niños JM de los Ríos entre Junio 2014 y Enero 2016. Para la evaluac...

  4. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  5. The need of alkalinity determination in the characterization of rain; Necesidad de la determinacion de la alcalinidad en la caracterizacion de la lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper is presented the alkalinity determination of the carbonic species in the rain waters by the Gran titration method. The alkalinity values obtained by this method in low electric conductivity waters are fairly reliable. Also, the existing studies on the characterization of acid rains, are discussed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la medicion de la alcalinidad y la determinacion de las especies carbonicas en las aguas de lluvia por el metodo de la titulacion de Gran. Los valores de alcalinidad obtenidos por este metodo en las aguas de baja conductividad electrica son bastante confiables. Asimismo, se discuten los estudios existentes sobre la caracterizacion de la lluvia acida en la republica mexicana.

  6. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  7. Extraction of Indigo from Some Isatis species and Dyeing Standardization Using Low-technology Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Comlekcioglu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh leaves of four Isatis species culture form of I. tinctoria L and wild forms of I. buschiana Schischkin, I. candolleana Boiss. (endemic and I. tinctoria L. subsp. corymbosa. (Boiss. were used for indigo production. Dyes were extracted by fermentation and hot water application. The extracted dyes were optimized with different pH and reducing agents. Results showed that the dye from hot water application produced the desired dying quality at pH 11. Reducing agent concentrations had no significant effect on color quality. Dark blue and blue colors were obtained from I. tinctoria and I. candolleana extracts although I. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa and I. buschiana produced mostly yellow-gray colors. Light, dry and wet rubbing fastness values varied between 3 and 3/4 while washing fastness was between 2 and 4/5. The highest indigo amounts were determined spectrophotometrically as 4.19 mg/g and 2.53 mg/g in I. tinctoria and I. candolleana, respectively. Results also showed that harvesting season was important for indigo production and the highest indigo amount was observed in mid-June.

  8. Participation of mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptors in the anticonflict, antineophobic and anticonvulsant action of 2-aryl-3-indoleacetamide and imidazopyridine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, J; Romeo, E; Kozikowski, A; Ma, D; Costa, E; Guidotti, A

    1993-05-01

    The 2-hexyl-indoleacetamide derivative, FGIN-1-27 [N,N-di-n-hexyl-2- (4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide], and the imidazopyridine derivative, alpidem, both bind with high affinity to glial mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptors (MDR) and increase mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Although FGIN-1-27 is selective for the MDR, alpidem also binds to the allosteric modulatory site of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor where the benzodiazepines bind. FGIN-1-27 and alpidem, like the neurosteroid 3 alpha,21-dehydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-20-one (THDOC), clonazepam and zolpidem (the direct allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors) delay the onset of isoniazid and metrazol-induced convulsions. The anti-isoniazid convulsant action of FGIN-1-27 and alpidem, but not that of THDOC, is blocked by PK 11195. In contrast, flumazenil blocked completely the anticonvulsant action of clonazepam and zolpidem and partially blocked that of alpidem, but it did not affect the anticonvulsant action of THDOC and FGIN-1-27. Alpidem, like clonazepam, zolpidem and diazepam, but not THDOC or FGIN-1-27, delay the onset of bicuculline-induced convulsions. In two animal models of anxiety, the neophobic behavior in the elevated plus maze test and the conflict-punishment behavior in the Vogel conflict test, THDOC and FGIN-1-27 elicited anxiolytic-like effects in a manner that is flumazenil insensitive, whereas alpidem elicited a similar anxiolytic effect, but is partially blocked by flumazenil. Whereas PK 11195 blocked the effect of FGIN-1-27 and partially blocked alpidem, it did not affect THDOC in both animal models of anxiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Decay and durability of building stones in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of some pollutant agents in urban environments -gaseous SO2, acid rain and solid particles- on carbonate and siliceous building stones with different petrophysic characteristics. The selected environments have been London, Garston (UK and Burgos (Spain and the exposed materials have been Portland, Combe Down and Hontoria limestones, Laspra dolomite and Rosa Porriño granite. Products generated by the action of gases, acid rain and solid particles on stones have been analyzed. To point out the properties of stones that influence their decay, the results obtained on the stones exposed to the above environments have been compared to those from some laboratory accelerated ageing tests.

    Se estudia el efecto de ciertos agentes de contaminación presentes en ambientes urbanos –SO2 gaseoso, lluvia acida y partículas sólidas- sobre rocas de naturaleza carbonatada y silicatada con características petrofísicas distintas, utilizadas en edificación. Los ambientes seleccionados han sido Londres, Garston (UK y Burgos, y los materiales expuestos han sido las calizas de Portland, Combe Down y Hontoria, la dolomía de Laspra y el granito Rosa Porriño. Se analizan los productos generados por la acción de los gases, la lluvia acida y las partículas sólidas sobre los diferentes tipos de piedra. Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en la piedra expuesta a los ambientes antes citados, y los daños generados en algunos ensayos de envejecimiento artificial acelerado con el fin de resaltar las características intrínsecas de las piedras que condicionan su degradación.

  10. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  11. Taxonomic Studies on the Genus Arnebia Forssk. (Boraginaceae in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ambrish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arnebia Forssk. in India is taxonomically studied based on field surveys, collection of live plants, consultation of herbarium and literature. The genus is represented in India by 10 taxa including 8 species and 2 varieties viz., Arnebia bhattacharyyae K. Ambrish & S.K. Srivast., A. benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don I.M. Johnst., A. euchroma ( Royle I.M. Johnst., A. guttata Bunge, A. hispidissima (Sieber ex Lehm. A.DC., A. linearifolia A.DC., A. griffithii Boiss., A. nandadeviensis K. Chandra Sek. & R.S. Rawal , A. euchroma var. grandis (Bornm. Kazmi and A. guttata var. thomsonii (C.B. Clarke Kazmi, distributed in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in North-West Himalaya to Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan in India. Dichotomous keys to all the species in India along with taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and images of most of the species including type and their economic importance are provided.

  12. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H 2 SO 4 and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses. At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H 2 SO 4 doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs

  13. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibranchiatum Qm9-41 4 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M J

    1991-07-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs.

  14. Herbal Medicine and Vaginal Candidiasis in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sheidaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is the second most common vaginal infection. Given the frequent recurrence of the disease, many women tend to use herbal remedies. Thus, the present study aimed to review the association between vaginal candidiasis and herbal medicines in Iran. In this review, we retrieved articles published from 2001 to 2016. Then, the results were expressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, nine articles were reviewed, which had investigated thyme, garlic, garlic-thyme, olive oil, propolis, myrtus, Nigella sativa (black cumin, and Bunium perscicum boiss (black zira. Subsequently, each of these plants was thoroughly dealt with. The studies on black cumin, garlic, and thyme reported positive effects for these herbs, and they were widely produced for therapeutic purposes. In addition, myrtus was found to have a salutary impact on vaginal candidiasis.

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  16. Descomposición de hojarasca en la leguminosa Adenocarpus decorticans: pérdida de peso y dinámica de los nutrientes

    OpenAIRE

    Moro Cuadrillero, María José; Domingo Poveda, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la pérdida de peso y la liberación de N, P, K, Mg y Ca de la hojarasca de Adenocarpus decorticans Boiss. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería). Tras 828 días de incubación en el campo, la pérdida de peso inicial fue del 70%. La tasa de descomposición estimada a partir de la aplicación del modelo exponencial simple es de -0.82 el primer año, -0.62 el segundo año y -0.53 para el conjunto del periodo. La liberación de nutrientes sigue la secuencia K>Mg>Ca> P>N....

  17. Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S

    1982-11-01

    The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents.

  18. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIII. Isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Geppert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the genus Centaurea L.: salonitenolide (I was found in C. crithmifolia Vis., C. friderici Vis., C, paniculata L., C. calcitrapa L., C. pontica Prodan et E. L' Nyarady, C. eriophora L., C. alba L. subsp. deusta (Ten. Nyman, C. alba L. subsp. caliacrae (Prodan Dostal and C. weldeniana Reichenb.; cnicin (II was found in: C. vallesiaca (DC. Jordan, C. calcitrapa L., C. aspera L. subsp. aspera, C. sphaerocephala L. subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman, C. sulphurea Willd., C. eriophora L. and C. rocheliana (Heuffel Dostal; cynaropicrin (III was detected in C. debeauxii Gren. et Gordon subsp. thuillieri Dostal; acroptillin (V, repin (VI and janerin (VII in C. bella Trautv. Other unidentified sesquiterpene lactones were also found to be present in the examined plants.

  19. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  20. Effect of γ-irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemicellulose thistle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemicellulose ''Onopordum Nervosum Boiss'' thistle is determined. It is shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield or sugar obtained from the batchwise hydrolysis of the cellulose (1% H 2 SO 4 and 180 0 C) at increasing doses. At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum overall yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulosic material was about 66 0 at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from paper was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H 2 SO 4 does not enhance the yield anyway. (author)

  1. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Three Thymus Taxa from Turkey with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zehra Küçükbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost, Thymus fallax Fisch. & Mey. and Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak var. pubescens resulted in the identification of 26, 35 and 53 constituents, respectively. The major components in the essential oil of T. migricus were found to be α-terpineol (30.6%, thymol (20.7% and α-terpinyl acetate (14.9% while in the essentiol oil of T. fallaxcis-carveol (29.6% and α-terpineol (10.8%. Carvacrol was a dominant compound with a percentage 66.1% of the essential oil of T. pubescens var. pubescens. The data obtained indicate that the essential oils of Thymus species generally exhibit some bacteriostatic activity. The antioxidant activity of the tested essential oils were found to be slightly lower than butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA.

  2. Anatomy and Micromorphology of Inula helenium subsp. orgyalis and I. ensifolia (Asteraceae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay AYTAS AKCIN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula helenium L. subsp. orgyalis (Boiss. Grierson and Inula ensifolia L. were investigated anatomically and micromorphologically. The secretory cavities in the leaves and stem of both investigated taxa were located in the neighbourhood of the vascular bundles and in the rhizomes in the secondary cortex. The leaf mesophylls of investigated Inula taxa were homogeneous. Stomata were anomocytic in two species. The distribution and density of the eglandular and glandular trichomes provide information of taxonomical significance. Moreover, the cypselas of I. helenium L. subsp. orgyalis were homomorphic, whereas in I. ensifolia cypselas were heteromorphic. Additionally, the number of ribs, the shape of carpopodium and stylopodium were diagnostic taxonomic characters between the two taxa.

  3. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Navarro-Sampedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454 data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  4. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  5. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM 9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs

  6. The taxonomic status of Scilla beirana Samp. (Hyacinthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldas, Francisco B.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Scilla beirana Samp. were sampled in NW Portugal and compared with its relatives S. ramburei Boiss, and S. peruviana L. Leaf and scape anatomy, morphology, chromosome number and idiogram were identical in S. beirana and S. ramburei, but differed from S. peruviana. Diagnostic characters previously used to discriminate S. beirana (width of leaves and flower number showed continuous, but not clinal, variation, and failed to provide a clear-cut basis for identification and no other morphological attributes were found to separate the taxa. All available evidence suggests that S. beirana should be put into synonymy with S. ramburei, as was earlier suggested by COUTINHO (1935.Se muestreó Scilla beirana Samp. en diversas poblaciones del noroeste de Portugal y se comparó con dos táxones con los que se había relacionado previamente, S. ramburei Boiss, y S. peruviana L. La macromorfología, la anatomía de la hoja y escapo, el número cromosomático y el idiograma de S. beirana y S. ramburei fueron indistinguibles, pero diferentes de los de S. peruviana. Los caracteres diagnósticos que se habían utilizado previamente para discriminar a S. beirana -anchura foliar y número de flores- revelaron una variación continua y no permitieron diferenciarla de S. ramburei, en la cual debería ser incluida como sinónimo, tal como había sugerido COUTINHO (1935.

  7. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  8. Cytotaxonomy of North African species of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanché, César

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Both chromosome numbers and karyotype structure from 15 wild North-African populations of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium were studied. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, with a more symmetrical karyotype, appears as a possible perennial ancestor of' the remaining annuals with highly asymmetrical and shorter karyotype. A taxonomical reorganization of this section is proposed: two new series (ser. Macropetala ser. nova and ser. Balansae ser. nova. and two new nomenclatural combinations (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum are proposed.

    S'han estudiat els nombres cromosòmics i l'estructura deis cariotipus de 15 poblacions nordafricanes de Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, amb cariotipus mes simètric, apareix com a possible ancestre perenne de la resta d’espècies anuals amb cariotipus més asimètric i més curt. Es proposa una reorganització taxonòmica de la secció, d'on es descriu en dues series noves (ser. Macropetala ser. nova i ser. Balansae ser. nova. i es proposen dues combinacions noves (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum.

  9. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L; Gamarra, R; Sainz, H; Millan, R

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  10. Dry and wet "deposition" studies of the degradation of cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of portland cement mortars with SO2 gaseous pollutant and artificial 'acid rain' solution has been examined using laboratory exposure chambers, with realistic presentation rates of pollutants. The mortar were previously carbonated to produce superficial carbonation. Two mortars with different w/c ratio and hence specific surface were prepared and exposed into the chambers. For dry deposition of SO2 pollutant gas, the important roles of water and water plus oxidant in increasing chemical reaction are readily revealed. Further, accessible porosity also increases reaction through increased times of reaction of pollutant with the mortars. Interestingly, in the absence of deliberate surface wetting, the presence of oxidant, ozone, leads to a reduction in the already limited extent of reaction. Wet deposition studies using artificial 'acid rain' solution result in gypsum formation, which is more extensive for mortars of increased w/c ratios.

    Se han realizado ensayos de laboratorio de simulación de los procesos ambientales de "deposición" seca y húmeda sobre morteros de cemento portland, estudiándose las reacciones que se producen con el contaminante SO2 ("deposición" seca y la disolución de 'lluvia acida' ("deposición" húmeda. Los morteros de cemento se carbonataron para favorecer la carbonatación superficial de los mismos. Se prepararon morteros con dos relaciones a/c con el fin de estudiar la influencia que la variable superficie específica tenía en el proceso de deterioro de dichos materiales. En los estudios de deposición seca con SO2 como gas agresivo se ha visto la importancia que el agua y el agua junto a un oxidante tienen en la reacción del contaminante con los componentes del mortero. La superficie específica Juega un papel importante, ya que al aumentar, aumenta la reacción con el contaminante. La reacción en presencia de oxidante, (SO2+O3

  11. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  12. Spanish radioactive lignites, nature and solubility of the uranium; Lignitos radiactivos espanoles, naturaleza y solubilizacion del uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josa, J M; Merino, J L; Villoria, A [Direccion de Plantas Piloto e Industriales, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-06-15

    The authors describe the features of some 70 samples of radioactive lignites from various places in Spain (Huesca, Lerida, Teruel, Galicia and Murcia) with uranium contents varying between 20 and 1200 ppm. They carried out experiments on extraction of the uranium from these ores both by direct treatment and after roasting to eliminate organic matter and bring about concentration. The acid method was considered for leaching of the uranium from the substances in question using agitation and static bed techniques. Investigations were also carried out on the effect of the variables represented by grain size, amount of acid, temperature time and oxidants, in addition to those involved in the roasting process. (author) [Spanish] Los autores presentan las caracteristicas de unas 70 muestras de lignitos radiactivos procedentes de distintos puntos de Espana (Huesca, Lerida, Teruel, Galicia y Murcia) con leyes de uranio comprendidas entre 20 y 1200 ppm. El beneficio del uranio de estos minerales se ha abordado por tratamiento directo y despues de someterlos a tostacion, lo que elimino la materia organica y produjo enriquecimiento. La lixiviacion del uranio de los productos indicados se considero por via acida, utilizando tecnicas de agitacion y de lecho estatico. Se investigo la influencia de las variables tamano de grano, dosis de acido, temperatura, tiempo y oxidante, ademas de las implicadas en los procesos de tostacion. (author)

  13. Ionic composition and levels of acidity in rainfall in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between 1989 and 2001; Composicion ionica y niveles de acidez de las lluvias en Maracaibo, Venezuela, entre 1989 y 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Ligbel; Morales, Jose; Velasquez, Harvi; Portillo, Dennis; Cano, Yulixis; Montilla, Brinolfo; Iriarte, Nelkis, Mesa, Johan [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ligbels@hotmail.com

    2009-08-15

    de emision naturales y antropicas, se incorporan en las gotas de lluvia a traves de varios procesos fisicoquimicos durante los eventos de precipitacion. El conocimiento de la composicion quimica de las precipitaciones es critico para el entendimiento de la contaminacion regional y local y sus efectos sobre los ecosistemas. Entre las sustancias acidas o potencialmente acidas envueltas en la formacion de la lluvia acida, se puede senalar los compuestos de azufre, nitrogeno y cloro. Un factor importante en las caracteristicas acido-base de la lluvia es la emision de materiales alcalinos como carbonato de calcio, magnesio y amoniaco, que se encuentran generalmente como un vapor capaz de neutralizar los acidos sulfurico y nitrico. Los datos de la quimica de las lluvias, en este trabajo, provienen de varios sitios de la ciudad de Maracaibo, las muestras de agua de lluvia fueron recolectadas en tres periodos repartidos entre los anos 1989 y 2001, con equipos de muestreo manuales y automaticos. Para los diferentes analisis realizados se utilizaron un espectrometro de absorcion atomica modalidad llama, Perkin-Elmer 3110 y un cromatografo ionico con detector de conductividad, marca Dionex 2000i/SP. El pH-PPV en la lluvia de Maracaibo es 4.8, indicativo de una atmosfera ligeramente acida e influenciada por: SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} en 86 %. La especie neutralizante mas importante es el NH{sub 3}, aunque las concentraciones de Ca{sup +2} y Mg{sup +2} son aportes adicionales al proceso de neutralizacion atmosferica. El mayor flujo de depositacion humeda fue exhibido por: NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con 67.5 %. Estadisticamente, se evidencio una alta correlacion entre SO4{sup *}, Cl{sup *} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con el ion H{sup +} (p<0.05), ratificando su influencia en la acidez de las lluvias de Maracaibo. Se concluye que solo una pequena fraccion de los iones potencialmente acidos contribuyen a la acidez libre de las

  14. [The calix[4]arene C-107 is highly effective supramolecular inhibitor of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of plasma membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevza, O V; Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Rodik, R V; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the myometrium cell plasma membranes with calixarene C-107 (5,17-diamino(2-pyridyl) methylphosphono-11,23-di-tret-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene) was investigated. It has been shown that calixarene C-107 reduced the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity more efficiently than ouabain did, while it did not practically influence the "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of the same membrane. The magnitude of the cofficient of inhibition I0.5 was 33 +/- 4 nM, Hill coefficient was 0.38 +/- 0.06. The model calixarene C-150--the calixarene "scaffold" (26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene), and the model compound M-3 (4-hydroxyaniline(2-pyridine)methylphosphonic acid)--a fragment of the calixarene C-107, had practically no influence on the enzymatic activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase. We carried out the computer simulation of interaction of calixarenes C-107 and the mentioned model compound with ligand binding sites of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of plasma membrane and structure foundation of their intermolecular interaction was found out. The participation of hydrogen, hydrophobic, electrostatic and pi-pi (stacking) interaction between calixarene and enzyme aminoacid residues, some of which are located near the active center of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, was discussed.

  15. Structural modification of regenerated fuller earth and its application in the adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Dario Beltran-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tierra Fuller es un material inorgánico usado en la industri a eléctrica para la regeneración del aceite dieléctrico. Despué s de un tratamiento de descontaminación, la tierra Fuller se regenera y reutiliza. En este estudio se evaluó la capacidad de remoción de la tierra Fuller regenerada para el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con colorantes de diferente naturaleza y a su vez, como esta capac idad puede ser aumentada mediante la modificación estructural del ma terial. Así, la tierra Fuller regenerada sin ninguna modificaci ón alcanzó remociones del 99% de azul de metileno. Sin embargo, para el tr atamiento de efluentes contamina dos con rojo 40 se requirió la modificación acida y térmica del material para obtener adsorcio nes superiores al 94% del colorante. En conclusión, la tierra F uller regenerada es un material adsorben te adecuado para el tratamien to de efluentes contaminados con colorantes de naturaleza catió nica. No obstante, la remoción de colorant es aniónicos no es eficiente, siendo necesaria la modificación estructural del material para mejorar la remoción de este tipo de colorantes.

  16. Modeling of solvent extraction equilibrium of Cu(II from sulphuric Acid solution with MOC-55TD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Cu(II from acidic sulphate aqueous solutions using the commercial MOC-55TD extractant is studied. A predictive model, which consists in a set of non-linear mass action and mass balance equations is proposed. The model was solved using a tailor-made equation-solving program. The extraction of copper can be described by the formation of CuR2 species (log Kext= 0.717 ± 0.03 in the organic phase. The copper equilibrium isotherm was also obtained at 20°C.

    Se estudia la extracción de Cu(II de disoluciones acuosas acidas, en medio sulfato, mediante la oxima comercial MOC-55TD. Se propone un modelo para predecir la extracción del metal; este modelo consiste en una serie de ecuaciones no lineales de acción de masas y balance de masas. El modelo se resolvió empleando un programa de ordenador específicamente definido para este tipo de equilibrios. La extracción de cobre se describe por la formación de la especie CuR2 (log Kext= 0,717 ± 0,03 en la fase orgánica. Se ha obtenido la isoterma de extracción de cobre a 20 °C.

  17. Regulatory role of kinases and phosphatases on the internalisation of caveolae in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botos, Erzsébet; Turi, Agnes; Müllner, Nándor; Kovalszky, Ilona; Tátrai, Péter; Kiss, Anna L

    2007-01-01

    The caveolar cycle is thought to be regulated by synchronised function of kinases and phosphatases. Using ocadaic acid--a serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor--and an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase (sodium orthovanadate) we have followed the internalisation of caveolae. Since albumin binding to its receptor (gp60) can induce pinching off of caveolae from the plasma membrane, we also used this physiological ligand to induce the internalisation. Our confocal microscopic results show that both ocadaic acid and vanadate treatments have significantly decreased caveolin (caveolin-1 and -2) labelling on the cell surface, while the cytoplasmic labelling became much stronger. Quite often large, strongly labelled "granules" appear at the perinuclear region. Very strong caveolin labelling was detected along the actin-cytoskeleton suggesting that caveolae might move along these filaments. Our electron microscopic results also show an intensive caveolae pinching off from the plasma membrane. After ocadaic acid and vanadate treatments the number of surface connected vesicles (caveolae) decreases. At the same time, large multivesicular bodies (termed caveosomes) appear in the perinuclear area of the cytoplasm. By immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis we detect an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of a approximately 29kDa protein in ocadaic acid and vanadate treated samples. This protein was identified as caveolin-2. No significant change in the tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 was found. From these data we can conclude that caveolae internalisation is regulated by phosphorylation of caveolin-2.

  18. Characterization of the newly isolated ω-oxidizing yeast Candida sorbophila DS02 and its potential applications in long-chain dicarboxylic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeseok; Sugiharto, Yohanes Eko Chandra; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Gyuyeon; Han, Changpyo; Jang, Hyeran; Jeon, Wooyoung; Park, Heejoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kang, Kyungbo; Lee, Hongwoen

    2017-08-01

    α, ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) are multipurpose chemicals widely used in polymers, perfumes, plasticizers, lubricants, and adhesives. The biotransformation of DCAs from alkanes and fatty acids by microorganisms has attracted recent interest, since synthesis via chemical oxidation causes problems in terms of the environment and safety. We isolated an ω-oxidizing yeast from a wastewater disposal facility of a petrochemical factory by chemostat enrichment culture. The haploid strain identified as Candida sorbophila DS02 grew on glucose and dodecane, exhibiting greater cell shrinkage on the latter. In flask cultures with mixed alkanes (C10-16) and fatty acid methyl esters (C10-16), DS02 used mixed alkanes simultaneously unlike Candida tropicalis and Yarrowia lipolytica and showed high substrate resistance. In flask cultures with acrylic acid-a known inhibitor of β-oxidation-DS02 produced 0.28 g/l dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) from dodecane, similar to wild-type C. tropicalis ATCC 20336. In fed-batch fermentation, DS02 produced 9.87 g/l DDDA, which was 5.7-fold higher than wild-type C. tropicalis. These results suggest that C. sorbophila strain DS02 has potential applications for the large-scale production of DCA.

  19. Preliminary study for the determination of heavy metal in ground samples by GF-ASS Zeeman; Studio preliminare per la determinazione di metalli pesanti in campioni di suolo mediante analisi GF-AAS Zeeman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casabianca, T.; Bitonte, R.; Epifani, M.; Ubaldi, C. [ENEA, Divisione Tecnologie Ingegneria e Servizi Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, MT (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of SIMOA project have been investigated methods to evaluate the level of soil contamination due to heavy metals. In this wok, it is discussed a procedure to measure topsoil bioavailable fraction of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Hg). The adopted procedure is based on acid digestion followed by instrumental detection by means of graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) using Zeeman effect to reduce background contribution. Details of samples preparation and analysis, experimental setup optimization and statistical data analysis are presented, together with a discussion on method accuracy and data interpretation. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto SIMOA (Sistema Integrato di Monitoraggio Ambientale) per il monitoraggio ambientale nel bacino del Basento (Regione Basilicata, Italia), vengono investigati i metodi per il controllo dei livelli di inquinamento del suolo da parte di metalli pesanti. Nel presente lavoro viene proposta una procedura per determinare il livello di concentrazione della frazione biodisponibile di sette metalli pesanti (Cadmio, Rame, Piombo, Nickel, Cromo, Mercurio) in campion di suolo superficiale. Il metodo e' basato su di un trattamento di digestione acida in forno a microonde cui segue la rivelazione strumentale mediante spettrofotometria di assorbimento atomico in fornetto di grafite (GFAAS) con effetto Zeeman per la correzione del fondo. Si descrivono in dettaglio le fasi di preparazione dei campioni, la metodologia di misura e l'analisi statistica dei dati, oltre ad una discussione sull'attendibilita' del metodo e sui futuri sviluppi.

  20. Analysis of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory substances produced by heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifová, Gabriela; Májeková, Hyacinta; Greif, Gabriel; Body, Patrik; Greifová, Maria; Dubničková, Martina

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory potential of various Lactobacillus reuteri strains is closely connected to their metabolite production profile under given cultivation conditions. We determined the in vitro production of antimicrobial substances such as organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin by four strains of L. reuteri (L. reuteri E, L. reuteri KO5, L. reuteri CCM 3625, and L. reuteri ATCC 55730). All studied L. reuteri strains showed the ability to produce lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol with concominant consumption of glucose and together with phenyllactic acid-a potent antifungal compound-with concominant consumption of phenylalanine. The reuterin production from glycerol was confirmed for all analyzed lactobacilli strains except L. reuteri CCM 3625. Production of organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin is significantly involved in antimicrobial activity of lactobacilli which was determined using the dual-culture overlay diffusion method against six indicator bacteria and five indicator moulds. In comparison to the referential L. reuteri ATCC 55730, the highest inhibition potential was observed against Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 3955. Among analyzed indicators of moulds, the growth of Alternaria alternata CCM F-128 was the most inhibited by all four analyzed L. reuteri strains. Finally, the immunomodulatory potential of analyzed lactobacilli were proven by the determination of the in vitro production of biogenic amines histamine and tyramine. L. reuteri CCM 3625 was able to produce tyramine, and L. reuteri E and L. reuteri KO5 were able to produce histamine under given cultivation conditions.

  1. Aplicación del proceso BRISA al tratamiento de menas de cobre conteniendo atacamita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of copper ores containing atacamite and secondary copper sulphides consists of heap leaching, by the TL process. Copper recoveries by this treatment are very low (less than 50 % for operating times higher than six months. In order to improve the copper extraction yields, several treatment options are presented in this work, wich consist on promoting the acid leaching of the atacamite and the indirect bioleaching (BRISA process of the secondary copper sulphides. All the options lead to improved copper recoveries in comparison with the current treatment. An economic estimation of each option of treatment is included, with really attractive results.

    El tratamiento actual de minerales que contienen atacamita y sulfures secundarios de cobre tiene lugar según el proceso TL. La recuperación de cobre en estos procesos es escasa (inferior al 50 %, para tiempos de operación superiores a seis meses. Para mejorar el rendimiento de extracción de cobre, se plantean, en este trabajo, diferentes alternativas de tratamiento que incluyen la potenciación de la lixiviación acida de la atacamita y la biolixiviación por contacto indirecto (proceso BRISA de los sulfuros secundarios de cobre. Todas las alternativas ofrecen aumentos sustanciales de la recuperación de cobre. Se incluye la evaluación económica preliminar de cada una de ellas, con resultados francamente atractivos.

  2. Medio ambiente y salud.

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    Tomás Franco Aliaga

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La salud es el resultado de un equilibrio dinámico entre los organismos y el medio del que forma parte. Esta armonía puede romperse de forma natural, pero cada vez es mayor la injerencia humana tanto en el ritmo de los fenómenos (efecto invernadero, capa de ozono o lluvia acida como en el reparto de los recursos. El desequilibrio económico es la epidemia más letal entre los grupos humanos, cuyo antídoto está sólo en nuestras manos.Health is the result of a dynamic equilibrium between organisms and the environment of which they are part. This harmony can be broken in a natural way but human interference is growing in the rhythm of phenomena (greenhouse effect, the ozone layer or the acid rain as well as in the distribution of resources. The economic imbalance is the most lethal epidemic among human beings, the antidote of which is only in our hands.

  3. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  4. Social stress exacerbates the aversion to painful experiences in rats exposed to chronic pain: the role of the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lidia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Mico, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani L; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-10-01

    Stressful experiences seem to negatively influence pain perception through as yet unknown mechanisms. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus coordinates many components of the stress response, as well as nociceptive transmission, we evaluated whether the sensory and affective dimension of chronic neuropathic pain worsens in situations of stress due to adaptive changes of LC neurons. Accordingly, male rats were socially isolated for 5 weeks, and in the last 2 weeks, neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury. In this situation of stress, chronic pain selectively heightened the animal's aversion to painful experiences (affective pain), as measured in the place escape/avoidance test, although no changes were observed in the sensory dimension of pain. In addition, electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons showed a low tonic but exacerbated nociceptive-evoked activity when the injured paw was stimulated. These changes were accompanied by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and gephyrin expression in the LC. Furthermore, intra-LC administration of bicuculline, a γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist, attenuated the negative affective effects of pain. These data show that changes in the LC are greater than those expected from the simple summation of each independent factor (pain and stress), revealing mechanisms through which stressors may exacerbate pain perception without affecting the sensorial dimension. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. REDUCCIÓN DE ÓXIDOSDE NITROGENO CON CATALIZADORES ZEOLÍTICOS INTERCAMBIADOS CON COBALTO

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    Enrique Alexis García Moya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la reducción catalítica selectiva (RCS de NOx con metano en presencia de oxígeno en exceso con varios catalizadores a base de las zeolitas mordenita, ferrierita y ZSM-5 intercambiadas con diferentes cargas de cobalto y con las correspondientes zeolitas en forma acida. Cuando la mezcla reactiva contenía mayormente NO2 en lugar de NO, los catalizadores ácidos mostraron las más altas velocidades de formación de N2 en condiciones secas. Las mayores actividades se obtuvieron con los catalizadores Co-mordenita, siguiendo en orden de actividad los catalizadores Co-Ferrierita y Co-ZSM-5. El catalizador Co-Mordenita más activo se ensayó con una mezcla reactiva donde predominó el NO en lugar del NO2 bajo condiciones secas e hidrotérmicas y en presencia de SO2. Con la adición de 8% de agua a la mezcla de reacción se observó desactivación reversible, especialmente a bajas temperaturas. La adición de 60 ppm de SO2 disminuyó la velocidad de reacción aproximadamente a la mitad debido posiblemente al envenenamiento de algunos sitios activos.

  6. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John R I; Williams, Bethany R M; Mitchell, Thomas C; Carine, Mark A; Harris, David J; Scotland, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    A global revision of Convolvulus L. is presented, Calystegia R.Br. being excluded on pragmatic grounds. One hundred and ninety species are recognised with the greatest diversity in the Irano-Turanian region. All recognised species are described and the majority are illustrated. Distribution details, keys to species identification and taxonomic notes are provided. Four new species, Convolvulusaustroafricanus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvulusiranicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvuluspeninsularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov. and Convolvulusxanthopotamicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., one new subspecies Convolvuluschinensissubsp.triangularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, subsp. nov., and two new varieties Convolvulusequitansvar.lindheimeri J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov., Convolvulusglomeratusvar.sachalitarum J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov. are described. Convolvulusincisodentatus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, nom. nov., is provided as a replacement name for the illegitimate Convolvulusincisus Choisy. Several species treated as synonyms of other species in recent publications are reinstated including Convolvuluschinensis Ker-Gawl., Convolvulusspinifer M.Popov., Convolvulusrandii Rendle and Convolvulusaschersonii Engl. Ten taxa are given new status and recognised at new ranks: Convolvulusnamaquensis (Schltr. ex. A.Meeuse) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushermanniaesubsp.erosus (Desr.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvuluscrenatifoliussubsp.montevidensis (Spreng.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulusfruticulosussubsp.glandulosus (Webb) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvuluscapituliferussubsp.foliaceus (Verdc.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushystrixsubsp.ruspolii (Dammer ex Hallier f.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushystrixsubsp.inermis (Chiov.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulusrottlerianussubsp.stocksii (Boiss.) J

  7. Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hela, Atef A; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; Hamed, Abdo M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18

  8. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

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    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  9. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  10. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. Differences in Foliage Affect Performance of the Lappet Moth, Streblote panda: Implications for Species Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D.; Molina, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  12. Cytotoxic activity of abietane diterpenoids from roots of Salvia sahendica by HPLC-based activity profiling

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    Fahimeh Moradi-Afrapoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian flora against human cancer cell-lines have shown that an hexane extract from roots of Salvia sahendica Boiss. & Buhse, Lamiaceae, is active against human cervical cancer (HeLa and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cell-lines at the test concentration of 100 µg/ml (100% inhibition. Cytotoxicity of the extract was localized with the aid of HPLC-time-based activity profiling adapted to the tetrazolium colorimetric bioassay. Four abietane-type diterpenoids in active time-windows were identified as cytotoxic compounds namely: sahandone (1, sahandol (2, 12-deoxy-salvipisone (3 and sahandinone (4. Compound 1 showed the highest toxicity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 5.6 ± 0.1 µg/ml, which was comparable with betulinic acid (IC50 = 4.3 ± 1.2 µg/ml, the positive control. Compound 2 was active against the HeLa cells (IC50 = 8.9 ± 0.7 µg/ml but not the Caco-2 cell-line. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 exhibited moderate activity (IC50 = 22.9–41.4 µg/ml against the Caco-2 cells. This study reveals that the HeLa cells are more sensitive to all tested compounds than the Caco-2 cells. In silico molecular docking study showed a rigid binding of the compounds to tyrosine kinase pp60src, and proved their cytotoxic activity.

  13. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

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    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  14. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Scrophularia striata extract against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Oghyanous, Keyvan Alizadeh; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Amirghofran, Zahra; Azadbakht, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the neuroprotective effect of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) extract, a plant growing in northeastern of Iran, against oxidative stress-induced neurocytotoxicity in PC12 was evaluated. The PC12 cell line pretreated with different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) of the extract and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Survival of the cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay, fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, and annexin V/propidium iodide, respectively. Moreover, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. Phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography showed that the main components, including phenolic compounds, phenyl propanoids and flavonoids, were presented in the S. striata extract. The extract in concentrations of 50-200 μg/ml protected PC12 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity. The survival of the cells at concentration of 200 μg/ml was 64 % compared to that of H2O2 alone-treated cells (48 %) (p extract also dose-dependently reduced intracellular ROS production (p extract showed antioxidative effects and decreased apoptotic cells. Collectively, these findings indicated the ability of S. striata to decrease ROS generation and cell apoptosis and also suggest the presence of the neuroprotective agents in this plant.

  15. Soap, A Free-code Tool To Study The Impact Of Stellar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisse, Isabelle; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N.

    2011-09-01

    Dark spots and bright plages are present on the surface of all stars, even low-active stars (like the Sun in its low-active phase). Their appearance and disappearance on the stellar photosphere, combined with the stellar rotation, may lead to errors and uncertainties in the characterization of planets both in radial velocimetry and photometry. SOAP is a tool offered to the community (Boisse, Bonfils and Santos, in prep.) that enables to simulate spots and plages on rotating stars and computes their impact on RV and photometric measurements. This talk will discuss the challenges related to the knowledge of stellar activity for the next decade: detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their stars (from G to M dwarfs), understand the activity in the low-mass end of M dwarf (on which will focus future projects like Elektra, SPIRou or CARMENES), limitation to the sum of different transit observations in order to characterize the atmospheric components (from the ground or with Spitzer, JWST), planets around young stars,... and how this can be simulated with SOAP in order to search for indices and corrections. IB and NCS would like to thank the support by the European Research Council/European Community under the FP7 through a Starting Grant, as well from Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.

  16. Comparing the effects of shallomin lotion and cryotherapy on treating plane warts

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    Reza Yaaghubi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wart is a common transferable skin disease that is caused by human papilloma virus. Choosing the best treatment method can vary based on age, therapeutic goal, complications, and wart place. Due to antibacterial effect of shallomin (hirtifolium Boiss extract and since its effect has not been studied yet, it was compared to cryotherapy therapeutic methods for treating patients with plane warts. Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial that was carried out on 40 patients. Sampling was conducted simply by 4 block randomization method. The selected patients were assigned into two Groups of A and B. Data analysis was conducted by descriptive methods, and then, statistical tests including Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and t-test were run to determine the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables. In so doing, SPSS software version 16.0 was utilized. Results: Comparing the means showed that as opposed to cryotherapy, shallomin could not lead to a significant decrease in the size and number of warts. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, which is the first and the only investigation into the effects of shallomin on treating plane warts, it can be stated that despite of its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-herpetic properties, shallamin cannot be a clinically effective option for treating plane warts.

  17. The mono - and sesquiterpene content of aphid-induced galls on Pistacia palaestina is not a simple reflection of their composition in intact leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Karin; Bar, Einat; Ben-Ari, Matan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Anacardiaceae), a sibling species of P. terebinthus also known as turpentine tree or terebinth tree, is common in the Levant region. The aphid Baizongia pistaciae L. manipulates the leaves of the plant to form large galls, which provide both food and protection for its developing offspring. We analyzed the levels and composition of mono-and sesquiterpenes in both leaves and galls of ten naturally growing trees. Our results show that monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents of P. palaestina leaves and galls, but terpene levels and composition vary among trees. Despite this inter-tree variation, terpene levels and compositions in galls from different trees resemble each other more than the patterns displayed by leaves from the same trees. Generally, galls contain 10 to 60 fold higher total terpene amounts than leaves, especially of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. Conversely, the leaves generally accumulate more sesquiterpenes, in particular E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene, in comparison to galls. Our results clearly show that the terpene pattern in the galls is not a simple reflection of that of the leaves and suggest that aphids have a strong impact on the metabolism of their host plant, possibly for their own defense.

  18. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa , medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry.

  19. NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SOME ANNUAL CLOVERS (Trifolium sp. AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

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    A TEKELI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted between the years of 2001-2002 in the experimental area and laboratory of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty in Trakya University, Tekirdağ (Turkey. Five different clovers [Persian (Trifolium resupinatum L. var. majus Boiss., Mediterranean (T. spumosum L., narrow-leaved (T. angustifolium L., hedgehog (T. echinatum M. Bieb. and lappa (T. lappaceum L. clovers] were used. Each plot consisted of 8 rows with a length of 5 m. Row spacing of 30 cm and sowing rate of 10 kg ha-1 were used. Sowing times were on 2.25.2001 and on 2.28.2002. Plots were not irrigated and fertilized after sown and harvest. One cut was taken in both years at 4 growing stages such as pre-bud, pre-bloom, 50% bloom and full-bloom. The central 1 m-2 sections was cut at ground level for dry matter. Approximately 500g samples were dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and stored for one day at room temperature then found dry matter. Crude protein (% was determined by Kjeldahl method.

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

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    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  1. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

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    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  2. Profiling polyphenol composition by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and the antibacterial activity of infusion preparations obtained from four medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Borhane E C; Barros, Lillian; Boumehira, Ali Z; Bachari, Khaldoun; Heleno, Sandrina A; Alves, Maria Jose; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-01-24

    The infusions of Thymus pallescens Noë, Saccocalyx satureioides Coss. et Dur., Ptychotis verticillata Briq. and Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. have been used as medicinal remedies for many diseases in Algerian folk medicine. These species have also been well documented as rich sources of phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds with wide diversified chemical structures, which exhibit far-ranging biological activities. Thus, the phenolic compound profile of the aqueous extracts, obtained by infusing, of the mentioned species was obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and their antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical isolates. Several phenolic acids were identified and quantified, particularly caffeic acid derivatives along with glycosylated flavonoids. T. pallescens and S. satureioides contain 13 phenolic compounds, where rosmarinic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid present, while L. guyonianum presented myricetin-3-O-glucoside and myricetin-O-rhamnoside as the main compounds among the eight detected molecules. P. verticillata presented a profile of ten phenolic compounds, where 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, followed by the flavone luteolin-3-O-glucoside. The antibacterial activity of the infusions ranged between 2.5 and 20 mg mL -1 (MIC values), and L. guyonianum showed the highest activity against all of the tested bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most sensitive and resistant strains, respectively. Thus, the studied plant species are sources of natural antibacterial substances that can be used to fight against pathogenic microorganisms.

  3. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Mi; Manen, Jean-François; Colwell, Alison E; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2008-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera.

  4. NADİR ENDEMİK VERBASCUM ALYSSİFOLİUM BOİSS. TAKSONUNUN TOPRAK-BİTKİ İLİŞKİSİ AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ

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    Muhip Hilooğlu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum alyssifolium Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae Erzincan ilinde dar yayılış alanına sahip nadir ve endemik bitki türlerindendir. Bu tür, IUCN kriterlerine göre DD (Veri yetersiz kategorisinde değerlendirilmektedir ve sadece 3 lokaliteden bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada, V. alyssifolium taksonunun doğal yayılış gösterdiği toprakların fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, bitki ve toprak örneklerinin mikro ve makro element analizleri yapılarak aralarındaki ilişki ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçların, dar yayılış alanına sahip nadir ve endemik V. alyssifolium türüne yönelik gurbette (exsitu koruma çalışmaları için önemli veriler sağlayacağı kanısındayız.

  5. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

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    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  6. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parental species

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    José B. Salas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the essential oils of cultivated material of Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parents, Th. mastichina (L. L. and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss. Coutinho, with seeds from the same locality in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The essential oil of Th. xtoletanus, which had not been analyzed previously, presented 1,8-cineole as the major component (25.5%, as was also the case for Th. mastichina (76.1%. Other components with a major presence in Th. xtoletanus and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus were [(Z-β-ocimene (8.1%; camphor (4.5%; sabinene (3.2%; α-pinene (2.8%], and [(Z-β-ocimene (4.1%, camphor (9.8%, sabinene (2.8%, α-pinene (7.1%], respectively. However, in the hybrid the components β-phelandrene (14.5%, limonene (6.9%, (E-γ-bisabolene (3.5%, and viridiflorol (3.3% stood out, inter alia, whereas their presence in the parents was limited. The study confirms the hybrid origin of Th. xtoletanus as intermediate between Th. mastichina and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus.

  7. Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate

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    Adnan Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exudate of Ferula narthex Boiss. (Apiaceae is widely used in the Indian subcontinent as a spice and because of its health effects. Six sesquiterpene coumarins have been isolated from this exudate: feselol, ligupersin A, asacoumarin A, 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A, 10′R-karatavacinol and 10′R-acetyl-karatavacinol. Based on its use in infectious and diabetic conditions, the isolated constituents were evaluated for antimicrobial and antiglycation activities. Some compounds showed activity against protozoal parasites, asacoumarin A being the most active one against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM. With regard to antiglycation activity, in the BSA-glucose test, ligupersin A displayed the highest activity (IC50 0.41 mM, being more active than the positive control aminiguanidine (IC50 1.75 mM. In the BSA-MGO assay, the highest activity was shown by 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A (IC50 1.03 mM, being less active than aminoguanidine (IC50 0.15 mM. Hence, the antiglycation activity of the isolated constituents was due to both oxidative and non-oxidative modes of inhibition.

  8. In vitro anti-pseudomonal potential of Juglans regia and Otostegia limbata leaves extract against planktonic and biofilm form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Khan, K.; Nawaz, M.A.; Khan, U.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study the anti-pseudomonal potential of crude methanolic extracts, hexane, ethyl acetate and water fractions of the leaves of Juglans regia L. and Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss.against planktonic and biofilm form of clinical strains (P1, P2 and P3 strains) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were evaluated. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were used against planktonic, whereas pellicle inhibition and static biofilm inhibition assays were performed against biofilm form of P. aeruginosa. In well diffusion assay, the crude methanolic extract of J. regia showed good bacterial inhibition than O. limbata. The J. regiacrude methanol extract had significant (+; complete breakage of pellicle layer), good (++; partial breakage of pellicle layer) and moderate (+++; uniformthin layer of pellicle formation) pellicle inhibition activity, while O. limbata had moderate (+++; uniformthin layer of pellicle formation) to weak (++++; loose thick layer pellicle formation) pellicle inhibition effect. In MIC assays, hexane and water fractions of J. regia had high (86 vs. 77%) antibacterial activity, while crude methanolic extract of O. limbata showed 51% inhibition against the most resistant P3 strain at 1000 mu g/ml concentration. In static antibiofilm assay, hexane fraction of J. regia had high (63%) inhibition compared to crude methanolic extract of O. limbata(31%) against P3 strain. The present study highlights that J. regia extracts possesses high anti-pseudomonal properties as compared to O. limbata. (author)

  9. Antihistaminic and antieicosanoid effects of oleanolic and ursolic acid fraction from Helichrysum picardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Rosa, C; García Gimenez, M D; Saenz Rodriguez, M T; De la Puerta Vazquez, R

    2007-06-01

    Helichrysum picardii Boiss. & Reuter is a Mediterranean vegetal species from the Asteraceae family. From the methanolic extract of the aerial flowering parts of this plant, a fraction of two pentacyclic triterpenes has been isolated. Gas chromatography revealed that the triterpene isomers ursolic and oleanolic acids comprised 69% and 29% respectively of the composition of this fraction. The triterpene isomeric fraction was tested in two phagocyte cell systems. It inhibited compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in an approximately percentage of 45% at 100 microM and myeloperoxidase secretion from A23187-ionophore-stimulated rat peritoneal leukocytes in a significant manner at doses of 50 and 100 miroM. Furthermore, the triterpene isomers very significantly and dose-dependently inhibited generation of the cyclo-oxygenase metabolite prostaglandin E2 (41% inhibition at 50 miroM) and the 5-lipoxygenase metabolite leukotriene B4 (79% inhibition at 50 microM) from activated rat leukocytes. This anti-eicosanoid activity of the triterpene fraction was more potent than that produced by the pure triterpene oleanolic acid used for comparision, indicating a stronger action of the ursolic acid, the major compound of the isolated triterpene fraction. From these data, it can be suggested that the triterpene isomers oleanolic and ursolic acids present in the medicinal plant Helichrysum picardii contribute to the anti-inflammatory profile of this vegetal species.

  10. Potential Habitat Modelling of Ferula ovina Using Artificial Neural Network in Fereydunshahr Region, Isfahan Province

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    Z. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution maps have been widely developed based on ecological niche theory together with statistical and geographical information system in plant ecology. The current study aimed to evaluate Artificial Neural Network (ANN in mapping potential habitat of Ferula ovina Boiss in Ferydunshar rangelands, Isfahan. This is known as valuable forage and medicinal species. Environmental data (independent variables and species occurrence data (dependent variable were required to determine potential habitat of a given species. Some physical and chemical soil properties, climate and physiographic variables were mapped for the entire studied area using krigging and inverse distance weighting methods. F. ovina occurrence data were collected from 278 sites including 137 presence and 141 absence sites. The relationships between the studied environmental variables and F. ovina occurrence data were explored using ANN method. According to the sensitivity analysis, occurrence of F. ovina mostly correlated with silt and sand percentage, elevation slope, and organic matter. Model evaluation based on Kappa coefficient (0.66 and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC=0.9 showed good model fitness in relation to reality on local scales. The ANN technique enables managers to identify appropriate areas for rehabilitation practices such as direct seeding and planting.                       

  11. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m 2 (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  13. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  14. Evaluation of the potential cardioprotective activity of some Saudi plants against doxorubicin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Osama M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nagy, Ayman A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of several tumours. However, its cardiac toxicity limits its use at maximum therapeutic doses. Most studies implicated increased oxidative stress as the major determinant of DOX cardiotoxicity. The local Saudi flora is very rich in a variety of plants of quite known folkloric or traditional medicinal uses. Tribulus macropterus Boiss., Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P. S. Green, Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst., Cynomorium coccineum L., Cordia myxa L., Calligonum comosum L' Hér, and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal are Saudi plants known to have antioxidant activities. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effects of methanolic extracts of these seven Saudi plants against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Two plants showed promising cardioprotective potential in the order Calligonum comosum > Cordia myxa. The two plant extracts showed potent in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. They significantly protected against DOX-induced alterations in cardiac oxidative stress markers (GSH and MDA) and cardiac serum markers (CK-MB and LDH activities). Additionally, histopathological examination indicated a protection against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. In conclusion, C. comosum and C. myxa exerted protective activity against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is, at least partly, due to their antioxidant effect.

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

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    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of delta-9-THC, THC-acid A, CBN and CBD in seized drugs using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, Lars; Penitschka, Franziska; Broillet, Alain; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Bernhard, Werner

    2014-10-01

    An HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) in confiscated cannabis products has been developed, fully validated and applied to analyse seized cannabis products. For determination of the THC content of plant material, this method combines quantitation of THCA-A, which is the inactive precursor of THC, and free THC. Plant material was dried, homogenized and extracted with methanol by ultrasonication. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Waters Alliance 2695 HPLC equipped with a Merck LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) precolumn and a Merck LiChroCart 125-4 LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) analytical column. Analytes were detected and quantified using a Waters 2996 photo diode array detector. This method has been accepted by the public authorities of Switzerland (Bundesamt für Gesundheit, Federal Office of Public Health), and has been used to analyse 9092 samples since 2000. Since no thermal decarboxylation of THCA-A occurs, the method is highly reproducible for different cannabis materials. Two calibration ranges are used, a lower one for THC, CBN and CBD, and a higher one for THCA-A, due to its dominant presence in fresh plant material. As provider of the Swiss proficiency test, the robustness of this method has been tested over several years, and homogeneity tests even in the low calibration range (1%) show high precision (RSD≤4.3%, except CBD) and accuracy (bias≤4.1%, except CBN). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives as ultra-short recovery sedative/hypnotic agents.

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    Heng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soft drugs are molecules that are purposefully designed to be rapidly metabolized (metabolically labile. In anesthesia, the soft drug is useful because it enables precise titration to effect and rapid recovery, which might allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. Propofol may cause delayed awakening after prolonged infusion. Propanidid and AZD3043 have a different metabolic pathway compared to propofol, resulting in a short-acting clinical profile. Fluorine imparts a variety of properties to certain medicines, including an enhanced absorption rate and improved drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized that the introduction of fluorine to the frame structure of propanidid and AZD3043 would further accelerate the swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we developed a series of fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives were synthesized, and their hypnotic potencies and durations of LORR following bolus or infusion administration were determined in mice, rats and rabbits. The metabolic half-lives in the blood of various species were determined chromatographically. In vitro radioligand binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA receptor electrophysiology studies were performed. Among the 12 synthesized fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives, compound 5j induced comparable duration of LORR with AZD3043, but more rapid recovery than AZD3043, propanidid and propofol. The time of compound 5j to return to walk and behavioral recovery are approximately reduced by more than 50% compared to AZD3043 in mice and rats and rabbits. The HD50 of compound 5j decreased with increasing animal size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rapid recovery might make compound 5j suitable for precise titration and allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home

  18. Participation of GABAA Chloride Channels in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of a Fatty Acid Mixture

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    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid and a mixture of eight fatty acids (FAT-M identified in this maternal fluid (C12:0, lauric acid, 0.9 μg%; C14:0, myristic acid, 6.9 μg%; C16:0, palmitic acid, 35.3 μg%; C16:1, palmitoleic acid, 16.4 μg%; C18:0, stearic acid, 8.5 μg%; C18:1cis, oleic acid, 18.4 μg%; C18:1trans, elaidic acid, 3.5 μg%; C18:2, linoleic acid, 10.1 μg% produce anxiolytic-like effects that are comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats, suggesting the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptors, a possibility not yet explored. Wistar rats were subjected to the defensive burying test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. In different groups, three GABAA receptor antagonists were administered 30 min before FAT-M administration, including the competitive GABA binding antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, GABAA benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (5 mg/kg, and noncompetitive GABAA chloride channel antagonist picrotoxin (1 mg/kg. The FAT-M exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the defensive burying test and elevated plus maze, without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test. The GABAA antagonists alone did not produce significant changes in the behavioral tests. Picrotoxin but not bicuculline or flumazenil blocked the anxiolytic-like effect of the FAT-M. Based on the specific blocking action of picrotoxin on the effects of the FAT-M, we conclude that the FAT-M exerted its anxiolytic-like effects through GABAA receptor chloride channels.

  19. Proliferación y expresión de marcadores por células de Schwann de rata adulta en cultivo Schwann cells proliferation and marker expression on adult rat in culture

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    Martínez Constanza

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúan diferentes técnicas para obten-ción y cultivo de células de Schwann provenientes del nervio periférico de rata adulta, de las cuales la que evi-dencia mejor respuesta es la que combina una degenera-ción walleriana durante 14 días in vitro, seguida de una disociación enzimática. La adición de mitógenos como la forskolina y extracto de pituitaria no muestra un efecto sobre estas células. Los niveles de enriquecimiento en células de Schwann, defi-nidos de acuerdo con patrones morfológicos y de expre-sión de marcadores tales como la proteína S-100 o la pro-teína acida fíbrilar glial (GFAP, son buenos (del orden de 80-88% hasta los ocho días de cultivo. La detección de bromodeoxiouridina (BrdU incorporada por células en fase S del ciclo celular, demuestra que en términos ge-nerales la tasa de incorporación de BrdU de las células guales del sistema nervioso periférico no cambia.This study evaluated some techniques for culture and growth of Schwann Cells from adult rats peripheral nerves. The best of these methods is a combination of in vitro Wallerian degeneration during 14 days, followed by an enzimatic dissociation with collagenase and dispase Mitogens like forskolin and pituitary extract do not have any effects on these cells. Enrichement of the culture (measure by morphological and inmunocitochemical criteria was about 80-88% until 8 days in culture. Stable Level of BrdU incorporation suggested that the population of cells entering S phase does not change.

  20. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Modulating Wnt Signaling Rescues Palate Morphogenesis in Pax9 Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lan, Y; Krumlauf, R; Jiang, R

    2017-10-01

    Cleft palate is a common birth defect caused by disruption of palatogenesis during embryonic development. Although mutations disrupting components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been associated with cleft lip and palate in humans and mice, the mechanisms involving canonical Wnt signaling and its regulation in secondary palate development are not well understood. Here, we report that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in Pax9-mediated regulation of secondary palate development. We found that cleft palate pathogenesis in Pax9-deficient embryos is accompanied by significantly reduced expression of Axin2, an endogenous target of canonical Wnt signaling, in the developing palatal mesenchyme, particularly in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves. We found that expression of Dkk2, encoding a secreted Wnt antagonist, is significantly increased whereas the levels of active β-catenin protein, the essential transcriptional coactivator of canonical Wnt signaling, is significantly decreased in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves in embryonic day 13.5 Pax9-deficent embryos in comparison with control littermates. We show that small molecule-mediated inhibition of Dickkopf (DKK) activity in utero during palatal shelf morphogenesis partly rescued secondary palate development in Pax9-deficient embryos. Moreover, we found that genetic inactivation of Wise, which is expressed in the developing palatal shelves and encodes another secreted antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, also rescued palate morphogenesis in Pax9-deficient mice. Furthermore, whereas Pax9 del/del embryos exhibit defects in palatal shelf elevation/reorientation and significant reduction in accumulation of hyaluronic acid-a high molecular extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan implicated in playing an important role in palatal shelf elevation-80% of Pax9 del/del ;Wise -/- double-mutant mouse embryos exhibit rescued palatal shelf elevation/reorientation, accompanied by restored

  2. Obtención y caracterización de aislados proteicos de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, N.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for the obtention of protein isolates from defatted rapeseed flour has been designed. The process includes a basic extraction followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point of the proteins. The precipitate is washed with water (pH 4.5, ethanol and acetone, obtaining a protein isolate with 86% of protein and reducing the contents in polyphenols and soluble sugars in more than 90% with respect to the defatted flour. The final product have physico-chemical characteristics that make it atractive to be used as food and for the obtention of protein hydrolizates.

    Se ha diseñado un proceso de obtención de aislados proteicos a partir de harina de colza desengrasada. El método incluye la extracción básica de las proteínas solubles seguido de una precipitación acida en el punto isoeléctrico. El precipitado es lavado con agua (pH 4.5, etanol y acetona, obteniéndose un aislado proteico con un 86% de proteína y reduciéndose el contenido en polifenoles y azúcares solubles en más de un 90% respecto a la harina desengrasada. El aislado final presenta unas características físico-químicas que lo hacen atractivo para su uso en alimentación y obtención de hidrolizados proteicos.

  3. Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington's disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdeolivas, Sara; Navarrete, Carmen; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Sagredo, Onintza

    2015-01-01

    Different plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids have shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) through cannabinoid receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Herein, we studied the effects of cannabigerol (CBG), a nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid, in 2 different in vivo models of HD. CBG was extremely active as neuroprotectant in mice intoxicated with 3-nitropropionate (3NP), improving motor deficits and preserving striatal neurons against 3NP toxicity. In addition, CBG attenuated the reactive microgliosis and the upregulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3NP, and improved the levels of antioxidant defenses that were also significantly reduced by 3NP. We also investigated the neuroprotective properties of CBG in R6/2 mice. Treatment with this phytocannabinoid produced a much lower, but significant, recovery in the deteriorated rotarod performance typical of R6/2 mice. Using HD array analysis, we were able to identify a series of genes linked to this disease (e.g., symplekin, Sin3a, Rcor1, histone deacetylase 2, huntingtin-associated protein 1, δ subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (GABA-A), and hippocalcin), whose expression was altered in R6/2 mice but partially normalized by CBG treatment. We also observed a modest improvement in the gene expression for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is altered in these mice, as well as a small, but significant, reduction in the aggregation of mutant huntingtin in the striatal parenchyma in CBG-treated animals. In conclusion, our results open new research avenues for the use of CBG, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids or therapies, for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as HD.

  4. The GABAA Receptor α2 Subunit Activates a Neuronal TLR4 Signal in the Ventral Tegmental Area that Regulates Alcohol and Nicotine Abuse

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    Irina Balan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004 that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004 and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation. However, the mechanism of signal activation, its function in dopaminergic (TH+ neurons within the reward circuitry implicated in drug-seeking behavior [viz. the ventral tegmental area (VTA], and its contribution to nicotine co-abuse are still poorly understood. We report that the γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR α2 subunit activates the TLR4 signal in neurons, culminating in the activation (phosphorylation/nuclear translocation of cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB but not NF-kB transcription factors and the upregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. The signal is activated through α2/TLR4 interaction, as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation, and it is present in the VTA from drug-untreated alcohol-preferring P rats. VTA infusion of neurotropic herpes simplex virus (HSV vectors for α2 (pHSVsiLA2 or TLR4 (pHSVsiTLR4 but not scrambled (pHSVsiNC siRNA inhibits signal activation and both binge alcohol drinking and nicotine sensitization, suggesting that the α2-activated TLR4 signal contributes to the regulation of both alcohol and nicotine abuse.

  5. Determination of Acid and Neutral Cannabinoids in Extracts of Different Strains of Cannabis sativa Using GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Elsayed A; Gul, Waseem; Gul, Shahbaz W; Stamper, Brandon J; Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel Salam, Randa A; Ibrahim, Amany K; Ahmed, Safwat A; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Cannabaceae. Trans -Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two major phytocannabinoids accounting for over 40% of the cannabis plant extracts, depending on the variety. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. sativa, with different concentration ratios of CBD and Δ 9 -THC, have been tissue cultured via micropropagation and cultivated. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. sativa extracts. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts. These cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabivarian, CBD, cannabichromene, trans -Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ 9 -THC, cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A. The concentration-response relationship of the method indicated a linear relationship between the concentration and peak area ratio with R 2  > 0.999 for all 10 cannabinoids. The precision and accuracy of the method were found to be ≤ 15% and ± 5%, respectively. The limit of detection range was 0.11 - 0.19 µg/mL, and the limit of quantitation was 0.34 - 0.56 µg/mL for all 10 cannabinoids. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties. The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants (buds, leaves, roots, and stems). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A Balanced Chromosomal Translocation Disrupting ARHGEF9 Is Associated With Epilepsy, Anxiety, Aggression, and Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng; Hoffmann, Kirsten; Fuchs, Celine; Carta, Eloisa; Deas, Emma; Venkateswarlu, Kanamarlapudi; Menzel, Corinna; Ullmann, Reinhard; Tommerup, Niels; Dalprà, Leda; Tzschach, Andreas; Selicorni, Angelo; Lüscher, Bernhard; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Harvey, Kirsten; Harvey, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a “scaffolding” protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation in a female patient presenting with a disturbed sleep-wake cycle, late-onset epileptic seizures, increased anxiety, aggressive behavior, and mental retardation, but not hyperekplexia. Fine mapping of the breakpoint indicates disruption of the collybistin gene (ARHGEF9) on chromosome Xq11, while the other breakpoint lies in a region of 18q11 that lacks any known or predicted genes. We show that defective collybistin transcripts are synthesized and exons 7–10 are replaced by cryptic exons from chromosomes X and 18. These mRNAs no longer encode the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of collybistin, which we now show binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P/ PtdIns-3-P), a phosphoinositide with an emerging role in membrane trafficking and signal transduction, rather than phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3/PtdIns-3,4,5-P) as previously suggested in the “membrane activation model” of gephyrin clustering. Consistent with this finding, expression of truncated collybistin proteins in cultured neurons interferes with synaptic localization of endogenous gephyrin and GABAA receptors. These results suggest that collybistin has a key role in membrane trafficking of gephyrin and selected GABAA receptor subtypes involved in epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, insomnia, and learning and memory. PMID:18615734

  7. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, K.W.; Bolger, M.B.; Brinton, R.E.; Coirini, H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1988-08-01

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by (35S)-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((35S)TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of (35S)TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of (35S)TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates (35S)TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All (35S)TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of (3H)promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex.

  8. Decrement of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in dentate granule cells in epileptic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, M

    1996-05-01

    1. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were studied in hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGCs) in the pilocarpine model and human temporal lobe epilepsy, with the use of the whole cell patch-clamp recording technique in slice preparations. 2. In the pilocarpine model, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats that were allowed to experience spontaneous seizures for 2 mo. Human hippocampal specimens were obtained from epileptic patients who underwent surgical treatment for medically intractable seizures. 3. IPSCs were generated by single perforant path stimulation and recorded at a membrane potential (Vm) of 0 mV near the reversal potential of glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents in the voltage-clamp recording. IPSCs were pharmacologically identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) IPSCs by 10 microM bicuculline methiodide. 4. During low-frequency stimulation, IPSCs were not different in amplitude among non-seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, human nonsclerotic hippocampi, seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, and human sclerotic hippocampi. In the last two groups of DGCs, current-clamp recordings indicated the presence of prolonged excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) mediated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. 5. High-frequency stimulation, administered at Vm = -30 mV to activate NMDA currents, reduced GABAA IPSC amplitude specifically in seizure-experienced rat hippocampi (t = 2.5, P < 0.03) and human sclerotic hippocampi (t = 7.7, P < 0.01). This reduction was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) (50 microM). The time for GABAA IPSCs to recover to their original amplitude was also shortened by the application of APV. 6. I conclude that, when intensively activated, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory transmission may interact with GABAergic synaptic inhibition in DGCs in seizure-experienced hippocampus to transiently reduce GABA(A) receptor-channel function. Such interactions may contribute to

  9. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  10. Diseño e implementación de un prototipo de silla de ruedas eléctrica para la enseñanza en el manejo, conducción y orientación a personas con limitaciones físicas y adultos mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montenegro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto se lleva a cabo con la finalidad de ayudar a personas con limitaciones físicas o adultos mayores en el proceso de independencia y reincorporación en la sociedad. Se planteó realizar el rediseño, implementación, puesta en funcionamiento y adaptación del sistema controlador al chasis para la silla de ruedas marca SUNRISE MEDICAL modelo QUICKIE Z- 500. El sistema esta compuesto de módulos de manejo (local, inalámbrico. El módulo de manejo local esta encargado de interpretar las señales provenientes del joystick para así dar movimiento a la silla de ruedas en cuatro direcciones, adelante, atrás, izquierda, derecha; la velocidad de desplazamiento de la silla en cada una de las direcciones esta gobernada por el joystick local y dependerá de cuan rápido se pueda ir de acuerdo a las normas establecidas. El módulo de manejo inalámbrico cumple una función semejante al mando local con la diferencia que posee velocidades prefijadas para cada una de las direcciones, puesto que es necesario tener una mayor seguridad para el manejo. El modulo de control local se compone de diversas etapas, principalmente la etapa de control que realizara la comunicación sobre el Driver Saberthooth que corresponde a la etapa de potencia. Debido al requerimiento para dar alimentación a los componentes se utilizó 2 baterías acidas cada una de 12 Voltios.

  11. EFECTO DEL PRE-TRATAMIENTO CON ULTRASONIDO EN LA EXTRACCIÓN DE PECTINA CONTENIDA EN EL ALBEDO DEL MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESENIA CAMPO-VERA

    Full Text Available La pectina es un polisacárido contenido en la pared celular de la mayoría de los vegetales y frutas, con propiedades benéficas para la salud y muy utilizado en la industria alimentaria. El objetivo del estudio fue la evaluación del efecto de pre-tratamiento con ultrasonido (US en la extracción de pectina contenidas en el albedo del maracuyá, las muestras fueron expuestas a 40 KHz a una temperatura de 30, 45 y 60°C durante 10, 20 y 30 minutos. A continuación las muestras se sometieron a extracción de hidrolisis acida relación 1:3 (%p/%v con calentamiento de 80°C por 30 minutos agitándose a 700 rpm, se procedió a filtrar y precipitar adicionando etanol al 96% en una relación (1:1 (%v/%v. Determinando que las muestras tratadas a 40 KHz/45°C/20 min, obtuvieron un 40% de aumento en el rendimiento de extracción de pectina comparada con las muestras control; debido probablemente a la disminución del pH y al efecto de cavitación, donde las partículas vibran y se aceleran ante la acción ultrasónica, provocando una macro turbulencia y la colisión de interpartículas de la biomasa que acelera difusión; logrando extraer pectinas de gran calidad y aprovechables para la elaboración de productos de interés.

  12. Producción y calidad de forraje de variedades de avena en condiciones de temporal en Zacatecas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la pro ducción, calidad y componentes de rendimiento de seis variedades de avena forrajera en Zacatecas. Los experimentos se establecieron en julio de 2011 y 2012 en el municipio de Monte Escobedo. El dise ño experimental fue bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, la densidad de siembra fue 120 kg ha -1 y dosis de fertilización de 60-40-00 de N, P 2 O 5 , K. La cosecha fue en estado fisiológico lechoso-masoso. En 2011 y 2012, La variedad Saía sobresalió ( P 0.05 entre variedades con un rango de 10.6 a 13.8 %. En los dos años de estudio Karma presentó las mejores características nutricionales: baja acumulación de fibra detergente neutr o (51 % y acida (33.4 y 35.3 %, valores altos en total de nutrientes digestibles (54 y 58 %, digestibilidad de la materia seca (60 y 62 %, valor relativo del forraje (110 y 113 y energía neta para lactación (1.4 y 1.34 Mcal/kg; P <0.05. Las variables asociadas de manera positiva con forraje seco fueron altura de planta (r=0.701, días a co secha (r=0.685 y proporción de tallo (r=0.629, y negativamente con proporción de espiga (r=-0.629. En calidad nut ricional Karma tuvo mejor valor forrajero. Saia es una buena alternativa para incrementar el rendimiento de forraje por hectárea.

  13. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate the elaborated defensive behavior and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Medeiros, Priscila; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors of the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on the panic attack-like reactions evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus (MH). Rats were pretreated with NaCl 0.9%, LY235959 (NMDA receptor antagonist), and NBQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) in the PL at 3 different concentrations. Ten minutes later, the MH was treated with bicuculline, and the defensive responses were recorded for 10 min. The antagonism of NMDA receptors in the PL decreased the frequency and duration of all defensive behaviors evoked by the stimulation of the MH and reduced the innate fear-induced antinociception. However, the pretreatment of the PL cortex with NBQX was able to decrease only part of defensive responses and innate fear-induced antinociception. The present findings suggest that the NMDA-glutamatergic system of the PL is critically involved in panic-like responses and innate fear-induced antinociception and those AMPA/kainate receptors are also recruited during the elaboration of fear-induced antinociception and in panic attack-related response. The activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission of PL division of the MPFC during the elaboration of oriented behavioral reactions elicited by the chemical stimulation of the MH recruits mainly NMDA receptors in comparison with AMPA/kainate receptors.

  14. Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids: A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Wanas, Amira S.; van Antwerp, John; Parcher, Jon F.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Decarboxylation is an important step for efficient production of the major active components in cannabis, for example, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG). These cannabinoids do not occur in significant concentrations in cannabis but can be formed by decarboxylation of their corresponding acids, the predominant cannabinoids in the plant. Study of the kinetics of decarboxylation is of importance for phytocannabinoid isolation and dosage formulation for medical use. Efficient analytical methods are essential for simultaneous detection of both neutral and acidic cannabinoids. Methods: C. sativa extracts were used for the studies. Decarboxylation conditions were examined at 80°C, 95°C, 110°C, 130°C, and 145°C for different times up to 60 min in a vacuum oven. An ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography/photodiode array-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/PDA-MS) method was used for the analysis of acidic and neutral cannabinoids before and after decarboxylation. Results: Decarboxylation at different temperatures displayed an exponential relationship between concentration and time indicating a first-order or pseudo-first-order reaction. The rate constants for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) were twice those of the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). Decarboxylation of THCA-A was forthright with no side reactions or by-products. Decarboxylation of CBDA and CBGA was not as straightforward due to the unexplained loss of reactants or products. Conclusion: The reported UHPSFC/PDA-MS method provided consistent and sensitive analysis of phytocannabinoids and their decarboxylation products and degradants. The rate of change of acidic cannabinoid concentrations over time allowed for determination of rate constants. Variations of rate constants with temperature yielded values for reaction energy. PMID:28861498

  15. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  16. Zataria multiflora ameliorates testicular and spermatological damages induced by cisplatin in mice model

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    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cisplatin (CP, a highly effective antineoplastic drug, causes testicular damage. Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZM, a medicinal plant, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ZM against cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Thirty-two adult male mice were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received normal saline with oral gavage during 7 days; ZM group received ZM (200 mg/kg during 7 days by gavage; CP group received CP (10 mg/kg i.p. in 5th day of study; ZM + CP group received ZM during 7 days and CP was injected in 5th day. Sperm parameters (including motility, sperm count, sperm viability rate and morphological sperm abnormalities, biochemical (malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH and protein carbonyl (PC levels, serum testosterone levels, histological and immunochemistry assays of testis were examined one day after the last receipt of the drug. Results: CP treatment caused significant damage via changed of sperm parameters, increased oxidative stress (increased MDA, PC levels and decreased GSH level, histological changes (degeneration, necrosis, arrest of spermatogenesis, congestion and decrease in thickness of the germinal epithelium, diameter of seminiferous tubules and Johnsen’s Score, decreased serum testosterone level and increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. ZM preserved spermatogenesis and mitigated the toxic effects of CP on the testis tissue. In addition, pretreatment with ZM significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested ZM as a potential antioxidant compound which showed protective effect against cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

  17. Biological activity of clovers - free radical scavenging ability and antioxidant action of six Trifolium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Clovers were chosen on the basis of traditional medicine recommendations, agricultural value, or available information on their promising chemical profiles. This study evaluates and compares free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of six clover species: Trifolium alexandrinum L. (Leguminosae), Trifolium fragiferum L., Trifolium hybridum L., Trifolium incarnatum L., Trifolium resupinatum var. majus Boiss., and Trifolium resupinatum var. resupinatum L. Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts (1.5-50 µg/ml) was estimated by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS(•)) radicals. The Trifolium extract effects on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma were determined by the reduction of ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, as well as with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. The UPLC analysis of chemical profiles of the examined extracts showed the presence of three or four groups of phenolic substances, including phenolic acids, clovamides, isoflavones, and other flavonoids. The measurements of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of the examined clover extracts revealed the strongest effect for T. alexandrinum. Furthermore, antioxidant activity assays in human plasma have shown protective effects of all extracts against peroxynitrite-induced reduction of total antioxidant capacity. Trifolium plants may be a rich source of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties. The examined extracts displayed free radical scavenging action and partly protected blood plasma against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress; however, the beneficial effects of T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum seem to be slightly higher.

  18. Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muthanna J; Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2009-06-01

    The aerial parts of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen. (Lamiaceae) and flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae) have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of wounds, throat and gum infections and gastro-intestinal disorder by the indigenous people of northern Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In this study, antibacterial compounds from both plants were isolated and characterized, and the biological activity of each compound was assessed individually and combined. Compounds were isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oils of both plants using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC values for the compounds were assessed individually and combined based on a microdilution and the checkerboard method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Two known compounds were isolated from the essential oils of both plants and were identified as thymol and eugenol. The isolated compounds were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against seven selected pathogenic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 250.0 microg/ml and B. cereus was found to be the most sensitive pathogen with a MIC value of 15.6 microg/ml. Eugenol achieved stronger MIC values against most tested pathogens and the best MIC value (15.6 microg/ml) was observed against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae whereas, S. aureus, P. mirabilis and E. coli were inhibited with a MIC value of 31.2 microg/ml. Combination results had antibacterial enhancement against most pathogens and the best synergistic result was seen against P. mirabilis and E. coli. The isolation of two antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower

  19. Protective effects of Scrophularia striata in Ovalbumin-induced mice asthma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrophularia striata Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) is a plant growing in the northeastern part of Iran and being used as a traditional herb for various inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the Scrophularia striata extract in Ovalbumin (OVA) induced-asthma mice model. Methods OVA-sensitized mice were intrapritonealy treated with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract on days 8 to 14 separately. Broncoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge and then the number of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were assessed by direct microscopic counting. In addition, total immunoglubolin (Ig) E and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum, IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines in BALF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Moreover, phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were used to evaluate the main compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract, respectively. Results The results showed that the main components; including flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the S. striata extract. In addition, the treatment with extract significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells and suppressed T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF. Also, total IgE and OVA-specific IgE levels in the serum decreased. Conclusion Collectively, it is concluded that the extract has the potential to modulate the Th2 cytokines and could be used as immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:23837463

  20. Pharmacognostic evaluation, and development and validation of a HPLC-DAD technique for gallocatechin and epigallocatechin in rhizomes from Limonium brasiliense

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    Andressa Blainski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Limonium brasiliense (Boiss. Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, is a plant from the southern coast of Brazilian that is used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders and genito-urinary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality control parameters for rhizomes collected during different periods by pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods, and to develop and validate a HPLC-DAD method for quantitative control of marker substances. The measured parameters were: granulometric analysis (d50 = 0.21–0.48 mm, loss on drying (11.1–12.4%, total ash (4.9–5.7%, dry residue by extraction with acetone:water (7:3, v/v (30.6–39.5%, total polyphenol content (8.5–15.8%, and chromatographic fingerprint by HPLC and TLC. Besides, the acetone:water (7:3, v/v extraction solvent in combination with a turbo-extractor, yielded the crude extract with a significant increase in tannins (F4,20 = 37.0, p < 0.001. The antioxidant potential of the crude acetone:water (7:3, v/v extract, as well as the ethyl acetate and water fractions obtained after the partition process was evaluated by DPPH and the results were, respectively: IC50 6.87, 5.91, and 6.92 µg/ml. The validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. The gallo- and epigallocatechin contents were, respectively, 0.8–2.7% and 1.2–2.2%. These data contribute to analysis of the pharmacognostic quality control of the commonly used part from this species.

  1. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant.

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    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed.

  2. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant

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    Norbert Kilian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of L. rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name L. polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, L. hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed.

  3. New models for estimating the carbon sink capacity of Spanish softwood species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Rio, M. del; Montero, G.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the carbon balance in forests is one of the main challenges in forest management. Forest carbon stocks are usually estimated indirectly through biomass equations applied to forest inventories, frequently considering different tree biomass components. The aim of this study is to develop systems of equations for predicting tree biomass components for the main forest softwood species in Spain: Abies alba Mill., A. pinsapo Boiss., Juniperus thurifera L., Pinus canariensis Sweet ex Spreng., P. halepensis Mill., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L., P. uncinata Mill. For each species, a system of additive biomass models was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression. Diameter at the breast height and total height were used as independent variables. Diameter appears in all component models, while tree height was included in the stem component model of all species and in some branch component equations. Total height was included in order to improve biomass estimations at different sites. These biomass models were compared to previously available equations in order to test their accuracy and it was found that they yielded better fitting statistics in all cases. Moreover, the models fulfil the additivity property. We also developed root:shoot ratios in order to determine the partitioning into aboveground and belowground biomass. A number of differences were found between species, with a minimum of 0.183 for A. alba and a maximum of 0.385 for P. uncinata. The mean value for the softwood species studied was 0.265. Since the Spanish National Forest Inventory (NFI) records species, tree diameter and height of sample trees, these biomass models and ratios can be used to accurately estimate carbon stocks from NFI data. (Author) 55 refs.

  4. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

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    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  5. New models for estimating the carbon sink capacity of Spanish softwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Rio, M. del; Montero, G.

    2011-07-01

    Quantifying the carbon balance in forests is one of the main challenges in forest management. Forest carbon stocks are usually estimated indirectly through biomass equations applied to forest inventories, frequently considering different tree biomass components. The aim of this study is to develop systems of equations for predicting tree biomass components for the main forest softwood species in Spain: Abies alba Mill., A. pinsapo Boiss., Juniperus thurifera L., Pinus canariensis Sweet ex Spreng., P. halepensis Mill., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L., P. uncinata Mill. For each species, a system of additive biomass models was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression. Diameter at the breast height and total height were used as independent variables. Diameter appears in all component models, while tree height was included in the stem component model of all species and in some branch component equations. Total height was included in order to improve biomass estimations at different sites. These biomass models were compared to previously available equations in order to test their accuracy and it was found that they yielded better fitting statistics in all cases. Moreover, the models fulfil the additivity property. We also developed root:shoot ratios in order to determine the partitioning into aboveground and belowground biomass. A number of differences were found between species, with a minimum of 0.183 for A. alba and a maximum of 0.385 for P. uncinata. The mean value for the softwood species studied was 0.265. Since the Spanish National Forest Inventory (NFI) records species, tree diameter and height of sample trees, these biomass models and ratios can be used to accurately estimate carbon stocks from NFI data. (Author) 55 refs.

  6. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  7. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

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    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  8. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

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    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  9. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC 50 value   =   488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC 50  value =   321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2013-08-01

    To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100% tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O. heterophyllum and ethanolic

  11. Chemical composition of the essential oil and hexane extract of Salvia chionantha and their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Gülsen; Oztürk, Mehmet; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Harmandar, Mansur; Topçu, Gülaçti

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil and methyl ester of hexane extract of Salvia chionantha Boiss. were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Totally, 54 components were detected in the essential oil and all of them were fully determined. Germacrene D (25.03%), β-caryophyllene (8.71%), spathulenol (5.86%) and α-humulene (4.82%) were identified as the major compounds. In the methylated hexane extract, 3-hydroxy hexadecanoic acid (39.39%), 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (12.66%) and palmitic acid (12.02%) were the major fatty acids elucidated. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and the hexane extract was determined by using four complementary test systems; namely, β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH() scavenging, ABTS(+)* scavenging, and CUPRAC assays. In β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, the extract showed 81.2±0.1% lipid peroxidation inhibition at 0.8 mg/mL concentration, while in ABTS(+)* assay the essential oil exhibited 77.4±0.5% inhibition at same concentration. Since, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes are taking place in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil and the extract was also studied spectrophotometrically. At 0.5mg/mL concentration, the essential oil showed moderate acetylcholinesterase (56.7±1.9%) and butyrylcholinesterase (41.7±2.9%) inhibitory activity, while the extract was only exhibited activity (63.1±0.8%) against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme. Hence, the essential oil may be useful as a moderate anticholinesterase agent, particularly against acetylcholinesterase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT Assay and Larvicidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zeidabadinezhad, Reza; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Yassa, Narguess

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant. Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO. In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-verbenol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC 50 = 111.2μg/ml) in DPPH and IC 50 = 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD 50 = 1.1μg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC 50 = 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 μg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC 50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli , Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  13. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  15. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  16. Optimization of callus induction of Zataria multiflora under the effect of different plant growth regulators and explant source

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    N. Mosavat*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Lamiaceae family is rich in favorable secondary metabolites which have different medicinal properties and also use in food, cosmetic and sanitary industry. Zataria multiflora Boiss. is an aromatic and bushy plant containing specific pharmaceutical components which is only distributed in certain regions of Iran. Tissue culture technologies could be suitable for in vitro production of Zataria. Methods: In this study, callus production and callus related traits of Zataria was evaluated at in vitro condition. Callus induction was performed on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels of plant growth regulators including different cytokinins (Kinetin, benzyl amino purine and auxins (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtalen acetic acid and two different explant (hypocotyl and leaf. Results: The friable calli with yellow-green color only appeared from leaf explants on three different treatments including: 1: 2.5 (mg/L 2,4-D; 2: 2 (mg/L  2,4-D; 3: [2 (mg/L 2,4-D+ 1 (mg/L Kin].  The best callus induction (75% was obtained at 2,4-D (2 mg/L + Kin (1 mg/L after 2 month of incubation under the photoperiod of 16/8 (light/dark. The highest callus growth rate (CGR (0.072 mm/day and callus fresh weight (0.135 g were denoted to the treatment of 2 mg/L (2,4-D.  Conclusion: The benefits of the protocol described here include the possibility of its use throughout the callus culture for commercial production of suitable secondary metabolites of Zataria in rapid time and huge scale.

  17. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT assay and Larvicidal Activities

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    Saeed Tavakoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Anti­oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anoph­eles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO.Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-ver­benol (9.66%, isobutyl acetate (25.73% and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68% were main compounds. The oil showed (IC50= 111.2µg/ml in DPPH and IC50= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD50= 1.1µg/ml in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC50= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 µg/ml on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29 respectively. LC50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli, Asper­gillus niger and Candida albicans.Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  18. Aportació al coneixement de l’herbari Trèmols de l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona

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    Gavioli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The herbarium BC-Trèmols was created during the second half of the 19th century by the Catalan chemist and botanist Frederic Trèmols Borrell. Between 1930 and 1960, the technician Antoni Marcos carried out a thorough review. The current collection consists of approximately 9000 specimen sheets; is made up of 58 volumes reordered by Marcos, two volumes with the original structure, four boxes of Hieracium and 85 boxes with additional material. Up to now 22 volumes and four boxes of Hieracium have been computerized (3695 specimens; we made an inventory at genus level of all volumes, and we computerized the original catalogue of the herbarium and the existing taxonomical fiches. We have also developed a preliminary inventory of the contents of the extra boxes. The analysis of these 3695 herbarium specimens clearly shows that it mainly consists of samples obtained by exchange (67.1% especially within the Société Helvétique pour l’Échange des Plantes and the Societat Botànica Barcelonesa. Among the materials studied we found two specimens regarded as interesting from a taxonomical and/or nomenclatural point of view (isotypes of Silene holzmanii Heldr. ex Boiss. and of Arenaria minutiflora Loscos. Therefore, the main interest of the herbarium lies in the diversity of the geographical provenance of plants, which makes of this collection one of the first “pan-European herbaria” in Catalonia.El herbario BC-Trèmols fue creado durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX por el químico y botánico catalán Frederic Trèmols i Borrell. Entre 1930 y 1960, el técnico Antoni Marcos llevó a cabo una profunda revisión. La colección actual consta aproximadamente de unos 9000 pliegos; está formada por 58 volúmenes reordenados por Marcos, más otros dos con la estructura original, cuatro cajas de Hieracium y 85 cajas de material adicional. Hasta la fecha se han informatizado 22 de los volúmenes y las cuatro cajas de Hieracium (3695 especímenes, se

  19. Lixiviación ácida de concentrados de scheelita

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    Navarro, P.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The acid leaching in hydrochloric media of a tungsten concentrate (scheelite, CaWO4 was studied. Of the above-mentioned, an insoluble solid (H2WO4 was obtained which were treated with an alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide, achieving the complete solubilization of the tungsten as wolframate ion (WO4-2 . The transformed fraction of tungsten increases with the temperature, as well as with a finer grain. A maximum dissolution of 88.5 % (400 g/1 HCl, 363 K and 20 µm of particle size was achieved for a 3 h process, of the disolution process was interpreted by the recessive core model with formation of a layer of solid product for the whole range of variation of the parameters in study. The activation energy value was found to be 28.0 kj/mol

    Se estudió la lixiviación acida, en medio clorhídrico, de un concentrado de wolframio (scheelita, CaWO4. De lo anterior, se obtuvo un sólido insoluble (H2WO4, que se trató con una solución alcalina de hidróxido de sodio, lográndose la completa solubilización del wolframio como ion wolframato (WO4-2 . La fracción transformada de wolframio aumenta con la temperatura, como también con una granulometría más fina. Se logró una disolución máxima de 88,5 % (400 g/1 HCl, 363 K y 20 µm de tamaño de partícula para 3 h de proceso, disolución que se interpretó a través del modelo de núcleo recesivo con formación de capa de producto sólido para todo el rango de variación de los parámetros en estudio. El valor de energía de activación encontrado fue de 28,0 kj/mol

  20. Aglomeración y lixiviación en lecho fijo de colas de proceso de flotación de cobre a escala de laboratorio: efecto del contenido de humedad en la aglomeración

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    Herrera, C. A.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of moisture on the agglomeration of copper tailing material which could be processed by leaching in heaps in order to recover valuable metals, is evaluated. The efficiency of leaching performed in columns at laboratory scale was quantified as a function of moisture content in prepared agglomerates. Main hydrometallurgical variables, hydrodynamics, and hydrodispersive properties of agglomerates were obtained. Results indicate that samples agglomerated with a moisture close to 10 % exhibited the best copper recovery in the shortest time and presented the highest ore bed hydrodynamic properties for the flux of acid solution. The main conclusion is that moisture content is the key process variable, which shows an important effect on the efficiency of both the agglomeration and the leaching stages. Therefore, a careful control of this variable must be taking into account during the hydrometallurgical processing of copper tailings.

    Se evalúa el efecto que tiene el contenido de humedad de las colas (relaves, generadas en el proceso de flotación de minerales de cobre, en la fabricación de un material aglomerado apropiado para el proceso de lixiviación en pilas. Se cuantifica cómo varía la eficiencia de la lixiviación respecto de la humedad con que se fabrican los aglomerados, mediante la realización de pruebas de lixiviación en lecho fijo a escala de laboratorio, para distintas condiciones de humedad. Se determinaron las principales variables hidrometalúrgicas y las propiedades hidrodinámicas e hidrodispersivas de los aglomerados, y se observó que las muestras aglomeradas con un contenido de humedad cercano al 10 % presentaron la mayor recuperación de cobre, en el menor tiempo y con las mejores propiedades hidrodinámicas para el flujo de la solución acida. Se concluye que las condiciones de humedad tienen un importante efecto en la eficacia de la lixiviación por lo que se recomienda un mayor control de ella

  1. Anterograde Amnesia

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    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  2. Evaluación de la actividad desulfurizadora de aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. en presencia de hidrocarburo Desulfurization activity evaluation of native strains of Pseudomonas spp. in the presence of hydrocarbon

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    Alméciga-Díaz Carlos Javier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El principal inconveniente en la combustión de los hidrocarburos es la conversión del azufre y el nitrógeno a sus respectivos óxidos, los cuales participan en la formación de lluvia acida y deterioran el medio ambiente e infraestructuras. La remoción de azufre a partir de compuestos órgano-azufrados mediante el uso de microorganismos ha surgido como una alternativa frente al proceso catalítico de hidrodesulfurización (HDS. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora de veintitrés aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. sobre dibenzotiofeno (DBT, usando un sistema de fermentación con igual proporción de fase acuosa y orgánica (n-hexano en presencia de oleato de etanolamina. Los aislados 02,05 y 06 conservaron su viabilidad en este medio y presentaron una remoción de azufre entre 6,0 y 9,4%, generando los metabolitos DBT-sulfona, DBT-sulfóxido, 2-hidroxibifenilo (2-HBP y sulfato presentes en la ruta metabólica 4S. Con estos aislados se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora sobre keroseno y se observó una remoción de azufre entre 19,9 y 62,6% y una disminución del poder calorífico entre 0,45 y 5,55%. Palabras clave: dibenzotiofeno, desulfurización, Pseudomonas spp., keroseno.The main difficulty with fossil fuel combustión lies in sulphur and nitrogen becoming converted to their respective oxides, forming part of the acid rain which deteriorates the environment and infrastructure. Removing sulphur from organo-sulfur compounds by using micro-organisms has become an alternative to hydrodesulphurisation (HDS. Twenty-three Pseudomonas spp. native strains' desulphurisation activity on dibenzothiophene (DBT was evaluated by using a fermentation system having equal proportions of aqueous and organic (n-hexane phases in the presence of ethanolamine oléate. The 02, 05 and 06 strains maintained their viability in this médium, presenting 6,0% to 9,4% sulphur removal, producing DBT-sulphone, DBT-sulphoxide, 2

  3. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

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    Svob Strac D

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dubravka Svob Strac,1 Josipa Vlainic,1 Janko Samardzic,2 Julija Erhardt,3 Zeljka Krsnik41Laboratory for Molecular Neuropsychiatry, Division of Molecular Medicine, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Institute of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 4Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration.Methods: DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes.Results: DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results

  4. Efecto de la serpentina en la formación de fases mineralógicas y su relación con la resistencia mecánica en sinterizados de mineral de hierro

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    Bedolla, E.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructures formed by serpentine addition on mechanical strength is investigated. It was found that the microstructure formed depends mainly on firing temperature, basicity and serpentine percent. The mineralogical phases present were quantified by the point-count method. The addition of serpentine on acid briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 0.3, mainly on those fired at 1,275, 1,300 and 1,325 °C, leads to the formation of magnesio-ferrite that diminishes the mechanical strength of fired briquettes, and at the temperature of 1,250 °C the mechanical strength decreases because of the presence of glassy slags. On the other hand, the addition of serpentine on basic briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 1.2 leads to the formation of olivines and ferrites that improve the mechanical strength of fired briquettes.

    Se estudia la influencia de las microestructuras formadas sobre la resistencia mecánica de mineral de hierro aglomerado con serpentina. Se deduce que la microestructura formada depende de la temperatura de sinterización, de la basicidad y del valor porcentual de serpentina, principalmente. Las fases mineralógicas presentes se cuantificaron utilizando la técnica de conteo por puntos. En briquetas acidas (CaO/SiO2 = 0,3 sinterizadas a 1.275, 1.300 y 1.325 °C, se encontró que la serpentina induce la formación de magnesio-ferritas que traen, como consecuencia, una disminución de la resistencia mecánica, mientras que, a la temperatura de sinterización de 1.250 °C, la aparición de escorias vítreas es la causa principal de la disminución de resistencia. En el caso de briquetas básicas (CaO/SiO2 = 1,2, la adición de serpentina produce la formación de olivinas y calcio-ferritas que originan un aumento de la resistencia mecánica de los sinterizados.

  5. [Spatial structure of the calixarene-aminophosphonic acids is important for their inhibition of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane of smooth muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Rodik, R V; Boĭko, V I; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2010-01-01

    It was found that calixarene C-107 (5,17-diamino(2-pyridyl)methylphosphono-11,23-di-tret-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene) could effectively reduce Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the myometrium cell plasmatic membranes (the value of the apparent constant of inhibition I0.5 was 33 +/- 4 nM) while it practically did not influence the "basal" Mg2(+)-ATPase activity of the same membrane. In comparative experiments, we have shown that the model calixarene C-150--the calixarene "scaffold" (26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene), and the model compound M-3 (4-hydroxyaniline(2-pyridine)methylphosphonic acid)--a fragment of the calixarene C-107, had practically no influence on the enzymatic activities of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase over a wide range of concentrations. Hence, the influence of calixarene C-107 on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was caused by the joint action of two aminophosphonic substituents on the upper rim of the calixarene bowl. The isomer of calixarene C-107--calixarene C-160 (5,11-diamino(2-pyridyl)methylphosphono-17,23-di-tret-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene) also did not influence the Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities of plasmatic membrane of myometrium cells. We carried out molecular modeling of calixarenes C-107 and C-160 and showed differences in interatomic distance between aminophosphonic substituents of mentioned calixarenes. We came to the conclusion that spatial structure of calixarene C-107, namely localization of two aminophosphonic substituents in 5,17 position of the upper rim of this calixarene, is crucial for inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Using laser correlation spectroscopy it was found that the 100 microM solution of calixarene C-107 and 2.5% DMSO had microparticles with size range from 100 nm to 10 microm. Plasma membrane vesicles had average hydrodynamic diameter 401 +/- 17 nm, but after interaction of these vesicles with calixarene C-107 we have registered the creation of

  6. Structural and Magnetic Studies on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Hybrid Matrices =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno Joao de Oliveira

    Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que

  7. Spin-Transfer-Torque Nano-Oscillators: Fabrication, Characterization and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose Diogo Teixeira Barbosa

    Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que

  8. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in biosolids from urban origin; Concentracion total y especiacion de metales pesados en biosolidos de origen urbano origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Flores, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: egonz1962@yahoo.com.mx; Tornero Campante, Mario Alberto [Colegio de Postgraduados - Campus Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Angeles Cruz, Yolanda [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bonilla y Fernandez, Noemi [Departamento de Agroecologia y Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias - Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    . El objetivo fue determinar las concentraciones en las fracciones biodisponibles. Se obtuvieron las concentraciones totales de metales pesados por medio de una digestion acida en sistema cerrado y fueron determinadas por espectrofotometria de absorcion atomica. Las concentraciones totales fueron mas bajas que los niveles maximos permisibles establecidos por la legislacion mexicana. Los metales pesados estan asociados principalmente a la fraccion mineral y a la materia organica y consecuentemente muestran muy baja biodisponibilidad.

  9. Concentration and Storage of Highly-Active Wastes from the First Stages of the United Kingdom Civil Nuclear Power Programme; Concentration et Stockage des Dechets de Haute Activite au Cours des Premiers Stades du Programme Civil de Production d'Energie d'Origine Nucleaire au Royaume-UNL; КОНЦЕНТРИРОВАНИЕ И ХРАНЕНИЕ ВЫСОКОАКТИВНЫХ ОТХОДОВ НА ПЕРВЫХ СТАДИЯХ ОСУЩЕСТВЛЕНИЯ ПРОГРАММЫ СОЕДИНЕННОГО КОРОЛЕВСТВА ПО ПРОИЗВОДСТВУ ЯДЕPHОЙ ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГИИ ДЛЯ ГРАЖДАНСКИХ ЦЕЛЕЙ; Concentracion y Almacenamiento de Desechos de Elevada Radiactividad en las Primeras Etapas del Programa Civil de Energia Nucleoelectrica del Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clelland, D. W. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Production Group, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    The general problems of highly-active waste disposal are discussed and in particular the United Kingdom system of concentrating and storing highly-active waste as an acidic liquid concentrate is described. A speculative estimate is made of the amount of highly- active waste which will arise from reprocessing during the first two decades of the United Kingdom Civil Nuclear Power Programme and engineering design and technical problems associated with the safe and economic confinement of this material are examined. (author) [French] L'auteur analyse les problemes generaux que pose l'elimination des dechets de- haute activite; il decrit plus particulierement la methode appliquee au Royaume-Uni pour concentrer et stocker des dechets de haute activite sous forme d'un liquide concentre acide. U evalue la quantite des dechets de haute activite qui seront produits au cours du traitement de combustibles irradies pendant les deux premieres deconnies du programme civil de production d'energie d'orgine nucleaire et il examine les problemes techniques que pose l'isolement economique et sur de ces substances. (author) [Spanish] El autor examina los problemas generales de la evacuacion de desechos de elevada radiactividad y, en particular, el procedimiento que se aplica en el Reino Unido para concentrar y almacenar desechos muy radiactivos en forma de concentrados liquidos de reaccion acida. Efectua un calculo aproximado de la cantidad de desechos de elevada radiactividad que se orginaran en las operaciones de regeneracion de combustibles durante las dos primeras decadas de ejecucion del programa civil de energia nucleoelectrica en el Reino Unido y analiza los problemas tecnicos y constructivos relacionados con el confinamiento seguro y economico de estas sustancias. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdajutsja obshhie problemy udalenija radioaktivnyh othodov vysokoj aktivnosti i, v chastnosti, prinjatyj v Soedinennom Korolevstve metod koncentrirovanija i hranenija takih othodov v vide

  10. Heavy metals determination in aquatic species for food purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2001-02-01

    New analytical procedures and sample mineralizations are proposed regarding the determination of arsenic, selenium, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury in matrices involved in food chain as mussel, clams and fishes. As regards As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn determinations. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3} acidic mixture is used for the digestion is performed using a concentrated supra pure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} mixture and the results are compared with those from other conventional methods (DPASV) are employed for determining simultaneously selenium, arsenic and copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, respectively, while mercury determination is carried out by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The voltammetric measurements were performed using a conventional three-electrode cell and the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer (ph 9.3) as supporting electrolyte. For all the elements, in addition to the detection limits, precision and accuracy data are also reported: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (S{sub r}), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), are in all cases between 3 to 6%. [Italian] Viene proposta una nuova procedura analitica ed una nuova mineralizzazione del campione per la determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco e mercurio in matrici coinvolte nella catena alimentare come mitili e pesci. Per la determinazione di As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, le matrici sono state mineralizzate con una miscela acida H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}. Nel caso del Hg, la mineralizzazione del campione e' stata effettuata mediante una miscela H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ed i risultati confrontati con quelli ottenuti impiegando altri metodi convenzionali. Per la simultanea determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco, sono state impiegate la voltammetria differenziale pulsata catodica (DPCSV) ed anodica (DPASV), mentre il mercurio e

  11. Research and development of hydrogen and fuel cells technology at the IIE; Investigacion y desarrollo de tecnologia de hidrogeno y celdas de combustible en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano C, Ulises; Arriaga H, Gerardo; Romero C, T; Medrano V, M. Consolacion; Gonzalez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    D relacionados con celdas de combustible iniciaron a partir de estudios basicos electroquimicos de electrodos de platino sobre carbon vitreo en soluciones acidas, para determinar parametros cineticos y propiedades estructurales. Puesto que los principales componentes de las celdas PEM definen en gran medida el costo de la tecnologia, otros esfuerzos adicionales ligados a estudios basicos para el desarrollo de componentes como placas bipolares, estan descritos por el mismo autor en el 2001. Otros trabajos sobre investigacion basica estan ligados a la repuesta de monoceldas de combustible a diferentes condiciones de operacion, y que tambien se revisaran en este articulo.

  12. Reaction of Nα-acetyl-L-histidine with diazomethane: A model esterification reaction of carboxylic groups in the presence of imidazole rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, R.

    1996-10-01

    1-3 fueron confirmadas por electroforesis capilar tras hidrólisis acida. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de diazometano produce el derivado metílico del anillo heterocíclico en adición al éster metílico. Esta reacción debe ser tenida en cuenta al preparar derivados para análisis cromatográfico.

  13. Renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gases within the framework of the Kyoto protocol; Energias renovables y reduccion de gases invernadero en el marco del protocolo de Kioto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Castellanos, Carolina [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The modern societies face diverse environmental problems among which appear the air pollution, the deterioration of seas and coasts, the acidification of soils, acid rain and the climatic change, phenomena, all of them, related in greater or smaller degree to the conventional practices of production and consumption of energy. Specifically, the climatic change puts in risk the well-being of the future generations, and even, the future of the life in the planet. Although uncertainty around the possible repercussions of this phenomenon exists, one knows that one of its main sources is burning of fossil fuels, when affecting the increase of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, in spite of the achievement that represents the creation of an instrument so sophisticated as the commonly denominated Kyoto Protocol, reluctance on part of some developed countries exists to ratify it and assume their commitments, and in the last session of the Conference of the Parts, (COP-6), celebrated at The Hague, Holland, it was not managed to consolidate to put in action the mechanisms that Kyoto establishes. [Spanish] Las sociedades modernas enfrentan diversos problemas ambientales entre los que figuran la contaminacion del aire, el deterioro de mares y costas, la acidificacion de suelos, la lluvia acida y el cambio climatico, fenomenos, todos ellos, relacionados en mayor o menor medida con las practicas convencionales de produccion y consumo de energia. De manera especifica, el cambio climatico pone en riesgo el bienestar de las futuras generaciones, e incluso, el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Si bien existe incertidumbre en torno a las posibles repercusiones de este fenomeno, se sabe que una de sus principales fuentes es la quema de combustibles fosiles, al incidir en el aumento en las concentraciones atmosfericas de gases invernadero. No obstante, pese al logro que representa la creacion de un instrumento tan sofisticado como el comunmente denominado

  14. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  15. Comparison of energy expenditure and closed-loop performance of thermal and reactive distillation sequences coupled for biodiesel production; Comparacion de gasto energetico y desempeno a lazo cerrado de secuencias de destilacion reactiva y termicamente acopladas para produccion de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Jacob, J.L [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Vazquez-Ojeda, M; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G; Hernandez, S [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Biodiesel is the common name for fatty acid methyl esters, obtained by esterification (basic catalysis) or trans-esterification (acid catalysis) of vegetable or animal oils with alcohols, and used as liquid fuel. Production involves the reaction, under mild conditions, between the oil and, typically, excess of methanol. Traditional production of biodiesel exhibits some handicaps, such as the shift of equilibrium to fatty acids by using excess of alcohol that must be separated and recycled. As alternative, it is possible to integrate reaction/separation operations into a single intensified unit, a reactive distillation column, followed by a second separation unit. These configurations exhibit several advantages such as shifting equilibrium in the reactive region and, because of the thermal integration with the second unit, energy savings during products separation. In order to design these production sequences taking advantage of steady state knowledge (energy savings) and considering dynamic performance, this work performs a controllability analysis for six possible configurations; open-loop control properties, evaluated by single value decomposition, are probed by implementing PI controllers to the system. The reactive distillation column coupled to a stripper, without reboilers, shows to be the best option in terms of closed-loop performance and energy savings. [Spanish] Biodiesel es el nombre comun dado a metil esteres de acidos grasos obtenidos por esterificacion (catalisis basica) o trans-esterificacion (catalisis acida) de aceites animales o vegetales con alcoholes, y usados como combustibles liquidos. Su produccion involucra la reaccion entre el aceite y, tipicamente, exceso de metanol a condiciones moderadas. La produccion tradicional de biodiesel exhibe algunas desventajas como el desplazamiento del equilibrio hacia acidos grasos debido al exceso de alcohol, que debe ser separado y reciclado. Alternativamente, es posible integrar las operaciones reaccion

  16. The isotope-dilution method of fluorine microestimation; Microdosage du fluor pur dilution isotopique; Mikroopredelenie ftora no metodu razbavleniya izotopov; Microvaloracion del fluor por dilucion isotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudahl, J N; Fremlin, J H; Hardwick, J L [Department of Physics, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    des matieres organiques peuvent etre reduites en cendres en toute securite si des ions de calcium ou de magnesium sont presents. La precision de la methode ne depend pas de la concentration du fluorure jusqu'a concurrence de valeurs representant une fraction d'une ppm. (author) [Spanish] El vidrio adsorbe los iones fluoruro de las soluciones acidas, y si estas soluciones contienen menos de 100 ppm de fluor, la cantidad adsorbida varia muy regularmente en funcion de la concentracion. El metodo empleado por los autores consiste en anadir a cada uno de los integrantes ele una serie de soluciones acidas, que pueden contener unos miligramos, o menos, de fluoruro, un cierto volumen de una solucion del isotopo inestable {sup 18}F libre de portador. Si estas soluciones se aplican a un area determinada de vidrio, parte del {sup 18}F es adsorbida y puede ser fijada elevando el pH una vez alcanzado el equilibrio. La radiactividad del vidrio constituye una medida de la cantidad total de fluoruro presente sobre el vidrio, y puede utilizarse para trazar una isotermia de adsorcion de la cual se puede deducir el contenido en fluor de una solucion desconocida de la serie. Luego de estudiar los efectos del pH de la presencia de iones calcio y fosfato, los autores ban comprobado que las sustancias organicas pueden ser calcinadas sin peligro alguno siempre que se encuentreu presentes iones calcio o magnesio. La precision del metodo no depende de la concentracion de fluoruro siempre que esta sea inferior a 1 ppm. (author) [Russian] Ion ftora iz kislotnogo rastvora adsorbiruetsya na steklo, i dlya rastvorov, soderzhashchikh menee 100 chastej ftora na million, adsorbiruemoe kolichestvo izmenyaetsya ochen' regulyarno v zavisimosti ot kontsentratsii. K kazhdomu iz kislotnykh rastvorov ftora v dannoj serii, ne prevyshayushchikh po vesu neskol'kikh milligrammov, a to i men'she, dobavlyaetsya nekotoryj ob{sup e}m svobodnogo ot nositelej rastvora neustojchivogo izotopa F{sup 18}. Esli rastvory

  17. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1794 the German physicist Chladni published a small book in which he suggested the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. The response was skepticism and disbelief. Only after additional witnessed falls of meteorites did scientists begin to consider Chladni's hypothesis seriously. The first chemical analyses of meteorites were published by the English chemist Howard in 1802, and shortly afterwards by Klaproth, a professor of chemistry in Berlin. These early investigations led to the important conclusion that meteorites contained the same elements that were known from analyses of terrestrial rocks. By the year 1850, 18 elements had been identified in meteorites: carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and tin (Burke, 1986). A popular hypothesis, which arose after the discovery of the first asteroid Ceres on January 1, 1801 by Piazzi, held that meteorites came from a single disrupted planet between Mars and Jupiter. In 1847 the French geologist Boisse (1810-1896) proposed an elaborate model that attempted to account for all known types of meteorites from a single planet. He envisioned a planet with layers in sequence of decreasing densities from the center to the surface. The core of the planet consisted of metallic iron surrounded by a mixed iron-olivine zone. The region overlying the core contained material similar to stony meteorites with ferromagnesian silicates and disseminated grains of metal gradually extending into shallower layers with aluminous silicates and less iron. The uppermost layer consisted of metal-free stony meteorites, i.e., eucrites or meteoritic basalts. About 20 years later, Daubrée (1814-1896) carried out experiments by melting and cooling meteorites. On the basis of his results, he came to similar conclusions as Boisse, namely that meteorites come from a single, differentiated planet with a metal core, a silicate mantle

  18. Plant species influence on soil C after afforestation of Mediterranean degraded soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Maria T.; García-Vargas, Carlos; Madejón, Engracia; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-04-01

    Increasing C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems is one of the main current environmental challenges to mitigate climate change. Afforestation of degraded and contaminated lands is one of the key strategies to achieve an increase in C sequestration in ecosystems. Plant species differ in their mechanisms of C-fixation, C allocation into different plant organs, and interaction with soil microorganisms, all these factors influencing the dynamics of soil C following the afforestation of degraded soils. In this work we examine the influence of different woody plant species on soil C dynamics in degraded and afforested Mediterranean soils. The soils were former agricultural lands that were polluted by a mining accident and later afforested with different native plant species. We analysed the effect of four of these species (Olea europaea var. sylvestris Brot., Populus alba L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss.) on different soil C fractions, soil nutrient availability, microbial activity (soil enzyme activities) and soil CO2 fluxes 15 years after the establishment of the plantations. Results suggest that the influence of the planted trees and shrubs is still limited, being more pronounced in the more acidic and nutrient-poor soils. Litter accumulation varied among species, with the highest C accumulated in the litter under the deciduous species (Populus alba L.). No differences were observed in the amount of total soil organic C among the studied species, or in the concentrations of phenols and sugars in the dissolved organic C (DOC), which might have indicated differences in the biodegradability of the DOC. Microbial biomass and activity was highly influenced by soil pH, and plant species had a significant influence on soil pH in the more acidic site. Soil CO2 fluxes were more influenced by the plant species than total soil C content. Our results suggest that changes in total soil C stocks after the afforestation of degraded Mediterranean

  19. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae family, which has been used in traditional medicine of Iran as anti vaginal infection, anti-sinusitis, sedative, and anti-inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Results showed that a total of 39 components have been identified in the plant sampl oil, representing 81% of the total oil and β-pinene (19.88%, guaiol (8%, shyobunone (6.96%, delta-cadinene (4.65%, α-pinene (3.16 %, β-phellandrene (3.28% and myrtenol (2.8%, were the main essential oil composition, respectively. The results from antibacterial screening (Table 2, were showed that C. albicans (25.2 ± 1.6, Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.6 ± 0.7 mm, Staphylococcus aureus (21.3 ± 0.2 mm, Escherichia coli (16.5 ± 0.8 mm, Bacillus cereus (19.5 ± 0.1 mm, Enterococcus faecalis (17.2 ± 0.8 mm and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ( 17.8 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone and MIC (35.4-112 μg/ml were the most sensitive pathogenes to the plant extract respectively, which followed Shigella (12.3 ± 0.3 mm and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.5 ± 0.2 mm were found to be moderate sensitive bacteria and then the Salmonella typhymorium which completely was resistant to plant root extract. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be concluded that the extract of F. gummosa L. have suitable antimicrobial and anti-Candidacies activity, which can be

  20. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed Muhammad

    2012-12-01

    may be due to some toxic effect of higher dose. ED50 value for Teucrium stocksianum was calculated as 31.5 ± 1.72415 mg/kg (b.w. Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a lot of variation in the composition of essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum boiss, which may be due to different climatic and experimental conditions. Secondly, the essential oil possesses strong antinociceptive activity and could be used in analgesic preparations especially for topical use.

  1. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  2. Studies on the effect of vanillin (food additive on some metabolic reactions of the experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Massry, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    función hepática (S.GOT, S.GPT, alcalina y ácido fosfatasa así como las funciones renales se elevaron en comparación con el grupo control. La administración de vanillina redujo significativamente los lípidos totales de hígado y riñones. El bazo y corazón siguieron la misma tendencia pero con efecto moderado, mientras que el cerebro no se afectó. El colesterol total en hígado, riñones, bazo y corazón disminuyó significativamente, en tanto que en cerebro no se afectó. Los triglicéridos disminuyeron significativamente en hígado y bazo, mientras que no se alteraron en riñones y cerebro. También hubo una disminución significativa en la alta actividad de S.GOT, S.GPT, alcalina y fosfatasa acida y se alcanzaron valores muy próximos al nivel inicial. La administración de vanillina ejerció efectos anabólicos potentes para el metabolismo de proteínas como se demuestra de los resultados del ácido urónico y creatinina.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Saraiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The dry methanol extract of the root showed good antimicrobial activity with a MIC of less than 0.5 mg.mL-1. The dry ethyl acetate extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, which might be explained by solubility problems and less diffusion in the agar medium. Results of the bioautographies also confirmed inhibition halos corresponding to the active substances present in the leaves, as well as in the flower of C. pyramidalis. The phytochemical study of the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower and fruit of extracts from C. pyramidalis confirmed the presence of a number of known antimicrobial agents including ursolic acid, quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid, sitosterol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid.A determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos e em acetato de etila da folha, casca do caule, casca da raiz, flor, fruto e semente de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. foi realizada frente a dezessete isolados de Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes, dois isolados de S. aureus MSSA e duas cepas padrão, pelas técnicas de poço/difusão em ágar e determinação das CMI pelo método de diluição em agar/multiinoculador de Stears. O extrato metanólico de casca da raiz indicou uma boa atividade, com CMI inferior a 0.5 mg.mL-1. Os extratos secos por extração em acetato de etila apresentaram menor atividade que se poderia explicar por problemas de solubilidade e menor difusão no meio de cultura em ágar. Resultados

  4. Bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolated from boza Bacteriocina produzida por Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolad de boza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav D. Todorov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin ST712BZ (14.0kDa in size inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Lactobacillus curvatus. Growth of strain ST712BZ in BHI, M17, soy milk and molasses was similar to growth in MRS, with optimal bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL recorded in MRS after 24h. The same level of bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL was recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5. However, MRS broth (pH 6.5 supplemented with 1mM EDTA, yielded only 6400AU/mL. Low levels of bacteriocin activity were recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 5.0 and 4.5. Of all media compositions tested, MRS supplemented with tryptone (20.0g/L, glucose (20.0 to 40.0g/L, mannose (20.0g/L, vitamin B12, or vitamin C yielded 12800AU/mL. Glycerol concentrations of 1.0g/L and higher repressed bacteriocin production. Maximal bacteriocin activity (25600AU/mL was recorded in MRS supplemented with Vit. B1 or DL-6,8-thioctic acid.A bacteriocina ST712BZ produzida par Lactobacillus pentosus (peso molecular de 14,0kDa inibe o crescimento de Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Lactobacillus curvatus. O crescimento de L. pentosus ST712BZ em BHI, M17, leite de soja e melaços foi semelhante ao observado em MRS, registando-se a produção máxima de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em MRS após 24 h. Observou-se o mesmo nível de produção de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em caldo MRS com pH inicial de 6,5, 6,0 e 5,5. No entanto, em caldo MRS (pH 6,5 suplementado com 1 mM de EDTA a produção apenas atingiu 6400UA/mL. Os níveis de atividade bacteriocinogênica detectados em caldo MRS com um pH inicial de 5,0 e 4,5 foram baixos. De todas as fórmulas de meios de cultura testadas a que apresentou a atividade máxima 12800UA/mL foi MRS suplemento de triptona (20,0g/L, glicose (20,0 e 40,0 g/L, manose (20.0 g/L, vitamina B12 e

  5. Fifteen years of seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field; Quince anos de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prieto, Irais; Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    -5000, con tres canales de registro (N-S, E-W y vertical); esta fue la base para el desarrollo de un programa de correcciones a los datos de tiempo de arribo de las ondas P y S por deriva de los instrumentos. En los periodos enero-abril de 1994 y mayo-agosto de 1995 se registraron 170 eventos sismicos, con lo que se propuso un modelo de velocidades, y de diciembre de 1995 a julio de 1996 se realizo un procesado e interpretacion de datos sismicos, definiendo las zonas de ocurrencia de eventos de acuerdo a sus magnitudes y caracterizando el ruido predominante en el campo. Entre septiembre de 2003 y diciembre de 2004 se instalaron diez estaciones sismicas (temporales y permanentes) cuyo monitoreo permitio concluir que el sistema de fallas mas activo era el de El Volcan. De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se llevo a cabo un monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13, lograndose definir dos zonas sismicas de importancia asociadas al sistema de fallas El Volcan y al pozo inyector LV-8 y concluyendose que existia un aumento de la actividad sismica despues de la induccion de los pozos. Entre mayo y agosto de 2006 se recopilo informacion de la red sismica, con la cual se concluyo que el sistema de fallas mas activo en ese periodo fue El Partido. Actualmente la red sismica del campo consta de un equipo SARA y cuatro K2, y se ha conseguido que la estacion SARA se comunique telemetricamente con la estacion base.

  6. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  7. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  8. Lactic acid production by L. curvatus in sugarcane molasses/ Produção de ácido lático por Lactobacillus curvatus em melaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is important due to its various applications. The bulk of world lactic acid production is used by the food industry and the rest is used in pharmaceutical, textile, leather, cosmetic and chemical industries. In this work, a 33 incomplete factorial design of the response-surface methodology was used to determine the best concentration of sugarcane molasses, yeast extract and peptone in the culture medium for the development of batch lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus curvatus. The fermentation was carried out at 37 ºC for 48 hours without agitation. The mathematical model given by the responsesurface methodology indicated a concentration of 10% (w/v of sugarcane molasses, 2% (w/v of yeast extract and 4% (w/v of peptone as the best conditions for the composition of culture medium for the lactic acid production by L. curvatus. Under these conditions, lactic acid production was 30,5 g/L, comparable with the result obtained in MRS medium, which produced 32,0g/L of lactic acid. Considering the low cost and high availability of the sugarcane molasses, it was concluded that it represented a good culture medium for lactic fermentation. Sugarcane molasses at 10% (w/v supplemented with yeast extract at 2% (w/v and peptone at 4% (w/v was used in the 3L batch lactic fermentation producing 37,5g/L of lactic acid.A maior parte da produção mundial de ácido lático é utilizada pela indústria de alimentos e o restante em indústrias farmacêutica, têxtil, de couro, cosmética e química. A Metodologia da Superfície de Resposta, planejamento fatorial incompleto 33, foi utilizada para estabelecer as melhores condições, relativas às concentrações, do meio de cultivo contendo melaço de cana-de-açúcar, extrato de levedura e peptona para desenvolvimento da fermentação descontínua por Lactobacillus curvatus. A fermentação se desenvolveu durante 48 horas sob temperatura de 37 ºC. O modelo matemático fornecido pela Metodologia da

  9. Determining the optimal dose of Fenton reagent in a leachate treatment by Fenton-adsorption; Determinacion de la dosis optima de reactivo Fenton en un tratamiento de lixiviados por Fenton-adsorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Novelo, Roger Ivan; Pietrogiovanna Bronca, Jose Alfredo; Santos Ocampo, Beatriz; Sauri Riancho, Maria Rosa; Giacoman Vallejos, German; Castillo Borges, Elba Rene [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Ingenieria, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)]. E-mail: mnovelo@uady.mx

    2010-07-01

    tipo Fenton-adsorcion con el que se obtuvieron mejores resultados que con otros tratamientos fisicoquimicos o biologicos reportados en la literatura. El proceso Fenton consiste en tratar la carga contaminante con una combinacion de H{sub 2}O{sub 2} y FeSO4 en condiciones acidas. Se evaluo si la filtracion de los lodos producidos durante el proceso Fenton es un proceso mas eficiente que la sedimentacion. Se determino el tiempo de contacto optimo de la oxidacion Fenton, asi como la dosis optima de los reactivos usados en funcion de la DQO del lixiviado, mediante la determinacion de las mejores relaciones [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]. Despues de optimizar el proceso, se filtraron las muestras oxidadas y se ensayo la adsorcion mediante columnas empacadas con carbon activado granular. Se concluyo que el lodo generado por el proceso Fenton se remueve mas eficientemente mediante filtracion que por sedimentacion. Los tiempos de contacto optimos fueron de 5 min para la remocion de la DQO y una hora para la remocion de color, tiempo elegido para proteger el carbon activado. Las mejores relaciones para [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] fueron 0.6 y 9, respectivamente. La eficiencia maxima de remocion despues del proceso de adsorcion fue de 98.9 % para la DQO y 100 % para el color. El indice de biodegradabilidad final alcanzado despues de las pruebas de Fenton-adsorcion fue de 0.24.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of polystyrene membranes for use in fuel cells; Sintesis y evaluacion de membranas base poliestireno para uso en celdas a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)] e-mail: robertob@ciqa.mx; Paula, M.M.S.; Da Silva, L.; Fiori, M.; Coronetti, J.C.; Silvano, W.F. [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); B.M. Huerta [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    DSC), nivel de entrecruzamiento mediante % Gel y funcion acida mediante titulacion con hidroxido de sodio. Los espectros IR de las membranas antes de sulfonar muestran la existencia de bandas tradicionales de los polimeros utilizados con dos senales de los homopolimeros que se pierden y dos nuevas que aparecen, corroborando las reacciones de copolimerizacion. La termogravimetria muestra una temperatura de descomposicion mayor para las membranas entrecruzadas con el DVB, mientras que el DSC no es muy util para observar transiciones debido a la higroscopicidad de las membranas. Finalmente, el porcentaje de gel esta efectivamente relacionado con la cantidad de DVB utilizado y la acidez de las membranas es mayor con el contenido de acido acrilico, con el tiempo de sulfonacion y el porcentaje de DVB; aunque este valor depende mucho de la facilidad de solubilizar el material. Las propiedades ionicas de las membranas con mejores propiedades mecanicas fueron evaluadas en un prototipo de celda a combustible.

  11. Deposition of elements in a beechwood in the Central Apennines (National Park of Abruzzo) and their interaction with the crowns; Deposizione di elementi in una faggeta del parco Nazionale d`Abruzzo ed interazione chimica con le chiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talone, F.; Bussotti, F.; Grossoni, P. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Biologia Vegetale, lab. Botanica Applicata e Forestale

    1998-03-01

    precipitazioni avviene anche durante l`inverno, grazie ai rametti. Il passaggio attraverso le chiome svolge un`azione di neutralizzazione delle precipitazioni. Le concentrazioni di elementi nelle deposizioni in area aperta seguono, sia pure con concentrazioni inferiori, lo stesso andamento delle deposizioni sottochioma, testimoniando in tal modo che l`influenza del bosco si estende oltre i propri confini. L`acqua di scorrimento lungo il fusto e` sempre piu` acida delle precipitazioni in area aperta ed e` anche molto abbondante; in tal modo vengono convogliate al piede della pianta grandi quantita` di elementi e puo` svolgersi una potenziale azione di acidificazione. E` stato evidenziato l`apporto di sale marino, di cui viene ipotizzato un possibile impatto sull`ecosistema. Le deposizioni di elementi antropici quali zolfo e azoto sono invece risultate assai limitate, lontane sia dai carichi critici che da quelle rilevate in altre aree forestali italiane.

  12. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  13. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). Objective The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. Methods This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number

  14. Obtención, cultivo y caracterización de células de Schwann: un modelo de terapia celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Spinel

    2000-02-01

    -85%, determinados tanto por parámetros morfológicos como inmunocitoquímicos. Estos parámetros inmunocitoquímicos incluyen la evaluación para marcadores tales como la proteína S-100 y GFAP (Proteína Glial Fibrilar Acida. Adicionalmente, se realizó la evaluación inmunocitoquímica para bromodeoxiuridina (BrdU incorporada por células en su fase S, la cual nos permite obtener una aproximación del comportamiento proliferativo de los diferentes fenotipos celulares presentes en nuestros cultivos. Al realizar la cuantificación para la inmunodetección de BrdU incorporada, se encontró un índice de marcaje del 60 % en ratón, del 80% en rata y del 20 % en células humanas, relativo a la población de células de Schwann totales. Otro parámetro de caracterización ha sido la morfología, la cual se ha evaluado en cultivo por contraste de fase, en la que se puede observar la refringencia y la formación de estructuras a manera de rosarios, típicas de las células de Schwann en cultivo, en material fijado por microscopía de luz en donde se evidencia la inmunoreactividad para los diferentes marcadores y ultraestructuralmente por microscopía electrónica, en donde se han podido observar inclusiones de mielina, abundantes ribosomas libres, estructuras de endocitosis y retículo endoplásmico dilatado al parecer propio en cultivo entre otros detalles.

    Así, las células de rata ya han sido utilizadas en implantes autólogos, en modelos de regeneración en nervio dentario y en nervio ciático crónicamente denervado. En el caso del nervio dentario en el que se aprovechó el canal intraoseo por el que se conduce el nervio a través de la mandíbula, para que funcionara como una cámara de regeneración. En el caso del nervio ciático se utilizaron cámaras en las que se implantaron las células. En ambos casos el efecto de las células en la regeneración nerviosa está siendo actualmente evaluado.

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of Nanogold Bioconjugated with Trastuzumab as a Drug for Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Hasnawi, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer had been registered as the first order of cancer's leading cause of carcinoma death among Iraqi women. There are different trials to use bionanotechnology in medicine especially in the treatment of breast cancer. This work aimed to use different types of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in application and evaluation of breast cancer cell through the following parts:- Part I: Synthesis three types of GNPs included: 1- Gold nanospheres (GN spheres) by modification of the chemical method and using different reducing agent (sodium borohydride then capping with glutathione (GSH), the other method by using GSH and the last using new reducing agent (2-Oxoglutaric acid). To the our present knowledge, this is the first report about using 2-Oxoglutaric acidas reducing agent in the synthesis of GN spheres. 2- Gold nanorods (GNRs)by using seed - mediated growth method capped with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). 3- Gold nano shells (GNSs) by using silica nanoparticles as core and seeded with gold as shell (silica-gold core shells). All the prepared types GNPs were characterized by using eight different techniques including: Atomic force microscopy (AFM),Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), and zeta nanosizer. The measurements were done in Tarbiat Modares University (Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Biological sciences) and Tehran University in Islamic Republic of Iran, except the techniques of ICP-OES it was done in Al-Sulaimani Universityandthat of AFM was accomplished in the Ministry of Science and Technology in Iraq . Part II: This part includes two steps: 1- Biofunctionalization i.e., modification of the surfaces of the three types of prepared GNPs by coating with thiol-poly ethylene glycol -carboxy (SH-PEG-COOH) then activation of the

  16. Survey of Associations among Soil Properties and Climatic Factors on Weed Distribution in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan veisi

    2016-11-01

    of different districts by rows. Data on weed communities and environmental factors of all districts were analyzed through with ordination methods like canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and weed species distribution and environmental factors displayed in ordination diagrams. These ordination methods were done with mean density of 29 abundant weed species for CCA using CANOCO (Version 4.5. Ordination plots were produced for both sampling sites and weed species associated with environmental factors. For CCA, we used site elevation, humidity for 10 years period, daily raining for a 10 years period. Soil characteristic included calcium, phosphor, potassium, nitrogen, sodium, magnesium, pH were determined. Sand, clay and silt in soils were measured and elevation of each field was gained by GPS. Results and discussion 162 weed species belonging to 33 plant families were identified in these fields. Multivariate analyses with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that changes in the weed species distribution were due to soil characters (pH, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Sodium, Potassium, silt percent, clay and loam in soil tissue, cation exchange capacity, EC and environmental conditions during former years. The first and second RDA axes described 64% of variations in the weed populations affected by climatic factors. Winter wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L., ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud., wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and canary seed (Phalaris brachystacys Link. in areas of high temperature and low altitude, had a wide distribution. High evaporation increased wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch., Corn cleavers (Galium tricornutum Dandy. and Vetch (Vicia assyriaca Boiss. density during last decade. Where the soil nitrogen and phosphorus rates were high, Wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch. density was found frequently in wheat fields of Kermanshah. In the wheat fields of Kermanshah, Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and wild safflower

  17. A Procedure for the Determination of Alpha-Emitting Plutonium in Urine Using a Solid-State Counter; Methode de Determination du Plutonium Emetteur Alpha Present dans l'Urine, au Moyen d'un Compteur a Semi-Conducteurs; Metod opredeleniya al'fa-izlucheniya plutoniya v moche s pomoshch'yu poluprovodnikovogo schetchika; Procedimiento para Determinar la Actividad Alfa del Plutonio en la Orina con Ayuda de un Contador de Estado Solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandalls, F. J.; Morgan, A. [Health Physics and Medical Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1964-10-15

    definitiva, la orina se calcina en humedo y el residuo se disuelve con acido clorhidrico. El plutonio (IV) presente en la solucion asi obtenida se coprecipita con cupferrato de hierro y se extrae con cloroformo. Una vez evaporado este,, se oxida el residuo, se disuelve en acido clorhidrico y el hierro se extrae con eter diisopropflico. Seguidamente se evapora a sequedad la fase acuosa que contiene, al plutonio y se disuelve en una solucion acida de sulfato amonico desde la cual se separa el plutonio por deposito electrolitico sobre acero inoxidable. El rendimiento de esta ultima etapa es cuantitativo, siendo de 84 {+-} 7% para el proceso en conjunto. . El plutonio electrodepositado se recuenta con un detector de estado solido (diode de union de silicio) en un contador especialmente construido para este fin. La baja actividad de fondo inherente de este tipo de contadores puede disminuirse aun mas contando solamente las particulas alfa de energia comprendida entre 4.2 y 5,4 MeV. El buen poder de resolucion que se obtiene con capas delgadas de plutonio electrodepositado permite emplear un canal tan estrecho sin que la eficacia de recuento disminuya apreciablemente. Al efectuar el recuento en este intervalo restringido, la actividad de fondo debida a los reactivos y a la eliminacion incompleta de las impurezas de emisores alfa de la orina queda reducida tambien a la mitad, esto es, a un valor del orden de 0,01 pcuries por muestra de 24 horas. El limite de deteccion mediante este metodo es aproximadamente de 0,025 pc de {sup 239}Pu. (author) [Russian] Opisan metod prakticheskogo'opredelenija al'fa-izluchenija plutonija v moche. Pri razrabotke jetogo metoda sravnivalis' razlichnye metody koncentrirovanija, ochistki i jelektroliticheskogo osazhdenija plutonija ; podvoditsja itog jetih issledovanij. Soglasno prinjatomu v konechnom itoge metodu mochu podvergajut vlazhnomu ozoleniju, osadok rastvorjajut v soljanoj kislote. Plutonij (IV) podvergajut sovmestnomu osazhdeniju s

  18. Olivine-hornblende-lamprophyre dikes from Quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Central Chile (34°S: implications for the temporal geochemical evolution of the Andean subarc mantle Diques lamprofídicos de olivino-hornblenda de la quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Chile central (34°S: implicancias para la evolución temporal de la geoquímica del manto subarco Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Stern

    2011-01-01

    al este del arco magmático durante el Plioceno. Los lamprófidos menos primitivos, sin olivino, tienen contenidos más altos de La y menores de Yb, con razones más altas de La/Yb entre 15-44, debido al fraccionamiento cristal-líquido el cual involucra hornblenda, pero no plagioclasa. La cristalización de la plagioclasa es inhibida por el alto contenido de H2O de los lamprófidos. Los lamprófidos y los flujos más jóvenes, del Plioceno (1,8-2,3 Ma, de lavas andesíticas-basálticas con olivino del valle del río Cachapoal tienen razones de 87Sr/86Sr entre 0,7041 y 0,7049, C Nd entre +1,2 y -1,1 y de 206Pb/204Pb entre 18,60 a 18,68, mientras que las rocas ígneas del Mioceno Medio a Superior (6,5-13,9 Ma del Complejo Volcánico y Plutónico de El Teniente tienen razones más bajas de 87Sr/86Sr=0,7039 a 0,7041 y de 206Pb/204Pb= 18,56 a 18,59, y más altas de o = +1,9 y +3,8. Las rocas volcánicas y plutónicas del Oligoceno al Mioceno Inferior (>15 Ma de la Formación Abanico o Coya-Machalí en la región tienen razones aún más bajas de 87Sr/86Sr entre 0,7033 a 0,7039 y de 206Pb/204Pb entre 18,45 a 18,57, y C Nd aún más alto entre +3,8 y +6,2. La información isotópica indica una evolución temporal entre el Oligoceno y el Plioceno hacia razones más altas de 87Sr/86Sr y 206Pb/204Pb, y valores de más bajos para los magmas máficos derivados del manto y, por lo tanto, de su fuente en el manto. Notablemente las razones isotópicas de Sr, Nd y Pb son independientes del contenido de SiO2 de las rocas de cada edad, lo que excluye contaminación por la corteza continental del Paleozoico y Mesozoico, la cual es isotópicamente heterogénea, durante la evolución de las rocas intermedias a acidas generadas por los magmas máficos derivados del manto. La evolución isotópica de la fuente de magmas máficos en el manto durante el Oligoceno al Plioceno puede ser explicada por el aumento de 1% a 6% de contaminación en la region fuente de manto por material subductado

  19. Isotopic Ligand Exchange of Some Hexa-Coordinated Inorganic Complexes with Halide Ions in Solution and in Crystals; Echanges Isotopiques de Coordinats de Complexes Inorganiques Hexacoordonnes Avec des Ions Halogenures en Solution et dans les Cristaux; Izotopnyj obmen ligand v nekotorykh geksakoordinirovannykh ne- organicheskikh kompleksakh s ionami galoidov v rastvore i kristallakh; Intercambio Isotopico de Ligandos de Complejos Inorganicos Hexacoordinados y Iones Haluro en Solucion y en Cristales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G. B. [Institut fuer Kernchemie der Universitaet Koeln, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-10-15

    deplacement dans le reseau de cis- et trans- [Co(en){sub 2}Cl*{sub 2}]Cl marque et de trans- [Rh(en){sub 2}Cl*{sub 2}] Cl marque. Le temps de demi-echange pour les deux complexes de cobalt isomeriques solides est d'environ 4 h a 150 Degree-Sign C. Pour le complexe au rhodium, l'auteur a trouve un temps de demi-echange d'environ 26 h a 225 Degree-Sign C. Il a calcule des energies d'activation de 30 a 35 kcal/mole. Sous l'effet d'une exposition aux rayons X, l'echange augmente avec la dose. En outre, l'echange thermique des cristaux irradies est accelere. Contrairement a ce qui se passe pour des complexes del'ethylene-diamine, les bromures ou chlorures de pentamminebromo-rhodium et de pentamminebromo-iridium solides ne s'echangent que lentement, meme si on augmente la temperature jusqu'a 210 Degree-Sign Ci Mais dans ces complexes solides il. se produit des echanges 'actives' si le complexe recoit une energie d'excitation d'un processus nucleaire, comme la transition isomerique {sup 80m}Br -> {sup 80}Br. Ce phenomene est etudie assez en detail. (author) [Spanish] La cinetica de los intercambios isotopicos proporciona informacion sobre la labilidad de los complejos en solucion y sobre los mecanismos de sustitucion. Se ha investigado en solucion acida el intercambio entre los complejos [Rh(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}Br]{sup 2+} and [Ii(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}Br]{sup 2+}, maracados con {sup 82}Br, y iones Br{sup -}, entre trans -[Rh(en){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}Rh(en)){sup +} y trans- [Co(en){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sup +} con iones Cl{sup -}, entre trans- trans- [Co(en){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sup +} con iones Br{sup -}, y entre [OsCl{sub 6}]{sup 2-} y [Osl{sub 6}]{sup 2-} con iones Cl- y I{sup -} respectivamente. El intercambio en el complejo de pentamminobromoiridio es unas 60 veces mas lento que en el complejo correspondiente del rodio. Se ha encontrado que la constante de velocidad para el complejo de Rh es k{sub 100 Degree-Sign C} = 1.7 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1}, y para el complejo de Ir en las mismas condiciones, 1

  20. The Preparation and Thermodynamics of Europium Dicarbide; Preparation et Thermodynamique du Bicarbure d'Europium; Poluchenie i termodinamicheskie svojstva dikarbida evropiya; Preparacion y Termodinamica del Dicarburo de Europio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebelt, R. E. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Eick, H. A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1966-01-15

    determiner la concentration du bicarbure gazeux en fonction de la temperature. Apres avoir etalonne le spectrometre de masse au moyen de l'argent, il a ete possible de calculer les pressions correspondant aux intensites ioniques observees. Une equation empirique a ete ajustee aux donnees relatives a l'europium par la methode des moindres carres. En appliquant le deuxieme principe de la thermodynamique a la reaction, on a calcule les valeurs suivantes: EuC{sub 2} Rightwards-Harpoon-Over-Leftwards-Harpoon Eu(g) + 2C (graphite); {Delta}H{sup 0}{sub 298} = 51.09{+-}1.42kcal/mole; {Delta}H{sup 0}{sub 298} = 18.43 {+-} 1.75 e.u. Les auteurs ont determine des valeurs estimees de la fonction d'energie libre pour EuC{sub 2}(s) et les ont combinees avec les donnees publiees; ils ont ainsi obtenu pour la meme reaction, en se fondant sur le troisieme principe de thermodynamique, la valeur {Delta}H{sup 0}{sub 298} = 51.22 {+-} 0.80 kcal/mole. Ils ont combine les enthalpies obtenues pour la reaction de dissociation avec les donnees publiees sur l'enthalpie de vaporisation de l'europium et ont ainsi obtenu la valeur ci-apres pour Venthalpie type de la formation de EuC{sub 2} : {Delta}H{sub f(298)} = -9.17 {+-} 1.15 kcal/ mole. (author) [Spanish] Se preparo dicarburo de europio por reaccion entre europio metalico y grafito, en una bomba de acero inoxidable. Los analisis quimicos indican que la composicion media del producto puede representarse por la formula EuC{sub 1.87{+-}0.07}. El examen mediante difraccion de rayos X por polvos muestra que el compuesto posee una simetria tetragonal centrada en el cuerpo (grupo espacial D{sup 17}{sub 4}n-14/mmm) con parametros del reticulado a{sub 0} = 4.045 A; c{sub 0} = 6.645 A. El analisis cromato- grafico en fase vapor indica que el 98% del producto gaseoso proveniente de la hidrolisis acida del dicarburo de europio esta formado por acetileno. Estos datos analiticos, juntamente con los parametros del reticulado, indican que el dicarburo de europio se