WorldWideScience

Sample records for boiss prehidrolisis acida

  1. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulose Biomass of Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Hidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-07-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Secondary Metabolites of Centaurea cadmea Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Alizadeh Astari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (1, scutellarin (2, syringin (3, 6S, 9R-roseoside (4 and b -sitosterol-3- O - b - D-glucopyranoside (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea cadmea Boiss. (Asteraceae. S tructure elucidation of the compounds were performed by using spectroscopic methods (1-D and 2-D NMR and LC-MS-MS. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1 , 2, 3 and 4 have been isolated for the first time from this endemic species. C ompound 4 is new for the genus Centaurea.

  4. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Muhammad Ali Dabbagh; Zahra Fouladi

    2006-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Mi...

  5. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  6. COMPOSITION OF STEMBARK ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SALVIA MACROSIPHON BOISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIROUZ MATLOUBI-MOGHADDAM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon boiss (Labiatae was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and coupled GC/MS. Twenty substances out of about thirty-three detected components were identified. The major constituents were sesquiterpenes (69.5%, a-Gurjunene (11%, P-Cubebene (10.6%, Germacrene-B (7%.

  7. Two New Compounds from Melanosciadum pimpinelloideum H. Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two new compounds, melanochromone and 2-ethoxyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, were isolated from the whole plants of Melanosoiadum pimpinelloideum H. Boiss. The known compounds isolated were 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol, tymine, cimifugin, umtatin, bergenin, daucosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data.

  8. Chemical composition and anti-biofilm activity of Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. davisianus RONNIGER essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ozgur; Ugur, Aysel

    2015-06-01

    In this study, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and the chemical composition of Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. davisianus RONNIGER essential oil was evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fourteen compounds were characterized, having as major components thymol (38.31%) and carvacrol (37.95%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oil and the major components were calculated by serial dilution method, and anti-biofilm effects by microplate biofilm assay against five Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus MU 38, MU 40, MU 46, MU 47, Stahylococcus epidermidis MU 30) and five Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MU 187, MU 188, MU 189, Pseudomonas fluorescens MU 180, MU 181) bacteria. It was found that MICs for essential oil, thymol and carvacrol were between 5 and 50 µl/ml, 0.125-0.5 µg/ml and 0.125-05 µl/ml, respectively. The results showed that doses of MIC produced a greater anti-biofilm influence than 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 MIC. In the presence of essential oil (MIC), the mean biofilm formation value was equal to 67 ± 5.5% for P. aeruginosa MU 188, and essential oil (MIC) inhibition exceeds 60% for P. aeruginosa biofilms. The results also showed that carvacrol (MIC) was able to induce an inhibition 72.9 ± 4.1% for S.aureus (MU 40) biofilm. In addition, thymol (MIC) showed 68.6 ± 5.3% reduction in biofilm formation of P. fluorescens MU 181. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of T. sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. davisianus RONNIGER essential oil and points out the exceptional efficiency of thymol and carvacrol, which could represent candidates in the treatment of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus biofilms.

  9. In Vitro Propagation of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAĞ, Bengi BABA

    1999-01-01

    In vitro propagation of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. (Lamiaceae), an endemic from western Anatolia was investigated. Sterilized seeds of the plant were germinated on modified Murashige-Skoog medium (mMS) and Heller's nutrient media. Then, seedlings were transferred to Murashige-Skoog basal medium containing 0.4 mg/l Naphtaleneacetic acid, (NAA) and 3 mg/l Benzyladenin (BA) and then they formed callus where they were in contact with the medium. Plantlets which regenerated on the same medium...

  10. Nepetalactone: a new opioid analgesic from Nepeta caesarea Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, S; Beis, R; Oztürk, Y; Baser, K H; Baser, C

    1998-07-01

    The essential oils of Nepeta species including Nepeta phyllochlamys P. H. Davis, N. nuda L. ssp. nuda, and N. caesarea Boiss. have been screened by use of the tail-flick and tail immersion (52.5 degrees C) methods. Of the species studied, only N. caesarea showed significant analgesic activity, besides marked sedation, which was also blocked by naloxone, indicating involvement of opioid receptors. Moreover, it was only active on mechanical, not thermal, algesic response which suggests specificity for specific opioid receptor subtypes, excluding mu-opioid receptors. Because 4a alpha,7alpha,7a alpha-nepetalactone is the main component of the essential oil of N. caesarea, and is present at very high levels (92-95%), it is concluded that 4a alpha,7alpha,7a alpha-nepetalactone is the active principle and has a specific opioid receptor subtype agonistic activity.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Alberto, Maria Rosa; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria del Pilar Caramantin; Theoduloz, Cristina; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Isla, Maria Ines; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.

  12. [Determination of eight metal elements in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet by microwave digestion-FAAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ling-Peng; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Cui, Jian; Pang, Zong-Ran; Liu, Hong-Bing; Ge, Liang

    2009-12-01

    The Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet is a traditional Uighur natural herbal medicine, but has not been analyzed and studied in terms of its metal elements. In the experiment, the Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet powder was digested with HNO3 by microwave digestion before determination. The eight metal elements, potassium, nickel, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc, in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet were determined by FAAS. The working conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r = 0.999 1-0.999 9). The recovery (n = 6) is 92.25%-110.5%, and the RSD (n = 6) is 0.7%-3.88%. The results showed that there were comparatively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium (65.84 mg x g(-1)), iron (24.38 mg x g(-1)), magnesium (278.17 mg x g(-1)) and potassium (18.50 mg x g(-1)), in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet, and the contents of other elements are nickel of 0.004 38 mg x g(-1), manganese of 0.52 mg x g(-1), copper of 0.016 5 mg x g(-1) and zinc of 0.18 mg x g(-1). This provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet and its clinical application in cardiovascular and osteoporosis disease.

  13. Antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Amin; Enayat Kalantar; Neda Mohammad-Saeid; Behzad Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Methods:Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was assessed by agar disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was tested by E test. Results:The essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was effective on pathogenic bacteria particularly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The MIC values of the target cultures ranged from 0.39 mg/mL to 1.56 mg/mL. The physicochemical properties like effects of pH, temperature, detergents, and enzymes on the activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss were also determined. The essential oil was quite stable to temperature as tested against S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The essential oil was very stable over a wide range of pH. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents (Such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton 100, etc.) and enzymes (namely proteinase K, trypsin, lipase, and lysosyme). Conclusions:A potential use of the essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss is suggested. More studies including further purification, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of toxicity are needed for confirmation of this suggestion.

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts in production of nanoparticles and the effect of the extraction solvent on the produced nanoparticles. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. Both the extracts of P. gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. successfully produced small and polydispersed nanoparticles with low aggregates in early hours of the biotransformation. Methanol extract produced spherical and many single nanoparticles, whereas dichloromethane produced porous polyhedral and more aggregated nanoparticles. Methanol extract of this plant seems to be quiet useful for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  15. Essential oil composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss. from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ayşe Betül; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Özçelik, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the essential oil content and composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss., a rare species spread in flora of Turkey. The samples were collected during the fructifying period of the plant from Erzincan, Turkey, at an altitude of 2430 m, in 2010. Essential oils were obtained from different parts of the plant such as fruits and herbal parts with Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Essential oil contents of the plant material were 0.38 ± 0.015%, 0.23 ± 0.012% and 0.21 ± 0.015% from fruits, herbal parts with fruits and herbal parts without fruits, respectively. Composition of essential oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of the herbal parts of the plant was dominated by fatty alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 73.10% and 24.64%, respectively. Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) was identified as a major component of essential oil with an average content of 73.10%.

  16. Antimicrobial antioxidant daucane sesquiterpenes from Ferula hermonis Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheim, Zedan Zeid; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Dai, Huanqin; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Lixin; Jaspars, Marcel

    2012-04-01

    Seventeen daucane sesquiterpenoid esters, including a new one (4), were isolated from the root of Ferula hermonis Boiss. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and correlated with known compounds. The relative stereochemistry of the new compound was determined using 2D NOESY and the most stable and the lowest energy conformation was determined using molecular modelling. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determination of MIC using the broth microdilution method against six bacterial strains and one fungal strain (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and Candida albicans SC5314). There was a significant indication that compounds 15, 16, 17 demonstrated potent activity against Gram +ve (S. aureus, B. subtilis), as well as Mycobacterium strains M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. None of the isolated compounds exhibited a significant antifungal activity. In the antioxidant study using the DPPH assay method, the highest radical scavenging activity was observed for compounds 15, 16, 17.

  17. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  18. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  19. Ferula gummosa Boiss. Embryogenic culture and karyological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Françoise; Bazarnov, Hossein Shaker; Khatab, Leila Javadi; Darabi, Ahmad Shafiei; Sheidai, Massoud

    2007-06-15

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. a highly valuable medicinal plant which naturally propagates in very limited areas of the Middle East with specific environmental conditions. The production of Ferula gummosa somatic embryos and the karyological analysis of somatic seedlings were the purpose of this study. High frequency indirect embryogenesis was induced in callus derived from zygotic embryonic axes. Embryogenesis was obtained when callus tissues were placed onto an agar induction Murashige and Skoog medium with 1-naphthalene acetic acid and after the transfer of the cultures in a thermoperiod regime of 16 h, 19 degrees C/8 h, 7 degrees C under photoperiod of 16 h light/8h dark. Embryogenic callus tissues were maintained by subculture on induction medium. Globular proliferation was achieved with suspension culture in the Murashige and Skoog medium added with 1-naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for two weeks. Maturation of embryos and development of plantlets arose on the induction agar medium, but was better after transfer into the hormone free Murashige and Skoog medium. However, the level of abnormal embryos was high. Direct embryogenesis was obtained from somatic seedlings. The best results were obtained from hypocotyl explants. Embryo induction was achieved by two week culture of the explants in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid liquid medium; somatic embryo growth and maturation was recovered on the hormone free medium. High level of abnormalities was recorded in the culture. Karyological analysis showed a high incidence level of cytochimerism in somatic seedlings with chromosome stickiness, polypoidy and aneuploidy in metaphase cells of the same root tip. The frequency of these karyological changes varied with the type of somatic embryos with regard to morphological abnormalities. Normal and abnormal rooted somatic seedlings were able to grow until production of the first leaf and then entered dormancy in the same manner as zygotic plantlets.

  20. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Bektas TEPE; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration...

  1. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. (Fabaceae from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia I. Karpenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. into the genus Securigera DC.

  2. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  3. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Prażak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of grains per main spike, main spike fertility and 1000-grain weight than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. The BC1F1 hybrid line was characterized by wheat-like fertility and phenotype. The F5 hybrid lines were characterized by much higher variability of the analysed morphological traits than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. Grains of the hybrid lines had higher protein and micronutrient (iron and zinc content than wheat grains. The presence of DNA fragments specific to Ae. kotschyi Boiss. in the genotypes of the hybrid lines was confirmed by seven ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats molecular markers. Two ISSR markers – ISSR23690 and ISSR33650 – were the most effective for germplasm analysis of the hybrid lines. The analysed lines can become a source material for improvement of common wheat T. aestivum L. in crossing programs.

  4. The essential oil composition of aerial parts of Anthemis tricolor Boiss. from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaalp, C; Erel, S Baykan; Nalbantsoy, A; Gücel, S; Demirci, B; Baser, K H C

    2014-01-01

    The water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Anthemis tricolor Boiss. (Asteraceae), an endemic taxon from Cyprus, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The analysis revealed 40 compounds accounting for 84.5% of the oil. Muurola-4,11-diene (20.2%), β-caryophyllene (9.1%) and germacrene-D (5.5%) were the main compounds of A. tricolor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the essential oil composition of A. tricolor collected from Cyprus.

  5. Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (Sect. Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae, a new species from north-western Pamir-Alay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Beshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (section Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae from Nuratau mountain ridge (North-Western Pamir-Alay, Uzbekistan is described. A morphological description is given. Differences from related species A. nuratavicum Zakirov, A. subavenaceum Lincz. and A. gontscharovii Czerniak. are discussed.

  6. Hemijski sastav i antimikrobna aktivnost nekih sekundarnih metabolita biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja S.

    2013-01-01

    Predmet doktorske disertacije je izolovanje i identifikacija sekundarnih metabolita iz ekstrakata nadzemnih delova biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiacea), kao i ispitivanje obima njihove antimikrobne aktivnosti i hemotaksonomski značaj. Takođe, predmet ispitivanja je hemijski sastav etarskog ulja Centaurea pannonica i antimikrobna aktivnost. Primenom hromatografskih metoda izolovanja jedinjenja i spektroskopskih metod...

  7. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  8. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  9. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H2O2 scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p2O2 induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments.La actividad antihemolítica y antioxidante de extractos hidroalcohólicos de flores, tallos y hojas de Ferula gummosa Boiss fueron investigados empleando diferentes ensayos in vitro. Los extractos de hojas mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de radicales libres. Además, mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de óxido nítrico y H2O2 y actividad quelatante de Fe2+ que las otras partes. Los extractos exhibieron una buena actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con ácido linoleico pero no comparable con la vitamina C (pF. gummosa mostraron una mejor actividad antihemolítica contra la hemolisis inducida con H2O2. Entre los extractos, las flores tienen los más altos contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides. Esta planta es muy prometedora para futuros experimentos bioquímicos.

  10. Phytochemical screening and biological activity of extracts of plant species Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašković Pavle Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at examining total polyphenol, flavonoid, gallotannin and condensed tannins content in acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl., their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as identifying and quantifying the phenolic components. The antioxidant activity is consistent with the results of total quantity of phenolic compound. The results showed that the acetone extract of plant species Halascya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl. possessed the highest antioxidant activity. IC50 values were determined: 9.45��1.55 μg/mL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, 13.46±1.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 59.11±0.83 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 27.91±0.88 μg/mL for ferrous ion chelating ability. The antimicrobial activity was tested using broth dilution procedure for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MICs were determined for 8 selected indicator strains. All of the extracts showed strong to moderate strong antimicrobial activity. The phenolic composition of Halacsya sendtneri extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The dominant phenolic compound in acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract is rosmarinic acid. Ethyl acetate extract was also abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid. The main compounds in petrol ether extract were chlorogenic acid and quercetin.

  11. Evaluación de un inhibidor utilizado en soluciones acidas bajo condiciones hidrodinámicas controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas-Bravo, V. M.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The cylindrical rotating electrode and electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the protection against corrosion of a commercial inhibitor used in hydrochloric acid solutions with and without additions of thiourea and ammonium bifluoride. The corrosion phenomenon was investigated under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. These were chosen to simulate those found in a pipe at different flow velocities. It was found that corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions with inhibitor is mainly controlled by activation, whereas in acid solutions with inhibitor added with thiourea and ammonium bifluoride it is mainly controlled by mass transfer. On the other hand, flow velocity of the acidic solutions affects negatively the efficiency of the inhibitor in the concentration range of 0.2 to 1.0 %.

    Utilizando el electrodo cilíndrico rotatorio y técnicas electroquímicas, se estudió la eficiencia de la protección contra la corrosión de un inhibidor comercial utilizado en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico con y sin adiciones de tiourea y bifluoruro de amonio. El fenómeno de la corrosión se investigó en condiciones hidrodinámicas controladas, seleccionadas para simular las que se establecen en una tubería a distintas velocidades de flujo. Se encontró que la corrosión del acero al carbono en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico con inhibidor de corrosión está controlada principalmente por activación, mientras que en soluciones acidas con inhibidor y adiciones de tiourea y bifluoruro de amonio está controlada principalmente por transferencia de masa. Por otra parte, la velocidad del flujo de las soluciones acidas afecta de -manera negativa a la eficiencia de protección del inhibidor estudiado en el intervalo de concentración de 0,2 a 1,0 %.

  12. Study of some factors of conservation of pollens of two plant species (Callistemon rigidus and Hymenocardia acida) of bee flora of Adamawa (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamnet, Richard; Youmbi, E; Ndzomo, G Tsala

    2010-05-15

    To contribute to the preservation of the bee flora of Adamawa, a study to determine the optimal conditions for preservation of Callistemon rigidus and Hymenocardia acida pollens, two endangered bee species, was conducted from March 2006 to March 2007 in this region. The study began by anthers collection at the experimental site and they were brought to the laboratory where fresh pollens are collected and undergo in vitro germination and storage tests. These tests have required the installation of two solidified media culture: Brewbaker and Kwack (BK) and Heslop-Harrison (HH) media to evaluate pollens germination under the influence of some physiological factors and assess the influence of storage at + 10 and -20 degrees C with and without initial drying. The results show that sucrose concentrations of 10 and 15% on BK medium has produced respectively 60.69 +/- 3.1 and 04.49 +/- 0.21% as the highest values of germination percentage in Callistemon rigidus and Hymenocardia acida. Temperatures of 30 and 25 degrees C which produced 60.69 +/- 2.53 and 04.25 +/- 0.29% of germination and pH 5 with 55.14 +/- 4.14% and 6.8 with 04.54 +/- 0.6% were respectively favourable in the same order for the germination of both species of pollens. Time for a week of drying allowed the extension of storage time of both species of pollens as from +10 to -20 degrees C. The Callistemon rigidus pollens were generally more tolerant to the storage at-20 degrees C showing the critical period of storage exceeding 22 weeks while those of Hymenocardia acida were less tolerant to both temperatures with most critical period of storage established to 8 weeks.

  13. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory potential and chemical constituents of Origanum dubium Boiss., growing wild in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Anastasia; Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja; Pachopos, Nikitas; Niryiannaki, Niki; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Skaltsa, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Origanum dubium Boiss. is a flavouring herb widely used in Cyprus. In this study, both lipophilic and polar extracts of the aerial parts of O. dubium were investigated for their chemical contents and their antioxidant potential. Overall, 20 constituents were isolated and identified, belonging mainly to three significant classes of compounds: terpenes, phenolic derivatives, such as hydroquinone glycosides and flavonoids and alicyclic derivatives. None of them was previously reported as constituent of O. dubium The inhibitory potencies of all total extracts and the isolated compounds on lipid peroxidation and their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity is discussed. The polar extract showed strong interaction with DPPH stable radical and significant inhibition of lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation.

  14. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavi, S. F.; Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The Antioxidant and anti hemolytic activities of hydro alcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p< 0.001). The extracts showed weak reducing power activity. The F. gummosa stem extract showed better anti hemolytic activity against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments. (Author) 43 refs.

  15. Isolation and Biological Activity of New and Known Diterpenoids From Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kilic

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine known and one new ent-kaurene diterpenoid were isolated from the acetone extract of Sideritis stricta Boiss & Heldr. The new compound, identified as ent-1β-hydroxy-7α-acetyl-15β,16β-epoxykaurane (1 by IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectra, was isolated along with sideroxol (2, 7-acetyl sideroxol (3, 7-epicandicandiol (4, linearol (5, ent-7α,15β,18-trihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (6, ent-7α-acetyl,15,18-dihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (7, foliol (8, sideridiol (9 and siderol (10. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these compounds and the whole crude acetone extract were evaluated against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumeonia and C. albicans.

  16. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  17. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  18. Cytotaxonomy study of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of section Malacothrix Bunge from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, meiotic chromosome number and the behavior of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of Astragalus sect. Malacothrix were studied. All wild populations were diploid and showed 2n=2x=16 chromosome number, consistent with the proposed base number of x=8 from IPCN. Although all taxa displayed regular bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis, some meiotic abnormalities included varied degrees of fragmented and sticky chromosomes in metaphase I, polynucleate and a variable number of laggards, forwarded chromosomes and bridges in anaphase I/telophase I, asynchronous nucleus and precocious chromosome migration in metaphase II and laggards, bridges and cytomixis in anaphase II/telophase II were observed.

  19. Composition of the essential oil of leaves, galls, and ripe and unripe fruits of Jordanian Pistacia palaestina Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Katbeh-Bader, Ahmad; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-02-11

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Pistacia terebinthus L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.) is a medicinal and foodstuff plant. The ripe fruits are used largely in the Middle East as a component of the so-called Zaatar, a mix of aromatic and food plants. Results of GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, galls produced by Baizongia pistaciae (L.), and ripe and unripe fruits of Pistacia palaestinaBoiss. collected in Jordan are reported. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between different parts of the plant were observed. The oil was rich in monoterpenes, and the main constituents were alpha-pinene (63.1%) and myrcene (13.3%) in the leaves and alpha-pinene (49.4%), sabinene (22.8%), and limonene (8.1%) in the galls. (E)-Ocimene (33.8-41.3%), sabinene (20.3-24.1%), and (Z)-ocimene (3.8-13.0%) were the main ones in both unripe and ripe fruits. Sesquiterpenes have been detected in small quantities in leaves and fruits and in trace amounts in galls.

  20. Glucosinolate Profile of Croatian Stenoendemic Plant Fibigia triquetra (DC. Boiss. ex Prantl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Blažević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing investigation of the stenoendemic plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family, we report on the chemistry of Fibigia triquetra (DC. Boiss. ex Prantl for the first time. Different plant parts (flower, leaf, stem, and seed of F. triquetra were characterized and quantified for glucosinolates (GLs according to the ISO 9167-1 EU official method based on the HPLC analysis of desulfo-GLs. A taxonomic screening showed that F. triquetra contained relatively high levels of C-4 GLs, namely but-3-enyl GL (gluconapin, 1a, 4-methylsulfanylbutyl GL (glucoerucin, 3a, and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GL (glucoraphanin, 5a. GC-MS analysis of the volatile fractions obtained after enzyme hydrolysis and/or HPLC-ESI-MS of intact GLs confirmed the GL profile. Four minor GLs, namely isopropyl GL (glucoputranjivin, 6a, sec-butyl GL (glucocochlearin, 7a, pent-4-enyl GL (glucobrassicanapin, 2a, and 5-methylsulfanylpentyl GL (glucoberteroin, 4a were also identified and quantified while 4-methylpentyl GL, 5-methylhexyl GL, and n-heptyl GL, were tentatively identified by GC-MS of their degradation products. Based on the major, as well as the minor GLs, this study shows differences in chemotaxonomy between F. triquetra and the related Degenia velebitica (Degen Hayek as well as other investigated species of the genus Fibigia.

  1. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  2. Antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities of Ferula narthex Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shumaila; Alam, Mahboob; Ahmad, Bashir; Aman, Akhtar

    2014-11-01

    Crude methanolic extract of roots, aerial parts and its subsequent fractions of Ferula narthex Boiss were tested for antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities. Crude methanolic extract of roots and its fractions showed significant antibacterial effect against P.aeruginosa (86.95%, 73.91, 69.59, 78.26 & 73.91%) represented by percent inhibition except ethyl acetate (EtoAc) fraction. The EtoAc fraction of roots and aerial parts showed significant activity against E. coli (80%), S. typhi (81.2 & 81.25%) and S. pneumoniae (80%). The n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of aerial parts showed significant activity against P. aeruginosa (78.26, 69.56 & 73.91%). Following fungal strains (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, C. glabrata) were also used for anti-fungal activity. Among tested samples only crude methanol extract of roots, n-hexane and chloroform fraction showed moderate anti-fungal activity against M. canis (40, 35 & 30%) represented by percent inhibition. The remaining fractions showed no effect on tested fungi. Different oils fractions were also tested against above fungal strains. Fraction I, II & V showed mild to moderate activity against M. canis (40, 40 & 25%). Phytotoxic effect of tested samples of roots, aerial part and its fractions showed concentration dependent growth inhibition. Maximum phytotoxic effect was noted for n-hexane and aqueous fraction (50% growth inhibition). The remaining tested samples showed mild effect on growth of Lemna minor plant.

  3. Chemical constituents of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza GOLPARVAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. are aromatic plants belonging to Lamiaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical components of D. kotschyi and D. moldavica from Iran. The aerial parts of D. kotschyi were collected from (Kamu Mountain Isfahan province and the aerial parts of D. moldavica were collected from Sari (Mazandaran province North of Iran, during 2014. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In total, 32 and 24 compounds were identified in the essential oil from the aerial parts D. kotschyi and D. moldavica, respectively. The results obtained in our study indicated that the major components in the oil D. kotschyi were limonene (23.56 %, carvacrol (14.65 %, γ-terpinene (12.99 %, α -pinene (12.62 %, 2-methyl-1-octen-3-yne (9.73 %, camphene (4.66 %, myrcene (3.65 % and α -terpinene (3.12 %. The major constituents of the oil D. moldavica were geranyl acetate (36.62 %, geraniol (24.31 %, neral (16.25 % and geranial (11.21 %. D. kotschyi is one of the important sources of limonene and D. moldavica is one of the important sources of geranyl acetate.

  4. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  5. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rabbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae on the elevated plus-maze (EPM model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1.

  6. Traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activities of Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; Di Fabio, Giovanni; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Sideritis species have been used in folk medicine for their antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, digestive and anti-inflammatory properties. Over the years, the phytochemistry of the genus Sideritis has been studied, and various terpenoids, sterols, coumarins and especially flavonoid aglycones and glycosides have been identified. In particular, species from the Balkan Peninsula have been studied and were found to be rich in flavonoids, with valuable antioxidant activity. In the folk medicine of the Balkan countries, Sideritis raeseri is used as a herbal tea in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders and coughs, and also as a tonic, whereas extracts are used as a component of dietary supplements for anaemia. Its dried inflorescences are used to prepare a beverage called 'mountain tea'. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry, pharmacological properties and commercial value of S. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., we review and summarise the available literature on these plants. The review details the chemical composition of the essential oil, its mineral and polyphenol contents, the naming of these plants and their physicochemical characterisation, and the nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data and biological properties associated with the plant extracts, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Kordsardouei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss.(ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods:The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  8. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  9. Benefits of Zataria multiflora Boiss in Experimental Model of Mouse Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ashtaral Nakhai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic condition of the intestine with unknown etiology involving multiple immune, genetic and environmental factors. We were interested to examine the effect of total extract from Zataria multiflora Boiss, a folk medicinal plant on prevention and treatment of experimental IBD. Z. multiflora was administered (400, 600, 900 p.p.m. through drinking water to IBD mice induced by intrarectal administration of acetic acid. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. Biochemical, macroscopic and microscopic examinations of colon were performed. Biochemical evaluation of inflamed colon was done using assay of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentration as indicators of free radical activity and cell lipid peroxidation. The activity of MPO and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS increased in acetic acid-treated groups while recovered by pretreatment of animals with Z. multiflora (400–900 p.p.m. and prednisolone. Z. multiflora (600 and 900 p.p.m. and prednisolone-treated groups showed significantly lower score values of macroscopic and microscopic characters when compared with the acetic acid-treated group. The beneficial effect of Z. multiflora (900 p.p.m. was comparable with that of prednisolone. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potentials of Z. multiflora might be the mechanisms by which this herbal extract protects animals against experimentally induced IBD. Proper clinical investigation should be carried out to confirm the activity in human.

  10. Developmental instability and plant potential fitness in a Mediterranean perennial plant, Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungairiño, S. G.; Fernández, C.; Serrano, J. M.; López, F.; Acosta, F. J.

    2005-02-01

    Developmental instability is manifested as developmental errors reflected in exaggerated intra-individual variation in repeated traits and patterns. Plants, as organisms with modular construction, are very suitable subjects for detecting developmental instability caused by environmental disturbance. The analysis of the asymmetry of plant structural traits allows for determination of deviations from the basic structural pattern, which is a measure of plant developmental instability. In this paper, we study the relationship between intra-individual variations on self-similar structural traits (as a measure of developmental instability) and plant potential fitness. Randomly-selected branches (composed of branch segments) were monitored on different plants of a natural population of the woody perennial plant Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. Data on the morphology and the demographic processes that occurred during plant development (determined from marks left on the persistent structure of the plant) were recorded on the different branches. Different measures of developmental instability were analysed and related with plant potential fitness, which was estimated from the demographic data of the modules of each plant (bud development, branch survival, etc). Our results show a direct relationship between developmental instability measured on structural traits (except for branch segment diameter) and plant potential fitness, estimated by means of branch survival.

  11. On the distribution and intraspecific taxonomy of Scrophularia olympica Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Sheludyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the distribution and intraspecific systematics of Scrophularia olympica Boiss., one of taxonomically problematic species of figworts. The special attention is given to the record of thisspecies from the Crimea from where it had been reported based on the single herbarium specimen collected “infra Baidara” by F. J. Ruprecht in 1861. This collection was previously regarded as made near the village of Orlinoye (former Baydary in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Actually, the locality “infra Baidara” should be referred to the river Baydara in Georgia, and S. olympica should be excludedboth from the floras of the Crimea and Europe as a whole. Six varieties are recognized within the species; a key to their identification is proposed. Lectotypes of S. olympica var. integrifolia Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. macrophylla Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. pinnatifida Trautv. ex Grossh. and S. olympica var. platyloma Grossh. are designated. A new name, S. olympica var. bordzilowskii Sheludyakova, nom. nov. ≡ S. olympica var. integrifoliaBordz., non Freyn et Sint., is proposed.

  12. Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on colony morphology and ultrastructure of Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hamedi, Hassan; Shirvani, Zahra Ramezani

    2011-09-01

    The mode of inhibitory action of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO) on the fungus, Aspergillus flavus, was studied by colony morphology examination, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The EO at concentrations used in this study suppressed the size of the colony as well as sporulation. SEM of mycelia treated with given concentrations of EO showed morphological alterations ranging from loss of turgidity and uniformity of mycelia at low concentrations of EO to evident destruction of the hyphae at higher concentration of EO. Semi-thin sections of mycelia exposed to different concentrations of EO were analysed by light microscopy and revealed that the major change at level as low as 50 ppm of EO was limited to vacuolisation of cytoplasm resulting in cell swelling, while at higher concentrations, detachment of the cell membrane from the cell wall, deformation of mycelia and shedding the cytoplasm from the cell were the main alterations. These damages were well documented by TEM, which showed that the main sites of action of EO were the plasma membrane and cell wall. In conclusion, morphological and structural changes observed in this study may be one of the mechanisms involved in growth inhibition of the fungi and reducing aflatoxin production.

  13. [The use of RAPD and ITE molecular markers to study genetical structure of the Crimean population of Triticum boeoticum Boiss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallabaeva, D Sh; Ignatov, A N; Sheĭko, I A; Isikov, V P; Geliuta, V P; Boĭko, N G; Seriapin, A A; Dorokhov, D B

    2007-01-01

    Wild wheat Triticum boeoticum Boiss. is the rare species are included in the Red Book of Ukraine. This species are reducing the magnitude of population and the area of distribution under anthropogenic activity. We studied genetic structure of two populations of T. boeoticum, located on Sapun Mountain and in Baidar Valley in Crimea. According RAPD and ITE molecular analysis we have estimated that the population of T. boeoticum on Sapun Mountain is genetically more impoverished than a population from the Baidar Valley. For preservation of maximal natural genetic polymorphism of the rare species it is recommended to direct efforts to preservations of a population of T. boeoticum from the Baidar Valley.

  14. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode′s solution at 37 °C and gassed with O 2 . Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM, acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM, electrical field stimulation (EFS or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC 50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL and EFS (IC 50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC 50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL, EFS (IC 50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL as well as oxytocin (IC 50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  15. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Shahverdi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml) or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) (10% w/v solution). Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg) inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  16. Pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in Acer velutinum Boiss.seed lots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Farhadi; Mulualem Tigabu; Alireza Ghasemi Arian; Mehdi Sharifani; Abolfazl Daneshvar; Per Christer Oden

    2013-01-01

    Acer velutinum Boiss is a valuable tree species native to Iran,and its seeds possess physiological dormancy that hampers seedling production in the nursery for large-scale reforestation efforts.The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dormancy breaking treatments for A.velutinum seeds.We conducted a factorial experiment involving six seed lots collected along an elevation gradient from 300 to 1800 m at 300 m interval and four cold-moist stratification periods (0,4,8 and 16 weeks) at 4℃ and 70% relative humidity.The result shows that the germination of cold-moist stratified seeds was significantly (p < 0.0001)higher than the control for all seed lots.The highest germination capacity was recorded after 16 weeks of cold-moist stratification for all seed lots (68%-88% depending on the seed lot) except those collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) that germinated equally well (≥ 75%) after 4-and 8-week of clod-moist stratification compared to the other seed lots.The mean germination time was significantly shorter (12 to 19 days,depending on the seed lot) for seeds stratified for 16 weeks than for untreated seeds.It can be concluded that:(1) cold-moist stratification for 16 weeks is the best pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in A.velutinum seeds; and (2) seeds should be collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) to get more than 80% germination within 15 days,and these seed lots even required shorter cold-moist stratification period (eight weeks) than other seed lots.

  17. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alinejad, Mahla

    2016-07-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode's solution at 37°C and gassed with O2. Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM), electrical field stimulation (EFS) or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL) and EFS (IC50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL), EFS (IC50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL) as well as oxytocin (IC50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL). From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  18. Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir TAVAKOLI KARESHK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the in vivo activity of Bunium persicum (Boiss essential oil on infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis.Methods: To evaluate prophylactic effects, male NMRI mice received B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg for 14 days. After 24 h mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1×104 tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain. In order to investigate therapeutic effects, mice were infected and then received B. persicum oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/kg two times a day for 5 days. The time/mean time of death in all infected mice and the number of tachyzoites from infected mice were recorded.Results: The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 8 and 9 days after oral administration of B. persicum oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively (P<0.05. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. In addition, B. persicum significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzo­ites compared with control group. The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 6 and 7 days after oral administration of B. persicum essential oil at the concentra­tion of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. B. persicum especially at the concentration of 0.1 ml/kg significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with con­trol group. Conclusion: The results showed the potential of B. persicum essential oil as a natu­ral source for the production of new prophylactic agent for use in toxoplasmosis.

  19. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 (10% w/v solution. Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  20. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index monolaurin and the essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.

  1. Simultaneous compartmentalization of lead and arsenic in co-hyperaccumulator Viola principis H. de Boiss.: an application of SRXRF microprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mei; Chen, Tong-Bin; Huang, Ze-Chun; Wang, Yao-Dong; Huang, Yu-Ying

    2008-08-01

    The cellular distributions of Pb and As in the leaves of co-hyperaccumulator Viola principis H. de Boiss. were inspected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF). The results revealed that Pb and As had similar compartmentalization patterns in the leaves. Both elements were enriched in the bundle sheath and the palisade mesophyll. In comparison with the sheath and the mesophyll, the vascular bundle and the epidermis contained lower levels of Pb and As. The palisade enrichment of Pb and As indicated that V. principis H. de Boiss. may have a special mechanism on detoxification of toxic metals within the mesophyll cells. Relative concentrations of both Pb and As in trichome bases were higher than those in trichome rays. The results of hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation analysis confirmed that the distribution of Pb was similar to that of As in the leaves, and their distribution patterns were different from the nutrient elements, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. In vivo cellular localization of Pb and As in the leaves provides insight into the physiological mechanisms of metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation in the hyperaccumulators.

  2. Effects of Salvianolic Acid-A on Proliferation of HSC%丹酚酸A抗肝细胞过氧化损伤对肝星状细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义扬; 王润平; 刘成海; 刘平

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The inhibiting action of Salvianolic Acid-A on proliferation of HSC was observed under the conditions of antiperoxide injury.Methods:HSC was stimulated by different concentration MDA.The proliferation of HSC was assayed by 3H[TdR] incorporation.At the same time the effects of Salvianolic Acid-A on the content of MDA in injured hepatocyte were observed.Results:Certain concentration MDA could promote the proliferation of HSC.The content of MDA was increased in injured hepatocyte. Salvianolic Acid-A could inhibit the promoting action of HSC proliferation induced by injured hepatocyte and reduce the content of MDA in injured hepatocyte.Conclusion:Salvianolic Acid-A can inhibit the proliferation of HSC by antiperoxide injury of hepatocyte.%目的:观察丹酚酸A(SA-A)抗肝细胞过氧化损伤时在抑制肝星状细胞(HSC)增殖中的作用。方法:以不同浓度的丙二醛(MDA)刺激HSC,通过氚标胸腺嘧啶(3H[TdR])掺入法,观察对HSC增殖作用,以及SA-A对损伤肝细胞MDA含量及促HSC增殖的影响。结果:一定浓度的MDA有促进HSC增殖的作用;损伤肝细胞MDA含量明显增加;SA-A可抑制损伤肝细胞对HSC的促增殖作用,并可降低损伤肝细胞MDA的含量。结论:SA-A可通过抗肝细胞过氧化损伤抑制HSC的增殖。

  3. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  4. Spasmolytic activity of essential oil and various extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. on ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G R; Hajhashemi, V; Kolagar, A; Ebrahimi, M

    2001-09-01

    Traditional herbal medicines such as Ferula gummosa Boiss. have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of essential oil, hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts of Ferula gummosa and two of its components, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, on isolated rat ileum contractions induced by KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO) and hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts all inhibited the response to 80 mM KCl in a concentration-dependent manner and attenuated the maximum attainable response of the ACh concentration-response curve. Although the effect of etheric extract on ACh contractions was less than that of petrolic extract, the overall order of effectiveness on the weight basis was the etheric, petrolic, methanolic, and hydro-alcoholic extracts, and the essential oil, respectively. A mixture of etheric and petrolic extracts together had a similar effect on KCl response to etheric extract was used alone. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene both exhibited inhibitory effect on the contraction of rat ileum, but the inhibitory effect of beta-pinene on KCl contraction was more pronounced. The inhibitory effect of a mixture of these two compounds was, however, less than the sum of their separate effects. When a mixture of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene together were examined on the ileum, without presence of the spasmogen, they initially caused contraction of the tissue, while neither of them used alone caused a noticeable contraction of the ileum. This study shows that Ferula gummosa essential oil and its various extracts are relaxant of rat isolated ileum and that at least part of their inhibitory effect is due to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene components. As the inhibition of contractile over-activity of the ileum is the basis of the treatment of some gastero

  5. Antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mirshekari, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn aerial part hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) and polyphenolic extract (PPE) as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were studied. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were respectively estimated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents. The in vitro antioxidant activity of two extracts of P. pastinacifolium were evaluated by radical scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), chelating activity on ferrous ions, or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract was measured by FRAP assay. Total phenolic contents of PPE and HAE were 117.1 ± 6.2 and 44.3 ± 1.7 mg/g, respectively. Total flavonoid content of PPE (43.4 ± 2.1 mg/g) was found to be higher than that of HAE (8.0 ± 1.5 mg/g). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, HAE and PPE showed fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 469.4 ± 9.3 μg/mL and 128.2 ± 5.5 μg/mL, respectively. Iron chelating activity assays indicated IC50 values of 657.5 ± 13.2 μg/mL and 735.4 ± 16.1 μg/mL for HAE and PPE as opposed to ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) being 16.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL. PPE exhibited greater FRAP value (154.0 ± 1.8 μM) as compared with that of HAE being 69.3 ± 1.4 μM. In animal study, HAE showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in FRAP level when compared with that of control group. Our results showed that P. pastinacifolium possess antioxidant properties which most likely are exerted through free radical scavenging, chelating activity, and reducing power. PMID:27920823

  6. Marrubium lutescens Boiss. ve M. cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë subsp. akdaghicum (Lamiaceae' un Gövde ve Yaprak Özelliklerinin Anatomik Olarak Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem TUYLU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada; Lamiaceae familyasındaki Marrubium L. cinsinin iki taksonu olan   Marrubium lutescens Boiss. ve M. cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë subsp. akdaghicum’ da gövde ve yaprak, anatomik olarak incelenerek cinsin taksonomik problemlerinin çözümüne katkı amaçlanmıştır. Işık mikroskobu için iki tip preperasyon yapılmıştır. Parafin içerisindeki gövde ve yaprak örnekleri Safranin-Fast Green ile boyandıktan sonra, epon içerisindeki yarı ince kesitler ise Toluidine blue ile boyandıktan sonra ışık mikroskobunda incelenerek fotoğrafları çekilmiştir. Her iki taksonda gövde; köşeli, kalın kutikulalı, tek sıralı epidermis ile çevrilidir. Köşelerde, epidermisin altında 2-3 sıralı lamellar kollenkima bulunmaktadır. Yaprak; M. lutescens' te bifasiyal iken M. cephalanthum’ da unifasiyaldir. Küçük iletim demetleri kollateraldir ve yaprak amfistomatiktir. Gövdelerde ve yaprakların alt ve üst yüzeyinde örtü ve salgı tüyleri bulunmaktadır. Anatomik sonuçlar karşılaştırıldığında, iki taksonun birbirine yakın oldukları anlaşılmıştır.

  7. Antimicrobial effects of Ferula GummosaBoiss gum against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Acinetobacterclinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Farid Afshar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss.Materials and Methods: 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011-2012. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the isolates using disk diffusion method. To detect and confirm the ESBL-positive isolates, phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed. Three types of F. gummosa oleo-gum-resin extracts and essential oils were prepared and the bioactive components of F. gummosa Boiss extracts were determined by GC-Mass chromatography. F. gummosa antimicrobial activity was evaluated against standard strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606 as well as Acinetobacter clinical isolates using well and disk diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by broth microdilution method.Results: 46 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. All clinical isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. 12.94% of the isolates were phenotypically ESBL-producing among which 94.2% carried ESBL genes (blaPER-1, blaOXA-4 and blaCTX-M detected by PCR. Oleo-gum-resin of F. gummosa had significant antibacterial activity and alcoholic essential oil had higher inhibitory effect on Acinetobacter strains (MIC of 18.75 mg/ml.Conclusion: Ferula gummosa extract contained components with well-known antimicrobial effects. 

  8. Antimicrobial effects of Ferula gummosa Boiss gum against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Acinetobacter clinical isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Fatemeh Farid; Saffarian, Parvaneh; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Sattarian, Fereshteh; Amin, Mohsen; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss. Materials and Methods: 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011–2012. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the isolates using disk diffusion method. To detect and confirm the ESBL-positive isolates, phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed. Three types of F. gummosa oleo-gum-resin extracts and essential oils were prepared and the bioactive components of F. gummosa Boiss extracts were determined by GC-Mass chromatography. F. gummosa antimicrobial activity was evaluated against standard strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606) as well as Acinetobacter clinical isolates using well and disk diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by broth microdilution method. Results: 46 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. All clinical isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. 12.94% of the isolates were phenotypically ESBL-producing among which 94.2% carried ESBL genes ( bla PER-1 , bla OXA-4 and bla CTX-M ) detected by PCR. Oleo-gum-resin of F. gummosa had significant antibacterial activity and alcoholic essential oil had higher inhibitory effect on Acinetobacter strains (MIC of 18.75 mg/ml). Conclusion: Ferula gummosa extract contained components with well-known antimicrobial effects.

  9. Postnatal maturation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and B-mediated inhibition in the CA3 hippocampal region of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiarsa, J L; McLean, H; Congar, P; Leinekugel, X; Khazipov, R; Tseeb, V; Ben-Ari, Y

    1995-03-01

    In the adult central nervous system, GABAergic synaptic inhibition is known to play a crucial role in preventing the spread of excitatory glutamatergic activity. This inhibition is achieved by a membrane hyperpolarization through the activation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) and GABAB receptors. In addition, GABA also depress transmitter release acting through presynaptic GABAB receptors. Despite the wealth of data regarding the role of GABA in regulating the degree of synchronous activity in the adult, little is known about GABA transmission during early stages of development. In the following we report that GABA mediates most of the excitatory drive at early stages of development in the hippocampal CA3 region. Activation of GABAA receptors induces a depolarization and excitation of immature CA3 pyramidal neurons and increases intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i)] during the first postnatal week of life. During the same developmental period, the postsynaptic GABAB-mediated inhibition is poorly developed. In contrast, the presynaptic GABAB-mediated inhibition is well developed at birth and plays a crucial role in modulating the postsynaptic activity by depressing transmitter release at early postnatal stages. We have also shown that GABA plays a trophic role in the neuritic outgrowth of cultured hippocampal neurons.

  10. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  11. Effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and nisin on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in light salted silver carp fillet (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Choobkar, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing demand in developing newer and safer methods in preserving food products.Among which herbal additives seem to attract evermore attention recently.the major advantage of herbal additives is due to their favorable aroma besides their antimicrobial effects and less expensive than chemical additives. Zataria multiflora Boiss is a native Iranian herb which is used vastly as a food preserver essential oils and also medical usage. Metabolites of harmless bacteria, such as N...

  12. The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss hydroalcoholic extract and fractions in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced chemical kindling. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used. All groups received 11 separate intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg with two-day intervals. 30 min before the injection of PTZ, mice received vehicle, Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract (300 and 600 mg/kg, n-hexane, acetone, methanol fraction extracts (150 mg/kg, or diazepam (10 mg/kg. Results: The kindled mice that were pretreated with vehicle showed a gradual increase in their seizure scores up to the end of the study. The hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced seizure scores significantly. However, n-hexane, acetone and methanol extracts did not affect seizure scores significantly. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora did reduce the severity of seizure attacks in PTZ-induced chemical kindling in mice.

  13. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified.

  14. Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on growth and aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus in culture media and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Bokaei, Saeed; Khosravi, Alireza; Abbasifar, Arash; Javan, Ashkan Jebelli

    2009-10-01

    The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO) against growth, spore production and aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15546 was investigated in synthetic media as well as Iranian ultra-filtered white cheese in brine. EO effectively inhibited radial growth and spore production on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in a dose-dependent manner. At 200 ppm, the radial growth and sporulation reduced by 79.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The growth was completely prevented at EO400 ppm on PDA, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the oil was estimated at 1000 ppm. The oil also significantly suppressed mycelial growth and aflatoxin synthesis in broth medium at all concentrations tested (Paflatoxin accumulation reduced by 90% and 99.4%, respectively. The EO at all concentrations tested, had an inhibitory effect against radial fungal growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus in cheese. However, no concentration of EO examined was able to completely inhibit the growth and aflatoxin production in cheese. The results suggested the potential substitution of the antifungal chemicals by this EO as a natural inhibitor to control the growth of molds in foods such as cheese.

  15. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  16. Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extract and its Fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Osman; Berrin-Ozcelik; Baykal, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Materials and Methods: Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Results: Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL) exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. Conclusion: The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32–8 μg/mL) had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–MDBK and Vero cell linesExtracts of C. laurifolius exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii(MIC; 32 μg/mL)The Hx extract of C. laurifolius had antiviral activity on PI-3 (CPE; 32–8 μg/mL). Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–<0.25 μg/mL) of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity PMID:27041865

  17. Agronomical and Botanical Characteristics of Cuminum setifolium (Boiss. Kos.-Pol. a Plant with Potentially Medicinal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas SAFARNEJAD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine. Cuminum setifolium ( Boiss. Kos.-Pol. with common name of white cumin, a member of the Apiaceae family, growing wild on mountains was investigated as a species having capability for cultivation and crop breeding. Generally, there is not information about Cuminum setifolium species. The aim of this study was to found plant identification and distribution in Iran, phenology, best treatment for seeds germination, farm cultivation and anatomical description. Cuminum setifolium plant is a annual herb which is distributed in Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tien-Shan and central Asia. In our studied region, the plant is generally grown on calcareous marl soils with climatic conditions of desert cold, semi-arid to arid having hot summer and cold winter. The effects of different treatment on seed germination showed significant highest germination percentage (54.4%, germination rate (6.4% were obtained from seeds that had exposed for 3 weeks at 4�C after omit of seeds hairs. The experiment of cultivation showed the best time for sowing in Mashhad was autumn and growing time was from middle of March until end of June and ripening seeds were end of June at 2005. Microscopic observation of the root structure showed lacking secondary structures and having epidermis tissue with only a row of cells along with relatively thick cuticle and for stem and leaf structure with stomata without any hairs. Parenchyma cells contained 2-3 rows of irregular oblong cells. Stomata type of epidermis was diacytic and distance between stomata was measured 5 ?m in average.

  18. Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Copao Fruit (Eulychnia acida Phil. Unswe Thee Environmental Conditions in the Coquimbo Region Características Químicas y Composición Nutricional de los Frutos de Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. Bajo tres Condiciones Ambientales de la Región de Coquimbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Masson S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. is an endemic arborescent cactus restricted mainly to the semi-arid Coquimbo Region (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" W, Chile. The area of distribution is from sea level to 1200 m.a.s.l. The edible fruit called rumpa is generally round, with green or pink peel and small scales on its surface, showing wide variability in size and weight. The aim of this work was to characterize the rumpa harvested in January 2009 and 2010 in three sectors of Coquimbo Region to determine chemical and nutritional composition in three fractions: pulp with seeds, juice, and peel. The research showed that this fruit is a good natural source of mainly soluble dietary fiber, which has a jellied texture and is present in the three fractions analyzed: 2% for juice, 3% for pulp with seeds, and approximately 5% for peel, making it potentially a good source of hydrocolloids for the food industry. The fruit is also a good source of vitamin C; around 55 mg 100 g-1 in peel, and 30 mg 100 g-1 in pulp with seeds and juice, values considered high compared to 18 mg 100 g-1 for prickly pear (Opuntiaficus-indica [L.] Mill. The main minerals were: K, Mg, Ca, and P. Total polyphenols and betalain pigments were also determined in the pulp with seeds and pink peel fractions, respectively. The nutritional characteristics, together with its high water content of around 96%, make rumpa a promising raw material for agro-industrial development of natural juices or isotonic drinks. This characterization helps in the recovery of an endemic native species by reducing potential threats to destroy wild populations of E. acid, especially near agricultural areas, and by promoting habitat conservation of the species in the region.El copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. es un cactus arborescente endémico restringido principalmente a la región semi árida de Coquimbo (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" O, Chile. El área de distribución comprende desde el nivel del mar hasta los 1200 m de

  19. Euphorbia L. subsect. Esula (Boiss. in DC. Pax in the Iberian Peninsula. Leaf surface, chromosome numbers and taxonomic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Julià

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the representatives or Euphorbia subsect. Esula in the Iberian Peninsula. Prior to this, a first section is included on the study of the leaf surface and a second section on chromosome numbers.
    The section on leaf surface is based on a study of the leaves or 45 populations of Iberian and European taxa of the subsections using a light microscope and SEM. The characters analyzed are cell shape, morphology of the cells and stomata (primary and secondary sculpture and epicuticular waxes (tertiary sculpture. Some microcharacters of the leaf surface proved particularly usefu1for taxonomical purposes. Thus the basic type of stoma and the distribution model of the stomata on the two sides of the leaf are characters which make it possible to separate taxa as closely related as E. esula L. subsp. esula and E. esula L. subsp orientalis (Boiss. in DC. Molero & Rovira. The morphological type of the epicuticular waxes also enables us to differentiate between E.graminifolia Vill. and E. esula aggr. And to distinguish subsp. bolosii Molero & Rovira from the remaining subespecies in E. nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter.
    Cytogenetic investigation reveals the presence of only the diploid cytotype (2n=10 in E. cyparissias L. and E. esula L. subsp. esula in the Iberian Peninsula. We describe for the first time in E. nevadensis s.1. a polyploidy complex with a base of x= 10 in which the diploid level (2n=20 is present in all subspecies; the tetraploid level (2n=40 is present in E. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis and the hexaploid level (2n=60 is found in E. nevadensis subsp. bolosii. Chromosome number is not a parameter that can be used for taxonomic purposes. In E. nevadensis, cytogenetic differentiation has followed its own course, with no apparent relationship to the process of morphological

  20. Evaluation of In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and Fractions of the Most Potent Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro  β-hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.83 ± 0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12 ± 0.04 and 2.62 ± 0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47 ± 0.006 and 0.71 ± 0.006 mg/mL, respectively.

  1. Alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds used as novel eco-friendly inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution: Electrochemical and surface studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamdani, Naoual; Fdil, Rabiaa; Tourabi, Mustapha; Jama, Charafeddine; Bentiss, Fouad

    2015-12-01

    Current research efforts now focus on the development of non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors as alternatives to different organic and non-organic compounds. In this field, alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds (AERS) was tested for the first time as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. The obtained results showed that this plant extract's acts as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl and an inhibition efficiency of 94.4% was reached with 400 mg/L of AERS at 30 °C. Ac impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Impedance results demonstrated that the addition of the AERS in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Polarization curves indicated that AERS is a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of such alkaloid extract on the steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by AERS is mainly controlled by a physisorption process and the inhibitive layer is composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture where AERS molecules are incorporated.

  2. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faezeh, Fatema; Salome, Dini; Abolfazl, Dadkhah; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities.

  3. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  4. Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils and Hexane Extracts of Two Turkish Spice Plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. Against Foodborne Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistillated essential oils and hexane extracts of two spice plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. C. erythraeum oil is rich in aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols and acids and (E-2-decenal (26.1%, (E-2-decen-1-ol (15.7%, (E-2-dodecenal (13.2% and decanal (7.8% were the predominant components. However, ethyl palmitate (16.4%, 2-decenoic acid (14.1% and (E-2-dodecenal (5.2% were the major components of the hexane extract of C. erythraeum. E. tenuifolia oil contained mainly methyl eugenol (53.0%, p-cymene (17.0% and α-phellandrene (13.2%. The hexane extract displayed a different chemical composition, and n-tricosane (75.0% and n-pentacosane (7.6% were found to be the major compounds. The oils showed antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms and they were more active against the tested fungal species as compared with bacteria. The growths of important food-borne pathogens, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also inhibited by the oils. However, hexane extract of C. erythraeum was showed weak antibacterial activity against limited number of tested bacteria. The current results showed that the essential oils of C. erythraeumand E. tenuifolia can be used in food preservation.

  5. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  6. Induction of aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoid compounds in Scrophularia striata Boiss. cell culture in response to chitosan-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalipourazad, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohsen; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2016-10-01

    Manipulation of cell culture media by elicitors is one of most important strategies to inducing secondary metabolism for the production of valuable metabolites. In this investigation, inducing effect of chitosan on physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scrophularia striata Boiss. The results showed that chitosan concentration and time of elicitation are determinants of the effectiveness of the elicitor. Accumulation of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]), phenylpropanoid compounds (phenolic acids [PAs] and echinacoside [ECH]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and gene expression, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX], catalase [CAT]) activities were altered by changing the exposure time of elicitation. Results showed that, upon elicitation with chitosan, oxidative events were induced, antioxidant responses of S. striata cells were boosted through enhanced activity of an effective series of scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX), and biosynthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ECH and PAs [cinnamic, p-coumaric and, caffeic acids]). The increase in amino acid content and PAL activity at early days of exposure to chitosan was related with rises in phenolic compounds. These results provide evidence that chitosan by up-regulation of PAL gene differentially improves the production of phenylpropanoid compounds, which are of medical commercial value with good biotechnological prospects.

  7. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oils of a Citronellol Producing New Chemotype of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajit D. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowering aerial parts of two populations of Thymus pubescens, collected from Mishov-Dagh, was determined by the GC-MS analyses. A total of 18 compounds, representing about 95% of the total oils, were identified in both samples of the essential oils. The essential oils of these two populations showed the presence of high amounts of citronellol (42.0% and 42.6%, geranyl acetate (14.0 and 14.0%, geraniol (13.0 and 13.1%, citronellyl acetate (3.9 and 3.8%, L-linalool (7.8% and 7.9%, cis-nerodiol (5.9% and 5.5% and citronellyl acetate (3.9% and 3.8%. However, in the published literature, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene were reported to be the major compounds in T. pubescens. This significant difference in the composition of the essential oils was a clear evidence of chemical polymorphism with in the T. pubescens taxon, suggesting that these two populations of T. pubescens were in deed a new chemotype of this species, and the name Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak chemotype Citronellol for this new chemotype has been proposed . The antibacterial and free-radical-scavenging properties of the essential oils of T. pubescens have also been evaluated.

  8. Notopterygium forbesii boiss extract and its active constituents increase reactive species and heme oxygenase-1 in human fetal hepatocytes: mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Soon Yew; Wang, Huansong; Zhang, Wenxia; Halliwell, Barry

    2008-12-01

    Notopterygium forbesii Boiss (NF) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of common cold and rheumatism. However, there has been limited research on the biological properties of NF, and the mechanisms of action remain unknown. Here, we aimed to study the mechanism of NF-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human fetal hepatocytes (HFHs) and to identify the constituents responsible. Exposure of HFHs to NF causes oxidative stress with the accumulation of reactive species, which in turn leads to the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 transcription factor, and eventually increased levels of HO-1 mRNA and protein. The increases in reactive species and HO-1 protein are inhibited by agonists of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), such as RU28362, prednisolone, and dexamethasone, as well as by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), suggesting a role of GR in NF-induced increases in reactive species and HO-1. Assay-guided fractionation of NF led to three active compounds, phenethyl ferulate, bergaptol, and isoimperatorin, that were found to increase oxidative stress and HO-1 protein levels in HFHs. The induction of HO-1 protein in response to moderate oxidative stress may explain some of the beneficial pharmacological effects of NF.

  9. Influence of Different Temperatures and Times on Antiradical Properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum Essential Oils by Using DPPH Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh KORDSARDOUEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of fats and oils has a key role in the reduction of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, there is a tendency to create to use natural preservatives, such as essential oils, for antioxidant, antiradical and antimicrobial properties in foodstuffs. In this study, the effect of thermal processing on the antiradical activities of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum (CZEO essential oils is checked. Antiradical activities were measured with a 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH– assay at 3 temperatures (100, 140 and 180 °C and at 3 different time intervals (1, 2 and 3 h. The EC50 of ZMEO and CZEO were 4026.67 ± 2.2 and 2605.01 ± 15.57 ppm, respectively, at 25 °C. The 2 essences showed various reactions and characteristics at different temperatures (100, 140 and 180 °C and time ranges (1, 2 and 3 h. Maximum and minimum antiradical properties were observed for ZMEO at respectively, 140 and 180 °C after 1 h heating.

  10. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Oil and Extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.: Wild and Cultivated Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rustaie 1,2, Roya Keshvari 1, Nasrin Samadi 3, Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi 4, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani 1,5, Mahnaz Khanavi 1,2,6 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch (Apiaceae has been used as spice, anti-flatulence and antiseptic agent for many years. In recent years the wild resources of the plant have been threatened by extinction. Domestication of such a plant saves its genetic resources from depletion. However, concerns remain about the possible changes due to development of chemotypes and changes in the composition and biological and pharmacological potentials. Methods: Analyses of essential oils from fruits of wild and cultivated types was performed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Antimicrobial assessment was done by agar diffusion method Results: The main compounds of both oils were included γ-terpinene (30.77% and 27.57%, cuminaldehyde (20.49% and 21.1%, ρ-cymene (20.1% and 18.32% and γ-terpinen-7-al (8.29% and 7.84% respectively. Analytical results of both tested oils exhibited very close similarities in major compounds, whereas some differences in their percentages were observed. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of volatile oils, total extract and the resultant fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans demonstrated some similarities and differences. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of wild grown fruits essential oils ranged between 0.375-1.5 mg/ml, while those of cultivated one were 0.75-6.25 mg/ml. All extracts and fractions showed similarly minor antibacterial potential while anti-Candida albicans activity was much remarkable with MICs calculated 2.5-5 mg/ml for cultivated and 5 mg/ml for wild grown extracts and fractions. Conclusion: In conclusion, despite the substantial similarities in composition of both oils, the alteration in antimicrobial results may be caused by variety in concentration of major and minor compounds and their synergism or antagonism in mixture.

  11. Establecimiento de una red de equilibrios biológicos en ecosistemas con presencia de pinsapo (Abies pinsapo Boiss. en Andalucía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía established a Monitoring Network on ecosystems of Abies pinsapo Boiss.for evaluating the phytosanitary state in the natural range areas of A. pinsapo in the Iberian Península: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Spain, Sierra de Grazalema (Cadiz, Spain and Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Spain. This network is based on a 1 x 1 Km grid established throughout the forest stands where Abies pinsapo is present, given by the Mapa Forestal de España (Spanish land cover map, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. The Network has been constructed from 35 sample plots, which will be visited annually (in summer in order to assess the state of trees. This article describes the network design process and the main results from the first campaign of sampling.

    [fr]
    En mai 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente-Junta de Andalucía a mis sur pied un Réseau pour la surveillance systématique et multitemporelle de l'état de santé et vitalité des forets de Abies pinsapo Boiss. dans ses aires de répartition naturelle dans la Péninsule Ibérique: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Espagne, Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz, Espagne et Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Espagne. Cet inventaire a été réalisé à partir d'un réseau d'échantillonnage systématique selon un maillage de 1 x 1 kilomètres couvrant la surface des forêts avec présence de Abies pinsapo, d'après la Mapa Forestal de España (Carte Forestière Espagnole, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. Après Rétablissement, l'inventaire a été constitué par 35 parcelles d'observation, qui seront visitées annuellement (en été pour évaluer l'état des arbres. Cette note présente le dessin de ce réseau et les résultats de la première campagne de terrain.
    [es]
    En la primavera del año 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía estableció una Red de Equilibrios Biol

  12. Development of new active packaging film made from a soluble soybean polysaccharide incorporated Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha pulegium essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Moayyed, Hamid; Khaksar, Ramin; Noghabi, Mostafa Shahidi

    2014-03-01

    An active edible film from soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) incorporated with different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils was developed, and the film's optical, wettability, thermal, total phenol and antioxidant characteristics were investigated, along with their antimicrobial effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. The film's colour became darker and more yellowish and had a lower gloss as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased. Antioxidant activity of the films was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. DPPH was reduced in the range of 19.84-74.12% depending on the essential oil type and concentration. Film incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50=4188.60±21.73mg/l and EC50=8.86±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared with the control and MEO added film. Films containing ZEO were more effective against the tested bacteria than those containing MEO. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to both ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 387.05mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 21.98 for S. typhimurium and 10.15mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a single glass transition temperature (Tg) between 16 and 31°C. The contact angle increased up to 175% and 38% as 3% (v/v) of ZEO or MEO used: it clearly shows that films with ZEO were more hydrophobic than those with MEO. The results showed that these two essential oils could be incorporated into SSPS films for food packaging.

  13. 新疆大果阿魏叶片及其油胶树脂化学成分研究%Study on Chemical Components Leaves and Resin of Ferula lehmanni Boiss in Xingjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文彬; 谭勇; 朱芸; 相颖

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] Essential oils chemical components of resin and basilar leaves from Ferula lehmanni Boiss were studied and found medicinal substitute of Ferula sinkiangensis and Ferula fukangensis. [Method] Chemical constituents of volatile oils from Ferula lehmanni Boiss were analyzed by GC-MS. [Result] 78 compositions had been identified from 84 chromato graphicpeaks. 77 compositions were seperated from the essential oil of resin and 63 kinds of compounds were identified. [Conclusion] GC-MS is a simple and accurate method for determination essential oils. The research results have important significance of looking for new Ferula plant medical resources and extending drug.%[目的]对大果阿魏的叶片挥发油化学成分进行了分析,寻找新疆阿魏和阜康阿魏的药用替代品.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱联用法测定挥发油化学成分.[结果]从大果阿魏叶挥发油中分离出84个成分,鉴定出其中的78种化合物;树脂胶挥发油分离出77个成分,鉴定出63种化合物.[结论]运用气相色谱-质谱法分析阿魏挥发油,方法简便、准确,该研究结果对寻找新疆阿魏和阜康阿魏的代用品及为扩大阿魏药源具有重要意义.

  14. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  15. Corología de tres táxones de interés en el macizo del Castro Valnera: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. [Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Alejandre Sáez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ofrece una visión actualizada de la situación en el macizo del Castro Valnera de tres especies de alto interés regional: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. Se comentan datos sobre la historia de su descubrimiento en ese macizo. Se recogen y enumeran para cada uno de ellos los datos de recolecciones, citas bibliográficas y de campo. Con el conjunto de todas ellas se elaboran varios mapas. Finalmente, se aportan comentarios que contribuyen al conocimiento de su comportamiento ecológico y se apuntan algunas pautas y criterios a tener en cuenta para su protección. ABSTRACT: Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain. An updated view of the situation within the Castro Valnera mountain range of three species of high regional interest is provided: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. The history data of their discovery within that mountain range is discussed. Collections data and field citations are gathered and listed for each of them and several maps are drawn with the whole of them. Finally, comments that contribute to the knowledge of their environmental performance are provided, as well as some guidelines and criteria to be considered for their protection.

  16. Determination of Eight Metal Elements in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet by Microwave Digestion-FAAS%用微波消解法-FAAS测定民族药腺毛菊苣根中八种金属元素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴凌鹏; 周晓英; 崔箭; 庞宗然; 刘宏炳; 葛亮

    2009-01-01

    The Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet is a traditional Uighur natural herbal medicine, but has not been analyzed and studied in terms of its metal elements. In the experiment, the Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet powder was digested with HNO_3 by microwave digestion before determination. The eight metal elements, potassium, nickel, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc, in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet were determined by FAAS. The working conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r=0. 999 1-0. 999 9). The recovery (n=6) is 92. 25%-110. 5%, and the RSD (n=6) is 0. 7%-3.88%. The results showed that there were compara-tively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium (65.84 mg·g~(-1) ), iron (24.38 mg·g~(-1) ), magnesium (278. 17 mg·g~(-1)) and potassium (18. 50 mg·g~(-1)), in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet, and the contents of other ele-ments are nickel of 0. 004 38 mg·g~(-1), manganese of 0. 52 mg·g~(-1), copper of 0. 016 5 mg·g~(-1) and zinc of 0. 18 mg·g~(-1).This provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Cichorium glandulosumBoiss et Huet and its clinical application in cardiovascular and osteoporosis disease.%腺毛菊苣是新疆维吾尔族传统习用药材,但其药物中有效微量、常量元素成分尚未进行过分析研究.试验采用HNO_3作为消解液,利用微波消解的方法处理样品,原子吸收分光光度法测定维吾尔药材菊苣根中钾(K)、镍(Ni)、钙(Ca)、镁(Mg)、铁(Fe)、锰(Mn)、铜(Cu)和锌(Zn)八种微量、常量元素的含量,精密度和回收率较好,回收率控制在92.25%~110.5%之间,相对标准偏差RSD≤3.88%.结果显示新疆菊苣中Mg,Ca,Fe,K等人体所需的必须微量元素含量十分丰富,特别是Mg和Ca含量较高,分别达到278.17和65.84 mg·g~1.其他元素中Mg和Zn含量

  17. Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2013-09-02

    Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety.

  18. Bioactivity of Centaurea persica boiss. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Satyajit D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging property, antibacterial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of Centaurea persica, a Turkish medicinal plant, were assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay, the resazurin microtiter plate based assay, and the brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Additionally, the disc diffusion assay was also used to assess antibacterial activity. Only the MeOH extract of C. persica exhibited a significant free-radical-scavenging property in the DPPH assay, with an RC50 value of 0.025 mg/mL. However, in the TLC-based qualitative assay, petroleum ether and DCM extracts showed an extremely low level of free-radical-scavenging property. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, the fractions eluted with 60% and 80% MeOH in water exhibited the highest level of free-radicalscavenging activity (RC50 = 0.010 and 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. While DCM extract showed reasonable antibacterial activity against five out of the nine test strains both in the disc diffusion assay and in the resazurin assay, the MeOH extract was highly active against both Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, fractions eluted with 80% MeOH in water and 100% MeOH displayed significant antibacterial potencies against both E. coli species. None of the extracts showed any significant toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = >1.00 mg/mL.

  19. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  20. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Mohammed Farid

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  1. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Moltkia aurea Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iclal Saracoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of M. aurea exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil ( DPPH, nitric oxide (NO and superoxide (SO radicals. The free radical scavenging effect of the extract was found comparable to that of reference antioxidants, 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanizole (BHA and ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C. Cytotoxic activity of the extract was also investigated against three different cancer cell lines, Hep-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma, RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma, L-20B (transgenic murine L-cells and one non-cancerous cell line (VERO- African green monkey kidney epithelial cell using 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide (MTT assayty. While dose dependent cytotoxic activity was observed against cancer cell lines, no cytotoxic effect on VERO cell line was found in the tested expe In addition, phochemical investigations to identify chemical content of the plant were resulted to the isolation of (+-syringaresinol-4′-O- b -glucopyranoside (1, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutine, 3 and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (4 on the basis of different spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, HR ESI-MS.

  2. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  3. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.

  4. Novel 4-(piperidin-4-yl)-1-hydroxypyrazoles as gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henriette A; Sander, Tommy; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard;

    2010-01-01

    A series of substituted 1-hydroxypyrazole analogues of the GABA(A) receptor partial agonist 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL) have been synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. Several of the analogues displayed K(i) in the low nanomolar range at the native GABA(A) receptors and potent...... antagonism of the alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2) receptor. It appears that several regions situated in proximity to the core of the orthosteric binding site of the GABA(A) receptor are able to accommodate large hydrophobic substituents....

  5. Actividad antibacteriana de soluciones acidas de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of chitosan acid solutions obtained from shrimp exoskeleton Título: quitosano actividad antibacterianaResumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de soluciones ácidas de quitosano obtenido a partir del exoesqueleto de camarón, sobre siete bacterias patógenas, cinco de las cuales corresponden a patógenas de humanos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 43863 y  K.  oxytoca ATCC 43086 y las fitopatógenas (Pectobacterium sp UDS y  Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Concentraciones de soluciones de quitosano  de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 3.5 % (v/v disuelto en  ácido acético de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 % (v/v fueron preparadas; a partir de estas concentraciones, mediante la técnica de Kirby-Bauer se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana in vitro. Los resultados de actividad antimicrobiana mostraron diferencias altamente significativas entre la especie de bacteria y los tratamientos de quitosano. Las bacterias P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 y ATCC 43863 fueron las más susceptibles a los tratamientos, mientras que E. faecalis, Pectobacterium sp y B. glumae mostraron resistencia. Los tratamientos T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9 en donde las concentraciones de quitosano estuvieron por encima a las del ácido acético, se presentaron mayores valores medios de actividad de antimicrobiana en mm y aumentó este valor para los tratamientos  T9 (5.8095 mm, T8 (6.00 mm para y  T9 (5.8095 mm, donde las concentraciones  de quitosano  de 2.5 y 3.5%, disuelta en ácido acético fueron igual a 2%.  Los resultados de este estudio en el Caribe Colombiano permitirán a futuro el reaprovechamiento del exoesqueleto de camarón como fuente de quitosano como un compuesto potencial frente al manejo al problema de salud pública ocasionada por las enfermedades bacterianas. Palabras claves: camarón, quitosano, bacterias, patógenas.Abstract: The work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan obtained from exoskeleton of shrimp, on seven pathogenic bacteria, five of which corresponded to human pathogenic strain (ATCC 29212 Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. oxytoca ATCC 43863 and ATCC 43086 and two phytopathogenic strain (Pectobacterium sp UDS and Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Solution of chitosan of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5% (v/v dissolved in 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (v / v acetic acid was prepared, and with these concentrations through the Kirby-Bauer technique and the antibacterial activity in vitro was evaluated. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed significant differences between the species of bacteria and chitosan treatments evaluated. P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 and ATCC 43863 were the most susceptible to the treatments, while E. faecalis, B. glumae and Pectobacterium sp were resistant. The treatments T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9, where chitosan concentrations were above the acetic acid, showed higher mean mm antimicrobial activity and this value increased to T9 treatments (5.8095 mm , T8 (6.00 mm and T9 (5.8095 mm, where chitosan concentrations 2.5 and 3.5% solution in acetic acid was equal to 2%. The results of this study in the Colombian Caribbean enable future reuse of the exoskeleton of shrimp as a source of chitosan as a potential compound to handle the public health problem caused by bacterial diseases.Key words: shrimp, chitosan, bacteria, pathogens. 

  6. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yu; Cheng, Dai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp) on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious') pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1) CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol). Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  7. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  8. 6-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-2-naphthoylacryl Acid:a Highly Selective and Sensitive Fluorescent Sensor of Copper(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xu-zhi; CHEN Peng; CHEN He-ru

    2012-01-01

    A novel fluorescent probe,6-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2-naphthoylacryl acid(ACADAN) was designed and synthesized as a fluorescent sensor for Cu2+ in aqueous media.Significant amplification of fluorescence signals without causing any discernible change of maximum fluorescence emission wavelength(λmax) was observed upon the addition of Cu2+.Importantly,ACADAN is capable of recognizing Cu2+ selectively in aqueous media in the presence of various biologically relevant metal ions and the prevalent toxic metal ions in the environment with high sensitivity(detection limit was 0.1 μmol/L).

  9. Taratura di un 'apparecchiatura per misura di piccole percentuali di uranio in soluzione acida di acqua distillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d. Diana

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Si descrive una tecnica elio permette di misurare ilnumero di atomi di Uranio di una soluzione, con un errore non superioreal 10%.Il sistema consiste in un tubo di Geiger (Philips 18503 sistemato inun contenitore di vetro nel quale viene diluita una certa quantità di peso dinitrato di Uranile, misurato con una precisione migliore dell'1%. Al variaredella diluizione si registra il numero di particelle che il Geiger conta, e quindisi riporta in grafico. Da questi per diverse quantità di sale sciolto si determinala retta di taratura.

  10. Status of the art: hydraulic conductivity of acid- fractures; Condutividade hidraulica de fratura acida: estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Valdo Ferreira [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). E and P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Completacao e Avaliacao], e-mail: wcampos@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a review of the hydraulic conductivity models developed for acid fractures in almost four decades of studies in petroleum engineering. These studies have often benefited from theories and experiments carried out in areas of knowledge such as physics, geology, hydrology, fluid mechanics, rock mechanics and tribology. The review showed that the pioneer study of Nierode and Kruk (1973) is still used in commercial software and influences the current studies. There was significant evolution on the quantitative surface topography characterization of the fractures and their impact on the hydraulic conductivity. The same occurred for the effects of acid dissolution on the rock resistance. Improvements on correlations similar to the Nierode and Kruk can be applied at once on the acid fracturing project and evaluation practice for the cases of rough dissolution pattern. A method to consider the overall conductivity from heterogeneous channels and roughness pattern was recently proposed. The complexity of the theoretical fundaments, specially the range of validity of the equations in face of the simplifications assumed, the difficulty of performing representative laboratory and field experiments, the difficulty of characterizing quantitatively the fractures surface topography and its effects on the conductivity, and the large variety of rocks and acid systems keep this subject open for research. (author)

  11. Effects of salvianolic acid-A on NIH/3T3 fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hai; Hu, Yi-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Xu, Lie-Ming; Liu, Ping

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of salvianolic acid A (SA-A) against liver fibrosis in vitro. METHODS: NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were cultured routinely, and incubated with 10-4 mol/L-10-7 mol/L SA-A for 22 h. The cell viability was assayed by [3H]proline incorporation, cell proliferation by [3H]TdR incorporation, cell collagen synthetic rate was measured with [3H]proline impulse and collagenase digestion method. The total RNA was prepared from the control cells and the drug treated cells respectively, and α (1) I pro-collagen mRNA expression was semi-quantitatively analyzed with RT-PCR. RESULTS: 10-4 mol/L SA-A decreased cell viability and exerted some cytotoxiciy, while 10-5 mol/L-10-7 mol/L SA-A did not affect cell viability, but inhibited cell proliferation significantly, and 10-6 mol/L SA-A had the best effect on cell viability among these concentrations of drugs. 10-5 mol/L-10-6 mol/L SA-A inhibited intracellular collagen synthetic rate, but no significant influence on extracellular collagen secretion. Both 10-5 mol/L and 10-6 mol/L SA-A could decrease α (1) I pro-collagen mRNA expression remarkably. CONCLUSION: SA-A had potent action against liver fibrosis. It inhibited NIH/3T3 fibroblast proliferation, intracellular collagen synthetic rate and type I pro-collagen gene expression, which may be one of the main mechanisms of the drug. PMID:11819598

  12. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xi

    Full Text Available To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious' pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1 CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol. Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mehrara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended.

  14. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  15. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from Centaurea spruneri Boiss. & Heldr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ĆIRIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coumarins, scopoletin (1 and isoscopoletin (2, two simple phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid (3 and isovanillic acid (4 and one flavonoid, eriodictyol (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea spruneri. The structure of the compounds was established by spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds was tested against eight bacteria and eight fungal species, using a microdilution method. All compounds tested showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations were in the range 0.655–2.38 µmol ml-1 and their minimal bactericidal concentrations ranged from 0.694 to 4.15 µmol ml-1 against the tested bacterial species. All compounds showed fungistatic activity at 0.259–2.38 µmol ml-1 and fungicidal at 0.69–2.6 µmol ml-1 against all fungi tested.

  17. Pentacylic triterpenes ofJurinea anatolic boiss. andJurinea consanguinea DC. Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, K L; Smith, C R

    1967-03-01

    Pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, together with their acetate, myristate, and palmitate esters, comprise about 40% of the petroleum ether extract of the fruit (seed and pericarp) of twoJurinea species. All the triterpene esters and a porition of the free triterpene alcohols in theJ. anatolica extract are derived from the pericarp portion of the fruit. The triterpene alcohol moieties and their approximate percentage of the hydrolyzed extract ofJ. anatolica fruit are alpha-amyrin, 5%; beta-amyrin, 6%; lupeol, 6%; and psi-taraxasterol plus taraxasterol, 16%.J. consanguinea fruit extract yields essentially the same amount of the same five triterpene alcohols on hydrolysis. These concentrations of triterpenoid materials are believed to be the largest found in plant tissues.

  18. Antimutagenic activity of major fractions of Zataria multiflora Boiss by Ames method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sharififar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zataria multiflora is a medicinal plant that has been interested in antimutagenicity effect because of its high antioxidant activity and richness of flavonoids. Antimutagenicity effect of total extract of the plant has been reported previously. Aerial parts of Z. multiflora were extracted by petroleum ether, chloroform and 80% methanol by liquid-liquid extraction method consequently. The fractions were concentrated in vacuum and dried at 40°C in oven. The genotype of two standard strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100 was confirmed by the evaluation of two important factors of histidine requirement and the presence of R factor. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of the fractions against these two strains was determined by agar dilution method. From each fraction, various concentrations less than MIC were studied for anti-mutagenic test. The sample along with bacterial strain and mutagen agent were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The number of revertant colonies was counted and compared with control plates. Our results showed that all fractions especially petroleum ether and chloroform ones maintain the number of colonies in the standard range in control plates and prevent from the growth of many strains of bacteria and increase of revertant colonies enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was prominent against TA100 starin. Methanolic fraction exhibited anti-mutagen activity just in the highest used concentration in the presence of TA98.

  19. Bioactivity-guided isolation of spasmolytic components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Behzad, S

    2011-07-01

    Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has spasmolytic effect in vitro and antidiarrhoeal action in vivo. The aim of this research was to separate fractions of total hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa guided by their spasmolytic activity. Aerial parts of P. spinosa were extracted with ethanol. The concentrated extract was subjected to column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Initially four fractions were obtained (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and their spasmolytic activities were determined on ileum contraction induced by KCl (80 mM). The more active fraction was subjected to further isolation and tested to find its most active components. The active component was phytochemically characterized using phytochemical methods including ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa (10-320 μg/ml) in a concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contraction with the IC(50) value of 47 ± 8.1 μg/ml (mean ± S.E.M., n=6). Fraction F2 was the most potent inhibitor of ileum contraction (IC(50)= 3.4 ± 0.33 μg/ml). From five sub-fractions separated from fraction F2 (F2a, F2b, F2c, F2d, and F2e, respectively), F2c was a more active component with the IC(50) value of 2.6 ± 0.27 μg/ml. The primary results of target fraction (F2c) showed sugar moiety in its structure or in one of its components. In this research we have isolated pharmacological active fraction which is most likely responsible for antispasmodic action of P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract.

  20. Investigating the effect of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss and hohen on cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Soltani-Nasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phlomis lanceolata is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation and wounds. As most of Phlomis species have shown cytotoxic activity against proliferation of different cell lines, a biological investigation of P. lanceolata was carried out in this study. The aim of this study was to find out the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract and different fractions of Phlomis lanceolata on four cell lines. Cytotoxic activity of the metanolic total extract and partition fractions of chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether of flowering aerial parts of Phlomis lanceolata on the HT29, Caco2, T47D and NIH3T3 cell lines is examined by MTT. Petroleum ether fraction showed high cytotoxic activity against proliferation of all four cell lines. Presence of heavy triterpens and lipophil compounds recognized by TLC test in Petroleum ether fraction is responsible for high cytotoxic activity. The results emphasize the importance of phytochemical studies which could lead to the discovery of new active compounds.

  1. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Fazly Bazzaz

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa, various parts of the plant were collected at specific seasons. Aerial parts and root of the plant were dried in shady place and grinded to desirable. Unnatural and natural gum resins did not have the drying and grinding stages. The alcohol-aqueous (33%extract was obtained by masuration and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporator at low temperature and vaccum condition. The essential oil was extracted by water and steam distillation. Its antinociceptive effect was investigated in mice using hot plate method. Antibacterial effect was determined using paper disk method. The results suggest that the maximum antinociceptive effect (efficacy of root and aerial parts extract was higher than morphine and maximum effect of unnatural and natural gum resins extract was equal to morphine. The maximum effect of essential oil and unnatural gum resin was less than morphine but potency of these preparations were less than morphine. The amount of microbial growth inhibition of all extracts was less than chloramphenicol (30 ;ug on gram positive bacteria, but these extracts have not any growth inhibitory effect on gram negative baceria. These extracts inhibited fungus growth equal to nystatin (100units. "nThese results in conjunction with economic considerations suggest the usefulness of aerial parts of plant for medical treatment.

  2. Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activities of the Endemic Thymus broussonetti Boiss. and Thymus maroccanus Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. E. A. ElFels

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and the insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs extracted from the leaves of Thymus broussonetii and Thymus maroccanus . These two endemic plants of Morocco, which are traditionally used in medicinal remedies, were collected from Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region. The EOs were extracted by direct steam distillation and their chemical constituents were analyzed and quantified by gas GC-MS and GC. The dominant components identified were p-cymene (21.0%, borneol (16.5%, α-pinene (11.8% and thymol (11.3% for T. broussonetti and carvacrol (33.0%, p-cymene (25.3% and α-pinene (11.6% for T. maroccanus . The investigation by the agar-diffusion method of the antibacterial activity of EOs proved that they have antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella sp. , Escherichia coli, Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus subtilis . The obtained results showed that T. maroccanus EOs possessed higher antibacterial effects on some studied bacteria than T. broussonetti EOs. The EOs of T. broussonetii and T. maroccanus also presented insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens .

  3. Antiproliferative evaluation of terpenoids and terpenoid coumarins from Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl Boiss. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ebrahim Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago macrocarpa is a plant used as flavoring agent and protectant in the food industry and as a folk medicinal plant in Iran with no available information on its chemical identity. Ferulago spp. showed to contain biologically terpenoids and coumarins. Objective: The objective was to isolate and characterize terpenoids and coumarins from the acetone extract of F. macrocarpa fruits and to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on several cell lines. Materials and Methods: A series of normal and reverse phase gravity and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to purify constituents. Compounds 1-5 and 7 were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on MCF-7, HT-29 and H-1299 cell lines. Results: Six compounds including bornyl acetate (1, 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (2, stigmasterol (3 and three coumarins grandivittin (4, prantschimgin (5 and 4"-hydroxygrandivittin (7 along with mixtures of feruloyl derivatives (6a-6c have been purified. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and MS analyses. Compound 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity effect with IC 50 values of 5.0 and 6.7 mM on MCF-7 and HT-29, respectively. Conclusion: 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol could be considered as a potential proliferation inhibitor of MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines.

  4. Effects of tree architecture on pollen dispersal and mating patterns in Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; García-Castaño, Juan L; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Tremetsberger, Karin; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Plant architecture is crucial to pollination and mating in wind-pollinated species. We investigated the effect of crown architecture on pollen dispersal, mating system and offspring quality, combining phenotypic and genotypic analyses in a low-density population of the endangered species Abies pinsapo. A total of 598 embryos from three relative crown height levels (bottom, middle and top) in five mother plants were genotyped using eleven nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs). Paternity analysis and mating system models were used to infer mating and pollen dispersal parameters. In addition, seeds were weighed (N = 16 110) and germinated (N = 736), and seedling vigour was measured to assess inbreeding depression. Overall, A. pinsapo shows a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, with an average pollen dispersal distance of 113-227 m, an immigration rate of 0.84-26.92%, and a number of effective pollen donors (Nep ) ranging between 3.5 and 11.9. We found an effect of tree height and relative crown height levels on mating parameters. A higher proportion of seeds with embryo (about 50%) and a higher rate of self-fertilization (about 60%) were found at the bottom level in comparison with the top level. Seed weight and seedling vigour are positively related. Nevertheless, no differences were found in seed weight or in seedling-related variables such as weight and length of aerial and subterranean parts among the different relative crown height levels, suggesting that seeds from the more strongly inbred bottom level are not affected by inbreeding depression. Our results point to vertical isotropy for outcross-pollen and they suggest that self-pollen may ensure fertilization when outcross-pollen is not available in low-density population.

  5. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  6. Terpenes and polyacetylenes from cultivated Artemisia granatensis boiss (Royal chamomile) and their defensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Portero, Adriana González; Burón, Pilar Arteaga; Arteaga, Jesús F; Alquézar, Jesús Burillo; Díaz, Carmen Elisa; Coloma, Azucena González

    2013-10-01

    Artemisia granatensis, an endemic endangered plant species from Sierra Nevada (Spain) has been successfully cultivated in artificial systems (plants in artificial soil and transformed in vitro roots) to generate enough plant biomass (aerial and root) to allow for its chemical and biological study and at the same time to provide with methods for the sustainable production of the plant and its metabolites. A eudesmanolide (17) along with six sesquiterpenes (11-16), nine monoterpenes (2-10), one nor-monoterpene (1), three acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters (18-20) and one coumarin (21) have been identified from the aerial plant ethanolic extract. Acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters 18-19 and coumarins 21-23 have been isolated from the transformed root ethanolic extract. These extracts and some isolated compounds or mixtures of them have been tested for their insect antifeedant effects against Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Significant antifeedant properties were determined for the aerial plant extract, spiroacetals 19-20 and secoguaianolides 13+14 and 16.

  7. valuation of Germination Characteristics for Hedysarum Criniferum Boiss in Alternative Temperature and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    24-26 °C day-night and four drought levels (0, -2, -4, and -6 bar with three replications. According to the results, different levels of drought stress and alternative temperature had significant effects on germination percentage and germination speed of the species seeds (α=5%. The study showed that increasing temperature and drought levels leads to reducing the germination percentage and germination speed of the species. Higher germination percentage of H. criniferum seeds in different drought levels compared to alternative temperature levels of 24-26 °C indicated that this species is more sensitive to higher temperature than high levels of drought condition. Therefore, it could partly be concluded that the H. criniferum is a relatively drought resistance species.

  8. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  9. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Alpha-picolinic acid,a fungal toxin and mammal apoptosis-inducing agent,elicits hypersensitive-like response and enhances disease resistance in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Kuo ZHANG; Xin ZHANG; Bi Zeng MAO; Qun LI; Zu Hua HE

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-picolinic acid (PA),a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell,has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants. Here,we report that PA is an efficient apoptosis agent triggering cell death of hypersensitive-like response in planta. Confirmed by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS),rice suspension cells and leaves exhibited programmed cell death induced by PA. The PA-induced cell death was associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species that could be blocked by diphenylene iodonium chloride,indicating that the generation of reactive oxygen species was NADPHoxidase dependent. We also demonstrated the induction of rice defense-related genes and subsequent resistant enhancement by PA against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Hence,it was concluded that the PA-stimulated defense response likely involves the onset of the hypersensitive response in rice,which also provides a simple eliciting tool for studying apoptosis in the plant cell.

  11. Purification and characterization of a gentiohexaose obtained from botryosphaeran by partial acid hydrolysis; Purificacao e caracterizacao de uma gentioexaose obtida de botriosferana por hidrolise acida parcial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Iara Ribeiro; Monteiro, Nilson Kobori; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Izeli, Nataly Lino; Vasconcelos, Ana Flora Dalberto; Cardoso, Marilsa de Stefani; Silva, Maria de Lourdes Corradi da [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia]. E-mail: corradi@fct.unesp.br; Barbosa, Aneli de Melo [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biotecnologia; Dekker, Robert F.H. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha-IRICA, Ciudad Real (Spain); Silva, Gil Valdo Jose da; Moraes, Luis Alberto Beraldo de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    A hexa-oligosaccharide was obtained by partial acid hydrolysis from botryosphaeran, an exopolysaccharide (EPS) {beta}(1{yields}3; 1{yields}6)-D-glucan type, produced by the ascomyceteous fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina. The oligosaccharide was purified by gel filtration and charcoal-Celite column chromatography and the analysis was followed by HPAEC/ PAD. The structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, which showed that the oligosaccharide consists of six {beta}-D-glucopyranosyl units O-6 substituted (gentiohexaose). (author)

  12. EFECTO DE LA PRECIPITACION ACIDA DE NITROGENO REACTIVO SOBRE LA DIVERSIDAD GENETICA Y FUNCIONAL DE LA MICROBIOTA BACTERIANA DE SUELOS ARIDOS.

    OpenAIRE

    ORLANDO, JULIETA LAURA

    2008-01-01

    La biogeoquímica global incluye numerosos procesos microbianos, los cuales dependen de diversos factores tanto bióticos como abióticos, entre ellos la disponibilidad de agua, de nutrientes como el nitrógeno y de la diversidad genética y funcional de la mi 119p.

  13. Seromiotomia anterior e posterior da pequena curvatura versus vagotomia gastrica proximal; estudo comparativo da secreçõa acida basal e estimulada em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Cavalcanti

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Tem sido atribuída à vagotomia gástrica proximal (VGP), incidência variavelmente elevada de recidiva ulcerosa, necrose da pequena curvatura e alteração da fisiologia da transição esofagogástrica. A seromiotomia anterior da pequena curvatura gástrica com vagotomia troncular posterior (SMA+VTP), foi proposta há mais de uma década como alternativa à VGP para o tratamento da úlcera duodenal. Posteriormente, assim como na VGP, também foram atribuídas a essa cirurgia alterações na fisiologi...

  14. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of petroleum refinery sour waters; Processos oxidativos avancados para tratamento de aguas acidas de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio V.; Coelho, Alessandra D.; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the waste water generated by the petroleum refineries are related to the type and amount of processed oil, to the nature and the efficiency of the refining operation. The effluents are composed basically of oily waters, originating from of the contact with the oil. Among them, the current of sour water is one of the most preoccupying due to its composition: sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, dissolved oil, basic pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) high. The aim of this work was to evaluate the advanced oxidation processes to degrade sour water (UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton). All process, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not supply satisfactory results, reducing 25% of initial DOC, which it is of 450 mg/L. The results using the Fenton process reached removal of 50% of the initial COD, and when photo- Fenton process obtaining removal of 90%. The processes Fenton and photo-Fenton were shown capable to degrade this kind of waste water, minimizing the environmental problems and corrosion, operating as a pre-treatment for the biological system, or acting alone to degrade the organic matter contained, seeking the water reuse. The effluent used in this work came from Duque de Caxias Refinery (Reduc)/PETROBRAS. (author)

  15. Pani tradizionali prodotti con la pasta acida: valutazione delle caratteristiche tecnologiche degli impasti, delle caratteristiche di texture del prodotto finito e cambiamenti durante la fase di conservazione

    OpenAIRE

    Fadda, Costantino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of various amounts of sourdough on the rheological properties of the dough, on texture and colour parameters after baking and during storage. Sourdough (SD) has been used in bread manufacture since ancient times because its beneficial effects on dough leavening. SD is a symbiotic culture of lactobacilli (LAB) and yeasts, giving a distinctively tangy or sour taste, due mainly to the lactic and acetic acid produced by the LAB. Th...

  16. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  17. Characterization of two clays - attapulgite and sepiolite - before and after acid activation; Caracterizacao de duas argilas - atapulgita e sepiolita - antes e apos ativacao acida com HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: renataoliveira@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Among the special clays, two of them are distinguished by their large surface area: attapulgite and sepiolite. Although, being natural clays, when they are removed from the formation sites, their structural channels may be filled of impurities. The process done to clean these channels is called acid activation. The present work aim to treated samples from both clays by using 3M and 5M HCl solution under ultrasonic waves for 1 hour. The characterization of the clays before and after activation was carried out by SEM/EDS, XRD and surface area measure by method BET. The acid treatments employed were too aggressive, in special that with 5M HCl solution, which results in partial lixiviation of these clays. (author)

  18. Thiolated and S-protected hydrophobically modified cross-linked poly(acrylic acid)--a new generation of multifunctional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonengel, Sonja; Haupstein, Sabine; Perera, Glen; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to create a novel multifunctional polymer by covalent attachment of l-cysteine to the polymeric backbone of hydrophobically modified cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) (AC1030). Secondly, the free thiol groups of the resulting thiomer were activated using 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA) to provide full reactivity and stability. Within this study, 1167.36 μmol cysteine and 865.72 μmol 2-MNA could be coupled per gram polymer. Studies evaluating mucoadhesive properties revealed a 4-fold extended adherence time to native small intestinal mucosa for the thiomer (AC1030-cysteine) as well as an 18-fold prolonged adhesion for the preactivated thiomer (AC1030-Cyst-2-MNA) compared to the unmodified polymer. Modification of the polymer led to a higher tablet stability concerning the thiomer and the S-protected thiomer, but a decelerated water uptake could be observed only for the preactivated thiomer. Neither the novel conjugates nor the unmodified polymer showed severe toxicity on Caco-2 cells. Evaluation of emulsification capacity proofed the ability to incorporate lipophilic compounds like medium chain triglycerides and the preservation of the emulsifying properties after the modifications. According to these results thiolated AC1030 as well as the S-protected thiolated polymer might provide a promising tool for solid and semisolid formulations in pharmaceutical development.

  19. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  20. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Oil of Salvia santolinifolia Boiss. From Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Babak Bahadori, Hassan Valizadeh , Mahdi Moridi Farimani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvia santolinifolia is a medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, hemorrhoids and diarrhea. Discovery of new natural antimicrobial agents is necessary because of microorganism’s resistance to common antibiotics. Methods: Essential oil of S. santolinifolia was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Antibacterial, antifungal and general toxic activities of the essential oil were also evaluated. Results: Chemical analysis of the oil revealed that α-pinene (49.3%, β-eudesmol (20.0%, camphene (7.8% and limonene (7.7% are the major components of the essential oil of S. santolinifolia. The inhibition zones ranged from 11.5 to 23.8 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the oil obtained from 200 to 800 µg/ml against several microbial strains. Conclusion: Our results showed that the volatile oil of S. santolinifolia could be considered as a rich source of natural agents for several uses as antibiotics against human pathogenic microbes.

  2. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellanas, B.; Abellanas, M.; Pommerening, A.; Lodares, D.; Cuadros, S.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. a) To present a new version of the forest simulator Vorest, an individual-based spatially explicit model that uses weighted Voronoi diagrams to simulate the natural dynamics of forest stands with closed canopies. b) To apply the model to the current dynamics of a Grazalema pinsapo stand to identify the nature of its competition regime and the stagnation risks it is currently facing. Area of study: Sierra del Pinar de Grazalema (S Spain) Material and methods: Two large plots representative of Grazalema pinsapo stands were used to fit and validate the model (plus 6 accesory plots to increase the availability of mortality data). Two inventories were carried out in 1998 and 2007 producing tree size and location data. We developed a forest simulator based on three submodels: growth, competition and mortality. The model was fitted, evaluated and validated for Grazalema plots. The simulation outputs were used to infer the expected evolution of structural diversity of forest stands. Main results: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating dynamics of natural closed stands. The application to Grazalema pinsapo stands has allowed assessing the nature of the main processes that are driving its development pathway. We have found that the prevailing size-asymmetric competition dominates the self-thinning process in small-sized trees. At the same time, there is an active tree-size differentiation process. Research highlights: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating natural stands with closed canopies. The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. (Author)

  3. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Abellanas

    2016-07-01

    • The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. Keywords: Vorest; stand dynamics; individual-based forest model; spatially explicit forest model; pinsapo.

  4. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  5. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae) on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L.) and Glycine max (L.) Merr

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica da Silva; Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Fernanda Melo Gomes; Tassiane Terezinha Pinto; Thaliny Bonamigo; Nayara Parisoto Boiago

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations...

  6. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L. and Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations were held daily. The parameters under analysis were: germination percentage, time and average speed of germination, and average root lenght. The data obtained underwent the F-Test and the mean values were compared through Tukey’s test, at a 5% probability level. The results confi rm the presence of allelopathic potential in camelina. It was found that this species can be considered an option for cultivating with soybean, due to the positive allelophatic interference caused in the culture and because it can be used in the control of weeds such as beggartick, having in mind that that it has delayed the development of the seedlings tested.

  7. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghanadian, M; Asghari, G; Azali, N

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice (25-30 g), fasted over night with free access to water, were treated with test compounds or control (p.o.). Thirty min later castor oil (0.5 ml) was given orally to the animals. In another groups of animals MgSO4 (0.5 ml of 10% solution) was given first and half an hour later the test drugs were administered. Onset and number of wet defecations were recorded for each animal over 3.5 h after treatment with diarrhoea inducing agents. In another groups, intestinal transit of charcoal meal was determined following administration of the compounds. Isovanillin (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg), iso-acetovanillon (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg) and P. spinosa extract (5 mg/kg) delayed onset of diarrhoea and significantly reduced wet defecation induced by castor oil and MgSO4. They all had antidiarrheal effect similar to propantheline (5 mg/kg). Isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and P. spinosa extract compared to control groups, significantly reduced small intestinal transit of charcoal meal. This study shows that antidiarrheal effect of P. spinosa extract is at least partially due to presence of two active compounds isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon.

  8. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 μM Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2 μM Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis.

  10. Meiotic chromosome number and behavior of six populations of Onobrychis melanotricha Boiss. (O. sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Ranjbar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Onobrychis Mill. with about 130 species in 9 sections is one of the most valued legumes distributed mainly in temperate regions of north hemisphere. However, its main centers of diversity are eastern Mediterranean and southwestern Asia. O. sect. Heliobrychis is the largest section of the genus and has nearly 21 species in Iran. In this investigation, the chromosome number and meiotic behavior were studied in 6 populations of O. melanotricha. All taxa were diploid and had the basic chromosome number of 2n=2x=16. Although the taxa represented regular meiosis, some abnormalities such as laggard and fragmented chromosomes in anaphase/telophase I, II and diakinesis/methaphase I, cytomixis in anaphase/telophase I, II, micronucleus in telophase II, multipolar cells in telophase II, bridges in anaphase I and asynchronous nuclei in metaphase II and telophase I and II were observed.

  11. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from B unium persicum (Boiss Fedtsch seeds: a valuable herb of Middle East and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Emamipoor

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained. Thus, the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  12. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode′s solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS, KCl (80 mM and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37 °C and continuously gassed with O 2 . The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%, β-eudesmol (6.4 %, ρ-cymene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.6%, α-pinine (1.4% and α-phelandrene (1.1%. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC 50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml, ACh (IC 50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml and EFS (IC 50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC 50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  13. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  14. In vitro and in vivo comparison of the biological activities of two traditionally and widely used Arum species from Jordan: Arum dioscoridis Sibth & Sm. and Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Litescu, Simona C; Abaza, Ismail M

    2016-08-01

    Arum dioscoridis and A. palaestinum (Araceae) are indigenous plant species in Jordan. HPLC-MS analysis of A. dioscoridis revealed the presence of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside, vitexin, isoorientin, esculin, and caffeic and ferulic acids. Both Arum spp., influenced gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption. Orlistat inhibited dose dependently and highly substantially pancreatic lipase (PL) in vitro. Similar to orlistat, Arum species aqueous extracts (AEs), apigenin, caffeic acid and esculin exhibited a concentration related PL inhibition. Comparable to acarbose, dual inhibition of α-amylase/α-glucosidase was observed for both Arum species. Like guar gum, A. dioscoridis AE minimised substantially area under 24 h glucose curve. Acute starch-induced postprandial hyperglycaemia in overnight fasting rats was highly significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by A. dioscoridis AE. A. palaestinum could not perform effectively in either starch- or glucose-fed fasting rats. No antiproliferative effects against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116 and SW620 were detected for tested Arum spp.

  15. Alpha-Pinene as the Main Component of Ducrosia anethifolia (Boiss Essential Oil is Responsible for its Effect on Locomotor Activity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ducrosia anethifolia (DA is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat a wide spectrum of illnesses. DA contains a series of antioxidant compounds, including alpha-pinene, which give it a sedative and relaxing effect. In spite of these effects of DA, the effects of DA essential oil on anxiety and locomotor activity in open field tests have not yet been studied. In the present study, the effects of DA essential oil and its main component of alpha-pinene on locomotor activity and anxiety were studied using open field tests. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of DA essential oil and its main component, alpha-pinene, on locomotor activity and anxiety behaviors using open field and antioxidant capacity tests in Wistar rats. Methods Sixty-three adult male Wistar rats (weighing 200 - 250 g were divided into 9 groups: control, positive control (diazepam, essential oil treated groups (25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally, (i.p. and alpha-pinene groups (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, i.p.. For precisely 30 minutes after each injection in all groups, open field tests were used to assess behaviors such as rearing, line crossing, walling, grooming, and stretched attend posturing. In addition, oxidant and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase [CAT] were assessed in the rats’ temporal lobes. Results DA (200 and 500 mg/kg doses and alpha-pinene (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg doses significantly reduced locomotor activity, whereas doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg of DA failed to show such an effect. Treatment with DA and alpha-pinene resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and a significant increase in CAT activity in comparison to controls. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the main component of DA (alpha-pinene is responsible for DA’s ability to reduce locomotor activity and anxiety, which is indicative of CNS depressant activity. Moreover, it is possible that some of the motor suppression and sedation effects of the alpha-pinene in DA are due to the antioxidant capacity of this substance. However, further research and clinical evaluations are necessary to isolate and identify the other substances responsible for these activities in DA.

  16. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Nacim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%, 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%, cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%, camphor (6.8-19.93%, 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%, terpenyl acetate (0-14.92% and viridiflorol (0-11.49%. Based on major compounds, the populations were represented by (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/cis-sabinene hydrate/camphor/viridiflorol, (1,8-cineole/camphor/terpenyl acetate, (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/camphor, (1,8-cineole/camphor/4-terpineol and (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/cis-sabinene hydrate/camphor/4-terpineol chemotypes. Variation of phenological stage did not have a statistically significant effect on the yield and metal chelating activity of the essential oil. These results can be used to investigate the geographical location and the harvesting time of this plant for relevant industries.

  17. Karyotyping and in situ chromosomal localization of rDNA sites in black cumin Bunium persicum (Boiss B. Fedtsch,1915 (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chahota

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique has been applied to somatic chromosomes in the medicinally important species, Bunium persicum, to elucidate its karyotypes. The bicolour FISH technique involving 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes as probes was used to assign physical localization and measurement of rDNA sites on homologous pairs of chromosomes. The two 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene sites were at the terminal regions of the short arms of the chromosomes 1 and 2 involving NOR region of chromosome 1. The 5S rDNA sites were found on subtelomeric region of the long arm of the chromosome number 5 and at interstitial regions of the short arm of chromosome 7. Based on direct visual analysis of chromosome length, morphology and position of FISH signals, a pioneer attempt has been made to construct metaphase karyotype in B. persicum, an endangered medicinal plant of North Western Himalayas.

  18. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from Bunium persicum(Boiss)Fedtsch seeds:a valuable herb of middle East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef; Emamipoor; Mahmood; Maziah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a protocol lor breaking of seed dormancy and increasing the seed germination rate of Bunium persicum.Methods:The seeds were treated with 3.1.6.3.12.5.25.50 and 100 μmol/L of benzyl aminopurine.gibberellic acid(GA,),thidiazuron(TDZ) and forchlorlenuron.Then,seeds were transferred to two different temperature conditions including room temperature(25 ℃) and chilling temperature(2-5℃).Results:The treatment of moist seeds with chilling temperature(2—5℃) broke seed dormancy and showed maximum germination,which was 54.7%after 60 d treatment.Also,the treatment of dn seeds with chilling temperature broke seed dormancy with 9.3%germination rate after 120 d.Treatment of seeds with different level of plant growth regulators showed that under moistroom condition,there was evidence ol higher and lower seed germination rate:GA,(100 μmol/L)with 46.7%and TDZ(50 μmol/L) with 6.67%respectively.In addition,the results showed that under moist-chilling condition.TDZ(6.3 μmol/L) with 53.3%seed germination rate had higher influence on breaking seed dormancy.Treatment of seeds with combination of TDZ and GA3 under moistchilling condition revealed higher rale of breaking of seed dormancy when 6.3 μmol/L TDZ was combined with 100 μmol/L GA,.showing 93.7%genninatiou rate.Conclusions:The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained.Thus,the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  19. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedtsch seeds:a valuable herb of Middle East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Emamipoor; Mahmood Maziah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop a protocol for breaking of seed dormancy and increasing the seed germination rate of Bunium persicum. Methods:The seeds were treated with 3.1, 6.3, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µmol/L of benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid (GA3), thidiazuron (TDZ) and forchlorfenuron. Then, seeds were transferred to two different temperature conditions including room temperature (25 °C) and chilling temperature (2-5 °C). Results: The treatment of moist seeds with chilling temperature (2-5 °C) broke seed dormancy and showed maximum germination, which was 54.7%after 60 d treatment. Also, the treatment of dry seeds with chilling temperature broke seed dormancy with 9.3%germination rate after 120 d. Treatment of seeds with different level of plant growth regulators showed that under moist-room condition, there was evidence of higher and lower seed germination rate:GA3 (100 µmol/L) with 46.7%and TDZ (50 µmol/L) with 6.67%respectively. In addition, the results showed that under moist-chilling condition, TDZ (6.3 µmol/L) with 53.3%seed germination rate had higher influence on breaking seed dormancy. Treatment of seeds with combination of TDZ and GA3 under moist-chilling condition revealed higher rate of breaking of seed dormancy when 6.3 µmol/L TDZ was combined with 100 µmol/L GA3, showing 93.7%germination rate. Conclusions:The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained. Thus, the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  20. Effects of Plant Density and Water Stress on Competitive Ability and Yield of Medicago Sativa L. and Bromus tomentellus Boiss.in Mono and Mixed Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant density and water stress on yield of Medicago sativa and Bromus tomentellus was studied. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Isfahan University of Technology in 2013. The experiment included 18 treatments, three crop compositions (M.sativa, B. tomentellus or mixture of the two, two plant density levels, three watering regimes and four replicates, arranged in a completely randomized block design. Results showed that total yield of M. sativa mono-cropping was higher than mixed cropping and it was higher than B. tomentellus mono-cropping. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER values were less than 1 for all mixed cropping treatments, indicated the interspecific competition in mixed cropping. The biomass production per plant decreased with increasing density, competition for resource utilization and water stress. Compare of above-ground and below-ground dry matter showed that M. sativa appeared to be more constrained by intraspecific than by interspecific competition, Conversely, B. tomentellus was more suppressed by interspecific competition exerted by M. sativa than by intraspecific competition. Relative competition intensity (RCI values were positive for B. tomentellus and negative for M.sativa, implying that competitive ability of M.sativa was higher than B. tomentellus in mixed cropping .

  1. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    OpenAIRE

    Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D.; V Khalaj

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial...

  2. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaraeyat, R; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D; Khalaj, V

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  3. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yahyaraeyat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora essential oil (EO on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1, aflatoxinB2 (AFB2, aflatoxinG1 (AFG1, aflatoxinG2 (AFG2 and aflatoxin total (AFTotal production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  4. Use of wetlands for the treatment of acidic mining drainage: the processes in the wetland; Utilizacion de humedales para el tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina: procesos que tienen lugar en el humedal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lastra, M.; Loredo Perez, J. [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas. Escuela de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    Wetlands constitute an alternative method for the treatment of acidic mining drainage, through the utilization of some plant species complex physico-chemical and biological processes take place, producing and improvement of the quality of waters moving through. The inherent characteristics of a wetland in operation will originate an horizontal zonation as for the quality of waters due to their progressive ameliorations of pH increase and heavy metals concentration decreases, anyway a vertical zonation, giving rise to oxidation and reduction zones on the wetland. From the different physical processes occurring on the wetland, the plant roots filtering, the dilution of effluents with superficial and underground waters and aeration phenomena can be considered very important. Oxidation, hydrolysis and sulphate reduction constitute important chemical processes leading to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated effluents. Wetlands have plants as sphagnum, typha and algae advantageous for the treatment of acidic waters provided that they retain heavy metals in their tissues and the contribute furthermore to modify the substrate conditions favoring the creation of reduction zones. The aerobic-anaerobic mixed systems are from the different wetland types those are prevailing because of the advantages of sulphate reduction as contrasted with oxides precipitation for the removal of heavy metals. Wetlands although are not the panacea for the treatment of acidic mining waters they offer advantages and some disadvantages too, over other treatment methods, and they constitute a real alternative for the conventional methods of chemical neutralization. (Author)

  5. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  6. Characterization of bicuculline/baclofen-insensitive (rho-like) gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. II. Pharmacology of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptor agonists and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R M; Polenzani, L; Miledi, R

    1993-04-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA from mammalian retina expresses bicuculline/baclofen-insensitive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in Xenopus oocytes with properties similar to those of homooligomeric GABA rho 1 receptors. The pharmacological profile of these rho-like receptors was extended by measuring sensitivities to various GABAA and GABAB receptor ligands. For direct comparison the same compounds were also assayed with GABAA receptors expressed by rat brain RNA. The potency sequence for heterocyclic GABA analogues at the GABA rho-like receptors was GABA (1.3) > muscimol (2.3) > isoguvacine (100) (approximate EC50 in parentheses; all EC50 and Kb values given in microM). Both muscimol and isoguvacine were partial agonists at the rho-like receptors. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (Kb congruent to 32), piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (Kb congruent to 85), and isonipecotic acid (Kb congruent to 1000) acted primarily as competitive antagonists, showing little or no activity as agonists. The sulfonic acid GABA analogue 3-aminopropanesulfonic acid was also a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 20). Conformationally restricted GABA analogues trans- and cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA and CACA) were agonists at the rho-like receptors. TACA (EC50 congruent to 0.6) had twice the potency of GABA and was 125 times more potent than CACA (EC50 congruent to 75). Z-3-(Amidinothio)propenoic acid, an isothiouronium analogue of GABA, had little activity as an agonist but instead acted as a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 20). At concentrations of > 100 microM, bicuculline did have some weak competitive inhibitory effects on the GABA rho-like receptors (Kb congruent to 6000), but it was at least 5000 times more potent at GABAA receptors. Strychnine (Kb congruent to 70) and SR-95531 (Kb congruent to 35) also were competitive inhibitors of the rho-like receptors but were, respectively, 20 and 240 times more potent at GABAA receptors. The GABAB receptor ligands baclofen, phaclofen, and saclofen (1-100 microM) had no appreciable effects on the rho-like receptors. In contrast, 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid, the phosphonic acid analogue of GABA, acted as a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 10), and 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)-phosphinic acid were moderately potent antagonists (Kb congruent to 1.7 and 0.8, respectively). delta-Aminovaleric acid was also an antagonist (Kb congruent to 20), whereas 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid, the phosphonic acid analogue of delta-aminovaleric acid, was only a weak inhibitor (Kb congruent to 600).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. Biological treatment of acid mine water: selection of a biomass population enriched in sulphate-reducing bacteria; Tratamiento biologico de aguas acidas de mineria: seleccion de una poblacion bacteriana enriquecida en bacterias sulfatoreductoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel Villagran, F. J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the biological sulphate reduction. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the metal mining industry. This wastewater is formed when sulphide ores undergo chemical and biological oxidation processes and is characterized by low pH-values and high levels of sulphate and metals. The effect of stimuling bacteria sulphate reduction in such systems in order to improve water quality was examined in a laboratory scale experiment, in 250 mL, magnetically stirred, batch, anaerobic reactors, to 25 degree centigree. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Acid drainages of the pyritic sterile from the Pocos de Caldas uranium mine: environmental interpretation and implications; Drenagens acidas do esteril piritoso da mina de uranio de Pocos de Caldas: interpretacao e implicacoes ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-12-01

    Considering the planned closure of the first uranium mine and milling plant operating in Brazil, located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, in the State of Minas Gerais, in the next two years, there is the need to obtain basic information for its decommissioning. Special attention has been directed to the following critical areas: open pit, tailing, dam and waste rock piles, because these are the main sources of acid drainage generation. These waters cannot be allowed to flow in the external environment because in addition to sulphuric acid, there is a number of elements in concentration above those allowed by regulations. Among the waste piles (bota-foras BF) two of them BF-4 and BF-8, are in a process of acid generation, thus requiring more attention. The objective of this work was to simulate at the laboratory scale the oxidation and the reduction zones of BF-4. The experiments were conducted in acrylic columns, where the waste sample was kept under aerated and saturated conditions, in different columns. The control of the chemical (solubilized chemical species), physico-chemical (redox potential, pH, conductivity) and biological (bacterial activity) parameters has been carried out on the acid solutions generated by the chemical and biological reactions that occur at the waste. Although the results refer to a four month period, some relevant points can be highlighted, which will serve as a basis for further research. The mineralogical characterization identified the existence of other sulphides associated to pyrite with lower oxidation potential than the latter. The results obtained with the biological characterization for the two conditions studied revealed that the bacterial activity is more intense in the region in contact with air, than in saturated region. (author) 30 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Ni, Co recovery study and Fe by acid leaching in columns; Estudio de la extraccion de Ni, Co y Fe en lateritas por medio de lixiviacion acida en columnas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, C. di; Betancourt, E.; Vivas, R.; Rus, J.

    2006-07-01

    In the following work the possibility of the mic kel recovery by hydrometallurgy extraction for nickeliferous laterite is studied. The work looks for to study the technical viability of the extraction of nickel and cobalt by means of the application of heap leaching. The ore is chemically and physically characterized with the purpose of analyzes its composition and mineral phase, by means of x-rays diffraction, quantitative chemical analysis and elementary chemical analysis by electronic microscopy. One the ore is characterized, it is mixed with sulfuric acid to relations 0.05; 0.1 and 0.2 g acid/g to agglomerated pellets and paste, with the aim to improve the percolation in column, due to the argillaceous nature of the ore leaching rate ranged from 0.305 to 1.06 x 10 l/h m''2 and in the agglomerate condition of the percolation l/h m''2 improves at interval 3.05 to 6.11 x 100 l/h m''2. (Author)

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Zinc(Ⅱ) Dinicotinate Complex [Zn(nic)2(H2O)4](nic=nicotinic acid):A Three-dimensional Hydrogen-bond Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Hong-yan; ZHANG Zong-pei; ZHANG Hong-yun; XU Chen; WANG En-bo; WU Qing-an; ZHU Yu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Nicotinic acid and its transition-metal comple-xes have become increasingly important due to their potential applications as cosmetics or medicines with antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and the activity in the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism[1-3], etc. A major research effort has been made to generate such materials and to study their biological activity[4-9]. But few of the previous works have directed towards the structure investigation of these metal complexes[6-9]. So, in this report we aim at testing the effect of hydrothermal synthesis on the formation of the crystal structures of crystalline [Zn(nic)2(H2O)4 ](nic=nicotinic acid).

  11. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo C. Orlando

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

  12. Cellulose whiskers from sisal fibers: a study about the variable of extraction by acid hydrolysis; Whiskers de cellulose obtido a partir de fibras de sisal: estudo de variaveis de extracao por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Kelcilene B.R., E-mail: rakelcilene@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, Eliangela de Morais; Correa, Ana Carolina; Campos, Adriana de; Marconcini, Jose Manoel; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria - EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA)

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of cellulosic nanostructures in polymeric matrices has been studied due to their properties of biodegradation, and expected higher mechanical performance than the traditional composites. In this work, cellulose nanofibers were obtained from sisal bleached with reagents without chlorine, where it was used an acid mixture, with acetic acid and nitric acid, and after the bleached fibers were submitted to acid hydrolysis. The influence of the temperature and time of hydrolysis on the morphology and dimensions, crystallinity and thermal stability were analyzed by scanning transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The hydrolysis condition of 60 deg C and 15 minutes showed to be the most effective condition to obtain whiskers from sisal fibers, resulting in nanostructures with higher crystallinity and thermal. (author)

  13. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  14. Acid membranes of poly(vinyl alcohol) for direct ethanol fuel cell applications; Membranes acidas de poli(alcool vinilico) para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel via etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra Filho, Jose C.; Gomes, Ailton S. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: asgomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Proton-conducting hybrid membranes composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), phosphotungstic acid (HPW) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) where prepared. The effect of HPW doping and crosslink with DTPA on the membranes properties such as uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity was investigated. Uptake and permeated flux decreases with increasing content of HPW and DTPA. Ethanol permeabilities obtained was about two orders of magnitude smaller than Nafion 117. FTIR spectra indicated that HPW was incorporated into the polymer matrix and DTPA acted as crosslink agent. The proton conductivity was in the order of 10-3 S.cm-1 with added 4 wt.% of DTPA and generally increases with the addition of HPW. (author)

  15. Recovery of tungsten from wolframite from the Igarape Manteiga mine (Rondonia - Brazil) via acidic leaching; Isolamento do tungstenio da volframita da mina de Igarape Manteiga (Rondonia - Brasil) por lixiviacao acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Vianna, Claudio Augusto; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We report results of the efficiency of tungsten extraction from wolframite concentrate (containing 61.5 wt % WO{sub 3}) from the Igarape Manteiga mine (state of Rondonia, Brazil) through acid leaching with strong mineral acids at 100 deg C and 400 rpm for 2-4 h. HCl yielded insoluble matter containing the highest WO{sub 3} content (90 wt %). This solid was dissolved in concentrated NH{sub 3(aq)} at 25 deg C and the insoluble matter filtrated. The filtrate was slowly evaporated. 70 wt % of the tungsten present in the starting concentrate material was recovered as ammonium paratungstate (APT). (author)

  16. Gastric acid secretion response in the Cebus apella: a monkey model of chronic Chagas disease Respuesta secretora acida gastrica en el Cebus apella, un modelo animal de la enfermedad de Chagas cronica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the secretory pattern, both basal and stimulated either by histamine (0.1 mg/kg or pentagastrin (64 ug/kg in eighteen Cebus apella monkeys chronically infected with different T. cruzi strains (CA1, n=10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4 and to describe the morphological findings in the gastrointestinal tract in twelve infected (6 sacrificed and 6 spontaneously dead and four healthy monkeys. All infected monkeys and 35 healthy ones were evaluated by contrast X-ray examination. No differences were observed in basal acid output between control and infected groups. Animals infected with the Tulahuen and Colombian strains showed significant lower values of peak acid output in response to histamine or pentagastrin (pEl objetivo fue estudiar la respuesta secretora basal y estimulada por histamina (0.1 mg/kg o pentagastrina (64 ug/kg en 18 monos Cebus apella cronicamente infectados con diferentes cepas de T. cruzi (CA1 n=10; Colombiana n=4 y Tulahuén n=4. Además se describieron los hallazgos morfológicos en el tracto gastrointestinal de 12 animales muertos (6 sacrificados y 6 espontaneamente. Se evaluó radiológicamente el tracto gastrointestinal de 35 Cebus sp. sanos (controles y 18 infectados crónicamente. Se estudiaron histopatologicamente 4 controles y 12 infectados. No hubo diferencias en la secreción basal ácida entre los grupos control e infectado. Los animales infectados con la cepa Tulahuén y Colombian tuvieron valores más bajos en el pico de secreción ácida, como respuesta a la histamina o a la pentagastrina (p<0.01 y p<0.05 respectivamente; test "t" con respecto a los controles. Los estudios con contraste de bario mostraron agrandamiento y dilatación del colon en 3 animales infectados. En las autopsias de los chagásicos se encontraron lesiones histologicas en el 75% de los casos (solo en colon, 33%; en colon y esofago, 42%. En el grupo CA1, la secreción ácida estuvo dentro de los parámetros normales y esto se podría deber a una baja virulencia de la cepa, a un menor tropismo esofágico o a que el tiempo post-infección fue demasiado corto para causar lesiones.

  17. Sub products form a depuratives process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. part I; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos organicos como fuente carbonada, Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2002-07-01

    Subproducts from the biological depurative process of acid mine water, such as H{sub 2}S in the biogas and HCO{sub 3} in the effluents are applied for the selective precipitation of metallic sulphides of Pb, Zn, Cu, Al an Mn, as a function of pH. To obtain the maximum H{sub 2}S concentration is principal,so several studies have been made to found the best working conditions between microorganisms and the carbon source choice. In this work,the results of the digestion process with an inoculum from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure and cheese whey as carbon source are showed. The optimal conditions obtained are: for a SO{sub 4}''=COD of 1:1,5 in HRT of 12 days, 65% of sulphate reduction, 30% of H2S in biogas. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 98,3% of Fe, 96,1% Cu, 79% Zn and 99% Al are obtained. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 15 refs.

  18. Subproducts from a depurative process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. Part II; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos orgnicos como fuente carbonada (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    The biological depurative process of acid mine water reducing sulphate concentration from Tinto River produces the alkalinity needed for the selective precipitation of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. But a suitable carbon source for the working conditions of microorganisms to reduce sulphates is needed. In this work, the results obtained using urban sewage as a carbon source are presented. the optimal conditions obtained are: 65,5% of sulphate reduction in HRT of 10 days for a SO{sub '}'2{sub 4} COD of 1:1 and 580 mg HS/L in the reactor effluent. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 77,6% of Fe, 88,6% of Cu, 70,7% of Zn and 71,5% of Al, are obtained depending on the assay applied. Ayesa is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  20. Physical and chemical treatment of the acid wastewater poured from Aznalcollar quarnx (Sevilla-Spain); Tratamiento fisicoquimico de las aguas acidas vertidas tras la rotura de la balsa minera de Aznalcollar (Sevilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Mediavilla, B.; Medialdea, J. M.; Montes, M. A.; Garcia Martinez de Simon, I.; Lopez, C. M.; Moron, M. J.; Escot, E.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla. Sevialla (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    In this work, laboratory results of physical and chemical treatment of the acid wastewater poured from Aznalcollar quarry (Sevilla, Spain) the last april 25, 1998, are presented. Experiments were carried out in the facilities of the Wastewater Treatment Research Group, University of Sevilla. Objectives were to adjust pH and to remove heavy metals from the water. Comparative results showed application of calcium hydroxide and aluminium policyholder as the most effective physical and chemical treatment for the water, in terms of pH adjustment and heavy metal removal. Data suggest that treatment systems including preliminary adjustment of water pH followed by addition of chemical coagulants, significantly alter the physical state of dissolved heavy metals and facilitate their removal by sedimentation. Such procedures might be useful for the treatment of surface waters polluted with high concentrations of heavy metals. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  2. Isolation and characterization of ingenol esters from Euphorbia cornigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imam Bakhsh Baloch; Musa Kaleem Baloch

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. on HPLC separation yielded three new compounds. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were established through 2D-NMR spectroscopic measurements.

  3. Comparative efficacy of herbal essences with amphotricin B and ketoconazole on Candida albicans in the in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, essential oils with different components showed antifungal activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil. They can therefore be used as new antifungal substances.

  4. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae).

  5. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Qian; LI, Zu-Yi

    2000-01-01

    Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acidas from unsaturated carboxylic acids was investigated.Under mild conditions unsaturated arboxylic acids were convcveed to peroxide,then the unsaturated peroxycarboxylic acids epoxidised the C=C bond of themselves

  6. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.

  7. Relation of C358A polymorphism of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) with obesity and insulin resistance Relación del polimorfismo C358A del enzima del sistema endocanabinoide (hidrolasa amida acida) con la obesidad y la resistencia a la insulina

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. De Luis; M. González Sagrado; Aller, R.; O. Izaola; Conde, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: Recently, it has been demonstrated that the polymorphism 385 C->A of FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) was associated with overweight and obesity. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship of missense polymorphism (cDNA 385 C-A) of FAAH gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk factors and adipocytokines. Methods: A population of 279 females with obesity (body mass index 30) was analyzed. An indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical b...

  8. Quality in the organizations (enterprises and institutions of production and of services). Validation of the determination by atomic absorption of sodium and potassium in acid rain; Calidad de las organizaciones (empresas e instituciones de produccion y de servicios). Validacion de la determinacion por absorcion atomica de sodio y potasio en lluvia acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola T, D.L

    2005-07-01

    The present work is focused to the environmental area and in specific to the validation of an analytical method by means of one of the techniques more used for the determination of metals, the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Applied to the study of the acid rain and its diverse forms in the nature. As well as their consequences and the role that the man carries out in the contribution toward this phenomenon. To approach the following text it will be mention shortly how is distributed, beginning with the introduction that is about the importance of the role of the acid rain, its effects and repercussions in the environment. In the first chapter the points that we should be evaluated to carry out a validation are analyzed. Being the main ones, the precision, accuracy, lineal interval, among others. Continuing in the second chapter with the foundation study, equipment and interferences of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The last chapter contains the experimental part, continuing for each evaluated point, from the experimental development, results and its analysis. (Author)

  9. Relation of C358A polymorphism of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH with obesity and insulin resistance Relación del polimorfismo C358A del enzima del sistema endocanabinoide (hidrolasa amida acida con la obesidad y la resistencia a la insulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. de Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently, it has been demonstrated that the polymorphism 385 C->A of FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase was associated with overweight and obesity. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship of missense polymorphism (cDNA 385 C-A of FAAH gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk factors and adipocytokines. Methods: A population of 279 females with obesity (body mass index 30 was analyzed. An indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3 days written food records and biochemical analysis (lipid profile, adipocytokines, insulin, CRP and lipoprotein-a were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for the combined C385A and A385A as a group and wild type C385C as second group. Results: One hundred and ninety four patients (69.5% had the genotype C385C (wild type group and 76 (27.2% patients had the genotype C358A or A358A (9 patients, 3.2% (mutant type group. No differences were detected between groups in anthropometric parameters and dietary intakes. Triglycerides (118.9 ± 59.9 mg/dl vs 107.4 + 51.3 mg/dl;p Antecedentes y objetivos: Recientemente, se ha demostrado que el polimorfismo 385 C/A, de FAAH (hidrolasa amida de ácidos grasos se asocia con el sobrepeso y la obesidad. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar la relación de este polimorfismo del gen de FAAH con parámetros antropométricos, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y adipocitoquinas. Métodos: Una población de 279 mujeres con obesidad (índice de masa corporal> 30 fue analizada. Se realizaron las siguientes determinaciones; calorimetría indirecta, bioimpedancia eléctrica, presión arterial, una evaluación de la ingesta nutricional de 3 días, así como un análisis bioquímico (perfil lipídico, adipocitoquinas, insulina, proteina C reactiva y lipoproteína-(a. El análisis estadístico se realizó combinando C385A y A385A como grupo mutante y C385C como grupo salvaje. Resultados: Un total de 194 pacientes (69,5% tenían el genotipo C385C (genotipo salvaje y 76 (27,2% pacientes tenían el genotipo C358A y 9 pacientes (3,2% el genotipo A358A, formando estos dos el grupo de genotipo mutante. No se detectaron diferencias entre los grupos en los parámetros antropométricos y la ingesta dietética. Sin embargo los pacientes con genotipo salvaje presentaron valores más elevado de triglicéridos (118,9 ± 59,9 mg/dl vs 107,4 + 51,3 mg/dl; p < 0,05, glucosa (100,4 ± 19,9 mg/dl vs 94,8 + 11,5mg/dl; p < 0,05, HOMA (3,74 ± 2,2 vs 3,39 + 2,7; p < 0,05 y de interleukina-6 (3,3 ± 1,4 pg/ml vs 1,4 ± 2,1 pg/ml; p < 0,05 fueron mayores en el grupo de tipo salvaje que el grupo de tipo mutante. Conclusión: El principal hallazgo de este trabajo es la asociación del genotipo mutante (A358C y A358A de FAAH con un mejor perfil cardiovascular (triglicéridos, glucosa, interleucina 6 y HOMA que los pacientes portadores del genotipo salvaje.

  10. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  11. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  12. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The essential oils used in the present study with different components showed antibacterial activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil, and therefore they can be used as a new antibacterial substance.

  13. FLAVONOIDS OF SALVIA MICROSTEGIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN**, Z. SUKAL*, B. HALFON*

    2015-01-01

    Three flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-0-glucoside and chrysoeriol, havebeen isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia microstegia Boiss. et Bal.Key words: Salvia, flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol.

  14. A new variety of Salvia macrosiphon (Lamiaceae) for Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazian, Navaz

    2008-04-15

    In this study, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. var. longiflora Kharaz. is reported for the first time as one of the new varieties of Salvia macrosiphon in Iran. The morphological characters of this variety have been described in details.

  15. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF EUROPEAN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    G. DALGIÇ, F. DANE

    2015-01-01

    Alyssum hinrrrtnm Bieb. (Brassicaceae), Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaediw(Boiss.) Engler (Anacardiaceae) Lamirim album L. (Lamiaceae) and Eziphorbianlaclaclada Boiss. (Er(phor6iaceae) have been added to the flora of European Turkey, following the collection of specimens from Al(E) Edime and Canakkale. In addition, two taxa, Pistacia terebinthus subsp. palaestina and Eriphorbia macroclada represent new records for the flora of Europe.Key words: Flora of European Turkey, flora of Europe, ...

  17. Compuestos orgánicos presentes en aguas de escombreras de carbón.

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas Borrajo, Juan F.; Canoira López, Laureano; García-Martínez, Mª Jesús; Ortega Romero, Marcelo; Llamas Lois, Alberto; Diaz Bautista, Maria Aranzazu

    2008-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio de la influencia de las aguas acidas de mina en la movilización de los hidrocarburos policidicos aromáticos (PAHs) presentes en las escombreras de carbón. Se observa como dichas aguas acidas disuelven preferentemente a los PAHs de menor peso molecular. También se ha realizado un análisis de riesgos que indica que existe un riesgo real por uso y consumo, en el interior de las viviendas, del agua subterránea. Por último, se han establecido las bases para una técnica p...

  18. Sistema de tratamiento de aguas ácidas producidas por relaves y desmontes mineros generados en el proceso extracción de oro

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Salazar, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    El presente Proyecto Final de Carrera comprende el planteamiento de solución alterna para el tratamiento de aguas acidas producidas en los depósitos de desmonte y zona de tajo de un proyecto minero aurífero ubicado en la sierra norte del Perú. La planta tratamiento fue dimensionada para procesar el flujo de aguas acidas generadas en el distrito de San Jerónimo en el departamento de Cajamarca en la sierra norte del Perú. Durante la etapa de explotación minera se generan efluentes mineros...

  19. A balanced chromosomal translocation disrupting ARHGEF9 is associated with epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a "scaffolding" protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation ......(A) receptor subtypes involved in epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, insomnia, and learning and memory....

  20. Drug: D00037 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00037 Drug Anhydrous citric acid (JP16); Citric acid anhydrous (JAN); Citric acid,...A09A DIGESTIVES, INCL. ENZYMES A09AB Acid preparations A09AB04 Citric acid D00037... Anhydrous citric acid (JP16); Citric acid anhydrous (JAN); Citric acid, anhydrous (USP) CAS: 77-92-9 PubChe

  1. Caracterización de los óxidos de circonio obtenidos por disociación básica del silicato de circonio

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Espina, Julia María; Sancho Martínez, José Pedro; García Coque, María Purificación; Llavona Uribelarrea, Miguel Ángel; Verdeja González, Luis Felipe

    1991-01-01

    Se obtiene óxido de circonio por disociación básica de distintos silicatos de circonio y posterior lixiviación — acida y básica— de sus impurezas. Se estudia la influencia que tiene la materia prima de partida sobre las características fisicoquímicas del producto fínal

  2. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  3. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed.

  4. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  5. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  6. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    1974-01-01

    A number of species and varieties are mentioned as new to the adventitious flora of the Netherlands, viz. Zingeria trichopoda (Boiss.) P. Smirn.; Poa trivialis L. var. silvicola (Guss.) Hack.; Galium floribundum Sibth. & Sm., G. murale All.; Lallemantia iberica (Bieb.) Fisch. & Mey.; Veronica cf. gr

  7. A new Bacillus pasteurii urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Hussain, Javid; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2006-10-01

    Inhibition of Bacillus pasteurii urease enzyme by 3,7,15-tri-O-acetyl-5-O-nicotinoyl-13,14-dihydroxymyrsinol (1), a diterpene ester with a myrsinol-type skeleton, isolated from Euphorbia decipiens Boiss. and Buhse, was un-competitive consistent with the molecular docking results. The Ki value was 117.40 +/- 0.7 microM.

  8. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2014-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  9. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2000-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  10. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of Biebersteinia Stephan (Geraniaceae) inferred from rbcL and atpB sequence comparisons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.T.; Vassiliades, D.D.; Morton C., C.; Savolainen, V.

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL and atpB gene sequences from Biebersteinia Stephan (represented by B. orphanidis Boiss.) and from selected taxa of the rosids I and II clades does not support traditional grouping of this genus in Geraniaceae s.s. nor in Geraniales, but indicates strong support for a po

  12. Cytogenetic studies in Trifolium Spp. related to berseem : I. Intra- and interspecific hybrid seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiyevsky, E; Katznelson, J

    1973-01-01

    Seed formation by large-scale hybridization within and between Trifolium species related to T. alexandrinum L., was studied. The twelve species studied were: a. T. alexandrinum L., b. T. berytheum Boiss., c. T.salmoneum Mout., d, T. apertum Bobr., e. T. Meironense Zoh. et Lern., f. T. echinatum M.B., g. T. latinum Seb., h. T.carmeli Boiss., i. T. scutatum Boiss., j. T. plebeium Boiss., k. T. vavilovi Eig. and 1. T. constantinopolitanum Ser. Hybridization was done either by emasculation and fertilization by hand, or in nature, by utilizing the existence of natural stands and to serve as pollen source the self-incompatibility of some of the species concerned. Results of the two methods were highly comparable although seedset was much higher when crossing was done manually.Crossability, as estimated by seedset, varied in specific cross combinations and ranged between 0 and 70%. Based on the pattern of crossability, five crossability groups were identified with > 20% seedset in interspecific-intra-group cross combinations, and usually less than 5% in inter-group cross combinations. Species a, b, c, d and e form the first crossability group; f, g and h form the second one; h, i, j belong to the third crossability group, while k and l appear as unispecific fourth and fifth crossability groups. The high level of seedset in interspecific hybridization is discussed.

  13. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  14. Chemical Carcinogen (Hydrazine et al.) Induced Carcinogenesis of Human Diploid Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-07

    Chsaactariaane a/lthe Transformed C4110. essential amino acids. IX euenstial amino acida.,USAq 2.0 mM giutamine, IX vitamina , 0.2% sodium Taumor omnk in...subcutaneous injection of *&mino acids. 2.0 mM glusamine. IX vitamina , SX 10’ carcinogen-treazed or control cells ssa. 0.2% sodium bicarbonate. S iAg/ml

  15. The determination of nutritive value of some rangeland plants using nylon bags technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine of nutritive value of pasture forages (Agropyron intermedium Boiss, Coronilla Varia, Ziziphora Tenuior and Scorzonera grossheimii lipsch using in situ, this study was carried out. In this study two fistulated wetheres (35±1.8 kg were used in in situ method. Ruminal DM and CP disappearances were measured 0,4,8,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradabilities of Coronilla Varia and Agropyron intermedium Boiss at 48 h, were higher and lower, that showed significant differences (P<0.05. Crude protein degradabilities of Coronilla Varia at 96 h was 78.18 % that were higher and showed significant differences (P<0.05. Pasture forages can used largely as a ruminant feeds.

  16. 浙江种子植物分布新记录%New records to the spermatophyte taxa of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈征海; 刘安兴; 孙孟军; 李根有; 胡绍庆

    2002-01-01

    报道了采自浙江的10个种子植物新记录分类群.其中杜仲科Eucommiaceae为科级分布新记录;圆柏属Sabina Mill.,杜仲属Eucommia Oliv.和福王草属Prenanthes L.等3属为属级分布新记录;圆柏Sabina chinensis(L.)Ant.,杜仲Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.,小花山桃草Gaura parviflora Dougl.,福王草Prenanthes tatarinowii Maxim和御谷Pennisetum americarum(L.)Leeke等5种,细叶水芹Oenanthe dielsii de Boiss.var.stenophylla de Boiss.1变种为种(变种)级分布新记录.参5

  17. First natural urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Ullah, Farman; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Yasin, Amsha; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2003-06-01

    Three new diterpene esters with a myrsinol-type skeleton have been isolated from Euphorbia decipiens BOISS. & BUHSE. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1 and 3 are active against prolyl endopeptidase and compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against urease enzyme.

  18. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Gavanji; Elmira Mohammadi; Behrouz Larki; Azizollah Bakhtari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since ancient times, various infectious diseases have been treated using herbal drugs. Today, efforts regarding the discovery of the effectual components of plants possessing antimicrobial properties are advanced. Herbal essential oils are widely used for treatment of various diseases, and they play an important role in health care considerations. Methods: The antibacterial activity of Artemisia kermanensis, Lavandula officinalis, and Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oils aga...

  19. Synthesis of the reported structure of piperazirum using a nitro-Mannich reaction as the key stereochemical determining step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piperazirum, isolated from Arum palaestinum Boiss, was originally assigned as r-3,c-5-diisobutyl-c-6-isopropylpiperazin-2-one. The reported structure was synthesised diastereoselectively using a key nitro-Mannich reaction to set up the C5/C6 relative stereochemistry. The structure was unambiguously assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction but the spectroscopic data did not match those reported for the natural product. The structure of the natural product must therefore be revised.

  20. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  1. Notas taxonómicas y nomenclaturales sobre el género Ononis L. (Leguminosae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López González, Ginés

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ononis reuteri Boiss, is considered to be a good species, clearly different from O. aragonensis Asso, and hs presence in North África is confirmed. O. Hispanica L. f. is regarded as a nomen ambiguum, which should not be used. The classification of the O. natrix L. group is discussed and a new species of this group, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López, is described. O. crispa L., to the Balearic Islands endemic, is excluded from the Iberian Península flora. O. tridentate L. is typified. O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. is considered to be merely a subspecies of O. pusilla L. The new combinations O. tridentata susbp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López and O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López, are proposed.Se destaca la autonomía de Ononis reuteri Boiss, frente a O. aragonensis Asso y se confirma su presencia en el norte de África. Se considera que O. hispanica L. f. es un nombre ambiguo que debe ser rechazado. Se discute la clasificación del grupo de O. natrix L. y se publica una nueva especie, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López. Se excluye O. crispa L. -un endemismo balear- de la Península Ibérica. Se tipifica O. tridentata L. y se publica la combinación O. tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López. Se acepta que O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. es una simple subespecie de O. pusilla L. Se propone la combinación O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López.

  2. Etude Phytochimique et Activités Biologiques de quelques Plantes médicinales de la Région Nord et Sud Ouest de l’Algérie

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMEDI, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Dans le cadre d’une valorisation des ressources naturelles, des extraits méthanoliques de 10 plantes (Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst., Tamarix pauciovulata J. Gay, Paronychia argentea (Lam.), Paronychia chlorothyrsa (Murb.) Morettia canescens (Boiss.), Haloxylon scoparium (Pomel), Arthrophytum schmittianum (Pomel) M. et W., Thymelaea hirsuta (Endl.), Daphne gnidium (L.) and Calotropis procera (Ait.)) ont été testé pour leur activité antioxydante, antifongique et antiaflatoxinogène....

  3. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum ( Scrophulariaceae , Scrophularieae ) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zografidis, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis ( Scrophulariaceae , Scrophularieae ) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this stu...

  4. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Zografidis

    2016-01-01

    Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this study i...

  5. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXII. Guaianolides in species from the genus Chartolepis Cass.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Nowak; Bohdan Drożdż; Miroslav Holub

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the composition of the "lactone fraction" of 4 species from the genus Chartolepis Cass. were observed. Cynaropierin was isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. and the occurrence there of grossheimin was confirmed. The following compounds were isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis glastifolia (L.) Cass.: centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cebellin D, cynaropicrin, cebellin F and janerin. Centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C,...

  6. A new subculture and nematocidal assay using a species of diplogastridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, J; Matsuhashi, R; Watanabe, I; Satou, T; Koike, K; Nikaido, T; Akao, S

    1998-08-01

    A new subculture method and a novel microplate assay for nematocidal activity using a species of Diplogastridae have been developed. The assay gives results rapidly, with high sensitivity in 4 h, and indicated good correlation between action mechanism and the nematode shape when examining 15 known compounds, including the antiparasitic avermectin, antimalarial quinine, and the gamma-amino-n-butyric acidA (GABAA) activated Cl- channel antagonist picrotoxinin. Thus new assay could be used as a primary screening method for new nematocidal compounds.

  7. Análisis de la superficie del vidrio. Aplicación a la determinación de elementos nocivos

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Fuentes, Francisco José

    1997-01-01

    Se constata que la Directiva 94/62/CE relativa a envases y residuos de envases incurre en un contrasentido entre el considerando 8 y el artículo 11 del texto. Se aplican lixiviaciones acuosas y acidas a la extracción de Pb, Cd, Hg y Cr en casco de vidrio reciclado de diferente procedencia. En los lixiviados se aborda el análisis de los anteriores elementos por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica, y vapor frió en el caso concreto del Hg. Se comprueba que la extracción de los citad...

  8. Identificación y caracterización de las mutaciones en el gen GAA en pacientes colombianos afectados por la enfermedad de Pompe

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La Enfermedad de Pompe (EP) es un desorden metabólico caracterizado por la deficiencia de alfa-glucosidasa acida (GAA), una enzima que cataliza la hidrolisis de las uniones glucosidicas α-1.4 y α-1,6 de glucógeno. Esta deficiencia resulta en acumulación de glucógeno en todos los tejidos, especialmente en musculo esquelético. Los pacientes con EP muestran un gran espectro de fenotipos con respecto a la edad de inicio, progresión de la enfermedad, severidad y tasa de progresión a muerte. El cur...

  9. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  10. Studies on the metabolism of the Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H; Neusüss, Christian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker

    2009-10-01

    In Cannabis sativa, Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the non-psychoactive precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC). In fresh plant material, about 90% of the total Delta9-THC is available as Delta9-THCA-A. When heated (smoked or baked), Delta9-THCA-A is only partially converted to Delta9-THC and therefore, Delta9-THCA-A can be detected in serum and urine of cannabis consumers. The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of Delta9-THCA-A and to examine particularly whether oral intake of Delta9-THCA-A leads to in vivo formation of Delta9-THC in a rat model. After oral application of pure Delta9-THCA-A to rats (15 mg/kg body mass), urine samples were collected and metabolites were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high resolution LC-MS using time of flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for accurate mass measurement. For detection of Delta9-THC and its metabolites, urine extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites show that Delta9-THCA-A undergoes a hydroxylation in position 11 to 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (11-OH-Delta9-THCA-A), which is further oxidized via the intermediate aldehyde 11-oxo-Delta9-THCA-A to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A-COOH). Glucuronides of the parent compound and both main metabolites were identified in the rat urine as well. Furthermore, Delta9-THCA-A undergoes hydroxylation in position 8 to 8-alpha- and 8-beta-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, respectively, (8alpha-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A and 8beta-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A, respectively) followed by dehydration. Both monohydroxylated metabolites were further oxidized to their bishydroxylated forms. Several glucuronidation conjugates of these metabolites were identified. In vivo conversion of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was

  11. Dietary potential renal Acid load in venezuelan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sayers, Mayerling; Bernal, Jennifer; López, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y analizar la carga acida potencial renal de la dieta (Potential Renal Acid Load PRAL) y el patron de alimentacion de ninos entre 1 a 6 anos aparentemente sanos. Métodos: Se seleccionaron segun conveniencia a padres de 52 ninos asistentes a una consulta de ninos sanos. La calidad de la dieta y el patron de alimentacion se evaluo mediante un recordatorio de 24 horas y un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos. Se calculo la ingesta de macronutrientes y grupos de alimentos, como carnes, lacteos, frutas y verduras. La ingesta de nutrientes se comparo con las recomendaciones de energia y nutrientes. El PRAL se determino segun el metodo de Remer y Manz, para determinar la carga acida de la dieta. Se aplico estadistica descriptiva y correlaciones entre el PRAL, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos. Resultados: La ingesta de proteinas, de leche y de carnes fue elevada, mientras que la ingesta de rutas y hortalizas fue baja. El PRAL fue positivo en 92% de los ninos, se asocio con mayor ingesta de energia, proteinas, grasas, carne y lacteos. La ingesta de proteinas fue > 2,5 g/kg/ dia en 46,2% de los ninos. Los grupos de alimentos con mayor desequilibrio debido a exceso fueron la carne y los productos lacteos, mientras que por deficit fue el grupo de frutas y hortalizas. Conclusión: La dieta se caracteriza por una elevada carga de acido o PRAL, lo que aumenta el riesgo de acidosis sistemica y sus consecuencias metabolicas.

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  13. Some phytochemical studies or the genera Aconitum L., Delphinium L. and Consolida (DC. S.F. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis i C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distributed in the Iberian Peninsula, and A . napellus L. s. Str. (from England, D. montanum DC. (from France, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (from Morocco i D. pictum Willd. (from Mallorca are reviewed. The alkaloid content, structural types. and oxygenation patterns are discussed with respect to related species.

    [ca] Es revisen els alcaloides diterpènics obtinguts d'Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis and C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distribuïts a la Península Ibèrica, així com d'A . napellus L. s. Str. (d'Anglaterra, D. montanum DC. (de França, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (del Marroc i D. pictum Willd. (de Mallorca. El contingut en alcaloides, llurs tipus estructurals i models d'oxigenació són discutits en relació a d'alt res espècies afins.

  14. Iridoid and Phenylethanoid Glycosides from Verbascum lasianthum

    OpenAIRE

    AKDEMİR, Zeliha Ş.; TATLI, İ. İrem

    2004-01-01

    Three iridoid glucosides, 8-O-acethylharpagide (1), harpagoside (2), and 6-O-vanilloylajugol (3), were isolated from the roots of Verbascum lasianthum Boiss. ex Bentham. In addition, 2 phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside {=acteoside, [b -(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]-(3' -O-a -L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(4' -O-caffeoyl)-b -D-glucopyranoside} (4) and poliumoside {= [b -(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]-(3',6' -O-a -L-dirhamnopyranosyl)-(4' -O-caffeoyl)-b -D-glucopyranos...

  15. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Zografidis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece. Also described in this study is a new variety of subsp. delphicum from Mt Ochi of southern Evvia.

  16. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Euphorbia caracasana and E. cotinifolia (Euphorbiaceae) from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Janne; Baldovino, Shirley; Vizcaya, Marietta; Rojas, Luis B; Morales, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils from leaves of E. caracasana Boiss collected from Miyoi, Pueblo Llano, Mérida State at 1800 m above sea level and leaves of E. cotinifolia L collected from Manzano Alto-Ejido, Mérida State at 1520 m were analyzed by GC/MS. Beta-Caryophyllene (33.7 %), alpha-humulene (18.8 %) and aromadendrene (8.4 %) were the major constituents of E. caracasana oil, whereas those of E. cotinifolia oil were beta-caryophyllene (39.3 %), germacrene-D (21.5 %) and alpha-copaene (9.3 %).

  17. Estudo da eficácia da irradiação gama na conservação da qualidade nutricional de azedas durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; João C. M. Barreira; Barros, Lillian; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; M.B.P.P. Oliveira; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    O consumo de vegetais minimamente processados tem sido impulsionado pelo estilo de vida acelerado da sociedade moderna e pela crescente conscienciatização da influência da alimentação na saúde. Além de conveniência, salubridade e segurança, o consumidor procura também alimentos com características organoléticas diferenciadas das dos alimentos habitualmente consumidos diariamente. Neste sentido, a recuperação do uso das azedas (Rumex induratus Boiss. & Reut.) poderá responder a ...

  18. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  19. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXII. Guaianolides in species from the genus Chartolepis Cass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the composition of the "lactone fraction" of 4 species from the genus Chartolepis Cass. were observed. Cynaropierin was isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. and the occurrence there of grossheimin was confirmed. The following compounds were isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis glastifolia (L. Cass.: centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cebellin D, cynaropicrin, cebellin F and janerin. Centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cynaropicrin, janerin and a new guaianolide, pterocaulin were isolated from the herb Chartolepis biebersteinii Jaub. et Spach. In addition to the lactones found in Chartolepis biebersteinii, Chartolepis pterocaula (Trautv. Czer. also accumulated grossheimin.

  20. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Study Scale on Spatial Patterns of three Range Plant Species Using Quadrate Indices and Point Pattern Analysis in Chaharmahal- Bakhtirai Province Rangelands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the spatial patterns of Acanthophyllum microcephalum Boiss, Nepeta glomerulosa Boiss and Hertia angustifolia and evaluate the effects of study scale on spatial patterns of three range plant species in Ghale-Gharak research-station located in Shahr-e-Kord. 40 points with a distance of five meters from each other were selected for sampling of vegetation along four 50 m transects using a random-systematic approach. The species spatial patterns were measured by 6 different distance-based methods including Hopkines, Johnson-and-Zimer, Eberhardt, Holgate, Hines and T-Square-index. A 100 m2 reference site (10 by 10 m was selected to record the species co-ordinates and conduct point pattern analysis. The spatial patterns of the species were determined in 3 scales of 10×10, 5×10 and 5×5 meters to highlight the effects of scale on spatial patterns of vegetation. According to the results, H. angustifolia showed randomized spatial patterns due to its seed dispersal ability. N. glomerulosa and A. microcephalum showed a clustered spatial pattern beacuse their seed are in achene form and fall next to these species. All the 3 species had a clustered pattern when the scale of point pattern analysis was decreased. Identifying these plant spatial patterns and their controlling factors such as seed dispersal mechanisms of the species and sampling scale are required to select the best sampling strategy in rangeland assessment programs.

  2. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuncay Agar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC, A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC, antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract and TAC (2.080 UAE, the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL, the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  3. Competitive effect of a native-invasive species on a threatened shrub in a Mediterranean dune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Esquivias, M; Zunzunegui, María; Díaz Barradas, Mari Cruz; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The canopy shade of the Retama species has been widely reported to ameliorate the environmental conditions in the understory, thus facilitating other species' establishment. The shading effect of the native-invasive leguminous shrub Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss on the endangered Thymus carnosus Boiss was analysed to determine a positive or negative net effect. Data was taken in all four seasons, representing contrasting light and water availability in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem (SW Spain). The morphological and physiological status of sun-exposed T. carnosus plants growing in open areas versus shaded plants growing under R. monosperma were measured seasonally. Leaf mass area, leaf area index and pigment content showed typical sun-shade responses. In contrast, sun-exposed T. carnosus displayed higher stem water potential, transpiration rate and water use efficiency, both intrinsic and integrated, denoting low tolerance to the presence of R. monosperma. Five years after the measurements, canopy cover had decreased and mortality was higher in shaded plants, thus confirming the competitive effect of R. monosperma on T. carnosus. R. monosperma arises as a competitor for endangered T. carnosus communities, consequently reinforcing its invasive behaviour. This species-specific shrub study demonstrates that eventual beneficial effects of Retama canopy may be overridden by competition in the understory, particularly in the case of species well-adapted to high light and low water levels.

  4. Chemotaxonomy and flavonoid diversity of Salvia L.(Lamiaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the chemotaxonomic status and chemical diversity of Salvia L. species in Iran using leaf flavonoid profiles. From natural habitats in the country, we collected samples of 14 species of the genus: S. spinosa L.; S. macrosiphon Boiss.; S. reuterana Boiss.; S. sharifii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. nemorosa L.; S. virgata Jacq.; S. syriaca L.; S. mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. atropatana Bunge; S. limbata C. A. Mey; S. sclarea L.; S. ceratophylla L.; S. multicaulis Vahl.; and S. hydrangea Dc. ex Benth. Two-dimensional maps of these species were created with thin-layer chromatography. In order to study the taxonomic position of these species and 37 accessions, cluster analysis was applied. The results of the cluster analysis showed that S. spinosa was distinct from S. reuterana. Despite considerable morphological similarity between S. nemorosa and S. virgata, those two species are definitely distinguished. In addition, S. spinosa and S. macrosiphon were roughly grouped, whereas S. ceratophylla and S. multicaulis composed two separate groups. In the 14 species collected, the flavonoids identified were flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols and chalcones. We found that flavonoids are appropriate indicators to determine the taxonomic position of Salvia species.

  5. Grandivittin as a natural minor groove binder extracted from Ferulago macrocarpa to ct-DNA, experimental and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, F; Valadbeigi, S; Sajjadi, S E; Shokoohinia, Y; Azizian, H; Taheripak, G

    2016-10-25

    Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss., is an endemic medicinal herb of Iran. In this study a dihydrofuranocoumarin called grandivittin (GRA) was separate and purified from Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss, and characterized by (1)H NMR and Mass spectroscopic methods. The electrochemical behavior of GRA was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The interaction of GRA with calf thymus double strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA), was evaluated by CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), fluorescence, UV-Vis, FT-IR and molecular modeling methods. The thermodynamic parameters of GRA-DNA complex were measured and reported as: ΔH = 15.04 kJ mol(-1), ΔS = 105.54 J mol(-1) and ΔG = -15.62 kJ mol(-1). Docking simulation was performed to investigate the probable binding mode of GRA to various DNA, too. The polymerase extension study was performed using real-time PCR to confirm the inhibitory effect of GRA on polymerase extension activity as a mirror of binding to ct-DNA. However, all data showed that the grooves binding especially minor groove between GRA and ct-DNA is more predominant rather than other binding modes.

  6. Phytochemical Study of Swertia Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mozaffarian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae grow widely in eastern and southern Asian countries such as Japan, China and India and are used as traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complains because of their bitter principles. Several studies have been carried out on hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, mono amino oxidase inhibitory and antidepressant effects of these plants and it has been shown that xanthones and iridoids are responsible for their activities. Purpose of the study: In order to gain better knowledge of endemic plants of Flora Iranica, Swertia longifolia Boiss. growing in the northern parts of Iran, was subjected to phytochemical studies. Methods: Dried and milled aerial parts of the plant were extracted with petroleum ether and ethanol of which results of petroleum ether extract has been reported previously. For purification of ethanol extract, it was acidified with acetic acid and subsequently extracted with chloroform and then with n-butanol. The n-butanol extract was analyzed using different chromatographic methods and the structures of the isolated components were established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Results: Four components including an iridoid glycoside (loganic acid, a secoiridoid glycoside (gentiopicroside, a secoiridoid dilactone (gentiolactone and a nucleoside (uridine were isolated from n-butanol extract of the plant. Major conclusion: Similar to other species of Swertia, iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides could be considered as major constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss.

  7. Wood anatomical changes due to uptake of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynab Shahpoori; Vilma Bayramzadeh; Vahid Reza Safdari; Manoochehr Khan Zarinkafsh; Pedram Attarod; Roghayeh Jirroodnejad

    2012-01-01

    We investigated wood anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum Boiss seedlings.Two-year old seedlings were exposed for 180 days to soil concentrations with varying cadmium and lead concentrations.We measured three wood anatomical traits,average vessel area (μm2),vessel number per square millimetre,and vessel lumen area percentage (%).For assessing the cadmium and lead accumulation,we measured the concentrations in the soil,leaf,stem,and root.Average vessel area and vessel lumen area percentage were similar (p>0.05) in control and treated seedlings.Vessel number per square millimetre showed a decreasing trend from pith to bark in control and treated seedlings,and the trend was more pronounced in treated seedlings.We conclude that vessel number per square millimetre in A.velutinum is influenced by soil contamination.A.velutinum Boiss is not a suitable species for remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium and lead but it can be used as an indicator of the soil lead contamination,because lead concentrations in seedlings increased with increasing amount of lead in the soil.

  8. Advances in the progress of anti-bacterial biofilms properties of acetic acid%乙酸抗细菌生物膜作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高欣欣; 金正花; 陈欣欣; 于家傲

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are considered to be the hindrance in the treatment of chronic wound,because of their tolerance toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.They also have strong ability to escape from the host immune attack.Acetic acid,as a kind of organic weak acid,can disturb the biofilms by freely diffusing through the bacterial biofilms and bacterial cell membrane structure.Then the acid dissociates to release the hydrogen ions,leading to the disorder of the acid-base imbalance,change of protein conformation,and the degradation of the DNA within the membranes.This paper reviews the literature on the characteristics and treatment strategies of the bacterial biofilms and the acetic acid intervention on them,so as to demonstrate the roles acetic acid may play in the treatment of chronic wound,and thus provide a convincing treatment strategy for this kind of disease.

  9. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  10. The need of alkalinity determination in the characterization of rain; Necesidad de la determinacion de la alcalinidad en la caracterizacion de la lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper is presented the alkalinity determination of the carbonic species in the rain waters by the Gran titration method. The alkalinity values obtained by this method in low electric conductivity waters are fairly reliable. Also, the existing studies on the characterization of acid rains, are discussed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la medicion de la alcalinidad y la determinacion de las especies carbonicas en las aguas de lluvia por el metodo de la titulacion de Gran. Los valores de alcalinidad obtenidos por este metodo en las aguas de baja conductividad electrica son bastante confiables. Asimismo, se discuten los estudios existentes sobre la caracterizacion de la lluvia acida en la republica mexicana.

  11. Effects of carnosine on the evoked potentials in hippocampal CA1 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-yan FENG; Xiao-jing ZHENG; Jing WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To directly examine the effects of carnosine on neuronal excitation and inhibition in rat hippocampus in vivo. Methods: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid with carnosine was directly administrated over the exposed rat hippocampus. The changes of neuron activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus were evaluated by orthodromically- and antidromically-evoked potentials, as well as paired-pulse stimulation paradigm. Results: In both orthodromic and antidromic response potentials, carnosine transformed population spikes (PSs) with single spike into epileptiform multiple spikes. In addition, similar to the effect of γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) antagonist picrotoxin, carnosine decreased paired-pulse stimulating depression significantly.However, no significant change was observed in the spontaneous field potentials during the application of carnosine. Conclusion:The results indicate a disinhibition-induced excitation effect of carnosine on the CA1 pyramidal neurons. It provides important information against the application of carnosine as a potential anticonvulsant in clinical treatment.

  12. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  13. Decay and durability of building stones in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of some pollutant agents in urban environments -gaseous SO2, acid rain and solid particles- on carbonate and siliceous building stones with different petrophysic characteristics. The selected environments have been London, Garston (UK and Burgos (Spain and the exposed materials have been Portland, Combe Down and Hontoria limestones, Laspra dolomite and Rosa Porriño granite. Products generated by the action of gases, acid rain and solid particles on stones have been analyzed. To point out the properties of stones that influence their decay, the results obtained on the stones exposed to the above environments have been compared to those from some laboratory accelerated ageing tests.

    Se estudia el efecto de ciertos agentes de contaminación presentes en ambientes urbanos –SO2 gaseoso, lluvia acida y partículas sólidas- sobre rocas de naturaleza carbonatada y silicatada con características petrofísicas distintas, utilizadas en edificación. Los ambientes seleccionados han sido Londres, Garston (UK y Burgos, y los materiales expuestos han sido las calizas de Portland, Combe Down y Hontoria, la dolomía de Laspra y el granito Rosa Porriño. Se analizan los productos generados por la acción de los gases, la lluvia acida y las partículas sólidas sobre los diferentes tipos de piedra. Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en la piedra expuesta a los ambientes antes citados, y los daños generados en algunos ensayos de envejecimiento artificial acelerado con el fin de resaltar las características intrínsecas de las piedras que condicionan su degradación.

  14. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  15. Inhibition of 304 stainless steel corrosion in acidic solution by Ferula gumosa (galbanum) extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behpour, M.; Ghoreishi, S.M.; Soltani, N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan (Iran); Kashani, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan (Iran); Barij Essence pharmaceutical, Kashan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The inhibition effect of the extract of galbanum (Ferula gummosa Boiss.) on the corrosion of 304 stainless steel in 2 M HCl solution was studied by weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. Tafel polarization method revealed the mixed mode inhibition of galbanum extract (GE) with predominant control of anodic reaction. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of steel indicates that inhibition efficiency of the natural substance increases with the rise in temperature. At all temperatures, the adsorption of the extract components onto the steel surface was found to follow the Temkin adsorption isotherm. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Comparative Study of Alkaloid Pattern of Four Bulgarian Fumaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncheva, Tsvetelina; Yordanova, Gabriela; Vutov, Vassil; Kostova, Nadezhda; Philipov, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The alkaloid pattern of four Fumaria species (Fumaria kralikii, Fumaria rostellata, Fumaria schleicherii, Fumaria thureii) growing in Bulgaria was investigated by GC-MS and twenty isoquinoline alkaloids were determined. Phytochemical investigation of the alkaloid composition on Fumaria thuretii Boiss was made for the first time. The alkaloid profile of the species was compared at two levels, between different species and within two species from different habitats. Two chemotypical groups, based on the types of isoquinoline alkaloids were suggested. To group A belong species F. kralikii, F. rostellata (F. r. 1) and F. thuretii containing more than 50% spirobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of the crude alkaloid mixtures. To group B belong species F. rostellata (F. r. 2) and F. schleicherii containing more than 40% protopine alkaloids and relatively high percentage phthaldeisoquinoline alkaloids (11-19%). In group A phthaldeisoquinoline alkaloids were not detected.

  17. Feruhermonins A-C: three daucane esters from the seeds of Ferula hermonis (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzi, Abdurazag A; Gray, Alexander I; Salem, Mohamed M; Badwan, Adnan A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2008-01-01

    Seventeen daucane esters have been isolated from the seeds of Ferula hermonis Boiss (Apiaceae). Three of these sesquiterpenes, 4beta-hydroxy-6alpha-benzoyl-7-daucen-9-one (1), 4beta, 8beta-dihydroxy-6alpha-benzoyl-dauc-9-ene (2), and 4beta, 9alpha-dihydroxy-6alpha-benzoyl-dauc-7-ene (4), named feruhermonins A-C, respectively, are novel natural products. The structures of these compounds were elucidated unequivocally by a series of 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Although 4beta, 8beta-dihydroxy-6alpha-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl)-dauc-9-ene (3) was reported previously, the complete spectroscopic data for this compound are presented here for the first time.

  18. Antiinflammatory sesquiterpenes from the root oil of Ferula hermonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroushi, Afaf; Auzi, Abdurazag A; Elhwuegi, Abdalla Salem; Elzawam, Fawzi; Elsherif, Akram; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2011-05-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. (Apiaceae), commonly known as 'Shilsh-el-zallouh', 'Hashishat-al-kattira' or 'The Lebanese viagra', is a small shrub that grows abundantly on the Hermon Mountain between Syria and Lebanon. The seeds and roots of this plant have long been used in the Middle East as an aphrodisiac, and for the treatment of frigidity and impotence for both men and women. The antiinflammatory properties of three major daucane esters, ferutinin (1) teferin (2) and teferidin (3), isolated from the root oil of Ferula hermonis, were assessed by the carrageenan-induced oedema model in rats. The antiinflammatory effect of both 1 and 2 was observed with a dose of 100 mg/kg, while compound 3 did not show any antiinflammatory activity; conversely it produced a significant proinflammatory effect 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection.

  19. Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of April-May Temperature Fluctuations in the Western Himalaya of India Since A.D. 1698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.; Park, Won-Kyu; Bhattacharyya, Amalava

    1997-09-01

    Ring-width chronologies of Himalayan cedar ( Cedrus deodara(D. Don.) G. Don.), Himalayan pine ( Pinus wallichianaA. B. Jackson), and Himalayan spruce ( Picea smithiana(Wall.) Boiss.) from the western Himalayan region, India, have been used to reconstruct mean April-May temperature back to A.D. 1698. The reconstruction correlates significantly with the average April-May instrumental temperature record ( r= +0.62, 1876-1988) and is characterized by annual to multiyear fluctuations. The most striking feature of the present reconstruction is the absence of any warming trend in the 20th century. Relationships between the mean April-May temperature for the western Himalayan region, Indian summer monsoon rainfall, and Southern Oscillation Index indicate that the tree-ring chronologies, as surrogate temperature records, will provide valuable data for climate change studies with regional and global perspectives.

  20. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Michel Sobottka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the family of Euphorbiaceae,the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi(Klotzsch & Garcke Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong, plants native from Brazil, were examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF. Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE, the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  1. Analysis of essential oils from Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and S. utriculata by GC and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).

  2. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  3. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  4. Theodor von Heldreich (1822-1902) and his Turkish collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baytop, Asuman; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The distinguished German botanist Theodor von Heldreich (1822-1902) visited Anatolia on at least 6 separate occasions as documented by specimens cited in Flora of Turkey and Flora Orientalis. His first visit was in 1845 and his last, to Izmir, in 1852. Within this period of less than seven years he...... the Flora alone as precise dates and numbers are rarely provided in the citations. However, by studying actual specimens deposited in herbaria we can obtain more information and this work is in progress. Heldreich´s Turkish collections are represented in 27 herbaria located in 12 European countries...... excluding 2 in the United States. He is commemorated by the genus Heldreichia Boiss. (Brassicaceae), which has 4 species in Turkey. Numerous other taxa bear the epithets heldreichii, heldreichianus, -a or -um. At least 18 such taxa are listed in the Flora of Turkey. Heldreich died in Athens at the age of 80...

  5. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibranchiatum Qm9-41 4 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-07-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs.

  6. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIZPURU, I., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT J.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunas adiciones y modificaciones que se recogerán en la segunda edición de las Claves ilustradas de la flora del País Vasco y territorios limítrofes (Aizpuru, I., C. Aseginolaza, P.M. Uribe-Echebarría, P. Urrutia and I. Zorrakin, eds., 1999. En concreto se realiza la revisión de algunos géneros (Arum, Asphodelus, Doronicum, Rhinantus junto con la aportación de nuevos datos corológicos y correcciones de nomenclaturas. Se combina D. carpetanum Boiss and Reuter ex Willk. subsp. pubescens (C. Pérez Morales, A. Penas, F. Llamas and C. Acedo Aizpuru aomb. and stat. nov.

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  8. The effect of harvest periods on the chemical compositions of essential oils of sage (Salvia aucheri L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Guilles; Chalchat, Jean Claude; Chalard, Pierre; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of sage leaves (Salvia aucheri Bentham var. canescens Boiss. & Heldr.), growing wild in South Anatolia, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the essential oils from sage leaves harvested at different years were 1.0%, 1.3%, 1.3%, 1.0%, 1.4%, 1.5% and 1.2%, respectively. In this study, 1,8-cineole, camphre, camphene α-pinene and β-pinene were identified as the major components of sage leaves collected at different periods. The main constituents of sage oil collected over the years were 1,8-cineole (35.01-48.06%), camphre (13.58-23.92%), camphene (6.77-8.82%), α-pinene (5.79-8.54%) and β-pinene (4.32-6.28%).

  9. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics.Methods:Origanum compactum,Chrysanthemum coronarium,Thymus willdenowii Boiss,Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L.were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities.The disk diffusion method was employed.Results:The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases,but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria.Conclusions:This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  12. "Essential oils of Heracleum Persicum Desf.ex Fischer leaves "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojab F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Heracleum persicum Desf ex Fischer (Syn. H glabrascens Boiss. & Hohen, H. prbescens Rech. (Fam Apiaceae were collected in July - Auguest 1993 from kandavan area in north of Tehran. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation (0.13% from leaves and was analyzed by GC, GC/CS and 1H-NMR. The major component was trans - anethole (82.8% Other components were β - pinene, p-cymene and terpinolene (monoterpenes , α- caryophylene, α- bergamotene, α- farnesene, zingiberene, spathulenol (sesqiterpenes. Cis - anethole, stragole, 2,5-dimethyl styrene (aromatic compounds, and β- springene ( an aliphatic and hydrocarbonic diterpene . It is concluded that this oil is a source of trans - anethole .

  13. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  14. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Navarro-Sampedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454 data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  15. SOAP-T: A tool to study the light-curve and radial velocity of a system with a transiting planet and a rotating spotted star

    CERN Document Server

    Oshagh, M; Boué, G; Montalto, M; Santos, N C; Bonfils, X; Haghighipour, N

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved version of SOAP (Boisse et al. 2012) named "SOAP-T", which can generate the radial velocity variations and light-curves for systems consisting of a rotating spotted star with a transiting planet. This tool can be used to study the anomalies inside transit light-curves and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, to better constrain the orbital configuration and properties of planetary systems and active zones of their host stars. Tests of the code are presented to illustrate its performance and to validate its capability when compared with analytical models and real data. Finally, we apply SOAP-T to the active star, HAT-P-11, observed by the NASA Kepler space telescope and use this system to discuss the capability of this tool in analyzing light-curves for the cases where the transiting planet overlaps with the star's spots.

  16. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications.

  17. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  18. The taxonomic status of Scilla beirana Samp. (Hyacinthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldas, Francisco B.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Scilla beirana Samp. were sampled in NW Portugal and compared with its relatives S. ramburei Boiss, and S. peruviana L. Leaf and scape anatomy, morphology, chromosome number and idiogram were identical in S. beirana and S. ramburei, but differed from S. peruviana. Diagnostic characters previously used to discriminate S. beirana (width of leaves and flower number showed continuous, but not clinal, variation, and failed to provide a clear-cut basis for identification and no other morphological attributes were found to separate the taxa. All available evidence suggests that S. beirana should be put into synonymy with S. ramburei, as was earlier suggested by COUTINHO (1935.Se muestreó Scilla beirana Samp. en diversas poblaciones del noroeste de Portugal y se comparó con dos táxones con los que se había relacionado previamente, S. ramburei Boiss, y S. peruviana L. La macromorfología, la anatomía de la hoja y escapo, el número cromosomático y el idiograma de S. beirana y S. ramburei fueron indistinguibles, pero diferentes de los de S. peruviana. Los caracteres diagnósticos que se habían utilizado previamente para discriminar a S. beirana -anchura foliar y número de flores- revelaron una variación continua y no permitieron diferenciarla de S. ramburei, en la cual debería ser incluida como sinónimo, tal como había sugerido COUTINHO (1935.

  19. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and anticonvulsant activity of some Iranian medicinal Ferula species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Malmir, Maryam; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2010-03-01

    Several Ferula (Umbelliferae) species have been used in Iranian traditional medicine as antiflatulent, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, expectorant, etc. In the present study, cytotoxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the methanol extracts from several Ferula species were evaluated. Air-dried samples of different parts of these plants (Ferula diversivittata Regel & Schmalh. (roots), Ferula persica Willd. (aerial parts), Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss. (roots), Ferula badrakema Kos.-Pol. (roots), Ferula diversivittata (flowers), Ferula latisecta Rech. F. & Aell. (roots), and Ferula badrakema (fruits)) were macerated with methanol for 3 days. The mixtures were then filtered, concentrated and dried. For determination of the cytotoxicity of the extracts and also the oleo-gum-resin of F. assafoetida L., the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was employed as a model assay system since it provides a convenient in-house pre-screening method for evaluating general cytotoxicity. The methanol extracts of different Ferula species and the oleo-gum-resin of F. assafoetida exhibited cytotoxic effect with LC(50) values in the range of 6-321 microg/mL. For the anticonvulsant testing, seizure was induced by injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), 90 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.). This dose was given to 10 groups, each consisting of 6 mice, which were pretreated i.p. with the extracts (300 mg/kg), Diazepam (10 mL/kg) or saline (10 mL/kg). The results showed that none of the tested Ferula species can prevent PTZ-induced seizure at the used dose. In conclusion, all of the extracts and the oleo-gum resin of F. assafoetida showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity which was highest in F. badrakema fruits and lowest in F. badrakema roots. Our findings also revealed that the methanol extracts and F. assafoetida oleo-gum resin do not possess anticonvulsant activity.

  20. Cytotaxonomy of North African species of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanché, César

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Both chromosome numbers and karyotype structure from 15 wild North-African populations of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium were studied. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, with a more symmetrical karyotype, appears as a possible perennial ancestor of' the remaining annuals with highly asymmetrical and shorter karyotype. A taxonomical reorganization of this section is proposed: two new series (ser. Macropetala ser. nova and ser. Balansae ser. nova. and two new nomenclatural combinations (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum are proposed.

    S'han estudiat els nombres cromosòmics i l'estructura deis cariotipus de 15 poblacions nordafricanes de Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, amb cariotipus mes simètric, apareix com a possible ancestre perenne de la resta d’espècies anuals amb cariotipus més asimètric i més curt. Es proposa una reorganització taxonòmica de la secció, d'on es descriu en dues series noves (ser. Macropetala ser. nova i ser. Balansae ser. nova. i es proposen dues combinacions noves (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum.

  1. Habilidades cognitivas de crianças e adolescentes com distúrbio de aprendizagem Cognitive profile in children and adolescents with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. M. de Figueiredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Distúrbio de aprendizagem é um problema escolar e social, sendo uma das principais causas de encaminhamento de crianças para avaliação psicológica. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo investigar habilidades cognitivas de crianças e adolescentes com distúrbio de aprendizagem. Neste estudo foram avaliadas 263 crianças de escolas públicas com o teste de inteligência WISC-III. A amostra constituiu-se de alunos entre 6 e 16 anos (média=9 anos, sendo 69,2% do sexo masculino. Problemas na leitura e déficit de atenção foram identificados como fatores mais comuns no grupo estudado. Os subtestes Informação, Semelhanças, Aritmética, Dígitos, Código e Arranjo de Figuras foram os que apresentaram menores escores caracterizando o perfil ACIDAS. Quanto à capacidade intelectual geral, a média do QI Total foi classificada como limítrofe. Os resultados evidenciaram uma discrepância entre o raciocínio verbal (QI Verbal=82 e não-verbal (QI Execução=80. De acordo com a literatura, a discrepância esperada seria no sentido inverso.Learning disability is an important school and social problem, being one of the principal causes of the children referred for psychological evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive abilities from children and teenagers with learning disabilities. Data were gathered from 263 children and adolescents from public schools evaluated with WISC-III. The sample was constituted of students from 6 to 16 years old (median=9 with higher incidence in boys (69,2%. Problems in the reading and deficit of attention had been identified as the most common factors in the studied group. Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Digit Span, Coding and Picture Arrangement were the lowest subtests characterizing ACIDAS profile. The general intelligence mean scores was considered as borderline. The results evidenced a discrepancy between verbal (Verbal IQ=82 and performance reasoning (Performance IQ=80. According to

  2. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  3. Dry and wet "deposition" studies of the degradation of cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of portland cement mortars with SO2 gaseous pollutant and artificial 'acid rain' solution has been examined using laboratory exposure chambers, with realistic presentation rates of pollutants. The mortar were previously carbonated to produce superficial carbonation. Two mortars with different w/c ratio and hence specific surface were prepared and exposed into the chambers. For dry deposition of SO2 pollutant gas, the important roles of water and water plus oxidant in increasing chemical reaction are readily revealed. Further, accessible porosity also increases reaction through increased times of reaction of pollutant with the mortars. Interestingly, in the absence of deliberate surface wetting, the presence of oxidant, ozone, leads to a reduction in the already limited extent of reaction. Wet deposition studies using artificial 'acid rain' solution result in gypsum formation, which is more extensive for mortars of increased w/c ratios.

    Se han realizado ensayos de laboratorio de simulación de los procesos ambientales de "deposición" seca y húmeda sobre morteros de cemento portland, estudiándose las reacciones que se producen con el contaminante SO2 ("deposición" seca y la disolución de 'lluvia acida' ("deposición" húmeda. Los morteros de cemento se carbonataron para favorecer la carbonatación superficial de los mismos. Se prepararon morteros con dos relaciones a/c con el fin de estudiar la influencia que la variable superficie específica tenía en el proceso de deterioro de dichos materiales. En los estudios de deposición seca con SO2 como gas agresivo se ha visto la importancia que el agua y el agua junto a un oxidante tienen en la reacción del contaminante con los componentes del mortero. La superficie específica Juega un papel importante, ya que al aumentar, aumenta la reacción con el contaminante. La reacción en presencia de oxidante, (SO2+O3

  4. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of New 3,4-Dihydroisoquinolin Derivatives Containing Heterocycle as Potential Anticonvulsant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jian Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two novel series of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin with heterocycle derivatives (4a–t and 9a–e were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock (MES test and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure test. All compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Among them, 9-(exyloxy-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]isoquinolin-3(2H-one (9a showed significant anticonvulsant activity in MES tests with an ED50 value of 63.31 mg/kg and it showed wide margins of safety with protective index (PI > 7.9. It showed much higher anticonvulsant activity than that of valproate. It also demonstrated potent activity against PTZ-induced seizures. A docking study of compound 9a in the benzodiazepine (BZD-binding site of γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA receptor confirmed possible binding of compound 9a with the BZD receptors.

  5. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  6. Allopregnanolone microinjected into the lateral septum or dorsal hippocampus reduces immobility in the forced swim test: participation of the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Contreras, Carlos M; García-Ríos, Rosa Isela

    2009-10-01

    Allopregnanolone is a 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone with actions on γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors that produce antidepressant-like effects. However, little is known about the target brain regions that mediate its antidepressant-like effects. In this study, allopregnanolone (2.0 μg/0.3 μl/rat) or its vehicle (35% cyclodextrin solution) were microinjected into the lateral septum, septofimbrial, or dorsal hippocampus of male Wistar rats that had previously received intraperitoneal injections of either saline or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1.0 mg/kg), and its effects were evaluated in the open field and forced swim tests. Allopregnanolone microinjected into the lateral septum or dorsal hippocampus, but not septofimbrial nucleus, induced a longer latency to the first immobility and a shorter total immobility time in the forced swim test compared with vehicle. Bicuculline pretreatment reversed the effect of allopregnanolone. None of the treatments produced significant changes in crossings in the open field test. In conclusion, allopregnanolone produces an antidepressant-like effect in rats submitted to the forced swim test through actions on GABAA receptors located in the lateral septum and dorsal hippocampus, which is consistent with the antistress effect of GABAA agonists in these particular brain structures.

  7. [Variability in the clinical presentation of Pompe disease: development following enzyme replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Martos, Myriam; Salado-Reyes, María J; Espinosa-Rosso, Raúl; Solera-García, Jesús; Jiménez-Jiménez, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Pompe es un trastorno generalizado progresivo producido por el deficit de la enzima alfa-glucosidasa acida (AGA) de los lisosomas. Se presentan tres casos manifestados de forma muy diferente y tratados con terapia enzimatica sustitutiva (TES), con evolucion favorable. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon de 3 meses, con debilidad y rechazo de la alimentacion, hepatomegalia leve, ligera macroglosia e hipotonia, y aumento de las enzimas musculares. Caso 2: varon de 5 meses, con retraso del desarrollo motor, sordera neurosensorial grave, trastornos respiratorios de repeticion de evolucion torpida, hipotonia y leve elevacion de la creatincinasa. Caso 3: varon de 22 años con disnea progresiva, con antecedentes de elevacion de la creatincinasa y las transaminasas, e hipercolesterolemia. Sufrio insuficiencia respiratoria grave que preciso intubacion endotraqueal. La biopsia muscular presento depositos de glucogeno sugestivos de la enfermedad. En los tres casos, el estudio electromiografico dio un patron caracteristico, con descargas pseudomiotonicas, y se confirmo el deficit de AGA en los linfocitos. Se encontro una mutacion en un caso y dos mutaciones en los otros dos. Todos recibieron TES con evolucion favorable: desaparicion de las alteraciones cardiacas en el caso 1, mejoria en los hitos motores en los dos casos infantiles y retirada del respirador en el caso 3. Conclusion. La enfermedad de Pompe tiene una amplia variabilidad en la expresion clinica. La TES consigue una buena respuesta, especialmente en las formas infantiles. La supervivencia a largo plazo de las formas infantiles tratadas permitira conocer mas aspectos del curso de la enfermedad.

  8. Structural modification of regenerated fuller earth and its application in the adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Dario Beltran-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tierra Fuller es un material inorgánico usado en la industri a eléctrica para la regeneración del aceite dieléctrico. Despué s de un tratamiento de descontaminación, la tierra Fuller se regenera y reutiliza. En este estudio se evaluó la capacidad de remoción de la tierra Fuller regenerada para el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con colorantes de diferente naturaleza y a su vez, como esta capac idad puede ser aumentada mediante la modificación estructural del ma terial. Así, la tierra Fuller regenerada sin ninguna modificaci ón alcanzó remociones del 99% de azul de metileno. Sin embargo, para el tr atamiento de efluentes contamina dos con rojo 40 se requirió la modificación acida y térmica del material para obtener adsorcio nes superiores al 94% del colorante. En conclusión, la tierra F uller regenerada es un material adsorben te adecuado para el tratamien to de efluentes contaminados con colorantes de naturaleza catió nica. No obstante, la remoción de colorant es aniónicos no es eficiente, siendo necesaria la modificación estructural del material para mejorar la remoción de este tipo de colorantes.

  9. Application of vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder%植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房新平; 翟红梅; 胡长利

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid contents of seven vegetable oils ( soybean oil, corn oil, walnut oil,sunflower seed oil, high oleic sunflower seed oil, palm oil and coconut oil) often used in infant formula milk pow-der were determined, and linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid,as the important indicators of fatty acid were analyzed. Furthermore, these results were compared with the fatty acid compositions of three noval vegetable oils(double - low rapeseed oil, rice bran oil and safflower seed oil), and the applications of the noval vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder were discussed.%从婴儿配方乳粉在用的7种植物油(大豆油、玉米油、核桃油、葵花籽油、高油酸葵花籽油、棕榈油和椰子油)入手,通过检测植物油的脂肪酸含量,对亚油酸、亚麻酸和油酸等几个主要指标进行了分析,进而与3种新型植物油(双低菜籽油、米糠油和红花籽油)的脂肪酸组成进行了比较,对新型植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用进行了探讨。

  10. Recovery of tetrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of the tetrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q = kCn. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20°C. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin.

    Se estudia la recuperación del ion tetracloroaurato mediante la resina aniónica Dowex 11. La extracción de oro depende tanto de las concentraciones del metal y la resina como de la temperatura. La isoterma de adsorción responde a la ecuación Q = kCn. La resina cargada con oro puede ser eluida con una disolución acida de tiourea a 20°C. Después de varios ciclos de adsorción-desorción no hay pérdida de carga por parte de la resina.

  11. Aplicación del proceso BRISA al tratamiento de menas de cobre conteniendo atacamita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of copper ores containing atacamite and secondary copper sulphides consists of heap leaching, by the TL process. Copper recoveries by this treatment are very low (less than 50 % for operating times higher than six months. In order to improve the copper extraction yields, several treatment options are presented in this work, wich consist on promoting the acid leaching of the atacamite and the indirect bioleaching (BRISA process of the secondary copper sulphides. All the options lead to improved copper recoveries in comparison with the current treatment. An economic estimation of each option of treatment is included, with really attractive results.

    El tratamiento actual de minerales que contienen atacamita y sulfures secundarios de cobre tiene lugar según el proceso TL. La recuperación de cobre en estos procesos es escasa (inferior al 50 %, para tiempos de operación superiores a seis meses. Para mejorar el rendimiento de extracción de cobre, se plantean, en este trabajo, diferentes alternativas de tratamiento que incluyen la potenciación de la lixiviación acida de la atacamita y la biolixiviación por contacto indirecto (proceso BRISA de los sulfuros secundarios de cobre. Todas las alternativas ofrecen aumentos sustanciales de la recuperación de cobre. Se incluye la evaluación económica preliminar de cada una de ellas, con resultados francamente atractivos.

  12. Isolation and characterization of facultative mixotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soulwène Kouki; Neila Saidi; Fadhel M'hiri; Houda Nasr; Hanène Cherif; Hadda Ouzari; Abdermaceur Hassen

    2011-01-01

    Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been widely studied in constructed wetlands systems,while mixotrophic AOB have been less thoroughly examined.Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from wastewater and rhizospheres of macrophytes of constructed wetlands,and then cultivated in a mixotrophic medium containing ammonium and acetic acid.A molecular characterization was accomplished using ITS-PCR amplification,and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.Results showed the presence of 35 bacteria,among 400 initially heterotrophic isolates,that were able to remove ammonia.These 35 isolates were classified into 10 genetically different groups based on ITS pattern.Then,a collection of 10 isolates were selected because of their relatively high ammonia removal efficiencies (ARE ≥ 80%) and their phylogenetic diversity.In conditions of mixotrophy,these strains were shown to be able to grow (increase of optical density OD660 during incubation with assimilation of nitrogen into cellular biomass) and to oxidize ammonia (important ammonia oxidation efficiencies,AOE between 79% and 87%).Among these facultative mixotrophic AOB,four isolates were genetically related to Firmicutes (Bacillus and Exiguobacterium),three isolates were affiliated to Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) and three other isolates were associated with Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas,Ochrobactrum and Bordetella).

  13. REDUCCIÓN DE ÓXIDOSDE NITROGENO CON CATALIZADORES ZEOLÍTICOS INTERCAMBIADOS CON COBALTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alexis García Moya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la reducción catalítica selectiva (RCS de NOx con metano en presencia de oxígeno en exceso con varios catalizadores a base de las zeolitas mordenita, ferrierita y ZSM-5 intercambiadas con diferentes cargas de cobalto y con las correspondientes zeolitas en forma acida. Cuando la mezcla reactiva contenía mayormente NO2 en lugar de NO, los catalizadores ácidos mostraron las más altas velocidades de formación de N2 en condiciones secas. Las mayores actividades se obtuvieron con los catalizadores Co-mordenita, siguiendo en orden de actividad los catalizadores Co-Ferrierita y Co-ZSM-5. El catalizador Co-Mordenita más activo se ensayó con una mezcla reactiva donde predominó el NO en lugar del NO2 bajo condiciones secas e hidrotérmicas y en presencia de SO2. Con la adición de 8% de agua a la mezcla de reacción se observó desactivación reversible, especialmente a bajas temperaturas. La adición de 60 ppm de SO2 disminuyó la velocidad de reacción aproximadamente a la mitad debido posiblemente al envenenamiento de algunos sitios activos.

  14. Identification and expression of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shifeng Li; Yunbin Zhang; Haixiong Liu; Yuanchang Yan; Yiping Li

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and GABAB receptors are involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction induced by progesterone or GABA. Here,we report the presence of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa.Full-length complementary DNA encoding the ρ1,ρ2 and ρ3 subunits of GABAc receptor were cloned from rat testis;their sequences are identical to those of rat GABAc receptor in retina.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that during the development of rat testis,the transcript levels of the ρ1 and ρ2 subunits showed little change,while the expression of ρ3 was gradually up-regulated.Immunofluorescence analysis using an anti-ρ1 antibody revealed that GABAc receptor exists on the elongated spermatid and sperm.Using a chlortetracycline assay,we found that N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside, a GABAc receptor agonist,triggered rat sperm acrosome reaction;whereas(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid,a GABAc receptor antagonist, inhibited the ability of N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside to induce acrosome reaction.These results suggested that GABAc receptors are also involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction.

  15. Preliminary study for the determination of heavy metal in ground samples by GF-ASS Zeeman; Studio preliminare per la determinazione di metalli pesanti in campioni di suolo mediante analisi GF-AAS Zeeman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casabianca, T.; Bitonte, R.; Epifani, M.; Ubaldi, C. [ENEA, Divisione Tecnologie Ingegneria e Servizi Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, MT (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of SIMOA project have been investigated methods to evaluate the level of soil contamination due to heavy metals. In this wok, it is discussed a procedure to measure topsoil bioavailable fraction of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Hg). The adopted procedure is based on acid digestion followed by instrumental detection by means of graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) using Zeeman effect to reduce background contribution. Details of samples preparation and analysis, experimental setup optimization and statistical data analysis are presented, together with a discussion on method accuracy and data interpretation. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto SIMOA (Sistema Integrato di Monitoraggio Ambientale) per il monitoraggio ambientale nel bacino del Basento (Regione Basilicata, Italia), vengono investigati i metodi per il controllo dei livelli di inquinamento del suolo da parte di metalli pesanti. Nel presente lavoro viene proposta una procedura per determinare il livello di concentrazione della frazione biodisponibile di sette metalli pesanti (Cadmio, Rame, Piombo, Nickel, Cromo, Mercurio) in campion di suolo superficiale. Il metodo e' basato su di un trattamento di digestione acida in forno a microonde cui segue la rivelazione strumentale mediante spettrofotometria di assorbimento atomico in fornetto di grafite (GFAAS) con effetto Zeeman per la correzione del fondo. Si descrivono in dettaglio le fasi di preparazione dei campioni, la metodologia di misura e l'analisi statistica dei dati, oltre ad una discussione sull'attendibilita' del metodo e sui futuri sviluppi.

  16. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  17. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: Focus on the Narcolepsies and Idiopathic Hypersomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2015-07-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil).

  18. Midazolam inhibits the formation of amyloid fibrils and GM1 ganglioside-rich microdomains in presynaptic membranes through the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Arima, Hajime; Sugiura, Takeshi; Hirate, Hiroyuki; Kusama, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Sobue, Kazuya

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that a positive correlation exists between surgical interventions performed under general anesthesia and the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the late postoperative period. It has been reported that amyloid β-protein (Αβ) fibrillogenesis, which is closely related to AD, is accelerated by exposure to anesthetics. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain uncertain. This study was designed to investigate whether the anesthetic midazolam affects Αβ fibrillogenesis, and if so, whether it acts through GM1 ganglioside (GM1) on the neuronal surface. Midazolam treatment decreased GM1 expression in the detergent-resistant membrane microdomains of neurons, and these effects were regulated by the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor. Midazolam inhibited Αβ fibril formation from soluble Αβ on the neuronal surface. In addition, midazolam suppressed GM1-induced fibril formation in a cell-free system. Moreover, midazolam inhibited the formation of Αβ assemblies in synaptosomes isolated from aged mouse brains. These finding suggested that midazolam has direct and indirect inhibitory effects on Αβ fibrillogenesis.

  19. Evaluation of anti-apoptotic activity of different dietary antioxidants in renal cell carcinoma against hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garg; Neeraj; K; Mangal; Sharad; Sahu; Tejram; Mehta; Abhinav; Vyas; Suresh; P; Tyagi; Rajeev; K

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-apoptotic and radical scavenging activities of dietary phenolics, namely ascorbic acid,a-tocopherol acetate,citric acid,salicylic acid,and estimate H2O2induced apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma cells.Methods:The intracellular antioxidant potency of antioxidants was investigated.H2O-2-induced apoptosis in RCC-26 was assayed with the following parameters:cell viability(%apoptosis),nucleosomal damage and DNA fragmentation, bcl-2 levels and flow cytometery analysis(ROS production evaluation).Results:Ine anticancer properties of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid,a- tocopherol acetate,citric acid,salicylic acid with perdurable responses were investigated.It was observed that these antioxidants had protective effect(anti-apoptotic activity) against hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) in renal cell carcinoma(RCC-26) cell line.Conclusions:This study reveals and proves the anticancer properties.However,in cancer cell lines anti-apoptotic activity can indirectly reflect the cancer promoter activity through radicals scavenging,and significantly protect nucleus and bcl-2.

  20. Preliminary measurements of the particulate ionic component and SO[sub 2] gas contained in the air of a forestal area in the spanish basque country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinas, D.; Casado, M.; Durana, N. (Facultad de Farmacia, Vitoria (Spain). Departamento de Fisica); Garcia, C. (Diputacion Foral de Alava, Vitoria (Spain)); Van Dinh, P. (Laboratoire d' Aerologie, Lannemezan (France))

    1992-01-01

    One aspect of the EPOCA programme (Estudios en el Pirineo Occidental de Contaminacion Acida), the main goal of which is to show the possible effects of an acid rain type pollution on the forest of the Spanish Basque Country, is presented in this paper SO[sub 2] emmissions have been measured as well as the ionic content both of aerosol and in the bulk deposit and in rainwater. The results show that the main ions found in the aerosol are SO[sub 4] [sup 2]- and NH[sub 4]+ (4.5 and 4.1 [mu]g/m[sup 3] respectively). Precipitation is dominated by Cl-, NH[sub 4]+, Ca[sub 2]+ and SO[sub 4][sup 2]- (143.5, 142.8, 102.9 and 61.5 [mu]eq/l). The bulk deposit shows maximum concentrations in SO[sub 4][sup 2]-, Ca[sub 2]+ and NH[sub 4]+ (9.0, 7.2 and 6.0 mg/m[sup 2] day). Losses of Cl- and NH[sub 4]+ have been observed in the bulk deposit and lack of Ca[sub 2]+ in the aerosol due to its presence in the latter in from of large size particles. (author)

  1. Hydrogen peroxide-induced changes in intracellular pH of guard cells precede stomatal closure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Epidermal bioassay demonstrated that benzylamine,a membrane-permeable weak base,can mimick hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce stomatal closure,and butyric acid,a membrane-permeable weak acid,can partly abolish the H2O2-induced stomatal closure.Confocal pH mapping with the probe 5-(and-6)-carboxy seminaphthorhodafluor-1-acetoxymethylester (SNARF-1-AM) revealed that H2O2 leads to rapid changes in cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH in guard cells of Vicia faba L,i.e.alkalinization of cytoplasmic areas occur red in parallel with a decrease of the vacuolar pH,and that butyric acid pretreatment can abolish alkalinization of cytoplasmic areas and acidification of vacuolar areas of guard cells challenged with H2O2.These results imply that the alkalinization of cytoplasm via efflux of cytosol protons into the vacuole in guard cells challenged with H2O2 is important at an early stage in the signal cascade leading to stomatal closure.

  2. Ionic composition and levels of acidity in rainfall in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between 1989 and 2001; Composicion ionica y niveles de acidez de las lluvias en Maracaibo, Venezuela, entre 1989 y 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Ligbel; Morales, Jose; Velasquez, Harvi; Portillo, Dennis; Cano, Yulixis; Montilla, Brinolfo; Iriarte, Nelkis, Mesa, Johan [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ligbels@hotmail.com

    2009-08-15

    de emision naturales y antropicas, se incorporan en las gotas de lluvia a traves de varios procesos fisicoquimicos durante los eventos de precipitacion. El conocimiento de la composicion quimica de las precipitaciones es critico para el entendimiento de la contaminacion regional y local y sus efectos sobre los ecosistemas. Entre las sustancias acidas o potencialmente acidas envueltas en la formacion de la lluvia acida, se puede senalar los compuestos de azufre, nitrogeno y cloro. Un factor importante en las caracteristicas acido-base de la lluvia es la emision de materiales alcalinos como carbonato de calcio, magnesio y amoniaco, que se encuentran generalmente como un vapor capaz de neutralizar los acidos sulfurico y nitrico. Los datos de la quimica de las lluvias, en este trabajo, provienen de varios sitios de la ciudad de Maracaibo, las muestras de agua de lluvia fueron recolectadas en tres periodos repartidos entre los anos 1989 y 2001, con equipos de muestreo manuales y automaticos. Para los diferentes analisis realizados se utilizaron un espectrometro de absorcion atomica modalidad llama, Perkin-Elmer 3110 y un cromatografo ionico con detector de conductividad, marca Dionex 2000i/SP. El pH-PPV en la lluvia de Maracaibo es 4.8, indicativo de una atmosfera ligeramente acida e influenciada por: SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} en 86 %. La especie neutralizante mas importante es el NH{sub 3}, aunque las concentraciones de Ca{sup +2} y Mg{sup +2} son aportes adicionales al proceso de neutralizacion atmosferica. El mayor flujo de depositacion humeda fue exhibido por: NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con 67.5 %. Estadisticamente, se evidencio una alta correlacion entre SO4{sup *}, Cl{sup *} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con el ion H{sup +} (p<0.05), ratificando su influencia en la acidez de las lluvias de Maracaibo. Se concluye que solo una pequena fraccion de los iones potencialmente acidos contribuyen a la acidez libre de las

  3. Modeling of solvent extraction equilibrium of Cu(II from sulphuric Acid solution with MOC-55TD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Cu(II from acidic sulphate aqueous solutions using the commercial MOC-55TD extractant is studied. A predictive model, which consists in a set of non-linear mass action and mass balance equations is proposed. The model was solved using a tailor-made equation-solving program. The extraction of copper can be described by the formation of CuR2 species (log Kext= 0.717 ± 0.03 in the organic phase. The copper equilibrium isotherm was also obtained at 20°C.

    Se estudia la extracción de Cu(II de disoluciones acuosas acidas, en medio sulfato, mediante la oxima comercial MOC-55TD. Se propone un modelo para predecir la extracción del metal; este modelo consiste en una serie de ecuaciones no lineales de acción de masas y balance de masas. El modelo se resolvió empleando un programa de ordenador específicamente definido para este tipo de equilibrios. La extracción de cobre se describe por la formación de la especie CuR2 (log Kext= 0,717 ± 0,03 en la fase orgánica. Se ha obtenido la isoterma de extracción de cobre a 20 °C.

  4. Purification and characterization of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-dong; LI Bo; YU Zheng-ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the physical and chemical properties of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China. Methods :The arginine ester hydrolase (AEH) was isolated from the venom of Chinese Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus by a combination of ionexchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sepharose Cl-6B and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Results: The purified protein named TM-AEH,a glycoprotein with carbohydrate content of 0.5 % neutral hexose and 0. 75 % sialic acid,a relative molecular mass of 29.0 kDa,and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5. 2. It shares with an extinction coefficient (E0.1%/cm) of 1.332 at 280 nm,consisted of 225 amino acid residues ,and migrated as a band under reduced or non-reduced condition in basic PAGE. TM-AEH was a highly thermostable protein and was stable to pH changes between 5 and 9. The optimum temperature and optimum pH were 55℃ and 8. 4 for its catalytic activity respectively,which was inhibited by Fe3+ and Cu2+. Conclusion:This protein can exhibit higher BAEE-hydrolysing activity and fibrinogenolytic activity as compared to that of whole venom.

  5. Electrosynthesis of succinic acid in non-membrane electrolyzer%无隔膜电化学合成丁二酸清洁工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洋洲

    2013-01-01

    通过对合成丁二酸新电化学体系的研究,设计了无隔膜电解装置,开发出了低能耗、高收率、无污染的丁二酸电化学合成高效清洁工艺.产品总收率可达98.5%,吨产品直流耗电量小于1 500 kW·h,母液可循环利用.%On the basis of the study on new electrochemical systems for synthesizing succinic acid,a new nonmembrane electrolyzer is designed.A new effective and clean electrosynthesis process with advantages such as energysaving,high yield and non-pollution is developed to prepare succinic acid.The total yield of the succinic acid reaches 98.5%.DC power consumption is less than 1 500 kwh/t and the mother liquor can be recycled.

  6. AM/AE/AA三元共聚物的合成%Synthesis of AM/AE/AA tercopolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 杨军; 吴晓艺

    2000-01-01

    以烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚合成了丙烯酸酯活性大单体(AE);以水为溶剂,过硫酸成了AM/AE/AA(丙烯酸酯/活性大单体/丙烯酸)的共聚物表面活性剂并讨论了反应条件对共聚,物表面活性剂性质的影响。结果表明,合成的AM/AE/AA共聚物具有较高的表面活性.%A surface-active macromonomer of poly(oxylethylene alkylphenyl ether)acrylate was prepared with poly(oxylethylene alkylphenyl ether)and acrylic acid.A copolymer surfactant(AM/AE/AA)of poly(oxylethylene alkylpheny ether)acrylate(AE),acrylamide(AM)and acrylic acid(AA)was synthesized using K2S2O8 as initiation and water as solution.The effects of reaction conditions on the properties of surfactant was discussed.It was found that the copolymer of AM/AE/AA exhibited higher surface activity.

  7. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic.

  8. Control of programmed cell death by distinct electrical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbs, Antje; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sava, Irina E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-01

    Electrical activity and sufficient supply with survival factors play a major role in the control of apoptosis in the developing cortex. Coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, which efficiently releases neurotrophins, is essential for the survival of immature neurons. We studied the influence of neuronal activity on apoptosis in the developing cortex. Dissociated cultures of the newborn mouse cerebral cortex were grown on multielectrode arrays to determine the activity patterns that promote neuronal survival. Cultures were transfected with a plasmid coding for a caspase-3-sensitive fluorescent protein allowing real-time analysis of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in individual neurons. Elevated extracellular potassium concentrations (5 and 8 mM), application of 4-aminopyridine or the γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist Gabazine induced a shift in the frequency distribution of activity toward high-frequency bursts. Under these conditions, a reduction or delay in caspase-3 activation and an overall increase in neuronal survival could be observed. This effect was dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, as blockade of this enzyme abolished the survival-promoting effect of high extracellular potassium concentrations. Our data indicate that increased network activity can prevent apoptosis in developing cortical neurons.

  9. A família Euphorbiaceae nas caatingas arenosas do médio rio São Francisco, BA, Brasil The family Euphorbiaceae on the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco River, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Nascimento Sátiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbiaceae é uma das famílias mais representativas da caatinga, particularmente nas áreas sobre dunas arenosas do médio rio São Francisco, no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O levantamento das espécies de Euphorbiaceae nessa formação foi efetuado com base em coletas realizadas na região e materiais de herbário. A família está representada nas áreas estudadas por 20 espécies, distribuídas nos seguintes gêneros: Alchornea Swartz (uma espécie; Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (3; Cnidoscolus Pohl (4; Croton L. (4; Dalechampia L. (1; Jatropha L. (3; Manihot Miller (2; Sapium P. Browne (1 e Tragia L. (1. Chamaesyce alsinifolia (Boiss. Sátiro, C. chamaeclada (Ule Sátiro, Croton paludosus Mull. Arg., Manihot catingae Ule e M. heptaphylla Ule são endêmicas do Estado da Bahia. Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl e C. urnigerus (Pax Pax são restritas às regiões de caatinga do Brasil. São apresentadas chaves para gêneros e espécies, descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica e habitat, bem como comentários sobre as espécies.Euphorbiaceae is one of the most representative families in the caatinga especially on the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco River, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The survey of Euphorbiaceae species from this formation was based on field work and herbaria collections. The family is represented in the study area by 20 species: Alchornea Swartz (one species; Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (3; Cnidoscolus Pohl (4; Croton L. (4; Dalechampia L. (1; Jatropha L. (3; Manihot Miller (2; Sapium P. Browne (1 and Tragia L. (1. Chamaesyce alsinifolia (Boiss. Sátiro, C. chamaeclada (Ule Sátiro, Croton paludosus Mull. Arg., Manihot catingae Ule and M. heptaphylla Ule are endemic to the state of Bahia. Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl and C. urnigerus (Pax Pax are restricted to caatinga regions of Brazil. Identification keys, morphological descriptions, illustrations, notes on geographic distribution, habitat and comments on

  10. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John R I; Williams, Bethany R M; Mitchell, Thomas C; Carine, Mark A; Harris, David J; Scotland, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    A global revision of Convolvulus L. is presented, Calystegia R.Br. being excluded on pragmatic grounds. One hundred and ninety species are recognised with the greatest diversity in the Irano-Turanian region. All recognised species are described and the majority are illustrated. Distribution details, keys to species identification and taxonomic notes are provided. Four new species, Convolvulusaustroafricanus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvulusiranicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvuluspeninsularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov. and Convolvulusxanthopotamicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., one new subspecies Convolvuluschinensissubsp.triangularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, subsp. nov., and two new varieties Convolvulusequitansvar.lindheimeri J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov., Convolvulusglomeratusvar.sachalitarum J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov. are described. Convolvulusincisodentatus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, nom. nov., is provided as a replacement name for the illegitimate Convolvulusincisus Choisy. Several species treated as synonyms of other species in recent publications are reinstated including Convolvuluschinensis Ker-Gawl., Convolvulusspinifer M.Popov., Convolvulusrandii Rendle and Convolvulusaschersonii Engl. Ten taxa are given new status and recognised at new ranks: Convolvulusnamaquensis (Schltr. ex. A.Meeuse) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushermanniaesubsp.erosus (Desr.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvuluscrenatifoliussubsp.montevidensis (Spreng.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulusfruticulosussubsp.glandulosus (Webb) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvuluscapituliferussubsp.foliaceus (Verdc.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushystrixsubsp.ruspolii (Dammer ex Hallier f.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushystrixsubsp.inermis (Chiov.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulusrottlerianussubsp.stocksii (Boiss.) J

  11. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  12. Palynological characters of Glycyrrhiza,Glycyrrhizopsis,and Meristotropis(Leguminosae),with special reference to their taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MENG; Xiang-Yun ZHU

    2010-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 11 species of the genus Glycyrrhiza L.with one from each of the genera Glycyrrhizopsis Boiss.& Bal.and Meristotropis Fisch.& C.A.Mey.was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.In pollen morphology,the main differences between Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza are: Glycyrrhizopsis-pollen grains 36.63× 40.42 μm in size,oblate spheroidal in shape; and Glycyrrhiza-pollen grains 24.47-33.18 × 23.82-31.83 μm in size,prolate spheroidal in shape.Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza should be recognized as two distinct genera based on palynologicai and morphological characters.Meristotropis and Glycyrrhiza are similar in many important palynological and morphological characters,suggesting that the two should be merged.In Glycyrrhiza,two types of pollen grains,3-lobed-circular or subtriangular in polar view,are found in different species,in accordance with morphological differences in the two groups,shedding light on the classification and evolution of the genus.

  13. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  14. Analysis of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu seed defensins: To the problem of the origin of polyploid wheat genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Odintsova, Margarita S; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2008-06-01

    The origin of polyploid wheat genomes has been the subject of numerous studies and is the key problem in wheat phylogeny. Different diploid species have been supposed to donate genomes to tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. To shed light on phylogenetic relationships between the presumable A genome donors and hexaploid wheat species we have applied a new approach: the comparison of defensins from diploid Triticum species, Triticum boeoticum Boiss. and Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., with previously characterized Triticum kiharae defensins [T.I. Odintsova et al., Biochimie 89 (2007) 605-612]. Defensins were isolated by acidic extraction of seeds followed by three-step chromatographic separation. Isolated defensins were identified by molecular masses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. For the first time, we have shown that T. urartu defensins are more similar to those of the hexaploid wheat than T. boeoticum defensins, although variation among samples collected in different regions of the world was revealed. Our results clearly demonstrate that T. urartu of the Asian origin contributed the A genome to polyploid wheat species.

  15. Otostegia persica (Lamiaceae: A review on its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The current study summarizes the updated information concerning the ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Otostegia persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae, an endemic medicinal plant in south and southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Information was collected through bibliographic investigation from scientific journals, books, theses, reports, and electronic search (databases SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Moreover, documentation from unpublished resources and ethnobotanical surveys has been used. The present review covers the literature available from 2003 to 2013. Results: In traditional systems of medicine, this plant is reputed for treating diabetes, arthritis, gastric discomfort, headache, rheumatism, sedative activities, regulating blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Phytochemical screening of active components and mineral element evaluation of this species have been reported. Several types of diterpenoids and flavonols including morin, kaempferol, and quercetin are identified from the plant. Most of the pharmacological activity of this plant resides in its flavonoid fraction which causes antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Various pharmacological studies on O. persica show antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-aphid, and hepatoprotective activities. Conclusion: Being an endemic plant of Iran, this species is an important medicinal herb which can be used for various purposes. This review might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses and discover new lead compounds for diseases mentioned.

  16. Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil from the rhizome and roots of Ferula hermonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ja'fari, Abdel-Hadi; Vila, Roser; Freixa, Blanca; Tomi, Felix; Casanova, Joseph; Costa, Joan; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2011-08-01

    The analysis of the essential oil from rhizome and roots of Ferula hermonis Boiss. (Apiaceae) by GC-FID, GC-MS and ¹³C NMR allowed the identification of 79 constituents, more than 90% of the oil, the major one being α-pinene (43.3%), followed by α-bisabolol (11.1%) and the unusual acetylenic compound 3,5-nonadiyne (4.4%). The antifungal activity of the essential oil before and after fractionation was assayed against several yeasts and filamentous fungi. Purification of the active fractions afforded 3,5-nonadiyne, α-bisabolol, jaeschkeanadiol angelate, α-bisabolol oxide B and trans-verbenol, as well as two purified fractions, one of them (JB73) with 73% of jaeschkeanadiol benzoate and the other with 50% of spathulenol. Determination of MIC and MFC values of all these products evidenced strong antifungal activities for JB73 and 3,5-nonadiyne. Particularly, against the dermatophyte Tricophyton mentagrophytes, MIC and MFC values were 0.25 μg/ml for JB73, and 8 μg/ml for 3,5-nonadiyne, the former being more active than amphotericin B and nystatin.

  17. Ethanolic extract of Ferula gummosa is cytotoxic against cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudarzi, Hoda; Salimi, Mona; Irian, Saeed; Amanzadeh, Amir; Mostafapour Kandelous, Hirsa; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Salimi, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. has medicinal applications in treating a wide range of diseases including cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activities of the seed and gum extracts of F. gummosa as well as to study the effect of the potent extract on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract had the lowest IC50 value at 72 h (0.001 ± 1.2 mg/mL) in BHY cells. Moreover, flowcytometry and annexin-V analysis revealed that the ethanolic extract induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in BHY cells at G1/S phase. In addition, colorimetric methods exhibited the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in the aqueous and gum extracts (0.12 ± 0.037, 0.01 ± 2.51 mg/g of dry powder). Generally, the results obtained indicate that F. gummosa ethanol extract may contain effective compounds which can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  18. Effect of Ferula hermonis root extract on rat skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z

    2011-12-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. is an aphrodisiac plant that grows in the Mediterranean region. It has been reported that treatment with acetonic extract from the root of this plant acutely increases serum testosterone in the rat. This study investigated the effects of F. hermonis extract alone or combined with exercise on rat skeletal muscle fibers. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control-sedentary (CS) that had no treatment or exercise; ferula-sedentary (FS) that was orally treated with ferula extract at a dose of 60 mg/kg/rat every other day over a period of 20 d; control-exercised (CE) that was trained by swimming for 40 min every other day; and ferula-exercised (FE) that received ferula and performed exercise. At the end of experiments, the fiber diameter and number of muscle nuclei of tibialis anterior were measured by using immunofluorescent techniques and software analyses. The FE group showed significant increases in muscle weight, fiber size and nuclear number compared with the other groups. However, no significant changes in the aforementioned parameters were found among the CS, FS and CE groups. Ferula treatment and exercise were additive to each other. In conclusion, short-term exercise combined with administration of F. hermonis extract was more effective in enhancing the growth of skeletal muscle fibers than exercise alone.

  19. In vitro and in vivo activities of Haplophyllum myrtifolium against Leishmania tropica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, Ipek; Saglam, Hüsniye; Limoncu, M Emin; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Toz, Seray Ozensoy; Ozbel, Yusuf; Ozbilgin, Ahmet

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of an endemic Turkish plant and compare its efficacy with a reference drug. In addition to the in vitro activities of the ethanol, acidified and alkaloid extracts and furoquinoline alkaloids skimmianine and gamma-fagarine, in vivo antileishmanial activitiy of the acidified extract of Haplophyllum myrtifolium Boiss. (Rutaceae) were investigated against Leishmania tropica (L. tropica), a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. All the extracts and pure compounds showed in vitro inhibitory activity against the promastigotes of. L. tropica. The in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations of y-fagarine, acidified extract, ethanol extract, skimmianine and alkaloid extract against promastigotes were determined as 8.7, 9.4, 10.9, 25.7 and 25.8 microg/ml respectively. In vivo results of Haplophyllum myrtifolium acidified extract showed that this plant has a limited effect on decreasing the lesion size of experimental mice infected with Leishmania tropica. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time both the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of Haplophyllum mrytifolium have been reported in the same research.

  20. The mono - and sesquiterpene content of aphid-induced galls on Pistacia palaestina is not a simple reflection of their composition in intact leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Karin; Bar, Einat; Ben-Ari, Matan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Anacardiaceae), a sibling species of P. terebinthus also known as turpentine tree or terebinth tree, is common in the Levant region. The aphid Baizongia pistaciae L. manipulates the leaves of the plant to form large galls, which provide both food and protection for its developing offspring. We analyzed the levels and composition of mono-and sesquiterpenes in both leaves and galls of ten naturally growing trees. Our results show that monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents of P. palaestina leaves and galls, but terpene levels and composition vary among trees. Despite this inter-tree variation, terpene levels and compositions in galls from different trees resemble each other more than the patterns displayed by leaves from the same trees. Generally, galls contain 10 to 60 fold higher total terpene amounts than leaves, especially of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. Conversely, the leaves generally accumulate more sesquiterpenes, in particular E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene, in comparison to galls. Our results clearly show that the terpene pattern in the galls is not a simple reflection of that of the leaves and suggest that aphids have a strong impact on the metabolism of their host plant, possibly for their own defense.

  1. Potential Habitat Modelling of Ferula ovina Using Artificial Neural Network in Fereydunshahr Region, Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution maps have been widely developed based on ecological niche theory together with statistical and geographical information system in plant ecology. The current study aimed to evaluate Artificial Neural Network (ANN in mapping potential habitat of Ferula ovina Boiss in Ferydunshar rangelands, Isfahan. This is known as valuable forage and medicinal species. Environmental data (independent variables and species occurrence data (dependent variable were required to determine potential habitat of a given species. Some physical and chemical soil properties, climate and physiographic variables were mapped for the entire studied area using krigging and inverse distance weighting methods. F. ovina occurrence data were collected from 278 sites including 137 presence and 141 absence sites. The relationships between the studied environmental variables and F. ovina occurrence data were explored using ANN method. According to the sensitivity analysis, occurrence of F. ovina mostly correlated with silt and sand percentage, elevation slope, and organic matter. Model evaluation based on Kappa coefficient (0.66 and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC=0.9 showed good model fitness in relation to reality on local scales. The ANN technique enables managers to identify appropriate areas for rehabilitation practices such as direct seeding and planting.                       

  2. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  3. Immunosuppressive principles from Achillea talagonica, an endemic species of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saeidnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of study: Achillea talagonica Boiss. (Asteraceae grows in the western and central parts of Iran. This plant has long been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of rheumatic pain. Previously, the immunosuppressive activity of the aqueous extract of this endemic plant in experimental animals was reported. In this research, isolation of the main immunologically active components of A. talagonica, which were effective on humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice is elucidated. Methods: In order to find the main immunosuppressive components of A. talagonica, methanol and methanol-water (80% and 50% v:v extracts were injected to BALB/c mice and the hemagglutinating antibody titer was assayed after immunization with SRBC (sheep red blood cells. Guided by this assay, active principles were separated by chromatographic methods. Results: Isolated compounds were identified as caffeic acid 9-O-glucoside (1, quercetin (2, luteolin (3, 3'-methoxy luteolin (4, proline (5 and choline (6 by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported in literatures. Immunosuppressive property of choline (5 mgkg-1 was comparable to those of prednisolone (10 mgkg-1; although, quercetin (20 mgkg-1 and caffeoyl glucoside (20 mgkg-1 decreased anti-SRBC titer in comparison with control groups. Major conclusion: Immunosuppressive effects of A. talagonica are due to some components belonging to betaine, flavonol and phenoilc esters.

  4. The structural studies on the medicinal plant Haplophyllum telephioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tekin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Haplophyllum telephioides Boiss., Rutaceae, is an endemic herb which generally grows at the steppe region in Central Turkey. Its aerial parts in flowering stage are used by local people against influenza virus due to its antimicrobial effect. The main purpose of this study was to examine the morphology, anatomy and histology of the vegetative and reproductive organs of the H. telephioides, which are used in popular medicine, thereby, contributing to the pharmacognostic evaluation of the species. The species was studied morphologically in detail. New morphological features were described for them, such as the dimension of leaf, sepal and fruit, size of filament, anther and pistil, and diameter of the ovary. In addition, some deviating features were found in relation to previous published descriptions for the species, such as plant height and petal length. The anatomy of plant parts such as stem, leaf, sepal, petal, filament and pistil, were studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Stem has incipient secondary growth. The leaf is amphistomatic and the mesophyll is equifacial. Stomata are anomocytic and sunken. In micromorphological studies, it is determined that the leaf is coated by a thick cuticle and above epicuticular wax. Schizogenous glands were found in all vegetative and reproductive organs. The structural features herein found can assist the diagnosis of H. telephioides.

  5. Comparison of Two Species of Notopterygium by GC-MS and HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix (Qianghuo, including Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang (NI and Notopterygium franchetii H. de Boiss (NF, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Of these two plants, NI, is more commonly used and has a much higher price in the marketplace. To compare these two plants, a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was carried out, thus obtaining an overall characterization for both volatile and none-volatile compounds. Combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis, GC-MS was successfully applied to distinguish NF and NI. The chemical constitutes of volatile oil in NI and NF were firstly compared in detail, and 1R-alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 4-isopropyl-1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene had great contribution to the discrimination. Fingerprints of 14 batches of Qinghuo samples were also established based on HPLC, and an obvious difference was found between the two species. The chromatographic fingerprints were further analyzed by similarity analysis and HCA. The present study is the first reported evaluation of two origins of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix by GC-MS and HPLC, which will facilitate quality control and its clinical application.

  6. Overcoming seed dormancy of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium) through cold stratification, gibberellic acid, and acid scarification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Dashti; Hojat Ghahremani-Majd; Mahmood Esna-Ashari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) is bulbous perennial herb widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry in Iran.We studied germination of mooseer seeds in two separate experiments.In the first experiment,we evaluated four treatments:sulfuric acid scarification,sandpaper scarification,cold stratification,and gibberellic acid (GA3)application.In the second experiment,we evaluated combinations of these treatments.All treatments in the first experiment had no effect on seed germination,suggesting that mooseer seeds have physical and physiological dormancy.In the second experiment,the highest germination percentage (86.6%) was observed after five minutes scarification with sulfuric acid (75% v/v),followed by 60 days of cold stratification.Duration of sulfuric acid scarification (5,10,and 20 min) did not affect germination rates,but increasing duration of cold stratification (from 15to 60 days),increased germination from 28.3% to 86.6%.Our study showed that mooseer seeds have both physical and physiological dormancy.

  7. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa, medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. Results: According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Conclusion: Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry. PMID:28149496

  8. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  9. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  10. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  11. 亚临界水萃取植物精油的模型%Proposed Models for Subcritical Water Extraction of Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Khajenoori; A.Haghighi Asl; F.Hormozi

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms that control the extraction rate of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Z. Multiflora) with subcritical water (SW) were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent (I.e. Partitioning thermodynamics) or by the rates of analyte desorption from the matrix (I.e. Kinetics). Four simple models have been applied to describe the extraction profiles obtained with SW: (1) a model based solely on the thermodynamic distribution coefficient KD, which assumes that analyte desorption from the matrix is rapid compared to elution; (2) one-site kinetic model, which assumes that the extraction rate is limited by the analyte desorption rate from the matrix, and is not limited by the thermodynamic (KD) partitioning that occurs during elution; (3) two-site kinetic model and (4) external mass transfer resistance model. For SW extract ion, the thermodynamic elution of analytes from the matrix was the prevailing mechanism as evidenced by the fact that extraction rates increased proportionally with the SW flow rate. This was also confirmed by the fact that simple removal calculations based on determined KD (for major essential oil compounds) gave good fits to experimental data for flow rates from 1 to 4 ml·min-1. The results suggested that the overall extraction mechanism was influenced by solute partitioning equilibrium with external mass transfer through liquid film.1

  12. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-09-19

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria.

  13. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  14. Nepetalactone content and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of Nepeta persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali; Oji, Khodamali

    2010-04-01

    The essential oils from the flower, leaf, stem and root of Nepeta persica Boiss., analyzed by GC and GC/MS, were shown to contain 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (58.5%, 62.3%, 66.2% and 27.1%, respectively), and 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (33.0%, 28.3%, 24.9% and 7.6%, respectively). The other main component of the flower and stem oils was alpha-pinene (3.6% and 4.4%) and of the leaf oil beta-ocimene (3.6%). In the root oil, other main constituents were alpha-pinene (40.4%), alpha-amorphene (5.3%), gamma-cadinene (2.9%), and cis-calamenene (2.5%). Nepetalactone was the major component of the flower, leaf and stem oils, which are thus important sources of nepetalactone. Antibacterial activities of the flower, leaf, stem and root oils were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The flower, leaf, stem, and root oils had difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oils might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  15. SUDAN KURŞUN VE NİKEL İYONLARININ Verbascum cheiranthifolium L. MATERYALİ İLE GİDERİMİ

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Şükrü; (UÇAN) KÖYSÜREN, H. Nagehan

    2014-01-01

     Bu çalışmada, suda çözünmüş Pb(II) ve Ni(II) iyonlarının modifikayon yapılmış sığırkuyruğu (Verbascum cheiranthifolium BOISS. var. cheiranthifolium) bitki materyali tarafından giderilmesi araştırılmıştır. Bu ağır metal iyonlarının giderilmesinde modifikasyon işleminin adsorpsiyon kapasitesini arttırıcı etkisi araştırılmıştır. Modifikasyondan önce ve sonra sığırkuyruğu bitki materyalinin yapısı FTIR ve SEM analizleri ile belirlenmiştir. Modifikasyon işlemi HCl asit çözeltisi ile yapılmıştır. ...

  16. Assessment of heavy metals accumulation by spontaneous vegetation: Screening for new accumulator plant species grown in Kettara mine-Marrakech, Southern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midhat, Laila; Ouazzani, Naaila; Esshaimi, Mouhsine; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Mandi, Laila

    2017-02-01

    The present paper aims to perform a screening of native plants growing in Kettara mine-Marrakech (Southern Morocco) for its phytoremediation. Plants and soil samples were collected and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations at several sites in the mine. The results showed that the soil in the vicinity of Kettara mine is deficient in major elements and contain toxic levels of metals. Spontaneously growing native plants were botanically identified and then classified into 21 species and 14 families. Significant difference was observed among the average concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) in plants (p ≤ 0.05). Six plants of 21 species namely Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin, Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagreze-Fossat, Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench, Calendula algeriensis Boiss. & Reuter, Aizoon hispanicum L. and Melilotus sulcata Desf. were considered as the best-performing specimens due to their high ability to accumulate multiple metals in their shoots and roots without sustaining toxicity. This was confirmed by the transfer factors generally higher than 1. Using the most common criteria to classify the hyperaccumulator plants, these species can be classified as new accumulator plants of many heavy metals and be potentially used as remediation tools of metal-contaminated sites.

  17. Vegetation as an indicator of soil properties and water quality in the Akarçay stream (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serteser, Ahmet; Kargioğlu, Mustafa; Içağa, Yilmaz; Konuk, Muhsin

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the relationship among water quality, soil properties, and plant coverage in the region of the Akarçay stream was examined. Correlation analyses were carried out between soil samples taken from each of four plant communities in the Akarçay basin and water in the Akarçay stream. The four plant communities in the study area are as follows: Limonium lilacinum (Boiss. et Bal.) Wag., Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv. Peganum harmala L., and Hordeum marinum Huds. subsp. marinum. B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 data from both soil and water samples were subjected to statistical analysis, and significant correlations were obtained (p indicated that the chemical features of the soil had a major effect on water quality. The important parameters were B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 for Limonium lilacinum communities; Ca, K, and pV for Peganum harmala; and B, Cl, Mg, pH, and pV for Alhagi pseudalhagi. There were also statistically significant relationships (p indicators for soil chemistry and water quality.

  18. Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D; Molina, J M

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats.

  19. Soap, A Free-code Tool To Study The Impact Of Stellar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisse, Isabelle; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N.

    2011-09-01

    Dark spots and bright plages are present on the surface of all stars, even low-active stars (like the Sun in its low-active phase). Their appearance and disappearance on the stellar photosphere, combined with the stellar rotation, may lead to errors and uncertainties in the characterization of planets both in radial velocimetry and photometry. SOAP is a tool offered to the community (Boisse, Bonfils and Santos, in prep.) that enables to simulate spots and plages on rotating stars and computes their impact on RV and photometric measurements. This talk will discuss the challenges related to the knowledge of stellar activity for the next decade: detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their stars (from G to M dwarfs), understand the activity in the low-mass end of M dwarf (on which will focus future projects like Elektra, SPIRou or CARMENES), limitation to the sum of different transit observations in order to characterize the atmospheric components (from the ground or with Spitzer, JWST), planets around young stars,... and how this can be simulated with SOAP in order to search for indices and corrections. IB and NCS would like to thank the support by the European Research Council/European Community under the FP7 through a Starting Grant, as well from Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.

  20. 基于psbA-trnH序列变异分析川明参属亲缘关系及分类地位%Analyses on relationship and taxonomic position of Chuanminshen Sheh et Shan (Apiaceae) based on variation of psbA-trnH sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春凤; 吴宝成; 周伟; 刘启新

    2014-01-01

    By means of PCR amplification and sequencing methods, cpDNA psbA-trnH fragment from Chuanminshen violaceum Sheh et Shan, Peucedanum wawrae ( H. Wolff) Su and P. medicum Dunn of Trib. Peucedaneae, Changium smyrnioides H. Wolff, Pleurospermum davidii Franch., P. foetens Franch. and P. cristatum de Boiss. of Trib. Smyrnieae in Apiaceae were amplified and sequenced, sequences obtained were submitted to GenBank and their accession numbers were KF557756-KF557762 . In combination of psbA-trnH fragment sequences, induced from GenBank, of one species in Ferula Linn., one species in Semenovia Regel et Herder and two species in Angelica Linn. of Trib. Peucedaneae, one species in Sinolimprichtia H. Wolff, one species in Notopterygium de Boiss. and one species in Trachydium Lindl. of Trib. Smyrnieae, and Turgenia latifolia ( Linn.) Hoffm. of Trib. Scandicineae,psbA-trnH fragment information of all species was analyzed, and MP, ML and BI phylogenetic trees were constructed taking T. latifolia as an outgroup. The results show that length of psbA-trnH fragment of both Chuanminshen violaceum and Changium smyrnioides is 258 bp and GC content of both is 23%, while length of psbA-trnH fragment of other species is 228-405 bp and their GC content is 26%-35%. And total length of psbA-trnH fragment after alignment is 553 bp ( including gaps) , in which, there are 237 variable sites and 178 information sites. The relative genetic distance between Chuanminshen violaceum and Changium smyrnioides is the smallest ( only 0 . 02 ) , while that among Chuanminshen violaceum and other species is 0. 10-1. 34, and generally, that among Chuanminshen violaceum and species in Trib. Smyrnieae is smaller, meaning that relationship of Chuanminshen violaceum with Changium smyrnioides and some species in Trib. Smyrnieae is nearer. In MP, ML and BI phylogenetic trees, both Chuanminshen violaceum and Changium smyrnioides are clustered together and are grouped as one clade with other species of Trib. Smyrnieae

  1. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  2. Chemical and principal-component analyses of the essential oils of Apioideae taxa (Apiaceae) from central Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanos, Chrysostomos; Karioti, Anastasia; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar; Veljić, Milan; Skaltsa, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of 23 taxa belonging to the Apioideae subfamily were studied in detail. The investigated taxa were Pimpinella serbica (Vis.) Bentham & Hooker, Libanotis montana Cr., Cnidium silaifolium (Jacq.) Simk. ssp. orientale (Boiss.) Tutin, Bupleurum praealtum L., B. sibthorpianum S. S. var. diversifolium (Roch.) Hay, Aegopodium podagraria L., Torilis anthriscus (L.) Gmel., Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm., Laserpitium siler L., Laser trilobum (L.) Brokh., Chaerophyllum aureum L., C. hirsutum L., C. temulum L., Pastinaca sativa L., P. hirsuta Pancic., Tordylium maximum L., Physospermum cornubiense (L.) DC., Peucedanum alsaticum L., P. oreoselinum (L.) Moench, P. cervaria (L.) Cuss., P. austriacum (Jacq.) Koch, P. longifolium W. et K., and P. officinale L. All of these species grow wild in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The essential oils were found to be complex mixtures of various compounds, more than 100 constituents being in each taxon, with contributions of main products never exceeding 25% of the total content. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the main group of constituents of all taxa, except for Peucedanum species, where monoterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the main components. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil composition is discussed according to results of principal-component analysis (PCA). The essential-oil composition mainly reflects current taxonomic relationships between the investigated taxa.

  3. Relationships among the A Genomes of Triticum L. Species as Evidenced by SSR Markers, in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G. Krattinger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among 55 wheat accessions (47 accessions collected from Iran and eight accessions provided by the Institute of Plant Biology of the University of Zurich, Switzerland belonging to eight species carrying A genome (Triticum monococcum L., T. boeoticum Boiss., T. urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan, T. durum Desf., T. turgidum L., T. dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler, T. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebner Schweinf. and T. aestivum L. were evaluated using 31 A genome specific microsatellite markers. A high level of polymorphism was observed among the accessions studied (PIC = 0.77. The highest gene diversity was revealed among T. durum genotypes, while the lowest genetic variation was found in T. dicoccoides accessions. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed a significant genetic variance (75.56% among these accessions, representing a high intra-specific genetic diversity within Triticum taxa in Iran. However, such a variance was not observed among their ploidy levels. Based on the genetic similarity analysis, the accessions collected from Iran were divided into two main groups: diploids and polyploids. The genetic similarity among the diploid and polyploid species was 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. There were no significant differences in A genome diversity from different geographic regions. Based on the genetic diversity analyses, we consider there is value in a greater sampling of each species in Iran to discover useful genes for breeding purposes.

  4. NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SOME ANNUAL CLOVERS (Trifolium sp. AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A TEKELI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted between the years of 2001-2002 in the experimental area and laboratory of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty in Trakya University, Tekirdağ (Turkey. Five different clovers [Persian (Trifolium resupinatum L. var. majus Boiss., Mediterranean (T. spumosum L., narrow-leaved (T. angustifolium L., hedgehog (T. echinatum M. Bieb. and lappa (T. lappaceum L. clovers] were used. Each plot consisted of 8 rows with a length of 5 m. Row spacing of 30 cm and sowing rate of 10 kg ha-1 were used. Sowing times were on 2.25.2001 and on 2.28.2002. Plots were not irrigated and fertilized after sown and harvest. One cut was taken in both years at 4 growing stages such as pre-bud, pre-bloom, 50% bloom and full-bloom. The central 1 m-2 sections was cut at ground level for dry matter. Approximately 500g samples were dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and stored for one day at room temperature then found dry matter. Crude protein (% was determined by Kjeldahl method.

  5. Chemical composition and screening of the antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts of Stachys species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. LAZAREVIĆ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GC and GC/MS analyses of the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Stachys germanica subsp. heldreichii (Boiss Hayek, Stachys iva Griseb., Stachys plumosa Griseb. and Stachys scardica Griseb., Balkan peninsula endemics, were performed. One hundred and seventy-nine constituents, accounting for 88.8–98.1% of the total composition of the extracts, were identified. The common feature of the diethyl ether extracts was the high content of terpenoids and fatty acid-derived compounds, while the common feature of the ethyl acetate extracts was the prevalence of fatty acid-derived compounds. A disk diffusion method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enteritidis; fungi: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The total antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum method. The preliminary bioassay results indicated that the diethyl ether extract of S. plumosa could be a possible source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Three Onobrychis Species from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian , Mostafa Asadbegy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant phenolic compounds are a main group of plant natural products and flavonoids are the largest and best studied natural phenols. These substances possess a series of biological properties and act on biological systems as antioxidants. In present research, the aim is to determine in vitro total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of three Onobrychis species belonging to the family Fabaceae, namely O. sosnovskyi Grossh., O. viciifolia Scop. and O. melanotricha Boiss. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify any correlations between total phenolic content of the extracts with their antioxidant activities Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different test systems, namely 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH, metal-chelation activity and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model. Results: Results indicated that O. viciifolia extract contains the highest total phenolic content (10.38 ± 0.33mg GAE/g of dry extract. However, the species are not remarkable different (P 0.55 to 0.98. Conclusion: Our results showed that the examined Onobrychis extracts represent strong antioxidant activity; hence, they can be suggested as antioxidant agents for special use in future.

  7. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  8. Participation of GABAA Chloride Channels in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of a Fatty Acid Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid and a mixture of eight fatty acids (FAT-M identified in this maternal fluid (C12:0, lauric acid, 0.9 μg%; C14:0, myristic acid, 6.9 μg%; C16:0, palmitic acid, 35.3 μg%; C16:1, palmitoleic acid, 16.4 μg%; C18:0, stearic acid, 8.5 μg%; C18:1cis, oleic acid, 18.4 μg%; C18:1trans, elaidic acid, 3.5 μg%; C18:2, linoleic acid, 10.1 μg% produce anxiolytic-like effects that are comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats, suggesting the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptors, a possibility not yet explored. Wistar rats were subjected to the defensive burying test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. In different groups, three GABAA receptor antagonists were administered 30 min before FAT-M administration, including the competitive GABA binding antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, GABAA benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (5 mg/kg, and noncompetitive GABAA chloride channel antagonist picrotoxin (1 mg/kg. The FAT-M exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the defensive burying test and elevated plus maze, without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test. The GABAA antagonists alone did not produce significant changes in the behavioral tests. Picrotoxin but not bicuculline or flumazenil blocked the anxiolytic-like effect of the FAT-M. Based on the specific blocking action of picrotoxin on the effects of the FAT-M, we conclude that the FAT-M exerted its anxiolytic-like effects through GABAA receptor chloride channels.

  9. Effect of growth stages and systems on range vegetation characteristics in el Rosa, north Kordofan, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M.A. El Hag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation characteristics were studied in closed and open systems at flowering and seeding in (El Rosa El khuwei locality at September and November 2009. Sampling was using 2Km2 plots in a radiating manner from the centre of plot. CRD was used to analyses all parameters. Results of biomass, plant density and plant cover in the closed systems at the flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher. These parameters were significantly lower in the open system at seeding. Bare soil and litter were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in the open system at seeding. Total forage productivity kg/ha was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in the closed system at the flowering and least in the open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in closed system at seeding and leas in open at flowering. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher and least in the open system at seeding. Plant frequencies were higher in the closed system at the two growth stages than open system like Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus Bano (Eragrostis tremula Gaw (Aristida sp Difra (Echinocloa colonum Aboelrakhus (Andropogon gayanus Fisiya (Fimbristyls hispidula and Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis had higher frequencies. However leflef (Luffa aegyptiaca and Himeira (Hymenocardia acida had lower frequencies.  Simeima (Sesamum alatum Buid (Commelinia subulata Abodaib (Ceraotheca sesamoid Shuleny (Zornia glochidiata and Rabaa (Zalea sp were found only in the closed system at flowering. Nuida (Sida cordofolia were only found in the open system at the two growth stages. It was concluded that the closed system had higher plant density and cover, biomass, plant frequencies and forage production. Bare soil and litter were higher in open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was higher in the closed system at seeding. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were higher. Indicate that direct effects on

  10. Effects of intrathecal and intracerebroventricular administration of luteolin in a rat neuropathic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Koji; Haranishi, Yasunori; Terada, Tadanori; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motohiro; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Luteolin, a major component of flavones, is known to have various physiological properties. Although luteolin reportedly has an antinociceptive effect on acute and inflammatory pain, little is known about its effect on neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study was to determine whether luteolin could ameliorate hyperalgesia in the central nervous system using a neuropathic pain model. Chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Luteolin (0.1-1.5 mg) was administered intrathecally or intracerebroventricularly to examine the central effects on mechanical, thermal, and cold hyperalgesia using the electronic von Frey test, plantar test, and cold plate test, respectively. A rotarod test was also performed to assess motor function in normal rats. Spinally applied luteolin dose-dependently attenuated mechanical and cold hyperalgesia, but it had no effect on thermal hyperalgesia. At the highest dose, luteolin affected motor performance. The spinal action of luteolin on mechanical hyperalgesia was inhibited by intrathecal pretreatment with the γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline and μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, but not by intrathecal pretreatment with either the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil or glycine receptor antagonist strychnine. Supraspinal application of luteolin had no antihyperalgesic effects in any test. These findings suggest that luteolin ameliorates mechanical and cold hyperalgesia at least in part by activating GABAA receptors in a flumazenil-insensitive manner and μ-opioid receptors in the spinal cord, but that the supraspinal regions are unlikely to contribute to the antihyperalgesic action of luteolin. Luteolin could be a candidate therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain.

  11. A novel operant conflict procedure using incrementing shock intensities to assess the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, John; Ross, Laurie; Jonak, Gerald; Zhou, Jin

    2009-05-01

    There is a need for novel anxiolytics, which are effective, but do not cause sedation, tolerance, and rebound anxiety on discontinuation. To investigate a procedure that can be used to assess these characteristics preclinically, rats were initially trained to press a lever at a high rate to obtain food. Once trained, periods of punishment were introduced in which electric shocks were superimposed. The intensity of these electric shocks was increased every 90 s from very low (0.01 mA) to sufficiently high to stop most subjects responding (0.4 mA), so that a complete rate/intensity function was obtained during each punishment period. The benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, and two novel subtype-selective gamma-aminobutyric acid-A agonists, TP003 and TPA023, significantly increased response rates mildly suppressed by intermediate levels of electric shock without any effect on unpunished response rate. Two clinically anxiogenic agents, yohimbine and flumazenil, reduced the rate of punished responding. Aripiprazole and amphetamine reduced both punished and unpunished responding. Repeated treatment with diazepam 2.5 mg/kg daily for 15 days, initially markedly reduced unpunished response rates, but also increased punished response rates, an effect which became greater with repeated treatment. Abrupt cessation of diazepam treatment produced a reduction in punished responding. Diazepam (5 mg/kg daily) produced a greater reduction in unpunished responding, a smaller increase in punished responding, and a larger and longer lasting reduction in punished rates on withdrawal. In conclusion, the procedure detected anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs, and the sedative side effects, development of tolerance, and rebound-anxiety on discontinuation of a benzodiazepine. This procedure should have utility in the characterization of novel treatments of anxiety.

  12. Contribution of P2X4 receptors to ethanol intake in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Letisha R; Finn, Deborah A; Khoja, Sheraz; Yardley, Megan M; Asatryan, Liana; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    P2X receptors (P2XRs) are a family of cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels activated by synaptically released extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate. The P2X4 subtype is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and is sensitive to low intoxicating ethanol concentrations. Genetic meta-analyses identified the p2rx4 gene as a candidate gene for innate alcohol intake and/or preference. The current study used mice lacking the p2rx4 gene (knockout, KO) and wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 controls to test the hypothesis that P2X4Rs contribute to ethanol intake. The early acquisition and early maintenance phases of ethanol intake were measured with three different drinking procedures. Further, we tested the effects of ivermectin (IVM), a drug previously shown to reduce ethanol's effects on P2X4Rs and to reduce ethanol intake and preference, for its ability to differentially alter stable ethanol intake in KO and WT mice. Depending on the procedure and the concentration of the ethanol solution, ethanol intake was transiently increased in P2X4R KO versus WT mice during the acquisition of 24-h and limited access ethanol intake. IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in P2X4R KO and WT mice, but the degree of reduction was 50 % less in the P2X4R KO mice. Western blot analysis identified significant changes in γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor α1 subunit expression in brain regions associated with the regulation of ethanol behaviors in P2X4R KO mice. These findings add to evidence that P2X4Rs contribute to ethanol intake and indicate that there is a complex interaction between P2X4Rs, ethanol, and other neurotransmitter receptor systems.

  13. Involvement of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Quercitrin and Evidence of the Involvement of the Monoaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercitrin is a well-known flavonoid that is contained in Flos Albiziae, which has been used for the treatment of anxiety. The present study investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in experimental models of anxiety. Compared with the control group, repeated treatment with quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day, p.o. for seven days significantly increased the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In the light/dark box test, quercitrin exerted an anxiolytic-like effect at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In the marble-burying test, quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg also exerted an anxiolytic-like effect. Furthermore, quercitrin did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity. The anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box test were blocked by the serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (3.0 mg/kg, i.p. but not by the γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptor antagonist flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.. The levels of brain monoamines (5-HT and dopamine and their metabolites (5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were decreased after quercitrin treatment. These data suggest that the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin might be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors but not by benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors. The results of the neurochemical studies suggest that these effects are mediated by modulation of the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters.

  14. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate the elaborated defensive behavior and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Medeiros, Priscila; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors of the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on the panic attack-like reactions evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus (MH). Rats were pretreated with NaCl 0.9%, LY235959 (NMDA receptor antagonist), and NBQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) in the PL at 3 different concentrations. Ten minutes later, the MH was treated with bicuculline, and the defensive responses were recorded for 10 min. The antagonism of NMDA receptors in the PL decreased the frequency and duration of all defensive behaviors evoked by the stimulation of the MH and reduced the innate fear-induced antinociception. However, the pretreatment of the PL cortex with NBQX was able to decrease only part of defensive responses and innate fear-induced antinociception. The present findings suggest that the NMDA-glutamatergic system of the PL is critically involved in panic-like responses and innate fear-induced antinociception and those AMPA/kainate receptors are also recruited during the elaboration of fear-induced antinociception and in panic attack-related response. The activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission of PL division of the MPFC during the elaboration of oriented behavioral reactions elicited by the chemical stimulation of the MH recruits mainly NMDA receptors in comparison with AMPA/kainate receptors.

  15. Organic Ligand, Competing Cation, and pH Effects on Dissolution of Zinc in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of an organic ligand,a competing cation,and pH on the dissolution of zinc(Zn)from three California soils,Maymen sandy loam,Merced clay,and Yolo clay loam.The concentrations of soluble Zn of the three soils were low in a background solution of Ca(NO3)2.Citric acid,a common organic ligand found in the rhizosphere,was effective in mobilizing Zn in these soils; its presence enhanced the concentration of Zn in soil solution by citrate forming a complex with Zn.The ability of Zn to form a complex with citric acid in the soil solution was dependent on the concentration of citric acid,pH,and the concentration of the competing cation Ca2+.The pH of the soil solution determined the extent of desorption of Zn in solid phase in the presence of citric acid.The amounts of Zn released from the solid phase were proportional to the concentration of citric acid and inversely proportional to the concentration of Ca(NO3)2 background solution,which supplied the competing cation Ca2+ for the formation of a complex with citrate.When the soil suspension was spiked with Zn,the adsorption of Zn by the soils was retarded by citric acid via the formation of the soluble Zn-citrate complex.The dissolution of Zn in the presence of citric acid was pH dependent in both adsorption and desorption processes.

  16. Neurochemistry of Pressure-Induced Nitrogen and Metabolically Inert Gas Narcosis in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lavoute, Cécile

    2016-06-13

    Gases that are not metabolized by the organism are thus chemically inactive under normal conditions. Such gases include the "noble gases" of the Periodic Table as well as hydrogen and nitrogen. At increasing pressure, nitrogen induces narcosis at 4 absolute atmospheres (ATAs) and more in humans and at 11 ATA and more in rats. Electrophysiological and neuropharmacological studies suggest that the striatum is a target of nitrogen narcosis. Glutamate and dopamine release from the striatum in rats are decreased by exposure to nitrogen at a pressure of 31 ATA (75% of the anesthetic threshold). Striatal dopamine levels decrease during exposure to compressed argon, an inert gas more narcotic than nitrogen, or to nitrous oxide, an anesthetic gas. Inversely, striatal dopamine levels increase during exposure to compressed helium, an inert gas with a very low narcotic potency. Exposure to nitrogen at high pressure does not change N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta and striatum but enhances gama amino butyric acidA (GABAA) receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta. The decrease in striatal dopamine levels in response to hyperbaric nitrogen exposure is suppressed by recurrent exposure to nitrogen narcosis, and dopamine levels increase after four or five exposures. This change, the lack of improvement of motor disturbances, the desensitization of GABAA receptors on dopamine cells during recurrent exposures and the long-lasting decrease of glutamate coupled with the higher sensitivity of NMDA receptors, suggest a nitrogen toxicity induced by repetitive exposures to narcosis. These differential changes in different neurotransmitter receptors would support the binding protein theory. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1579-1590, 2016.

  17. The neuroplastic index p-FADD/FADD and phosphoprotein PEA-15, interacting at GABAA receptor, are upregulated in brain cortex during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Bartolomé, María; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) adaptor is involved in the signaling of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors, whose agonists stimulate its phosphoryaltion (p) increasing p-FADD/FADD ratio in brain. Whether FADD might also participate in the activation of dissimilar receptors such as the ligand-gated ion channels is not known. This study investigated the role of FADD and phosphoprotein-enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15, a FADD partner) in the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor, which mediates the hypnotic effect of midazolam. The main findings revealed that during the time course of midazolam (60 mg/kg)-induced hypnosis in mice (about 2 h) p-FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio) as well as p-PEA (and its phosphorylating Akt1 kinase) were markedly increased (36-80%) in brain cortex, and these effects were partially (only p-FADD) or fully prevented by flumazenil (a neutral allosteric ligand) and FG 7142 (a partial negative allosteric ligand) acting at GABAA receptors. The upregulation of cortical p-FADD/FADD was exclusively observed in the nucleus (up to 2.8-fold), where the transciption factor NF-κB was also increased (up to 46%), and that of p-PEA/p-Akt1 only in the cytosol (up to 53%), suggesting that p-FADD/p-PEA/p-Akt1 are involved in sleep-induced neuroplasticity. Repeated treatment with midazolam (60 mg/kg, 4 days) induced behavioral (prolonged sleep latency and reduced sleeping time) and neurochemical (reduced p-FADD/p-PEA contents) tolerance. These findings indicated that p-FADD/p-PEA are novel molecules in GABAA receptor signaling and that cortical p-PEA and p-FADD, working in tandem, are involved in the complex molecular processes leading to the hypnotic effect of midazolam in mice.

  18. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  19. Role and regulation of EGFR in actin remodeling in sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haim Breitbart; Nir Etkovitz

    2011-01-01

    To bind and fertilize the egg,the spermatozoon should undergo few biochemical and motility changes in the female reproductive tract collectively called capacitation.The capacitated spermatozoon binds to the egg zona pellucida,and then undergoes the acrosome reaction(AR),which allows its penetration into the egg.The mechanisms regulating sperm capacitation and the AR are not completely understood.In the present review,we summarize some data regarding the role and regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)in these processes.In the capacitation process,the EGFR is partially activated by protein kinase A(PKA),resulting in phospholipase D(PLD)activation and actin polymerization.Protein kinase C alpha(PKCα),which is already activated at the beginning of the capacitation,also participates in PLD activation.Further activation of the EGFR at the end of the capacitation enhances intracellular Ca2+concentration leading to F-actin breakdown and allows the AR to take place.Under in vivo conditions,the EGFR can be directly activated by its known ligand epidermal growth factor(EGF),and indirectly by activating PKA or by transactivation mediated by G protein-coupled receptors(GPCRs)activation or by ouabain.Under physiological conditions,sperm PKA is activated mainly by bicarbonate,which activates the soluble adenylyl cyclase to produce cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP),the activator of PKA.The GPCR activators angiotensin ll or lysophosphatidic acid,as well as ouabain and EGF are physiological components present in the female reproductive tract.

  20. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Kpodékon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05 and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92% (p<0.05 in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78% (p<0.05 in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category.

  1. [Variability in the clinical presentation of Pompe disease in infancy: two case reports and response to treatment with human recombinant enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Medinilla, Esther; Berzosa-López, Raquel; Mora-Ramírez, M Dolores; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Martínez-Antón, Jacinto

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Pompe o glucogenosis tipo II es un error innato del metabolismo, de herencia autosomica recesiva, causado por un deficit de la enzima lisosomal alfa-glucosidasa acida (GAA), que ocasiona un acumulo multisistemico de glucogeno. Describimos dos casos de inicio temprano (infantil) con diferentes formas de presentacion. Casos clinicos. El primer caso se trata de un neonato que presento una bradicardia mantenida desde el nacimiento, lo que motivo el estudio cardiologico, en el que se evidencio una hipertrofia biventricular grave. El segundo caso se trata de un niño de 14 meses con retraso motor e hipotonia con arreflexia. En la analitica destacaban una creatincinasa, lactato deshidrogenasa, transaminasa glutamico oxalacetica y transaminasa glutamico piruvica elevadas. El electromiograma mostro signos de afectacion miopatica, y la biopsia muscular, una miopatia vacuolar con deposito de glucogeno. En ambos, la actividad de la GAA estaba disminuida y el analisis genetico del gen GAA evidencio que eran portadores heterocigotos de mutaciones descritas en la enfermedad de Pompe. Iniciaron tratamiento con enzima recombinante humana al mes y a los 18 meses de vida, respectivamente, con mejoria evidente de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica, aunque mas limitada a nivel motor. En la actualidad tienen, respectivamente, 9 meses y 5 años, y este ultimo presenta un nivel III de la escala GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure). Conclusion. La GAA recombinante humana es la unica opcion terapeutica autorizada para estos pacientes. Los efectos que hemos observado son similares a los descritos en otros casos, con una excelente evolucion de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica y un efecto variable sobre la musculatura esqueletica.

  2. Obtención y caracterización de aislados proteicos de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, N.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for the obtention of protein isolates from defatted rapeseed flour has been designed. The process includes a basic extraction followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point of the proteins. The precipitate is washed with water (pH 4.5, ethanol and acetone, obtaining a protein isolate with 86% of protein and reducing the contents in polyphenols and soluble sugars in more than 90% with respect to the defatted flour. The final product have physico-chemical characteristics that make it atractive to be used as food and for the obtention of protein hydrolizates.

    Se ha diseñado un proceso de obtención de aislados proteicos a partir de harina de colza desengrasada. El método incluye la extracción básica de las proteínas solubles seguido de una precipitación acida en el punto isoeléctrico. El precipitado es lavado con agua (pH 4.5, etanol y acetona, obteniéndose un aislado proteico con un 86% de proteína y reduciéndose el contenido en polifenoles y azúcares solubles en más de un 90% respecto a la harina desengrasada. El aislado final presenta unas características físico-químicas que lo hacen atractivo para su uso en alimentación y obtención de hidrolizados proteicos.

  3. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of SL65.1498, a GABA-A alpha2,3 selective agonist, in comparison with lorazepam in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S L; Franson, K L; Schmitt, J A J; Cohen, A F; Fau, J B; Dubruc, C; van Gerven, J M A

    2009-08-01

    Benzodiazepines are effective short-term treatments for anxiety disorders, but their use is limited by undesirable side effects related to Central Nervous System impairment and tolerance development. SL65.1498 is a new compound that acts in vitro as a full agonist at the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) 2 and 3 receptor and as a partial agonist at the 1 and 5 receptor subtypes. It is thought that the compound could be anxiolytic by its activation at the alpha2 and alpha3 receptor subtypes, without causing unfavourable side effects, which are believed to be mediated by the alpha1 and alpha5 subtypes. This study was a double-blind, five-way cross-over study to investigate the effects of three doses of SL65.1498 in comparison with placebo and lorazepam 2 mg in healthy volunteers. The objective was to select a dose level (expected to be therapeutically active), free of any significant deleterious effect. Psychomotor and cognitive effects were measured using a validated battery of measurements, including eye movements, body sway, memory tests, reaction-time assessments, and visual analogue scales. The highest dose of SL65.1498 showed slight effects on saccadic peak velocity and smooth pursuit performance, although to a much lesser extent than lorazepam. In contrast to lorazepam, none of the SL65.1498 doses affected body sway, visual analogue scale alertness, attention, or memory tests. This study showed that the three doses of SL65.1498 were well tolerated and induced no impairments on memory, sedation, psychomotor, and cognitive functions.

  4. Zona Pellucida Induces Activation of Phospholipase A2 During Acrosomal Exocytosis in Guinea PigSpermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉英; 陈文颖; 石其贤; 毛丽珍; 俞淑清; 方昕; E.R.S.Roldan

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether PLA2 is involved in ZP-stimulated acrosomal exocytosis,if Ca2+ is required for activation of PLA2,and sigal transduction pathways modulating PLA2. Methods Guinea-pig spermatozoa were capacitated and labeled in low Ca2+ medium with [14C]choline chloride or [14C] arachidonic acid,and were then exposed to millimolar Ca2+ and various reagents and stimulated with ZP. Results Precapacitated spermatozoa exposed to millimolar Ca2+ and stimulated with ZP experienced increases in arachidonic acid(AA)and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and a parallel decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC);these chages are indicative of PLA2 activation.Simulation with ZP also led to acrosomal exocytosis in a high proportion of spermatozoa. Lipid changes and exocytosis were prevented if spermatozoa were exposed to aristolochic acid,a PLA2 inhibitor, before treatment with ZP.Stimulation with ZP in medium without added Ca2+,or in medium with millimolar Ca2+ and EGTA or La3+ resulted in no lipid changes or exocytosis. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin,a G1 protein inhibitor, before stimulation with ZP,blocked the release of AA and lysoPC and acrosomal exocytosis.Exposure of spermatozoa to the DAG kinase inhibitor R59022 before ZP stimulation led to a significant increase in the generation of lysoPC and exocytosis.Conclusion These results indicate very strongly that PLA2 plays an essential role in ZP-induced exocytosis in spermatozoa, that PLA2 activation requires Ca2+ internalization,and that it is regulated by signal transduction pathways involving G proteins and DAG.

  5. Evaluation of yield, quality and antioxidant activity of essential oil of in vitro propagated Kaempferia galangaLinn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suprava Sahoo; Reena Parida; Sikha Singh; Rabindra N Padhy; Sanghamitra Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine chemical constituents and antioxidant properties of essential oil from rhizome of the medicinal plant,Kaempferia galanga(K. galanga)Linn.(Zingiberaceae) in conventionally propagated(CP) andin vitro propagated(IVP) plants.Methods:In vitro(micro) propagation ofK. galanga was done by inoculating explants on toMurashige andSkoog agar medium, supplemented with suitable combinations of phytohormones; the regenerants were transferred to soil for further growth.Essential oil preparations of bothCP andIVP rhizomes grown in soil, obtained by the hydro-distillation method were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Antioxidant activities of essential oil samples were monitored. Results:Maximum numbers of regenerated shoots were found in the medium supplemented with1 mg/L benzyl adenine and0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid.A total of6 compounds were identified from rhizomes fromCP andIVP plants that yielded96.9% and97.81% of the total oil contents, respectively.The major compound of rhizome oil identified fromCP andIVP rhizomes was ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate in quantities,82.01% and71.77%, respectively, without any compositional variation.Antioxidant properties of essential oil preparations were assessed by the2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays.Moreover, antioxidant activities of rhizome-oil fromIVP plants were better than that ofCP oil samples.Conclusions:As IVP rhizomes had better oil yield, those could be used for a large scale commercial propagation for sustainable use of essential oil.The principal chemical in the essential oil, ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate could help apothecary, for several ailments.

  6. A comparative study on aluminum induced oxalate secretion in Polygonum aviculare L and citrate secretion in Vigna umbellata [Thunb] Ohwi & Ohashi%铝胁迫下萹蓄与饭豆根系有机酸分泌特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤江峰; 张蕾; 杨建立; 郑绍建

    2007-01-01

    以萹蓄和饭豆为试验材料,从对Al胁迫的响应时间、蛋白质合成抑制剂的影响、体内有机酸含量变化及阴离子通道抑制剂的影响等方面,比较研究了Al诱导根系分泌有机酸的差异,以进一步明确铝(Al)诱导植物根系有机酸分泌的过程.结果表明,萹蓄根系在Al胁迫后30 min内分泌出草酸,而Al胁迫至少4 h后饭豆根系才开始分泌柠檬酸;蛋白质合成抑制剂环己亚酰胺(Cycloheximide,CHM)不影响萹蓄根系草酸的分泌,但抑制了84% Al诱导的饭豆根系柠檬酸的分泌,表明前者不需要新蛋白质的诱导合成,却是后者所必需的.Al处理不改变萹蓄根尖草酸的含量,但明显提高了饭豆根尖柠檬酸的含量;阴离子通道抑制剂苯甲酰甲醛(Phenylglyoxal,PG)和蒽-9-羧酸(Anthrancene-9-carboxylic acid,A-9-C)分别有效抑制Al诱导萹蓄根系草酸的分泌及饭豆根系柠檬酸的分泌,再次证明两者有机酸的分泌是通过某种被Al所诱导或激活的阴离子通道所实现的.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives as ultra-short recovery sedative/hypnotic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soft drugs are molecules that are purposefully designed to be rapidly metabolized (metabolically labile. In anesthesia, the soft drug is useful because it enables precise titration to effect and rapid recovery, which might allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. Propofol may cause delayed awakening after prolonged infusion. Propanidid and AZD3043 have a different metabolic pathway compared to propofol, resulting in a short-acting clinical profile. Fluorine imparts a variety of properties to certain medicines, including an enhanced absorption rate and improved drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized that the introduction of fluorine to the frame structure of propanidid and AZD3043 would further accelerate the swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we developed a series of fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives were synthesized, and their hypnotic potencies and durations of LORR following bolus or infusion administration were determined in mice, rats and rabbits. The metabolic half-lives in the blood of various species were determined chromatographically. In vitro radioligand binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA receptor electrophysiology studies were performed. Among the 12 synthesized fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives, compound 5j induced comparable duration of LORR with AZD3043, but more rapid recovery than AZD3043, propanidid and propofol. The time of compound 5j to return to walk and behavioral recovery are approximately reduced by more than 50% compared to AZD3043 in mice and rats and rabbits. The HD50 of compound 5j decreased with increasing animal size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rapid recovery might make compound 5j suitable for precise titration and allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home

  8. BDNF and NT-4 differentiate two pathways in the modulation of neuropeptide protein levels in postnatal hippocampal interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, S; Onténiente, B

    1999-05-01

    Neuropeptide protein levels in hippocampal interneurons exhibit a considerable maturation in postnatal animals. This study characterizes the role of neuronal activity in determining neuropeptide protein levels in postnatal hippocampal interneurons, and the involvement of neurotrophins. In hippocampal slices from 7-day-old rats cultured for 2 weeks, treatment with the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline increased the staining intensity and the number of neurons immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y (NPY). An opposite effect was observed when non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (non-NMDA) excitatory transmission was blocked. The effects of either treatment were reversed after return to control medium. These findings were similar to those previously obtained on the effects of activity on somatostatin immunostaining. Blockade of endogenous tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors using K252a prevented the effects of bicuculline on NPY- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons. Application of exogenous neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) increased NPY and somatostatin protein levels in long-term but not short-term cultures, while nerve growth factor (NGF) had no effect. In contrast, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) did not affect equally NPY and somatostatin immunoreactivity: they mimicked the effects of bicuculline treatment on NPY-immunoreactive neurons, but exerted no conspicuous effect on somatostatin immunostaining. These results indicate that although neuronal activity plays a major role in determining neuropeptide protein levels in postnatal hippocampal interneurons, its effects on different neuropeptides might be exerted through different mechanisms, with or without the mediation of BDNF or NT-4.

  9. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying An; Xing Zhang; Ziqiang Zhu; Yusi Ji; Wenrong He; Zhiqiang Jiang; Mingzhe Li; Hongwei Guo

    2012-01-01

    Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil,which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil.Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process.Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development,although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown.Here we showed that GA3 enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature,and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature,which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway.Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1),a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development.We further found that GA3 induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner,whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter.Additionally,DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression.Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid,a polar auxin transport inhibitor,repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant,supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development.Taken together,our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions.

  10. Preparation,characterization and application of CuCrO2/ZnO photocatalysts for the reduction of Cr(Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wahiba Ketir; Gharib Rekhila; Mohamed Trari; Abdelatif Amrane

    2012-01-01

    The delafossite CuCrO2 elaborated by sol-gel from 40 nm diameter colloid is optically active in the visible region.It is characterized physically and photoelectrochemically.The microstructure is fairly homogenous with a mean crystallite size of ca.2 μm.The optical gap (1.30 eV),determined from the diffuse reflectance,is well suited to the sunlight spectrum.The Mott Sehottky plot is characteristic of P-type conductivity with a flat band potential of-0.26 VSCE.As application,the photoreduction of chromate is suecessfully achieved in air-equilibrated suspension CuCrO2/ZnO (1/1).CuCrO2 is photoactivated by visible light and the electrons in the conduction band (-1.34 VSCE) are injected to ZnO.In the presence of salicylic acid,a conversion of Cr(Ⅵ) to Cr(Ⅲ) of 57% is obtained under optimal conditions (pH 3 at 25℃,5×10-4 mol/L) because of the HCrO4-dark adsorption onto ZnO (4HCrO4-+ 3C7H6O3 + 18O2 + 16H+ →4Cr3+ + 21CO2 + 19H2O,△G0 =-557 kcal/mol).Prolonged illumination is accompanied by a deceleration in the photoaetivity owing to the competitive water reduction,an issue of energetic concern.The hetero-system exhibits self sensitization for hydrogen production with an evolution rate of 149 μmol/(hr·g).

  11. Proliferación y expresión de marcadores por células de Schwann de rata adulta en cultivo Schwann cells proliferation and marker expression on adult rat in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Constanza

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúan diferentes técnicas para obten-ción y cultivo de células de Schwann provenientes del nervio periférico de rata adulta, de las cuales la que evi-dencia mejor respuesta es la que combina una degenera-ción walleriana durante 14 días in vitro, seguida de una disociación enzimática. La adición de mitógenos como la forskolina y extracto de pituitaria no muestra un efecto sobre estas células. Los niveles de enriquecimiento en células de Schwann, defi-nidos de acuerdo con patrones morfológicos y de expre-sión de marcadores tales como la proteína S-100 o la pro-teína acida fíbrilar glial (GFAP, son buenos (del orden de 80-88% hasta los ocho días de cultivo. La detección de bromodeoxiouridina (BrdU incorporada por células en fase S del ciclo celular, demuestra que en términos ge-nerales la tasa de incorporación de BrdU de las células guales del sistema nervioso periférico no cambia.This study evaluated some techniques for culture and growth of Schwann Cells from adult rats peripheral nerves. The best of these methods is a combination of in vitro Wallerian degeneration during 14 days, followed by an enzimatic dissociation with collagenase and dispase Mitogens like forskolin and pituitary extract do not have any effects on these cells. Enrichement of the culture (measure by morphological and inmunocitochemical criteria was about 80-88% until 8 days in culture. Stable Level of BrdU incorporation suggested that the population of cells entering S phase does not change.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of delta-9-THC, THC-acid A, CBN and CBD in seized drugs using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, Lars; Penitschka, Franziska; Broillet, Alain; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Bernhard, Werner

    2014-10-01

    An HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) in confiscated cannabis products has been developed, fully validated and applied to analyse seized cannabis products. For determination of the THC content of plant material, this method combines quantitation of THCA-A, which is the inactive precursor of THC, and free THC. Plant material was dried, homogenized and extracted with methanol by ultrasonication. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Waters Alliance 2695 HPLC equipped with a Merck LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) precolumn and a Merck LiChroCart 125-4 LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) analytical column. Analytes were detected and quantified using a Waters 2996 photo diode array detector. This method has been accepted by the public authorities of Switzerland (Bundesamt für Gesundheit, Federal Office of Public Health), and has been used to analyse 9092 samples since 2000. Since no thermal decarboxylation of THCA-A occurs, the method is highly reproducible for different cannabis materials. Two calibration ranges are used, a lower one for THC, CBN and CBD, and a higher one for THCA-A, due to its dominant presence in fresh plant material. As provider of the Swiss proficiency test, the robustness of this method has been tested over several years, and homogeneity tests even in the low calibration range (1%) show high precision (RSD≤4.3%, except CBD) and accuracy (bias≤4.1%, except CBN).

  13. The Fobrication of Cus/RGO Nanocomposite and Its Electrochemical Non-enzyme Sensing of Glucose%CuS/RGO纳米复合物的制备及对葡萄糖的无酶电化学传感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦守峰

    2015-01-01

    以 L-半胱氨酸作为硫的供应体、还原剂、联接剂采用一锅法合成了硫化铜修饰的还原石墨烯纳米复合材料,发现此纳米复合物修饰电极对葡萄糖有良好的电催化效果,并且表现出很高的抗干扰能力、优良的选择性,适用于人体中血清的检测有很好的准确性,有望应用于葡萄糖的无酶传感。%One-pot synthesis of CuS nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (CuS/RGO)nano-composites was prepared with the use of L-cysteine,an amino acid,as a reducing agent,sulfur source, and linker to anchor CuS nanoparticles onto the surface of RGO sheets.It was found that the CuS nano-particles decorated reduced graphene exhibit a remarkable catalytic performance for glucose oxidation. The proposed sensor also showed high anti-interference ability,excellent selectivity and was successfully used for glucose detecting in human serum with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery.It is believed that CuS/RGO composites show good promise for further application on non-enzymatic glucose biosen-sors.

  14. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, K.W.; Bolger, M.B.; Brinton, R.E.; Coirini, H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1988-08-01

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by (35S)-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((35S)TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of (35S)TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of (35S)TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates (35S)TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All (35S)TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of (3H)promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex.

  15. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  16. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John R.I.; Williams, Bethany R.M.; Mitchell, Thomas C.; Carine, Mark A.; Harris, David J.; Scotland, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    ., Convolvulus rottlerianus subsp. stocksii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, comb. et stat. nov., Convolvulus calvertii subsp. ruprechtii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus cephalopodus subsp. bushiricus (Bornm.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov. The status of various infraspecific taxa is clarified and numerous taxa are lectotypified. This account represents a new initiative in terms of taxonomic monography, being an attempt to bring together the global approach of the traditional monograph with the more pragmatic and identification-focussed approach of most current floras while at the same time being informed by insights from molecular systematics. PMID:26140023

  17. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications.

  18. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  19. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals.

  20. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  1. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  2. Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Salviajudaica and S. multicaulis from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abu-Irmaileh, Barakat E; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abazaa, Ismail F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil of Salvia judaica Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. (Lamiaceae) from Jordan by GC and GC-MS and to report the actual composition of their fresh leaves and flowers using SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction).Their dual alpha-amylase/alpha glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities as well as their anti-proliferative potential were screened. The aroma profile of the leaves, flowers, and flowers at pre-flowering stages of S. judaica, obtained through SPME was composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.7 %, 71.8 %, and 86.2 %, respectively) while the hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.8%). Fresh leaves of S. multicaulis were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (58.1%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the blooming flowers (57.2%) and the flowers at the pre-flowering stage (64.7%). The hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (77.6%). With doxorubicin as a positive control, no anti-proliferative activity was observed against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116, and SW620 using SRB assay for either Salvia spp. In vitro enzymatic starch digestion was evaluated with Acarbose (IC50: 0.2 ± 0.0 µg /mL) as the reference drug. The respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of S. judaica and S. multicaulis aqueous extracts were 4.9 ± 0.4 and 10.3 ± 0.9. Modulation of pancreatic lipase activity (PL) was determined by colorimetry and compared with Orlistat (IC50 : 0.11 ± 0.0 µg/mL). PL-IC50 values (µg/mL) obtained for S. judaica and S. multicaulis were 108.5±6.4 and 31.8 ± 0.8, respectively.

  3. Protective Effects of Scrophularia Striata in Ovalbumin-induced Mice Asthma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Azadmehr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Scrophularia striata Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae is a plant growing in the northeastern part of Iran and being used as a traditional herb for various inflammatory disorders.This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the Scrophularia striata extract in Ovalbumin (OVA induced-asthma mice model.Methods:OVA-sensitized mice were intrapritonealy treated with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg of the extract on days 8 to 14 separately. Broncoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge and then the number of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were assessed by direct microscopic counting. In addition, total immunoglubolin (Ig E and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum, IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines in BALF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Moreover, phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography (TLC and the 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were used to evaluate the main compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract, respectively.Results:The results showed that the main components; including flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the S. striata extract. In addition, the treatment with extract significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells and suppressed T-helper 2 (Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF. Also, total IgE and OVA-specific IgE levels in the serum decreased.Conclusion:Collectively, it is concluded that the extract has the potential to modulate the Th2 cytokines and could be used as immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of allergic asthma.

  4. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oils of Heracleum pyrenaicum subsp. pollinianum and Heracleum orphanidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usjak, Ljubos; Petrović, Silvana; Drobac, Milica; Soković, Marina; Stanojković, Tatjana; Ćirić, Ana; Niketić, Marjan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Heracleun pyrenaicum subsp. pollinianum (Bertol.) F. Pedrotti & Pignatti (HPP) and H. orphanidis Boiss. (HO) essential oils. The composition of the oils was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. β-Pinene (35.1%) was the most abundant compound in HPP root oil, while (Z)-falcarinol (80.0%) dominated in HO root oil. (E)-Nerolidol (28.5%) was the main constituent in HPP leaf oil. HPP fruit oil, as well as HO leaf and fruit oils mainly contained aliphatic esters, mostly octyl acetate (50.5-84.5%). Antimicrobial screening was performed by microdilution method against eight bacterial and eight fungal strains. The strongest antibacterial activity was shown by both root oils (MICs 0.02-0.60 mg/mL and MBCs 0.04-2.50 mg/mL for HPP, and MICs 0.02-1.25 mg/mL and MBCs 0.04-2.50 mg/mL for HO), while the best antifungal potential was exhibited by HPP fruit oil (MICs 0.30-0.60 mg/mL and MFCs 0.60-1.25 mg/mL) and HO leaf oil (MICs 0.15-0.63 mg/mL and MFCs 0.30-1.25 mg/mL). The tested root and fruit oils exhibited strong cytotoxic effect, which was determined by MTT test against HeLa (IC50 7.53-21.07 µg/mL) and LS174 (IC50 24.16-58.86 µg/mL) cell lines.

  5. RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Hatice; Köksal, Ekrem; Kılıç, Ömer; Alan, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Gülçin, İlhami; Bursal, Ercan; Alwasel, Saleh H.

    2016-01-01

    The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds. PMID:27775656

  6. Assessment of ferula Gummosa gum as a binding agent in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enauyatifard, Reza; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Fadakar, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) is one of the natural plants of Iran. The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin "galbanum". A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents--polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia--on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Physio-ecological response of Haloxylonpersicum photosynthetic shoots to drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Xiao; Wang Qiang; Chen Yaning; Huang Junhua

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the seasonal characteristics to resist the drought stress of Haloxylon persicum Bge.Ex Boiss.et Buhse photosynthetic shoots at habitat.The results showed that the predominant drought resistance factors were varied at the different stage from growth to development.In the blooming season (from May 31 to June 29),endogenous ABA contents were rare;stomatal conductance and photosynthesis intensity were the highest at the whole stage from growth to development;soluble sugars contents had a decreasing trend and proline contents increased a little that made proline become the predominant factor to resist the drought under this light water stress.In the hot summer (from June 29 to July 26),ABA contents accumulated rapidly;stomatal conductance dropped to the lowest level of the growth and development;chlorophyll was also decomposed;both soluble sugars and proline contents showed the trend of quickly accumulating,but the former was faster than the latter.It was due to stomatal limitation and osmotic organic molecules accumulation that would affect the photosynthetic shoots to resist severe drought stress.At the late period of the development (from Aug 9 to Aug 22),ABA rapidly accumulated,its contents got to the highest level of whole life-span;stomatal conductance increased a little;proline and soluble sugars contents changed little at high level;while the ratios of ABA to CTK content and ABA to IAA content got up obviously,the effect to resist drought stress on high content ABA was inhibited by endogenous plant hormone CTK and IAA,then the continuing accumulation of proline and soluble sugars would be prevented,Osmosis of organic molecules was the most important factor to adjust leaves to severe water stress at this period.

  8. Investigation of Cytotoxic Activity in Four Stachys Species from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Manayi, Azadeh; Lotfi, Mahnaz; Abbasi, Rofeyde; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of Stachys laxa Boiss. and Buhse. from Siah-bishe in Mazandaran province, Stachys trinervis Aitch. and Hemsl. from Karaj in Alborz province, Stachys subaphylla Rech. F. and Stachys turcomanica Trautv. from Golestan province have been collected in May 2008. Total extracts were obtained through MeOH/H2O (80/20) and then partitioned between CHCl3, EtOAc and MeOH. These fractions and total extracts have been investigated for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against the colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D) and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines using MTT assay (3-(4,5-di methyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide). At each cell line, doses of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL in 1% (v/v) DMSO of all samples were tested. Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys laxa against proliferation of T47D and HT-29 cell lines and chloroform fraction of Stachys subaphylla and Stachys subaphylla ethyl acetate fraction toward T47D cell line exhibited highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 50 µg/mL). Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys turcomanica against HT-29 cell line, except methanol fraction of Stachys subaphylla, the other extrcts on T47D cell line, represented moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 70 µg/mL). All fractions of S. trinervis demonstrated no effective cytotoxic activity. IC50 values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of HT-29 and T47D cells were most affected by chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of Stachys laxa and Stachys turcomanica due to their nonpolar compounds. PMID:24250483

  9. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-04

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  11. Comparison of antifungal activities of various essential oils on the Phytophthora drechsleri, the causal agent of fruit decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The efficacy of Mentha piperita L, Zataria multiflora Boiss and Thymus vulgaris L essential oils (EOs was evaluated for controlling the growth of Phytophthora drechsleri, the causative agent of damage to many crops that is consumed directly by humans.Materials and Methods: The EOs used in this study was purchased from Magnolia Co, Iran. The pour plate method in petri dishes containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA was used to evaluate the antifungal properties of EOs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC as well as mycelial growth inhibition (MGI were measured. The IC50 value (the concentration inhibited 50% of the mycelium growth was calculated by probit analysis.Results and Conclusion: The fungal growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of tested EOs. The complete reduction was obtained with Shirazi thyme at all concentrations, whereas the complete reduction for peppermint and thyme was observed at 0.4% and 0.8% (v/v concentrations, respectively. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibition wasobserved when 0.1% peppermint (MGI values of 9.37% was used. The IC50, MIC and MFC values of Shirazi thyme was 0.053, 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Similarly, MIC and MFC values of peppermint and thyme were recorded 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from this pathogenic fungus and many agricultural plant pathogens causing drastic crop losses.

  12. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arzu Birinci Yildirim; Fatma Pehlivan Karakas; Arzu Ucar Turker

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Methods:Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Results: Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100%tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O

  13. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  14. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  15. RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tohma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz. Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+ reducing assay (CUPRAC and ferric ions (Fe3+ reducing assay (FRAP were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds.

  16. Notes on the family Brassicaceae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A GERMAN; Wen-Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A critical revision of the collections of Brassicaceae in some Chinese (PE, XJA, XJBI, XJFA, XJNM, XJU) and foreign (LE, P) herbaria is made. One genus, Neurotropis (DC.) E K. Mey., and 11 species, Alyssum szarabiacum Nyar., Barbarea stricta Andrz., Erysimum czernjajevii N. Busch, Erysimum kotuchovii D. German, Erysimum mongolicum D. German, Lepidium karelinianum A1-Shehbaz, Matthiola superba Conti, Neurotropis platycarpa (Fisch. & Mey.) E K. Mey., Ptilotrichum dahuricum Peschkova, Sisymbrium subspinescens Bunge, and Smelowskia micrantha (Botsch. & Vved.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, are reported from China for the first time. Six species, Aphragmus involucratus (Bunge) O. E. Schulz, Dontostemonperennis C. A. Mey., Goldbachia torulosa DC., Lepidium amplexicaule Willd., Neotorularia brevipes (Kar. & Kir.) Hedge & J. Leonard, and Parrya stenocarpa Kar. & Kir., are confirmed to occurr in China. Five species, Dontostemon integrifolius (L.) C. A. Mey., Draba zangbeiensis L. L. Lou, Lepidium alashanicum H. L. Yang, Sinapis arvensis L., and Strigosella brevipes (Btmge) Botsch., are reported as novelties for some provinces in China, and Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Borsch. occurs in Xinjiang, China. However, the occurrence of one genus, Pseudoarabidopsis Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, and four species, Draba huetii Boiss., Eutrema halophilum (C. A. Mey.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, Galitzkya spathulata (Steph. ex Willd.) V. Bocz., and Pseudoarabidopsis toxophylla (Bieb.) Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, could not be confirmed in China. The occurrence of six species, Aphragmus bouffordii Al-Shehbaz, Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb., Lepidium latifolium L., Ptilotrichum canescens (DC.) C. A. Mey., Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Botsch., and Strigosella scorpioides (Bunge) Botsch., is not confirmed in certain provinces of China. All names follow the latest taxonomic treatment for relevant groups; detailed morphological descriptions of the newly recorded taxa are provided; and distinguishing

  17. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  18. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  19. Expansion of the gamma-gliadin gene family in Aegilops and Triticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryunova Svetlana V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gamma-gliadins are considered to be the oldest of the gliadin family of storage proteins in Aegilops/Triticum. However, the expansion of this multigene family has not been studied in an evolutionary perspective. Results We have cloned 59 gamma-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species (Aegilops caudata L., Aegilops comosa Sm. in Sibth. & Sm., Aegilops mutica Boiss., Aegilops speltoides Tausch, Aegilops tauschii Coss., Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., Aegilops uniaristata Vis., and Triticum monococcum L. representing eight different genomes: Am, B/S, C, D, M, N, T and U. Overall, 15% of the sequences contained internal stop codons resulting in pseudogenes, but this percentage was variable among genomes, up to over 50% in Ae. umbellulata. The most common length of the deduced protein, including the signal peptide, was 302 amino acids, but the length varied from 215 to 362 amino acids, both obtained from Ae. speltoides. Most genes encoded proteins with eight cysteines. However, all Aegilops species had genes that encoded a gamma-gliadin protein of 302 amino acids with an additional cysteine. These conserved nine-cysteine gamma-gliadins may perform a specific function, possibly as chain terminators in gluten network formation in protein bodies during endosperm development. A phylogenetic analysis of gamma-gliadins derived from Aegilops and Triticum species and the related genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum showed six groups of genes. Most Aegilops species contained gamma-gliadin genes from several of these groups, which also included sequences from the genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum. Hordein and secalin sequences formed separate groups. Conclusions We present a model for the evolution of the gamma-gliadins from which we deduce that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA of Aegilops/Triticum-Dasypyrum-Lophopyrum-Crithopsis already had four groups of gamma-gliadin sequences, presumably the result of two

  20. RP-HPLC法测定莽吉柿果皮中3个氧杂蒽酮类化合物的含量%RP-HPLC determination of 3 xanthones content in mangosteen fruit skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶静; 肖美添; 张学勤; 黄雅燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立一种莽吉柿果皮中3个氧杂蒽酮类化合物的RP-HPLC含量测定方法.方法:色谱柱为Waters XTerra RP18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),以水-0.5%醋酸(A)、甲醇-0.5%乙酸(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为317 nm,柱温为30℃.结果:3-异倒捻子素、α-倒捻子素、β-倒捻子素浓度分别在21.3~213,107.7~1077,10.6 ~106μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.9991);平均回收率分别为102.6%,98.5%,103.5%,RSD分别为1.7%,1.2%,2.0%(n=6).结论:所建立的方法便捷、准确,重复性好,可以为莽吉柿果皮的质量控制提供一定的参考.%Objective:To establish an HPLC method of the determination of 3 xanthones content in mangosteen fruit skin. Methods:The content of 3 xanthones were determined by Waters XTerra RP18(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm) column,the mobile phase consisted of water -0. 5% acetic acid(A) and methanol -0.5% acetic acid(B) with gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL o min-1,the detection wavelength was 317 nm.and the temperature of column was 30 ℃. Results:The calibration curves of 3-isomangostin, α-mangostin,β-mangostin were linear in the ranges of 21. 3 -213,107.7-1077,10.6-106 (μg · mL-1(r≥ 0.9991),respectively. The average recoveries of3 xanthones were 102. 6% ,98. 5% , 103. 5% and RSDs(n=6) were 1. 7% , 1. 2% ,2. 0% .respectively. Conclusion:The method is easy, sensitive, specific, and accurate with good reproducibility. It can be used for quality control of mangosteen fruit skin.

  1. Development and Appl ication of Continuous Packing-tower Surface Fermentation Device%填料塔式连续表面发酵装置的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅亮; 陈宇哲; 彭英

    2014-01-01

    The research developed a kind of continuous packing-tower surface fermentation device,in which the RF4 Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain fermented the broth with ethanol into acetic acid.A comparison of total acidity and ADH enzyme activity of fermentation broth in continuous packing-tower sur-face fermentation device and static flask by single-batch fermentation and fed-batch fermentation is made.The results show that the ADH enzyme activity of fermentation broth reaches to 4.13 × 10-3 U/g and the total acidity peaks to 7.07 g/dL on the 13th day by fed-batch fermentation in contin-uous packing-tower surface fermentation device,whose total acidity increased by 1 3% and the fermen-tation time shortened by 1 5% compared with static fed-batch fermentation.The total acidity increased by 7 1% compared with static single-batch fermentation.%研制了一种填料塔式连续发酵装置,以木醋杆菌(Gluconacetobacter xylinus )RF4为菌种,用含乙醇培养液进行醋酸发酵。比较了该填料表面发酵装置与静置三角瓶各自进行单批和分批发酵的产酸和乙醇脱氢酶的活力。结果表明:在连续填料发酵装置中进行分批补料发酵,发酵液中的乙醇脱氢酶活力为4.13×10-3 U/g,总酸度在第13天达到峰值7.07 g/dL。比静置分批补料发酵酸度提高13%,时间缩短15%,比静置单批发酵酸度提高71%。

  2. The Research of HPLC Fingerprint of Strychni Semen Ultrafine Powder%马钱子超微粉体HPLC指纹图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐正平; 杨蕙; 王宇红; 张秀丽; 韩远山

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立马钱子超微粉体的HPLC指纹图谱分析方法.方法 采用HPLC法测定,色谱柱C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈-0.2%甲酸溶液梯度程序洗脱;检测波长为254 nm,流速:1.0 mL/min,柱温为30℃,进样量为10μL.使用“中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统2004A版”软件计算处理.结果 所建立的指纹图谱测定系统,对马钱子超微粉分离良好,10批样品共匹配了12个共有峰,相似度>0.9.结论 该方法简便、快速,回收率高,精密度、稳定性和重复性好,为马钱子超微粉体的质量控制提供了方法.%Objective: To establish a fingerprint chromatogram for the evaluation of ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen by HPLC. Methods: The analysis was performed On a C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm) with acetonitrile-water (containing 0.2%formic acid)as the mobile phase at 1.0 mL·min-1,254 nm wave-length detector was adopted.The analysis at 30℃. The 12 mutual fingerprints of ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen were established using the similarity calculation software of Chinese herbal fingerprint. Results:The HPLC fingerprints of the active component preparation in ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen were obtained with very good resolution under the established chromatographic system. The quality of 10 batches of samples were assessed by comparing their chromato-graphic fingerprints with the reference fingerprints obtained at the same time,The similarity analysis was above 0.9. Conclusion: The methodis reliable, accurate and steady with good reproducibility, and is helpful in effectively controlling the quality of ultrafine powder of Strychni Semen.

  3. Efecto de la serpentina en la formación de fases mineralógicas y su relación con la resistencia mecánica en sinterizados de mineral de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, E.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructures formed by serpentine addition on mechanical strength is investigated. It was found that the microstructure formed depends mainly on firing temperature, basicity and serpentine percent. The mineralogical phases present were quantified by the point-count method. The addition of serpentine on acid briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 0.3, mainly on those fired at 1,275, 1,300 and 1,325 °C, leads to the formation of magnesio-ferrite that diminishes the mechanical strength of fired briquettes, and at the temperature of 1,250 °C the mechanical strength decreases because of the presence of glassy slags. On the other hand, the addition of serpentine on basic briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 1.2 leads to the formation of olivines and ferrites that improve the mechanical strength of fired briquettes.

    Se estudia la influencia de las microestructuras formadas sobre la resistencia mecánica de mineral de hierro aglomerado con serpentina. Se deduce que la microestructura formada depende de la temperatura de sinterización, de la basicidad y del valor porcentual de serpentina, principalmente. Las fases mineralógicas presentes se cuantificaron utilizando la técnica de conteo por puntos. En briquetas acidas (CaO/SiO2 = 0,3 sinterizadas a 1.275, 1.300 y 1.325 °C, se encontró que la serpentina induce la formación de magnesio-ferritas que traen, como consecuencia, una disminución de la resistencia mecánica, mientras que, a la temperatura de sinterización de 1.250 °C, la aparición de escorias vítreas es la causa principal de la disminución de resistencia. En el caso de briquetas básicas (CaO/SiO2 = 1,2, la adición de serpentina produce la formación de olivinas y calcio-ferritas que originan un aumento de la resistencia mecánica de los sinterizados.

  4. Lixiviación ácida de concentrados de scheelita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, P.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The acid leaching in hydrochloric media of a tungsten concentrate (scheelite, CaWO4 was studied. Of the above-mentioned, an insoluble solid (H2WO4 was obtained which were treated with an alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide, achieving the complete solubilization of the tungsten as wolframate ion (WO4-2 . The transformed fraction of tungsten increases with the temperature, as well as with a finer grain. A maximum dissolution of 88.5 % (400 g/1 HCl, 363 K and 20 µm of particle size was achieved for a 3 h process, of the disolution process was interpreted by the recessive core model with formation of a layer of solid product for the whole range of variation of the parameters in study. The activation energy value was found to be 28.0 kj/mol

    Se estudió la lixiviación acida, en medio clorhídrico, de un concentrado de wolframio (scheelita, CaWO4. De lo anterior, se obtuvo un sólido insoluble (H2WO4, que se trató con una solución alcalina de hidróxido de sodio, lográndose la completa solubilización del wolframio como ion wolframato (WO4-2 . La fracción transformada de wolframio aumenta con la temperatura, como también con una granulometría más fina. Se logró una disolución máxima de 88,5 % (400 g/1 HCl, 363 K y 20 µm de tamaño de partícula para 3 h de proceso, disolución que se interpretó a través del modelo de núcleo recesivo con formación de capa de producto sólido para todo el rango de variación de los parámetros en estudio. El valor de energía de activación encontrado fue de 28,0 kj/mol

  5. Renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gases within the framework of the Kyoto protocol; Energias renovables y reduccion de gases invernadero en el marco del protocolo de Kioto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Castellanos, Carolina [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The modern societies face diverse environmental problems among which appear the air pollution, the deterioration of seas and coasts, the acidification of soils, acid rain and the climatic change, phenomena, all of them, related in greater or smaller degree to the conventional practices of production and consumption of energy. Specifically, the climatic change puts in risk the well-being of the future generations, and even, the future of the life in the planet. Although uncertainty around the possible repercussions of this phenomenon exists, one knows that one of its main sources is burning of fossil fuels, when affecting the increase of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, in spite of the achievement that represents the creation of an instrument so sophisticated as the commonly denominated Kyoto Protocol, reluctance on part of some developed countries exists to ratify it and assume their commitments, and in the last session of the Conference of the Parts, (COP-6), celebrated at The Hague, Holland, it was not managed to consolidate to put in action the mechanisms that Kyoto establishes. [Spanish] Las sociedades modernas enfrentan diversos problemas ambientales entre los que figuran la contaminacion del aire, el deterioro de mares y costas, la acidificacion de suelos, la lluvia acida y el cambio climatico, fenomenos, todos ellos, relacionados en mayor o menor medida con las practicas convencionales de produccion y consumo de energia. De manera especifica, el cambio climatico pone en riesgo el bienestar de las futuras generaciones, e incluso, el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Si bien existe incertidumbre en torno a las posibles repercusiones de este fenomeno, se sabe que una de sus principales fuentes es la quema de combustibles fosiles, al incidir en el aumento en las concentraciones atmosfericas de gases invernadero. No obstante, pese al logro que representa la creacion de un instrumento tan sofisticado como el comunmente denominado

  6. GABA(A) receptors on calbindin-immunoreactive myenteric neurons of guinea pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Galligan, J J

    2000-01-14

    These studies were carried out to characterize the properties of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptors on guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons maintained in primary culture. In addition, the type of neuron expressing GABA(A) receptors was identified using immunohistochemical methods. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of currents elicited by GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained using pipettes containing Neurobiotin. After electrophysiological studies, neurons were processed for localization of calbindin-D28K-immunoreactivity (calbindin-ir). GABA (1 mM) and ACh (3 mM) caused inward currents in most cells tested. GABA currents were mimicked by muscimol (1-300 microM) and were blocked by bicuculline (10 microM) indicating that GABA was acting at GABA(A) receptors. GABA currents were associated with a conductance increase and a linear current/voltage relationship with a reversal potential of 1 +/- 1 mV (n = 5). Pentobarbital (PB, 3-1000 microM) and diazepam (DZP, 0.01-10 microM) potentiated GABA-induced currents. A maximum concentration of DZP (1 microM) increased GABA-induced currents 3.1 +/- 0.3 times while PB (1000 microM) increased GABA currents by 11 +/- 2 times. In outside-out patches, the amplitude of GABA-activated single-channel currents was linearly related to membrane potential with a single-channel conductance of 28.5 + 0.5 pS (n = 10). PB and DZP increased the open probability of GABA-induced single-channel currents. Neurons containing calbindin-ir were large, were isolated from other neurons and had GABA current amplitudes of -3.4 +/- 0.3 nA (n = 48). Neurons with weak or absent calbindin-ir were smaller, were localized in clusters of cells and had GABA-induced current amplitudes of -0.6 +/- 0.1 nA (n = 20). ACh-induced currents were smaller in calbindin-ir neurons (-0.7 +/- 0.1 nA) compared to weakly calbindin-ir neurons (-1.4 +/- 0.1 nA). These results indicate that myenteric calbindin-ir neurons express a high density of GABA

  7. Comparison of energy expenditure and closed-loop performance of thermal and reactive distillation sequences coupled for biodiesel production; Comparacion de gasto energetico y desempeno a lazo cerrado de secuencias de destilacion reactiva y termicamente acopladas para produccion de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Jacob, J.L [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Vazquez-Ojeda, M; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G; Hernandez, S [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Biodiesel is the common name for fatty acid methyl esters, obtained by esterification (basic catalysis) or trans-esterification (acid catalysis) of vegetable or animal oils with alcohols, and used as liquid fuel. Production involves the reaction, under mild conditions, between the oil and, typically, excess of methanol. Traditional production of biodiesel exhibits some handicaps, such as the shift of equilibrium to fatty acids by using excess of alcohol that must be separated and recycled. As alternative, it is possible to integrate reaction/separation operations into a single intensified unit, a reactive distillation column, followed by a second separation unit. These configurations exhibit several advantages such as shifting equilibrium in the reactive region and, because of the thermal integration with the second unit, energy savings during products separation. In order to design these production sequences taking advantage of steady state knowledge (energy savings) and considering dynamic performance, this work performs a controllability analysis for six possible configurations; open-loop control properties, evaluated by single value decomposition, are probed by implementing PI controllers to the system. The reactive distillation column coupled to a stripper, without reboilers, shows to be the best option in terms of closed-loop performance and energy savings. [Spanish] Biodiesel es el nombre comun dado a metil esteres de acidos grasos obtenidos por esterificacion (catalisis basica) o trans-esterificacion (catalisis acida) de aceites animales o vegetales con alcoholes, y usados como combustibles liquidos. Su produccion involucra la reaccion entre el aceite y, tipicamente, exceso de metanol a condiciones moderadas. La produccion tradicional de biodiesel exhibe algunas desventajas como el desplazamiento del equilibrio hacia acidos grasos debido al exceso de alcohol, que debe ser separado y reciclado. Alternativamente, es posible integrar las operaciones reaccion

  8. An experimental renal acidification defect in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance. II. Its distinction from classic renal tubular acidosis; its resemblance to the renal acidification defect associated with the Fanconi syndrome of children with cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R C

    1968-07-01

    In adult patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) fructose induces a renal acidification defect characterized by (a) a 20-30% reduction in tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate (T HCO(3) (-)) at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 21-31 mEq/liter, (b) a maximal tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate (Tm HCO(3) (-)) of approximately 1.9 mEq/100 ml of glomerular filtrate, (c) disappearance of bicarbonaturia at plasma bicarbonate concentrations less than 15 mEq/liter, and (d) during moderately severe degrees of acidosis, a sustained capacity to maintain urinary pH at normal minima and to excrete acid at normal rates. In physiologic distinction from this defect, the renal acidification defect of patients with classic renal tubular acidosis is characterized by (a) just less than complete tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate at plasma bicarbonate concentrations of 26 mEq/liter or less, (b) a normal Tm HCO(3) (-) of approximately 2.8 mEq/100 ml of glomerular filtrate, and (c) during acidosis of an even severe degree, a quantitatively trivial bicarbonaturia, as well as (d) a urinary pH of greater than 6. That the fructose-induced renal acidification defect involves a reduced H(+) secretory capacity of the proximal nephron is supported by the magnitude of the reduction in T HCO(3) (-) (20-30%) and the simultaneous occurrence and the persistence throughout administration of fructose of impaired tubular reabsorption of phosphate, alpha amino nitrogen and uric acid.A reduced H(+) secretory capacity of the proximal nephron also appears operative in two unrelated children with hyperchloremic acidosis, Fanconi's syndrome, and cystinosis. In both, T HCO(3) (-) was reduced 20-30% at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 20-30 mEq/liter. The bicarbonaturia disappeared at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 15-18 mEq/liter, and during moderate degrees of acidosis, urinary pH decreased to less than 6, and the excretion rate of acid was normal.

  9. Anterograde Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  10. Reaction of Nα-acetyl-L-histidine with diazomethane: A model esterification reaction of carboxylic groups in the presence of imidazole rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, R.

    1996-10-01

    1-3 fueron confirmadas por electroforesis capilar tras hidrólisis acida. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de diazometano produce el derivado metílico del anillo heterocíclico en adición al éster metílico. Esta reacción debe ser tenida en cuenta al preparar derivados para análisis cromatográfico.

  11. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  12. Blocking GABA(A) inhibition reveals AMPA- and NMDA-receptor-mediated polysynaptic responses in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépel, V; Khazipov, R; Ben-Ari, Y

    1997-04-01

    We have investigated the conditions required to evoke polysynaptic responses in the isolated CA1 region of hippocampal slices from Wistar adult rats. Experiments were performed with extracellular and whole cell recording techniques. In the presence of bicuculline (10 microM), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2-3-dione (10 microM), glycine (10 microM), and a low external concentration of Mg2+ (0.3 mM), electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals/commissural pathway evoked graded N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-mediated late field potentials in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region. These responses were generated via polysynaptic connections because their latency varied strongly and inversely with the stimulation intensity and they were abolished by a high concentration of divalent cations (7 mM Ca2+). These responses likely were driven by local collateral branches of CA1 pyramidal cell axons because focal application of tetrodotoxin (30 microM) in the stratum oriens strongly reduced the late synaptic component and antidromic stimulation of CA1 pyramidal cells could evoke the polysynaptic response. Current-source density analysis suggested that the polysynaptic response was generated along the proximal part of the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells (50-150 microm below the pyramidal cell layer in the stratum radiatum). In physiological concentration of Mg2+ (1.3 mM), the pharmacologically isolated NMDA-receptor-mediated polysynaptic response was abolished. In control artificial cerebrospinal fluid (with physiological concentration of Mg2+), bicuculline ( 10 microM) generated a graded polysynaptic response. Under these conditions, this response was mediated both by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/NMDA receptors. In the presence of D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (50 microM), the polysynaptic response could be mediated by AMPA receptors, although less efficiently. In conclusion, suppression of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A

  13. Evaluación de la actividad desulfurizadora de aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. en presencia de hidrocarburo Desulfurization activity evaluation of native strains of Pseudomonas spp. in the presence of hydrocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alméciga-Díaz Carlos Javier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El principal inconveniente en la combustión de los hidrocarburos es la conversión del azufre y el nitrógeno a sus respectivos óxidos, los cuales participan en la formación de lluvia acida y deterioran el medio ambiente e infraestructuras. La remoción de azufre a partir de compuestos órgano-azufrados mediante el uso de microorganismos ha surgido como una alternativa frente al proceso catalítico de hidrodesulfurización (HDS. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora de veintitrés aislados nativos de Pseudomonas spp. sobre dibenzotiofeno (DBT, usando un sistema de fermentación con igual proporción de fase acuosa y orgánica (n-hexano en presencia de oleato de etanolamina. Los aislados 02,05 y 06 conservaron su viabilidad en este medio y presentaron una remoción de azufre entre 6,0 y 9,4%, generando los metabolitos DBT-sulfona, DBT-sulfóxido, 2-hidroxibifenilo (2-HBP y sulfato presentes en la ruta metabólica 4S. Con estos aislados se evaluó la actividad desulfurizadora sobre keroseno y se observó una remoción de azufre entre 19,9 y 62,6% y una disminución del poder calorífico entre 0,45 y 5,55%. Palabras clave: dibenzotiofeno, desulfurización, Pseudomonas spp., keroseno.The main difficulty with fossil fuel combustión lies in sulphur and nitrogen becoming converted to their respective oxides, forming part of the acid rain which deteriorates the environment and infrastructure. Removing sulphur from organo-sulfur compounds by using micro-organisms has become an alternative to hydrodesulphurisation (HDS. Twenty-three Pseudomonas spp. native strains' desulphurisation activity on dibenzothiophene (DBT was evaluated by using a fermentation system having equal proportions of aqueous and organic (n-hexane phases in the presence of ethanolamine oléate. The 02, 05 and 06 strains maintained their viability in this médium, presenting 6,0% to 9,4% sulphur removal, producing DBT-sulphone, DBT-sulphoxide, 2

  14. Heavy metals determination in aquatic species for food purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2001-02-01

    New analytical procedures and sample mineralizations are proposed regarding the determination of arsenic, selenium, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury in matrices involved in food chain as mussel, clams and fishes. As regards As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn determinations. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3} acidic mixture is used for the digestion is performed using a concentrated supra pure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} mixture and the results are compared with those from other conventional methods (DPASV) are employed for determining simultaneously selenium, arsenic and copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, respectively, while mercury determination is carried out by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The voltammetric measurements were performed using a conventional three-electrode cell and the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer (ph 9.3) as supporting electrolyte. For all the elements, in addition to the detection limits, precision and accuracy data are also reported: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (S{sub r}), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), are in all cases between 3 to 6%. [Italian] Viene proposta una nuova procedura analitica ed una nuova mineralizzazione del campione per la determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco e mercurio in matrici coinvolte nella catena alimentare come mitili e pesci. Per la determinazione di As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, le matrici sono state mineralizzate con una miscela acida H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}. Nel caso del Hg, la mineralizzazione del campione e' stata effettuata mediante una miscela H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ed i risultati confrontati con quelli ottenuti impiegando altri metodi convenzionali. Per la simultanea determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco, sono state impiegate la voltammetria differenziale pulsata catodica (DPCSV) ed anodica (DPASV), mentre il mercurio e

  15. Pérdidas Humanas y Económicas Causadas por el Vulcanismo en Costa Rica entre 1953 y 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez una aproximación integrada de los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas en el periodo comprendido entre los años 1953 y el 2005. El detalle de los daños en (puentes, casas, ferrocarril, fábricas, las pérdidas económicas (agricultura, ganadería, suministro de agua potable, interrupción de las actividades, pérdidas de vidas humanas y las inversiones (donaciones, medidas paliativas, se presenta en los correspondientes cuadros, los que se centran en los desastres y efectos económicos, sin embargo los efectos sociológicos y psicológicos no fueron evaluados. Tres emergencias nacionales se han producido, una debido a la erupción del Irazú en 1963-1965, la otra con el Arenal en 1968 y la del volcán Poás en 1990. Pero también varias crisis volcánicas ocurrieron en otros volcanes como el Poás (1953-1955, 1989-1994, Rincón de la Vieja (1967,1991, 1995 y 1998 y de nuevo en Arenal (1975, 1988 y 2000, que produjo las pérdidas económicas debidas a la lluvia acida y/o lahares, otras personas murieron debido a depósitos de flujos piroclásticos. La actividad volcánica es la responsable de al menos 48,7 millones dólares en el último siglo, cantidad que será necesaria escalar en un futuro estudio. En el presente siglo, el daño por la lluvia ácida es de más de $200 mil. Por el momento, se tiene certeza que 103 personas fueron muertas por la actividad volcánica en el siglo XX; no hay informes adicionales de muertes o personas heridas desde 1700. Este documento es la base para un trabajo futuro más centrado en la evaluación socioeconómica, el análisis del riesgo y su proyección hacia el futuro. Si una nueva erupción similar a la del Irazú en 1963-1965 o del Arenal en 1968, sucediera durante el presente siglo, las pérdidas económicas serán significativamente mayores que las anteriores.

  16. Energy value as a factor of agroforestry wood species selectivity in Akinyele and Ido local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erakhrumen, A.A. [Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2009-10-15

    Wood usage for cooking and heating is still very relevant in most developing countries especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia. Therefore, sustainable means of generating it for this and other purposes are necessary bearing in mind the influence of indigenous knowledge/users' perspective on any production method regarding success and sustenance. In conformity with this view, questionnaires were administered on 240 respondents in 8 rural communities of Akinyele and Ido Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria, to elicit information on species that can be used as fuelwood, preferred by the respondents for incorporation into and/or retention in agroforestry plots, out of which 179 (i.e. 75% of the total number of questionnaires administered) were successfully retrieved for statistical analyses. Twelve woody species namely: Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Bridelia ferruginea, Daniellia oliveri, Detarium microcarpum, Gardenia ternifolia, Hymenocardia acida, Lophira lanceolata, Parkia biglobosa, Terminalia avicennioides, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Vitellaria paradoxa were prioritized on the basis of respondents' preference using a ranking pattern. Friedman chi-square analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the ranking pattern of the respondents from the two LGAs. The mean net calorific values (NCV) of the 12 species were found to be 17.71, 18.63, 18.04, 16.03, 17.67, 18.46, 19.00, 21.68, 19.63, 18.25, 14.65, and 19.47 MJ kg{sup -1} respectively. The result of a two-way analysis of variance indicated a significant variation (p < 0.05) in NCV data for all the species pooled together but not for each species except for D. oliveri with a follow-up test using Fisher's Least Significant Difference. The Pearson's moment correlation analysis gave positive coefficient values (r = 0.868 and 0.874, p < 0.05) between NCV and the cumulative ranking values in Akinyele and Ido LGAs

  17. Research and development of hydrogen and fuel cells technology at the IIE; Investigacion y desarrollo de tecnologia de hidrogeno y celdas de combustible en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano C, Ulises; Arriaga H, Gerardo; Romero C, T; Medrano V, M. Consolacion; Gonzalez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    D relacionados con celdas de combustible iniciaron a partir de estudios basicos electroquimicos de electrodos de platino sobre carbon vitreo en soluciones acidas, para determinar parametros cineticos y propiedades estructurales. Puesto que los principales componentes de las celdas PEM definen en gran medida el costo de la tecnologia, otros esfuerzos adicionales ligados a estudios basicos para el desarrollo de componentes como placas bipolares, estan descritos por el mismo autor en el 2001. Otros trabajos sobre investigacion basica estan ligados a la repuesta de monoceldas de combustible a diferentes condiciones de operacion, y que tambien se revisaran en este articulo.

  18. The role of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in the NTS in mediating three distinct sympathoinhibitory reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Daniela M; Verberne, Anthony J M

    2007-12-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) elicits a sympathetic vasomotor reflex that is implicated in gastrointestinal circulatory control. We sought to determine (1) the site in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) responsible for mediating this reflex and (2) the possible involvement of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In addition, we sought to determine whether the NTS site responsible for mediating the baroreflex (phenylephrine, PE, 10 microg/kg i.v.) and the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex (phenylbiguanide, PBG, 10 microg/kg i.v) overlap with that involved in the CCK-induced reflex (CCK, 4 microg/kg, i.v.), and to compare the relative importance of NMDA and non-NDMA receptors in these reflexes. In separate experiments, the effects of PE, PBG, and CCK on mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge were tested before and after bilateral microinjection into the NTS of the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) agonist muscimol, the EAA antagonist kynurenate, the NMDA receptor antagonist D: (-)-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP-5), the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), AP-5 + NBQX, or vehicle. While all treatments (except vehicle) significantly attenuated/abolished/reversed the splanchnic sympathoinhibitory responses to PE, PBG, and CCK, the extent of blockade varied between the different treatment groups. Both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors were essential to the baroreflex and the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex, whereas the CCK reflex was more dependent on non-NMDA receptors. Muscimol, kynurenate, and AP-5 + NBQX significantly attenuated the bradycardic responses to PE and PBG (P NTS responsible for eliciting all three reflexes, NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are recruited differentially for the full expression of these reflexes. The CCK-induced sympathoinhibitory reflex is unique in that it relies predominantly on non-NMDA receptors in the NTS and elicits bradycardic effects that

  19. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in biosolids from urban origin; Concentracion total y especiacion de metales pesados en biosolidos de origen urbano origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Flores, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: egonz1962@yahoo.com.mx; Tornero Campante, Mario Alberto [Colegio de Postgraduados - Campus Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Angeles Cruz, Yolanda [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bonilla y Fernandez, Noemi [Departamento de Agroecologia y Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias - Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    . El objetivo fue determinar las concentraciones en las fracciones biodisponibles. Se obtuvieron las concentraciones totales de metales pesados por medio de una digestion acida en sistema cerrado y fueron determinadas por espectrofotometria de absorcion atomica. Las concentraciones totales fueron mas bajas que los niveles maximos permisibles establecidos por la legislacion mexicana. Los metales pesados estan asociados principalmente a la fraccion mineral y a la materia organica y consecuentemente muestran muy baja biodisponibilidad.

  20. 一种新型可光降解的PVC-OA-TiO_2纳米复合膜%A Novel Photodegradable Polyvinyl Chloride-Oxalic Acid-TiO_2 Nanocomposite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    法文君; 龚楚清; 杨昌军; 彭天右; 昝菱

    2009-01-01

    A novel kind of photodegradable polyvinyl chloride-oxalic acid-TiO_2(PVC-OA-TiO_2) nano-composite film was prepared by blending the nano-TiO_2 particles into the commercial PVC.Oxalic acid,as a good election donor,can suppress the recombination of electrons and holes on the TiO_2 surface,so it enhances the photocatalytic efficiency of nano-TiO_2.The weight loss of PVC-OA-TiO_2 composite film reached 55% after 310 h UV-light irradiation,which was twice of PVC-TiO_2 film or 3.5 times of pure PVC film.The results indicate that PVC-OA-TiO_2 composite film has better photocatalytic degradation efficiency than PVC-TiO_2 composite film and pure PVC film.%采用包埋技术制备了一种新型可光降解的聚氯乙烯-草酸-TiO_2(PVC-OA-TiO_2)纳米复合膜,并研究了紫外光照射条件下该复合膜的光催化降解情况.结果表明,该纳米复合膜的光催化降解是一个氧化断链过程,经紫外光照射310 h后失重率达到55%,是PVC-TiO_2复合膜的2倍,是纯PVC膜的3.5倍,说明草酸的掺杂可以促进PVC-OA-TiO_2复合膜更快地被光降解.草酸作为一个良好的电子给体,能不可逆地与TiO_2表面产生的空穴或表面羟基反应,抑制电子和空穴的复合,从而显著提高PVC-OA-TiO_2的光催化降解速率.

  1. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1794 the German physicist Chladni published a small book in which he suggested the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. The response was skepticism and disbelief. Only after additional witnessed falls of meteorites did scientists begin to consider Chladni's hypothesis seriously. The first chemical analyses of meteorites were published by the English chemist Howard in 1802, and shortly afterwards by Klaproth, a professor of chemistry in Berlin. These early investigations led to the important conclusion that meteorites contained the same elements that were known from analyses of terrestrial rocks. By the year 1850, 18 elements had been identified in meteorites: carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and tin (Burke, 1986). A popular hypothesis, which arose after the discovery of the first asteroid Ceres on January 1, 1801 by Piazzi, held that meteorites came from a single disrupted planet between Mars and Jupiter. In 1847 the French geologist Boisse (1810-1896) proposed an elaborate model that attempted to account for all known types of meteorites from a single planet. He envisioned a planet with layers in sequence of decreasing densities from the center to the surface. The core of the planet consisted of metallic iron surrounded by a mixed iron-olivine zone. The region overlying the core contained material similar to stony meteorites with ferromagnesian silicates and disseminated grains of metal gradually extending into shallower layers with aluminous silicates and less iron. The uppermost layer consisted of metal-free stony meteorites, i.e., eucrites or meteoritic basalts. About 20 years later, Daubrée (1814-1896) carried out experiments by melting and cooling meteorites. On the basis of his results, he came to similar conclusions as Boisse, namely that meteorites come from a single, differentiated planet with a metal core, a silicate mantle

  2. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae family, which has been used in traditional medicine of Iran as anti vaginal infection, anti-sinusitis, sedative, and anti-inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Results showed that a total of 39 components have been identified in the plant sampl oil, representing 81% of the total oil and β-pinene (19.88%, guaiol (8%, shyobunone (6.96%, delta-cadinene (4.65%, α-pinene (3.16 %, β-phellandrene (3.28% and myrtenol (2.8%, were the main essential oil composition, respectively. The results from antibacterial screening (Table 2, were showed that C. albicans (25.2 ± 1.6, Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.6 ± 0.7 mm, Staphylococcus aureus (21.3 ± 0.2 mm, Escherichia coli (16.5 ± 0.8 mm, Bacillus cereus (19.5 ± 0.1 mm, Enterococcus faecalis (17.2 ± 0.8 mm and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ( 17.8 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone and MIC (35.4-112 μg/ml were the most sensitive pathogenes to the plant extract respectively, which followed Shigella (12.3 ± 0.3 mm and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.5 ± 0.2 mm were found to be moderate sensitive bacteria and then the Salmonella typhymorium which completely was resistant to plant root extract. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be concluded that the extract of F. gummosa L. have suitable antimicrobial and anti-Candidacies activity, which can be

  3. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed Muhammad

    2012-12-01

    may be due to some toxic effect of higher dose. ED50 value for Teucrium stocksianum was calculated as 31.5 ± 1.72415 mg/kg (b.w. Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a lot of variation in the composition of essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum boiss, which may be due to different climatic and experimental conditions. Secondly, the essential oil possesses strong antinociceptive activity and could be used in analgesic preparations especially for topical use.

  4. Plant species influence on soil C after afforestation of Mediterranean degraded soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Maria T.; García-Vargas, Carlos; Madejón, Engracia; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-04-01

    Increasing C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems is one of the main current environmental challenges to mitigate climate change. Afforestation of degraded and contaminated lands is one of the key strategies to achieve an increase in C sequestration in ecosystems. Plant species differ in their mechanisms of C-fixation, C allocation into different plant organs, and interaction with soil microorganisms, all these factors influencing the dynamics of soil C following the afforestation of degraded soils. In this work we examine the influence of different woody plant species on soil C dynamics in degraded and afforested Mediterranean soils. The soils were former agricultural lands that were polluted by a mining accident and later afforested with different native plant species. We analysed the effect of four of these species (Olea europaea var. sylvestris Brot., Populus alba L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss.) on different soil C fractions, soil nutrient availability, microbial activity (soil enzyme activities) and soil CO2 fluxes 15 years after the establishment of the plantations. Results suggest that the influence of the planted trees and shrubs is still limited, being more pronounced in the more acidic and nutrient-poor soils. Litter accumulation varied among species, with the highest C accumulated in the litter under the deciduous species (Populus alba L.). No differences were observed in the amount of total soil organic C among the studied species, or in the concentrations of phenols and sugars in the dissolved organic C (DOC), which might have indicated differences in the biodegradability of the DOC. Microbial biomass and activity was highly influenced by soil pH, and plant species had a significant influence on soil pH in the more acidic site. Soil CO2 fluxes were more influenced by the plant species than total soil C content. Our results suggest that changes in total soil C stocks after the afforestation of degraded Mediterranean

  5. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  6. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  7. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Saraiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The dry methanol extract of the root showed good antimicrobial activity with a MIC of less than 0.5 mg.mL-1. The dry ethyl acetate extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, which might be explained by solubility problems and less diffusion in the agar medium. Results of the bioautographies also confirmed inhibition halos corresponding to the active substances present in the leaves, as well as in the flower of C. pyramidalis. The phytochemical study of the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower and fruit of extracts from C. pyramidalis confirmed the presence of a number of known antimicrobial agents including ursolic acid, quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid, sitosterol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid.A determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos e em acetato de etila da folha, casca do caule, casca da raiz, flor, fruto e semente de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. foi realizada frente a dezessete isolados de Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes, dois isolados de S. aureus MSSA e duas cepas padrão, pelas técnicas de poço/difusão em ágar e determinação das CMI pelo método de diluição em agar/multiinoculador de Stears. O extrato metanólico de casca da raiz indicou uma boa atividade, com CMI inferior a 0.5 mg.mL-1. Os extratos secos por extração em acetato de etila apresentaram menor atividade que se poderia explicar por problemas de solubilidade e menor difusão no meio de cultura em ágar. Resultados

  8. Synthesis of related impurities in Oseltamivir phosphate%磷酸奥司他韦中相关杂质的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丕业; 赖小燕; 汤清华; 戴鹏; 查高峰

    2014-01-01

    磷酸奥司他韦作为选择性的流感病毒神经氨酸酶抑制剂,是治疗禽流感最有效的药物.美国药典38版收载了磷酸奥司他韦中的两个杂质.杂质(3R ,4R ,5S )-3-(1-乙基丙氧基)-4-乙酰胺-5-氨基-1-环己烯-1-羧酸(A )是原料药在精制和存储过程中发生微量水解产生的.对合成条件进行了优化,采用了常规分离手段得到了杂质A ,合成收率达到86.6%.杂质3-羟基-4-乙酰氨基-苯甲酸乙酯(B )是美国药典38版所载磷酸奥司他韦中的另一个杂质,目前没有合成方面的报道.设计了杂质B的合成路线,以3-羟基-4-氨基苯甲酸为原料,用乙酸酐作为酰化试剂对原料进行乙酰化,然后加入氢氧化钠和盐酸,调节pH ,发生水解,最后用溴乙烷作为烃化剂得到了目标产物,合成收率达到52.1%.整条合成路线操作简单、反应条件温和、没有环境污染,对磷酸奥司他韦的生产检验和贮存均具有现实意义.%Oseltamivir phosphate as a potent selective neuraminidase inhibitor is the most effective treat-ment of avian influenza now. There are two related substances of Oseltamivir phosphate recorded in USP38. Impurity (3R, 4R, 5S )-4-acetamido-5-amino-3- (1-ethylpropoxy )-1-cyclohexene-1- carboxylic acid(A) is produced during the refining and storage of the raw material medicine. We optimized the synthesis process of A and got it with a 86. 6% yield by conventional separation methods. Impurity 4-Acetylamino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester(B)is the other related substance recorded, and there is no report about synthetic route of it so far. After exploring the references related to B, we proposed a synthesis process, using 3-hydroxy-4-amino benzoic acid as raw material and acetic anhydride as acyla-tion reagent, then adding sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid to regulate pH, sequently hydrolysis occurring. Finally we got B with a 52. 1% yield

  9. Cloning of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase Genes EPSPS from the Upland Cotton and Its Expression in Different Cotton Tissues%陆地棉EPSPS 基因的克隆及其组织特异性表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童旭宏; 吴玉香; 祝水金

    2009-01-01

    5-烯醇式丙酮莽草酸-3-磷酸合成酶(EPSPS)是莽草酸途径中的一个重要酶,它是非选择性除草剂草甘膦的靶标酶,在高等植物中定位于叶绿体质膜上.根据EST拼接的序列设计引物,从陆地棉品种珂字棉312中获得了全长为1834 bp的cDNA序列,其最大可读框为1565 bp,编码521个氨基酸.陆地棉EPSPS 基因与其它植物中同类酶在氨基酸水平上有广泛的同源性.通过与已知的其它高等植物叶绿体转运肽剪切位点比对,推断棉花EPSPS 基因含有74个氨基酸叶绿体运输肽和447个氨基酸组成的熟蛋白.该酶具有保守的PEP结合位点及催化位点的特征序列.半定量分析表明,该基因产物广泛存在于棉花根、茎和叶等各组织中,在叶片中表达量较高.进一步扩增棉花核基因组获得了3344 bp的DNA序列,它包含8个内含子和7个外显子.棉花EPSPS 基因的克隆为抗草甘膦棉花种质资源的创制提供了理论基础.%5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is an enzyme of the shikimate pathway.It is the target enzyme of nonselective herbicide glyphosate.This enzyme is located in the chloroplasts of the higher plants.Primers were designed according to the assembled ESTs of Gossypium hirsutum , and a 1834 bp cDNA fragment of G.hirsutum cv.Coker 312 was obtained in this experiment.The frafment contains an ORF comprising of 1565 nucleotides which encodes 521 amino acid.A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of cotton and other higher plants genes reveals highly homology over the length of the entire mature protein.The site of transit peptides cleavage is deduced from a comparison to the known cleavage site in other plants.The enzyme, including 74 amino acid chloroplast transit peptides and 447 amino acid mature proteins, comprises conserved region of PEP binding sites and the characteristic sequence of catalytic activity sites.Semi-quantitative analysis of EPSP synthase expression showed that

  10. Fifteen years of seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field; Quince anos de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prieto, Irais; Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    -5000, con tres canales de registro (N-S, E-W y vertical); esta fue la base para el desarrollo de un programa de correcciones a los datos de tiempo de arribo de las ondas P y S por deriva de los instrumentos. En los periodos enero-abril de 1994 y mayo-agosto de 1995 se registraron 170 eventos sismicos, con lo que se propuso un modelo de velocidades, y de diciembre de 1995 a julio de 1996 se realizo un procesado e interpretacion de datos sismicos, definiendo las zonas de ocurrencia de eventos de acuerdo a sus magnitudes y caracterizando el ruido predominante en el campo. Entre septiembre de 2003 y diciembre de 2004 se instalaron diez estaciones sismicas (temporales y permanentes) cuyo monitoreo permitio concluir que el sistema de fallas mas activo era el de El Volcan. De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se llevo a cabo un monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13, lograndose definir dos zonas sismicas de importancia asociadas al sistema de fallas El Volcan y al pozo inyector LV-8 y concluyendose que existia un aumento de la actividad sismica despues de la induccion de los pozos. Entre mayo y agosto de 2006 se recopilo informacion de la red sismica, con la cual se concluyo que el sistema de fallas mas activo en ese periodo fue El Partido. Actualmente la red sismica del campo consta de un equipo SARA y cuatro K2, y se ha conseguido que la estacion SARA se comunique telemetricamente con la estacion base.

  11. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  12. Effect of Auxin on Al-Induced Malic Acid Efflux in Wheat with Differential Al Tolerance%生长素对铝胁迫下不同耐铝性小麦根苹果酸分泌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨野; 王巧兰; 耿明建; 郭再华; 赵竹青

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究Indole-3-acetic acid(IAA)对铝胁迫下小麦根苹果酸分泌的影响,探讨不同耐铝性小麦品种间苹果酸分泌差异机理.[方法]采用溶液培养的方法,以不同耐铝性小麦品种为材料(ET8,耐铝型和ES8,铝敏感型),研究IAA、N-1-napthyl-phtalamic acid(NPA)、2,3,5-triiodobenzoic(TIBA)、Anthracene-9carboxylic acid(A9C)及Niflumic acid(NIF)对ET8和ES8苹果酸分泌的影响.[结果]ET8和ES8经不同浓度IAA(0、25、50和100 μmol·L-1)处理,苹果酸分泌速率均无显著差异;而当ET8和ES8经50μmol·L-1 Al处理3 h后,无铝条件下,再经不同浓度IAA处理,ET8苹果酸分泌速率随IAA浓度的升高而显著升高,ES8苹果酸分泌速率却无显著变化;与Al(50μmol·L-1)处理相比,BT8经IAA(50、100μmol·L-1)和50 μml·L-1 Al共处理,苹果酸分泌速率显著升高,但ES8经IAA(25、50μmol·L-1)和 50μmpl·L-1 Al共处理,苹果酸分泌速率均无显著变化;与Al(50μmol·L-1)处理相比,ET8和ES8经IAA转运抑制剂NPA(TIBA)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理,苹果酸分泌速率显著降低,以上结果表明,IAA参与调节铝胁迫下苹果酸分泌.与AI(50μmol·L-1)处理相比,ET8和ES8经50μmol·L-1 A9C(NIF)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理,苹果酸分泌显著降低;与5μmol·L-1 A9C(NIF)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理相比,ET8和ES8经不同浓度IAA、5μmol·L-1 A9C(NIF)和Al(50μmol·L-1)共处理,苹果酸分泌速率随IAA浓度升高而显著升高,表明IAA可能通过调节阴离子通道参与铝胁迫下小麦根苹果酸分泌.[结论]只有在Al激活苹果酸分泌后,IAA才能增加耐铝型小麦品种分泌苹果酸,不同耐铝性小麦品种苹果酸分泌的显著差异与IAA对不同耐铝性小麦品种苹果酸分泌调节作用的差异有关.

  13. Bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolated from boza Bacteriocina produzida por Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolad de boza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav D. Todorov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin ST712BZ (14.0kDa in size inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Lactobacillus curvatus. Growth of strain ST712BZ in BHI, M17, soy milk and molasses was similar to growth in MRS, with optimal bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL recorded in MRS after 24h. The same level of bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL was recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5. However, MRS broth (pH 6.5 supplemented with 1mM EDTA, yielded only 6400AU/mL. Low levels of bacteriocin activity were recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 5.0 and 4.5. Of all media compositions tested, MRS supplemented with tryptone (20.0g/L, glucose (20.0 to 40.0g/L, mannose (20.0g/L, vitamin B12, or vitamin C yielded 12800AU/mL. Glycerol concentrations of 1.0g/L and higher repressed bacteriocin production. Maximal bacteriocin activity (25600AU/mL was recorded in MRS supplemented with Vit. B1 or DL-6,8-thioctic acid.A bacteriocina ST712BZ produzida par Lactobacillus pentosus (peso molecular de 14,0kDa inibe o crescimento de Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Lactobacillus curvatus. O crescimento de L. pentosus ST712BZ em BHI, M17, leite de soja e melaços foi semelhante ao observado em MRS, registando-se a produção máxima de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em MRS após 24 h. Observou-se o mesmo nível de produção de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em caldo MRS com pH inicial de 6,5, 6,0 e 5,5. No entanto, em caldo MRS (pH 6,5 suplementado com 1 mM de EDTA a produção apenas atingiu 6400UA/mL. Os níveis de atividade bacteriocinogênica detectados em caldo MRS com um pH inicial de 5,0 e 4,5 foram baixos. De todas as fórmulas de meios de cultura testadas a que apresentou a atividade máxima 12800UA/mL foi MRS suplemento de triptona (20,0g/L, glicose (20,0 e 40,0 g/L, manose (20.0 g/L, vitamina B12 e

  14. Lactic acid production by L. curvatus in sugarcane molasses/ Produção de ácido lático por Lactobacillus curvatus em melaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is important due to its various applications. The bulk of world lactic acid production is used by the food industry and the rest is used in pharmaceutical, textile, leather, cosmetic and chemical industries. In this work, a 33 incomplete factorial design of the response-surface methodology was used to determine the best concentration of sugarcane molasses, yeast extract and peptone in the culture medium for the development of batch lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus curvatus. The fermentation was carried out at 37 ºC for 48 hours without agitation. The mathematical model given by the responsesurface methodology indicated a concentration of 10% (w/v of sugarcane molasses, 2% (w/v of yeast extract and 4% (w/v of peptone as the best conditions for the composition of culture medium for the lactic acid production by L. curvatus. Under these conditions, lactic acid production was 30,5 g/L, comparable with the result obtained in MRS medium, which produced 32,0g/L of lactic acid. Considering the low cost and high availability of the sugarcane molasses, it was concluded that it represented a good culture medium for lactic fermentation. Sugarcane molasses at 10% (w/v supplemented with yeast extract at 2% (w/v and peptone at 4% (w/v was used in the 3L batch lactic fermentation producing 37,5g/L of lactic acid.A maior parte da produção mundial de ácido lático é utilizada pela indústria de alimentos e o restante em indústrias farmacêutica, têxtil, de couro, cosmética e química. A Metodologia da Superfície de Resposta, planejamento fatorial incompleto 33, foi utilizada para estabelecer as melhores condições, relativas às concentrações, do meio de cultivo contendo melaço de cana-de-açúcar, extrato de levedura e peptona para desenvolvimento da fermentação descontínua por Lactobacillus curvatus. A fermentação se desenvolveu durante 48 horas sob temperatura de 37 ºC. O modelo matemático fornecido pela Metodologia da

  15. Effect of high pressure processing on color, free fatty acids and lipid oxidation of sliced smoked cooked ham%超高压处理对烟熏火腿色泽、游离脂肪酸及脂肪氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新生; 韩衍青; 徐幸莲; 畅阳; 张维益; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    fatty acid,as well as lipid oxidation of sliced cooked ham.Free fatty acid composition and original bright color could be maintained.

  16. Studies on the effect of vanillin (food additive on some metabolic reactions of the experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Massry, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    función hepática (S.GOT, S.GPT, alcalina y ácido fosfatasa así como las funciones renales se elevaron en comparación con el grupo control. La administración de vanillina redujo significativamente los lípidos totales de hígado y riñones. El bazo y corazón siguieron la misma tendencia pero con efecto moderado, mientras que el cerebro no se afectó. El colesterol total en hígado, riñones, bazo y corazón disminuyó significativamente, en tanto que en cerebro no se afectó. Los triglicéridos disminuyeron significativamente en hígado y bazo, mientras que no se alteraron en riñones y cerebro. También hubo una disminución significativa en la alta actividad de S.GOT, S.GPT, alcalina y fosfatasa acida y se alcanzaron valores muy próximos al nivel inicial. La administración de vanillina ejerció efectos anabólicos potentes para el metabolismo de proteínas como se demuestra de los resultados del ácido urónico y creatinina.

  17. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of polystyrene membranes for use in fuel cells; Sintesis y evaluacion de membranas base poliestireno para uso en celdas a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)] e-mail: robertob@ciqa.mx; Paula, M.M.S.; Da Silva, L.; Fiori, M.; Coronetti, J.C.; Silvano, W.F. [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); B.M. Huerta [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    DSC), nivel de entrecruzamiento mediante % Gel y funcion acida mediante titulacion con hidroxido de sodio. Los espectros IR de las membranas antes de sulfonar muestran la existencia de bandas tradicionales de los polimeros utilizados con dos senales de los homopolimeros que se pierden y dos nuevas que aparecen, corroborando las reacciones de copolimerizacion. La termogravimetria muestra una temperatura de descomposicion mayor para las membranas entrecruzadas con el DVB, mientras que el DSC no es muy util para observar transiciones debido a la higroscopicidad de las membranas. Finalmente, el porcentaje de gel esta efectivamente relacionado con la cantidad de DVB utilizado y la acidez de las membranas es mayor con el contenido de acido acrilico, con el tiempo de sulfonacion y el porcentaje de DVB; aunque este valor depende mucho de la facilidad de solubilizar el material. Las propiedades ionicas de las membranas con mejores propiedades mecanicas fueron evaluadas en un prototipo de celda a combustible.

  19. RP-HPLC-UV波长切换法同时测定复方吡拉西坦尼莫地平胶囊中3种成分的含量%Simultaneous Determination of Three Components in Compound Piracetam and Nimodipine Capsules by RP-HPLC-UV Wavelength Switching Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a RP-HPLC-UV wavelength switching method for the simultaneous determination of captopril, aspirin and nimodipine in compound piracetam and nimodipine capsules. Methods:The separation was carried out on a YMC-Pack Pro-C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5μm) with acetonitrile-water(adjusting pH to 2. 5 with phosphpric acid)as the mobile phase with gra-dient elution. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml·min-1 . During 0-4. 3 min, the detection wavelength was 215 nm, during 4. 3-11. 0 min, the detection wavelength was 276 nm and during 11. 0-18. 0 min, the detection wavelength was 235 nm. The column temperature was 40℃. Results:The linear range of captopril, aspirin and nimodipine was 0. 054 7-1. 641 8 μg(r=0. 999 9),0. 055 3-1. 654 8 μg(r=0. 999 9) and 0. 077 7-2. 331 6 μg(r=0. 999 7), and the average recovery was 100. 69%(RSD=0. 69%,n=6),101. 04%(RSD=1. 05%,n=6)and 102. 56%(RSD=1. 14%,n=6), respectively. Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can be used in the content determination of compound piracetam and nimodipine capsules.%目的::建立同时测定复方吡拉西坦尼莫地平胶囊中卡托普利、阿司匹林、尼莫地平含量的HPLC法。方法:采用YMC-Pack Pro-C18色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),以乙腈为流动相A、水(磷酸调节pH至2.5)为流动相B进行梯度洗脱,流速:1.0 ml·min-1,柱温:40℃,检测波长:215 nm(0~4.3 min),276 nm(4.3~11.0 min),235 nm(11.0~18.0 min)。结果:卡托普利、阿司匹林、尼莫地平分别在0.0547~1.6418μg(r =0.9999),0.0553~1.6548μg(r =0.9999),0.0777~2.3316μg(r=0.9997)范围内线性良好,平均加样回收率分别为100.69%(RSD=0.69%,n=6),101.04%(RSD=1.05%,n=6),102.56%(RSD=1.14%,n=6)。结论:该分析方法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,可用于复方吡拉西坦尼莫地平胶囊中卡托普利、阿司匹林、尼莫地平的含量测定。

  20. 一个Bw亚型家系的血型分子机制及临床输血分析%Molecular basis and clinical transfusion of a family with Bw subtype of ABO blood group system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓刚; 黄丹丹; 郭雯玉; 许德义; 杜勇; 马幼丽; 张哲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study a family with Bw subtype of ABO blood group system,and to review safety issues in relation with clinical transfusion.Methods The molecular basis for the blood type was studied with serological assay,polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) and DNA sequencing,TA clone and haplotype analysis in one blood donor whose ABO blood group were difficultly typed and her family.The bioinformatics analysis was carried out by biological analysis software to investigate the change of structure and function of enzymes influenced by the change amino acid.A retrospective survey was carried out to investigate what is the actual position that the donor blood was used in the clinical transfusion.Results Three members from the family were found to have a Bw subtype.A substitution of nucleotide C by T at position 721 in exon 7 was discovered,which resulted in replacement of amino acid Arg to Trp.Review of clinical record suggested that there has been no significant abnormality association with past three blood transfusions.Conclusion A 721C>T mutation of the ABO gene probably underlies the Bw subtype.Further research is needed for understanding the clinical significance of this subtype in the blood transfusion.%目的 对1个Bw亚型血型家系的分子机制进行研究,并探讨该亚型的临床输血情况.方法 对1名ABO血型正反定型不符的无偿献血者及其家人的血型进行血清学鉴定,并应用聚合酶链反应-序列特异性引物法、ABO基因直接测序、TA克隆单倍型分析及相关软件对该突变引起的酶结构及功能变化进行分析等方法,同时对该献血者以往3次所献的血样的临床输血情况进行回顾.结果 在该家系中发现了3例较为罕见的Bw亚型.该亚型是由于ABO基因第7外显子存在721C/T杂合,导致R241W氨基酸改变所致.临床回顾提示3次输血均未发现明显异常.结论 ABO基因721C>T突变是导致Bw亚型的分子遗传基础之一,

  1. Hippocampal CA1 lacunosum-moleculare interneurons: modulation of monosynaptic GABAergic IPSCs by presynaptic GABAB receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazipov, R; Congar, P; Ben-Ari, Y

    1995-11-01

    1. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were employed to characterize monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in morphologically and electrophysiologically identified interneurons located in the stratum lacunosum moleculare, or near the border of the stratum radiatum (LM interneurons), in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices taken from 3- to 4-wk-old rats. Monosynaptic IPSCs, evoked in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 20 microM) and D-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoate (APV; 50 microM) were biphasic. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, bicuculline (20 microM), blocked the fast IPSC, and the slow IPSC was blocked by the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348 (500 microM). 2. Monosynaptic IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation in several distant regions including the stratum radiatum, the stratum oriens, the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, suggesting an extensive network of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus. In paired recordings of CA1 interneurons and pyramidal cells, IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of most of these distal regions with the exception of the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which evoked an IPSC only in LM interneurons. 3. Frequent (> 0.1 Hz) stimulation depressed the evoked IPSCs. With a paired-pulse protocol, the second IPSC was depressed and the maximal depression (40-50%) was observed with an interstimulus interval of 100-200 ms. 4. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (1 microM) reduced the amplitude of evoked IPSCs and the paired-pulse depression of the second IPSC. The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348 (0.5-1 mM) had no significant effect on the amplitude of isolated IPSCs. However, CGP35348 reduced but did not fully block paired-pulse depression, suggesting that this depression is partly due to the activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors. 5. The paired-pulse depression depended on the level of

  2. Research on the Technology of Producing CaF2 with Fluoride Sludge and Fluoride Sulfuric Acid%用含氟污泥和含氟硫酸生产氟化钙的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明; 马小华

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride sludge generated in the process of treating F -containing wastewater by lime chemical sediment , and much waste liquid generated in the other process of decomposing tantalum and niobium ore , which was fluoride sulfuric acid.A new technology that producing CaF 2 with fluoride sludge and fluoride sulfuric acid was studied , which included five processes of the atmospheric distillation , the first acidification , precipitation transformation , secondary acidification and drying calcination.There was no secondary pollution to environment that caused by waste water , waste gas and waste residue.What's more, the process was simple and easy to control , and the quality of CaF 2 had completely met the requirement of enterprises that producing hydrofluoric acid with fluorite.The yield of CaF 2 and the mass fraction was greater than 97%and 91%respectively , meanwhile , the mass fraction of silicon dioxide was lesser than 1.0%.Not only much load of treating F -containing wastewater tremendously reduced , but also solved the fluoride sludge covering problem and the secondary pollution for the underground water which caused by fluoride sludge deposited in the open air , and fluorine got fully recycling of resources.%含氟污泥,指的是用石灰化学沉淀法处理含氟废水后产生的底泥。含氟硫酸,指的是分解钽、铌矿石后排出的废液。研究了以含氟污泥和含氟硫酸为原料生产氟化钙的新工艺。该工艺由常压蒸馏、一次酸化、沉淀转化、二次酸化和烘干煅烧五个工序组成。工艺流程简单,生产易于控制。工艺过程中没有废水、废气和废渣对环境的二次污染。产品氟化钙的收率可达97%以上,氟化钙的质量分数在91%以上,二氧化硅的质量分数在1.0%以下。产品的质量完全可以满足生产氢氟酸等以萤石作原料的企业的要求。该工艺不但减轻了生产钽、铌企业处理含氟废水的负荷,而且有效的解

  3. Determining the optimal dose of Fenton reagent in a leachate treatment by Fenton-adsorption; Determinacion de la dosis optima de reactivo Fenton en un tratamiento de lixiviados por Fenton-adsorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Novelo, Roger Ivan; Pietrogiovanna Bronca, Jose Alfredo; Santos Ocampo, Beatriz; Sauri Riancho, Maria Rosa; Giacoman Vallejos, German; Castillo Borges, Elba Rene [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Ingenieria, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)]. E-mail: mnovelo@uady.mx

    2010-07-01

    tipo Fenton-adsorcion con el que se obtuvieron mejores resultados que con otros tratamientos fisicoquimicos o biologicos reportados en la literatura. El proceso Fenton consiste en tratar la carga contaminante con una combinacion de H{sub 2}O{sub 2} y FeSO4 en condiciones acidas. Se evaluo si la filtracion de los lodos producidos durante el proceso Fenton es un proceso mas eficiente que la sedimentacion. Se determino el tiempo de contacto optimo de la oxidacion Fenton, asi como la dosis optima de los reactivos usados en funcion de la DQO del lixiviado, mediante la determinacion de las mejores relaciones [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]. Despues de optimizar el proceso, se filtraron las muestras oxidadas y se ensayo la adsorcion mediante columnas empacadas con carbon activado granular. Se concluyo que el lodo generado por el proceso Fenton se remueve mas eficientemente mediante filtracion que por sedimentacion. Los tiempos de contacto optimos fueron de 5 min para la remocion de la DQO y una hora para la remocion de color, tiempo elegido para proteger el carbon activado. Las mejores relaciones para [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] fueron 0.6 y 9, respectivamente. La eficiencia maxima de remocion despues del proceso de adsorcion fue de 98.9 % para la DQO y 100 % para el color. El indice de biodegradabilidad final alcanzado despues de las pruebas de Fenton-adsorcion fue de 0.24.

  4. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). Objective The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. Methods This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number

  5. Tart Cherry Juice as a Treatment for Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cindy Alberts

    2015-01-01

    are on more than 1 of these medications but, even with polypharmacy and optimal dosing, only 40%–60% of patients report partial relief of symptoms, and many have significant adverse effects, such as somnolence, constipation, and drug dependence. Objective Tart cherry juice has been shown to be effective in the treatment of some inflammatory conditions and has a very low incidence of adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tart cherry juice is an effective treatment for neuropathic pain from nondiabetic peripheral polyneuropathies. Methods The study group consisted of 12 primary care patient volunteers with painful lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were excluded due to the potentially confounding effect of the increased glycemic load from cherry juice. All study patients had carried a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy for 5–10 y. All patients described 9–10 out of 10 pain more than 50% of the time. All study patients had been on multiple antiepileptics, analgesics, and antidepressants for more than 2 y without significant improvement of symptoms. All study patients were allowed to remain on their prescribed doses of gabapentin, pregabalin, SNRIs, tricyclics, and SSRIs during the study. The patients agreed not to use NSAIDs, steroids, lidocaine, and narcotic pain relievers during the study. There were no restrictions on diet or activity. Presumed etiologies of the peripheral neuropathies in the study group were: 3 HIV, 2 chemotherapy-induced, 5 spinal disorders, and 2 idiopathic. All patients drank 4 oz of tart cherry juice 2 ×/d for 14 d. The juice used was a combination of Prunus cerasus, Prunus acida, Prunus avium, and Prunus fructicosa, imported from the Caucasus and sold commercially as “100% cherry juice from concentrate.” Results After 14 d of treatment, the patients were questioned regarding the level of their peripheral neuropathy pain. Two patients (HIV and spinal DJD

  6. 自动固相萃取-液相色谱-飞行时间质谱法快速筛查与确证血液中抗抑郁类药物%Rapid screening and confirmation of antidepressants in blood using automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石银涛; 郭璟琦; 王绘军; 段杰; 喻洪江; 郑经; 王俊伟

    2014-01-01

    A high-throughput method was developed for screening antidepressants in blood by automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry( ASPE-LC-Q-TOF/MS). The samples were cleaned up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge and analyzed by LC-Q-TOF/MS under electrospray ionization( ESI)mode with scanning range of m/z 50-1 000 Da. The chromatographic separa-tion was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column(50 mm×2. 1 mm,1. 8 μm)with gra-dient elution using methanol and 5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution( containing 0. 2% formic acid)as mobile phases. Rapid screening and confirmation can be achieved using MS matching scores,deviation of retention time,measured mass,isotopic abundance matching scores,isotope space matching scores and MS/MS matching scores. The quantitative analysis was carried out by correlating the extracting peak area with accurate mass. Good linearities were observed in the range of 1-500 μg/L with the correlation coefficients from 0. 997 6 to 0. 999 7. The limits of detection were 0. 01-0. 5 μg/L. The spiked recoveries were 79. 6%-96. 4%with the relative standard deviations of 4. 1%-6. 4%. The result screening database was built using Agilent MassHunter PCDL Manager software and then used for the analysis of spiked sam-ples. MS matching scores,isotopic abundance matching scores,isotope space matching scores ( all ﹥ 95 points)and MS/MS matching scores(﹥ 70 points)were applied to identify the ana-lytes. The results showed that all the spiked antidepressants could be correctly identified with low deviation of retention time(﹤ 0. 1 min)and mass(﹤ 1 mDa). The developed method was further applied for the analysis of poisoning cases,and amitriptyline,carbamazepine,doxepin were detected. In brief,the method is rapid,sensitive,simple,reliable,and suitable for the screening and confirmation of antidepressants in forensic and clinical analytical toxicology.%

  7. Synthesis and application properties of phosphate trisiloxane surfactants%磷酸酯型三硅氧烷表面活性剂的合成及应用性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄良仙; 李顺琴; 李婷; 贾银银; 张乐

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl-terminated polyether modified trisiloxanes (TPETS)was prepared by hydrosilylation of 1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyltrisiloxane(HTSO)with allyl polyoxyethylene ether (FAE-10)in the presence of chloroplatinic acid.A new kind of phosphate trisiloxane surfactants (PTSS)was synthesized by the esterification reaction of TPETS with phosphoric acid(H3 PO4 ).The esterification reaction conditions of PTSS synthesis were optimized using orthogonal test.The structure of PTSS was characterized by infrared spectra (IR).The criti-cal surface tension (γcmc )and critical micelle concentration (cmc)of PTSS solution were measured.And its application was investigated in pesticide.Experimental results were showed as follows.Optimum conditions of the esterification reaction for the PTSS are that reaction temperature is 80 ℃,reaction time is 4 h,n(TPETS)∶n(H3PO4)=1∶1.1.Theγcmcof PTSS solution is 21.9 mN/m,the cmc of PTSS solution is 5.0×10-4 g/mL.When PTSS solution was added with 0.1% into glyphosate isopropylamin 41% AS and thiophanate-methyl 36% SC diluted to 1 000 times with water,the surface tension of glyphosate isoprop-ylamin solution and thiophanate-methyl solution decreased from 54.83 mN/m and 45.48 mN/m to 20.38 mN/m and 17.40 mN/m,respectively.It′s the spreading area on the ginkgo leaves,horse chestnut leaves,french phoenix tree leaves and plastic film is increased 4~8 times and 2~4 times,respectively.%在 H2PtCl6催化下,1,1,1,3,5,5,5-七甲基三硅氧烷(HTSO)和烯丙基聚氧乙烯醚(FAE-10)经硅氢加成反应先制得端羟基聚醚改性三硅氧烷(TPETS),再与 H3 PO4进行酯化反应,合成了一种磷酸酯型三硅氧烷表面活性剂(PTSS).用正交试验对其酯化反应条件进行了优化,用红外光谱(IR)对PTSS的结构进行了表征,并对 PTSS 的临界表面张力、临界胶束浓度以及在农药中的应用性能等进行了测定.结果表明:酯化反应的优化条件为n(TPETS)∶n(H3PO4)=1∶1.1、反应温度80

  8. Obtención, cultivo y caracterización de células de Schwann: un modelo de terapia celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Spinel

    2000-02-01

    -85%, determinados tanto por parámetros morfológicos como inmunocitoquímicos. Estos parámetros inmunocitoquímicos incluyen la evaluación para marcadores tales como la proteína S-100 y GFAP (Proteína Glial Fibrilar Acida. Adicionalmente, se realizó la evaluación inmunocitoquímica para bromodeoxiuridina (BrdU incorporada por células en su fase S, la cual nos permite obtener una aproximación del comportamiento proliferativo de los diferentes fenotipos celulares presentes en nuestros cultivos. Al realizar la cuantificación para la inmunodetección de BrdU incorporada, se encontró un índice de marcaje del 60 % en ratón, del 80% en rata y del 20 % en células humanas, relativo a la población de células de Schwann totales. Otro parámetro de caracterización ha sido la morfología, la cual se ha evaluado en cultivo por contraste de fase, en la que se puede observar la refringencia y la formación de estructuras a manera de rosarios, típicas de las células de Schwann en cultivo, en material fijado por microscopía de luz en donde se evidencia la inmunoreactividad para los diferentes marcadores y ultraestructuralmente por microscopía electrónica, en donde se han podido observar inclusiones de mielina, abundantes ribosomas libres, estructuras de endocitosis y retículo endoplásmico dilatado al parecer propio en cultivo entre otros detalles.

    Así, las células de rata ya han sido utilizadas en implantes autólogos, en modelos de regeneración en nervio dentario y en nervio ciático crónicamente denervado. En el caso del nervio dentario en el que se aprovechó el canal intraoseo por el que se conduce el nervio a través de la mandíbula, para que funcionara como una cámara de regeneración. En el caso del nervio ciático se utilizaron cámaras en las que se implantaron las células. En ambos casos el efecto de las células en la regeneración nerviosa está siendo actualmente evaluado.