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Sample records for boiss prehidrolisis acida

  1. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulose Biomass of Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Hidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-07-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale. (Boiss.& Bal.) Greuter & Burdetvar. sepulcrale and Symphytum aintabicum Hub.- Mor. & Wickens

    OpenAIRE

    KURUCU, Semra; KARTAL, Murat

    2002-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine-N-oxide) was isolated from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale (Boiss. & Bal.) Greuter & Burdet var. sepulcrale and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine) was isolated from Symphytum aintabicum Hub. - Mor. & Wickens. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on IR, EIMS, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis and also on 2D NMR (COSY, HMBC, HMQC) experiments.

  4. Secondary Metabolites of Centaurea cadmea Boiss.

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    Kaveh Alizadeh Astari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (1, scutellarin (2, syringin (3, 6S, 9R-roseoside (4 and b -sitosterol-3- O - b - D-glucopyranoside (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea cadmea Boiss. (Asteraceae. S tructure elucidation of the compounds were performed by using spectroscopic methods (1-D and 2-D NMR and LC-MS-MS. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1 , 2, 3 and 4 have been isolated for the first time from this endemic species. C ompound 4 is new for the genus Centaurea.

  5. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

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    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  6. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main components were b-caryophyllene (12.9%), limonene (9.7%), b-pinene (7.9%), linalool (7.4%), α-pinene (6.4%) and 1,8-cineole (5.5%). Volatile oil of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts was dominated by the high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.2%) and oxygenated monoterpenes ...

  7. COMPOSITION OF STEMBARK ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SALVIA MACROSIPHON BOISS

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    FIROUZ MATLOUBI-MOGHADDAM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon boiss (Labiatae was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and coupled GC/MS. Twenty substances out of about thirty-three detected components were identified. The major constituents were sesquiterpenes (69.5%, a-Gurjunene (11%, P-Cubebene (10.6%, Germacrene-B (7%.

  8. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts

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    B. Azadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of flowering aerial parts of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. (Rutaceae from Iran was analyzed for the first time using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Thirty six compounds comprising 92.2% of the total oil were characterized. The main components were b-caryophyllene (12.9%, limonene (9.7%, b-pinene (7.9%, linalool (7.4%, α-pinene (6.4% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Volatile oil of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts was dominated by the high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.2% and oxygenated monoterpenes (23.2%.

  9. Flavones and Flavone Glycosides from Salvia macrosiphon Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Ebrahimi, Hakimeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Foruzani, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Puneh; Ajani, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Salvia genus, which is generally called Maryam-Goli in the Persian language, belongs to Lamiaceae family and comprises 58 species in Iran. Four flavonoids plus a steroid compound were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss, using different chromatographic methods on the silica gel and sephadex LH20. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be apigenin-7, 4?-dimethyl ether (1), ?-sitosterol (2), salvigenin (3) ap...

  10. Flavones and Flavone Glycosides from Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Ebrahimi, Hakimeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Foruzani, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Puneh; Ajani, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Salvia genus, which is generally called Maryam-Goli in the Persian language, belongs to Lamiaceae family and comprises 58 species in Iran. Four flavonoids plus a steroid compound were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss, using different chromatographic methods on the silica gel and sephadex LH20. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be apigenin-7, 4'-dimethyl ether (1), β-sitosterol (2), salvigenin (3) apigenin-7-O-glucoside (4) and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) using the (1)H, (13)C-NMR and MS spectra in comparison with those reported in the literature.

  11. Floral orientation in Eulychnia acida, an arborescent cactus of the Atacama Desert, and implications for cacti globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Lorgio E. Aguilera; L. Scott Baggett; Mauricio Zuniga

    2017-01-01

    The hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile may be the driest place on Earth. Plants surviving there have adapted a number of unique strategies to cope with the harsh conditions. Many cacti in arid areas tend to produce reproductive organs in positions that maximize incidence of solar radiation. We sought to determine whether Eulychnia acida, an endemic cactus with...

  12. Acid hydrolysis of Biomass lignocellulose Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts in production of nanoparticles and the effect of the extraction solvent on the produced nanoparticles. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. Both the extracts of P. gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. successfully produced small and polydispersed nanoparticles with low aggregates in early hours of the biotransformation. Methanol extract produced spherical and many single nanoparticles, whereas dichloromethane produced porous polyhedral and more aggregated nanoparticles. Methanol extract of this plant seems to be quiet useful for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  14. ANGOLINE AND OTHER ALKALOIDS FROM THE ROOTS OF GLAUCIUM OXYLOBUM BOISS. AND BUHSE

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    A. HADJIAKHOONDI

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucium oxylobum Boiss & Buhse population Golestan forest was shown to contain four major alkaloids, protopine (0.2%, bulbocapnine (0.1%, corydine (0.3%, isocorydine (0.1% and three minor alkaloids, dihydrochelerythrine, angoline and isocorytuberine. Glaucium oxylubum Boiss & Buhse population Roodbar was shown to contain two major alkaloids, protopine (0.39% and dicentrinone (0.2% and three minor alkaloids, angoline, 8-acetonyl-dihydrosanguinarine and a-allocryptopine. Angoline was detected for the first time in Glaucium.

  15. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THYMUS KOTSCHYANUS BOISS. & HOHEN. FROM IRAN

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    ABDOLHOSSEIN RUSTAIYAN

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oil of Thymus kotschyarms Boiss<& Hohen. was examined by GC and GC/MS. Fifteen constituents representing 80.7% of the oil were characterized of which thymol (38.0%, carvacrol (14.2% and 1,8- cineole (13.2% were the main compounds which were identified.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of Cirsium ligulare Boiss. (Asteraceae herb decoction

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    Dobrić Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae are scarce. Some data suggest that decoctions or infusions prepared from these plants are used in folk medicine as tonics, particularly in inflammatory, liver and stomach diseases. So far there have been no pharmacological investigations related to Cirsium ligulare (C. ligulare Boiss. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb prepared as 5% and 10% decoctions. Methods. Antioxidative activity was determined using the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging. Investigations of anti-inflammatory (a model of systemic inflammatory response induced by endotoxin of Escherichia coli and carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model for local inflammatory response, as well as gastroprotective effects (a model of stress-ulcer induced by absolute ethanol, were conducted in adult female Wistar rats that were given the aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb per os. Indomethacin and ranitidine were used as reference drugs for evaluation of local anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects, respectively. Results. The results demonstrated that aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb produced strong antioxidative activity, diminished body weight loss induced by endotoxin, significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and prevented the ulcerogenic action of absolute ethanol. Both anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the extract tested were comparable to those of the reference drugs. Conclusion. Presented results justify the traditional use of C. ligulare herb decoctions and further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are warranted. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173021

  17. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ?C and 30 ?C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration...

  18. Genetic diversity of Spanish fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.) populations by means of megagametophyte storage proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, María Angela; Alvarez, Juan Bautista; Martín, Luís Miguel

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The Spanish fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.) is a conifer endemic to southern Spain and belongs to a Mediterranean basin group of firs considered to be relict. Megagametophyte storage proteins are a useful tool for the evaluation of genetic variability due to the haploid nature of megagametophytes in conifers.* In this paper, we report for the first time, the usefulness of megagametophyte storage proteins marker in A. pinsapo as a first investigation of the level of genetic ...

  19. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  20. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  1. Identification of essential oil components of Marrubium thessalum Boiss. & Heldr., growing wild in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulou, Catherine; Skaltsa, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil of the Greek endemic species Marrubium thessalum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) was obtained by the hydrodistillation of its aerial parts during the flowering stage. The composition of the oil was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty compounds were identified. The oil was devoid of monoterpenes, while sesquiterpenes constituted the major fraction. The main components of the oil were caryophyllene oxide (21.7%), β-caryophyllene (17.6%), germacrene D (15.3%), β-bisabolene (12.6%) and trans-β-farnesene (8.1%).

  2. Acid hydrolysis of the biomass of resistant cellulose of thistle ''Onopordum nervosum boiss''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz Saa, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of ''Onopordum nervosum boiss'' (thistle) to reduce sugar in diluted sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times have been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data the yield can be predicted and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 deg C, 1.6% acid and 6.1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (author)

  3. Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (Sect. Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae, a new species from north-western Pamir-Alay

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    N. Yu. Beshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (section Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae from Nuratau mountain ridge (North-Western Pamir-Alay, Uzbekistan is described. A morphological description is given. Differences from related species A. nuratavicum Zakirov, A. subavenaceum Lincz. and A. gontscharovii Czerniak. are discussed.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory (MIC and minimum bactericidal (MBC concentrations. Results: GC-MS results showed that phenolic components such as carvacrol (51.55% and thymol (25.49% were predominant constituents of the EO. Zataria multiflora Boiss EO exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Shewanella Putrefaciens was the most sensitive bacteria with MBC value of 0. 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: According to the results, this EO could be used as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food specially seafood products to preserve them against bacterial spoilage.

  5. Phytochemical screening and biological activity of extracts of plant species Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl.

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    Mašković Pavle Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at examining total polyphenol, flavonoid, gallotannin and condensed tannins content in acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl., their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as identifying and quantifying the phenolic components. The antioxidant activity is consistent with the results of total quantity of phenolic compound. The results showed that the acetone extract of plant species Halascya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl. possessed the highest antioxidant activity. IC50 values were determined: 9.45��1.55 μg/mL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, 13.46±1.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 59.11±0.83 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 27.91±0.88 μg/mL for ferrous ion chelating ability. The antimicrobial activity was tested using broth dilution procedure for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MICs were determined for 8 selected indicator strains. All of the extracts showed strong to moderate strong antimicrobial activity. The phenolic composition of Halacsya sendtneri extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The dominant phenolic compound in acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract is rosmarinic acid. Ethyl acetate extract was also abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid. The main compounds in petrol ether extract were chlorogenic acid and quercetin.

  6. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

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    Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H2O2 scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p2O2 induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments.La actividad antihemolítica y antioxidante de extractos hidroalcohólicos de flores, tallos y hojas de Ferula gummosa Boiss fueron investigados empleando diferentes ensayos in vitro. Los extractos de hojas mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de radicales libres. Además, mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de óxido nítrico y H2O2 y actividad quelatante de Fe2+ que las otras partes. Los extractos exhibieron una buena actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con ácido linoleico pero no comparable con la vitamina C (pF. gummosa mostraron una mejor actividad antihemolítica contra la hemolisis inducida con H2O2. Entre los extractos, las flores tienen los más altos contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides. Esta planta es muy prometedora para futuros experimentos bioquímicos.

  7. Cytotaxonomy study of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of section Malacothrix Bunge from Iran

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    Massoud Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, meiotic chromosome number and the behavior of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of Astragalus sect. Malacothrix were studied. All wild populations were diploid and showed 2n=2x=16 chromosome number, consistent with the proposed base number of x=8 from IPCN. Although all taxa displayed regular bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis, some meiotic abnormalities included varied degrees of fragmented and sticky chromosomes in metaphase I, polynucleate and a variable number of laggards, forwarded chromosomes and bridges in anaphase I/telophase I, asynchronous nucleus and precocious chromosome migration in metaphase II and laggards, bridges and cytomixis in anaphase II/telophase II were observed.

  8. Extraction of essential oil from Bunium Persicum (Boiss.) by instant controlled pressure drop (DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Elnaz; Eikani, Mohammad H; Golmohammad, Fereshteh; Tafaghodinia, Bahram

    2017-12-29

    Essential oils extraction from Bunium Persicum (Boiss) was performed using instant controlled pressure drop (in French: Détente Instantanée Contrôlée or DIC) thechnology and optimum extraction conditions were obtained. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal conditions and the results were 20s heating time, 3.5bar pressure, 0.44mm particle diameter and 9 cycles. Essential oils extraction was also compared with Hydrodistillation (HD), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet (SOX) extraction. Results show higher efficiency of the DIC than other methods and more oxygenated components were observed. Impact of DIC, HD, UAE and SOX on the morphological structure of the plant was studied by SEM. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract were determined and comapred by HD. Results show that DIC facilitates achieving to higher TPC and more antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

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    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  10. Polar constituents of Marrubium thessalum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) and their cytotoxic/cytostatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Samara, Pinelopi; Tsitsilonis, Ourania; Skaltsa, Helen

    2012-12-01

    The methanol extract of the aerial parts of Marrubium thessalum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) afforded 30 phenolic metabolites, belonging to the classes of phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids and simple phenolic compounds. The crude methanol extract as well as the secondary metabolites were screened for their cytotoxic/cytostatic effects against four human cancer cell lines, specifically HeLa, MCF-7, FM3 and HCT-116 and demonstrated considerable cell growth-inhibitory activity. The differential cytotoxicity of the compounds implied possible structure-activity relationships. Selected compounds were evaluated for their toxicity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, where some of them showed marginal toxic effects. The results suggest that M. thessalum produces secondary metabolites that demonstrate selective anticancer activity concomitantly with reduced toxicity on lymphocytes. The structure of such compounds can eventually lead to the development of novel pharmaceutical agents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 3-Keto umbilicagenin A and B, new sapogenins from Allium umbilicatum Boiss.

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    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Troiano, Raffaele; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    Two sapogenins, named 3-keto umbilicagenin A and B (1 and 2), possessing a novel chemical structure with a 3-keto group on the spirostane skeleton, have been isolated from Allium umbilicatum Boiss. Their chemical structure has been established through a combination of extensive spectroscopic analysis, mainly nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, and chemical methods as (25R)-3-keto-spirostan-2α,5α,6β-triol (1) and (25R)-3-keto-spirostan-2α,5α-diol (2). The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity on J-774, murine monocyte/macrophage, and WEHI-164, murine fibrosarcoma cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Incorporating Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil and sodium bentonite nano-clay open a new perspective to use zein films as bioactive packaging materials.

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    Kashiri, Mahboobeh; Maghsoudlo, Yahya; Khomeiri, Morteza

    2017-10-01

    Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the zein matrix. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of zein film were verified by the exfoliation of the layers of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. Stronger films with lower water vapor permeability and water solubility were evident of good distribution of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. According to the results, 2% sodium bentonite clay was selected for evaluation of nano active film properties. Water vapor permeability, UV light barrier, tensile strength, and Young's modulus values of active films were improved by incorporation of 2% sodium bentonite clay. The antibacterial activity of different contents of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in vapor phase demonstrated that use of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the liquid phase was more effective than in vapor phase. The antibacterial zein-based films showed that active zein film with 5 and 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil had reductions of 1.68 log and 2.99 log, respectively, against Listeria monocytogenes and 1.39 and 3.07 log against Escherichia coli. Nano active zein film containing 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil and 2% sodium bentonite clay showed better antibacterial properties against L. monocytogenes (3.23 log) and E. coli (3.17 log).

  13. Antispasmodic activity of isovanillin and isoacetovanillon in comparison with Pycnocycla spinosa Decne.exBoiss extract on rat ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Sadraei, H.; Ghanadian, M.; Asghari, G.; Madadi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and isoacetovanillon are two components found in P. spinosa Decne.exBoiss extract with no previously reported effect on ileum contractions. Spasmolytic effect of isovanillin and isoacetovanillon were examined on response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine (ACh) and 5-HT in strips of rat ileum. Longitudinal ileum strips were set up in an organ bath containing oxygenated Tyrode's solution. All strips that was contracted in response to EFS, acetylcholine or 5-HT sho...

  14. Composition of the essential oil of leaves, galls, and ripe and unripe fruits of Jordanian Pistacia palaestina Boiss.

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    Flamini, Guido; Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Katbeh-Bader, Ahmad; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-02-11

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Pistacia terebinthus L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.) is a medicinal and foodstuff plant. The ripe fruits are used largely in the Middle East as a component of the so-called Zaatar, a mix of aromatic and food plants. Results of GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, galls produced by Baizongia pistaciae (L.), and ripe and unripe fruits of Pistacia palaestinaBoiss. collected in Jordan are reported. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between different parts of the plant were observed. The oil was rich in monoterpenes, and the main constituents were alpha-pinene (63.1%) and myrcene (13.3%) in the leaves and alpha-pinene (49.4%), sabinene (22.8%), and limonene (8.1%) in the galls. (E)-Ocimene (33.8-41.3%), sabinene (20.3-24.1%), and (Z)-ocimene (3.8-13.0%) were the main ones in both unripe and ripe fruits. Sesquiterpenes have been detected in small quantities in leaves and fruits and in trace amounts in galls.

  15. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, and Allium hirtifolium Boiss Against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Seyed Amir Razavi Satvati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium which can cause life-threatening infections in humans. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth and is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. Nowadays modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine. Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Allium hirtifolium Boiss are commonly found in Iran and used as antimicrobial agents in folklore medicine. Objectives: In this study, antimicrobial activities of aqueous extracts of some plants were examined in vitro against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts of T. terrestris, A. sativum, S. officinalis and A. hirtifolium Boiss were examined using disc and well diffusion methods, and the19 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of aqueous extracts were determined against E. faecalis using agar and broth dilution methods. Results: The obtained results showed that the extract of A. hirtifolium Boiss inhibited the growth of E. faecalis (MIC of 10 mg/mL. Other plants had no effect on the target bacterium. Conclusion: According to the best effect of A. hirtifolium extract on E. faecalis and stability of this extract in thermal condition, we may purify this extract and use it for treatment of infections.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and ripening of white brined cheese

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    KH Mohammadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Zataria multiflora Boiss cultivated in Iran is extensively used as flavoring agent in dairy products. Also it has antimicrobial effects on the pathogenic bacteria which cause some food borne diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of this plant’s essential oil on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in white brined cheese, considering the organoleptic properties of cheese. The essential oil of Z. multiflora Boiss. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Preliminary sensory tests were carried out to establish the upper level of the essential oil incorporation. At the end of storage time, evaluation of the sensory characteristics of the supplemented cheeses suggested that, Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil’s concentrations more than 200 ppm in cheese milk had adverse effects on the taste and odor of cheeses. Therefore, further examinations were carried out with 0, 100, 150 and 200 ppm concentrations. The inhibitory effects of different concentrations of the Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil on E. coli O157:H7 were determined by enumeration of the microorganism on selective media and comparing the bacterial counts in different groups. The inhibitory effect of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil at concentration of 200 ppm was higher compared to its lower concentrations and also compared to the control groups. No significant difference (P > 0.05 was observed between the pH values of control groups and treated samples. Incorporation of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil at concentration of 200 ppm into cheese milk had significant antibacterial activity (P

  17. INVESTIGATION ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM DRACOCEPHALUM KOTSCHYI BOISS.

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    Ashrafi, Behnam; Ramak, Parvin; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Talei, Gholam Reza

    2017-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss is a herb with wide-spread applications. Lorestan traditional healers have applied it for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases and stomach disorders. Hydrodistillation process was used for essential oil extraction, the extracted essential oil was then analyzed through combination of capillary GC-FID, GC-MS and RI. The in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of this essential oil were examined. Results indicate that the essential oil has a broad range of anti-microbial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. The 50% of cytotoxic concentrations was 26.4 μg/ml and 4266.7 μg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The oil cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell line was far higher than the amount required for human healthy cells. Conversely, the essential oil's IC 50 value of 49.2 μg/ml in the DPPH assay, could be regarded as its strong antioxidant potential. According to the data obtained, it can be concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil could be applied as a safe antibacterial and antioxidant agent for food and pharmaceutical purposes.

  18. Anatomical and Phytochemical Study of Lilium ledebourii (Baker Boiss., a Rare Endemic Species in Iran

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    "Hassan Farsam

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lilium ledebourii (Baker Boiss.(Liliaceae, locally named “Susan -e Chelcheragh” is a native and rare species grown on the heights of Damash region (ca. 2100 m in Gilan province, north part of Iran.The microscopic and anatomical features and the composition of oils of flower and corm of this unique plant were studied. The microscopic study has shown the main characteristic elements of leaf, stem, corm and flower of this plant. The composition of essential oils of flower and corm were determined by coupled GC-MS analysis. The yields of oils of flower and corm were 0.71 % and 1.65 % (v/w respectively. The major components of flower’s oil were isopulegol (55.15 %, pentacosane (18.1%, 3-methyltricosane (9.97%, tricosane (5.35%, 2-methylpentacosane (4.35%, docosane (4.28% and linalool oxide (2.20%. The components of corm’s oil were almost fatty acids. No aromatic volatile compound was found in the corm oil. Primary qualitative phytochemical tests of stem, leaf, corm and flower showed positive results for alkaloid and flavonoid (one plus in stem and for saponin (4 plus in corm and (2 plus in the flower. Tests for tannin in all parts were negative. Further phytochemical and botanical studies on this unique plant is of importance.

  19. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. from Turkey

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    Hilal Özbek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. Its chemical content and composition were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Total phenolic content of the essential oil was determined as 132.39 µg gallic acid equivalent by Folin–Ciocalteu’s method and the major component was identified as carvacrol (56.8 % along with p-cymene (13.1 %, (Z- b -ocimene (5.4 %, b -caryophyllene (3.9 %, borneol (3.4 % and thymol (3.2 %. After chemical characterization, the essential oil was evaluated for its antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities as well as ferrous ion-chelating power test, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric thiocyanate methods. Besides antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the essential oil were also evaluated by Ellman’s method. It demonstrated inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE, key enzymes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, in addition to significant antioxidant activity.

  20. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in Mice

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    M. Rabbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae on the elevated plus-maze (EPM model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1.

  1. Determination of the carbohydrates from Notopterygium forbesii Boiss by HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijuan; Li, Chunli; Zhou, Guoying; Che, Guodong; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2013-09-12

    A sensitive pre-column derivatization method was developed for analysis of carbohydrates by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The introduction of 2-(12-benzo[b]acridin-5(12H)-yl)-acetohydrazide (BAAH) with excellent fluorescence property into the molecules of monosaccharides greatly enhanced the HPLC sensitivity of the analytes. Meanwhile, derivatization with BAAH also greatly increased the hydrophobicity of the monosaccharides and made them elute at increased retention times. The monosaccharides with similar properties therefore could be completely separated due to the increased interaction between the analytes and the column. Component monosaccharides of the polysaccharides obtained from the roots, stems and leaves of Notopterygium forbesii Boiss (NF) were analyzed by the developed method. The results indicated that the polysaccharides of NF were mainly composed of d-galactose and d-glucose. This is the first systematic study of the sugar composition of the polysaccharides of NF. It will be helpful for the quality control of NF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

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    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  3. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  4. Bioactive chemical compounds in Eremurus persicus (Joub. & Spach) Boiss. essential oil and their health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, B; Ayatollahi, S A; Segura-Carretero, A; Kobarfard, F; Contreras, M D M; Faizi, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Tabatabai, S A; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2017-09-30

    The genus Eremurus is native to Eastern Europe and temperate Asia. Particularly, Eremurus persicus (Joub. & Spach) Boiss. is highly valued in traditional foods and medicine. Scientific knowledge about E. persicus chemical composition and bioactivity is required. Therefore, the present study is aimed to determine the volatile composition of E. persicus essential oil (EO) by means of gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization/mass spectrometry detection. Moreover, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the EO were tested. Interestingly, the anti-dermatophyte potency was close to that of the drug griseofulvin, with minimum fungicidal concentration ranging between 0.7 and 4.5% depending on the fungi strain. The EO was also effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) human cancer cell lines in a concentration (200-1500 ng/mL)-dependent manner, with a decrease of the cell viability up to 65% and 52%, respectively. The E. persicus EO was rich in terpenes and oxygenated terpene derivatives. Individually, limonene (16.25%), geranylgeraniol (15.23%), n-nonanal (9.48%), geranyl acetone (9.12%), benzene acetaldehyde (8.51%), linalool (7.93%), α-pinene (6.89%), and 1,8-cineol (5.22%) were the most abundant volatile compounds and could be chosen as analytical markers of this essential oil. In conclusion, our results suggested that this EO possesses a wide range of bioactive properties that could be useful in nutraceutical, functional foods and cosmeceutical formulations.

  5. Comparative essential oil composition of aerial parts of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss. from Southern Zagros, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Gholam Abbas; Naseri, Mahmood; Hatami, Ahmad; Jafari, Efat

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of leaves and flowers of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss., an endemic medicinal shrub, were extracted by using hydrodistillation method and analysed using GC and GC-MS. A total of 43 and 44 compounds were identified in the essential oils from the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum, respectively. The major chemical constituents of leaves oil were borneol (27.9%), bornyl acetate (18.4%), 1,8-cineol (17.5%), α-terpineol (5.3%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (3.3%), camphene (2.7%) and terpinene-4-ol (1.9%), while the main components of the flower oil were isobornyl-2-methyl butanoate (41.1%), trans-linalyl oxide acetate (11.9%), 1,8-cineole (7.7%), thymol (4.2%), linalool (3.9%), camphor (2.9%), isobornyl propanoate (2.9%), α-terpineol (2.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.0%). Major qualitative and quantitative variations for some main chemical compounds among different aerial parts of T. dumosum were identified. High contents of borneol, bornyl acetate, 1,8-cineol and linalool in the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum show its potential for use in the food and perfumery industry.

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of various extracts of Verbascum antiochium Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Birgul; Yilmaz, Miray; Caliskan, Mahmut

    2010-10-01

    Verbascum antiochium Boiss., a member of the Scrophulariaceae family, is endemic to Turkey. The extracts obtained from V. antiochium by increased polarity and direct methanol extraction were tested by the agar well diffusion method against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The methanol/water extract exhibited a larger inhibition zone against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria than the other extracts. Haemophilus influenzae was found to be the most sensitive bacterium among the bacteria tested. The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of V. antiochium were examined by two complementary test systems. The 50% inhibition activity of the methanolic extract of V. antiochium against the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was determined as 4.80 mg/mL. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of linoleic acid was inhibited by the methanolic extract of V. antiochium with 79.92% inhibition, which is close to the value of the synthetic antioxidant reagent, tert-butylated hydroxytoluene. The total phenolic components of V. antiochium were determined to be 92.71 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g. Iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins were detected as the major chemical constituents in the extract.

  7. On the distribution and intraspecific taxonomy of Scrophularia olympica Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae

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    M. B. Sheludyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the distribution and intraspecific systematics of Scrophularia olympica Boiss., one of taxonomically problematic species of figworts. The special attention is given to the record of thisspecies from the Crimea from where it had been reported based on the single herbarium specimen collected “infra Baidara” by F. J. Ruprecht in 1861. This collection was previously regarded as made near the village of Orlinoye (former Baydary in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Actually, the locality “infra Baidara” should be referred to the river Baydara in Georgia, and S. olympica should be excludedboth from the floras of the Crimea and Europe as a whole. Six varieties are recognized within the species; a key to their identification is proposed. Lectotypes of S. olympica var. integrifolia Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. macrophylla Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. pinnatifida Trautv. ex Grossh. and S. olympica var. platyloma Grossh. are designated. A new name, S. olympica var. bordzilowskii Sheludyakova, nom. nov. ≡ S. olympica var. integrifoliaBordz., non Freyn et Sint., is proposed.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmiah; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Talebpour, Amir Hossein; Zargar, Mohsen; Shameli, Kamyar; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent. PMID:23484141

  9. Glucosinolate Profile of Croatian Stenoendemic Plant Fibigia triquetra (DC. Boiss. ex Prantl.

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    Ivica Blažević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing investigation of the stenoendemic plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family, we report on the chemistry of Fibigia triquetra (DC. Boiss. ex Prantl for the first time. Different plant parts (flower, leaf, stem, and seed of F. triquetra were characterized and quantified for glucosinolates (GLs according to the ISO 9167-1 EU official method based on the HPLC analysis of desulfo-GLs. A taxonomic screening showed that F. triquetra contained relatively high levels of C-4 GLs, namely but-3-enyl GL (gluconapin, 1a, 4-methylsulfanylbutyl GL (glucoerucin, 3a, and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GL (glucoraphanin, 5a. GC-MS analysis of the volatile fractions obtained after enzyme hydrolysis and/or HPLC-ESI-MS of intact GLs confirmed the GL profile. Four minor GLs, namely isopropyl GL (glucoputranjivin, 6a, sec-butyl GL (glucocochlearin, 7a, pent-4-enyl GL (glucobrassicanapin, 2a, and 5-methylsulfanylpentyl GL (glucoberteroin, 4a were also identified and quantified while 4-methylpentyl GL, 5-methylhexyl GL, and n-heptyl GL, were tentatively identified by GC-MS of their degradation products. Based on the major, as well as the minor GLs, this study shows differences in chemotaxonomy between F. triquetra and the related Degenia velebitica (Degen Hayek as well as other investigated species of the genus Fibigia.

  10. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Teucrium persicum Boiss. Extract in Mice

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    Abdolhossein Miri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Therapeutic properties of Teucrium species as antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, anticancer, diuretic, and tonic compounds have been proved earlier. Materials and Methods. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium persicum on chronic pain, sciatic nerve ligation as a model of neuropathic pain, and inflammatory models were investigated by formalin, hot-plate, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in mice, respectively. T. persicum aqueous extracts (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg were orally gavaged for one week. On 8th day, the time spent and the number of lickings were recorded in formalin test. Morphine and Diclofenac were used intraperitoneally as positive controls. In sciatic nerve ligated animals, as a model of neuropathic pain, doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of T. persicum extract (TPE were orally gavaged for 14 consecutive days. The analgesic effect of this extract was examined 14 days after sciatic nerve ligation using the hot-plate test. Controls received saline and Imipramine (40 mg/kg, i.p. was used a positive control for neuropathic pain model. Results. In the formalin test, a week oral gavage of all TPE doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg caused a significant decrease on the licking response compared to the control negative animals. In the hot-plate test, doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant analgesic effects in sciatic nerve ligated animals. Oral gavaged of TPE revealed significant analgesic effect on chronic pain in both formalin test and sciatic nerve ligated animals. The TPEs did not have any significant anti-inflammatory effects in cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice. Conclusions. These results suggest that the aqueous extract from T. persicum Boiss. produced antinociceptive effects. Its exact mechanism of action still remains indistinct.

  11. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of Ferula gummosa Boiss. to reveal major biosynthetic pathways of galbanum compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani Najafabadi, Ahmad; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Farahmand, Hamid; Abbasi, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. is an industrial and pharmaceutical plant that has been highly recognized for its valuable oleo-gum-resin, namely galbanum. Despite the fabulous value of galbanum, very little information on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of its production existed. In the present study, the oleo-gum-resin and four organs (root, flower, stem, and leaf) of F. gummosa were assessed in terms of metabolic compositions and the expression of genes involved in their biosynthetic pathways. Results showed that the most accumulation of resin and essential oils were occurred in the roots (13.99 mg/g) and flowers (6.01 mg/g), respectively. While the most dominant compound of the resin was β-amyrin from triterpenes, the most abundant compounds of the essential oils were α-pinene and β-pinene from monoterpenes and α-eudesmol and germacrene-D from sesquiterpenes. Transcriptome analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for the plant roots and flowers. Differential gene expression analysis showed that 1172 unigenes were differential between two organs that 934 (79.6%) of them were up-regulated in the flowers and 238 (20.4%) unigenes were up-regulated in the roots (FDR ≤0.001). The most important up-regulated unigenes in the roots were involved in the biosynthesis of the major components of galbanum, including myrcene, germacrene-D, α-terpineol, and β-amyrin. The results obtained by RNA-Seq were confirmed by qPCR. These analyses showed that different organs of F. gummosa are involved in the production of oleo-gum-resin, but the roots are more active than other organs in terms of the biosynthesis of triterpenes and some mono- and sesquiterpenes. This study provides rich molecular and biochemical resources for further studies on molecular genetics and functional genomics of oleo-gum-resin production in F. gummosa.

  12. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of the essential oil from Ferula gummosa Boiss. roots

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    T. Saadattalab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Umbelliferae is a popular medicinal plant, which is known mostly for therapeutic uses of its oleo-gum-resin (Barijeh in Persian. In the present study, the essential oil of F. gummosa roots was investigated for its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of the essential oil (extracted by hydrodistillation method were analyzed using GC-MS. Antioxidant and toxicity properties of the oil were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test, respectively. Results: Forty-two compounds, representing 87.7% of total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis of the plant roots oil. The essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons (55.9%, mainly β-pinene (33.2%, β-phellandrene (8.0% and α-pinene (6.9%. In DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, the oil sample did not demonstrate any activity at the highest tested concentration (1.0 mg/mL. However, it was found very toxic in brine shrimp lethality test with LD50 value of 2.4 µg/mL. Conclusion: The results of this study introduced the F. gummosa roots oil as a source of monoterpene hydrocarbons, especially β-pinene. Considering the high yield of essential oil extraction (12.1% v/w, these compounds may be involved in anticonvulsant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of F. gummosa root. Moreover, considerable toxicity of the root oil highlights it as an appropriate candidate for further mechanistic toxicological studies.

  13. Essential oil and methanolic extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss with anticholinesterase effect.

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    Sharififar, Fariba; Mirtajadini, Mansour; Azampour, Mohammad Jaber; Zamani, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    One of the most common strategies in the treatment of cognitive disorders is enhancing the acetylcholine level in the brain through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Despite the effectiveness of current modern drugs, more attention has been paid for finding new anticholinesterase agents from medicinal plants. Zatraia multiflora Boiss. is an endemic plant to Iran which has different uses in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti spasmodic. We intended to evaluate the in vitro anticholinesterase and free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Z. multiflora. The essential oil and methanolic extract of the plant were evaluated for anticholinesterase activity using modified Ellman method. The free radical scavenging effect of the samples were studied by using of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH). IC50 and the percent of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was calculated from regression equation. The results showed that both the essential oil and methanolic extract of the plant exhibited high anticholinesterase activity (95.3 +/- 3.4 and 87.9 +/- 2.2% inhibition, respectively) which was similar to eserine (96.2 +/- 1.7% inhibition). The IC50 value of essential oil was determined as 0.97 +/- 0.12 microg mL(-1) in comparison to eserine (0.13 +/- 0.02 microg mL(-1)). The results of antioxidant assay showed that both the essential oil and methanolic extract potentially inhibit DPPH free radical (94.8 +/- 2.4 and 93.2 +/- 1.7% inhibition, respectively). The essential oil and methanolic extract of Z. multiflora have beneficial effect in health promotion and this plant would be good candidate for further studies.

  14. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice.

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    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Shahverdi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml) or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) (10% w/v solution). Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg) inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  15. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes.

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    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss endemic in Khorasan-Iran

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    Avaei Aida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the composition and antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil in "in vitro" condition. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was examined by GC/MS and the antimicrobial effect was studied on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida utilis, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration were determined. Results: Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 43 compounds in which the main components were thymol (42.46%, carvacrol (16.85%, р-cymene (10.62%, γ-terpinene (7.26% and α-pinene (3.00% representing 80.19% of the total oil. Other separated components accounted for less than 19.81% of the oil. Results of antimicrobial analysis showed that Bacillus cereus (MIC=50 and minimum bactericidal concentration=200 µg/mL was more resistant than two other bacterial species. Among the tested yeasts, Saccharomyces cereviciae (MIC=200 and minimum fungicidal concentration=1 600 µg/mL was more resistant than Candida utilis, while among the fungal species, growth of Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger inhibited at the same concentration of oil. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil had significant (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity.

  17. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

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    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  18. Marrubium lutescens Boiss. ve M. cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë subsp. akdaghicum (Lamiaceae' un Gövde ve Yaprak Özelliklerinin Anatomik Olarak Karşılaştırılması

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    Meltem TUYLU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada; Lamiaceae familyasındaki Marrubium L. cinsinin iki taksonu olan   Marrubium lutescens Boiss. ve M. cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë subsp. akdaghicum’ da gövde ve yaprak, anatomik olarak incelenerek cinsin taksonomik problemlerinin çözümüne katkı amaçlanmıştır. Işık mikroskobu için iki tip preperasyon yapılmıştır. Parafin içerisindeki gövde ve yaprak örnekleri Safranin-Fast Green ile boyandıktan sonra, epon içerisindeki yarı ince kesitler ise Toluidine blue ile boyandıktan sonra ışık mikroskobunda incelenerek fotoğrafları çekilmiştir. Her iki taksonda gövde; köşeli, kalın kutikulalı, tek sıralı epidermis ile çevrilidir. Köşelerde, epidermisin altında 2-3 sıralı lamellar kollenkima bulunmaktadır. Yaprak; M. lutescens' te bifasiyal iken M. cephalanthum’ da unifasiyaldir. Küçük iletim demetleri kollateraldir ve yaprak amfistomatiktir. Gövdelerde ve yaprakların alt ve üst yüzeyinde örtü ve salgı tüyleri bulunmaktadır. Anatomik sonuçlar karşılaştırıldığında, iki taksonun birbirine yakın oldukları anlaşılmıştır.

  19. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss and carvacrol on histamine (H(1) ) receptors of guinea-pig tracheal chains.

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    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Tabanfar, Hengameh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2012-10-01

    The inhibitory effect of aqueous-ethanolic extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss (Labiatae) and carvacrol on histamine (H(1) ) receptors was examined on tracheal chains of guinea-pigs. The effects of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, carvacrol, 10 nm chlorpheniramine, and saline on histamine (H(1) ) receptors were tested on three groups of guinea-pig tracheal chains as follows: incubated trachea with (i) indomethacin (n = 9), (ii) indomethacin, propranolol, and atropine (n = 7), and (iii) indomethacin and propranolol (n = 6). The EC(50) (effective concentration of histamine causing 50% of maximum response) obtained in the presence of chlorpheniramine for all concentrations of the extract and carvacrol in all three groups was significantly higher than that of saline (P effect of Z. multiflora and its constituent carvacrol on histamine H(1) receptors. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. Antimicrobial effects of Ferula gummosa Boiss gum against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Acinetobacter clinical isolates.

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    Afshar, Fatemeh Farid; Saffarian, Parvaneh; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Sattarian, Fereshteh; Amin, Mohsen; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-08-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss. 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011-2012. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the isolates using disk diffusion method. To detect and confirm the ESBL-positive isolates, phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed. Three types of F. gummosa oleo-gum-resin extracts and essential oils were prepared and the bioactive components of F. gummosa Boiss extracts were determined by GC-Mass chromatography. F. gummosa antimicrobial activity was evaluated against standard strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606) as well as Acinetobacter clinical isolates using well and disk diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by broth microdilution method. 46 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. All clinical isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. 12.94% of the isolates were phenotypically ESBL-producing among which 94.2% carried ESBL genes ( bla PER-1 , bla OXA-4 and bla CTX-M ) detected by PCR. Oleo-gum-resin of F. gummosa had significant antibacterial activity and alcoholic essential oil had higher inhibitory effect on Acinetobacter strains (MIC of 18.75 mg/ml). Ferula gummosa extract contained components with well-known antimicrobial effects.

  1. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

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    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  2. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

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    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  3. Comparison of Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of Two Populations of Salvia macilenta Boiss. Essential Oil

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    Foroogh Mirzania

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Salvia macilenta Boiss. is a fragrant subshrub which grows wild in some regions of Iran. In this work, we contrasted essential oil contents and components of two wild populations under two different ecological situations (Kerman and Baluchistan Provinces, Center and South East of Iran, respectively. For the first time the antibacterial and the antimycotic properties of these essential oils were also evaluated against seven bacterial and fungal strains. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method and the chemical compositions of the samples were examined by GC and GC-MS. Kerman (K specimen was found to be rich in α -pinene (29.0%, p-cymene (10.7%, veridiflorol (9.1%, α-eudesmol (8.7%, bornyl acetate (7.3% with lesser concentrations of borneol (4.9% . Principal components were identified as α -eudesmol (35.6%, α-pinene (7.7%, bornyl acetate (7.6%, ( E -nerolidol (6.5% and veridiflorol (5.9% from Baluchistan (B sample. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found to be the principal class of components in the oil of Baluchistan sample (53.0% whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons were the main class in Kerman specimen (46.6%. The results demonstrated that the variety in the volatile compounds could be considered as chemotaxonomic importance and it may be ascribed to their different ecological and geographical source.

  4. Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Copao Fruit (Eulychnia acida Phil. Unswe Thee Environmental Conditions in the Coquimbo Region Características Químicas y Composición Nutricional de los Frutos de Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. Bajo tres Condiciones Ambientales de la Región de Coquimbo

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    Lilia Masson S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. is an endemic arborescent cactus restricted mainly to the semi-arid Coquimbo Region (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" W, Chile. The area of distribution is from sea level to 1200 m.a.s.l. The edible fruit called rumpa is generally round, with green or pink peel and small scales on its surface, showing wide variability in size and weight. The aim of this work was to characterize the rumpa harvested in January 2009 and 2010 in three sectors of Coquimbo Region to determine chemical and nutritional composition in three fractions: pulp with seeds, juice, and peel. The research showed that this fruit is a good natural source of mainly soluble dietary fiber, which has a jellied texture and is present in the three fractions analyzed: 2% for juice, 3% for pulp with seeds, and approximately 5% for peel, making it potentially a good source of hydrocolloids for the food industry. The fruit is also a good source of vitamin C; around 55 mg 100 g-1 in peel, and 30 mg 100 g-1 in pulp with seeds and juice, values considered high compared to 18 mg 100 g-1 for prickly pear (Opuntiaficus-indica [L.] Mill. The main minerals were: K, Mg, Ca, and P. Total polyphenols and betalain pigments were also determined in the pulp with seeds and pink peel fractions, respectively. The nutritional characteristics, together with its high water content of around 96%, make rumpa a promising raw material for agro-industrial development of natural juices or isotonic drinks. This characterization helps in the recovery of an endemic native species by reducing potential threats to destroy wild populations of E. acid, especially near agricultural areas, and by promoting habitat conservation of the species in the region.El copao (Eulychnia acida Phil. es un cactus arborescente endémico restringido principalmente a la región semi árida de Coquimbo (29°54'28" S, 71°15'15" O, Chile. El área de distribución comprende desde el nivel del mar hasta los 1200 m de

  5. Effects of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae) essential oil on healing gastric ulcers according to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi, Fatma; Ben Ali, Manel; Barkaoui, Taha; Tahri, Wiem; Mejri, Mondher; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Bellamine, Houda; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2014-08-26

    Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "mougecha" or "mazoukcha" is prolific in Mediterranean regions, mostly in North Africa, and is used in folk medicine to treat of stomach diseases. In this study, animals were induced with gastric ulcers using HCl/ethanol (0.3 M HCl/60% ethanol) and treated orally with essential oil of Thymus algeriensis (EOTa) in various doses ranging from 54 mg/kg body weight to 180 mg/kg body weight. The dose found to be effective was 180 mg/kg body weight, since this dose brought about a maximum reduction in lesion index in female rats. In gastric tissues, levels of total glutathiones (GSH, GST and GPx) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Histopathological changes were observed using a cross section of gastric tissue. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of 13 components accounting for 77.7% of the essential oil from dried leaves. Oral administration of EOTa (54, 117 and 180 ml/kg) inhibited HCl/ethanol-induced ulcers. Lesion index was significantly reduced in ulcer induced animals treated with EOTa (HCl/ethanol + EOTa) compared to those ulcerated with HCl/ethanol but with no treatment given. Females showed a greater resistance to ulcers and gastric lesions occurred less often than in males. GSH, pH, enzymic antioxidants, and adherent mucus content were all significantly increased. From the data presented in this study, it can be concluded that male rats are more sensitive to gastric ulcers induced by HCl/ethanol than females.

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of essential oil and fatty acids of different parts of Ligularia persica Boiss.

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    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Hosseini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the fatty acids and essential oil from various parts of Ligularia persica Boiss (L. persica) growing wild in north of Iran. Essential oils were extracted by using Clevenger-type apparatus. Antibacterial activity was tested on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by using micro dilution method. GC and GC∕MS analysis of the oils resulted in detection of 94%, 96%, 93%, 99% of the total essential oil of flowers, stems, roots and leaves, respectively. The main components of flowers oil were cis-ocimene (15.4%), β-myrcene (4.4%), β-ocimene (3.9%), and γ-terpinene (5.0%). The major constituents of stems oil were β-phellandrene (5.4%), β-cymene (7.0%), valencene (3.9%). The main compounds of root oil were fukinanolid (17.0%), α-phellandrene (11.5%) and Β-selinene (5.0%) and in the case of leaves oil were cis-ocimene (4.8%), β-ocimene (4.9%), and linolenic acid methyl ester (4.7%). An analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS on the fatty-acid composition of the different parts of L. persica showed that major components were linoleic acid (11.3-31.6%), linolenic acid (4.7-21.8%) and palmitic acid (7.2-23.2%). Saturated fatty acids were found in lower amounts than unsaturated ones. The least minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of the L. persica was 7.16 μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our study indicated that the essential oil from L. persica stems and flowers showed high inhibitory effect on the Gram negative bacteria. The results also showed that fatty acids from the stems and leaves contained a high amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

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    Masoud Dadashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are few therapeutic options for treatment of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates as a hospital infectious agent (nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 K. pneumoniae isolates from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods and detection of ESBL was carried out according to CLSI guidelines. The blaCTX-M-15plasmid genewas detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Extracts susceptibility test was performed by broth microdilution method.  Results: Among 100 K. pneumoniae strains, 48 (48% were ESBL positive. In this study, fosfomycin, colistin and tigecycline were more active than other antibiotics. The existence of blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 30 (62.5% of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. The chloroformic extract showed potent activity against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50 = 1.56 mg/ml and MIC90=3.12mg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 (The MIC50 represents the MIC value at which ≥50% of the isolates in a test population are inhibited and the MIC90 represents the MIC value at which ≥90% of the strains within a test population are inhibited were 3.12 and 6.25 mg/ml and 6.25  and 12.5 mg/ml for methanolic and acetonic extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae is very high. Therefore, detection of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in K. pneumoniae isolates and in control of infections. Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae.

  8. Lycium intricatum Boiss.: An unexploited and rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, 4-desmethylsterols and other valuable phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Abdennacer; Bejaoui, Afef

    2015-06-24

    Lycium intricatum Boiss., a Solanaceous shrubbery is used in Tunisia as a windbreak and medicinal plant. However, it is considered as underexploited specie despite its high potential to serve as source with economic and nutritional value. To date only limited information about its phytochemistry, especially of its oil has been published. This work provides data on fatty acids, phytosterols and vitamin D composition of L. intricatum seed oil. It opens up new possibilities of developing L. intricatum as a new crop that contains phytochemicals with high added value little influenced by selection or commercial breeding. The composition of fatty acids, phytosterols and vitamin D in L. intricatum seed oil was assessed by GC-FID. The main fatty acids of L. intricatum seed oil were linoleic acid (49.47%), palmitoleic acid (27.96%) and erucic acid (13.62%). Palimtic acid was present at low percentage (0.63%). The content of unsaturated fatty acids was high as 94.04%. The sterolic fraction was composed of stigmasterol (18.56 mg/100 g), β-sitosterol (13.04 mg/100 g). L. intricatum oil is an oily matrix that contains hydrocarbons, mainly squalene (63.36 mg/100 g), and two triterpenic alcohol erythrodiol (80.36 mg/100 g) and uvaol (24.06 mg/100 g). provitamin D was present in high quantity (8.12 mg/100 g). From these results it has been shown that L. intricatum seeds have great potential as a source of fatty acids and phytosterols for natural health products.

  9. Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, nisin, and their combination on the production of enterotoxin C and alpha-hemolysin by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaeimehr, Mahnoosh; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Radmehr, Behrad; Misaghi, Ali; Abbasifar, Arash; Karim, Ghity; Rokni, Nourdahr; Motlagh, Mohammad Sobhani; Gandomi, Hassan; Noori, Negin; Khanjari, Ali

    2010-03-01

    The effect of different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO; 0%, 0.005%, and 0.015%), nisin (0, 0.125, and 0.25 microL/mL), and their combinations on the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) and alpha-hemolysin (alpha-toxin) by Staphylococcus aureus at different inoculation levels (10(3), 10(4), and 10(5) cfu/mL) in brain heart infusion broth during storage at 35 degrees C for up to 43 days was evaluated. The SEC production was significantly (p aureus during the manufacturing process of a traditional Iranian white brined cheese (as a food model) even at its lowest concentration (5 microL/100 mL), in this study.

  10. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits

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    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.

  11. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi Faezeh; Dini Salome; Dadkhah Abolfazl; Zolfaghari Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities. - Highlights: • Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil has potential in vitro antimicrobial effect. • Z. multiflora oil has potential antimicrobial effect in vivo system. • The antibacterial activities of the oil remained after irradiation treatments

  12. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits Substâncias eliminadoras de radicais livres das partes aéreas de Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae e análise por CG-MS dos óleos essenciais de seus frutos

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    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae é uma das três espécies endémicas no Irã do gênero Grammosciadium DC. Consumo da parte aérea da planta afeta a função renal e causa diurese. No ensaio por DPPH o extrato metanólico apresentou o maior nível de atividade de antioxidante por radicais livres (RC50 = 1,196 x 10-2 mg/mL entre os extratos. Análises por HPLC preparativa de fase reversa do extrato metanólico resultou no isolamento de nove flavonóides, os quais foram responsáveis pela atividade de antioxidante do extrato metanólico. A análises por CG-EM dos óleos essenciais levou à identificação de 29 terpenóides, principalmente monoterpenos (não-oxigenados 3,97% e oxigenados, 77,49%, os quais representam mais de 96% do total de óleos.

  13. A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Bazargani-Gilani, Behnaz; Tukmechi, Amir; Ebrahimi, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    this study designed to test the antibacterial potency of enrofloxacin (ENR) and essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Trachyspermum copticum (TEO) on Aeromonas hydrophila. The antibacterial potency of test compounds was determined by several methods including the inhibition zone diameter determination, microbroth dilution method and colorimetric method of MTT. The cytotoxicity of test substances was assessed on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo (CHSE-214) cells. RESULTS showed that ENR and tested essential oils exert antibacterial effect against A. hydrophila. Moreover, ENR exerted the most potent antibacterial effect with MIC values of 62.5 ng/ml. The natural compounds of ZEO and TEO also showed antibacterial effects with rather high MIC values of 0.315 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. None of the tested substances showed toxicity on CHSE-24 cells. It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.

  14. A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study designed to test the antibacterial potency of enrofloxacin (ENR and essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO and Trachyspermum copticum (TEO on Aeromonas hydrophila. Material and Methods: The antibacterial potency of test compounds was determined by several methods including the inhibition zone diameter determination, microbroth dilution method and colorimetric method of MTT. The cytotoxicity of test substances was assessed on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryo (CHSE-214 cells. Results: Results showed that ENR and tested essential oils exert antibacterial effect against A. hydrophila. Moreover, ENR exerted the most potent antibacterial effect with MIC values of 62.5 ng/ml. The natural compounds of ZEO and TEO also showed antibacterial effects with rather high MIC values of 0.315 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. None of the tested substances showed toxicity on CHSE-24 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.

  15. Isolation of three sesquiterpene lactones from the roots of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hankui; Su, Zhen; Yang, Yi; Ba, Hang; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2007-12-28

    Because of the skeletal complexity and similarity of the polarity, little research was reported on the isolation of sesquiterpene lactones by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Herein, three sesquiterpene lactones were successfully purified from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of the traditional Uyghur medicinal plant Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet. by HSCCC. The separation was performed in two steps with two solvent systems: n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:5:2.75:5, v/v/v/v) and ethyl acetate-methanol-water (20:1:20, v/v/v). From 166 mg of the ethyl acetate extract, 19 mg of lactucopicrin was isolated with the first solvent system and 10 mg of 11beta,13-dihydrolactucin and 16 mg of lactucin were obtained with the second solvent system. All purified compounds were over 94% purity as determined by HPLC analysis, and these chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

  16. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-β-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

  17. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Study of Dormancy Type and Effect of Different Pre-Sowing Treatments on Seed Germination of Bladder-Senna (Colutea bohsei Boiss. in Laboratory Conditions

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    Ahmad BEIKMOHAMMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the existence and type of the dormancy and effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on seed germination of Colutea buhsei Boiss. (Fabaceae as one of the Iran native plants, arid-land and ornamental shrub with ability of usage in the urban landscape design. The experiment was performed with 15 treatments and 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, concentrated (98% H2SO4, cold stratification (CS, soaking with tab water, floating in hot water (100�C followed by continual cooling for 24 hr in the same water and combined treatments. Afterwards seeds were sown in laboratory conditions to determine the factors� effects on germination percentage (GP, germination rate (GR, root and shoot length of Colutea bohsei seeds. All of these treatments, except for GA3 (250 and 500 ppm, increased the percentage and rate of the seed germination. Maximum germination percentage (66.25% and rate (14.9 seeds per day in 7 days was obtained at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min. Maximum root and shoot length was observed at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min plus GA3 (100 ppm, 24 hr. Use of GA3 (100 ppm in 24 hr after H2SO4 increased the germination rate and shoot length but this additive effect was not significant.

  19. Chemical composition of ultrasonic-assisted n-hexane extracts of Sideritis scardica Grieseb. and Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae from Macedonia and Albania

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    Bujar Qazimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of n-hexane extracts obtained from dried over-ground parts of two species of Sideritis, S. scardica Grieseb. and S. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae was analyzed using GC/FID/MS. The collection of plants was made on different locations in the western part of Macedonia and the southern part of Albania, comprising twelve different samples of plant material. The ultrasonic-assisted extraction process was used for preparation of the n-hexane extracts yielded 0.73-3.33 % and 9.11-10.44 % of extracts for S. scardica and S. raeseri, respectively. Over one hundred constituents of the extracts were identified, belonging to several classes of components: diterpenes, hydrocarbons, dominantly present in each of the extracts, followed by fatty acids, aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, sterols, triterpene alcohols, and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, which were found in much smaller amounts or only in traces. The most abundant constituents of the extracts of both species of Sideritis were two diterpene components, both with M=286, which were not fully identified. Large percentages of nonacosane (1.71-12.22% and 7.46-19.68% for S. scardica and S. raeseri, respectively and hentriacontane (4.48-20.79% and 8.09-30.31 % for S. scardica and S. raeseri, respectively were also found in the extracts of both species.

  20. Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils and Hexane Extracts of Two Turkish Spice Plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. Against Foodborne Microorganisms

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    Bülent Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistillated essential oils and hexane extracts of two spice plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. C. erythraeum oil is rich in aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols and acids and (E-2-decenal (26.1%, (E-2-decen-1-ol (15.7%, (E-2-dodecenal (13.2% and decanal (7.8% were the predominant components. However, ethyl palmitate (16.4%, 2-decenoic acid (14.1% and (E-2-dodecenal (5.2% were the major components of the hexane extract of C. erythraeum. E. tenuifolia oil contained mainly methyl eugenol (53.0%, p-cymene (17.0% and α-phellandrene (13.2%. The hexane extract displayed a different chemical composition, and n-tricosane (75.0% and n-pentacosane (7.6% were found to be the major compounds. The oils showed antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms and they were more active against the tested fungal species as compared with bacteria. The growths of important food-borne pathogens, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also inhibited by the oils. However, hexane extract of C. erythraeum was showed weak antibacterial activity against limited number of tested bacteria. The current results showed that the essential oils of C. erythraeumand E. tenuifolia can be used in food preservation.

  1. Physiological targets of salicylic acid on Artemisia aucheri BOISS as a medicinal and aromatic plant grown under in vitro drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Jalil; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Artemisia aucheri BOISS is a medicinal and aromatic plant, which is endemic to mountainous areas of Iran and surroundings. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effects of salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment (0.01 and 0.1 mM) on A. aucheri under in vitro drought stress induced by 2 and 4% polyethylene glycol (PEG/6000). Plants exposed to PEG stress showed higher levels of H 2 O 2 , MDA and electrolyte leakage compared with control. While SA pretreatment decreased these parameters under PEG stress significantly. The activity of CAT, POD, APX, SOD and GR positively changed with PEG and more induction in activity of antioxidant enzymes was observed in SA-pretreated plants under PEG stress. Furthermore, ASA, GSH and their redox ratios (ASC/DHA and GSH/GSSG) enhanced with SA pretreatments. Analysis of our data revealed that MDA, DHA and H 2 O 2 were the best targets for SA under in vitro PEG treatment for A. aucheri plants. Salicylic acid as a signal molecule mitigated adverse effects of PEG-simulated drought stress on A. aucheri under in vitro condition by improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, protective role of SA was also related to promotion of ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

  2. Verbascum bombyciferum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) as possible bio-indicator for the assessment of heavy metals in the environment of Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hülya; Güleryüz, Gürcan; Leblebici, Zeliha; Kirmizi, Serap; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we determined the heavy metal content (Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the soil surrounding the roots and different organs of Verbascum bombyciferum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae), which is endemic to Uludağ Mountain, Bursa, Turkey. Plant samples were collected from roadsides, and heavy metal accumulation capabilities were tested. This is one of the pioneer species of ruderal plant communities on roadsides, building sites, rubbish dumps, etc. Different organs of plant samples (roots, stems, leaves, and flowers) and their soils were analyzed by inductively couple plasma optical emission spectroscopy for their heavy metal contents. Some of the analyzed heavy metals (Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+)) were usually increased depending on the traffic in the sample sites, and this variation was also reflected in heavy metal content of plant samples. Our results show that this plant can be used as a bio-indicator species in the monitoring of increased Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) in the environment. We also concluded that V. bombyciferum have the capability of Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) accumulation.

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  4. Effectiveness of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and grape seed extract impregnated chitosan film on ready-to-eat mortadella-type sausages during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mehran; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of chitosan films containing Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) (5 and 10 g kg(-1) ) and grape seed extract (GSE) (10 g kg(-1) ) on lipid oxidation and microbial (lactic acid bacteria, aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Listeria monocytogenes) characteristics of mortadella sausage at 4 °C for 21 days was evaluated. The release of total phenolics (TPs) into sausage was also assessed. All films exhibited antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes on agar culture media. Chitosan films containing ZEO were the most effective on the growth of bacteria. The growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly inhibited by ZEO-GSE containing films especially during storage of the sausages for 6 days. Aerobic mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria were the most sensitive and resistant groups to films by 0.1-1.1 and 0.1-0.7 log cycles reduction, respectively. Sausages wrapped by 10 g kg(-1) GSE + 10 g kg(-1) ZEO films had the lowest degrees of lipid oxidation, which was 23% lower than the control. The TPs of ZEO films decreased to zero after 6 days, whereas TPs of GSE films followed a slight decrease during the storage. Antimicrobial/antioxidant chitosan film could be developed by incorporating GSE and ZEO for extending the shelf life of mortadella sausage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds used as novel eco-friendly inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution: Electrochemical and surface studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hamdani, Naoual; Fdil, Rabiaa [Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Tourabi, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Jama, Charafeddine [UMET-PSI, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, Université Lille 1, CS 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, Fouad, E-mail: fbentiss@enscl.fr [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); UMET-PSI, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, Université Lille 1, CS 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AERS is good eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • AERS acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • AERS adsorption is well described by Langmuir isotherm. • Surface analyses were used to explain the AERS mechanism of carbon steel corrosion inhibition. - Abstract: Current research efforts now focus on the development of non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors as alternatives to different organic and non-organic compounds. In this field, alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds (AERS) was tested for the first time as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. The obtained results showed that this plant extract's acts as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl and an inhibition efficiency of 94.4% was reached with 400 mg/L of AERS at 30 °C. Ac impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Impedance results demonstrated that the addition of the AERS in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Polarization curves indicated that AERS is a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of such alkaloid extract on the steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by AERS is mainly controlled by a physisorption process and the inhibitive layer is composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture where AERS molecules are incorporated.

  6. Physicochemical and antioxidative characteristics of Iranian pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv. Rabbab-e-Neyriz) juice and comparison of its antioxidative activity with Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani-Gilani, Behnaz; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) and its products are directly used in foods due to their pleasant taste and palatability as well as preservative effects. In spite of useful effects of essential oils such as zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) on prolonging shelf-life of foods, their application is restricted due to their vigorous taste and aroma. In the present study, physicochemical characteristics, chemical compositions and antioxidative activities of two Iranian native plants, PJ (Rabbab-e-Neyriz cultivar) and ZEO were investigated. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power tests were used for measuring antioxidant activity. The level of total phenolic of them were also determined. Total soluble solids content, pH value, titratable acidity content and total anthocyanins content of PJ were also measured. Chemical compositions of ZEO were determined using gas-chromatography, mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of antioxidative tests indicated that the ZEO was significantly more potent (p < 0.05) than PJ. Also the phenolic content in ZEO (262.52 mg per g) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than PJ (154.90 mg per 100g). Chemical compositions analysis of ZEO indicated that its major components were carvacrol (59.17%), linalool (23.67%), trans-caryophyllene (3.07%) and carvacrol methyl ether (2.44%). In the present study, physicochemical and antioxidative characteristics of Rabbab-e-Neyriz PJ were determined for first time. It was aslo found that ZEO in comparison with PJ had higher antioxidative activity and total phenolic content.

  7. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Oil and Extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.: Wild and Cultivated Fruits

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    Arezoo Rustaie 1,2, Roya Keshvari 1, Nasrin Samadi 3, Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi 4, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani 1,5, Mahnaz Khanavi 1,2,6 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch (Apiaceae has been used as spice, anti-flatulence and antiseptic agent for many years. In recent years the wild resources of the plant have been threatened by extinction. Domestication of such a plant saves its genetic resources from depletion. However, concerns remain about the possible changes due to development of chemotypes and changes in the composition and biological and pharmacological potentials. Methods: Analyses of essential oils from fruits of wild and cultivated types was performed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Antimicrobial assessment was done by agar diffusion method Results: The main compounds of both oils were included γ-terpinene (30.77% and 27.57%, cuminaldehyde (20.49% and 21.1%, ρ-cymene (20.1% and 18.32% and γ-terpinen-7-al (8.29% and 7.84% respectively. Analytical results of both tested oils exhibited very close similarities in major compounds, whereas some differences in their percentages were observed. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of volatile oils, total extract and the resultant fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans demonstrated some similarities and differences. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of wild grown fruits essential oils ranged between 0.375-1.5 mg/ml, while those of cultivated one were 0.75-6.25 mg/ml. All extracts and fractions showed similarly minor antibacterial potential while anti-Candida albicans activity was much remarkable with MICs calculated 2.5-5 mg/ml for cultivated and 5 mg/ml for wild grown extracts and fractions. Conclusion: In conclusion, despite the substantial similarities in composition of both oils, the alteration in antimicrobial results may be caused by variety in concentration of major and minor compounds and their synergism or antagonism in mixture.

  8. Antioxidant, Color and Antibacterial Properties of Edible Chitosan Film Incorporated with Zataria Multiflora Boiss ٍEssential Oil against Listeria Monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The film containing antimicrobial agents are a type of active packaging which is mainly designed to control microbial and chemical spoilage of food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and color properties of chitosan film incorporated with essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZEO. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Urmia University of Medical Sciences between 2009-2010, the chemical composition of ZEO was analyzed using GC-MS. Chitosan films containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% ZEO, were obtained by casting method and subsequently, total phenol (TP, antioxidant, color (accordance with hunter system (L* (luminosity, * (redness, and b* (yellowness and antimicrobial characteristics of films on Listeria monocytogenes were studied. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: The order of TP for all films in the experiment was 2% ZEO1% ZEO 0.5% ZEO unsupplemented chitosan film, respectively. It was also concluded that the antioxidant activity of chitosan films was increased by adding various concentrations of ZEO. These increases were significant for film containing 1% (33.98% and 2% (37.77% ZEO (p0.05. Regarding the color luminosity (L* of the chitosan film, results indicated no significant changes by incorporating ZEO, whereas the incorporation of ZEO into films had a significant effect on film yellowness, evidenced by lower b* values. Finally, it was shown that the presence of ZEO in chitosan films significantly modified the anti- listerial activity of chitosan, (p0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that an active film from chitosan could be achieved by incorporating ZEO. Addition of ZEO improves functional and antibacterial characteristics of chitosan film.

  9. Antioxidant properties of cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss. extract and its protective role against abiotic stress tested by microRNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Ražná

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bunium persicum Boiss. seeds have been used for medicinal and nutritional properties such as antioxidant, antihelmetic and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to to tested protective role of cumin extract against abiotic stress by microRNA markers. Secondary also was to evaluate antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid content of cumin extract. We observed that cumin DNA itself has not been damaged by sonication teratment. This protective impact indicates that cumin antioxidant properties can efficiently quench free radicals induced by sonication. On the other side, ultrasound-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species did induce the DNA polymorphism of lettuce samples which was detected by miRNAs-based markers. The range of sonication impact was time-dependent. Markers based of miRNA-DNA sequences has proven to be an effective tool. We have confirmed statistically significant differences (p ≤0.01 in miRNAs markers ability to detect the polymorphism due to sonication treatment.  The antioxidant activity was determined by a method using DPPH radical and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin - Ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoid with aluminium-chloride mehod and total phenolic acid with Arnova reagent. Results showed that cumin is rich for biologically active substances and can be used more in different kind of industry as a cheap source of these substances. Antioxidant activity with DPPH method was 1.18 mg TEAC.g-1 (TEAC - Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method 45.23 mg TEAC.g-1. Total polyphenol content achieved value 4.22 mg GAE.g-1 (GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of sample, total flavonoid content value 10.91 mg QE.g-1 (QE - quercetin equivalent per g of sample and total phenolic acid content value 5.07 mg CAE.g-1 (CAE - caffeic acid equivalent per g of sample.

  10. Establecimiento de una red de equilibrios biológicos en ecosistemas con presencia de pinsapo (Abies pinsapo Boiss. en Andalucía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía established a Monitoring Network on ecosystems of Abies pinsapo Boiss.for evaluating the phytosanitary state in the natural range areas of A. pinsapo in the Iberian Península: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Spain, Sierra de Grazalema (Cadiz, Spain and Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Spain. This network is based on a 1 x 1 Km grid established throughout the forest stands where Abies pinsapo is present, given by the Mapa Forestal de España (Spanish land cover map, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. The Network has been constructed from 35 sample plots, which will be visited annually (in summer in order to assess the state of trees. This article describes the network design process and the main results from the first campaign of sampling.

    [fr]
    En mai 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente-Junta de Andalucía a mis sur pied un Réseau pour la surveillance systématique et multitemporelle de l'état de santé et vitalité des forets de Abies pinsapo Boiss. dans ses aires de répartition naturelle dans la Péninsule Ibérique: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Espagne, Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz, Espagne et Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Espagne. Cet inventaire a été réalisé à partir d'un réseau d'échantillonnage systématique selon un maillage de 1 x 1 kilomètres couvrant la surface des forêts avec présence de Abies pinsapo, d'après la Mapa Forestal de España (Carte Forestière Espagnole, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. Après Rétablissement, l'inventaire a été constitué par 35 parcelles d'observation, qui seront visitées annuellement (en été pour évaluer l'état des arbres. Cette note présente le dessin de ce réseau et les résultats de la première campagne de terrain.
    [es]
    En la primavera del año 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía estableció una Red de Equilibrios Biol

  11. Development of new active packaging film made from a soluble soybean polysaccharide incorporated Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha pulegium essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Moayyed, Hamid; Khaksar, Ramin; Noghabi, Mostafa Shahidi

    2014-03-01

    An active edible film from soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) incorporated with different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils was developed, and the film's optical, wettability, thermal, total phenol and antioxidant characteristics were investigated, along with their antimicrobial effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. The film's colour became darker and more yellowish and had a lower gloss as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased. Antioxidant activity of the films was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. DPPH was reduced in the range of 19.84-74.12% depending on the essential oil type and concentration. Film incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50=4188.60±21.73mg/l and EC50=8.86±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared with the control and MEO added film. Films containing ZEO were more effective against the tested bacteria than those containing MEO. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to both ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 387.05mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 21.98 for S. typhimurium and 10.15mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a single glass transition temperature (Tg) between 16 and 31°C. The contact angle increased up to 175% and 38% as 3% (v/v) of ZEO or MEO used: it clearly shows that films with ZEO were more hydrophobic than those with MEO. The results showed that these two essential oils could be incorporated into SSPS films for food packaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. de Thymus fontanesii Boiss & Reut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Thymus fontanesii (thyme) is an aromatic plant, common in Algeria and widely used by local people for its medicinal properties. The essential oil from this plant originating in the west of Algeria, is the subject in this article of a study physicochemical and microbiological. The extraction of the oil was carried out by water steam ...

  13. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

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    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  14. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  15. Corología de tres táxones de interés en el macizo del Castro Valnera: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. [Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Alejandre Sáez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ofrece una visión actualizada de la situación en el macizo del Castro Valnera de tres especies de alto interés regional: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. Se comentan datos sobre la historia de su descubrimiento en ese macizo. Se recogen y enumeran para cada uno de ellos los datos de recolecciones, citas bibliográficas y de campo. Con el conjunto de todas ellas se elaboran varios mapas. Finalmente, se aportan comentarios que contribuyen al conocimiento de su comportamiento ecológico y se apuntan algunas pautas y criterios a tener en cuenta para su protección. ABSTRACT: Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain. An updated view of the situation within the Castro Valnera mountain range of three species of high regional interest is provided: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. The history data of their discovery within that mountain range is discussed. Collections data and field citations are gathered and listed for each of them and several maps are drawn with the whole of them. Finally, comments that contribute to the knowledge of their environmental performance are provided, as well as some guidelines and criteria to be considered for their protection.

  16. Salvianolic Acid-A Induces Apoptosis, Mitochondrial Membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluorescence microscope (Olympus, Olympus. Optical Co., LTD, Tokyo, Japan) using UV filter at x40 magnification. Flow cytometry analysis of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The effect of salvianolic acid A on mitochondrial membrane potential in human SCLC cells was detected by using rhodamine-123 (2 ...

  17. Treatments of acid waters; Tratamientos pasivos de aguas acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Fernandez, J. L.

    2000-07-01

    The exploitation of coal mining locations causes acid effluents due to the oxidation of the sulfurous minerals content of the rocks, denominated acid waters. There are Pyritic materials, pyres and sulphates associated to acid waters that in presence of water, oxygen and certain bacteria (mainly Thiobacillus ferro oxidants), are oxidized, by means of a chemistry reaction, yielding different products. (Author)

  18. [Microbial degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiqin; Liu, Shuliang; Yao, Kai

    2015-09-04

    3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) with estrogen toxicity is one of the intermediate products of most pyrethroid pesticides. 3-PBA is difficult to degrade in the natural environment, and threatens food safety and human health. Microbial degradation of pyrethroids and their intermediate product (3-PBA) has become a hot topic in recent years. Here, we reviewed microbial species, degrading enzymes and degradation genes, degradation pathways of 3-PBA degrading and the application of 3-PBA degradation strains. This article provides references for the study of 3-PBA degradation by microorganisms.

  19. Antiglycation Activity of Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Chemicals and general experimental procedure. BSA (Bovine serum albumin) was purchased from the Research. Organics Cleveland USA, while other chemicals (glucose anhydrous, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), sodium azide (NaN3), dimethyl sulfoxide. (DMSO), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4), ...

  20. A new triterpene from Salvia xanthocheila Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomkar, Somayyeh; Yousefi, Maryam; Habibi, Zohreh; As'habi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    From the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Salvia xanthocheila, one new triterpene, together with two known diterpenes, two known flavonoids and a phytosterol was isolated. On the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including electron ionisation mass spectra, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, 1-D nuclear Overhauser effect, distortionless enchancement by polarisation transfer, H,H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy spectra and comparison with spectral data of known compounds, the structure of new compounds was established as 1β,3β-dihydroxy-olean-9(11),12-dienyl (1). The five known compounds (2-6) were 7α-acetoxyroyleanone, taxodione, salvigenin, apigenin-7,4'-dimethyl ether and β-sitosterol, respectively. These known structures are isolated from the aerial parts of S. xanthocheila for the first time.

  1. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IgM) compared to S. bachtiarica and Z. multiflora (p < 0.05). Both Z. membranacea and S. bachtiarica at 200 mg. kg-1 caused a significant increase in albumin levels in the rats (p < 0.05). Z. multiflora at 400 mg. kg-1 had the highest effect on ...

  2. Heavy-Metal Phytostabilizing Potential of Agrostis castellana Boiss. & Reuter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Ginés, María-Jesús; Hernández, Ana-Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The soils of many abandoned mine sites in the central region of Spain are heavily polluted with a number of different metals. Having frequently found Agrostis castellana growing at these old mine sites, this study was designed to assess its remediation capacity for this type of setting. In an initial field study, plant specimens were collected from 4 abandoned mine sites to determine pollutant concentrations in their roots and shoots. This was followed by a 4-year bioassay in a controlled environment in which soils collected from the mines were used to set up microcosms. Maximum root concentrations of the most polluting elements present in the bioassay were 3625 mg kg(-1) Zn, 2793 mg kg(-1) Cu, 13042 mg kg(-1) Pb, 49 mg kg(-1) Cd and 957 mg kg(-1) As. These concentrations represent root bioaccumulation indices of over 1 and usually >2. In contrast, indices of transfer to above-ground phytomass were always < 1, indicating this species is a good candidate for use as a phytostabilizer. However, the high metal concentrations that could reach the above-ground mass of this plant determines a need for close monitoring and avoiding the use of areas under restoration for hunting or grazing.

  3. In vitro propagation of Arabis drabiformis Boiss. (Brassiaceae) an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro methods were widely used in the conservation of the threatened plants in recent years and it is clear that this trend is increasingly applied to more plant species facing risk of extinction. This study aimed to standardise a simple and proper micropropagation system for relic endemic plant species Arabis drabiformis by ...

  4. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Moltkia aurea Boiss

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    Iclal Saracoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of M. aurea exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil ( DPPH, nitric oxide (NO and superoxide (SO radicals. The free radical scavenging effect of the extract was found comparable to that of reference antioxidants, 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanizole (BHA and ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C. Cytotoxic activity of the extract was also investigated against three different cancer cell lines, Hep-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma, RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma, L-20B (transgenic murine L-cells and one non-cancerous cell line (VERO- African green monkey kidney epithelial cell using 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide (MTT assayty. While dose dependent cytotoxic activity was observed against cancer cell lines, no cytotoxic effect on VERO cell line was found in the tested expe In addition, phochemical investigations to identify chemical content of the plant were resulted to the isolation of (+-syringaresinol-4′-O- b -glucopyranoside (1, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutine, 3 and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (4 on the basis of different spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, HR ESI-MS.

  5. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percent and decrease in heterophils percent that indicates positive effect the on enhancement of body immune system by Satureja bachtiarica. In present study Satureja bachtiarica extract did not show a significant increase in IgM compared to control group. Satureja bachtiarica showed a significant increase in neutrophils ...

  6. In vitro microtuberization of Black Zira (Bunium persicum Boiss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... 5Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science in Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology,. Japan. Received 15 January ..... protocol for a particular species. In the present experiment .... Bunium persicum: variability in essential oil and antioxidants activity of fruits from different ...

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF PHLOMIS OLIVIERI BENTH. AND PHLOMIS PERSICA BOISS

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    PARISA SARKHAIL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate and n- butanol fractions obtained from the column chromatography of methanolic extract of aerial parts of P. olivieri gave chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (I and verbascoside (II, respectively. In addition, two flavonoid glycosides as compound (I and chrysoeriol-7-β-D- (3''-E-p-coumaroyl glucoside (III and one iridoid glycoside, namely, lamiide (IV were isolated from the ethyl acetate, ether and n- butanol fractions of a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Phlomis persica, respectively. Isolation and structural elucidation of compounds were accomplished by PTLC, CC, HPLC and spectroscopic methods (UV, FTIR, EIMS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, 1H- 1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC.

  8. The biological activities of Moltkia aurea Boiss. , an endemic species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the direct reason of mastitis. Mastitis is a disease characterized by pathological changes in mammary glands as well as physical, chemical, bacteriological changes in milk. This disease causes loses in milk yield and quality. In recent years, it is reported that mastitis pathogens have ...

  9. In vitro microtuberization of Black Zira ( Bunium persicum Boiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunium persicum or Black Zira is one of the endangered species in the land of Persia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate microtuberization of B persicumin in order to use in germplasm storage and commercial production. Seeds of B. persicum were used as explant. Different culture media (MS, ½MS and B5) ...

  10. Antiglycation Activity of Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss | Ayatollahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and long-term complications affecting the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, skin and kidneys. Increased glycation of proteins and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic ...

  11. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  12. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.

  13. Actividad antibacteriana de soluciones acidas de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of chitosan acid solutions obtained from shrimp exoskeleton  Título: quitosano actividad antibacteriana Resumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de soluciones ácidas de quitosano obtenido a partir del exoesqueleto de camarón, sobre siete bacterias patógenas, cinco de las cuales corresponden a patógenas de humanos (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 43863 y  K.  oxytoca ATCC 43086 y las fitopatógenas (Pectobacterium sp UDS y  Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Concentraciones de soluciones de quitosano  de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 3.5 % (v/v disuelto en  ácido acético de 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 % (v/v fueron preparadas; a partir de estas concentraciones, mediante la técnica de Kirby-Bauer se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana in vitro. Los resultados de actividad antimicrobiana mostraron diferencias altamente significativas entre la especie de bacteria y los tratamientos de quitosano. Las bacterias P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 y ATCC 43863 fueron las más susceptibles a los tratamientos, mientras que E. faecalis, Pectobacterium sp y B. glumae mostraron resistencia. Los tratamientos T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9 en donde las concentraciones de quitosano estuvieron por encima a las del ácido acético, se presentaron mayores valores medios de actividad de antimicrobiana en mm y aumentó este valor para los tratamientos  T9 (5.8095 mm, T8 (6.00 mm para y  T9 (5.8095 mm, donde las concentraciones  de quitosano  de 2.5 y 3.5%, disuelta en ácido acético fueron igual a 2%.  Los resultados de este estudio en el Caribe Colombiano permitirán a futuro el reaprovechamiento del exoesqueleto de camarón como fuente de quitosano como un compuesto potencial frente al manejo al problema de salud pública ocasionada por las enfermedades bacterianas.  Palabras claves: camarón, quitosano, bacterias, patógenas. Abstract: The work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan obtained from exoskeleton of shrimp, on seven pathogenic bacteria, five of which corresponded to human pathogenic strain (ATCC 29212 Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli UDS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. oxytoca ATCC 43863 and ATCC 43086 and two phytopathogenic strain (Pectobacterium sp UDS and Burkholderia glumae 320012-CIAT. Solution of chitosan of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5% (v/v dissolved in 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (v / v acetic acid was prepared, and with these concentrations through the Kirby-Bauer technique and the antibacterial activity in vitro was evaluated. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed significant differences between the species of bacteria and chitosan treatments evaluated. P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. oxytoca (ATCC 43086 and ATCC 43863 were the most susceptible to the treatments, while E. faecalis, B. glumae and Pectobacterium sp were resistant. The treatments T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, T9, where chitosan concentrations were above the acetic acid, showed higher mean mm antimicrobial activity and this value increased to T9 treatments (5.8095 mm , T8 (6.00 mm and T9 (5.8095 mm, where chitosan concentrations 2.5 and 3.5% solution in acetic acid was equal to 2%. The results of this study in the Colombian Caribbean enable future reuse of the exoskeleton of shrimp as a source of chitosan as a potential compound to handle the public health problem caused by bacterial diseases. Key words: shrimp, chitosan, bacteria, pathogens.

  14. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid-a versatile platform intermediate for value-added compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songwei; Bilal, Muhammad; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2018-04-01

    4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) has recently emerged as a promising intermediate for several value-added bioproducts with potential biotechnological applications in food, cosmetics, pharmacy, fungicides, etc. Over the past years, a variety of biosynthetic techniques have been developed for producing the 4-HBA and 4-HBA-based products. At this juncture, synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches enabled the biosynthesis of 4-HBA to address the increasing demand for high-value bioproducts. This review summarizes the biosynthesis of a variety of industrially pertinent compounds such as resveratrol, muconic acid, gastrodin, xiamenmycin, and vanillyl alcohol using 4-HBA as the starting feedstock. Moreover, potential research activities with a close-up look at the future perspectives to produce new compounds using 4-HBA have also been discussed.

  15. Cicca disticha L. Syn. C. AcidaMerr. (English: Gooseberry-tree ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gooseberry) ofEuphorbiaceae is a medium-size tree, which is often cultivatedfor itsfruits. Older branches show large scars where foliage branches have fallen. Latex which is present in the plants of Euphorbiaceae is absent in C. disticha. Flowers are ...

  16. Radiochemically pure [1-14C]valproic acid--a mixture of labeled structural isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.G.; Wood, B.T.; Kluck, R.M.; Hooper, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ongoing studies of the disposition of valproic acid (VPA) and its glucuronide conjugate required the radiolabeled drug for greater sensitivity and tracing of oxidation metabolites. [1- 14 C]VPA hereinafter called LABEL (radiochemical purity greater than 98% as determined by paper and thin layer chromatography) was purchased from Amersham International, U.K. Quantitative analysis of VPA and VPA-glucuronide in bile and urine samples from rats given VPA and tracer LABEL by our standard gas chromatographic assay showed gross discrepancies with the results obtained by liquid scintillation counting of the same extracts. Examination of the purity of LABEL was therefore undertaken. Equilibration of LABEL between various organic-aqueous solvent pairs was identical to that of authentic VPA. However, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivative of LABEL revealed it to be a mixture of labeled 2-methylheptanoic acid (approximately 60%), 2-ethylhexanoic acid (approximately 30%), and 2-propylpentanoic acid (i.e., VPA, 5-10%). The origin of the isomers of VPA in LABEL was logically traced to the synthetic procedure--coupling of the Grignard reagent of (an isomeric mixture of 2-, 3-, and 4-) chloroheptane(s) with [ 14 C]carbon dioxide. This result highlights the inadequacy of the quality control procedures used and reinforces the necessity for caution in accepting the quoted purity of radiolabeled drugs

  17. Cicca disticha L. Syn. C. AcidaMerr. (English: Gooseberry-tree ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Latex which is present in the plants of Euphorbiaceae is absent in C. disticha. Flowers are small, reddish-green, unisexual (male andfemale) and are borne on branched inflorescences that arise on older parts of the stem below the foliage. Fruit is a depressed globose berry, lobed with fleshy outer and hard inner portions.

  18. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  19. Ascorbic Acid-A Potential Oxidant Scavenger and Its Role in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudrat A. Akram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and ascorbate oxidase (AO involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review.

  20. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 6-aminonicotinic acid analogues as novel γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jette Gellert; Sørensen, Troels Ersted; Damgaard, Maria

    2014-01-01

    interaction field calculations and docking studies in a α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor homology model, and were confirmed by affinities of substituted analogues of 3. The tight steric requirements observed for the remarkably few GABAAR agonists reported to date is challenged by our findings. New openings for agonist...

  1. Status of the art: hydraulic conductivity of acid- fractures; Condutividade hidraulica de fratura acida: estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Valdo Ferreira [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). E and P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Completacao e Avaliacao], e-mail: wcampos@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a review of the hydraulic conductivity models developed for acid fractures in almost four decades of studies in petroleum engineering. These studies have often benefited from theories and experiments carried out in areas of knowledge such as physics, geology, hydrology, fluid mechanics, rock mechanics and tribology. The review showed that the pioneer study of Nierode and Kruk (1973) is still used in commercial software and influences the current studies. There was significant evolution on the quantitative surface topography characterization of the fractures and their impact on the hydraulic conductivity. The same occurred for the effects of acid dissolution on the rock resistance. Improvements on correlations similar to the Nierode and Kruk can be applied at once on the acid fracturing project and evaluation practice for the cases of rough dissolution pattern. A method to consider the overall conductivity from heterogeneous channels and roughness pattern was recently proposed. The complexity of the theoretical fundaments, specially the range of validity of the equations in face of the simplifications assumed, the difficulty of performing representative laboratory and field experiments, the difficulty of characterizing quantitatively the fractures surface topography and its effects on the conductivity, and the large variety of rocks and acid systems keep this subject open for research. (author)

  2. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xi

    Full Text Available To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious' pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1 CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol. Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  3. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  4. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-01-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H 2 SO 4 , 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs

  5. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  6. valuation of Germination Characteristics for Hedysarum Criniferum Boiss in Alternative Temperature and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    24-26 °C day-night and four drought levels (0, -2, -4, and -6 bar with three replications. According to the results, different levels of drought stress and alternative temperature had significant effects on germination percentage and germination speed of the species seeds (α=5%. The study showed that increasing temperature and drought levels leads to reducing the germination percentage and germination speed of the species. Higher germination percentage of H. criniferum seeds in different drought levels compared to alternative temperature levels of 24-26 °C indicated that this species is more sensitive to higher temperature than high levels of drought condition. Therefore, it could partly be concluded that the H. criniferum is a relatively drought resistance species.

  7. Seasonal variation of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components in the essential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Asghari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dracocephalum kotschyi is a plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family and exists mostly in south-west Asian countries, including Iran. This plant is used as antispasmodic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory to treat rheumatoid diseases. Methods: In order to investigate the impact of the harvesting time changes on the quantity and quality of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components of D. kotschyi aerial parts, ten samples were collected from cultivated plants from 19 April to 27 August 2013. Also samples of flower and root were harvested in order to investigate their essential oil components. The essential oils were obtained through hydrodistillation method. The components were studied and identified by GC and GC ⁄ MS systems. Results: The highest yield of the essential oil was obtained on 3 May (1.10% V.W and the lowest on 28 July (0.29% V.W. Totally 55 compounds were identified in the essential oil while the highest percentage belonged to monoterpenes especially the oxygenated ones. Most variations were observed in geraniol (1.40-15.34%, geranyl acetate (trace-14.41% and neryl acetate (0.62-17.51%. The major value in most cases belonged to geranial. Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that the harvesting time of plant is an effective factor in the quality and quantity of theessential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi.

  8. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Fazly Bazzaz

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa, various parts of the plant were collected at specific seasons. Aerial parts and root of the plant were dried in shady place and grinded to desirable. Unnatural and natural gum resins did not have the drying and grinding stages. The alcohol-aqueous (33%extract was obtained by masuration and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporator at low temperature and vaccum condition. The essential oil was extracted by water and steam distillation. Its antinociceptive effect was investigated in mice using hot plate method. Antibacterial effect was determined using paper disk method. The results suggest that the maximum antinociceptive effect (efficacy of root and aerial parts extract was higher than morphine and maximum effect of unnatural and natural gum resins extract was equal to morphine. The maximum effect of essential oil and unnatural gum resin was less than morphine but potency of these preparations were less than morphine. The amount of microbial growth inhibition of all extracts was less than chloramphenicol (30 ;ug on gram positive bacteria, but these extracts have not any growth inhibitory effect on gram negative baceria. These extracts inhibited fungus growth equal to nystatin (100units. "nThese results in conjunction with economic considerations suggest the usefulness of aerial parts of plant for medical treatment.

  9. Phytochemical and Biological Evaluations ofArum hygrophilumBoiss. (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Litescu, Simona; Abaza, Ismail F; Tawaha, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Arum hygrophilum is a traditional medicinal plant indigenous to Jordan. The present study explores its phytochemistry, antioxidative, antidiabesity, and antiproliferative potentialities. Column chromatography and HPLC-MS analysis were used for its phytochemical evaluation. Using leaf crude water and ethanol extracts, the antioxidative capacities, their modulation of pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and insulin secretion as well as glucose diffusion and enzymatic bioassays were evaluated. Three flavonoids (luteolin, isoorientin, and vitexin) and β-sitosterol have been isolated and their structures determined. HPLC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract further revealed the presence of caffeic, ferulic, gallic, and rosmarinic acids and quercetine-3-O-rhamnoside. The ethanol extract exhibited DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities. A. hygrophilum (1), vitexin (2), and rosmarinic acid (3) inhibited pancreatic lipase (PL) dose dependently with PL-IC 50 (µg/mL) values in an ascending order: (3); 51.28 ± 7.55 < (2); 260.9 ± 21.1 < (1); 1720 ± 10. Comparable to GLP-1-enhanced β-cell proliferation in 2-day treatment wells, a dose-dependent augmentation of BrdU incorporation was obtained with the A. hygrophilum aqueous extract (AE) (0.5 and 1 mg/mL, with respective 1.33- and 1.41-folds, P < 0.001). A. hygrophilum AE was identified as an inhibitor of α-amylase/α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 30.5 ± 2.1 mg/mL but lacked antiproliferative effects in colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, and SW620) and insulinotropic effects in β-cell line MIN6. A. hygrophilum extracts inhibited gastrointestinal enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption. Phytochemical evaluation of Arum hygrophilum recovered flavonoids (luteolin, isoorientin and vitexin) and β-sitosterolHPLC-MS analysis of its antioxidative ethanol extract further revealed the presence of caffeic-, ferulic-, gallic- and rosmarinic acids and quercetine-3-O-rhamnoside A. hygrophilum inhibited α-amylase/α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase dose-dependently A. hygrophilum augmented β-cell proliferation dose dependently, but it lacked antiproliferative effects in colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, and SW620) and insulinotropic effects in β-cell line MIN6 Abbreviations used: ABTS: 2,2'-Azino-Bis-3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid, AE: Aqueous Extract, ANOVA: Analysis Of Variance, AUC: Area Under Curve, BrdU: 5-Bromo-2'-Deoxyuridine, DPPH: 2,2-Diphenyl -1-Pycriylhydrazyl, ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, GLP1: Glucagon Like Peptide 1, GSIS: Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion, HPLC-MS: High Performance Liquid Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry, IC50: 50% Inhibitory Concentration, KRH: Krebs/Ringer/Hepes, MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide, OGTT: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity, OSTT: Oral Starch Tolerance Test, PL: Pancreatic Lipase, SEM: Standard Error Of The Mean, SRB: Sulforhodamine B, TEAC: Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography.

  10. The Antimicrobial properties of extracts in ( Crocus sativus var. haussknechtii Boiss. and Reut. ex Maw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Meghdad Hashemi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is one of the most important economic plants in the world that also has many pharmaceutical applications. Genus Crocus L. (Saffron with about 90 species of the Iridaceae family in the northern hemisphere, especially in West Asia and Iran are scattered. The present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of various parts such as cover of corm, corm, perianth and stigma of the variety of saffron (C. sativus var. Haussknechtii on some pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus extrusion. Plant specimens were collected from four different habitats of Kermanshah province and then were identified in the herbarium of Razi University. After preparing raw plant extract four different parts of the plants (cover of corm, corm, perianth, stigma by soaking (maceration were extracted. Microbial tests using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the broth micro-dilution method were determined. The results of analysis by statistical tests showed a significant correlation (001/0

  11. Extraction of saponins and toxicological profile of Teucrium stocksianum boiss extracts collected from District Swat, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Mukarram Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current era is facing challenges in the management of neoplasia and weeds control. The currently available anti-cancer and herbicidal drugs are associated with some serious side effects. Therefore numerous researchers are trying to discover and develop plant based alternative particularly for the rational management of cancer and weed control. Teucrium stocksianum possess antioxidant and analgesic activities. The current study was designed to evaluate crude saponins (CS, methanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum for cytotoxic and phytotoxic potentials. CS, methanolic extract and sub-fractions were extracted from powdered plant material using different solvents. Cytotoxic potential of the extracts at a dose of 10, 100 and 1000 μg/ml were evaluated against Brine shrimp's nauplii. Phytotoxic assay also performed at the same concentration against Lemna minor. Etoposide and Paraquat were used as positive controls in cytotoxic and phytotoxic assays respectively. RESULTS: The percent yield of crude saponins was (5%. CS demonstrated tremendous brine shrimp lethality showing < 10 μg/ml LC50. The n-hexane (HF and chloroform fractions (CF demonstrated excellent cytotoxicity with 80 and 55 μg/ml LC50 respectively. Whereas the methanolic extract (TSME, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous fractions (AF revealed moderate cytotoxicity showing 620, 860 and 1000 μg/ml LC50 values respectively. In phytotoxic assay profound inhibition was displayed by HF (96.67% and TSME (95.56%, 30 μg/ml LC50 against the growth of Lemna minor at 1000 μg/ml respectively. Both CF and EAF demonstrated profound phytoxicity (93.33% respectively at highest concentration (1000 μg/ml, while AF and CS demonstrated weak phytotoxicity with 1350 and 710 μg/ml LC50 values respectively. CONCLUSION: Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays indicated that the crude saponins, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of T. stocksianum could play a vital role in the treatment of neoplasia and as potential natural herbicides. Therefore these sub-fractions are recommended for further investigation with the aim to isolate novel anti-cancer and herbicidal compounds.

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mehrara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended.

  13. Evaluation of the anti-alternaria solani activity of allium hirtifolium boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafari, A.Z.; Bahraminejad, S.; Abbasi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of 100 plant species from 45 plant families were investigated on mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight of tomatoes, based on paper disc diffusion method. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The results showed that methanolic extracts of 21 species exhibited measurable inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani. The stongest inhibitory effect was obtained for the extracts of Allium hirtifolium and Teucrium chamaedrys with radius inhibitory zones of 19.08 mm +- 0.48 and 15.58 mm +- 0.48, respectively. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to investigate synergistic effect of A. hirtifolium, Ferula assa-foetida and Artemisia sieberi separately and in combinations with each other based on agar dilution method on the growth of A. solani. Results indicated that a mixture of Allium hirtifolium and F. assa-foetida extracts caused complete mycelial growth inhibition of A. solani. The IC50 and IC95 values for A. hirtifolium bulbs were equal to 78 and 946 ppm, respectively. Moreover, methanolic extract of A. hirtifolium bulb significantly showed the highest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani when compared with other plant parts. The results of inhibitory effect of fractions obtained by thin layer chromatography of A. hirtifolium bulbs showed that one band with Rf= 0.41 had an inhibitory effect against A. solani. (author)

  14. Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activities of the Endemic Thymus broussonetti Boiss. and Thymus maroccanus Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. E. A. ElFels

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and the insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs extracted from the leaves of Thymus broussonetii and Thymus maroccanus . These two endemic plants of Morocco, which are traditionally used in medicinal remedies, were collected from Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region. The EOs were extracted by direct steam distillation and their chemical constituents were analyzed and quantified by gas GC-MS and GC. The dominant components identified were p-cymene (21.0%, borneol (16.5%, α-pinene (11.8% and thymol (11.3% for T. broussonetti and carvacrol (33.0%, p-cymene (25.3% and α-pinene (11.6% for T. maroccanus . The investigation by the agar-diffusion method of the antibacterial activity of EOs proved that they have antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella sp. , Escherichia coli, Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus subtilis . The obtained results showed that T. maroccanus EOs possessed higher antibacterial effects on some studied bacteria than T. broussonetti EOs. The EOs of T. broussonetii and T. maroccanus also presented insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens .

  15. Characterization of Non-Terpenoids in Marrubium crassidens Boiss. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Hamedeyazdan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Marrubium crassidens, a plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae, was studied for its volatile components present in the aerial parts of the plant during the flowering stage. Methods: The essential oil of the plant obtained through hydrodistillation of the dried plant material was assessed for its chemical composition by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. Results: Twenty-five compounds were identified, which constituted 94.3% of the total oil composition. The major components were identified as, m-tolualdehyde (23.3%, acetophenone (15.8%, nonacosane (13.1%, docosane (7.2%, o-tolualdehyde (4.1%, β-caryophyllene (3.8% and caryophyllene oxide (3.4%. Non-terpenoids with 75.7% were the most abundant components of the essential oil. Conclusion: Overall, M. crassidens essential oil revealed to include rather higher proportions of non-terpenoid compounds compared with other species of genus Marrubium.

  16. Characterization of Non-Terpenoids in Marrubium crassidens Boiss. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Marrubium crassidens, a plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae, was studied for its volatile components present in the aerial parts of the plant during the flowering stage. The essential oil of the plant obtained through hydrodistillation of the dried plant material was assessed for its chemical composition by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty-five compounds were identified, which constituted 94.3% of the total oil composition. The major components were identified as, m-tolualdehyde (23.3%), acetophenone (15.8%), nonacosane (13.1%), docosane (7.2%), o-tolualdehyde (4.1%), β-caryophyllene (3.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.4%). Non-terpenoids with 75.7% were the most abundant components of the essential oil. Overall, M. crassidens essential oil revealed to include rather higher proportions of non-terpenoid compounds compared with other species of genus Marrubium.

  17. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, M R; Sharifi, S; Emami, S A; Khodaie, L

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials.

  18. Comparison of Cuminaldehyde Contents from Cell Suspension Cultures and Seeds of [Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KHOSRAVINIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell suspension culture and seed samples of Bunium persicum were extracted by supercritical fluid, hydrodistillation and solvent methods and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. In this study to compare the different methods of extractions, cuminaldehyde was targeted as one of the Black zira essential oil constitute. For callus induction the germinated seeds were cultured as explants on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l kinetin (treatment A as well as 2 mg/l ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyl aminopurine (treatment B and followed by cells suspension cultures establishment for the first time. The results of cell culture showed that cells from treatment B have a growth rate higher than A. All extracts were dissolved in 1 ml hexane and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. According to the Gas Chromatography analysis, cuminaldehyde was not detected in the supercritical fluid samples, while it was present in hydrodistillation and solvent extract. Cuminaldehyde percentage in cell and seed solvent extracts was 4.65% and 18.61% respectively. Gas Chromatography results also showed that no cuminaldehyde is present in media extracts, means no cuminaldehyde has been secreted into the medium.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the various extracts of Verbascum pinetorum Boiss. O. Kuntze (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, B; Esen, M; Caliskan, M; Mothana, R A; Cihan, A C; Yolcu, H

    2011-08-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of various extracts of Verbascum (V.) pinetorum, a member of Scrophulariaceae family. While the antimicrobial activity of various extracts of V. pinetorum was determined with agar-well diffusion method, the antioxidant activity was examined with two complementary test systems, namely 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid test systems. The hexane extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against few microorganisms. However, dichloromethane, direct methanol and methanol/chloroform extracts are effective on a broad range of microorganisms. Among the tested bacteria Haemophilus influenzae was found to be the most sensitive bacterium. The 50% (IC50) inhibition activity of the methanolic extract of V. pinetorum on the free radical DPPH was determined as 13.04 mg/ml. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of linoleic acid was inhibited by methanolic extract of V. pinetorum, which showed 89.39% inhibition that is quite close to the value of the synthetic antioxidant reagent butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), 92.46%. Iridoid glycosides, flavonoids and saponins were determined as the major natural compounds in the methanolic extracts. The total phenolic components of V. pinetorum were found as 42.45 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. The results provide evidence that the extracts of V. pinetorum contained iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds which may be responsible for the substantial antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  20. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  1. Antioxidant properties and prevention of cell cytotoxicity of Phlomis persica Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The free radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of β–carotene peroxidation of Phlomis persica (PP extracts was investigated. In addition, the effect of this extract on reduction of the hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in non-immortalized fibroblast was examined. The extracts showed free radical scavenging capacity, and the ethyl acetate extract showed marked effect on inhibition of lipid peroxidation similar to that of gallic acid. These results were further supported by a protective effect of Phlomis crude extract on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in human non-immortalized fibroblasts.

  2. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15 μg/disc) was in the range of 28.8 ± 0.31 to 67.7 ± 1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15 μg/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7 μg/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspectos moleculares das frações neutra e acida de petroleos da Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas : sintese de biomarcadores aromaticos derivados de esterois

    OpenAIRE

    Simone da Silva Machado

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho consiste no estudo de duas amostras de óleos de origem marinho-evaporítico, uma amostra de óleo do tipo lacustre-salino, e um extrato orgânico de rocha geradora depositado em ambiente lacustre-salino. Todas estas amostras pertencem à Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas. O estudo dos óleos foi feito utilizando a técnica de Cromatografia gasosa/ Espectrometria de massas ( GC/MS), incluindo padrões sintetizados em nosso laboratório. Os óleos foram estudados dividindo-os em duas frações p...

  4. How to fragment a polypeptide? An ab initio computational study of pair interactions between amino acida and ligand-amino acids in proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Vojtěch; Dobeš, P.; Černý, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2011), s. 605-618 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/0725; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11020; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : pair interactions * amino acids * protein stabilisation * peptides * correlated ab initio methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  5. Ni-Zn electrodes for hydrogen production by acid electrolysis; Eletrodos de Ni-Zn para producao de hidrogenio por eletrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C.S.; Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: camilator@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil). Departamento de Metalurgia. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen production by electrolysis of water, have an important role in countries that have great renewable potential for electricity production. The electrolysis of water has been proposed to use the excess capacity of hydroelectric plants. However, to improve process efficiency, research has been undertaken to improve the catalytic reduction reaction of hydrogen from the development of electrodes with better performance. Thus, the selection of low cost electrode materials with good electrocatalytic activity is required. In this work, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) employing electrodes of Ni-Zn and Ni was investigated. Morphological characterization of the electrodes was performed using SEM/ EDX and profilometry and electrochemical behavior was evaluated by cathodic polarization curves. The results showed that the addition of Zn promotes the increase the electrocatalytic activity of HER compared to nickel electrode. (author)

  6. Methods and instrumental techniques for the study of acidic water systems; Metodologias y tecnicas instrumentales para el estudio de sistemas de aguas acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero Salazar, P.; Asta Andres, M. P.; Torrento Aguerri, C.; Gimeno Serrano, M. J.; Auque Sanz, L. F.; Gomez Jimenez, J. B.

    2011-07-01

    From a geochemical point of view acidic waters are very complex systems in which many interaction processes take place between surface and ground waters, gases (particularly atmospheric oxygen), acid-generating minerals, solid phases responsible for the natural attenuation of elements in solution and also many types of biological activity. Owing to this high complexity, the quality and reliability of any geochemical study focusing on this type of system will depend largely upon the use of appropriate methods of sampling, preservation and analysis of waters, minerals, gases and biological samples. We describe here the main methods and techniques used in geochemical studies of acid waters associated with sulphide mineral environments, taking into account not only the various sample types but also the features of the main types of system (open pits, tailings ponds, acid streams etc.). We also explain the main applications and limitations of each method or technique and provide references to earlier technical and scientific studies in which further information can be obtained. (Author) 97 refs.

  7. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of petroleum refinery sour waters; Processos oxidativos avancados para tratamento de aguas acidas de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio V.; Coelho, Alessandra D.; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the waste water generated by the petroleum refineries are related to the type and amount of processed oil, to the nature and the efficiency of the refining operation. The effluents are composed basically of oily waters, originating from of the contact with the oil. Among them, the current of sour water is one of the most preoccupying due to its composition: sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, dissolved oil, basic pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) high. The aim of this work was to evaluate the advanced oxidation processes to degrade sour water (UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton). All process, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not supply satisfactory results, reducing 25% of initial DOC, which it is of 450 mg/L. The results using the Fenton process reached removal of 50% of the initial COD, and when photo- Fenton process obtaining removal of 90%. The processes Fenton and photo-Fenton were shown capable to degrade this kind of waste water, minimizing the environmental problems and corrosion, operating as a pre-treatment for the biological system, or acting alone to degrade the organic matter contained, seeking the water reuse. The effluent used in this work came from Duque de Caxias Refinery (Reduc)/PETROBRAS. (author)

  8. Geochemical processes in acidic water caused by the weathering of metal sulphides; Procesos geoquimicos en aguas acidas por meteorizacion de sulfuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta Andres, M. P.; Acero Salazar, P.; Auque Sanz, L. F.; Gimeno Serrano, M. J.; Gomez Jimenez, J. B.

    2011-07-01

    Acid generated by the oxidative dissolution of metal sulphides is one of the main sources of pollution in runoff water, groundwater, soils and sediments throughout the world. These types of water are very acidic and contain high concentrations of sulphate and other potentially contaminating elements such Fe, As, Cd, Sb, Zn and Cu. The acidity generated by sulphide oxidation processes is mainly controlled by the type, quantity and distribution of the sulphide-rich rocks, by the physical characteristics of the rocks (since they determine the accessibility of aqueous solutions and gases to the sulphides), by the presence of microorganisms able to catalyze the main chemical reactions involved in the formation of acid drainage, and by the existence of minerals capable of neutralizing acidity. As a result, the generation of acidic water is a very complex problem, the study of which must be undertaken via a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological aspects among others. The aim of our work is to provide a general overview of these processes and other factors that influence the generation and evolution of these systems, together with information concerning current scientific knowledge about each of these approaches. Thus we hope to provide a basic background to the understanding and study of acid-water systems associated with the weathering of metal sulphides and the processes involved in the generation, migration, evolution and natural attenuation of acidic waters in these environments. (Author) 65 refs.

  9. Uranium recovery and uranium remove from acid mine waters by ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina com resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao do Laborarorio; Fatibello Filho, Orlando [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of few processes capable of reducing contaminants in effluents to very low levels according to environmental legislation. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The presence of pyrite in the waste rock piles, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants. Including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by an anionic exchanger. Studies of uranium sorption without treatment, and with lime pretreatment of water to precipitate the iron and recovery uranium as commercial product, are presented. Uranium elution was done with NaCl solutions. Saline concentration and retention time were the parameters studied. the uranium decontaminations level in the effluents from acid mine water was 94%. (author) 10 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Analysis of the structural steels corrosion resistance in sour water from petroleum refineries; Analise da resistencia a corrosao de acos estruturais em aguas acidas de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Marcos B.; Freire, Celia M. de A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Margatita B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    1994-07-01

    The presence of H{sub 2} S in refineries FCC sour water provokes the formation of a passive Fe S scale. The cyanides present on sour water remove this scale, raising the corrosion rate in pipping and vessels. In this work it was measured the corrosion rate of structural steels in this water by electrochemical methods. Anodic polarization curves were plotted and the corrosion rates of the steels were determined. (author)

  11. Anoxic limestone drain (ALD) treatment of acid pit waters; Tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina mediante drenaje anoxico en caliza (ALD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Masferrer, J. A.

    2001-07-01

    As a consequence of the weathering, the pyrite is combined together with the oxygen and water, Mine Acid Drainage is produced, with rather low pH and dissolved metals. In order to treat this kind of polluted water it could be good to increase its alkalinity (capacity to neutralize the acid). There are several ways to increase the water alkalinity. One of them is the ALD. limestone beds buried through which the polluted water flows, in which carbonates are dissolved. (mostly calcium carbonate), in a media lacking of oxygen. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. Characterization of two clays - attapulgite and sepiolite - before and after acid activation; Caracterizacao de duas argilas - atapulgita e sepiolita - antes e apos ativacao acida com HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: renataoliveira@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Among the special clays, two of them are distinguished by their large surface area: attapulgite and sepiolite. Although, being natural clays, when they are removed from the formation sites, their structural channels may be filled of impurities. The process done to clean these channels is called acid activation. The present work aim to treated samples from both clays by using 3M and 5M HCl solution under ultrasonic waves for 1 hour. The characterization of the clays before and after activation was carried out by SEM/EDS, XRD and surface area measure by method BET. The acid treatments employed were too aggressive, in special that with 5M HCl solution, which results in partial lixiviation of these clays. (author)

  13. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  14. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  15. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Pani tradizionali prodotti con la pasta acida: valutazione delle caratteristiche tecnologiche degli impasti, delle caratteristiche di texture del prodotto finito e cambiamenti durante la fase di conservazione

    OpenAIRE

    Fadda, Costantino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of various amounts of sourdough on the rheological properties of the dough, on texture and colour parameters after baking and during storage. Sourdough (SD) has been used in bread manufacture since ancient times because its beneficial effects on dough leavening. SD is a symbiotic culture of lactobacilli (LAB) and yeasts, giving a distinctively tangy or sour taste, due mainly to the lactic and acetic acid produced by the LAB. Th...

  17. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  18. Essential Oil Content and Constituents of Black Zira (Bunium persicum [Boiss.] B. Fedtsch.) from Iran During Field Cultivation (Domestication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizi, Majid; Davareenejad, Gholamhossain; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Bunium persisum fruit oils from wild type MM, first (CY1) and second year (CY2) cultivars; (fourth and fifth year plants) were analyzed by GC and GUMS. The essential oil content of the WT (9.1% v/w) was higher than the oil content of the CY1 (6.2% v/w) and CY2 (5.1% v/w). No significant differences

  19. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Teucrium orientale (L.) subsp. taylori (Boiss.) Rech. f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium orientale subsp. taylori. The GC and GC–MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in determination of 40 components representing 96.4% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were linalool (28.6%), caryophyllene oxide (15.6%), 1,8-cineol (4.5%), β-pinene (8.7%), 3-octanol (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (7.3%), and germacrene-D (4.1%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different tests, namely DPPH and β-carotene- linoleic acid assay. In DPPH system, the weakest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the non-polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (237.40 ± 2.1 μg/mL). Antioxidant activity of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract was superior to all samples tested, showing an EC50 value of 61.45 ± 0.5 μg/ mL. The inhibition capacity (%) of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (95.21% ± 1.3) was found to be the strongest and almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (94.9% ± 1.1). The amount of the total phenolics was the highest in the polar subfraction, i.e. 370 μg/mg of the dry extract (37%). A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics of the extracts. PMID:24381607

  20. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Teucrium orientale (L.) subsp. taylori (Boiss.) Rech. f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium orientale subsp. taylori. The GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in determination of 40 components representing 96.4% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were linalool (28.6%), caryophyllene oxide (15.6%), 1,8-cineol (4.5%), β-pinene (8.7%), 3-octanol (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (7.3%), and germacrene-D (4.1%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different tests, namely DPPH and β-carotene- linoleic acid assay. In DPPH system, the weakest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the non-polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (237.40 ± 2.1 μg/mL). Antioxidant activity of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract was superior to all samples tested, showing an EC50 value of 61.45 ± 0.5 μg/ mL. The inhibition capacity (%) of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (95.21% ± 1.3) was found to be the strongest and almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (94.9% ± 1.1). The amount of the total phenolics was the highest in the polar subfraction, i.e. 370 μg/mg of the dry extract (37%). A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics of the extracts.

  1. Growth performance and haematological and immunological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings supplemented with dietary Ferulago angulata (Schlecht Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bohlouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Ferulago angulata extract on the growth, haematological, and immunological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings were evaluated. Basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control, 0.5, 1, and 2 g·kg-1 F. angulata and was randomly allocated to experimental fish of an initial average weight of 7.45 ± 0.02 g. After 8 weeks of experiment, the fish supplemented with F. angulata extract showed increased but non-significant (P > 0.05 growth performance. No significant differences were found between trial control groups in haematological indices such as red blood cell count, haematocrit, and haemoglobin, but there was a significant increase in white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes in the F. angulata extract groups (P < 0.05. Also, there were significant differences between the fish supplemented with dietary F. angulata extract and the control group regarding immunological indices, including immunoglobulin M, lysozyme, and classical and alternative complement pathway (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that the administration of F. angulata extract has a positive effect on the immunological indices and the immune system activity in rainbow trout fingerling.

  2. Karyotype analysis of some Onobrychis (sainfoin) species in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akçelik Somay Esra; Avci S.; Uzun S.; Sancak C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, karyotype analysis of the species of Onobrychis sp. was undertaken using the squash method. The results showed that the chromosome number of Onobrychis tournefortii (Willd.) Desv., O. gracilis Besser, O. hypargyrea Boiss. is 2n = 14 and O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss., 2n = 16. The karyotype formula of O. tournefortii (Willd.) Desv. is 4m+3sm, of O. hypargyrea Boiss. and O. gracilis Besser 3m+4sm, and of O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss. 2m+ 5sm+1 st.

  3. Karyotype analysis of some Onobrychis (sainfoin species in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akçelik Somay Esra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, karyotype analysis of the species of Onobrychis sp. was undertaken using the squash method. The results showed that the chromosome number of Onobrychis tournefortii (Willd. Desv., O. gracilis Besser, O. hypargyrea Boiss. is 2n = 14 and O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss., 2n = 16. The karyotype formula of O. tournefortii (Willd. Desv. is 4m+3sm, of O. hypargyrea Boiss. and O. gracilis Besser 3m+4sm, and of O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss. 2m+ 5sm+1 st.

  4. (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... The phylogenic relationship within four species of Polygonum (including Polygonum hyrcanicum Rech. f. (three samples), Polygonum persicaria Boiss & Bushe Boiss, Polygonum avicular L., and Polygonum hydropiper L. subsp. Hydropiper) was investigated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA ...

  5. Acid drainages of the pyritic sterile from the Pocos de Caldas uranium mine: environmental interpretation and implications; Drenagens acidas do esteril piritoso da mina de uranio de Pocos de Caldas: interpretacao e implicacoes ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-12-01

    Considering the planned closure of the first uranium mine and milling plant operating in Brazil, located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, in the State of Minas Gerais, in the next two years, there is the need to obtain basic information for its decommissioning. Special attention has been directed to the following critical areas: open pit, tailing, dam and waste rock piles, because these are the main sources of acid drainage generation. These waters cannot be allowed to flow in the external environment because in addition to sulphuric acid, there is a number of elements in concentration above those allowed by regulations. Among the waste piles (bota-foras BF) two of them BF-4 and BF-8, are in a process of acid generation, thus requiring more attention. The objective of this work was to simulate at the laboratory scale the oxidation and the reduction zones of BF-4. The experiments were conducted in acrylic columns, where the waste sample was kept under aerated and saturated conditions, in different columns. The control of the chemical (solubilized chemical species), physico-chemical (redox potential, pH, conductivity) and biological (bacterial activity) parameters has been carried out on the acid solutions generated by the chemical and biological reactions that occur at the waste. Although the results refer to a four month period, some relevant points can be highlighted, which will serve as a basis for further research. The mineralogical characterization identified the existence of other sulphides associated to pyrite with lower oxidation potential than the latter. The results obtained with the biological characterization for the two conditions studied revealed that the bacterial activity is more intense in the region in contact with air, than in saturated region. (author) 30 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  7. Recovery of tungsten from wolframite from the Igarape Manteiga mine (Rondonia - Brazil) via acidic leaching; Isolamento do tungstenio da volframita da mina de Igarape Manteiga (Rondonia - Brasil) por lixiviacao acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Vianna, Claudio Augusto; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We report results of the efficiency of tungsten extraction from wolframite concentrate (containing 61.5 wt % WO{sub 3}) from the Igarape Manteiga mine (state of Rondonia, Brazil) through acid leaching with strong mineral acids at 100 deg C and 400 rpm for 2-4 h. HCl yielded insoluble matter containing the highest WO{sub 3} content (90 wt %). This solid was dissolved in concentrated NH{sub 3(aq)} at 25 deg C and the insoluble matter filtrated. The filtrate was slowly evaporated. 70 wt % of the tungsten present in the starting concentrate material was recovered as ammonium paratungstate (APT). (author)

  8. Sub products form a depuratives process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. part I; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos organicos como fuente carbonada, Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2002-07-01

    Subproducts from the biological depurative process of acid mine water, such as H{sub 2}S in the biogas and HCO{sub 3} in the effluents are applied for the selective precipitation of metallic sulphides of Pb, Zn, Cu, Al an Mn, as a function of pH. To obtain the maximum H{sub 2}S concentration is principal,so several studies have been made to found the best working conditions between microorganisms and the carbon source choice. In this work,the results of the digestion process with an inoculum from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure and cheese whey as carbon source are showed. The optimal conditions obtained are: for a SO{sub 4}''=COD of 1:1,5 in HRT of 12 days, 65% of sulphate reduction, 30% of H2S in biogas. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 98,3% of Fe, 96,1% Cu, 79% Zn and 99% Al are obtained. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Subproducts from a depurative process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. Part II; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos orgnicos como fuente carbonada (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    The biological depurative process of acid mine water reducing sulphate concentration from Tinto River produces the alkalinity needed for the selective precipitation of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. But a suitable carbon source for the working conditions of microorganisms to reduce sulphates is needed. In this work, the results obtained using urban sewage as a carbon source are presented. the optimal conditions obtained are: 65,5% of sulphate reduction in HRT of 10 days for a SO{sub '}'2{sub 4} COD of 1:1 and 580 mg HS/L in the reactor effluent. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 77,6% of Fe, 88,6% of Cu, 70,7% of Zn and 71,5% of Al, are obtained depending on the assay applied. Ayesa is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 6 refs.

  10. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  11. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  12. Use of wetlands for the treatment of acidic mining drainage: the processes in the wetland; Utilizacion de humedales para el tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina: procesos que tienen lugar en el humedal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lastra, M.; Loredo Perez, J. [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas. Escuela de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    Wetlands constitute an alternative method for the treatment of acidic mining drainage, through the utilization of some plant species complex physico-chemical and biological processes take place, producing and improvement of the quality of waters moving through. The inherent characteristics of a wetland in operation will originate an horizontal zonation as for the quality of waters due to their progressive ameliorations of pH increase and heavy metals concentration decreases, anyway a vertical zonation, giving rise to oxidation and reduction zones on the wetland. From the different physical processes occurring on the wetland, the plant roots filtering, the dilution of effluents with superficial and underground waters and aeration phenomena can be considered very important. Oxidation, hydrolysis and sulphate reduction constitute important chemical processes leading to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated effluents. Wetlands have plants as sphagnum, typha and algae advantageous for the treatment of acidic waters provided that they retain heavy metals in their tissues and the contribute furthermore to modify the substrate conditions favoring the creation of reduction zones. The aerobic-anaerobic mixed systems are from the different wetland types those are prevailing because of the advantages of sulphate reduction as contrasted with oxides precipitation for the removal of heavy metals. Wetlands although are not the panacea for the treatment of acidic mining waters they offer advantages and some disadvantages too, over other treatment methods, and they constitute a real alternative for the conventional methods of chemical neutralization. (Author)

  13. Physical and chemical treatment of the acid wastewater poured from Aznalcollar quarnx (Sevilla-Spain); Tratamiento fisicoquimico de las aguas acidas vertidas tras la rotura de la balsa minera de Aznalcollar (Sevilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Mediavilla, B.; Medialdea, J. M.; Montes, M. A.; Garcia Martinez de Simon, I.; Lopez, C. M.; Moron, M. J.; Escot, E.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla. Sevialla (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    In this work, laboratory results of physical and chemical treatment of the acid wastewater poured from Aznalcollar quarry (Sevilla, Spain) the last april 25, 1998, are presented. Experiments were carried out in the facilities of the Wastewater Treatment Research Group, University of Sevilla. Objectives were to adjust pH and to remove heavy metals from the water. Comparative results showed application of calcium hydroxide and aluminium policyholder as the most effective physical and chemical treatment for the water, in terms of pH adjustment and heavy metal removal. Data suggest that treatment systems including preliminary adjustment of water pH followed by addition of chemical coagulants, significantly alter the physical state of dissolved heavy metals and facilitate their removal by sedimentation. Such procedures might be useful for the treatment of surface waters polluted with high concentrations of heavy metals. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Gastric acid secretion response in the Cebus apella: a monkey model of chronic Chagas disease Respuesta secretora acida gastrica en el Cebus apella, un modelo animal de la enfermedad de Chagas cronica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the secretory pattern, both basal and stimulated either by histamine (0.1 mg/kg or pentagastrin (64 ug/kg in eighteen Cebus apella monkeys chronically infected with different T. cruzi strains (CA1, n=10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4 and to describe the morphological findings in the gastrointestinal tract in twelve infected (6 sacrificed and 6 spontaneously dead and four healthy monkeys. All infected monkeys and 35 healthy ones were evaluated by contrast X-ray examination. No differences were observed in basal acid output between control and infected groups. Animals infected with the Tulahuen and Colombian strains showed significant lower values of peak acid output in response to histamine or pentagastrin (pEl objetivo fue estudiar la respuesta secretora basal y estimulada por histamina (0.1 mg/kg o pentagastrina (64 ug/kg en 18 monos Cebus apella cronicamente infectados con diferentes cepas de T. cruzi (CA1 n=10; Colombiana n=4 y Tulahuén n=4. Además se describieron los hallazgos morfológicos en el tracto gastrointestinal de 12 animales muertos (6 sacrificados y 6 espontaneamente. Se evaluó radiológicamente el tracto gastrointestinal de 35 Cebus sp. sanos (controles y 18 infectados crónicamente. Se estudiaron histopatologicamente 4 controles y 12 infectados. No hubo diferencias en la secreción basal ácida entre los grupos control e infectado. Los animales infectados con la cepa Tulahuén y Colombian tuvieron valores más bajos en el pico de secreción ácida, como respuesta a la histamina o a la pentagastrina (p<0.01 y p<0.05 respectivamente; test "t" con respecto a los controles. Los estudios con contraste de bario mostraron agrandamiento y dilatación del colon en 3 animales infectados. En las autopsias de los chagásicos se encontraron lesiones histologicas en el 75% de los casos (solo en colon, 33%; en colon y esofago, 42%. En el grupo CA1, la secreción ácida estuvo dentro de los parámetros normales y esto se podría deber a una baja virulencia de la cepa, a un menor tropismo esofágico o a que el tiempo post-infección fue demasiado corto para causar lesiones.

  15. Zeolites synthesized from pulping white paper waste used in the treatment of acid drainage of mining: preliminary results; Uso de zeolitas obtidas de residuo do processo de polpamento de papel branco para tratamento de drenagem acida de mineracao: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, C.R.; Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil); Angioletto, E.; Rocha, M.R.; Alexandre, N.Z.; Galatto, S.L., E-mail: resmini1@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UESC), SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The coal region in the south of Brazil facing serious environmental problem due of surface and groundwater by sulfur and heavy metals, mainly Fe, Mn and Zn. With zeolites synthesized from pulping white paper waste, a study was developed to verify the possibility of treating acid drainage from mining. Was considered the reduction of metal ions present in water and the change pH values. The zeolites were characterized using XRD, XRF and SEM. Acid drainage from coal mining was characterized using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results showed a reduced content of metal ions and pH increased. (author)

  16. Resistance evaluation expanded perlite the leaching acid: variation of parameters concentration, time and leaching agent; Avaliacao da resistencia da perlita expandida a lixiviacao acida: variacao dos parametros concentracao, tempo e agente lixiviante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J.M.F. de; Damasceno Junior, E.; Oliveira, E.S.; Fernandes, N.S., E-mail: janielequimicaufrn@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Meio Ambiente

    2016-07-01

    The expanded perlite is an amorphous aluminosilicate which presents in its composition about 75.0% silicon oxide (SiO2), also having other species in the composition as oxides of some metals. Silicas and silicates have been used in the environmental field, in relevant anti-corrosive activity. In this context, materials that exposes too many highly acidic media, require preservation against this type of wear, as this type of damage causes a great financial loss, thereby requiring low-cost, abundant materials, non-toxic and easy to purchase as some silica coating. The study evaluated the perlite expanded resistance against an acid leaching process. With undeniability the use of strong acids and different working conditions were not able to remove the oxides present on the expanded perlite sample, thus demonstrating the high strength of the expanded perlite against acid attacks. (author)

  17. γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin; Zhang Yun; Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang; Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu; Luo Wenjing; Chen Jingyuan

    2009-01-01

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA A receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA A receptor α1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA A receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  18. Acid membranes of poly(vinyl alcohol) for direct ethanol fuel cell applications; Membranes acidas de poli(alcool vinilico) para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel via etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra Filho, Jose C.; Gomes, Ailton S. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: asgomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Proton-conducting hybrid membranes composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), phosphotungstic acid (HPW) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) where prepared. The effect of HPW doping and crosslink with DTPA on the membranes properties such as uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity was investigated. Uptake and permeated flux decreases with increasing content of HPW and DTPA. Ethanol permeabilities obtained was about two orders of magnitude smaller than Nafion 117. FTIR spectra indicated that HPW was incorporated into the polymer matrix and DTPA acted as crosslink agent. The proton conductivity was in the order of 10-3 S.cm-1 with added 4 wt.% of DTPA and generally increases with the addition of HPW. (author)

  19. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  20. Biological treatment of acid mine water: selection of a biomass population enriched in sulphate-reducing bacteria; Tratamiento biologico de aguas acidas de mineria: seleccion de una poblacion bacteriana enriquecida en bacterias sulfatoreductoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel Villagran, F. J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the biological sulphate reduction. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the metal mining industry. This wastewater is formed when sulphide ores undergo chemical and biological oxidation processes and is characterized by low pH-values and high levels of sulphate and metals. The effect of stimuling bacteria sulphate reduction in such systems in order to improve water quality was examined in a laboratory scale experiment, in 250 mL, magnetically stirred, batch, anaerobic reactors, to 25 degree centigree. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.

  2. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  3. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysisof leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. under NaCl salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhaier, Barhoumi; Abdallah, Atia; Najla, Trabelsi; Wahbi, Djebali; Wided, Chaïbi; Aouatef, Ben Ammar; Chedly, Abdelly; Abderazzak, Smaoui

    2015-11-01

    Leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopes and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) system, after growing for three months on sandy soil with or without 300 mM NaCl. Results showed that salt glands were irregularly scattered on both leaf sides and sunk under the epidermal level. Salt excretion occurred in both conditions and is mainly composed of calcium and magnesium in control plants, and essentially sodium and chloride in plants subjected to salt treatment. A salt gland is comprised of collecting, accumulating, and central compartments, and is made up of total thirty-two cells. The collecting cells were characterized by large central vacuoles. Accumulating cells contain numerous, large, and unshaped vacuoles and rudimentary chloroplasts. The central compartment was comprised of four basal cells and each one is surmounted by an apical cell. The basal cells are granulated, containing large nucleus, numerous mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, polyribosomes, and small vacuoles or vesicles. Equally, the apical cells are rich in organelles. Application of 300 mM NaCl to the culture medium increased vacuoles number and size, and organelles density especially the mitochondria which suggests energy requirement for ions transport. The reduction in size and number of vacuoles toward the interior of salt glands of treated plants and the fusion of the smallest ones with the plasma membrane substantiate the implication of such vacuoles in salt excretion process. The current study which is the first report on L. guyonianum salt gland has provided an in-depth understanding on structure-function relationship in the multicellular salt glands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro and in vivo comparison of the biological activities of two traditionally and widely used Arum species from Jordan: Arum dioscoridis Sibth & Sm. and Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Litescu, Simona C; Abaza, Ismail M

    2016-08-01

    Arum dioscoridis and A. palaestinum (Araceae) are indigenous plant species in Jordan. HPLC-MS analysis of A. dioscoridis revealed the presence of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside, vitexin, isoorientin, esculin, and caffeic and ferulic acids. Both Arum spp., influenced gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption. Orlistat inhibited dose dependently and highly substantially pancreatic lipase (PL) in vitro. Similar to orlistat, Arum species aqueous extracts (AEs), apigenin, caffeic acid and esculin exhibited a concentration related PL inhibition. Comparable to acarbose, dual inhibition of α-amylase/α-glucosidase was observed for both Arum species. Like guar gum, A. dioscoridis AE minimised substantially area under 24 h glucose curve. Acute starch-induced postprandial hyperglycaemia in overnight fasting rats was highly significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by A. dioscoridis AE. A. palaestinum could not perform effectively in either starch- or glucose-fed fasting rats. No antiproliferative effects against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116 and SW620 were detected for tested Arum spp.

  5. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum. PMID:27051430

  6. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  7. Effects of Plant Density and Water Stress on Competitive Ability and Yield of Medicago Sativa L. and Bromus tomentellus Boiss.in Mono and Mixed Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant density and water stress on yield of Medicago sativa and Bromus tomentellus was studied. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Isfahan University of Technology in 2013. The experiment included 18 treatments, three crop compositions (M.sativa, B. tomentellus or mixture of the two, two plant density levels, three watering regimes and four replicates, arranged in a completely randomized block design. Results showed that total yield of M. sativa mono-cropping was higher than mixed cropping and it was higher than B. tomentellus mono-cropping. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER values were less than 1 for all mixed cropping treatments, indicated the interspecific competition in mixed cropping. The biomass production per plant decreased with increasing density, competition for resource utilization and water stress. Compare of above-ground and below-ground dry matter showed that M. sativa appeared to be more constrained by intraspecific than by interspecific competition, Conversely, B. tomentellus was more suppressed by interspecific competition exerted by M. sativa than by intraspecific competition. Relative competition intensity (RCI values were positive for B. tomentellus and negative for M.sativa, implying that competitive ability of M.sativa was higher than B. tomentellus in mixed cropping .

  8. Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2011-10-01

    Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs.

  9. Combined Activity of Colloid Nanosilver and Zataria Multiflora Boiss Essential Oil-Mechanism of Action and Biofilm Removal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirdel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and biofilm removal potential of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO and silver nanoparticle (SNP alone and in combination on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and evaluate the mechanism of action. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and optimal inhibitory combination (OIC of ZEO and SNP were determined according to fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC method. Biofilm removal potential and leakage pattern of 260-nm absorbing material from the bacterial cell during exposure to the compounds were also investigated. Results: MICs of SNP for both bacteria were the same as 25 μg/ mL. The MICs and MBCs values of ZEO were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective OIC value for SNP and ZEO against Salm. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus were 12.5, 625 and 0.78, 1250 μg/ mL, respectively. ZEO and SNP at MIC and OIC concentrations represented a strong removal ability (>70% on biofilm. Moreover, ZEO at MIC and OIC concentrations did a 6-log reduction of primary inoculated bacteria during 15 min contact time. The effect of ZEO on the loss of 260-nm material from the cell was faster than SNP during 15 and 60 min. Conclusion: Combination of ZEO and SNP had significant sanitizing activity on examined bacteria which may be suitable for disinfecting the surfaces.

  10. Effect of light, temperature and different pretreatments on seed germination of gentiana boissieri schott et kotschy ex boiss. (gentianaceae) and endemic to turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erken, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the germination characteristics of Gentiana boissieri (Gentianaceae), an endemic species. The effects of light, temperature and different pretreatments on the germination of seeds collected from nature were investigated. Two different experiments were run to determine germination characteristics of seeds and the final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT) and germination index (GI). The first experiment involved twenty different treatments including soaking in water, soaking in gibberellic acid (GA3), dry stratification, moist cold stratification, moist warm stratification + moist cold stratification, moist cold stratification + soaking in GA3 and control. The germination test was carried out at +20 degree C in dark. The highest final germination percentages were obtained from the treatments of soaking in 500, 750, 1000 ppm GA3, soaking in 250, 500 ppm GA3 + 4 weeks of moist cold stratification (89.00; 95.00; 93.50; 91.33; 94.00%, respectively). In the control group with no pretreatment, the final germination percentage of seeds was found to be 13.50%. In the second experiment, seeds treated with 750 ppm GA3 pretreatment, providing highest germination rate in the first experiment, were germinated under dark and light conditions (12/12 h; dark/light) at 15, 20, 25 and 10/20 degree C. At the end of 28 days under four different temperatures, it was found that light significantly increased the final germination percentage and the highest final germination percentages were found at 15 and 20 degree C (87.00; 89.50%, respectively). (author)

  11. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Peucedanum longifolium (Waldst. & Kit. and P. palimbioides (Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bektas Tepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Peucedanum longifolium and P. palimbioides. According to the GC-MS analysis, 35 compounds were accounted for 96.98% of the total oil of P. longifolia. Major components of the oil were 8-cedren-13-ol (33.74%, myristicin (8.03%, germacrene-D (7.73% and D -3-carene (6.38%. In the case of P. palimbioides, 26 compounds were identified comprising the 98.96% of the total oil. The major compounds were described as a -pinene (35.45%, (E-9-octadecenoic acid (23.57% and b -pinene (20.19%. In general, P. palimbioides oil exhibited stronger than that of P. longifolia in all test systems. Especially in b -carotene/linoleic acid system, P. palimbioides showed strong activity against linoleic acid oxidation at 2.0 mg/mL concentration (90.58% ± 1.56. This value is too close to the synthetic antioxidants BHT and BHA at the same concentration (95.86% ± 0.23 and 93.05% ± 1.04, respectively. This plant also exhibited excellent chelating effect (90.39% ± 0.28 which is obviously greater than that of P. longifolium at 2.0 mg/mL concentration (24.12% ± 2.50. Chelating effect of the control agent EDTA was measured as 98.78% ± 0.78 (2.0 mg/mL.

  12. Fruit Removal and Seed Predation in Two African Trees (Lannea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most L. welwitschii fruits were removed during and after maturation but predispersal seed predation by H. rufobrachium left only 19.9% of the total crop to potential seed dispersal. In contrast, H. rufobrachium rarely fed on L. acida seeds. Sun squirrels consumed about twice (L. acida) to 10 times as much (L. welwitschii) fruits ...

  13. Comparative efficacy of herbal essences with amphotricin B and ketoconazole on Candida albicans in the in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, essential oils with different components showed antifungal activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil. They can therefore be used as new antifungal substances.

  14. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-12

    Jun 12, 2015 ... Addition of Z. multiflora boiss essential oil, resulted in decreasing the count of viable Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the produced cheese. This investigation concludes that the biofilm containing Z. multiflora boiss essential oil can be highly.

  15. Karyotype analyses of the species of the genus Jurinea Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, karyotype analyses of 13 species belonging to the genus Jurinea Cass. (Compositae) and grown naturally in Turkey were conducted. These taxa include Jurinea alpigena C. Koch, Jurinea ancyrensis Bornm., Jurinea aucherana DC., Jurinea cadmea Boiss., Jurinea cataonica Boiss. and Hausskn., Jurinea ...

  16. Inter-specific relationships among two Tunisian Thymus taxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between two sympatric species Thymus capitatus Hoffm. et Link. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Thymus hirtus Willd. subsp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut.) were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eighteen natural populations from different geographical and ...

  17. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.

  18. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  20. Otimização das condições de hidrolise acida do amido de mandioca para obtenção de substituto de gordura : Caracterização de hidrolisados e aplicação em bolos

    OpenAIRE

    Francy Magdalena Zambrano Sarmiento Console

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: Estudos internacionais têm demonstrado que existe relação entre os ataques cardíacos e o elevado consumo de gordura. Para reduzir estes riscos, têm sido utilizados substitutos de gordura a base de amido com características funcionais similares às da gordura e com menor valor caiórico. Neste estudo, foi avaliado, em dois ensaios, o efeito da hidrólise ácida do amido de mandioca nativo visando obter um produto com características de substituto de gordura para aplicação em bolos. No ensa...

  1. Quality in the organizations (enterprises and institutions of production and of services). Validation of the determination by atomic absorption of sodium and potassium in acid rain; Calidad de las organizaciones (empresas e instituciones de produccion y de servicios). Validacion de la determinacion por absorcion atomica de sodio y potasio en lluvia acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola T, D.L

    2005-07-01

    The present work is focused to the environmental area and in specific to the validation of an analytical method by means of one of the techniques more used for the determination of metals, the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Applied to the study of the acid rain and its diverse forms in the nature. As well as their consequences and the role that the man carries out in the contribution toward this phenomenon. To approach the following text it will be mention shortly how is distributed, beginning with the introduction that is about the importance of the role of the acid rain, its effects and repercussions in the environment. In the first chapter the points that we should be evaluated to carry out a validation are analyzed. Being the main ones, the precision, accuracy, lineal interval, among others. Continuing in the second chapter with the foundation study, equipment and interferences of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The last chapter contains the experimental part, continuing for each evaluated point, from the experimental development, results and its analysis. (Author)

  2. Quantitative Autoradiography on [(35)S]TBPS Binding Sites of Gamma- Aminobutyric Acid(A) Receptors in Discrete Brain Regions of High- Alcohol-Drinking and Low-Alcohol- Drinking Rats Selectively Bred forHigh- and Low-Alcohol Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, B.H.; Kunkler, P.E.; Lumeng, L.

    1997-01-01

    It has been documented that ethanol can potentiate brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic function, and there is a close link between the GABA(A) receptor complex and effects of ethanol, including reinforcement of alcohol which is a fundamental element of alcohol preference. However, it is unknown in what discrete brain regions GABA(A) receptors might be associated with alcohol preference. In the present study, [(35)S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([(35)S]TBPS) was used to localize GABA(A) receptors in high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats and low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats which were selectively bred for high and low alcohol preference, respectively. Initial qualitative observations indicated that [(35)S]TBPS binding sites were abundant in many brain areas including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala of HAD and LAD rats. Furthermore, the quantitative autoradiographic analysis revealed fewer [(35)S]TBPS binding sites of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdaloid complex, central medial thalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic nucleus and anterior hypothalamic nucleus of HAD rats than LAD rats. Collectively, this study has indicated that HAD rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference possess lower [(35)S]TBPS binding in the brain. Since lower TBPS binding has been proposed to reflect enhanced GABAergic function, as evidenced in rats with seizure or under alcohol withdrawal, the results from the present study suggest that HAD rats might have an enhanced GABAergic function. It is thus likely that enhanced GABAergic function in the brain might be related to high alcohol preference which is characteristic in HAD rats. In addition, the present result showing no difference of [(35)S]TBPS binding in the nucleus accumbens is also in agreement with a notion that [(35)S]TBPS binding may represent only a small spectrum of the GABA(A) receptor complex which is constituted of a sophisticated subunit combination whose functional compositions are still unknown. In conclusion, the present study supports the working hypothesis that GABA(A) receptors are involved in alcohol preference in HAD rats.

  3. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The essential oils used in the present study with different components showed antibacterial activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil, and therefore they can be used as a new antibacterial substance.

  4. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  5. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    mail: zaferolmez@yahoo.com. Fax: +90 4662126951. Europe and North-West Africa (Browicz, 1963). Colutea armena (Boiss. and Huet.) is a drought-tolerant plant occurring in rocky and steep landscapes and is known as.

  6. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ( Colutea armena Boiss. and Huet.) seeds.

  7. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  8. Aportaciones a la flora Granatense, III

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Parras, J.Mª.; Molero Mesa, J.

    1983-01-01

    Se comentan algunas especies nuevas o críticas para la provincia de Granada. Se establecen las nuevas combinaciones siguientes: Cerastium alpinum subsp. aquaticum (Boiss.) Martínez Parras & Molero Mesa y Cerastium alpinum subsp. nevadense (Pau) Martínez Parras & Molero Mesa. In this paper, some plants from Granada province are studied. The following new combinations are stablished: Cerastium alpinum subsp. aquaticum (Boiss.) Martínez Parras & Molero Mesa and Cerastium alpinum subsp. ...

  9. An ethnopharmacological study on Verbascum species: from conventional wound healing use to scientific verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Tatlı, I Irem; Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Keleş, Hikmet; Kahraman, Çiğdem; Akdemir, Zeliha

    2010-11-11

    The leaves, flowers, and whole aerial parts of Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae) species are used to treat eczema and other types of inflammatory skin conditions and as a desiccant for wounds in Turkish traditional medicine. In the present study, the methanolic extracts of 13 Verbascum species growing in Turkey, including Verbascum chionophyllum Hub.-Mor., Verbascum cilicicum Boiss., Verbascum dudleyanum (Hub.-Mor.) Hub.-Mor., Verbascum lasianthum Boiss., Verbascum latisepalum Hub.-Mor., Verbascum mucronatum Lam., Verbascum olympicum Boiss., Verbascum pterocalycinum var. mutense Hub.-Mor., Verbascum pycnostachyum Boiss. & Heldr., Verbascum salviifolium Boiss., Verbascum splendidum Boiss., Verbascum stachydifolium Boiss. & Heldr and Verbascum uschackense (Murb.) Hub.-Mor. were assessed for their in vivo wound healing activity. In vivo wound healing activity of the plants were evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental models subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol(®), which contains 1% extract of Centella asiatica. The methanolic extracts of Verbascum olympicum, Verbascum stachydifolium and Verbascum uschackense demonstrated the highest activities on the both wound models. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Verbascum latisepalum, Verbascum mucronatum, and Verbascum pterocalycinum var. mutense were found generally highly effective. On the other hand, the rest of the species did not show any remarkable wound healing effect. Results of the present study support the continued and expanded utilization of these plant species employed in Turkish folk medicine. The experimental study revealed that Verbascum species display remarkable wound healing activity. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of the direct compression properties of pre-gelatinized African bitter yam and cassava starches in acetylsalicylic acid tablet formulations ... An assay of some thermal characteristics, chemical and phytochemical constituents of Hymenocarida acida timber · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PK GIDEON

    Charles, 2001). Disappearance of insects could lead to extinction of earth's animals because of the disappearance of so much plant life. Today they are by far the ... river banks. Some of the species found in the area include: Daniellia oliverri, Vitelleria paradoxa,. Vitex doniana, Hymenocordia acida, Burkia africana, Khaya ...

  12. Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon). F-N Tchuenguem Fohouo, SF Tope, AP Mbianda, J Messi, D Bruckner ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The beneficial role of resveratrol on chlorpyrifos-induced cognitive impairment and lipid peroxidation biomarker in Swiss albino mice. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 1 (2017): Special Conference Edition - Articles Evaluation of anticonvulsant activities of ethanol leaf extract of Hymenocardia acida Tul (euphorbiaceae) in mice and ...

  14. Caractérisation de la Biomasse sèche des mosaïques forêt-savane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2 sept. 2013 ... Poaceae et quelques arbustes tels que Bridelia ferruginea,(Euphorbiaceae), Hymenocardia acida. (Euphorbiaceae), Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) (Schnell,. 1976; Letouzey,1968; 1985). Ces bosquets forestiers sont souvent sur les socles granito-gneissique et le long des cours d'eau (White et Abernethy, ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mbianda, AP. Vol 4, No 4 (2010) - Articles Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL ...

  16. Regeneration Of Some Fuelwood Tree Species Of Humid Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six most widely used tree species of fuelwood (Daniellia oliveri, Entada africana, Hymenocardia acida, Lophira lanceolata, Piliostigma thonningii and Terminalia macroptera) were studied in three suburban localities of Ngaoundere (Bini, Borongo and Dang), for two seasons (rainy and dry seasons). Four cutting levels (0, 20 ...

  17. Radial variation in fiber length of some lesser used wood species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in fibre length of ten lesser used wood species were investigated. The mean fibre length varied from 1.07mm in Lannea acida to 2.41mm in Sterculia setigera. Four patterns of within tree radial variations in fibre length were observed in the studied species. In pattern one, fibre length increased from the pith to the ...

  18. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F-N Tchuenguem ...

  19. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of methanol leaf extract of Hymenocardia acida , Tul (Euphorbiaceae) in laboratory animals. ... Anticonvulsant studies were conducted on the extract using maximal electroshock test (MEST) in chicks and pentylene tetrazole induced-seizures (PTZ) in mice. The phytochemical screening ...

  20. Y ogananda CS (10) 8 (GA)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinese remainder theorem (2) 78 (CR). Chlamydomonas (5) 22 (GA). Cholesterol (2) 74 (GA). Chromium compound (9) 72 (FA). Cananga odorata Hook! & Thoms. (11) (FT). Cicca disticha L. Syn. C.Acida Merr (2) (FT). Circadian rhythm (5) 10, 14, 32, (GA). Circadian rhythms (5) 22 (GA). Claim size distribution (10) 49 (GA).

  1. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae) locally called Orupa, is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, including arthritis, rheumatic pain and toothache. The potential antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the aqueous leaf extract of this plant were evaluated in animal models. The extract (50 ...

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Fruit removal is an important component of plant fitness. The role of different frugivores in removal efficiency of two small-fruited trees, Lannea acida and L. welwitschii (Anacardiaceae), at Comoé National Park, north- eastern La Cote d'Ivoire was investigated. At least 12 bird species, the red-legged sun squirrel ( ...

  3. Chemotype common planets in Lebanon gender and gender Micromeria Origanum (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilan, Ch.; Rabiha, S.; Aitour, S.

    2011-01-01

    The chemotype or (chimiotype) is the original denomination, meant to characterizean essential oil from the botanic and biochemical view point. It is so important that it is today acknowledged and used in the whole biological and botanic classification, earmarking the wildly present molecule in an essential oil. This classification is linked to factors directly related to the specific life conditions of the plant namely: the country, climate, soil and the harvest period which can influence the essential oil composition. One speaks about a chemotype essential oil (Zhiri and Baudoux, 2005). This study shows the classification of four Origanums: Origanum syriacum L.,Origanum majorana L., Origanum ehrenbergii Boiss. and Origanum libanoticum Boiss., the last 2 being endemic to Lebanon; and four Micromeria: Micromeria barbata Boiss., wild and endemic, Micromeria barbata, domesticated, Micromeria libanotica Boiss., also endemic to Lebanon and Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss Origanum of Lebanon is 'thyme of thymo' and Micromeria grown in Lebanon contain less pulegone rate than in other countries These endangered species could find a field of valorization in the food industry sector, which will definitely help in preserving them and will lead to a potential new income to the Lebanese industry . (author)

  4. SEED GERMINATION BEHAVIOUR OF THREE ALPINE SPECIES FROM ULUDAĞ MOUNT,TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HülyaARSLAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the germination requirements of three species from alpine belt of Uludağ Mount; Gypsophila olympica Boiss., Matthiola montana Boiss. and Silene rhynchocarpa Boiss. We tested thegermination under (20 °C dark, (20 °C continuous light, and photoperiod 20/10 °C (12/12h with distilled water. Different germination behaviour was found for these three species from closely related habitat conditions. G. olympica showed similar germination percentages in dark, light and photoperiod, and germinated faster in light (3.9 days. S. rhyncocarpa germinated 100 % at all the threeconditions but faster in dark with 2.0 days. M. montana seeds were found to require light for germination. The germination was 27.2 % at dark, whereas the seeds were germinated 90 % under photoperiod.The results can be useful for both in situ and ex situ conservation of these plant species.

  5. Mechanistic Insights on the Photosensitized Chemistry of a Fatty Acid at the Air/Water Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Tinel, Liselotte; Rossignol, St?phanie; Bianco, Angelica; Passananti, Monica; Perrier, S?bastien; Wang, Xinming; Brigante, Marcello; Donaldson, D. James; George, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are ubiquitous in the environment and many atmospheric key processes, such as gas deposition, aerosol, and cloud formation are, at one stage or another, strongly impacted by physical and chemical processes occurring at interfaces. Here, the photoinduced chemistry of an air/water interface coated with nonanoic acid?a fatty acid surfactant we use as a proxy for chemically complex natural aqueous surface microlayers?was investigated as a source of volatile and semivolatile reactive or...

  6. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S

    2001-01-01

    Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gam...... receptor with respect to the direct activation by pentobarbital. This suggests differences in the mechanism of channel activation for pentobarbital and GABA....

  7. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  8. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... The antioxidant capability, total phenol, total flavonoid, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing power contents of polar and non-polar extracts for flower and leaves in two stages of growth for Rhamnus kurdica Boiss in flowering were evaluated in this work. The polar extraction of flower of R.

  9. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  10. Studies of Clump Structure of Photodissociation Regions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    But at density higher than the critical density and also for optically thick lines TH and QA ... dimensional approach, the techniques of Averett & Hummer (1965) have been used. Further, the formalism of Boisse (1990) has ... The average flux on a plane perpendicular to the incident photon as. +(z)and. −(z) in the forward and ...

  11. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  12. Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantification of Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of Thymus sipyleus Boiss and also to determine some phenolic compounds using a newly developed and validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.

  13. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... root extract of Sorghum halepense stimulated seedling shoot length of Parthenium hysterophorus. Similar effects of the aqueous extracts of Inula grantioides Boiss. and. Capsicum annuum L. on seedling growth of test species have also been demonstrated against various test species by Shaukat et al.

  14. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-06-30

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  15. Patterns of resource use by milkweed insects in Sinai | Elbanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant morphology and defensive chemistry are related to the insect community of herbivores on Gomphocarpus sinaicus (Boiss.) (Apocynaceae) in Sinai (Egypt). There appears to be significant variation among individual plants in the components of their chemical defences. The different components of the community ...

  16. 535-IJBCS-Article-De Anthelme Nene BI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    Rev.Méd.Pharm.Afr., 14: 121-130. Aydin S, Beis R, Ozturk Y, Baser KH. 1998. Nepetalactone: a new opioid analgesic from Nepeta caesarea Boiss. J Pharm. Pharmacol, 50:813–817. Bitsindou M, Lejoly J. 1996. Les plantes diarrhéiques chez les Sundi de la sous- préfecture de Kindamba (Congo). Academic Publishers.

  17. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    70 species which mainly distributed around the Mediterranean region of Europe and through western Asia up to Siberia [1, 2]. Eighteen species of Haplophyllum A. Juss. genus are found in. Iran which among them nine species are endemic and Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. is one of them [3]. Plants of Haplophyllum A. Juss.

  19. Studies on cytotoxic, phytotoxic and volatile profile of the bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rams

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... Kurz. by GC-MS analysis and also to investigate the cytotoxic and phytotoxic activity of. Mallotus tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz. bark .... database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST) having more than 62 000 patterns. ..... The essential oils of S. hierosolymitana Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. var.

  20. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 24 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil for preservation of Iranian ultrafiltered Feta cheese · EMAIL FREE ... Minimally processed fruit salad enriched with Lactobacillus acidophilus: Viability of anti-browning compounds in the preservation of color · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 11090 ... C Ko, J Kung, R Mc Donald. Vol 14, No 25 (2015), In vitro microtuberization of Black Zira (Bunium persicum Boiss.) .... Sujing Fu, Hengkang Hu, Qixiang Zhang, Yanming Fang, Zhengxiong Shen, Yuqiong Gao. Vol 7, No 3 (2008), In vitro propagation of miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificuDaniel) ...

  2. Biological Evaluation, Overpressured Layer Chromatography (OPLC) separation and Isolation of a New Acetylenic Derivative Compound from Prangos platychlaena ssp. platychlaena Fruit Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present work, fruits of Prangos platychlaena Boiss. ex Tchihat. ssp. platychlaena (Apiaceae) collected from eastern (Sample A) and central (Sample B) parts of Turkey were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield essential oils (EOs). The chemical composition of P. platychlaena ssp. platychlaen...

  3. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae). Several species of this genus have been used since ancient times as folk remedies for ailments such as scrophulas, scabies, eczema, psoriasis, tumors, etc. We have previously demonstrated the inhibitory effect of S. striata extract on nitric oxide production in vitro and ex vivo model [5].

  4. The Biological Activities of Moltkia aurea; an Endemic Species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neslihan BALPINAR

    inclination that studies on medicinal plants, which are basis for the development of new biologically active molecules for pharmaceuticals, have rapidly increased. Recent studies associated with medicinal plants make possible to better understand their properties, safety and efficiency. In this study, Moltkia aurea Boiss.

  5. Investigation on chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation on chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. ... The oil cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell line was far higher than the amount required for human healthy cells. Conversely, the essential oil's IC50 value of 49.2 μg/ml in the ...

  6. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in villages of Çatak (Van-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mükemre, Muzaffer; Behçet, Lütfi; Çakılcıoğlu, Uğur

    2015-05-26

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in the villages of Çatak in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Recording such data calls for urgency. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of FIC method in Eastern (Van) part of Turkey. This study aims to identify the wild plants collected for medicinal purposes by locals of Çatak which is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to identify the uses and local names of these wild plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2012). During this period, 78 plants taxa were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant taxa were collected within the scope of the study; and herbarium materials were prepared. In addition, the relative significance value of the taxa was determined, and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We have found out in the literature review of the plants included in our study that 78 plant taxa are already used for medicinal purposes while 19 plants are not available among the records in the literature. The most common families are Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae. We include in our study and report for the first time the medicinal uses of Alchemilla buseriana Rothm., Astragalus longifolius Lam., Cephalaria microcephala Boiss., Euphorbia grisophylla M.S. Khan, Fritillaria crassifolia Boiss. & Huet. subsp. kurdica (Boiss. & Noe) Rix, Fritillaria pinardii Boiss., Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss., Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Mey., Onobrychis altissima Grossh., Onobrychis carduchorum C.C. Townsend, Papaver bracteatum Lindl., Phlomis tuberosa L., Psephellus karduchorum (Boiss.) Wagenitz, Scutellaria orientalis L. subsp. pichleri

  7. Theodor von Heldreich (1822-1902) and his Turkish collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baytop, Asuman; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    excluding 2 in the United States. He is commemorated by the genus Heldreichia Boiss. (Brassicaceae), which has 4 species in Turkey. Numerous other taxa bear the epithets heldreichii, heldreichianus, -a or -um. At least 18 such taxa are listed in the Flora of Turkey. Heldreich died in Athens at the age of 80....... He had 3 daughters and his youngest daughter lived till the 1960s. There are no surviving descendants....

  8. Reproductive biology studies towards the conservation of two rare species of Colchic flora, Arbutus andrachne and Osmanthus decorus

    OpenAIRE

    MELIA, Nina; GABEDAVA, Laura; BARBLISHVILI, Tinatin; JGENTI, Lali

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the structural peculiarities of the generative sphere at different phases of development, and the processes of pollination, fertilisation, and seed formation in 2 species of wild flora: Arbutus andrachne L. (Ericaceae), the eastern strawberry tree, and Osmanthus decorus (Boiss. & Balansa) Kasapligil (Oleaceae), Caucasian osmanthus. These Arcto-Tertiary plants are included in the Red Data Book of the Georgian SSR. As germinable seeds are the main factor determining s...

  9. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Robles, José Manuel; Talavera Lozano, Salvador; García Castaño, Juan Luis; Terrab Benjelloun, Anass; Navarro Sampedro, Laura; Balao Robles, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other ...

  10. Efficiency of Floristic and Molecular Markers to Determine Diversity in Iranian Populations of T. boeoticum

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Naghavi; M. Maleki; S. F. Tabatabaei

    2009-01-01

    In order to study floristic and molecular classification of common wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.), an analysis was conducted on populations of the Triticum boeoticum collected from different regions of Iran. Considering all floristic compositions of habitats, six floristic groups (syntaxa) within the populations were identified. A high level of variation of T. boeoticum also detected using SSR markers. Our results showed that molecular method confirmed the groupin...

  11. Notas taxonómicas y nomenclaturales sobre el género Ononis L. (Leguminosae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López González, Ginés

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ononis reuteri Boiss, is considered to be a good species, clearly different from O. aragonensis Asso, and hs presence in North África is confirmed. O. Hispanica L. f. is regarded as a nomen ambiguum, which should not be used. The classification of the O. natrix L. group is discussed and a new species of this group, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López, is described. O. crispa L., to the Balearic Islands endemic, is excluded from the Iberian Península flora. O. tridentate L. is typified. O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. is considered to be merely a subspecies of O. pusilla L. The new combinations O. tridentata susbp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López and O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López, are proposed.Se destaca la autonomía de Ononis reuteri Boiss, frente a O. aragonensis Asso y se confirma su presencia en el norte de África. Se considera que O. hispanica L. f. es un nombre ambiguo que debe ser rechazado. Se discute la clasificación del grupo de O. natrix L. y se publica una nueva especie, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López. Se excluye O. crispa L. -un endemismo balear- de la Península Ibérica. Se tipifica O. tridentata L. y se publica la combinación O. tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López. Se acepta que O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. es una simple subespecie de O. pusilla L. Se propone la combinación O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López.

  12. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  13. Trichomes morphology as a taxonomic marker in the subfamily heliotropioideae (boraginaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes morphology of the subfamily heliotropioideae (Boraginaceae representing by 18 spectes has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium ohioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae 1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually comical with pointed tims and distinct trichomes base. However few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae. (author)

  14. Synthesis of the reported structure of piperazirum using a nitro-Mannich reaction as the key stereochemical determining step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piperazirum, isolated from Arum palaestinum Boiss, was originally assigned as r-3,c-5-diisobutyl-c-6-isopropylpiperazin-2-one. The reported structure was synthesised diastereoselectively using a key nitro-Mannich reaction to set up the C5/C6 relative stereochemistry. The structure was unambiguously assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction but the spectroscopic data did not match those reported for the natural product. The structure of the natural product must therefore be revised.

  15. Screening of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activity of Section Brevifilamentum of Origanum (L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Yılmaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six Origanum species, Origanum acutidens (Hand. -Mazz. Ietsw. (OA, Origanum brevidens (Bornm. Dinsm. (OB, Origanum haussknechtii Boiss. (OC, Origanum husnucan-baseri H.Duman, Aytaç & A.Duran (OHB, Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (OL, Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. (OR, belonging to sect. Brevifilamentum were analyzed for their essential oil and phenolic components. For the essential oil analyses, GC-MS and GC-FID were used. Phenolic contents of the aerial parts of the chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity of the species was investigated by three methods; DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene linoleic acid assays and CUPRAC assays. Also, acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition of the extracts were investigated. While the essential oil contents of the section Brevifilamentum showed difference in chemotype, the phenolic contents were found to be coumaric acids and derivatives. These groups were the most abundant components of the extracts. Especially rosmarinic acid was detected in high amounts in acetone and methanol extracts. OA had the best activity both in antioxidant and anticholinesterase assays.

  16. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Mohammadi, Elmira; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-09-01

    Since ancient times, various infectious diseases have been treated using herbal drugs. Today, efforts regarding the discovery of the effectual components of plants possessing antimicrobial properties are advanced. Herbal essential oils are widely used for treatment of various diseases, and they play an important role in health care considerations. The antibacterial activity of Artemisia kermanensis, Lavandula officinalis , and Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PTCC 1310), and Klebsiella pneumonia (PTCC 1053) was evaluated using the disk diffusion method as well as determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. The composition of the three essential oils was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Variable amounts of different components (such as oxygenated monoterpenes, thymol, carvacrol, and 1,8-cineol) were found in all three oils. Among the tested bacteria, S. aureus was the most sensitive to the three essential oils. The obtained results showed that each of the three essential oils has an inhibitory effect on pathogenic strains. Of these three oils, Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect on microbial strains. Furthermore, comparison of the antibacterial effects of these three essential oils with ampicillin and tetracycline revealed that these antibiotics have a better effect in controlling pathogenic strains. The essential oils used in the present study with different components showed antibacterial activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil), and therefore they can be used as a new antibacterial substance.

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracted from new verbascum species growing in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltan, F.Z.; Sokmen, M.; Akin, M.; Saracoglu, H.T.; Gokturk, R.S.; Ahmad, M.; Ali, M.; Shah, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the aerial parts of four new Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae) species namely, Verbascum bellum Hub.-Mor., Verbascum detersile Boiss. and Heldr., Verbascum myriocarpum Boiss. and Heldr. and Verbascum pestalozzae Boiss., growing in Turkey. Plant materials were extracted with chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol for antimicrobial tests. These extracts were assayed against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by the microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the Verbascum species varied between 150-0.59 mg/ml. In general, ethylacetate extract was effective for E. coli (ATCC 25922, 1.88 mg/ml). Ethyl acetate extract of V. pestalozzae exhibited the highest effect on P. aeroginosa (ATCC 29853, 0.59 mg/ml). The antioxidant capacity of the studied species was only tested with methanol extracts. Their antioxidant action was tested by DPPH and beta-carotene-linoleic acid methods. While V. pestalozzae (IC/sub 50/=15 mu g/ml) exhibited the strongest activity in DPPH assay, V. detersile and V. pestalozzae provided an excellent inhibition effect (100% RAA) in the beta-caroten- linoleic acid system. HPLC analysis of methanol extracts was also carried out to determine the composition of the phenolic compounds responsible for the activity. Methanol extracts were also subjected to HPLC analysis to determine their phenolic compound profile. (author)

  18. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Antimicrobial Activity of Scaligeria DC. Taxa and Implications for Taxonomy

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    Ayşe Baldemir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Six different Scaligeria DC. taxa (Apiaceae essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation from herba with the flowers collected from different sites from Turkey. The oils were analyzed and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS simultaneously. A total of 133 different compounds were identified and relative qualitative and quantitative differences were observed among the evaluated samples. Analytical profiles of the Scaligeria EOs showed characteristic differences in terms of different main chemical constituents, between the two taxa S. lazica Boiss. and S. tripartita (Kalen. Tamamsch; and S. napiformis (Sprengel Grande, S. meifolia (Fenzl Boiss., S. capillifolia Post, S. hermonis Post, S. glaucescens (DC. Boiss. taxa, respectively. The main component germacrene D can be utilized as marker for the chemical discrimination of the Scaligeria genus. In addition, Scaligeria EOs were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei standard strains by using a micro-dilution assay. As a general result, the oils showed moderate inhibitory range when compared with standard antimicrobial agents.

  19. Análisis de la superficie del vidrio. Aplicación a la determinación de elementos nocivos

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Fuentes, Francisco José

    1997-01-01

    Se constata que la Directiva 94/62/CE relativa a envases y residuos de envases incurre en un contrasentido entre el considerando 8 y el artículo 11 del texto. Se aplican lixiviaciones acuosas y acidas a la extracción de Pb, Cd, Hg y Cr en casco de vidrio reciclado de diferente procedencia. En los lixiviados se aborda el análisis de los anteriores elementos por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica, y vapor frió en el caso concreto del Hg. Se comprueba que la extracción de los citad...

  20. Studies on the metabolism of the Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H; Neusüss, Christian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker

    2009-10-01

    In Cannabis sativa, Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the non-psychoactive precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC). In fresh plant material, about 90% of the total Delta9-THC is available as Delta9-THCA-A. When heated (smoked or baked), Delta9-THCA-A is only partially converted to Delta9-THC and therefore, Delta9-THCA-A can be detected in serum and urine of cannabis consumers. The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of Delta9-THCA-A and to examine particularly whether oral intake of Delta9-THCA-A leads to in vivo formation of Delta9-THC in a rat model. After oral application of pure Delta9-THCA-A to rats (15 mg/kg body mass), urine samples were collected and metabolites were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high resolution LC-MS using time of flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for accurate mass measurement. For detection of Delta9-THC and its metabolites, urine extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites show that Delta9-THCA-A undergoes a hydroxylation in position 11 to 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (11-OH-Delta9-THCA-A), which is further oxidized via the intermediate aldehyde 11-oxo-Delta9-THCA-A to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A-COOH). Glucuronides of the parent compound and both main metabolites were identified in the rat urine as well. Furthermore, Delta9-THCA-A undergoes hydroxylation in position 8 to 8-alpha- and 8-beta-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, respectively, (8alpha-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A and 8beta-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A, respectively) followed by dehydration. Both monohydroxylated metabolites were further oxidized to their bishydroxylated forms. Several glucuronidation conjugates of these metabolites were identified. In vivo conversion of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was

  1. Stability of cannabinoids in dried samples of cannabis dating from around 1896-1905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D J

    1990-02-01

    Cannabinoids from three samples of cannabis obtained from the Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford, and dating from the turn of the century were examined by gas chromatography and mass spectometry for the presence of cannabinoids. Although the samples were from different geographical locations, the profiles of constituent cannabinoids were similar. In common with other aged material, most of the cannabinoid content was present as cannabinol (CBN), the main chemical degradation product of the major psychoactive constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC). However, a substantial concentration of CBN acid-A was also present; this compound is unstable to heat and readily undergoes decarboxylation to CBN. Methyl and propyl homologues of CBN, together with delta-9-THC and its naturally occurring acid-A were also found at low concentrations in all samples. Intermediates in the formation of CBN from delta-9-THC, previously identified in aged solutions of the drug, were absent or present in only trace concentrations. However, oxidation products involving hydroxylation at the benzylic positions, C-11 and C-1', not seen in solution, were identified in substantial abundance. The results suggest that decomposition of cannabis samples may proceed more slowly than originally thought.

  2. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  4. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  5. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on the acetonic extract of Marrubium globosum ssp. libanoticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Daniela; Grassia, Armando; Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Piozzi, Franco; Bruno, Maurizio; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Capasso, Raffaele; Senatore, Felice

    2006-05-01

    A new natural labdane diterpene, marrulibanoside, was isolated from the acetonic extract of aerial parts of M. globosum Montbr. et Auch. ex Benth. ssp. libanoticum Boiss. (Lamiaceae). Its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods such as 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. Pharmacological studies have shown that the extract of M. globosum exerts anti-inflammatory effects in the rat paw oedema induced by carrageenin resulting in reduced paw swelling. This activity, which seems due to marrulibanoside, is a consequence of iNOS and COX-2 activities inhibition.

  6. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografidis, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this study is a new variety of subsp. delphicum from Mt Ochi of southern Evvia.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXII. Guaianolides in species from the genus Chartolepis Cass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the composition of the "lactone fraction" of 4 species from the genus Chartolepis Cass. were observed. Cynaropierin was isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. and the occurrence there of grossheimin was confirmed. The following compounds were isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis glastifolia (L. Cass.: centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cebellin D, cynaropicrin, cebellin F and janerin. Centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cynaropicrin, janerin and a new guaianolide, pterocaulin were isolated from the herb Chartolepis biebersteinii Jaub. et Spach. In addition to the lactones found in Chartolepis biebersteinii, Chartolepis pterocaula (Trautv. Czer. also accumulated grossheimin.

  8. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  9. Thermoelectric energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, R.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoelectric energy system is described comprising: (A) at least first and second separated electrodes, said electrodes including copper; (B) a liquid electrolyte comprising a source of copper ions and a material for complexing the ions, the complexing material being selected from the group consisting of one or a combination of a source of tartrate, a source of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid,a source of gluconate, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, and a source of silicon dioxide, the electrolyte being disposed between and in contact with the electrodes to provide a metal ion conduction path which extends substantially the entire distance between the electrodes; (C) an electric circuit connected to the electrodes for removal of electrical energy from the system; and (D) means for establishing a temperature gradient within said electrolyte whereby the average temperature of one of said electrodes will be greater than that of the other of said electrodes to thereby produce a voltage across the electrodes

  10. In vivo synthesized 34S enriched amino acid standards for species specific isotope dilution of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gerrit; Moller, Laura Hyrup; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2016-01-01

    with the concept of species specific isotope dilution analysis (IDA). The method relies on the determination of the two sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine by sulfur speciation analysis and is hence applicable to any protein containing sulfur. In vivo synthesis using 34S as sulfur source...... (ICP-MS) combined to anion exchange showed that very high concentrated spike material could be produced with [small mu ]mol amounts of proteinogenic sulfur containing amino acids per g cell dry weight. An enrichment of 34S to 96.3 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) and 98.5 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) for cysteic acid......A generic quantification approach was introduced addressing the characterization of protein standards while fulfilling the principles of metrology. Traceable absolute quantification was achieved combining a proven biochemical method, i.e. protein hydrolysis followed by amino acid quantification...

  11. Motor pathway injury in patients with periventricular leucomalacia and spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Hae-Jeong; Park, Eun Sook; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Park, Bumhee; Rha, Dong-Wook; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Eung Yeop; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo; Park, Chang Il

    2011-04-01

    Periventricular leucomalacia has long been investigated as a leading cause of motor and cognitive dysfunction in patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. However, patients with periventricular leucomalacia on conventional magnetic resonance imaging do not always have motor dysfunction and preterm children without neurological abnormalities may have periventricular leucomalacia. In addition, it is uncertain whether descending motor tract or overlying cortical injury is related to motor impairment. To investigate the relationship between motor pathway injury and motor impairment, we conducted voxelwise correlation analysis using tract-based spatial statistics of white matter diffusion anisotropy and voxel-based-morphometry of grey matter injury in patients with periventricular leucomalacia and spastic diplegia (n = 43, mean 12.86 ± 4.79 years, median 12 years). We also evaluated motor cortical and thalamocortical connectivity at resting state in 11 patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity results of patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy were compared with those of age-matched normal controls. Since γ-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors play an important role in the remodelling process, we measured neuronal γ-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor binding potential with dynamic positron emission tomography scans (n = 27) and compared the binding potential map of the patient group with controls (n = 20). In the current study, white matter volume reduction did not show significant correlation with motor dysfunction. Although fractional anisotropy within most of the major white matter tracts were significantly lower than that of age-matched healthy controls (P < 0.05, family wise error corrected), fractional anisotropy mainly within the bilateral corticospinal tracts and posterior body and isthmus of the corpus callosum showed more significant correlation with motor dysfunction (P < 0.03) than

  12. Drug testing in the workplace: could a positive test for one of the mandated drugs be for reasons other than illicit use of the drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    elSohly, M A; Jones, A B

    1995-10-01

    This manuscript reviews data available in the scientific literature relative to drug testing for the five mandated drug classes and circumstances other than abuse of the drug itself that could result in a positive test. For marijuana, passive inhalation, unknowing oral ingestion, and the use of Marinol are discussed. Data are presented on the concentration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its precursors, acid-A and acid-B, in illicit marijuana and the extent of extraction of THC in boiled (tea) or cooked products. For cocaine, passive inhalation and passive exposure issues are reviewed. For opiates, poppy seed ingestion and guidelines for exclusion of poppy seeds as a cause for a positive test are discussed. For amphetamines, issues such as the presence of other phenethylamines, l-methamphetamine (Vicks' inhalers), and other prescription drugs are discussed. Although passive inhalation of methamphetamine and phencyclidine is theoretically possible, no data were available on these issues.

  13. The need of alkalinity determination in the characterization of rain; Necesidad de la determinacion de la alcalinidad en la caracterizacion de la lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper is presented the alkalinity determination of the carbonic species in the rain waters by the Gran titration method. The alkalinity values obtained by this method in low electric conductivity waters are fairly reliable. Also, the existing studies on the characterization of acid rains, are discussed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la medicion de la alcalinidad y la determinacion de las especies carbonicas en las aguas de lluvia por el metodo de la titulacion de Gran. Los valores de alcalinidad obtenidos por este metodo en las aguas de baja conductividad electrica son bastante confiables. Asimismo, se discuten los estudios existentes sobre la caracterizacion de la lluvia acida en la republica mexicana.

  14. Decay and durability of building stones in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of some pollutant agents in urban environments -gaseous SO2, acid rain and solid particles- on carbonate and siliceous building stones with different petrophysic characteristics. The selected environments have been London, Garston (UK and Burgos (Spain and the exposed materials have been Portland, Combe Down and Hontoria limestones, Laspra dolomite and Rosa Porriño granite. Products generated by the action of gases, acid rain and solid particles on stones have been analyzed. To point out the properties of stones that influence their decay, the results obtained on the stones exposed to the above environments have been compared to those from some laboratory accelerated ageing tests.

    Se estudia el efecto de ciertos agentes de contaminación presentes en ambientes urbanos –SO2 gaseoso, lluvia acida y partículas sólidas- sobre rocas de naturaleza carbonatada y silicatada con características petrofísicas distintas, utilizadas en edificación. Los ambientes seleccionados han sido Londres, Garston (UK y Burgos, y los materiales expuestos han sido las calizas de Portland, Combe Down y Hontoria, la dolomía de Laspra y el granito Rosa Porriño. Se analizan los productos generados por la acción de los gases, la lluvia acida y las partículas sólidas sobre los diferentes tipos de piedra. Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en la piedra expuesta a los ambientes antes citados, y los daños generados en algunos ensayos de envejecimiento artificial acelerado con el fin de resaltar las características intrínsecas de las piedras que condicionan su degradación.

  15. The Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oils from Some Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is the most common type of leishmaniasis affecting 1.5 million people through the world annually. Treatment of CL by pentavalent antimony compounds remains a challenge because of adverse side effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial properties of six essential oils from selected spices and herbs ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Leishmania tropica and L. major promastigotes. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antileishmanial effects of selected medicinal plants against L. tropica and L. major promastigotes were evaluated by colorimetric cell viability (MTT assay. The IC50 values were also calculated by probit test using SPSS software. Results: The findings demonstrated that all the tested essential oils had inhibitory effects on promastigote growth of L. tropica with IC50 values ranging from 3.2µg/mL to 19.3µg/mL and 2.7µg/mL to 18.8µg/mL for L. tropica and L. major, respectively. Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil significantly (P<0.05 was much more effective than essential oils of the other tested plants and control drugs once they demonstrated lower IC50 values promastigote form. Conclusions: The findings of present study indicated antileishmanial effects of some Iranian medicinal plants particularly Z. multiflora Boiss. However, further studies, on the animal models as well as volunteer human, are needed to confirm these results.

  16. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuncay Agar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC, A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC, antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract and TAC (2.080 UAE, the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL, the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  17. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  18. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2014-03-04

    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campanula glomerata L. and Campanula olympica Boiss. Antibacterial activity against six bacteria was evaluated: Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes , Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were most sensitive to the methanolic extract from A. europaeum . S. pyogenes was vulnerable to all used extracts of D. orientale . In addition, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of E. campestre , A. mollis , D. pentaphyllum , C. varia , R. angustifolius , C. glomerata and C. olympica displayed strong antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic extract from R. angustifolius showed a broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumour activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium-tumefaciens -induced potato disc tumour assay. Best antitumour activity was obtained with the aqueous extract from A. europaeum and methanolic extract from E. campestre (100% and 86% tumour inhibition, respectively).

  19. Extraction of Indigo from Some Isatis species and Dyeing Standardization Using Low-technology Methods

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    Nazan Comlekcioglu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh leaves of four Isatis species culture form of I. tinctoria L and wild forms of I. buschiana Schischkin, I. candolleana Boiss. (endemic and I. tinctoria L. subsp. corymbosa. (Boiss. were used for indigo production. Dyes were extracted by fermentation and hot water application. The extracted dyes were optimized with different pH and reducing agents. Results showed that the dye from hot water application produced the desired dying quality at pH 11. Reducing agent concentrations had no significant effect on color quality. Dark blue and blue colors were obtained from I. tinctoria and I. candolleana extracts although I. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa and I. buschiana produced mostly yellow-gray colors. Light, dry and wet rubbing fastness values varied between 3 and 3/4 while washing fastness was between 2 and 4/5. The highest indigo amounts were determined spectrophotometrically as 4.19 mg/g and 2.53 mg/g in I. tinctoria and I. candolleana, respectively. Results also showed that harvesting season was important for indigo production and the highest indigo amount was observed in mid-June.

  20. Chemotaxonomy and flavonoid diversity of Salvia L.(Lamiaceae in Iran

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    Navaz Kharazian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the chemotaxonomic status and chemical diversity of Salvia L. species in Iran using leaf flavonoid profiles. From natural habitats in the country, we collected samples of 14 species of the genus: S. spinosa L.; S. macrosiphon Boiss.; S. reuterana Boiss.; S. sharifii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. nemorosa L.; S. virgata Jacq.; S. syriaca L.; S. mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. atropatana Bunge; S. limbata C. A. Mey; S. sclarea L.; S. ceratophylla L.; S. multicaulis Vahl.; and S. hydrangea Dc. ex Benth. Two-dimensional maps of these species were created with thin-layer chromatography. In order to study the taxonomic position of these species and 37 accessions, cluster analysis was applied. The results of the cluster analysis showed that S. spinosa was distinct from S. reuterana. Despite considerable morphological similarity between S. nemorosa and S. virgata, those two species are definitely distinguished. In addition, S. spinosa and S. macrosiphon were roughly grouped, whereas S. ceratophylla and S. multicaulis composed two separate groups. In the 14 species collected, the flavonoids identified were flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols and chalcones. We found that flavonoids are appropriate indicators to determine the taxonomic position of Salvia species.

  1. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

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    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  2. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H 2 SO 4 and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses. At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H 2 SO 4 doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Three Thymus Taxa from Turkey with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zehra Küçükbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost, Thymus fallax Fisch. & Mey. and Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak var. pubescens resulted in the identification of 26, 35 and 53 constituents, respectively. The major components in the essential oil of T. migricus were found to be α-terpineol (30.6%, thymol (20.7% and α-terpinyl acetate (14.9% while in the essentiol oil of T. fallaxcis-carveol (29.6% and α-terpineol (10.8%. Carvacrol was a dominant compound with a percentage 66.1% of the essential oil of T. pubescens var. pubescens. The data obtained indicate that the essential oils of Thymus species generally exhibit some bacteriostatic activity. The antioxidant activity of the tested essential oils were found to be slightly lower than butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA.

  5. Herbal Medicine and Vaginal Candidiasis in Iran: A Review

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    Sedigheh Sheidaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is the second most common vaginal infection. Given the frequent recurrence of the disease, many women tend to use herbal remedies. Thus, the present study aimed to review the association between vaginal candidiasis and herbal medicines in Iran. In this review, we retrieved articles published from 2001 to 2016. Then, the results were expressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, nine articles were reviewed, which had investigated thyme, garlic, garlic-thyme, olive oil, propolis, myrtus, Nigella sativa (black cumin, and Bunium perscicum boiss (black zira. Subsequently, each of these plants was thoroughly dealt with. The studies on black cumin, garlic, and thyme reported positive effects for these herbs, and they were widely produced for therapeutic purposes. In addition, myrtus was found to have a salutary impact on vaginal candidiasis.

  6. Anatomy and Micromorphology of Inula helenium subsp. orgyalis and I. ensifolia (Asteraceae from Turkey

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    Tulay AYTAS AKCIN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula helenium L. subsp. orgyalis (Boiss. Grierson and Inula ensifolia L. were investigated anatomically and micromorphologically. The secretory cavities in the leaves and stem of both investigated taxa were located in the neighbourhood of the vascular bundles and in the rhizomes in the secondary cortex. The leaf mesophylls of investigated Inula taxa were homogeneous. Stomata were anomocytic in two species. The distribution and density of the eglandular and glandular trichomes provide information of taxonomical significance. Moreover, the cypselas of I. helenium L. subsp. orgyalis were homomorphic, whereas in I. ensifolia cypselas were heteromorphic. Additionally, the number of ribs, the shape of carpopodium and stylopodium were diagnostic taxonomic characters between the two taxa.

  7. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

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    Laura Navarro-Sampedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454 data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  8. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  9. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM 9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs

  10. Taxonomic Studies on the Genus Arnebia Forssk. (Boraginaceae in India

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    Kumar Ambrish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arnebia Forssk. in India is taxonomically studied based on field surveys, collection of live plants, consultation of herbarium and literature. The genus is represented in India by 10 taxa including 8 species and 2 varieties viz., Arnebia bhattacharyyae K. Ambrish & S.K. Srivast., A. benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don I.M. Johnst., A. euchroma ( Royle I.M. Johnst., A. guttata Bunge, A. hispidissima (Sieber ex Lehm. A.DC., A. linearifolia A.DC., A. griffithii Boiss., A. nandadeviensis K. Chandra Sek. & R.S. Rawal , A. euchroma var. grandis (Bornm. Kazmi and A. guttata var. thomsonii (C.B. Clarke Kazmi, distributed in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in North-West Himalaya to Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan in India. Dichotomous keys to all the species in India along with taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and images of most of the species including type and their economic importance are provided.

  11. Genetic Variance in Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation in Wheat Materials Differing in Ploidy and Genome at Seedling Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, D; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, B

    2010-01-01

    and cluster analysis, Triticum boeoticum Boiss was found to be the most Cd-tolerant variety exhibiting low Cd translocation rates, whereas T. aestivum cv. Huixianhong and Jinghui 1 were identified as the most Cd-sensitive varieties showing also higher Cd translocation rates.......Cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in wheat varieties differing in ploidy and genome were investigated at seedling stage under controlled environmental conditions. The wheat varieties included six diploid, eight tetraploid, seven hexaploid and three octoploid species together with wheat...... translocation (ratio of SCA to total Cd accumulation in plants) of the wheat varieties differing in ploidies generally decreased from octoploid to diploid, except for material containing the CCUU genome. It was found that Cd tolerance of these 24 wheat varieties varied with different ploidy and genomes...

  12. Bazı Sideritis (Dağçayı) Türlerinde Çeliklerin Köklenmesine Hormonların Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    GÜMÜŞÇÜ, Ahmet; GÜMÜŞÇÜ, Gönül

    2018-01-01

    Bu çalışma 2012 yılında Selçuk Üniversitesi, Çumra Meslek Yüksek Okulu deneme parselleri ve laboratuarlarında yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada beş adet endemik Sideritis türünden (S. condensata Boiss. et Heldr., S. congesta P.H. Davis et Hub.-Mor., S. leptoclada O.Schwarz et P.H. Davis, S. libanotica Labill. ssp. linearis ve S. tmolea P.H. Davis), ilkbaharda alınan çeliklerin, İAA ve İBA gibi hormonların farklı dozlarında (0, 250, 500, 750 ve 1000 ppm) muamele edildikten sonra köklenme ortamındaki du...

  13. Optimisation de l'efficacité des graines de Moringa oleifera dans le traitement des eaux de consommation en Afrique sub-saharienne : cas des eaux du Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Kaboré, A.; Savadogo, B.; Rosillon, Francis; Traore, A.S.; Dianou, D.

    2013-01-01

    L’accès à l’eau potable demeure une très grande préoccupation en Afrique sub-saharienne, particulièrement en milieu rural où les populations sont confrontées à la gestion optimale des points d’eau, l’insuffisance d’hygiène et d’assainissement et au manque de méthodes appropriées de désinfection à l’échelle familiale. De ce fait, l’intégration de procédés biologiques de traitement des eaux de consommation pourrait être une alternative durable dans l’amélioration de la qualité des eaux de boiss...

  14. Phytochemistry and bioactivity of Pedicularis sibthorpii growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Khodaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the aerial parts of the medicinal plant Pedicularis sibthorpii Boiss., Scrophulariaceae, growing in the Azerbaijan province of Iran, was found to be active in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and the antibacterial agar well diffusion assays, but no general toxicity was observed in the brine shrimp lethality assay. A combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-RP-HPLC analyses of the methanolic extract afforded three phenylethanoids (verbascoside, martynoside and isomartynoside, an iridoid (aucubin, a flavonoid (luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and mannitol, and the structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic means. The distribution of the isolated compounds within the genus Pedicularis has also been discussed.

  15. Phytochemistry and bioactivity of Pedicularis sibthorpii growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Khodaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the aerial parts of the medicinal plant Pedicularis sibthorpii Boiss., Scrophulariaceae, growing in the Azerbaijan province of Iran, was found to be active in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and the antibacterial agar well diffusion assays, but no general toxicity was observed in the brine shrimp lethality assay. A combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-RP-HPLC analyses of the methanolic extract afforded three phenylethanoids (verbascoside, martynoside and isomartynoside, an iridoid (aucubin, a flavonoid (luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and mannitol, and the structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic means. The distribution of the isolated compounds within the genus Pedicularis has also been discussed.

  16. Assessment of free-radical scavenging activity of Gypsophila pilulifera: assay-guided isolation of verbascoside as the main active component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep K. Chima

    Full Text Available Gypsophila pilulifera, Boiss & Heldr, Caryophyllaceae, is a perennial medicinal herb that grows in the southwestern region of Turkey. Except for only one report on the isolation of cytotoxic saponins from the underground parts of G. pilulifera, there are no published thorough phytochemical or bioactivity studies on this species. In the present study, the free-radical scavenging activity of extracts and fractions of the stems of G. pilulifera was evaluated, using a slightly modified and more precise version of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, reported here for the first time. The DPPH assay-guided HPLC-PDA-purification of the active solid-phase extraction fraction (50% methanol in water of the methanolic extract exhibited verbascoside as the main free-radical scavenger present in this species. The structure of this active compound was resolved by spectroscopy, and the free-radical scavenging potential of verbascoside was determined.

  17. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibranchiatum Qm9-41 4 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-07-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs.

  18. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  19. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  20. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  1. Identification of volatile components in two Thymus species from Iran and their antioxidant properties

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    Malekitabar, Elaheh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymus species are well known to have significant amount of phenolic compounds and exhibit strong antioxidant activities. This study is designed to analyze the essential oils of two Iranian Thymus species, (T. kotschyanus Boiss. et Hohen and T. pubescense Boiss. et Kotschy ex Celak obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial part of this plants, using GC-FID and GC/MS and evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activities in two quantitative methods (namely DPPH. and ABTS.+ assay to determine the total phenolic content of the species (assayed by colorimetric techniques and to study the possible compositionantioxidant activity relationship. The major aroma constitutes in the essential oil of T. pubescense were found to be thymol (38.7 %, γ-terpinene (7.5 %, p-cymene (5.5 %, α-terpenyl acetate (3.8 % and β-bisabolene (3.7 % while in the essential oil of T. kotschyanus, -terpineol (16.9 %, 1,8-cineol (14.4 %, linalool (9.6 %, thymol (7.2 % and geranyl acetate (5.4 % were the main compounds. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. T. pubescense showed more activity in both DPPH. [IC50= 285.2 (236.5-344.0 μg/mL] and ABTS.+ methods [IC50= 1.956 (1.810-2.113 μg/mL], as well as total phenolic content of T. pubescence [70254 ± 0.0049 μg/mg] was found to be slightly higher than T. kotschyanus [62933 ± 0.0026 μg/mg].

  2. The taxonomic status of Scilla beirana Samp. (Hyacinthaceae

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    Caldas, Francisco B.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Scilla beirana Samp. were sampled in NW Portugal and compared with its relatives S. ramburei Boiss, and S. peruviana L. Leaf and scape anatomy, morphology, chromosome number and idiogram were identical in S. beirana and S. ramburei, but differed from S. peruviana. Diagnostic characters previously used to discriminate S. beirana (width of leaves and flower number showed continuous, but not clinal, variation, and failed to provide a clear-cut basis for identification and no other morphological attributes were found to separate the taxa. All available evidence suggests that S. beirana should be put into synonymy with S. ramburei, as was earlier suggested by COUTINHO (1935.Se muestreó Scilla beirana Samp. en diversas poblaciones del noroeste de Portugal y se comparó con dos táxones con los que se había relacionado previamente, S. ramburei Boiss, y S. peruviana L. La macromorfología, la anatomía de la hoja y escapo, el número cromosomático y el idiograma de S. beirana y S. ramburei fueron indistinguibles, pero diferentes de los de S. peruviana. Los caracteres diagnósticos que se habían utilizado previamente para discriminar a S. beirana -anchura foliar y número de flores- revelaron una variación continua y no permitieron diferenciarla de S. ramburei, en la cual debería ser incluida como sinónimo, tal como había sugerido COUTINHO (1935.

  3. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

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    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  4. Dry and wet "deposition" studies of the degradation of cement mortars

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    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of portland cement mortars with SO2 gaseous pollutant and artificial 'acid rain' solution has been examined using laboratory exposure chambers, with realistic presentation rates of pollutants. The mortar were previously carbonated to produce superficial carbonation. Two mortars with different w/c ratio and hence specific surface were prepared and exposed into the chambers. For dry deposition of SO2 pollutant gas, the important roles of water and water plus oxidant in increasing chemical reaction are readily revealed. Further, accessible porosity also increases reaction through increased times of reaction of pollutant with the mortars. Interestingly, in the absence of deliberate surface wetting, the presence of oxidant, ozone, leads to a reduction in the already limited extent of reaction. Wet deposition studies using artificial 'acid rain' solution result in gypsum formation, which is more extensive for mortars of increased w/c ratios.

    Se han realizado ensayos de laboratorio de simulación de los procesos ambientales de "deposición" seca y húmeda sobre morteros de cemento portland, estudiándose las reacciones que se producen con el contaminante SO2 ("deposición" seca y la disolución de 'lluvia acida' ("deposición" húmeda. Los morteros de cemento se carbonataron para favorecer la carbonatación superficial de los mismos. Se prepararon morteros con dos relaciones a/c con el fin de estudiar la influencia que la variable superficie específica tenía en el proceso de deterioro de dichos materiales. En los estudios de deposición seca con SO2 como gas agresivo se ha visto la importancia que el agua y el agua junto a un oxidante tienen en la reacción del contaminante con los componentes del mortero. La superficie específica Juega un papel importante, ya que al aumentar, aumenta la reacción con el contaminante. La reacción en presencia de oxidante, (SO2+O3

  5. Habilidades cognitivas de crianças e adolescentes com distúrbio de aprendizagem Cognitive profile in children and adolescents with learning disabilities

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    Vera L. M. de Figueiredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Distúrbio de aprendizagem é um problema escolar e social, sendo uma das principais causas de encaminhamento de crianças para avaliação psicológica. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo investigar habilidades cognitivas de crianças e adolescentes com distúrbio de aprendizagem. Neste estudo foram avaliadas 263 crianças de escolas públicas com o teste de inteligência WISC-III. A amostra constituiu-se de alunos entre 6 e 16 anos (média=9 anos, sendo 69,2% do sexo masculino. Problemas na leitura e déficit de atenção foram identificados como fatores mais comuns no grupo estudado. Os subtestes Informação, Semelhanças, Aritmética, Dígitos, Código e Arranjo de Figuras foram os que apresentaram menores escores caracterizando o perfil ACIDAS. Quanto à capacidade intelectual geral, a média do QI Total foi classificada como limítrofe. Os resultados evidenciaram uma discrepância entre o raciocínio verbal (QI Verbal=82 e não-verbal (QI Execução=80. De acordo com a literatura, a discrepância esperada seria no sentido inverso.Learning disability is an important school and social problem, being one of the principal causes of the children referred for psychological evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive abilities from children and teenagers with learning disabilities. Data were gathered from 263 children and adolescents from public schools evaluated with WISC-III. The sample was constituted of students from 6 to 16 years old (median=9 with higher incidence in boys (69,2%. Problems in the reading and deficit of attention had been identified as the most common factors in the studied group. Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Digit Span, Coding and Picture Arrangement were the lowest subtests characterizing ACIDAS profile. The general intelligence mean scores was considered as borderline. The results evidenced a discrepancy between verbal (Verbal IQ=82 and performance reasoning (Performance IQ=80. According to

  6. Frequency of Synaptic Autoantibody Accompaniments and Neurological Manifestations of Thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekeridou, Anastasia; McKeon, Andrew; Lennon, Vanda A

    2016-07-01

    Thymoma is commonly recognized in association with paraneoplastic autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG), an IgG-mediated impairment of synaptic transmission targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of muscle. Newly identified synaptic autoantibodies may expand the serological profile of thymoma. To investigate the frequency of potentially pathogenic neural synaptic autoantibodies in patients with thymoma. We retrospectively identified patients with histopathologically confirmed thymoma and serum available to test for synaptic autoantibodies (collected 1986-2014) at the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory. We identified and classified 193 patients with thymoma into 4 groups: (1) lacking neurological autoimmunity (n = 43); (2) isolated MG (n = 98); (3) MG plus additional autoimmune neurological manifestations (n = 26); and (4) neurological autoimmunity other than MG (n = 26). Clinical presentation and serum profile of autoantibodies reactive with molecularly defined synaptic plasma membrane proteins of muscle, peripheral, and central nervous systems. Of the 193 patients with thymoma, mean patient age was 52 years and did not significantly differ by sex (106 women) or group. Myasthenia gravis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation (64%) followed by dysautonomia (16 patients [8%]) and encephalopathy (15 patients [8%]); 164 patients (85%) had at least 1 synaptic autoantibody, and 63 of these patients (38%) had at least 1 more. Muscle acetylcholine receptor was most frequent (78%), followed by ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (20%), voltage-gated Kv1 potassium channel-complex (13%), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (5%). Less frequent were aquaporin-4, voltage-gated Kv1 potassium channel-complex related proteins (leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 and contactin-associated protein-like 2), glycine receptor, and γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor. Synaptic autoantibodies were significantly more frequent in patients

  7. Structural modification of regenerated fuller earth and its application in the adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes

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    Oscar Dario Beltran-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tierra Fuller es un material inorgánico usado en la industri a eléctrica para la regeneración del aceite dieléctrico. Despué s de un tratamiento de descontaminación, la tierra Fuller se regenera y reutiliza. En este estudio se evaluó la capacidad de remoción de la tierra Fuller regenerada para el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con colorantes de diferente naturaleza y a su vez, como esta capac idad puede ser aumentada mediante la modificación estructural del ma terial. Así, la tierra Fuller regenerada sin ninguna modificaci ón alcanzó remociones del 99% de azul de metileno. Sin embargo, para el tr atamiento de efluentes contamina dos con rojo 40 se requirió la modificación acida y térmica del material para obtener adsorcio nes superiores al 94% del colorante. En conclusión, la tierra F uller regenerada es un material adsorben te adecuado para el tratamien to de efluentes contaminados con colorantes de naturaleza catió nica. No obstante, la remoción de colorant es aniónicos no es eficiente, siendo necesaria la modificación estructural del material para mejorar la remoción de este tipo de colorantes.

  8. Traditional medicine in north Côte-d'Ivoire: screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, W M; Atindehou, K Kamanzi; Terreaux, C; Hostettmann, K; Traoré, D; Dosso, M

    2004-07-01

    Sixty-seven crude ethanol extracts from 50 plants (31 families), which are used in North Côte-d'Ivoire as traditional remedies for bacterial diseases, were screened for in vitro activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Thirty-one extracts showed antibacterial activity only on Gram positive bacteria. Of these, 10 extracts from 10 plant species had a promising level of activity against bacteria including strains resistant to antibiotics such as aminosides, penicillin M, macrolides, lincosamide and streptrogramin B. The most active was Erythrina senegalensis DC (Fabaceae) followed by Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. & Wiersema (Caesalpinaceae), Waltheria lanceolata R. Br. ex Mast. (Sterculiaceae), Uapaca togoensis Pax. (Euphorbiaceae), Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae), Khaya senegalensis (Ders.) A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Lannea acida A. Rich. (Anacardiaceae), Cissus populnea Guill. & Perr. (Vitaceae), Keetia hispida (Benth.) Bridson (Rubiaceae) and Ficus thonningii (Miq.) A. Rich. (Moraceae). This is the first report of the antibacterial potency of these 10 plant species on a range of bacteria. The results provided evidence that some of the studied plants might indeed be potential sources of new antibacterial agents, also against some antibiotic-resistant strains.

  9. Aplicación del proceso BRISA al tratamiento de menas de cobre conteniendo atacamita

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    Carranza, F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of copper ores containing atacamite and secondary copper sulphides consists of heap leaching, by the TL process. Copper recoveries by this treatment are very low (less than 50 % for operating times higher than six months. In order to improve the copper extraction yields, several treatment options are presented in this work, wich consist on promoting the acid leaching of the atacamite and the indirect bioleaching (BRISA process of the secondary copper sulphides. All the options lead to improved copper recoveries in comparison with the current treatment. An economic estimation of each option of treatment is included, with really attractive results.

    El tratamiento actual de minerales que contienen atacamita y sulfures secundarios de cobre tiene lugar según el proceso TL. La recuperación de cobre en estos procesos es escasa (inferior al 50 %, para tiempos de operación superiores a seis meses. Para mejorar el rendimiento de extracción de cobre, se plantean, en este trabajo, diferentes alternativas de tratamiento que incluyen la potenciación de la lixiviación acida de la atacamita y la biolixiviación por contacto indirecto (proceso BRISA de los sulfuros secundarios de cobre. Todas las alternativas ofrecen aumentos sustanciales de la recuperación de cobre. Se incluye la evaluación económica preliminar de cada una de ellas, con resultados francamente atractivos.

  10. Expression of glutamate transporter, GABRA6, serine proteinase inhibitor 2 and low levels of glutamate and GABA in the brain of knock-out mouse for Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sankar; Rady, Peter L; Michals-Matalon, Kimberlee; Quast, Michael J; Rassin, David K; Campbell, Gerald A; Ezell, Ed L; Wei, Jingna; Tyring, Stephen K; Szucs, Sylvia; Matalon, Reuben

    2003-08-30

    Canavan disease (CD) is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterized by spongy degeneration of the brain. The clinical features of CD are hypotonia, megalencephaly, and mental retardation leading to early death. While aspartoacylase (ASPA) activity increases with age in the wild type mouse brain, there is no ASPA activity in the CD mouse brain. So far ASPA deficiency and elevated NAA have been ascribed with the CD. Other factors affecting the brain that result from ASPA deficiency may lead pathophysiology of CD. The NMR spectra and amino acid analysis showed lower levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the CD mouse brain compared to the wild type. Microarray gene expression on CD mouse brain showed glutamate transporter-EAAT4 and gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor, subunit alpha6 (GABRA6) were lower 9.7- and 119.1-fold, respectively. Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Spi2) was 29.9-fold higher in the CD mouse brain compared to the wild type. The decrease of GABRA6 and high expression of Spi2 in CD mouse brain were also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. This first report showing abnormal expression of EAAT4, GABRA6, Spi2 combined with lower levels of glutamate and GABA are likely to be associated with the pathophysiology of CD.

  11. Ionic composition and levels of acidity in rainfall in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between 1989 and 2001; Composicion ionica y niveles de acidez de las lluvias en Maracaibo, Venezuela, entre 1989 y 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Ligbel; Morales, Jose; Velasquez, Harvi; Portillo, Dennis; Cano, Yulixis; Montilla, Brinolfo; Iriarte, Nelkis, Mesa, Johan [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ligbels@hotmail.com

    2009-08-15

    de emision naturales y antropicas, se incorporan en las gotas de lluvia a traves de varios procesos fisicoquimicos durante los eventos de precipitacion. El conocimiento de la composicion quimica de las precipitaciones es critico para el entendimiento de la contaminacion regional y local y sus efectos sobre los ecosistemas. Entre las sustancias acidas o potencialmente acidas envueltas en la formacion de la lluvia acida, se puede senalar los compuestos de azufre, nitrogeno y cloro. Un factor importante en las caracteristicas acido-base de la lluvia es la emision de materiales alcalinos como carbonato de calcio, magnesio y amoniaco, que se encuentran generalmente como un vapor capaz de neutralizar los acidos sulfurico y nitrico. Los datos de la quimica de las lluvias, en este trabajo, provienen de varios sitios de la ciudad de Maracaibo, las muestras de agua de lluvia fueron recolectadas en tres periodos repartidos entre los anos 1989 y 2001, con equipos de muestreo manuales y automaticos. Para los diferentes analisis realizados se utilizaron un espectrometro de absorcion atomica modalidad llama, Perkin-Elmer 3110 y un cromatografo ionico con detector de conductividad, marca Dionex 2000i/SP. El pH-PPV en la lluvia de Maracaibo es 4.8, indicativo de una atmosfera ligeramente acida e influenciada por: SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} en 86 %. La especie neutralizante mas importante es el NH{sub 3}, aunque las concentraciones de Ca{sup +2} y Mg{sup +2} son aportes adicionales al proceso de neutralizacion atmosferica. El mayor flujo de depositacion humeda fue exhibido por: NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con 67.5 %. Estadisticamente, se evidencio una alta correlacion entre SO4{sup *}, Cl{sup *} y NO{sub 3}{sup -} con el ion H{sup +} (p<0.05), ratificando su influencia en la acidez de las lluvias de Maracaibo. Se concluye que solo una pequena fraccion de los iones potencialmente acidos contribuyen a la acidez libre de las

  12. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of New 3,4-Dihydroisoquinolin Derivatives Containing Heterocycle as Potential Anticonvulsant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jian Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two novel series of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin with heterocycle derivatives (4a–t and 9a–e were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock (MES test and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure test. All compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Among them, 9-(exyloxy-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]isoquinolin-3(2H-one (9a showed significant anticonvulsant activity in MES tests with an ED50 value of 63.31 mg/kg and it showed wide margins of safety with protective index (PI > 7.9. It showed much higher anticonvulsant activity than that of valproate. It also demonstrated potent activity against PTZ-induced seizures. A docking study of compound 9a in the benzodiazepine (BZD-binding site of γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA receptor confirmed possible binding of compound 9a with the BZD receptors.

  13. Medio ambiente y salud.

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    Tomás Franco Aliaga

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La salud es el resultado de un equilibrio dinámico entre los organismos y el medio del que forma parte. Esta armonía puede romperse de forma natural, pero cada vez es mayor la injerencia humana tanto en el ritmo de los fenómenos (efecto invernadero, capa de ozono o lluvia acida como en el reparto de los recursos. El desequilibrio económico es la epidemia más letal entre los grupos humanos, cuyo antídoto está sólo en nuestras manos.Health is the result of a dynamic equilibrium between organisms and the environment of which they are part. This harmony can be broken in a natural way but human interference is growing in the rhythm of phenomena (greenhouse effect, the ozone layer or the acid rain as well as in the distribution of resources. The economic imbalance is the most lethal epidemic among human beings, the antidote of which is only in our hands.

  14. The sodium/multivitamin transporter: a multipotent system with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The Na(+)/multivitamin transporter (SMVT) is a member of the solute:sodium symporter family that catalyzes the Na(+)-dependent uptake of the structurally diverse water-soluble vitamins pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and biotin (vitamin H), α-lipoic acid-a vitamin-like substance with strong antioxidant properties-and iodide. The organic substrates of SMVT play central roles in the cellular metabolism and are, therefore, essential for normal human health and development. For example, biotin deficiency leads to growth retardation, dermatological disorders, and neurological disorders. Animal studies have shown that biotin deficiency during pregnancy is directly correlated to embryonic growth retardation, congenital malformation, and death of the embryo. This chapter focuses on the structural and functional features of the human isoform of SMVT (hSMVT); the discovery of which was greatly facilitated by the cloning and expression of hSMVT in tractable expression systems. Special emphasis will be given to mechanistic implications of the transport process of hSMVT that will inform our understanding of the molecular determinants of hSMVT-mediated transport in dynamic context to alleviate the development and optimization of hSMVT as a multipotent platform for drug delivery. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of solvent extraction equilibrium of Cu(II from sulphuric Acid solution with MOC-55TD

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    Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Cu(II from acidic sulphate aqueous solutions using the commercial MOC-55TD extractant is studied. A predictive model, which consists in a set of non-linear mass action and mass balance equations is proposed. The model was solved using a tailor-made equation-solving program. The extraction of copper can be described by the formation of CuR2 species (log Kext= 0.717 ± 0.03 in the organic phase. The copper equilibrium isotherm was also obtained at 20°C.

    Se estudia la extracción de Cu(II de disoluciones acuosas acidas, en medio sulfato, mediante la oxima comercial MOC-55TD. Se propone un modelo para predecir la extracción del metal; este modelo consiste en una serie de ecuaciones no lineales de acción de masas y balance de masas. El modelo se resolvió empleando un programa de ordenador específicamente definido para este tipo de equilibrios. La extracción de cobre se describe por la formación de la especie CuR2 (log Kext= 0,717 ± 0,03 en la fase orgánica. Se ha obtenido la isoterma de extracción de cobre a 20 °C.

  16. REDUCCIÓN DE ÓXIDOSDE NITROGENO CON CATALIZADORES ZEOLÍTICOS INTERCAMBIADOS CON COBALTO

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    Enrique Alexis García Moya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la reducción catalítica selectiva (RCS de NOx con metano en presencia de oxígeno en exceso con varios catalizadores a base de las zeolitas mordenita, ferrierita y ZSM-5 intercambiadas con diferentes cargas de cobalto y con las correspondientes zeolitas en forma acida. Cuando la mezcla reactiva contenía mayormente NO2 en lugar de NO, los catalizadores ácidos mostraron las más altas velocidades de formación de N2 en condiciones secas. Las mayores actividades se obtuvieron con los catalizadores Co-mordenita, siguiendo en orden de actividad los catalizadores Co-Ferrierita y Co-ZSM-5. El catalizador Co-Mordenita más activo se ensayó con una mezcla reactiva donde predominó el NO en lugar del NO2 bajo condiciones secas e hidrotérmicas y en presencia de SO2. Con la adición de 8% de agua a la mezcla de reacción se observó desactivación reversible, especialmente a bajas temperaturas. La adición de 60 ppm de SO2 disminuyó la velocidad de reacción aproximadamente a la mitad debido posiblemente al envenenamiento de algunos sitios activos.

  17. Analysis of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory substances produced by heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifová, Gabriela; Májeková, Hyacinta; Greif, Gabriel; Body, Patrik; Greifová, Maria; Dubničková, Martina

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory potential of various Lactobacillus reuteri strains is closely connected to their metabolite production profile under given cultivation conditions. We determined the in vitro production of antimicrobial substances such as organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin by four strains of L. reuteri (L. reuteri E, L. reuteri KO5, L. reuteri CCM 3625, and L. reuteri ATCC 55730). All studied L. reuteri strains showed the ability to produce lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol with concominant consumption of glucose and together with phenyllactic acid-a potent antifungal compound-with concominant consumption of phenylalanine. The reuterin production from glycerol was confirmed for all analyzed lactobacilli strains except L. reuteri CCM 3625. Production of organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin is significantly involved in antimicrobial activity of lactobacilli which was determined using the dual-culture overlay diffusion method against six indicator bacteria and five indicator moulds. In comparison to the referential L. reuteri ATCC 55730, the highest inhibition potential was observed against Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 3955. Among analyzed indicators of moulds, the growth of Alternaria alternata CCM F-128 was the most inhibited by all four analyzed L. reuteri strains. Finally, the immunomodulatory potential of analyzed lactobacilli were proven by the determination of the in vitro production of biogenic amines histamine and tyramine. L. reuteri CCM 3625 was able to produce tyramine, and L. reuteri E and L. reuteri KO5 were able to produce histamine under given cultivation conditions.

  18. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

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    Ramar Perumal Samy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L. Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study.

  19. [The calix[4]arene C-107 is highly effective supramolecular inhibitor of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of plasma membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevza, O V; Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Rodik, R V; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the myometrium cell plasma membranes with calixarene C-107 (5,17-diamino(2-pyridyl) methylphosphono-11,23-di-tret-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene) was investigated. It has been shown that calixarene C-107 reduced the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity more efficiently than ouabain did, while it did not practically influence the "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of the same membrane. The magnitude of the cofficient of inhibition I0.5 was 33 +/- 4 nM, Hill coefficient was 0.38 +/- 0.06. The model calixarene C-150--the calixarene "scaffold" (26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene), and the model compound M-3 (4-hydroxyaniline(2-pyridine)methylphosphonic acid)--a fragment of the calixarene C-107, had practically no influence on the enzymatic activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase. We carried out the computer simulation of interaction of calixarenes C-107 and the mentioned model compound with ligand binding sites of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of plasma membrane and structure foundation of their intermolecular interaction was found out. The participation of hydrogen, hydrophobic, electrostatic and pi-pi (stacking) interaction between calixarene and enzyme aminoacid residues, some of which are located near the active center of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, was discussed.

  20. Evaluation of aromatic plants and compounds used to fight multidrug resistant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100  μ g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study.

  1. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Compound Zhi Zhu Xiang in Rats

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    Yan-Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether compound zhi zhu xiang (CZZX exerts anxiolytic-like effects in rats. The animals were orally administered CZZX (0.75, 1.5, and 3 g/kg daily for 10 days and tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM, Vogel conflict test (VCT, and open field. Repeated treatment with CZZX (3 g/kg/day, p.o. significantly increased the percentage of both entries into and time spent on the open arms of the EPM compared with saline controls. In the VCT, repeated treatment with CZZX (1.5 and 3 g/kg/day, p.o. significantly increased the number of punished licks. The drug did not change the total entries into the open arms of the EPM or interfere with water consumption or nociceptive threshold, discarding potential confounding factors in the two tests. In the open field, locomotion was not reduced, discarding the possible sedative effect of CZZX. In the binding assay, the binding of [3H] Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil to the benzodiazepine binding site in washed crude synaptosomal membranes from rat cerebral cortex was affected by CZZX. These data indicate an anxiolytic-like profile of action for CZZX without sedative side effects, and this activity may be mediated by benzodiazepine binding site modulation at γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

  2. Regulatory role of kinases and phosphatases on the internalisation of caveolae in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botos, Erzsébet; Turi, Agnes; Müllner, Nándor; Kovalszky, Ilona; Tátrai, Péter; Kiss, Anna L

    2007-01-01

    The caveolar cycle is thought to be regulated by synchronised function of kinases and phosphatases. Using ocadaic acid--a serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor--and an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase (sodium orthovanadate) we have followed the internalisation of caveolae. Since albumin binding to its receptor (gp60) can induce pinching off of caveolae from the plasma membrane, we also used this physiological ligand to induce the internalisation. Our confocal microscopic results show that both ocadaic acid and vanadate treatments have significantly decreased caveolin (caveolin-1 and -2) labelling on the cell surface, while the cytoplasmic labelling became much stronger. Quite often large, strongly labelled "granules" appear at the perinuclear region. Very strong caveolin labelling was detected along the actin-cytoskeleton suggesting that caveolae might move along these filaments. Our electron microscopic results also show an intensive caveolae pinching off from the plasma membrane. After ocadaic acid and vanadate treatments the number of surface connected vesicles (caveolae) decreases. At the same time, large multivesicular bodies (termed caveosomes) appear in the perinuclear area of the cytoplasm. By immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis we detect an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of a approximately 29kDa protein in ocadaic acid and vanadate treated samples. This protein was identified as caveolin-2. No significant change in the tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 was found. From these data we can conclude that caveolae internalisation is regulated by phosphorylation of caveolin-2.

  3. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  4. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

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    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  5. A novel operant conflict procedure using incrementing shock intensities to assess the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, John; Ross, Laurie; Jonak, Gerald; Zhou, Jin

    2009-05-01

    There is a need for novel anxiolytics, which are effective, but do not cause sedation, tolerance, and rebound anxiety on discontinuation. To investigate a procedure that can be used to assess these characteristics preclinically, rats were initially trained to press a lever at a high rate to obtain food. Once trained, periods of punishment were introduced in which electric shocks were superimposed. The intensity of these electric shocks was increased every 90 s from very low (0.01 mA) to sufficiently high to stop most subjects responding (0.4 mA), so that a complete rate/intensity function was obtained during each punishment period. The benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, and two novel subtype-selective gamma-aminobutyric acid-A agonists, TP003 and TPA023, significantly increased response rates mildly suppressed by intermediate levels of electric shock without any effect on unpunished response rate. Two clinically anxiogenic agents, yohimbine and flumazenil, reduced the rate of punished responding. Aripiprazole and amphetamine reduced both punished and unpunished responding. Repeated treatment with diazepam 2.5 mg/kg daily for 15 days, initially markedly reduced unpunished response rates, but also increased punished response rates, an effect which became greater with repeated treatment. Abrupt cessation of diazepam treatment produced a reduction in punished responding. Diazepam (5 mg/kg daily) produced a greater reduction in unpunished responding, a smaller increase in punished responding, and a larger and longer lasting reduction in punished rates on withdrawal. In conclusion, the procedure detected anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs, and the sedative side effects, development of tolerance, and rebound-anxiety on discontinuation of a benzodiazepine. This procedure should have utility in the characterization of novel treatments of anxiety.

  6. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  8. Pharmacological profile of a 17β-heteroaryl-substituted neuroactive steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Derk J; Tran, Minhtam B; Yoshimura, Ryan F; Johnstone, Timothy B; Kanner, Richard; Gee, Kelvin W

    2014-09-01

    In order to improve upon the pharmacological properties of the neuroactive steroid ganaxolone, it was used as the starting point in the design of novel neurosteroids that replace the 17β-acetyl side chain with an isoxazole bioisostere. UCI-50027 (3-[3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-androstan-17β-yl]-5-(hydroxymethyl)isoxazole) was designed as an orally active neuroactive steroid specifically targeted at the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor (GABAAR). UCI-50027 was tested in vitro in Xenopus oocytes expressing human GABAARs and in vivo as an anticonvulsant, for ataxic effects and for anxiolytic activity. In vitro, UCI-50027 dose-dependently enhanced the activity of GABA at human α1β2γ2L, α2β1γ2L, and α4β3δ GABAARs. Consistent with its action as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), it had no direct activity in the absence of GABA. UCI-50027 protected against acute pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions with an ED50 of 6 mg/kg p.o. In the rotarod (RR) paradigm in mice, the AD50 (the ataxic dose where half of the animals fail the RR test) was found to be 38 mg/kg p.o., giving a therapeutic index (TI = RR AD50/PTZ ED50)∼6 versus 2.8 for ganaxolone. In the mouse-elevated plus maze (EPM) model for anxiety, UCI-50027 showed a minimum effective dose (MED) ≤0.3 mg/kg p.o. Thus, the TI (TI = RR AD50/EPM MED) for the compound as an anxiolytic is ≥127 versus 3.3 for ganaxolone. UCI-50027 is an orally active neuroactive steroid with pharmacological activity consistent with a GABAAR PAM that has an improved separation between anticonvulsant/anxiolytic and rotarod effects, potent activity as an anticonvulsant and anxiolytic when compared to ganaxolone.

  9. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, K.W.; Bolger, M.B.; Brinton, R.E.; Coirini, H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1988-08-01

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by (35S)-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((35S)TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of (35S)TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of (35S)TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates (35S)TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All (35S)TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of (3H)promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex.

  10. Modulating Wnt Signaling Rescues Palate Morphogenesis in Pax9 Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lan, Y; Krumlauf, R; Jiang, R

    2017-10-01

    Cleft palate is a common birth defect caused by disruption of palatogenesis during embryonic development. Although mutations disrupting components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been associated with cleft lip and palate in humans and mice, the mechanisms involving canonical Wnt signaling and its regulation in secondary palate development are not well understood. Here, we report that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in Pax9-mediated regulation of secondary palate development. We found that cleft palate pathogenesis in Pax9-deficient embryos is accompanied by significantly reduced expression of Axin2, an endogenous target of canonical Wnt signaling, in the developing palatal mesenchyme, particularly in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves. We found that expression of Dkk2, encoding a secreted Wnt antagonist, is significantly increased whereas the levels of active β-catenin protein, the essential transcriptional coactivator of canonical Wnt signaling, is significantly decreased in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves in embryonic day 13.5 Pax9-deficent embryos in comparison with control littermates. We show that small molecule-mediated inhibition of Dickkopf (DKK) activity in utero during palatal shelf morphogenesis partly rescued secondary palate development in Pax9-deficient embryos. Moreover, we found that genetic inactivation of Wise, which is expressed in the developing palatal shelves and encodes another secreted antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, also rescued palate morphogenesis in Pax9-deficient mice. Furthermore, whereas Pax9 del/del embryos exhibit defects in palatal shelf elevation/reorientation and significant reduction in accumulation of hyaluronic acid-a high molecular extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan implicated in playing an important role in palatal shelf elevation-80% of Pax9 del/del ;Wise -/- double-mutant mouse embryos exhibit rescued palatal shelf elevation/reorientation, accompanied by restored

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives as ultra-short recovery sedative/hypnotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Xu, Xiangqing; Chen, Yin; Qiu, Yinli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng; Zhang, Guisen

    2014-01-01

    Soft drugs are molecules that are purposefully designed to be rapidly metabolized (metabolically labile). In anesthesia, the soft drug is useful because it enables precise titration to effect and rapid recovery, which might allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. Propofol may cause delayed awakening after prolonged infusion. Propanidid and AZD3043 have a different metabolic pathway compared to propofol, resulting in a short-acting clinical profile. Fluorine imparts a variety of properties to certain medicines, including an enhanced absorption rate and improved drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized that the introduction of fluorine to the frame structure of propanidid and AZD3043 would further accelerate the swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we developed a series of fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives. Fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives were synthesized, and their hypnotic potencies and durations of LORR following bolus or infusion administration were determined in mice, rats and rabbits. The metabolic half-lives in the blood of various species were determined chromatographically. In vitro radioligand binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor electrophysiology studies were performed. Among the 12 synthesized fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives, compound 5j induced comparable duration of LORR with AZD3043, but more rapid recovery than AZD3043, propanidid and propofol. The time of compound 5j to return to walk and behavioral recovery are approximately reduced by more than 50% compared to AZD3043 in mice and rats and rabbits. The HD50 of compound 5j decreased with increasing animal size. The rapid recovery might make compound 5j suitable for precise titration and allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness.

  12. Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington's disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdeolivas, Sara; Navarrete, Carmen; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Sagredo, Onintza

    2015-01-01

    Different plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids have shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) through cannabinoid receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Herein, we studied the effects of cannabigerol (CBG), a nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid, in 2 different in vivo models of HD. CBG was extremely active as neuroprotectant in mice intoxicated with 3-nitropropionate (3NP), improving motor deficits and preserving striatal neurons against 3NP toxicity. In addition, CBG attenuated the reactive microgliosis and the upregulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3NP, and improved the levels of antioxidant defenses that were also significantly reduced by 3NP. We also investigated the neuroprotective properties of CBG in R6/2 mice. Treatment with this phytocannabinoid produced a much lower, but significant, recovery in the deteriorated rotarod performance typical of R6/2 mice. Using HD array analysis, we were able to identify a series of genes linked to this disease (e.g., symplekin, Sin3a, Rcor1, histone deacetylase 2, huntingtin-associated protein 1, δ subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (GABA-A), and hippocalcin), whose expression was altered in R6/2 mice but partially normalized by CBG treatment. We also observed a modest improvement in the gene expression for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is altered in these mice, as well as a small, but significant, reduction in the aggregation of mutant huntingtin in the striatal parenchyma in CBG-treated animals. In conclusion, our results open new research avenues for the use of CBG, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids or therapies, for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as HD.

  13. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, enhances energy metabolism by activation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Furuzono, Tomoya; Yamakuni, Kanae; Li, Yongjia; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Haruya; Ohue-Kitano, Ryuji; Jheng, Huei-Fen; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kano, Yuriko; Yu, Rina; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Yamazaki, Jun; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawada, Teruo; Goto, Tsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota can regulate the host energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanisms that could involve gut microbiota-derived compounds remain to be understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of KetoA [10-oxo-12( Z )-octadecenoic acid]-a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria-on whole-body energy metabolism and found that dietary intake of KetoA could enhance energy expenditure in mice, thereby protecting mice from diet-induced obesity. By using Ca 2+ imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, KetoA was noted to potently activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and enhance noradrenalin turnover in adipose tissues. In addition, KetoA up-regulated genes that are related to brown adipocyte functions, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in white adipose tissue (WAT), which was later diminished in the presence of a β-adrenoreceptor blocker. By using obese and diabetic model KK-Ay mice, we further show that KetoA intake ameliorated obesity-associated metabolic disorders. In the absence of any observed KetoA-induced antiobesity effect or UCP1 up-regulation in TRPV1-deficient mice, we prove that the antiobesity effect of KetoA was caused by TRPV1 activation-mediated browning in WAT. KetoA produced in the gut could therefore be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism.-Kim, M., Furuzono, T., Yamakuni, K., Li, Y., Kim, Y.-I., Takahashi, H., Ohue-Kitano, R., Jheng, H.-F., Takahashi, N., Kano, Y., Yu, R., Kishino, S., Ogawa, J., Uchida, K., Yamazaki, J., Tominaga, M., Kawada, T., Goto, T. 10-oxo-12( Z )-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, enhances energy metabolism by activation of TRPV1. © FASEB.

  14. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  15. EFECTO DEL PRE-TRATAMIENTO CON ULTRASONIDO EN LA EXTRACCIÓN DE PECTINA CONTENIDA EN EL ALBEDO DEL MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis

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    YESENIA CAMPO-VERA

    Full Text Available La pectina es un polisacárido contenido en la pared celular de la mayoría de los vegetales y frutas, con propiedades benéficas para la salud y muy utilizado en la industria alimentaria. El objetivo del estudio fue la evaluación del efecto de pre-tratamiento con ultrasonido (US en la extracción de pectina contenidas en el albedo del maracuyá, las muestras fueron expuestas a 40 KHz a una temperatura de 30, 45 y 60°C durante 10, 20 y 30 minutos. A continuación las muestras se sometieron a extracción de hidrolisis acida relación 1:3 (%p/%v con calentamiento de 80°C por 30 minutos agitándose a 700 rpm, se procedió a filtrar y precipitar adicionando etanol al 96% en una relación (1:1 (%v/%v. Determinando que las muestras tratadas a 40 KHz/45°C/20 min, obtuvieron un 40% de aumento en el rendimiento de extracción de pectina comparada con las muestras control; debido probablemente a la disminución del pH y al efecto de cavitación, donde las partículas vibran y se aceleran ante la acción ultrasónica, provocando una macro turbulencia y la colisión de interpartículas de la biomasa que acelera difusión; logrando extraer pectinas de gran calidad y aprovechables para la elaboración de productos de interés.

  16. Neurochemistry of Pressure-Induced Nitrogen and Metabolically Inert Gas Narcosis in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lavoute, Cécile

    2016-06-13

    Gases that are not metabolized by the organism are thus chemically inactive under normal conditions. Such gases include the "noble gases" of the Periodic Table as well as hydrogen and nitrogen. At increasing pressure, nitrogen induces narcosis at 4 absolute atmospheres (ATAs) and more in humans and at 11 ATA and more in rats. Electrophysiological and neuropharmacological studies suggest that the striatum is a target of nitrogen narcosis. Glutamate and dopamine release from the striatum in rats are decreased by exposure to nitrogen at a pressure of 31 ATA (75% of the anesthetic threshold). Striatal dopamine levels decrease during exposure to compressed argon, an inert gas more narcotic than nitrogen, or to nitrous oxide, an anesthetic gas. Inversely, striatal dopamine levels increase during exposure to compressed helium, an inert gas with a very low narcotic potency. Exposure to nitrogen at high pressure does not change N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta and striatum but enhances gama amino butyric acidA (GABAA) receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta. The decrease in striatal dopamine levels in response to hyperbaric nitrogen exposure is suppressed by recurrent exposure to nitrogen narcosis, and dopamine levels increase after four or five exposures. This change, the lack of improvement of motor disturbances, the desensitization of GABAA receptors on dopamine cells during recurrent exposures and the long-lasting decrease of glutamate coupled with the higher sensitivity of NMDA receptors, suggest a nitrogen toxicity induced by repetitive exposures to narcosis. These differential changes in different neurotransmitter receptors would support the binding protein theory. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1579-1590, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, K.W.; Bolger, M.B.; Brinton, R.E.; Coirini, H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of [35S]TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of [35S]TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates [35S]TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All [35S]TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex

  18. Simultaneous determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in dried blood spots: Second-tier LC-MS/MS assay for newborn screening of propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders.

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    Péter Monostori

    Full Text Available Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL. This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS as in primary screening (second-tier test. We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL.The assay was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients.Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid.A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot project for extension of the German newborn

  19. Participation of GABAA Chloride Channels in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of a Fatty Acid Mixture

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    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid and a mixture of eight fatty acids (FAT-M identified in this maternal fluid (C12:0, lauric acid, 0.9 μg%; C14:0, myristic acid, 6.9 μg%; C16:0, palmitic acid, 35.3 μg%; C16:1, palmitoleic acid, 16.4 μg%; C18:0, stearic acid, 8.5 μg%; C18:1cis, oleic acid, 18.4 μg%; C18:1trans, elaidic acid, 3.5 μg%; C18:2, linoleic acid, 10.1 μg% produce anxiolytic-like effects that are comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats, suggesting the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptors, a possibility not yet explored. Wistar rats were subjected to the defensive burying test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. In different groups, three GABAA receptor antagonists were administered 30 min before FAT-M administration, including the competitive GABA binding antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, GABAA benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (5 mg/kg, and noncompetitive GABAA chloride channel antagonist picrotoxin (1 mg/kg. The FAT-M exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the defensive burying test and elevated plus maze, without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test. The GABAA antagonists alone did not produce significant changes in the behavioral tests. Picrotoxin but not bicuculline or flumazenil blocked the anxiolytic-like effect of the FAT-M. Based on the specific blocking action of picrotoxin on the effects of the FAT-M, we conclude that the FAT-M exerted its anxiolytic-like effects through GABAA receptor chloride channels.

  20. Intrathecal 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in mice modulates 5-HT1 and 5-HT3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, A A; Hamon, M; Wilcox, G L

    1993-11-09

    The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), a potent 5-HT receptor agonist, were studied in three behavioral tests in mice: the tail-flick test and the intrathecal substance P and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) assays. Intrathecal administration of 5-MeO-DMT (4.6-92 nmol/mouse) produced a significant prolongation of the tail-flick latency. This action was blocked by 5-HT3 and gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor antagonists but not by 5-HT2, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1S receptor antagonists. Binding studies indicated that 5-MeO-DMT had very low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors. 5-MeO-DMT inhibited biting behavior while increasing scratching behavior induced by intrathecally administered substance P. The inhibition of biting behavior was antagonized by intrathecal co-administration of 5-HT1B and GABAA receptor antagonists while 5-HT1A, 5-HT1S, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists had no effect. 5-MeO-DMT-enhanced scratching behavior was inhibited by all the antagonists used except ketanserin and bicuculline, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1S, 5-HT3 and GABAA receptors. NMDA-induced biting behavior was inhibited by 5-MeO-DMT pretreatment; this action was antagonized by 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 and GABAA receptor antagonists. The involvement of these receptors in 5-MeO-DMT action suggests that it may promote release of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin).

  1. Producción y calidad de forraje de variedades de avena en condiciones de temporal en Zacatecas, México

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    Ricardo A. Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la pro ducción, calidad y componentes de rendimiento de seis variedades de avena forrajera en Zacatecas. Los experimentos se establecieron en julio de 2011 y 2012 en el municipio de Monte Escobedo. El dise ño experimental fue bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, la densidad de siembra fue 120 kg ha -1 y dosis de fertilización de 60-40-00 de N, P 2 O 5 , K. La cosecha fue en estado fisiológico lechoso-masoso. En 2011 y 2012, La variedad Saía sobresalió ( P 0.05 entre variedades con un rango de 10.6 a 13.8 %. En los dos años de estudio Karma presentó las mejores características nutricionales: baja acumulación de fibra detergente neutr o (51 % y acida (33.4 y 35.3 %, valores altos en total de nutrientes digestibles (54 y 58 %, digestibilidad de la materia seca (60 y 62 %, valor relativo del forraje (110 y 113 y energía neta para lactación (1.4 y 1.34 Mcal/kg; P <0.05. Las variables asociadas de manera positiva con forraje seco fueron altura de planta (r=0.701, días a co secha (r=0.685 y proporción de tallo (r=0.629, y negativamente con proporción de espiga (r=-0.629. En calidad nut ricional Karma tuvo mejor valor forrajero. Saia es una buena alternativa para incrementar el rendimiento de forraje por hectárea.

  2. Determination of metals in thoracic fraction of ambient air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, P. [Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy); Canepari, S.; Cardarelli, E.; Del Cavaliere, C.; Ghighi, S. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-12-01

    The present work deals with the optimization and validation of a method for the quantitative simultaneous ICP determination of metals in ambient air particulate matter. The attention has been focused on the thoracic fraction (PM10) and twelve different metals were chosen on the basis of their toxicity and of their possible use as chemical tracers. The microwave acidic digestion of the samples has been performed in the presence of different reagents and under different conditions and particular attention has been paid to the optimization of the whole analytical procedure and to the evaluation of accuracy and precision related to the single operative steps. The interferences due to the reagents and to the sampling supports have also been evaluated. In addition, the analytical procedure has been checked by examining the equivalence of results related to parallel sampled filters pairs. [Italian] Il lavoro riguarda l'ottimizzazione e la validazione di una metodica per la determinazione simultanea mediante ICP di metalli nel materiale particellare sopseso. In particolare, l'attenzione e' stata rivolta alla frazione respirabile (PM10) ed ha riguardato dieci differenti metalli, scelti sulla base della tossicita' e di un loro possibile impiego come traccianti chimici. Sono state esaminate differenti metodiche di digestione acida con microonde, impiegando differenti reattivi e differenti condizioni di mineralizzazione. E' stata posta particolare attenzione all'ottimizzazione del procedimento analitico ed alla valutazione della riproducibilita' ed accuratezza associate ai singoli stadi operativi. E' stata inoltre valutata l'entita' delle interferenze causate dall'impiego di reattivi a diverso grado di purezza e dei supporti impiegati per il campionamento. Infine il metodo e' stato validato esaminando l'equivalenza dei dati analitici relativi a coppie di filtri campionati in parallelo.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives as ultra-short recovery sedative/hypnotic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soft drugs are molecules that are purposefully designed to be rapidly metabolized (metabolically labile. In anesthesia, the soft drug is useful because it enables precise titration to effect and rapid recovery, which might allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. Propofol may cause delayed awakening after prolonged infusion. Propanidid and AZD3043 have a different metabolic pathway compared to propofol, resulting in a short-acting clinical profile. Fluorine imparts a variety of properties to certain medicines, including an enhanced absorption rate and improved drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized that the introduction of fluorine to the frame structure of propanidid and AZD3043 would further accelerate the swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we developed a series of fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives were synthesized, and their hypnotic potencies and durations of LORR following bolus or infusion administration were determined in mice, rats and rabbits. The metabolic half-lives in the blood of various species were determined chromatographically. In vitro radioligand binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA receptor electrophysiology studies were performed. Among the 12 synthesized fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives, compound 5j induced comparable duration of LORR with AZD3043, but more rapid recovery than AZD3043, propanidid and propofol. The time of compound 5j to return to walk and behavioral recovery are approximately reduced by more than 50% compared to AZD3043 in mice and rats and rabbits. The HD50 of compound 5j decreased with increasing animal size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rapid recovery might make compound 5j suitable for precise titration and allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home

  4. Simultaneous quantification of delta-9-THC, THC-acid A, CBN and CBD in seized drugs using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, Lars; Penitschka, Franziska; Broillet, Alain; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Bernhard, Werner

    2014-10-01

    An HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) in confiscated cannabis products has been developed, fully validated and applied to analyse seized cannabis products. For determination of the THC content of plant material, this method combines quantitation of THCA-A, which is the inactive precursor of THC, and free THC. Plant material was dried, homogenized and extracted with methanol by ultrasonication. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Waters Alliance 2695 HPLC equipped with a Merck LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) precolumn and a Merck LiChroCart 125-4 LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) analytical column. Analytes were detected and quantified using a Waters 2996 photo diode array detector. This method has been accepted by the public authorities of Switzerland (Bundesamt für Gesundheit, Federal Office of Public Health), and has been used to analyse 9092 samples since 2000. Since no thermal decarboxylation of THCA-A occurs, the method is highly reproducible for different cannabis materials. Two calibration ranges are used, a lower one for THC, CBN and CBD, and a higher one for THCA-A, due to its dominant presence in fresh plant material. As provider of the Swiss proficiency test, the robustness of this method has been tested over several years, and homogeneity tests even in the low calibration range (1%) show high precision (RSD≤4.3%, except CBD) and accuracy (bias≤4.1%, except CBN). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Local cholinergic interneurons modulate GABAergic inhibition in the chicken optic tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Stefan; Luksch, Harald

    2014-03-01

    The chicken optic tectum (TeO) and its mammalian counterpart, the superior colliculus, are important sensory integration centers. Multimodal information is represented in a topographic map, which plays a role in spatial attention and orientation movements. The TeO is organised in 15 layers with clear input and output regions, and further interconnected with the isthmic nuclei (NI), which modulate the response in a winner-takes-all fashion. While many studies have analysed tectal cell types and their modulation from the isthmic system physiologically, little is known about local network activity and its modulation in the tectum. We have recently shown with voltage-sensitive dye imaging that electrical stimulation of the retinorecipient layers results in a stereotypic response, which is under inhibitory control [S. Weigel & H. Luksch (2012) J. Neurophysiol., 107, 640-648]. Here, we analysed the contribution of acetylcholine (ACh) and the NI to evoked tectal responses using a pharmacological approach in a midbrain slice preparation. Application of the nicotinic ACh receptor (AChR) antagonist curarine increased the tectal response in amplitude, duration and lateral extent. This effect was similar but less pronounced when γ-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors were blocked, indicating interaction of inhibitory and cholinergic neurons. The muscarinic AChR antagonist atropine did not change the response pattern. Removal of the NI, which are thought to be the major source of cholinergic input to the TeO, reduced the response only slightly and did not result in a disinhibition. Based on the data presented here and the neuroanatomical literature of the avian TeO, we propose a model of the underlying local circuitry. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Obtención y caracterización de aislados proteicos de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, N.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for the obtention of protein isolates from defatted rapeseed flour has been designed. The process includes a basic extraction followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point of the proteins. The precipitate is washed with water (pH 4.5, ethanol and acetone, obtaining a protein isolate with 86% of protein and reducing the contents in polyphenols and soluble sugars in more than 90% with respect to the defatted flour. The final product have physico-chemical characteristics that make it atractive to be used as food and for the obtention of protein hydrolizates.

    Se ha diseñado un proceso de obtención de aislados proteicos a partir de harina de colza desengrasada. El método incluye la extracción básica de las proteínas solubles seguido de una precipitación acida en el punto isoeléctrico. El precipitado es lavado con agua (pH 4.5, etanol y acetona, obteniéndose un aislado proteico con un 86% de proteína y reduciéndose el contenido en polifenoles y azúcares solubles en más de un 90% respecto a la harina desengrasada. El aislado final presenta unas características físico-químicas que lo hacen atractivo para su uso en alimentación y obtención de hidrolizados proteicos.

  7. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m 2 (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of abietane diterpenoids from roots of Salvia sahendica by HPLC-based activity profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Moradi-Afrapoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian flora against human cancer cell-lines have shown that an hexane extract from roots of Salvia sahendica Boiss. & Buhse, Lamiaceae, is active against human cervical cancer (HeLa and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cell-lines at the test concentration of 100 µg/ml (100% inhibition. Cytotoxicity of the extract was localized with the aid of HPLC-time-based activity profiling adapted to the tetrazolium colorimetric bioassay. Four abietane-type diterpenoids in active time-windows were identified as cytotoxic compounds namely: sahandone (1, sahandol (2, 12-deoxy-salvipisone (3 and sahandinone (4. Compound 1 showed the highest toxicity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 5.6 ± 0.1 µg/ml, which was comparable with betulinic acid (IC50 = 4.3 ± 1.2 µg/ml, the positive control. Compound 2 was active against the HeLa cells (IC50 = 8.9 ± 0.7 µg/ml but not the Caco-2 cell-line. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 exhibited moderate activity (IC50 = 22.9–41.4 µg/ml against the Caco-2 cells. This study reveals that the HeLa cells are more sensitive to all tested compounds than the Caco-2 cells. In silico molecular docking study showed a rigid binding of the compounds to tyrosine kinase pp60src, and proved their cytotoxic activity.

  10. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa , medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry.

  11. Antibacterial activities of essential oils and extracts of Turkish Achillea, Satureja and Thymus species against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Recep; Cakir, Ahmet; Dadasoglu, Fatih; Aydin, Tuba; Cakmakci, Ramazan; Ozer, Hakan; Kordali, Saban; Mete, Ebru; Dikbas, Neslihan

    2010-01-15

    The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oils and hexane extracts of the aerial parts of Satureja spicigera (C. Koch) Boiss., Thymus fallax Fisch. & CA Mey, Achillea biebersteinii Afan, and Achillea millefolium L. by GC and GC-MS, and to test antibacterial efficacy of essential oils and n-hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts as an antibacterial and seed disinfectant against 25 agricultural plant pathogens. Thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, thymol methyl ether and gamma-terpinene were the main constituents of S. spicigera and T. fallax oils and hexane extracts. The main components of the oil of Achillea millefolium were 1,8-cineole, delta-cadinol and caryophyllene oxide, whereas the hexane extract of this species contained mainly n-hexacosane, n-tricosane and n-heneicosane. The oils and hexane extracts of S. spicigera and T. fallax exhibited potent antibacterial activity over a broad spectrum against 25 phytopathogenic bacterial strains. Carvacrol and thymol, the major constituents of S. spicigera and T. fallax oils, also showed potent antibacterial effect against the bacteria tested. The oils of Achillea species showed weak antibacterial activity. Our results also revealed that the essential oil of S. spicigera, thymol and carvacrol could be used as potential disinfection agents against seed-borne bacteria. Our results demonstrate that S. spicigera, T. fallax oils, carvacrol and thymol could become potentials for controlling certain important agricultural plant pathogenic bacteria and seed disinfectant. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. [Comparative studies in content of major active compositions in different parts of Cichorium glandulosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaynap, Tohtahon; Zhong, Jie; Xin, Xuelei; Hajiakber-Aisa

    2010-04-01

    The four major active compositions, namely esculetin, lactucin, lactucopicrin and chlorogenic acid in seed, stem and root of the Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet that planted in Xinjiang have been quantified by HPLC. HPLC method was used, with Inertsil ODS-SP column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 pm). The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was set at 32 degrees C. The mobile phase was methanol--0.2% formic acid, 0-40 min, methanol 30%--70% gradients. Injection volume was 5 microL. The detecting wavelength were 256, 350, 299 and 229 nm, respectively. The percentage recoveries were 98.2%, 99.57%, 100.50%, and 99.46% for chlorogenic acid, esculetin, lactucin, and lactucopicrin, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r) were 1.000, 0.9989, 0.9998, 1.000 and RSD were 1.6%, 1.5%, 0.77%, 2.0% for chlorogenic acid, esculetin, lactucin, and lactucopicrin, respectively. The contents of the chlorogenic acid, esculetin, lactucin and lactucopicrin were 0.0048, 0.0043, 0.6789, 0.7520 mg x g(-1), respectively in the root, and 0.0710, 0.1890, 0.2396 and 0.0520 mg x g(-1) in the seeds of C. glandulosum, respectively. This method was sensitive, rapid and simple, with good linearity, recovery and reproducibility.

  13. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Three Onobrychis Species from Iran

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    Roya Karamian , Mostafa Asadbegy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant phenolic compounds are a main group of plant natural products and flavonoids are the largest and best studied natural phenols. These substances possess a series of biological properties and act on biological systems as antioxidants. In present research, the aim is to determine in vitro total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of three Onobrychis species belonging to the family Fabaceae, namely O. sosnovskyi Grossh., O. viciifolia Scop. and O. melanotricha Boiss. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify any correlations between total phenolic content of the extracts with their antioxidant activities Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different test systems, namely 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH, metal-chelation activity and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model. Results: Results indicated that O. viciifolia extract contains the highest total phenolic content (10.38 ± 0.33mg GAE/g of dry extract. However, the species are not remarkable different (P 0.55 to 0.98. Conclusion: Our results showed that the examined Onobrychis extracts represent strong antioxidant activity; hence, they can be suggested as antioxidant agents for special use in future.

  14. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera.

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    Park, Jeong-Mi; Manen, Jean-François; Colwell, Alison E; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2008-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera.

  15. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants.

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    Masadeh, Majed M; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Tumah, Haitham N; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-05-01

    Natural flora are considered a major source of new agents for the treatment of Helicobactor pylori. The plants used in this study were selected based on previous traditional use. In this study, we evaluated the effect of extracts of 16 medicinal plants grown in Jordan against clinical isolates of H. pylori. Tested plant extracts included Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc ex. DC. (Rosaceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Lavandula officinalis Chaix. (Lamiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae), Origanum syriaca L. (Lamiaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Passiflora incarnate L. (Passifloraceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach (Rosaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). Clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested in vitro for susceptibility to each of the above plant crude extracts using disk diffusion method, and the MIC value was determined for each plant extract using the serial dilution method. Results showed that ethanol extracts of most medicinal plants exerted cytotoxiciy against H. pylori isolates. Among the tested plant extracts, A. triphylla (MIC: 90 µg/mL, MBC: 125 µg/mL) and I. viscosa (MIC: 83 µg/mL, MBC: 104 µg/mL) showed the strongest activity against both isolates of H. pylori. Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources of starting materials for the synthesis of new antibacterial agents against H. pylori.

  16. Photosynthetic Pigments as Parameters/Indicators of Tree Tolerance to Urban Environment (Plovdiv, Bulgaria

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    Slaveya Petrova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As polluted air is a stress factor that contributes to the decline of trees in urban areas, we aimed to investigate the complex impact of anthropogenic activity on chlorophylls and carotenoids content of four tree species (Acer heldreichii Boiss., Tilia tomentosa Moench, Fraxinus excelsior L. and Pinus nigra L.. Seedlings were purchased from certified greenery and planted by us at four selected sites in the city of Plovdiv (Bulgaria during spring of 2015. Leaf samples were taken monthly and photosynthetic pigments content was measured immediately after sampling. Results of this preliminary study confirmed that pigment levels in plants varied between species, locations and seasons. Although an extension to the above work is necessary to quantify possible differences between the levels at which photosynthetic components are affected, it is obvious that both ratios chlorophyll a/b and chlorophylls/carotenoids could serve as very useful indicators of stress level. Because of the non-specificity in pigment reaction to different type of anthropogenic impact, we recommended to apply a combination among pigments concentration and another parameters (morphological, biochemical, physiological for the targets of biomonitoring.

  17. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by endemic Viola species from the soil in the vicinity of the As-Sb-Tl mine "allchar' Republic of Macedonia.

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    Baceva, K; Stafilov, T; Matevski, V

    2014-01-01

    Allchar mine is an abandoned arsenic-antimony-thallium deposit located on the northwestern part of Kozuf Mt., Republic of Macedonia. Allchar is a unique deposit within the world, due to the variety of its mineral composition especially and in the high content of thallium. The aim of this work was to assess the level of contamination at this post-mining area as well as to determine the intensity of accumulation of various elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) with focus on As, Sb and Tl, in two endemic Viola species from this locality (Viola allcharensis G. Beck, Viola arsenica G. Beck) and one Balkan endemic species (Viola macedonica Boiss. & Heldr.). Samples of different plant parts and soil were digested and then analysed by ICP-AES. It was found that the accumulation of As, Sb, and Tl in these endemic species is significantly high. In this study a systematic investigation of the As-Sb-Tl contamination of soils and their bioavailability was carried out using the extraction procedure in order to explore the mobility and potential bioavailability of the As, Sb, and Tl.

  18. Mathematical modelling for extraction of oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi seeds in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeifian, Gholamhossein; Sajadian, Seyed Ali; Honarvar, Bizhan

    2018-04-01

    Extraction of oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was designed using central composite design to evaluate the effect of various operating parameters including pressure, temperature, particle size and extraction time on the oil yield. Maximum extraction yield predicted from response surface method was 71.53% under the process conditions with pressure of 220 bar, temperature of 35 °C, particle diameter of 0.61 mm and extraction time of 130 min. Furthermore, broken and intact cells model was utilised to consider mass transfer kinetics of extracted natural materials. The results revealed that the model had a good agreement with the experimental data. The oil samples obtained via supercritical and solvent extraction methods were analysed by gas chromatography. The most abundant acid was linolenic acid. The results analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid contents of the oils obtained by the supercritical and solvent extraction techniques.

  19. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  20. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

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    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  1. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

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    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  2. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  3. Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate

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    Adnan Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exudate of Ferula narthex Boiss. (Apiaceae is widely used in the Indian subcontinent as a spice and because of its health effects. Six sesquiterpene coumarins have been isolated from this exudate: feselol, ligupersin A, asacoumarin A, 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A, 10′R-karatavacinol and 10′R-acetyl-karatavacinol. Based on its use in infectious and diabetic conditions, the isolated constituents were evaluated for antimicrobial and antiglycation activities. Some compounds showed activity against protozoal parasites, asacoumarin A being the most active one against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM. With regard to antiglycation activity, in the BSA-glucose test, ligupersin A displayed the highest activity (IC50 0.41 mM, being more active than the positive control aminiguanidine (IC50 1.75 mM. In the BSA-MGO assay, the highest activity was shown by 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A (IC50 1.03 mM, being less active than aminoguanidine (IC50 0.15 mM. Hence, the antiglycation activity of the isolated constituents was due to both oxidative and non-oxidative modes of inhibition.

  4. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  5. GC-MS based metabolite profiling of five Bulgarian Fumaria species

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    Radka Z. Vrancheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was profiling of primary metabolites of five Bulgarian Fumaria species (F. officinalis L., F. thuretii Boiss., F. kralikii Jord., F. rostellata Knaf. and F. schrammii Velen. by GC-MS analyses. In polar fractions ten carbohydrates, one polyol, ten amino acids and six organic acids were identified. Apolar (lipid fractions showed the presence of four free fatty acids, two esters of fatty acids with glycerol and two fatty alcohols. Sucrose and fructose were in the highest relative concentrations of identified carbohydrates. Citric acid was the dominant organic acid in polar fractions of five Fumaria species. Predominant compounds in lipid fractions were palmitic acid and 1-stearoyl-glycerol. Principal component analysis (PCA of GC-MS data of polar and apolar fractions of five Bulgarian Fumaria species differentiates them in two groups (F. officinalis and F. thuretii; F. rostellata and F. schrammii, respectively, while F. kralikii had phythochemical similarity with plants of both distinguished groups. The obtained results of PCA of primary metabolites could be proposed as chemotaxonomic markers for plants of the genus Fumaria.

  6. Random chromosome elimination in synthetic Triticum-Aegilops amphiploids leads to development of a stable partial amphiploid with high grain micro- and macronutrient content and powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Rawat, Nidhi; Neelam, Kumari; Kumar, Sundip; Randhawa, Gursharn S; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic amphiploids are the immortal sources for studies on crop evolution, genome dissection, and introgression of useful variability from related species. Cytological analysis of synthetic decaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. amphiploids (AABBDDUkUkSkSk) showed some univalents from the C1 generation onward followed by chromosome elimination. Most of the univalents came to metaphase I plate after the reductional division of paired chromosomes and underwent equational division leading to their elimination through laggards and micronuclei. Substantial variation in the chromosome number of pollen mother cells from different tillers, spikelets, and anthers of some plants also indicated somatic chromosome elimination. Genomic in situ hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and simple sequence repeat markers analysis of two amphiploids with reduced chromosomes indicated random chromosome elimination of various genomes with higher sensitivity of D followed by the Sk and Uk genomes to elimination, whereas 1D chromosome was preferentially eliminated in both the amphiploids investigated. One of the partial amphiploids, C4 T. aestivum 'Chinese Spring' - Ae. kotschyi 396 (2n = 58), with 34 T. aestivum, 14 Uk, and 10 Sk had stable meiosis and high fertility. The partial amphiploids with white glumes, bold seeds, and tough rachis with high grain macro- and micronutrients and resistance to powdery mildew could be used for T. aestivum biofortification and transfer of powdery mildew resistance.

  7. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

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    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  8. Relationship and genetic diversity of mistletoe (Viscum album L. subspecies

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    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of 21 putative isoenzyme loci, the genetic diversity and variations of Viscum album ssp. album L. from 42 species, subspecies, varieties and hybrids of broadleaf trees, Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb. Vollmann, from 4 populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Viscum album ssp. abietis (Wiesb. Abromeit, from 8 populations of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill. were analyzed. On the dendrogram, the three investigated subspecies form three clusters, each clearly separated from the other, so we suggest a revision of the systematic nomenclature proposed to take into consideration a return to an earlier system of dividing the European mistletoe into three species: Viscum album L., Viscum abietis Beck, and Viscum laxum Boiss. et Reut. From among the 21 tested loci only one locus, SOD-A, was monomorphic. The average number of actual alleles (Na and effective alleles (Ne was 2.23 and 1.61 respectively. The observed heterozygosity (Ho varied from 0.199 in V. album ssp. abietis to 0.345 in the V.a. ssp. album populations. Average FST = 0.277 indicates that about 28% of genetic differentiation is due to an interpopulation diversity of Viscum album populations. There is a small gene flux between Viscum album populations with only one immigrant successfully entering a population per two generations (Nm = 0,653.

  9. Comparison of Two Species of Notopterygium by GC-MS and HPLC

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    Yaping Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix (Qianghuo, including Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang (NI and Notopterygium franchetii H. de Boiss (NF, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Of these two plants, NI, is more commonly used and has a much higher price in the marketplace. To compare these two plants, a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was carried out, thus obtaining an overall characterization for both volatile and none-volatile compounds. Combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis, GC-MS was successfully applied to distinguish NF and NI. The chemical constitutes of volatile oil in NI and NF were firstly compared in detail, and 1R-alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 4-isopropyl-1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene had great contribution to the discrimination. Fingerprints of 14 batches of Qinghuo samples were also established based on HPLC, and an obvious difference was found between the two species. The chromatographic fingerprints were further analyzed by similarity analysis and HCA. The present study is the first reported evaluation of two origins of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix by GC-MS and HPLC, which will facilitate quality control and its clinical application.

  10. The mono - and sesquiterpene content of aphid-induced galls on Pistacia palaestina is not a simple reflection of their composition in intact leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Karin; Bar, Einat; Ben-Ari, Matan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Anacardiaceae), a sibling species of P. terebinthus also known as turpentine tree or terebinth tree, is common in the Levant region. The aphid Baizongia pistaciae L. manipulates the leaves of the plant to form large galls, which provide both food and protection for its developing offspring. We analyzed the levels and composition of mono-and sesquiterpenes in both leaves and galls of ten naturally growing trees. Our results show that monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents of P. palaestina leaves and galls, but terpene levels and composition vary among trees. Despite this inter-tree variation, terpene levels and compositions in galls from different trees resemble each other more than the patterns displayed by leaves from the same trees. Generally, galls contain 10 to 60 fold higher total terpene amounts than leaves, especially of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. Conversely, the leaves generally accumulate more sesquiterpenes, in particular E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene, in comparison to galls. Our results clearly show that the terpene pattern in the galls is not a simple reflection of that of the leaves and suggest that aphids have a strong impact on the metabolism of their host plant, possibly for their own defense.

  11. Potential Habitat Modelling of Ferula ovina Using Artificial Neural Network in Fereydunshahr Region, Isfahan Province

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    Z. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution maps have been widely developed based on ecological niche theory together with statistical and geographical information system in plant ecology. The current study aimed to evaluate Artificial Neural Network (ANN in mapping potential habitat of Ferula ovina Boiss in Ferydunshar rangelands, Isfahan. This is known as valuable forage and medicinal species. Environmental data (independent variables and species occurrence data (dependent variable were required to determine potential habitat of a given species. Some physical and chemical soil properties, climate and physiographic variables were mapped for the entire studied area using krigging and inverse distance weighting methods. F. ovina occurrence data were collected from 278 sites including 137 presence and 141 absence sites. The relationships between the studied environmental variables and F. ovina occurrence data were explored using ANN method. According to the sensitivity analysis, occurrence of F. ovina mostly correlated with silt and sand percentage, elevation slope, and organic matter. Model evaluation based on Kappa coefficient (0.66 and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC=0.9 showed good model fitness in relation to reality on local scales. The ANN technique enables managers to identify appropriate areas for rehabilitation practices such as direct seeding and planting.                       

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

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    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  13. Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes Growth Inhibition by Zataria multiflora Essential Oil in Ground Meat

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    Asma Afshari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zataria multiflora boiss is a member of Lamiaceae family with antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical composition and antibacterial effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil against two foodborne pathogens in meat. Methods: The inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil (Minimum inhibitory concentration and Minimum bactericidal concentration was evaluated against Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes, inoculated in ground beef meat after 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of storage. Results: Result revealed 26 various compounds, representing 96.27% of total oil. Thymol was the most abundant compound among all constituents (29.2%. A significant reduction was observed in Salmonella typhimurium when adding 1 and 2% Zataria multiflora (p<0.05 compared with 0.5% and 1% concentrations during 9 days of storage. Listeria monocytogenes significantly decreased in treatments with 0.5%, 1 and 2% of Zataria multiflora essential oil. Conclusion: Zataria multiflora has an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes and in higher concentrations on the growth of S. typhimurium and can be used as a natural preservative in order to retard the growth of food-borne pathogens.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil and its main components against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Mahboubi Mohaddese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iranian traditional medicine, Zataria multiflora Boiss (Lamiaceae family is reputed due to its antiseptic effects. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm killing effects of Z. multiflora essential oil and main components against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: The main components of essential oil were identified by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antibacterial properties of Z. multiflora oil and main components were determined by assessing the MIC and MBC values, and their inhibition percent of biofilm killing effects were determined by the evaluation of optical density. The role of each main component in these activities was determined according to the chemical profiles of essential oil. Results: Thymol (38.7%, carvacrol (30.6%, and p-cymene (8.3% were main components of twenty five components of essential oil. Carvacrol had the higher role in antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, followed by thymol. P-cymene enhanced the antibacterial activities of thymol and carvacrol against P. aeruginosa. Carvacrol showed the weak role in biofilm killing effect. In spite of the low antibacterial activity of p-cymene against P. aeruginosa, it can enhance the antibacterial activity of thymol or carvacrol. Conclusion: Z. multiflora essential oil can be used for the management of P. aeruginosa infections. Determining the precise role of each components needs investigating in their behavior in different media.

  15. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parental species

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    José B. Salas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the essential oils of cultivated material of Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parents, Th. mastichina (L. L. and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss. Coutinho, with seeds from the same locality in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The essential oil of Th. xtoletanus, which had not been analyzed previously, presented 1,8-cineole as the major component (25.5%, as was also the case for Th. mastichina (76.1%. Other components with a major presence in Th. xtoletanus and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus were [(Z-β-ocimene (8.1%; camphor (4.5%; sabinene (3.2%; α-pinene (2.8%], and [(Z-β-ocimene (4.1%, camphor (9.8%, sabinene (2.8%, α-pinene (7.1%], respectively. However, in the hybrid the components β-phelandrene (14.5%, limonene (6.9%, (E-γ-bisabolene (3.5%, and viridiflorol (3.3% stood out, inter alia, whereas their presence in the parents was limited. The study confirms the hybrid origin of Th. xtoletanus as intermediate between Th. mastichina and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus.

  16. Antibacterial activity of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids from Marrubium globosum ssp. libanoticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Basile, Adriana; Lavitola, Alfredo; Senatore, Felice; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    Marrubium globosum Montbr. et Auch. ex Benth. ssp. libanoticum Boiss. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, coughs and other pulmonary and urinary problems. The goal of our study was to assess the biological activity of M. globosum testing the methanol extract of aerial parts for its antibacterial activity against bacteria known to cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin and urinary disorders; the extract showed antibacterial effects against all the strains of bacteria used. A purification of this active extract showed the presence, as main constituents, of verbascoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, naringenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(3''-p-coumaryl)-glucoside, p-methoxy-cinnamic acid, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside and apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside. The pure compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity; quercetin 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, verbascoside and naringenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside showed the greatest activity.

  17. Novel Terpenoids with Potential Anti-Alzheimer Activity from Nepeta obtusicrena

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    Anıl Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane extract of Nepeta obtusicrena Boiss. Et Kotschy Ex Hedge afforded two novel terpenoids, a diterpenoid and a triterpenoid in addition to two known triterpenoids, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Purification of the diterpenoid was carried out by HPLC, and its structure was elucidated as 14α-acetoxy-6-oxo-abieta-7-ene, and structure of the triterpenoid was elucidated as 2α,3β,19α,24-tetrahydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-ene. Both of the novel terpenes were obtained from nature for the first time and named as obtusicrenone and nemrutolone, respectively. Anticholinesterase (anti-Alzheimer and antioxidant activities [DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ABTS cation radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity] of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts and the isolated four terpenoids were investigated. Both of the extracts and the isolated four terpenoids exhibited high anticholinesterase activity, particularly against acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzyme. None of the samples tested showed high antioxidant activity.

  18. NADİR ENDEMİK VERBASCUM ALYSSİFOLİUM BOİSS. TAKSONUNUN TOPRAK-BİTKİ İLİŞKİSİ AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ

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    Muhip Hilooğlu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum alyssifolium Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae Erzincan ilinde dar yayılış alanına sahip nadir ve endemik bitki türlerindendir. Bu tür, IUCN kriterlerine göre DD (Veri yetersiz kategorisinde değerlendirilmektedir ve sadece 3 lokaliteden bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada, V. alyssifolium taksonunun doğal yayılış gösterdiği toprakların fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, bitki ve toprak örneklerinin mikro ve makro element analizleri yapılarak aralarındaki ilişki ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçların, dar yayılış alanına sahip nadir ve endemik V. alyssifolium türüne yönelik gurbette (exsitu koruma çalışmaları için önemli veriler sağlayacağı kanısındayız.

  19. A Regional Scale Evaluation of Conservation Status of Orchid Species Recorded in The Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey

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    Gülden Sandal Erzurumlu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the threat categories of locally endangered orchid species were sampled over an area of covering 187 km2 in Mersin, Adana, Hatay and Kahramanmaraş provinces of Turkey. Periodic observations were carried out in 44 sampling plots specified within three bioclimatic belts, namely the Mediterranean-montane, the sub-Mediterranean and the Mediterranean. 34 orchid species were identified under the genera of Cephalanthera (L., Comperia (Steven., Dactylorhiza, Epipactis (L., Himantaglossum (Boiss., Limodorum (L. Ophrys, Orchisand Serapias (Burm.fil. The results revealed that six orchid species were growing in the Mediterranean-montane zone, 20 species in the sub-Mediterranean zone and 23 species in the Mediterranean zone. According to the resources of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN the threat categories were reported for only 12 out of 13 species. Local threat categories of this study showed some differences when IUCN data were considered. 34 orchid species identified in this study and 12 species were evaluated under Critically Endangered (CR threat category. It was found that 11, 7, 2 and 2 species were under EN, VU, NT and LC respectively. Therefore, Orchid species sampled from the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey have been categorized on the basis of the threat categories identified by the IUCN.

  20. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and intracellular growth inhibition of Portuguese Thymus essential oils

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    Susana A. Dandlen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyme essential oils are well recognized by their excellent biological activities and the antimicrobial activity of Portuguese thyme essential oils has been investigated with promising results, particularly against food borne pathogens. In this study the potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of five species of Thymus (Lamiaceae, namely Th. caespititius Brot., Th. camphoratus Hoffmanns. & Link, Th. capitellatus Hoffmanns. & Link., Th. carnosus Boiss. and Th. zygis L. was evaluated against Candida albicans, Haemophilus influenza, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Streptococcus pneumoniae. H. pylori strains were the most susceptible bacteria, particularly to the essential oils of Th. caespititius (Planalto Central, Th. zygis (Rebordãos and Th. caespititius (Pico which minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 mg.mL-1. Th. caespititius essential oil from Planalto Central or its main component, carvacrol significantly (p<0.05 inhibited the intracellular growth of H. pylori, and showed no citotoxicity to the gastric cell line. Our results suggest the potential of this essential oil and its main component as a promising tool as anti-Helicobacter agent potentiating the eradication of this important gastroduodenal pathogen.

  1. Essential oils of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia from Lebanon: Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effect on human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Venera; Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco

    2009-11-12

    Salvia bracteata Banks et Sol. and Salvia rubifolia Boiss. are known in folk medicine of Lebanon for the treatment of microbial infections, cancer, urinary and pulmonary problems. In the present study the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia collected in Lebanon were evaluated. The oils were also tested for their potential antiproliferative effects against M14 human melanoma cells. The oils were studied by GC and GC-MS and their antibacterial activity (MIC and MBC) was tested against ten bacteria species using the broth dilution method. The inhibitory effect on human melanoma cells (measurement of cell vitality, cell membrane integrity and genomic DNA fragmentation) was studied using MTT assay, calculation of LDH release and COMET assay. The oils showed a good antibacterial activity (MIC = 50 microg/ml) against Gram+ bacteria. They besides exhibited an inhibitory effect on the human cancer cells examined inducing also apoptotic cell death, but the oil of Salvia rubifolia was significantly (p < 0.001) more active as compared to the oil of Salvia bracteata. The results on the pharmacological activities of these Salvia species provide an in vitro scientific support for the use of these plants in traditional herbal preparations.

  2. Traditional uses of some medicinal plants in Malatya (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Figen; Civelek, Semsettin; Cakilcioglu, Ugur

    2013-03-07

    plants. Besides, it was observed that they dried and stored plants in unfavorable seasons in order to use them later. The medicinal uses of Heracleum antasiaticum Manden., Pimpinella olivieroides Boiss. & Hausskn., Scandix iberica Bieb., Taraxacum hybernum Stev., Tripleurospermum transcaucasicum (Manden.) Pobed., Cerastium chlorifolium Fisch. & Mey., Andrachne telephioides L., Euphorbia denticulata Lam., Astragalus cephalotes Banks. & Sol. var. brevicalyx Eig., Geranium ibericum Cav., Cyclotrichium nivenum (Boiss.) Manden. & Scheng., Salvia syriaca L., Papaver arenarium Bieb., Dactylis glomerata L., Polygonum arenarium Waldst. & Kit. that we found were used in our study area and recorded for the first time. No information could be obtained regarding the names of eight wild plants that are being used in Malatya. In Turkey, local plant names display differences especially due to ethnographic reasons. The plants used in Malatya are known by the same or different local names in various parts of Anatolia. Our research area also includes people with Kurdish and Zaza ethnic origins. The respondents of the questionnaire are Turkish citizens. These plants are used in the treatment of many diseases. Comparison of the data obtained in this study from derived the plants growing in Malatya with the experimental data obtained in previous laboratory studies proved ethnobotanical usages to a great extent. Literature review indicated that curative plants that grow in Malatya are used in different parts of the world for the treatment of the same or similar diseases. These plants, used for the treatment of many varying diseases, are abundantly found in this region. Drying enabled local people to use medicinal plants in every seasons of the year. The plant flora of Malatya is threatened by such factors as grazing, expansion of new agricultural lands, and unsustainable picking of plants to generate income. Steps should be taken immediately to ensure the inclusion of relevant flora within

  3. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

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    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  4. Chemical composition along with anti-leishmanial and cytotoxic activity of Zataria multiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Sharififar, Fariba; Fallahi, Shirzad; Monzote, Lianet; Ezatkhah, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Natural products and their compounds are some of the most interesting sources of new drugs. Reviews have reported various pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss (Lamiaceae). The present study investigates the chemical composition of Z. multiflora essential oil and evaluates its cytotoxic effects and anti-leishmanial activities against Leishmania tropica in an in vitro model. The components of Z. multiflora oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Anti-leishmanial effects of the essential oil (0-100 μL/mL) and methanol extract of Z. multiflora (0-100 μg/mL) on promastigote forms as well as their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 h. The leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms of L. tropica was evaluated at the concentrations of 0-50 μg/mL in a macrophage model for 48 h. The chemical analyses demonstrated that the main components of essential oil were thymol (41.81%), carvacrol (28.85%), and p-cymene (8.36%). Regarding leishmanicidal activity, the IC50 values for the essential oil and methanol extract were 3.2 μL/mL and 9.8 μg/mL against promastigote forms and 8.3 μL/mL and 34.6 μg/mL against amastigote forms, respectively. Essential oil (CC50 89.3 μL/mL) indicated a higher cytotoxic effect than the methanol extract (CC50 591.6 μg/mL) of Z. multiflora. The present study revealed the chemical composition of Z. multiflora that might be a natural source of new anti-leishmanial agents in terms of use against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC 50 value   =   488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC 50  value =   321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT Assay and Larvicidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zeidabadinezhad, Reza; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Yassa, Narguess

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant. Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO. In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-verbenol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC 50 = 111.2μg/ml) in DPPH and IC 50 = 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD 50 = 1.1μg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC 50 = 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 μg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC 50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli , Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  7. The mutagenic, antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of Hypericum lydium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Rukiye; Ugur, Aysel

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing market demand for Hypericum sp., a pharmacologically active plant that has been traditionally used to treat various ailments. However, there have been limited studies on the extract or essential oil of Hypericum lydium Boiss (Hypericaceae). This study investigates for the first time the antioxidant, mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of an ethanol extract of H. lydium. Ethanol extract from aerial parts of H. lydium harvested from Turkey were tested for this mutagenic and antimutagenic activities (2.0-0.002 mg/plate) using Ames Salmonella/microsome test system. 4-Nitro-o-phenylenediamine (4-NPD) (3 μg/plate) for the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and sodium azide (NaN 3 ) (8 μg/plate) for the S. typhimurium TA100 were used as positive controls. The antioxidant activity, total antioxidant activity and phenolic constituent of the extract (2.0-0.002 mg/mL) was determined by the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), β-carotene-linoleic acid model and by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, respectively. The extract showed no sign of mutagenicity at the tested concentrations (0.002-2.0 mg/mL), and showed concentration-dependent antimutagenic activity against NaN 3 and 4-NPD ranging from 26.8 to 81.5%. The extract was found to be an efficient scavenger of DPPH (IC 50 0.165 ± 0.23 mg/mL) and to inhibit β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching (IC 50 0.39 ± 0.11 mg/mL). These findings indicate ethanol extract of H. lydium to be a safe and effective agent that may be incorporated into new strategies for the prevention of cancer and mutagenesis.

  8. Correlation between the carbon isotope composition (δ13 C) of puccinellia ciliata and balansa clover in duel stresses of water logging and salinity (Nacl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostajeran, A.; Rengel, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretically, plants growing under stress conditions, such as in saline or waterlogged conditions, should behave with 1 3C0 2 discrimination and have different δ 1 3C values. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of factors such as salinity and hypoxia in affecting delta values of Puccinellia ciliata and Balansa clover (Trifolium michelianum Savi. Var balansae boiss). This study reveals that these two species (C 3 plants) behave differently and B. clover has more positive δ 1 3C values (7.6%) compared to P. ciliata. The overall average of δ I 3C were -28.85 and -26.66 0/ 0 0, respectively, for P. ciliata and B. clover. The δ I 3C values for the shoots and roots of the two species also have different values (more positive values in roots compared to shoots). Water logging and salinity have a significant affect on 1 3C0 2 discrimination and, statistically, these effects on δ 1 3C values are significant (ρ I 3C would be changed (less discrimination for hypoxia and more for salinity conditions). The combined effects on species and plant parts of water logging and salinity are not statistically insignificant on δ 1 3C values, however, each factor separately has a significant effect on δ 1 3C values. P. ciliata was grown in different seasons (summer and winter) and showed significant differences in δ 1 3C values (by almost 4%). The carbon content (%) of the two species was different, but, were not related to δ 1 3C, respectively

  9. New models for estimating the carbon sink capacity of Spanish softwood species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Rio, M. del; Montero, G.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the carbon balance in forests is one of the main challenges in forest management. Forest carbon stocks are usually estimated indirectly through biomass equations applied to forest inventories, frequently considering different tree biomass components. The aim of this study is to develop systems of equations for predicting tree biomass components for the main forest softwood species in Spain: Abies alba Mill., A. pinsapo Boiss., Juniperus thurifera L., Pinus canariensis Sweet ex Spreng., P. halepensis Mill., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L., P. uncinata Mill. For each species, a system of additive biomass models was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression. Diameter at the breast height and total height were used as independent variables. Diameter appears in all component models, while tree height was included in the stem component model of all species and in some branch component equations. Total height was included in order to improve biomass estimations at different sites. These biomass models were compared to previously available equations in order to test their accuracy and it was found that they yielded better fitting statistics in all cases. Moreover, the models fulfil the additivity property. We also developed root:shoot ratios in order to determine the partitioning into aboveground and belowground biomass. A number of differences were found between species, with a minimum of 0.183 for A. alba and a maximum of 0.385 for P. uncinata. The mean value for the softwood species studied was 0.265. Since the Spanish National Forest Inventory (NFI) records species, tree diameter and height of sample trees, these biomass models and ratios can be used to accurately estimate carbon stocks from NFI data. (Author) 55 refs.

  10. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  11. New models for estimating the carbon sink capacity of Spanish softwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Rio, M. del; Montero, G.

    2011-07-01

    Quantifying the carbon balance in forests is one of the main challenges in forest management. Forest carbon stocks are usually estimated indirectly through biomass equations applied to forest inventories, frequently considering different tree biomass components. The aim of this study is to develop systems of equations for predicting tree biomass components for the main forest softwood species in Spain: Abies alba Mill., A. pinsapo Boiss., Juniperus thurifera L., Pinus canariensis Sweet ex Spreng., P. halepensis Mill., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L., P. uncinata Mill. For each species, a system of additive biomass models was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression. Diameter at the breast height and total height were used as independent variables. Diameter appears in all component models, while tree height was included in the stem component model of all species and in some branch component equations. Total height was included in order to improve biomass estimations at different sites. These biomass models were compared to previously available equations in order to test their accuracy and it was found that they yielded better fitting statistics in all cases. Moreover, the models fulfil the additivity property. We also developed root:shoot ratios in order to determine the partitioning into aboveground and belowground biomass. A number of differences were found between species, with a minimum of 0.183 for A. alba and a maximum of 0.385 for P. uncinata. The mean value for the softwood species studied was 0.265. Since the Spanish National Forest Inventory (NFI) records species, tree diameter and height of sample trees, these biomass models and ratios can be used to accurately estimate carbon stocks from NFI data. (Author) 55 refs.

  12. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Essential Oils on Foodborne Pathogens in Leafy Vegetables

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    Maryam Azizkhani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Prepared vegetables mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Origanum compactum (oregano, Eugenia caryophyllus (clove, and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria essential oils (EOs to control the growth of potentially cross contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial vegetable leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Materials and Methods After the sanitizing washing step, 25 grams of vegetables were packed in strile poly-ethylen bags and sprayed by various concentrations (3, 5 and 10 percent of emulsions of EOs (0.8 ml. Results Zataria EO emulsions of 3 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in vegetables after 5 days of storage at 7 °C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5 percent and 10 percent (2.5 log cfu/g reduction. Oregano (10 percent reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in vegetables by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage at 7 °C. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of vegetables stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV, anorovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated vegetables during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7 °C regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV. Conclusion This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contaminationrelated risks in salads. * Corresponding Author: Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. E-mail: Azizkhani.maryam@gmail.com

  14. Pharmacognostic evaluation, and development and validation of a HPLC-DAD technique for gallocatechin and epigallocatechin in rhizomes from Limonium brasiliense

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    Andressa Blainski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Limonium brasiliense (Boiss. Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, is a plant from the southern coast of Brazilian that is used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders and genito-urinary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality control parameters for rhizomes collected during different periods by pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods, and to develop and validate a HPLC-DAD method for quantitative control of marker substances. The measured parameters were: granulometric analysis (d50 = 0.21–0.48 mm, loss on drying (11.1–12.4%, total ash (4.9–5.7%, dry residue by extraction with acetone:water (7:3, v/v (30.6–39.5%, total polyphenol content (8.5–15.8%, and chromatographic fingerprint by HPLC and TLC. Besides, the acetone:water (7:3, v/v extraction solvent in combination with a turbo-extractor, yielded the crude extract with a significant increase in tannins (F4,20 = 37.0, p < 0.001. The antioxidant potential of the crude acetone:water (7:3, v/v extract, as well as the ethyl acetate and water fractions obtained after the partition process was evaluated by DPPH and the results were, respectively: IC50 6.87, 5.91, and 6.92 µg/ml. The validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. The gallo- and epigallocatechin contents were, respectively, 0.8–2.7% and 1.2–2.2%. These data contribute to analysis of the pharmacognostic quality control of the commonly used part from this species.

  15. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  16. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT assay and Larvicidal Activities

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    Saeed Tavakoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Anti­oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anoph­eles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO.Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-ver­benol (9.66%, isobutyl acetate (25.73% and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68% were main compounds. The oil showed (IC50= 111.2µg/ml in DPPH and IC50= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD50= 1.1µg/ml in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC50= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 µg/ml on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29 respectively. LC50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli, Asper­gillus niger and Candida albicans.Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  17. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

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    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  18. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic contents and identification of main compounds of various extracts from Artemisia aucheri aerial parts

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    M. Mojarrab*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Artemisia aucheri Boiss. is regarded as one of 34 Artemisia species growing in Iran. The aim of this study was to undertake an investigation of the antioxidant activity as well as identification of main compound of different extracts and fractions of A. aucheri. Methods: Antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of five different extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water and five fraction of ethanol extract was investigated by three different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method, ferrous ion chelating assay and β-catotene bleaching test and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Purification of major constituents of the most active fraction was done by preparative and semi preparative HPLC. For one of the isolated compounds, structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (ESIMS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR experiments. Results: Hydroethanolic extract exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity in BCB assay in comparison with other extracts. The ethanol extract was the most active one in DPPH assay while none of the extracts showed notable ferrous ion chelating activity. Fraction 40% MeOH in water showed both the highest total phenolics content and the most potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. Statistical analysis did not show any significant difference between the two aforementioned assays in screening the samples for the antioxidant ability. One known caffeic acid derivative, ethyl caffeate, was isolated from the most active fraction of ethanolic extract. Conclusion: The findings of present study suggested that A. aucheri may be regarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  20. Bacterial susceptibility to and chemical composition of essential oils from Thymus kotschyanus and Thymus persicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooli, Iraj; Mirmostafa, Seyed Akbar

    2003-04-09

    Susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa to the essential oils extracted from two varieties of Thyme, i.e., Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen. and Thymus persicus L. at preflowering and flowering stages were studied. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the zone of microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The oils from the above plants were found to be strongly bactericidal with that of T. kotschyanus being more effective. T. kotschyanusand T. persicus oils analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) lead to identification of 33 and 26 components, respectively. The profile of the oil components from T. persicuswas similar to that of T. kotschyanus in almost all of the compounds but at different concentrations. The major components of T. kotschyanus oil before and at the flowering stages were carvacrol (35.06, 22.75%), thymol (26.60, 16.52%), gamma-terpinene (7.81, 0.34%), gamma-terpinene (4.34, 0%), borneol (2.29, 4.52%), myrcene (0.26, 12.65%), thymolquinone (0, 11.39%), nerol (0, 6.10%), and beta-caryophyllene (0, 5.54%), respectively, and those of T. persicus at the same stages were carvacrol (38.96, 27.07%), thymol (6.48, 11.86%), P-cymene (7.51, 10.16%), gamma-terpineol (0, 9.51%), nerol (15.66, 9.41%), gamma-terpinene (6.11, 6.51%), and thymol acetate (5.29, 5.30%), respectively. The contribution of oil components to its antibacterial property is discussed. High aromatic compound content of the phenol-rich oils seems to account for strong antibacterial activity.

  1. Heavy metals determination in aquatic species for food purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2001-02-01

    New analytical procedures and sample mineralizations are proposed regarding the determination of arsenic, selenium, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury in matrices involved in food chain as mussel, clams and fishes. As regards As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn determinations. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3} acidic mixture is used for the digestion is performed using a concentrated supra pure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} mixture and the results are compared with those from other conventional methods (DPASV) are employed for determining simultaneously selenium, arsenic and copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, respectively, while mercury determination is carried out by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The voltammetric measurements were performed using a conventional three-electrode cell and the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer (ph 9.3) as supporting electrolyte. For all the elements, in addition to the detection limits, precision and accuracy data are also reported: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (S{sub r}), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), are in all cases between 3 to 6%. [Italian] Viene proposta una nuova procedura analitica ed una nuova mineralizzazione del campione per la determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco e mercurio in matrici coinvolte nella catena alimentare come mitili e pesci. Per la determinazione di As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, le matrici sono state mineralizzate con una miscela acida H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}. Nel caso del Hg, la mineralizzazione del campione e' stata effettuata mediante una miscela H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ed i risultati confrontati con quelli ottenuti impiegando altri metodi convenzionali. Per la simultanea determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco, sono state impiegate la voltammetria differenziale pulsata catodica (DPCSV) ed anodica (DPASV), mentre il mercurio e

  2. Energy value as a factor of agroforestry wood species selectivity in Akinyele and Ido local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erakhrumen, A.A. [Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2009-10-15

    Wood usage for cooking and heating is still very relevant in most developing countries especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia. Therefore, sustainable means of generating it for this and other purposes are necessary bearing in mind the influence of indigenous knowledge/users' perspective on any production method regarding success and sustenance. In conformity with this view, questionnaires were administered on 240 respondents in 8 rural communities of Akinyele and Ido Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria, to elicit information on species that can be used as fuelwood, preferred by the respondents for incorporation into and/or retention in agroforestry plots, out of which 179 (i.e. 75% of the total number of questionnaires administered) were successfully retrieved for statistical analyses. Twelve woody species namely: Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Bridelia ferruginea, Daniellia oliveri, Detarium microcarpum, Gardenia ternifolia, Hymenocardia acida, Lophira lanceolata, Parkia biglobosa, Terminalia avicennioides, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Vitellaria paradoxa were prioritized on the basis of respondents' preference using a ranking pattern. Friedman chi-square analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the ranking pattern of the respondents from the two LGAs. The mean net calorific values (NCV) of the 12 species were found to be 17.71, 18.63, 18.04, 16.03, 17.67, 18.46, 19.00, 21.68, 19.63, 18.25, 14.65, and 19.47 MJ kg{sup -1} respectively. The result of a two-way analysis of variance indicated a significant variation (p < 0.05) in NCV data for all the species pooled together but not for each species except for D. oliveri with a follow-up test using Fisher's Least Significant Difference. The Pearson's moment correlation analysis gave positive coefficient values (r = 0.868 and 0.874, p < 0.05) between NCV and the cumulative ranking values in Akinyele and Ido LGAs

  3. Structural and Magnetic Studies on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Hybrid Matrices =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno Joao de Oliveira

    Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que

  4. Spin-Transfer-Torque Nano-Oscillators: Fabrication, Characterization and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose Diogo Teixeira Barbosa

    Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que

  5. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svob Strac D

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dubravka Svob Strac,1 Josipa Vlainic,1 Janko Samardzic,2 Julija Erhardt,3 Zeljka Krsnik41Laboratory for Molecular Neuropsychiatry, Division of Molecular Medicine, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Institute of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 4Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration.Methods: DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes.Results: DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results

  6. [Feature of ACh-sensitive potassium current in outer hair cells of guinea pig cochlea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang-kai; Kong, Wei-jia; Yu, Qing-song; Li, Guan-qiao; Li, Jia-li; Li, Qing-tian

    2007-04-01

    To explore the feature of the ACh-sensitive potassium current in guinea pig cochlear outer hair cells. Cochlear outer hair cells of guinea pigs (n=38) were isolated by collagenase type IV. Under the whole-cell patch mode, the ions nature and the pharmacological properties of the ACh-sensitive potassium current were investigated by applying the inhibitors of calcium-dependent potassium currents and the inhibitors of nicotinic ACh receptor. Following application of ACh, cochlear outer hair cells displayed a rapidly activating outward potassium current with a fast desensitized kinetic and a reversal (x +/- s) potential of (-67.3 +/- 8.2) mV (n=10). At the holding potential of -50 mV, the current amplitude of ACh-sensitive potassium current activated by 100 micronmol/L ACh was (506.6 +/- 186.3) pA (n=9). ACh-sensitive potassium current was sensitive to TEA (tetraethylammonium chloride, 10 mmol/L) and potently inhibited by the small conductance calcium-dependent potassium current (SK) blocker, apamin (1 micromol/L). Iberiotoxin (IBTX), the well-known blocker of big conductance calcium-dependent potassium current (BK), failed to inhibit the amplitude of the ACh-sensitive potassium current at the dose of 200 nmol/L. The dose for half-maximal response (EC50) of the ACh-sensitive potassium current was (33.5 +/- 5.7) micromol/L (n=7). The ACh-sensitive potassium current was sensitive to the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-A receptor blocker, bicuculline, and strongly inhibited by the selective blocker of the alpha 9-nicotinic ACh receptor, strychnine. Strychnine and bicuculline showed the dose-dependent blocking effect with a half inhibition-maximal response (IC50) of (22.3 +/- 2.6) nmol/L (n=7) and (1.2 +/- 0.4) micromol/L (n=6), respectively. This work provides direct evidences that the ACh-sensitive SK current was present on guinea pig cochlear outer hair cells. The activation of the ACh-sensitive SK current was most possibly mediated by a alpha 9-nicotinic ACh receptor.

  7. Anterograde Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  8. Lixiviación ácida de concentrados de scheelita

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    Navarro, P.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The acid leaching in hydrochloric media of a tungsten concentrate (scheelite, CaWO4 was studied. Of the above-mentioned, an insoluble solid (H2WO4 was obtained which were treated with an alkaline solution of sodium hydroxide, achieving the complete solubilization of the tungsten as wolframate ion (WO4-2 . The transformed fraction of tungsten increases with the temperature, as well as with a finer grain. A maximum dissolution of 88.5 % (400 g/1 HCl, 363 K and 20 µm of particle size was achieved for a 3 h process, of the disolution process was interpreted by the recessive core model with formation of a layer of solid product for the whole range of variation of the parameters in study. The activation energy value was found to be 28.0 kj/mol

    Se estudió la lixiviación acida, en medio clorhídrico, de un concentrado de wolframio (scheelita, CaWO4. De lo anterior, se obtuvo un sólido insoluble (H2WO4, que se trató con una solución alcalina de hidróxido de sodio, lográndose la completa solubilización del wolframio como ion wolframato (WO4-2 . La fracción transformada de wolframio aumenta con la temperatura, como también con una granulometría más fina. Se logró una disolución máxima de 88,5 % (400 g/1 HCl, 363 K y 20 µm de tamaño de partícula para 3 h de proceso, disolución que se interpretó a través del modelo de núcleo recesivo con formación de capa de producto sólido para todo el rango de variación de los parámetros en estudio. El valor de energía de activación encontrado fue de 28,0 kj/mol

  9. Efecto de la serpentina en la formación de fases mineralógicas y su relación con la resistencia mecánica en sinterizados de mineral de hierro

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    Bedolla, E.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructures formed by serpentine addition on mechanical strength is investigated. It was found that the microstructure formed depends mainly on firing temperature, basicity and serpentine percent. The mineralogical phases present were quantified by the point-count method. The addition of serpentine on acid briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 0.3, mainly on those fired at 1,275, 1,300 and 1,325 °C, leads to the formation of magnesio-ferrite that diminishes the mechanical strength of fired briquettes, and at the temperature of 1,250 °C the mechanical strength decreases because of the presence of glassy slags. On the other hand, the addition of serpentine on basic briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 1.2 leads to the formation of olivines and ferrites that improve the mechanical strength of fired briquettes.

    Se estudia la influencia de las microestructuras formadas sobre la resistencia mecánica de mineral de hierro aglomerado con serpentina. Se deduce que la microestructura formada depende de la temperatura de sinterización, de la basicidad y del valor porcentual de serpentina, principalmente. Las fases mineralógicas presentes se cuantificaron utilizando la técnica de conteo por puntos. En briquetas acidas (CaO/SiO2 = 0,3 sinterizadas a 1.275, 1.300 y 1.325 °C, se encontró que la serpentina induce la formación de magnesio-ferritas que traen, como consecuencia, una disminución de la resistencia mecánica, mientras que, a la temperatura de sinterización de 1.250 °C, la aparición de escorias vítreas es la causa principal de la disminución de resistencia. En el caso de briquetas básicas (CaO/SiO2 = 1,2, la adición de serpentina produce la formación de olivinas y calcio-ferritas que originan un aumento de la resistencia mecánica de los sinterizados.

  10. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

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    Robson Vicente Machado de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantities of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% v/v, gave flux values of 8.0 and 12.7 µg/cm²/h, permeability values of 2.0 and 3.3 cm×10-4/h, and promotion factors of 4.1 and 3.7, respectively. These results indicate that copaíba oil, at the two concentrations studied, has the capacity to promote penetration of kojic acid.A propriedade do óleo de copaíba como agente promotor de penetração cutânea do despigmentante ácido kójico foi avaliada utilizando-se sistema de difusão in vitro com fluxo estático, membrana de pele da serpente cascavel - Crotalus durissus terrificus e solução salina a 34±2 ºC como fluido receptor. As quantidades liberadas do ácido kójico no fluido receptor foram determinadas por espectrofotometria em 268 nm em intervalos de 1:30 h. As membranas pré-tratadas com óleo de copaíba a 25 e 50% v/v apresentaram valores de fluxo de 8,0 e 12,7 µg/cm²/h, permeabilidade de 2,0 e 3,3 cm×10-4/h, e fatores de promoção de 4,1 e 3,7, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o óleo de copaíba, nas duas concentrações estudadas, apresentou capacidade de promoção da penetração do ácido kójico.

  11. Reaction of Nα-acetyl-L-histidine with diazomethane: A model esterification reaction of carboxylic groups in the presence of imidazole rings

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    Zamora, R.

    1996-10-01

    1-3 fueron confirmadas por electroforesis capilar tras hidrólisis acida. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de diazometano produce el derivado metílico del anillo heterocíclico en adición al éster metílico. Esta reacción debe ser tenida en cuenta al preparar derivados para análisis cromatográfico.

  12. [Spatial structure of the calixarene-aminophosphonic acids is important for their inhibition of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane of smooth muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Rodik, R V; Boĭko, V I; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2010-01-01

    It was found that calixarene C-107 (5,17-diamino(2-pyridyl)methylphosphono-11,23-di-tret-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene) could effectively reduce Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the myometrium cell plasmatic membranes (the value of the apparent constant of inhibition I0.5 was 33 +/- 4 nM) while it practically did not influence the "basal" Mg2(+)-ATPase activity of the same membrane. In comparative experiments, we have shown that the model calixarene C-150--the calixarene "scaffold" (26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene), and the model compound M-3 (4-hydroxyaniline(2-pyridine)methylphosphonic acid)--a fragment of the calixarene C-107, had practically no influence on the enzymatic activities of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase over a wide range of concentrations. Hence, the influence of calixarene C-107 on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was caused by the joint action of two aminophosphonic substituents on the upper rim of the calixarene bowl. The isomer of calixarene C-107--calixarene C-160 (5,11-diamino(2-pyridyl)methylphosphono-17,23-di-tret-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene) also did not influence the Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities of plasmatic membrane of myometrium cells. We carried out molecular modeling of calixarenes C-107 and C-160 and showed differences in interatomic distance between aminophosphonic substituents of mentioned calixarenes. We came to the conclusion that spatial structure of calixarene C-107, namely localization of two aminophosphonic substituents in 5,17 position of the upper rim of this calixarene, is crucial for inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Using laser correlation spectroscopy it was found that the 100 microM solution of calixarene C-107 and 2.5% DMSO had microparticles with size range from 100 nm to 10 microm. Plasma membrane vesicles had average hydrodynamic diameter 401 +/- 17 nm, but after interaction of these vesicles with calixarene C-107 we have registered the creation of

  13. Renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gases within the framework of the Kyoto protocol; Energias renovables y reduccion de gases invernadero en el marco del protocolo de Kioto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Castellanos, Carolina [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The modern societies face diverse environmental problems among which appear the air pollution, the deterioration of seas and coasts, the acidification of soils, acid rain and the climatic change, phenomena, all of them, related in greater or smaller degree to the conventional practices of production and consumption of energy. Specifically, the climatic change puts in risk the well-being of the future generations, and even, the future of the life in the planet. Although uncertainty around the possible repercussions of this phenomenon exists, one knows that one of its main sources is burning of fossil fuels, when affecting the increase of the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, in spite of the achievement that represents the creation of an instrument so sophisticated as the commonly denominated Kyoto Protocol, reluctance on part of some developed countries exists to ratify it and assume their commitments, and in the last session of the Conference of the Parts, (COP-6), celebrated at The Hague, Holland, it was not managed to consolidate to put in action the mechanisms that Kyoto establishes. [Spanish] Las sociedades modernas enfrentan diversos problemas ambientales entre los que figuran la contaminacion del aire, el deterioro de mares y costas, la acidificacion de suelos, la lluvia acida y el cambio climatico, fenomenos, todos ellos, relacionados en mayor o menor medida con las practicas convencionales de produccion y consumo de energia. De manera especifica, el cambio climatico pone en riesgo el bienestar de las futuras generaciones, e incluso, el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Si bien existe incertidumbre en torno a las posibles repercusiones de este fenomeno, se sabe que una de sus principales fuentes es la quema de combustibles fosiles, al incidir en el aumento en las concentraciones atmosfericas de gases invernadero. No obstante, pese al logro que representa la creacion de un instrumento tan sofisticado como el comunmente denominado

  14. Comparison of energy expenditure and closed-loop performance of thermal and reactive distillation sequences coupled for biodiesel production; Comparacion de gasto energetico y desempeno a lazo cerrado de secuencias de destilacion reactiva y termicamente acopladas para produccion de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Jacob, J.L [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Vazquez-Ojeda, M; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G; Hernandez, S [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Biodiesel is the common name for fatty acid methyl esters, obtained by esterification (basic catalysis) or trans-esterification (acid catalysis) of vegetable or animal oils with alcohols, and used as liquid fuel. Production involves the reaction, under mild conditions, between the oil and, typically, excess of methanol. Traditional production of biodiesel exhibits some handicaps, such as the shift of equilibrium to fatty acids by using excess of alcohol that must be separated and recycled. As alternative, it is possible to integrate reaction/separation operations into a single intensified unit, a reactive distillation column, followed by a second separation unit. These configurations exhibit several advantages such as shifting equilibrium in the reactive region and, because of the thermal integration with the second unit, energy savings during products separation. In order to design these production sequences taking advantage of steady state knowledge (energy savings) and considering dynamic performance, this work performs a controllability analysis for six possible configurations; open-loop control properties, evaluated by single value decomposition, are probed by implementing PI controllers to the system. The reactive distillation column coupled to a stripper, without reboilers, shows to be the best option in terms of closed-loop performance and energy savings. [Spanish] Biodiesel es el nombre comun dado a metil esteres de acidos grasos obtenidos por esterificacion (catalisis basica) o trans-esterificacion (catalisis acida) de aceites animales o vegetales con alcoholes, y usados como combustibles liquidos. Su produccion involucra la reaccion entre el aceite y, tipicamente, exceso de metanol a condiciones moderadas. La produccion tradicional de biodiesel exhibe algunas desventajas como el desplazamiento del equilibrio hacia acidos grasos debido al exceso de alcohol, que debe ser separado y reciclado. Alternativamente, es posible integrar las operaciones reaccion

  15. Pharmacological evaluation of a modified conflict procedure: punished drinking in non-water-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanover, K E; Robledo, S; Huber, M; Carter, R B

    1999-08-01

    Conflict procedures used to detect anxiolytic-like activity of drugs often rely on maintaining strict schedules of water or food availability. It is ethically and practically desirable to reduce such states of deprivation in animal testing. The purpose of the present experiment was to develop and pharmacologically characterize a conflict drinking procedure that did not require the use of water-deprived animals. Rats were tested during daily sessions with alternating unpunished drinking (no tone: lick = sucrose solution) and signaled punished drinking (tone: lick = sucrose + shock) components, and developed individual steady baselines over a brief training period (approximately 3-4 weeks). The drugs tested i.p. were the positive allosteric modulators of gamma-amino butyric acidA (GABA)A receptors, diazepam (0.03-30 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (0.03-30 mg/kg), lorazepam (0.03-10 mg/kg), zolpidem (0.3-10 mg/kg), pentobarbital (1-30 mg/kg), pregnanolone (1-30 mg/kg), and bretazenil (0.03-10 mg/kg); the 5-hydroxy tryptamine1A (HT)1A-mediated anxiolytics, buspirone (1-10 mg/kg) and ipsapirone (1-17 mg/kg); and the negative controls D-amphetamine (0.3-3 mg/kg), haloperidol (0.01-0.3 mg/kg), morphine (0.3-17 mg/kg), and imipramine (0.3-30 mg/kg). The experimental procedure was sensitive to increases in punished drinking by the GABAA-positive modulators, consistent with their known or putative anxiolytic activity. Further, the 5-HT1A-mediated anxiolytics increased punished drinking, although to a lesser extent and over a more narrow dose range than did the GABAergic drugs. In contrast, D-amphetamine, haloperidol, morphine, and imipramine failed to increase punished drinking up to doses that decreased unpunished drinking. The present results indicate that water deprivation is not a necessary condition to engender drinking conflict behavior or to obtain pharmacological effects similar to those obtained with other classical conflict procedures.

  16. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  17. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in biosolids from urban origin; Concentracion total y especiacion de metales pesados en biosolidos de origen urbano origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Flores, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: egonz1962@yahoo.com.mx; Tornero Campante, Mario Alberto [Colegio de Postgraduados - Campus Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Angeles Cruz, Yolanda [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bonilla y Fernandez, Noemi [Departamento de Agroecologia y Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias - Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    . El objetivo fue determinar las concentraciones en las fracciones biodisponibles. Se obtuvieron las concentraciones totales de metales pesados por medio de una digestion acida en sistema cerrado y fueron determinadas por espectrofotometria de absorcion atomica. Las concentraciones totales fueron mas bajas que los niveles maximos permisibles establecidos por la legislacion mexicana. Los metales pesados estan asociados principalmente a la fraccion mineral y a la materia organica y consecuentemente muestran muy baja biodisponibilidad.

  18. Research and development of hydrogen and fuel cells technology at the IIE; Investigacion y desarrollo de tecnologia de hidrogeno y celdas de combustible en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano C, Ulises; Arriaga H, Gerardo; Romero C, T; Medrano V, M. Consolacion; Gonzalez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    D relacionados con celdas de combustible iniciaron a partir de estudios basicos electroquimicos de electrodos de platino sobre carbon vitreo en soluciones acidas, para determinar parametros cineticos y propiedades estructurales. Puesto que los principales componentes de las celdas PEM definen en gran medida el costo de la tecnologia, otros esfuerzos adicionales ligados a estudios basicos para el desarrollo de componentes como placas bipolares, estan descritos por el mismo autor en el 2001. Otros trabajos sobre investigacion basica estan ligados a la repuesta de monoceldas de combustible a diferentes condiciones de operacion, y que tambien se revisaran en este articulo.

  19. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1794 the German physicist Chladni published a small book in which he suggested the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. The response was skepticism and disbelief. Only after additional witnessed falls of meteorites did scientists begin to consider Chladni's hypothesis seriously. The first chemical analyses of meteorites were published by the English chemist Howard in 1802, and shortly afterwards by Klaproth, a professor of chemistry in Berlin. These early investigations led to the important conclusion that meteorites contained the same elements that were known from analyses of terrestrial rocks. By the year 1850, 18 elements had been identified in meteorites: carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and tin (Burke, 1986). A popular hypothesis, which arose after the discovery of the first asteroid Ceres on January 1, 1801 by Piazzi, held that meteorites came from a single disrupted planet between Mars and Jupiter. In 1847 the French geologist Boisse (1810-1896) proposed an elaborate model that attempted to account for all known types of meteorites from a single planet. He envisioned a planet with layers in sequence of decreasing densities from the center to the surface. The core of the planet consisted of metallic iron surrounded by a mixed iron-olivine zone. The region overlying the core contained material similar to stony meteorites with ferromagnesian silicates and disseminated grains of metal gradually extending into shallower layers with aluminous silicates and less iron. The uppermost layer consisted of metal-free stony meteorites, i.e., eucrites or meteoritic basalts. About 20 years later, Daubrée (1814-1896) carried out experiments by melting and cooling meteorites. On the basis of his results, he came to similar conclusions as Boisse, namely that meteorites come from a single, differentiated planet with a metal core, a silicate mantle

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of flavonoids from Cichorium glandulosum seeds in vitro and in vivo carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Yao, Xincheng; Zeng, Hong; Zhou, Gao; Chen, Yuxin; Ma, Bingxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-11-04

    Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet was used historically in Uyghur folk medicine. Its roots, seeds, and aerial parts are extensively used by Uyghur residents in Xinjiang to eliminate savda typhoid, dredge and cure obstructive jaundice variety liver disorders. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of total flavonoids (TFs) obtained from C. glandulosum seeds against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the mechanisms of hepatoprotective effects for TFs. The dried seeds of C. glandulosum were extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol, and the extract was chromatographed with D101 macroporous resin. In vitro the antioxidant capacity against lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using ferrothiocyanate, thiobarbituric acid, β-carotene bleaching, and LPO inhibition assay. The cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective activity of TFs were evaluated in human liver hepatoma cells (HepG2). MTT assay, hepatic injury markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) were performed. In vivo the hepatoprotective activity of TFs against CCl4-induced acute liver injury was evaluated in rats. A series of biochemical and antioxidant parameter levels were measured in liver homogenate. The suppressive effect on pancreatic lipase activity was determined. Results indicated that TFs showed antioxidant capacity against lipid peroxidation (LPO). Administrating CCl4 (1%, v/v) caused a significant decrease in HepG2 viability. Treatment with TFs at doses (62.5, 125, and 250 μg/ml) could significantly ameliorate the cytotoxicity and decline the levels of AST, ALT, and LDH induced by CCl4. The markers including MDA and GSH, which were close to oxidative damage, were restored. Oral treatment with TFs in vivo at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), and

  1. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed Muhammad

    2012-12-01

    may be due to some toxic effect of higher dose. ED50 value for Teucrium stocksianum was calculated as 31.5 ± 1.72415 mg/kg (b.w. Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a lot of variation in the composition of essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum boiss, which may be due to different climatic and experimental conditions. Secondly, the essential oil possesses strong antinociceptive activity and could be used in analgesic preparations especially for topical use.

  2. Bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolated from boza Bacteriocina produzida por Lactobacillus pentosus ST712BZ isolad de boza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav D. Todorov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin ST712BZ (14.0kDa in size inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Lactobacillus curvatus. Growth of strain ST712BZ in BHI, M17, soy milk and molasses was similar to growth in MRS, with optimal bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL recorded in MRS after 24h. The same level of bacteriocin production (12800AU/mL was recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5. However, MRS broth (pH 6.5 supplemented with 1mM EDTA, yielded only 6400AU/mL. Low levels of bacteriocin activity were recorded in MRS broth with an initial pH of 5.0 and 4.5. Of all media compositions tested, MRS supplemented with tryptone (20.0g/L, glucose (20.0 to 40.0g/L, mannose (20.0g/L, vitamin B12, or vitamin C yielded 12800AU/mL. Glycerol concentrations of 1.0g/L and higher repressed bacteriocin production. Maximal bacteriocin activity (25600AU/mL was recorded in MRS supplemented with Vit. B1 or DL-6,8-thioctic acid.A bacteriocina ST712BZ produzida par Lactobacillus pentosus (peso molecular de 14,0kDa inibe o crescimento de Lactobacillus casei,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Lactobacillus curvatus. O crescimento de L. pentosus ST712BZ em BHI, M17, leite de soja e melaços foi semelhante ao observado em MRS, registando-se a produção máxima de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em MRS após 24 h. Observou-se o mesmo nível de produção de bacteriocina (12800UA/mL em caldo MRS com pH inicial de 6,5, 6,0 e 5,5. No entanto, em caldo MRS (pH 6,5 suplementado com 1 mM de EDTA a produção apenas atingiu 6400UA/mL. Os níveis de atividade bacteriocinogênica detectados em caldo MRS com um pH inicial de 5,0 e 4,5 foram baixos. De todas as fórmulas de meios de cultura testadas a que apresentou a atividade máxima 12800UA/mL foi MRS suplemento de triptona (20,0g/L, glicose (20,0 e 40,0 g/L, manose (20.0 g/L, vitamina B12 e

  3. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  4. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  5. Fifteen years of seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field; Quince anos de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prieto, Irais; Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    -5000, con tres canales de registro (N-S, E-W y vertical); esta fue la base para el desarrollo de un programa de correcciones a los datos de tiempo de arribo de las ondas P y S por deriva de los instrumentos. En los periodos enero-abril de 1994 y mayo-agosto de 1995 se registraron 170 eventos sismicos, con lo que se propuso un modelo de velocidades, y de diciembre de 1995 a julio de 1996 se realizo un procesado e interpretacion de datos sismicos, definiendo las zonas de ocurrencia de eventos de acuerdo a sus magnitudes y caracterizando el ruido predominante en el campo. Entre septiembre de 2003 y diciembre de 2004 se instalaron diez estaciones sismicas (temporales y permanentes) cuyo monitoreo permitio concluir que el sistema de fallas mas activo era el de El Volcan. De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se llevo a cabo un monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13, lograndose definir dos zonas sismicas de importancia asociadas al sistema de fallas El Volcan y al pozo inyector LV-8 y concluyendose que existia un aumento de la actividad sismica despues de la induccion de los pozos. Entre mayo y agosto de 2006 se recopilo informacion de la red sismica, con la cual se concluyo que el sistema de fallas mas activo en ese periodo fue El Partido. Actualmente la red sismica del campo consta de un equipo SARA y cuatro K2, y se ha conseguido que la estacion SARA se comunique telemetricamente con la estacion base.

  6. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

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    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  7. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

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    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of polystyrene membranes for use in fuel cells; Sintesis y evaluacion de membranas base poliestireno para uso en celdas a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)] e-mail: robertob@ciqa.mx; Paula, M.M.S.; Da Silva, L.; Fiori, M.; Coronetti, J.C.; Silvano, W.F. [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); B.M. Huerta [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    DSC), nivel de entrecruzamiento mediante % Gel y funcion acida mediante titulacion con hidroxido de sodio. Los espectros IR de las membranas antes de sulfonar muestran la existencia de bandas tradicionales de los polimeros utilizados con dos senales de los homopolimeros que se pierden y dos nuevas que aparecen, corroborando las reacciones de copolimerizacion. La termogravimetria muestra una temperatura de descomposicion mayor para las membranas entrecruzadas con el DVB, mientras que el DSC no es muy util para observar transiciones debido a la higroscopicidad de las membranas. Finalmente, el porcentaje de gel esta efectivamente relacionado con la cantidad de DVB utilizado y la acidez de las membranas es mayor con el contenido de acido acrilico, con el tiempo de sulfonacion y el porcentaje de DVB; aunque este valor depende mucho de la facilidad de solubilizar el material. Las propiedades ionicas de las membranas con mejores propiedades mecanicas fueron evaluadas en un prototipo de celda a combustible.

  9. Lactic acid production by L. curvatus in sugarcane molasses/ Produção de ácido lático por Lactobacillus curvatus em melaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is important due to its various applications. The bulk of world lactic acid production is used by the food industry and the rest is used in pharmaceutical, textile, leather, cosmetic and chemical industries. In this work, a 33 incomplete factorial design of the response-surface methodology was used to determine the best concentration of sugarcane molasses, yeast extract and peptone in the culture medium for the development of batch lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus curvatus. The fermentation was carried out at 37 ºC for 48 hours without agitation. The mathematical model given by the responsesurface methodology indicated a concentration of 10% (w/v of sugarcane molasses, 2% (w/v of yeast extract and 4% (w/v of peptone as the best conditions for the composition of culture medium for the lactic acid production by L. curvatus. Under these conditions, lactic acid production was 30,5 g/L, comparable with the result obtained in MRS medium, which produced 32,0g/L of lactic acid. Considering the low cost and high availability of the sugarcane molasses, it was concluded that it represented a good culture medium for lactic fermentation. Sugarcane molasses at 10% (w/v supplemented with yeast extract at 2% (w/v and peptone at 4% (w/v was used in the 3L batch lactic fermentation producing 37,5g/L of lactic acid.A maior parte da produção mundial de ácido lático é utilizada pela indústria de alimentos e o restante em indústrias farmacêutica, têxtil, de couro, cosmética e química. A Metodologia da Superfície de Resposta, planejamento fatorial incompleto 33, foi utilizada para estabelecer as melhores condições, relativas às concentrações, do meio de cultivo contendo melaço de cana-de-açúcar, extrato de levedura e peptona para desenvolvimento da fermentação descontínua por Lactobacillus curvatus. A fermentação se desenvolveu durante 48 horas sob temperatura de 37 ºC. O modelo matemático fornecido pela Metodologia da

  10. Deposition of elements in a beechwood in the Central Apennines (National Park of Abruzzo) and their interaction with the crowns; Deposizione di elementi in una faggeta del parco Nazionale d`Abruzzo ed interazione chimica con le chiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talone, F.; Bussotti, F.; Grossoni, P. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Biologia Vegetale, lab. Botanica Applicata e Forestale

    1998-03-01

    precipitazioni avviene anche durante l`inverno, grazie ai rametti. Il passaggio attraverso le chiome svolge un`azione di neutralizzazione delle precipitazioni. Le concentrazioni di elementi nelle deposizioni in area aperta seguono, sia pure con concentrazioni inferiori, lo stesso andamento delle deposizioni sottochioma, testimoniando in tal modo che l`influenza del bosco si estende oltre i propri confini. L`acqua di scorrimento lungo il fusto e` sempre piu` acida delle precipitazioni in area aperta ed e` anche molto abbondante; in tal modo vengono convogliate al piede della pianta grandi quantita` di elementi e puo` svolgersi una potenziale azione di acidificazione. E` stato evidenziato l`apporto di sale marino, di cui viene ipotizzato un possibile impatto sull`ecosistema. Le deposizioni di elementi antropici quali zolfo e azoto sono invece risultate assai limitate, lontane sia dai carichi critici che da quelle rilevate in altre aree forestali italiane.

  11. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Saraiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The dry methanol extract of the root showed good antimicrobial activity with a MIC of less than 0.5 mg.mL-1. The dry ethyl acetate extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, which might be explained by solubility problems and less diffusion in the agar medium. Results of the bioautographies also confirmed inhibition halos corresponding to the active substances present in the leaves, as well as in the flower of C. pyramidalis. The phytochemical study of the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower and fruit of extracts from C. pyramidalis confirmed the presence of a number of known antimicrobial agents including ursolic acid, quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid, sitosterol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid.A determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos e em acetato de etila da folha, casca do caule, casca da raiz, flor, fruto e semente de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. foi realizada frente a dezessete isolados de Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes, dois isolados de S. aureus MSSA e duas cepas padrão, pelas técnicas de poço/difusão em ágar e determinação das CMI pelo método de diluição em agar/multiinoculador de Stears. O extrato metanólico de casca da raiz indicou uma boa atividade, com CMI inferior a 0.5 mg.mL-1. Os extratos secos por extração em acetato de etila apresentaram menor atividade que se poderia explicar por problemas de solubilidade e menor difusão no meio de cultura em ágar. Resultados

  12. Studies on the effect of vanillin (food additive on some metabolic reactions of the experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Massry, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    función hepática (S.GOT, S.GPT, alcalina y ácido fosfatasa así como las funciones renales se elevaron en comparación con el grupo control. La administración de vanillina redujo significativamente los lípidos totales de hígado y riñones. El bazo y corazón siguieron la misma tendencia pero con efecto moderado, mientras que el cerebro no se afectó. El colesterol total en hígado, riñones, bazo y corazón disminuyó significativamente, en tanto que en cerebro no se afectó. Los triglicéridos disminuyeron significativamente en hígado y bazo, mientras que no se alteraron en riñones y cerebro. También hubo una disminución significativa en la alta actividad de S.GOT, S.GPT, alcalina y fosfatasa acida y se alcanzaron valores muy próximos al nivel inicial. La administración de vanillina ejerció efectos anabólicos potentes para el metabolismo de proteínas como se demuestra de los resultados del ácido urónico y creatinina.

  13. Determining the optimal dose of Fenton reagent in a leachate treatment by Fenton-adsorption; Determinacion de la dosis optima de reactivo Fenton en un tratamiento de lixiviados por Fenton-adsorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Novelo, Roger Ivan; Pietrogiovanna Bronca, Jose Alfredo; Santos Ocampo, Beatriz; Sauri Riancho, Maria Rosa; Giacoman Vallejos, German; Castillo Borges, Elba Rene [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Ingenieria, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)]. E-mail: mnovelo@uady.mx

    2010-07-01

    tipo Fenton-adsorcion con el que se obtuvieron mejores resultados que con otros tratamientos fisicoquimicos o biologicos reportados en la literatura. El proceso Fenton consiste en tratar la carga contaminante con una combinacion de H{sub 2}O{sub 2} y FeSO4 en condiciones acidas. Se evaluo si la filtracion de los lodos producidos durante el proceso Fenton es un proceso mas eficiente que la sedimentacion. Se determino el tiempo de contacto optimo de la oxidacion Fenton, asi como la dosis optima de los reactivos usados en funcion de la DQO del lixiviado, mediante la determinacion de las mejores relaciones [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]. Despues de optimizar el proceso, se filtraron las muestras oxidadas y se ensayo la adsorcion mediante columnas empacadas con carbon activado granular. Se concluyo que el lodo generado por el proceso Fenton se remueve mas eficientemente mediante filtracion que por sedimentacion. Los tiempos de contacto optimos fueron de 5 min para la remocion de la DQO y una hora para la remocion de color, tiempo elegido para proteger el carbon activado. Las mejores relaciones para [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] fueron 0.6 y 9, respectivamente. La eficiencia maxima de remocion despues del proceso de adsorcion fue de 98.9 % para la DQO y 100 % para el color. El indice de biodegradabilidad final alcanzado despues de las pruebas de Fenton-adsorcion fue de 0.24.

  14. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

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    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  15. Anticholinesterase and antioxidant potentials of Nonea micrantha Bioss. & Reut along with GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Jan, Muhammad Saeed; Ullah, Farman

    2017-11-23

    Nonea micrantha Boiss. & Reut . being an unexplored member of Boraginaceae was investigated for GC/MS analysis, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities in an attempt to find its effectiveness in neurological disorders. The AChE and BChE inhibitory activities of crude methanolic extract (Nm.Cr), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Nm.Hex), chloroform (Nm.Cf), ethyl acetate (Nm.EtAc), aqueous (Nm.Aq) and crude saponins (Nm.Sp) from N. micrantha were conducted using Ellman's assay. The antioxidant activity of the plant samples using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging potential following quantitative spectrophotometric and qualitative TLC method were also studied. Moreover the total reducing power (TRP) of all the samples was also figured out. The GC/Ms analysis confirmed that the plant is rich in bioactive molecules. Among different fractions, Nm.Hex, Nm.EtAc and Nm.Cf exhibited highest AChE inhibitory activities causing 75.51 ± 0.73, 68.54 ± 0.59 and 63.48 ± 0.59% enzyme inhibition respectively and IC 50 of 44, 100 and 144 μg/mL respectively. In BChE inhibiton assay, Nm.Aq, Nm.Sp and Nm.Cr showed highest activity causing 83.49 ± 0.27, 81.49 ± 0.89 and 75.31 ± 0.56% enzyme inhibition with IC 50 of 90, 110 and 44 μg/mL respectively. In DPPH assay, Nm.Aq, Nm.Cf, Nm.Hex and Nm.Cr were most potent exhibiting IC 50 values of 3, 5, 93 and 120 μg/ml respectively. In ABTS assay Nm.EtAc, Nm.Aq, Nm.Sp and Nm.Cr showed IC 50 values of 60, 95, 100 and 150 μg/mL respectively. Likewise ABTS inhibition was most prominent for Nm.Sp, Nm.EtAc and Nm.Aq causing 78.26 ± 0.49, 67.67 ± 0.73 and 63.58 ± 0.45% inhibition respectively at 1 mg/mL. These results were further confirmed by qualitative screening using DPPH and ABTS staining. Our anticholinesterase and antioxidant results signify the N. micrantha as a potential source of natural bioactive compounds. Moreover isolation of

  16. Obtención, cultivo y caracterización de células de Schwann: un modelo de terapia celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Spinel

    2000-02-01

    -85%, determinados tanto por parámetros morfológicos como inmunocitoquímicos. Estos parámetros inmunocitoquímicos incluyen la evaluación para marcadores tales como la proteína S-100 y GFAP (Proteína Glial Fibrilar Acida. Adicionalmente, se realizó la evaluación inmunocitoquímica para bromodeoxiuridina (BrdU incorporada por células en su fase S, la cual nos permite obtener una aproximación del comportamiento proliferativo de los diferentes fenotipos celulares presentes en nuestros cultivos. Al realizar la cuantificación para la inmunodetección de BrdU incorporada, se encontró un índice de marcaje del 60 % en ratón, del 80% en rata y del 20 % en células humanas, relativo a la población de células de Schwann totales. Otro parámetro de caracterización ha sido la morfología, la cual se ha evaluado en cultivo por contraste de fase, en la que se puede observar la refringencia y la formación de estructuras a manera de rosarios, típicas de las células de Schwann en cultivo, en material fijado por microscopía de luz en donde se evidencia la inmunoreactividad para los diferentes marcadores y ultraestructuralmente por microscopía electrónica, en donde se han podido observar inclusiones de mielina, abundantes ribosomas libres, estructuras de endocitosis y retículo endoplásmico dilatado al parecer propio en cultivo entre otros detalles.

    Así, las células de rata ya han sido utilizadas en implantes autólogos, en modelos de regeneración en nervio dentario y en nervio ciático crónicamente denervado. En el caso del nervio dentario en el que se aprovechó el canal intraoseo por el que se conduce el nervio a través de la mandíbula, para que funcionara como una cámara de regeneración. En el caso del nervio ciático se utilizaron cámaras en las que se implantaron las células. En ambos casos el efecto de las células en la regeneración nerviosa está siendo actualmente evaluado.

  17. Survey of Associations among Soil Properties and Climatic Factors on Weed Distribution in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan veisi

    2016-11-01

    of different districts by rows. Data on weed communities and environmental factors of all districts were analyzed through with ordination methods like canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and weed species distribution and environmental factors displayed in ordination diagrams. These ordination methods were done with mean density of 29 abundant weed species for CCA using CANOCO (Version 4.5. Ordination plots were produced for both sampling sites and weed species associated with environmental factors. For CCA, we used site elevation, humidity for 10 years period, daily raining for a 10 years period. Soil characteristic included calcium, phosphor, potassium, nitrogen, sodium, magnesium, pH were determined. Sand, clay and silt in soils were measured and elevation of each field was gained by GPS. Results and discussion 162 weed species belonging to 33 plant families were identified in these fields. Multivariate analyses with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that changes in the weed species distribution were due to soil characters (pH, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Sodium, Potassium, silt percent, clay and loam in soil tissue, cation exchange capacity, EC and environmental conditions during former years. The first and second RDA axes described 64% of variations in the weed populations affected by climatic factors. Winter wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L., ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud., wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and canary seed (Phalaris brachystacys Link. in areas of high temperature and low altitude, had a wide distribution. High evaporation increased wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch., Corn cleavers (Galium tricornutum Dandy. and Vetch (Vicia assyriaca Boiss. density during last decade. Where the soil nitrogen and phosphorus rates were high, Wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch. density was found frequently in wheat fields of Kermanshah. In the wheat fields of Kermanshah, Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and wild safflower

  18. Olivine-hornblende-lamprophyre dikes from Quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Central Chile (34°S: implications for the temporal geochemical evolution of the Andean subarc mantle Diques lamprofídicos de olivino-hornblenda de la quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Chile central (34°S: implicancias para la evolución temporal de la geoquímica del manto subarco Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Stern

    2011-01-01

    al este del arco magmático durante el Plioceno. Los lamprófidos menos primitivos, sin olivino, tienen contenidos más altos de La y menores de Yb, con razones más altas de La/Yb entre 15-44, debido al fraccionamiento cristal-líquido el cual involucra hornblenda, pero no plagioclasa. La cristalización de la plagioclasa es inhibida por el alto contenido de H2O de los lamprófidos. Los lamprófidos y los flujos más jóvenes, del Plioceno (1,8-2,3 Ma, de lavas andesíticas-basálticas con olivino del valle del río Cachapoal tienen razones de 87Sr/86Sr entre 0,7041 y 0,7049, C Nd entre +1,2 y -1,1 y de 206Pb/204Pb entre 18,60 a 18,68, mientras que las rocas ígneas del Mioceno Medio a Superior (6,5-13,9 Ma del Complejo Volcánico y Plutónico de El Teniente tienen razones más bajas de 87Sr/86Sr=0,7039 a 0,7041 y de 206Pb/204Pb= 18,56 a 18,59, y más altas de o = +1,9 y +3,8. Las rocas volcánicas y plutónicas del Oligoceno al Mioceno Inferior (>15 Ma de la Formación Abanico o Coya-Machalí en la región tienen razones aún más bajas de 87Sr/86Sr entre 0,7033 a 0,7039 y de 206Pb/204Pb entre 18,45 a 18,57, y C Nd aún más alto entre +3,8 y +6,2. La información isotópica indica una evolución temporal entre el Oligoceno y el Plioceno hacia razones más altas de 87Sr/86Sr y 206Pb/204Pb, y valores de más bajos para los magmas máficos derivados del manto y, por lo tanto, de su fuente en el manto. Notablemente las razones isotópicas de Sr, Nd y Pb son independientes del contenido de SiO2 de las rocas de cada edad, lo que excluye contaminación por la corteza continental del Paleozoico y Mesozoico, la cual es isotópicamente heterogénea, durante la evolución de las rocas intermedias a acidas generadas por los magmas máficos derivados del manto. La evolución isotópica de la fuente de magmas máficos en el manto durante el Oligoceno al Plioceno puede ser explicada por el aumento de 1% a 6% de contaminación en la region fuente de manto por material subductado