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Sample records for boilers sistema experto

  1. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  2. Sistema experto de ergonomía aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mora Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los países que están utilizando las modernas tecnologías de la información aplicadas a la educación. Este fenómeno es parte de la nueva revolución industrial o era de la información que está afectando a casi todas las actividades humanas. La investigación, diseño e implementación de tecnologías que suplan las carencias de recursos económicos para la adquisición de laboratorios que cuenten con todo lo necesario para la realización de prácticas que reafirmen lo teórico. En el desarrollo del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, debe tenerse en cuenta un modelo pedagógico, donde participen activamente tanto el catedrático como los estudiantes. El desarrollo de Sistemas Expertos, basados en Inteligencia Artificial, para realizar prácticas aplicadas a la Ingeniería Industrial, ofrece una posibilidad diferente de modelo educativo, con la que el alumno reafirmará una y otra vez la práctica, en la que aplicará los conocimientos teóricos adquiridos en las aulas; lo que dará un valor agregado a su profesión, para lograr un mejor desempeño en aplicaciones en áreas de la Ingeniería Industrial. Los Sistemas Expertos basados en la Inteligencia Artificial utilizados como emuladores basados en el conocimiento, diseñados y desarrollados por las propias instituciones con recursos propios, son una solución factible y económica, que resuelven las necesidades fundamentales en el proceso de enseñanza- aprendizaje; ya que con ellos se efectúan prácticas de diseños ergonómicos, al mismo tiempo que dan respuestas expertas para la aplicación de la materia de Ergonomía; factor imprescindible en la formación del Ingeniero Industrial

  3. Desarrollo de un sistema experto para el diagnostico de fallas automotrices

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    Fuentes Covarrubias, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un prototipo experimental de un sistema experto para el diagnóstico de fallas mecánicas en automóviles, a partir de una interacción en tiempo real. Este sistema es una herramienta de diagnóstico para técnicos mecánicos, practicantes y personas con conocimientos básicos de mecánica automotriz y puede también ser empleado como un sistema tutor inteligente para un curso de mecánica automotriz.

  4. DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA EXPERTO PARA REUTILIZACIÓN DE AGUAS RESIDUALES TRATADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone un sistema experto basado en lógica difusa para apoyar la toma de decisiones en proyectos de reutilización de aguas residuales domésticas tratadas. La herramienta hidroinformática diseñada estima el potencial de reutilización de agua residual tratada a partir de factores como el índice de escasez y la eficiencia en DBO 5 de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR. La herramienta fue validada a través de un caso de estudio en la PTAR del municipio de Nátaga, Huila, Colombia. En el caso de estudio, se utilizó el balance hídrico, análisis de calidad del agua y encuestas a expertos para establecer la estructura del sistema de lógica difusa, el cual fue implementado en Matlab ® . Los resultados indican una eficiencia del tratamiento de 88,7%, un índice de escasez de 28,5, que corresponde a un índice de escasez medio alto, y por tanto el sistema experto recomienda la reutilización de agua residual tratada con un 92,2%, lo que se clasifica como una reutilización confiable justificada. Se concluye que el sistema experto es adecuado para identificar fuentes alternas de recursos hídricos y esta información puede ayudar a los tomadores de decisiones en la implementación de políticas de gestión integral del recurso hídrico.

  5. Sistemas expertos y su aplicación en medicina Medical expert systems

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    Javier E. Fox

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente artículo es una revisión de los Sistemas Expertos Médicos como aplicación concreta de la inteligencia Artificial. Se hace un recuento histórico de los mismos desde la década de los setenta; se dan nociones generales sobre lo que son los Sistemas Expertos, su arquitectura interna y las personas que Interactúan con ellos para hacer posibles su desarrollo y aplicación; se destacan sus ventajas y desventajas y se integran los conocimientos básicos sobre Sistemas Expertos con el prototipo PULMONOLOGIST que hace diagnóstico diferencial de quince enfermedades pulmonares y muestra al usuario el diagnóstico más probable, los síntomas que dejó de exhibir el paciente, las pruebas confirmatorias realizadas y el tratamiento recomendado.

    A review on medical diagnostic systems based on computer programs (Medical Expert Systems-MES as an application of artificial intelligence is presented. It includes a historical account, general notions, internal architecture of Expert Systems, subjects who interact with them during their development and application, as well as advantages and disadvantages. PULMONOLOGIST, a MES for differential diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, is presented as an example of the potential of this technology.

  6. Sistemas expertos y catalogación descriptiva: Revisión bibliográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, José Antonio

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the main expert systems used in descriptive cataloguing. These investigations have developed three types of systems: advisory programs, systems to create bibliographic records and systems to carry out original cataloguing. After analysing their features and problems, we conclude that the number and complexity of the rules of a cataloguing code make difficult to incorporate them into the knowledge base of an expert system.

    Se lleva a cabo una revisión de los principales sistemas expertos orientados a la catalogación descriptiva. Estas investigaciones han desarrollado tres tipos de sistemas: asesores, para la creación de registros bibliográficos y para realizar la catalogación original. Tras analizar sus características y los principales problemas encontrados, se concluye que la cantidad y complejidad de las reglas contenidas en los códigos catalográficos hacen difícil su utilización en la base de conocimientos de un sistema experto.

  7. Sistema experto para la selección de personal desarrollador de software

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    Hilda Carolina Rey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El desempeño de la empresa en general y aún más de las empresas de software está sustentado en la gente que ejerce en ella. En la actualidad, un desarrollador debe estar dotado de algunas competencias básicas individuales y manifestadas en el grupo de trabajo. La incorporación de nuevo personal o la asignación del ya efectivo a labores concretas en el desarrollo de software, establecen una medida significativa en el proceso, dado que el acierto en esta tarea determinará la propia supervivencia de la empresa. En este punto la inteligencia artificial se encarga de aplicar técnicas y mecanismos propios de esta área, utilizando un Sistema Experto para colaborar en la tarea de selección de personal, brindando al proceso mayor eficiencia y confiabilidad. Este artículo presenta el diseño, construcción y desarrollo del prototipo con la colaboración de expertos en el área de desarrollo de software y psicología organizacional.

  8. Expert system for failure analysis of shafts; Sistema experto para analisis de falla de ejes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo Armendariz, V.H.; Cerrud Sanchez, S.M.; Ramirez Rodriguez, M.A.; Ortiz Prado, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    An expert system for the failure analysis in metallic mechanical devices is being Developer at the Mechanical Engineering departments of the Faculty of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) to provide a solution for the failure analysis in cases where considerable experience in needed. The system pretends to resolve the scarceness of experts in the field of failure analysis and is oriented toward the metal-mechanics industry and will also have didactic applications. The main complication in the development of the system is the broad range of applications envisioned, like gears, shafts, bolts and springs between others. Therefore, it was decided to develop the system in a modular way, using the experience obtained in a first module to proceed faster in the others. The present paper presents the elaboration of the module that analyses shafts. This will serve as the base to expand the system toward other components. It uses the general structure of the global system, including an auxiliary software for the determination of maximum stresses in the corresponding parts. [Spanish] Con el fin de contar con un medio eficaz para la solucion de problemas relacionados con el analisis de falla, en donde la experiencia juega un papel fundamental, el Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica de la Facultad de ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) , esta desarrollando el proyecto Sistema experto para analisis de falla de elementos mecanicos, dicho sistema busca resolver el inconveniente de la escasez de expertos y se orienta, tanto a la necesidad de la industria metalmecanica como a la de la docencia. Presenta tambien complicaciones en su desarrollo, ya que se pretende la posibilidad de realizar analisis de falla de elementos como ejes, engranes, pernos, bielas, resortes, tornillos etc. Por lo anterior, se establecio como estrategia el desarrollo del sistema por modulos, ya que teniendo la experiencia de elaboracion de un primer

  9. Sistema experto para calificar pruebas de desarrollo en estudiantes de la Universidad Continental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Antonio Párraga Chamorro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Construir un sistema experto para calificar pruebas de desarrollo en Informática, y comprobar si su aplicación permite la calificación de una prueba de desarrollo con una valoración cuantitativa que permita al alumno autoevaluarse en cualquier momento recibiendo información instantánea sobre su nivel de conocimientos. Métodos: El tipo de investigación fue aplicada, de campo, descriptiva y transversal. EXAINFO tiene básicamente dos partes: la base de conocimientos y el motor de inferencia para obtener una valoración del examen de desarrollo. Para la evaluación de su aplicabilidad se construyó la matriz de evaluación del curso, luego el modelo de características para extraer la puntación y las palabras vacías, de este modo se calificó respuestas construidas de los estudiantes e indicó los conceptos faltantes en el aprendizaje; en este proceso se cuidó el principio de concurrencia, mediante la validación de captura facial, evitando así la suplantación de algún estudiante. La muestra fue de 40 estudiantes del primer semestre de la asignatura de Informática de la Universidad Continental. Resultados: El promedio de 72,38 % de tasa de recuperación indica que la mayor parte de los conceptos básicos son recuperados por los estudiantes. Los conceptos básicos recuperados son demasiados por lo que se reduce la tasa de precisión. Conclusiones: El sistema experto EXAINFO sí hace posible calificar las pruebas de desarrollo y diagnosticar el estado de aprendizaje del alumno mediante el análisis de texto libre de las respuestas del estudiante.

  10. Expert system based on cases for a diagnosis system in real time; Sistema experto basado en casos para un sistema de diagnostico en tiempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa R, Alfredo; Quintero R, Agustin; Zambrano D, S Venecia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the development of an Expert System based in the Reasoning Based on Cases methodology. Such system was performed with the purpose of creating an information system in charge of supervising and diagnosing the status of the main equipment of fossil fuel power plants for electricity generation. Here is presented the reasons why this methodology was used for the expert system and why Induce-It -the specialized tool that implements it- was also chosen, as well as the analysis made for the disposition of the operative architecture of the Expert System, the very development of this software architecture and, finally, the validation of the correct operation of this system by means of a simulator that simultaneously puts to the test the error handling of the Expert System. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el procedimiento que siguio el desarrollo de un Sistema Experto asentado en la metodologia de Razonamiento Basado en Casos; realizado con el fin de crear un sistema de informacion encargado de supervisar y diagnosticar el estado de los equipos principales de centrales de generacion termoelectrica. Se expone justificadamente la seleccion de la metodologia del sistema experto y de la herramienta especializada que lo implementa (Induce-It), asi como el analisis realizado para la disposicion de la arquitectura operativa del Sistema Experto, el desarrollo mismo de esta arquitectura del software y, finalmente, la validacion del correcto funcionamiento de este sistema mediante un simulador que a la vez pone a prueba el manejo de errores del Sistema Experto.

  11. Aplicación de redes bayesianas en el modelado de un sistema experto de triaje en servicios de urgencias médicas

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Este articulo describe el trabajo actual que estamos realizando para la aplicación de redes bayesianas en el modelado de sistemas expertos de triaje (clasificación) en los servicios de urgencias médicas. Las redes son construidas teniendo en cuenta tanto los datos provenientes de experiencias de triaje como la opinión de médicos expertos en urgencias. El sistema será utilizado con una doble finalidad: a nivel teórico para entender cómo la información requerida en el triaje puede ser modelada ...

  12. Un sistema experto de ayuda para el ingreso de notas en la FCACE

    OpenAIRE

    Sante, Lisbeth I.; Coral, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    Los sistemas de ayuda son conocidos también como sistemas de apoyo en línea y son esenciales en los procesos de interacción humano-computador, estos proporcionan información breve y concisa para resolver un problema puntual durante el trabajo del usuario, además pueden lograr una alta efectividad en el uso de aplicaciones informáticas a nivel productivo u operacional, con estos sistemas el usuario experimenta que el producto es inteligente y amigable por ello se hace necesario utilizarlos par...

  13. Sistema experto para la elección del tipo de recuperación en canteras de materiales de construcción

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    Yiezenia Rosario Ferrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la capacidad humana de transformar el entorno natural ha originado un desequilibrio entre el deterioro ocasionado y la capacidad de recuperación del medio. La extracción de materiales de la construcción es imprescindible en la obtención de recursos para el desarrollo constructivo del país, lo que obliga a solucionar los problemas de la demanda de materias primas en equilibrio con la conservación de la naturaleza. A fin de favorecer la planeación de la recuperación, se propone el desarrollo de un sistema experto de apoyo en la selección del tipo de recuperación en áreas dañadas por la minería en canteras de materiales de la construcción. El sistema fue realizado siguiendo la metodología IDEAL y la integración de las herramientas CLIPS y Java. El sistema experto resultante facilita la introducción de la dimensión ambiental en los proyectos mineros de explotación de materiales de la construcción para contribuir al logro de una minería responsable.

  14. Sistema experto para el diagnóstico y control de la contaminación de un tramo del cauce de un río José

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Alvarado, José Roberto; Yance Saltos, Ángela Mercedes; Rojas Delgado, Wendy Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    En este documento, presentamos la implementación del sistema interactivo “Río Limpio”, aplicación de software desarrollada en lenguaje Java, orientada a explicar de una manera sencilla y comprensible, principios de la hidrología y del cuidado ambiental a usuarios no expertos. El propósito del proyecto es el de desarrollar una aplicación computarizada que usando el conocimiento de un experto le permita a un usuario no experto interactuar con un ambiente simulado de un tramo de río, donde se...

  15. La interacción de sistemas de expertos y bases de datos, como elemento de innovación tecnológica en la gestión empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Martínez, Margarita

    1992-01-01

    RESUMEN. La interacción de sistemas expertos y bases de datos permite disponer de un gestor eficiente de información -la base de datos-, y de una herramienta -los sistemas expertos- para incorporar conocimiento heurístico, establecer procesos de razonamiento y flexibilizar la búsqueda de la solución. Su aplicación, a los procesos de decisión en la empresa, facilita el acceso y proceso automático de información operativa e incorpora elementos de conocimiento sobre estimaciones del entorno en e...

  16. Diseño, implementación y evaluación de un sistema experto para análisis de fallas en elementos de máquinas

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Gómez, Carlos Javier

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto fué el diseño, la implementación y la evaluación de un sistema experto para determinar el mecanismo de falla en elementos de máquina como ejes, rodamientos, engranajes, cojinetes y cuerpos de caldera. Para el desarrollo se implementaron tres sistemas expertos basados en inferencia clásica, inferencia difusa e inferencia bayesiana para la identificación de mecanismos de falla en ejes ya que este elemento de máquina dispone de mucha más info...

  17. Diseño de un sistema experto para la identificación de enfermedades en el cultivo del arroz Oryza sativa L. en Colombia

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    Jaramillo A. Alejandro

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El "Sistema Experto" brinda información referente a la etiología, epidemiología, y control de 29 enfermedades del cultivo. Además cuenta con ayudas gráficas que sirven para la comparación visual de las conclusiones dadas por el programa y la observación realizada en el campo. El sistema realizado es el fruto del trabajo conjunto entre un experto (Fitopatólogo y los autores con la asesoría del director del trabajo, de otra parte el conocimiento está sustentado también en la revisión de literatura. Los criterios utilizados para la elaboración del programa fueron: estado fenológico de la planta, órgano o parte afectada, síntoma general y síntoma específico. Este "software" trabaja en computadores IBM o compatibles con sistema operacional MS-DOS, fue programado en lenguaje Turbo prolog y se utilizó un "System" para el enlace de los gráficos que son manejados por el progran18.VGIF.EXE.

    An "Expert System" to identify diseases in the Rice crop Oryza sativa L. in Colombia, It provides information about etiology, epidemiology, and control of 29 diseases. Also it has graphic helps which provide a visual comparison with field observations. The work was based on knowledge acquired fron expert and literature revision. The criteria used were: plant phenology, plant part damage, general damage and specific damage. This "software" works with IBM compatible MS-DOS and Turbo Prolog Shell, it must be used in computers wich have a color monitor.

  18. Sistema experto difuso para determinar perfiles criminológicos basado en el test de lãœscher y variables socio-criminológicas

    OpenAIRE

    CARDONA, CHRISTIAN; Restrepo, Diana; OVALLE, DEMETRIO

    2009-01-01

    El presente artículo exhibe el análisis, diseño y construcción del sistema experto difuso “FUZZY PROFILEâ€�, el cual se basa en el modelamiento de variables difusas y la adquisición de conocimientos de carácter psicológico y social con el fin de inferir la inclinación criminalística de un cierto individuo [1]. Para su realización se tomaron datos y elementos conceptuales de una tesis en el área de psicología [2] y mediante éstos se construyó un esquema difuso de doble capa constituido por t...

  19. Desarrollo de sistemas expertos en tiempo real para la detección y diagnóstico de faltas en motores trifásicos de inducción

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    Luis Diego Murillo Soto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las etapas y arquitectura para el  desarrollo de sistemas expertos (SE, orientados a detectar y diagnosticar las condiciones anormales de diseño en que opera el motor, estas condiciones fuera de rango son conocidas como faltas. Las faltas pueden evidenciarse al comparar el valor de diseño de alguna variable y la medición real en el punto de operación.Comercialmente existen sistemas en línea que permiten monitorear un conjunto de variables, pero requiere de una persona experta en el tema, que establezca las variables a medir y la frecuencia de medición. Posteriormente se requiere el análisis de los datos y las recomendaciones generales de los posibles causantes del problema, así como las respectivas acciones correctivas por parte del experto.El anterior sistema de monitoreo y diagnóstico está limitado principalmente por: existencia del equipo de monitoreo, contar con un experto que realice el diagnóstico, y sus respectivos costos.El diseño e implementación de un sistema experto que automatice la captura e interpretación de los datos, permitirá lograr una solución económica a las limitantes planteadas.

  20. LOS SISTEMAS INFORMÁTICOS EXPERTOS DE TOMA DE DECISIONES Y LA VOLUNTAD COMO ELEMENTO DE VALIDEZ DEL NEGOCIO JURÍDICO

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    Ruperto Pinochet Olave

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Un sistema informático experto permite que un sujeto ­después de activar el sistema- perfeccione negocios jurídicos ignorando las circunstancias particulares del negocio celebrado ante lo cual es posible preguntarse ¿si la respuesta del computador forma parte de la voluntad del usuario y si realmente existe en los términos del Código civil una clara voluntad psicológica, consciente, libre y actual? que pueda dar por cumplidas las exigencias que el Código Civil formula a la voluntad como requisito de validez del acto jurídico.An expert computational system allows the individual who has activated it to complete juridical acts ignoring their particular circumstances. This leads to the following question: Is the computer's response a part of the will of its user? Is there in this case a clear, conscious, free, and present will, in the terms demanded by the Civil Code of the will as a requisite for the validity of a legal act?

  1. Desarrollo de un sistema experto de identificación de hongos más comunes en alimentos para la cátedra de Microbiología Agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El presente documento, describe un trabajo interdisciplinario: el diseño y construcción del “Sistema Experto Aplicado a la Identificación de Hongos Presentes en Alimentos”, surgido como resultado de la inquietud de la cátedra de Microbiología Agrícola de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, y el aporte de cogniciones y competencias en desarrollo de software a medida, de integrantes de la carrera de Licenciatura en Sistemas de la Facultad de Ingeniería, ambas Unidades Académicas de la Universidad...

  2. SIMULACIÓN METABÓLICA DE LA BIODEGRADACIÓN DE ACEITES DIELÉCTRICOS USANDO SISTEMAS EXPERTO

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    EDISON ALEXANDER AGUDELO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La rápida industrialización y la acelerada producción de nuevos compuestos sintéticos han llevado a los gobiernos y entidades de control a regular de forma estricta los vertimientos de efluentes industriales. Sin embargo, con decenas de nuevos compuestos generados cada año, es imposible establecer protocolos de tratabilidad y estimar su impacto directo en los ecosistemas antes de su producción en industria. El uso de sistemas de predicción de rutas metabólicas permite estimar de forma preliminar las posibles transformaciones que un compuesto complejo puede sufrir como resultado de su interacción con ecosistemas, dando un indicio de la facilidad del tratamiento biológico y su riesgo para a salud del medio ambiente. En este trabajo se presenta la simulación de la biodegradación de tres compuestos de referencia presentes en tierra Fuller contaminada con aceites dieléctricos, con el ánimo de estimar su biodegradabilidad y la posible generación de intermediarios tóxicos. Para cada compuesto se identificaron sus principales transformaciones, así como las enzimas involucradas y los posibles microorganismos que propician estas transformaciones. Se comprobó que los contaminantes pueden ser biodegradados completamente y que no se generan intermediarios tóxicos de importancia, con lo cual se confirma la factibilidad del tratamiento biológico para aceites dieléctricos.

  3. SISTEMA EXPERTO PARA APOYAR EL APRENDIZAJE EN EL USO DE MÁQUINAS-HERRAMIENTAS PARA “SISTEMAS INTEGRADOS DE MANUFACTURA”

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Chacón, Alonso; Lasso, Octavio

    2013-01-01

    Uno de los retos que nos plantea la educación en el siglo XXI es balancear la necesidad de enseñar los contenidos de un curso en un formato tradicional, es decir basado en la exposición del profesor, con la necesidad de diseñar cursos con métodos de aprendizaje activo. Este artículo describe el diseño, implementación y mantenimiento de un “Sistema Experto” para la enseñanza de programación de control numérico (CNC) y el  manejo de máquinas-herramientas automáticas de 2 y 3 ejes en la clase de...

  4. Desarrollo de un sistema experto para el proyecto de investigación “Generador automático de modelos de datos normalizados en bases de datos relacionales”

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Luis Esteban; Muñoz, Roberto; Romero, María Soledad; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Bartó, Carlos; Fiorito, Nicolás; Spalletti, Mauricio; Paz Menvielle, María Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Un Sistema Experto que permite la carga de la Normalización de modelos de datos para base de datos relacionales, que luego será validada hasta tercera forma normal en su diseño. Para ser utilizado en el ámbito académico dentro de las carreras de Informática, como herramienta de aprendizaje (sin supervisión docente) de los estudiantes, para la temática de Normalización de Modelos de Datos para bases de datos relacionales. Desarrollado con la integración de tres herramientas (software) de pr...

  5. Partidos y sistemas de partidos en América Latina: Aproximaciones desde la encuesta a expertos 2009 Parties and Party Systems in Latin America: Perspectives from an Expert Survey 2009

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID ALTMAN; JUAN PABLO LUNA; RAFAEL PIÑEIRO; SERGIO TORO

    2009-01-01

    En base a la identificación de corrientes ideológicas y patrones de competencia nacionales, esta nota de investigación presenta una clasificación de los partidos políticos y sistemas de partido de América Latina. La clasificación que presentamos se basa en un primer análisis de los resultados de una encuesta a expertos realizada entre 2007 y 2009, para sondear las características de los partidos políticos de la región. En base a una estrategia de análisis factorial, aplicada a un conjunto amp...

  6. Control Automático de Voltaje en Sistemas Eléctricos de Potencia basado en Sistemas Expertos Automatic Voltage Control in Electrical Power System based on Expert Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C Vaschetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el diseño de un controlador experto para el nivel de voltaje en un sistema eléctrico de potencia. La utilización del concepto de nodo piloto permite mantener la lista de controladores estable ante los cambios topológicos de la red. La normativa del Operador Eléctrico de la Provincia de Alberta – Canadá, es utilizada para lograr el perfil óptimo de tensiones. La validación del controlador se realiza mediante una simulación sobre un caso de biblioteca y se compara la solución obtenida con la brindada por un flujo óptimo de potencia y con la de un algoritmo genético. Como resultado fundamental se obtiene el tratamiento unificado del perfil de tensiones y el despacho óptimo de la potencia reactiva sin necesidad de recurrir a un algoritmo de dos pasos. El controlador propuesto resulta apto para su aplicación en línea y en tiempo real, así como flexible a la hora de tratar con problemas de difícil formulación analítica.This paper presents the design of an expert controller applied to voltage level control in a power system . The use of pilot node concept allows to keep stable the list of controllers against topological changes in the network . To achieve the optimal voltage profile, the Alberta Electric System Operator regulations are used. The controller validation is performed by simulating a case library and the solution is compared with results provided by an optimal power flow and a genetic based algorithm . The main advantage of the propose model is the unified treatment of the voltage profile and the reactive dispatch without the need of a two-step algorithm . The proposed controller is suitable for online real -time applications and it is flexible when dealing with problems that present a complex analytical formulation.

  7. Expertos vs. novato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S\\u00E1nchez L\\u00F3pez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar las diferencias en el desempeño de una tarea de atención en relación con la pericia en artes marciales.Participaron 12 deportistas de artes marciales expertos y 13 novatos. Se les aplicó el Test of Variables of Attention (Greenberg, 1996 y se analizaron losdatos de la prueba para cada variable, condición y segmentos en los que se divide, con un método estadístico no-paramétrico de permutaciones. Lascomparaciones intergrupos indicaron una tendencia a que el puntaje global de Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH de la pruebafuera mejor en los expertos que en los novatos. Se hizo un análisis intragrupo para conocer el comportamiento de cada grupo a lo largo de la prueba; losresultados indicaron que los deportistas expertos muestran mayor consistencia en el número de aciertos y tiempos de reacción a lo largo de la prueba, loque se traduce como un mejor desempeño cuando se compara con la forma en que los deportistas novatos responden a la tarea. Los resultados sugierenque el entrenamiento físico y mental de las disciplinas de artes marciales podría producir una mejora en las capacidades de atención de los deportistas.

  8. SESSA: Expert system for the selection of air conditioning equipment; SESEAA: Sistema experto para la seleccion de equipos de aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Cardenas Perez, Edgar [Laboratorio de Sistemas Inteligentes, Centro de Instrumentos de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of selecting air conditioning and refrigeration equipment is quite wide and complex, since it encompasses from the application of the basic principles of physics and of thermodynamics up to the classic engineering design problems; these in turn can be numberless since they vary from place to place depending on multiple factors such as the region geographic and economic conditions. On the other hand, account most be taken of several elements such as windows, walls, and its specific geographical orientation, roofs, floors, partitions, equipment, lighting, etc., all this exerts influence in the complexity that represents the selection process. This paper describes a useful informatics tool to make it easy the selection process in air conditioning installations, taking into account multiple saving and efficient use of energy criteria, reflected in the operation process of these installations. [Espanol] El problema de seleccion de sistemas de aire acondicionado y de refrigeracion es bastante amplio y complejo, ya que abarca desde la aplicacion de los principios basicos de la fisica y la termodinamica hasta los problemas clasicos de diseno de ingenieria; estos a la vez pueden ser innumerables ya que varian de un lugar a otro y de un proyecto a otro, dependiendo de multiples factores tales como las condiciones geograficas y economicas de la region. Por otra parte se deben tomar en cuenta diversos elementos como son: ventanas, muros y sus orientaciones especificas, techos, pisos, particiones, equipos, iluminacion, etc., todo esto influye en la complejidad que representa el proceso de seleccion. En el presente trabajo se describe una herramienta informatica para facilitar el proceso de seleccion de instalaciones de aire acondicionado, tomando en cuenta multiples criterios de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia que se reflejan durante el proceso de operacion de estas instalaciones.

  9. Partidos y sistemas de partidos en América Latina: Aproximaciones desde la encuesta a expertos 2009 Parties and Party Systems in Latin America: Perspectives from an Expert Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID ALTMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En base a la identificación de corrientes ideológicas y patrones de competencia nacionales, esta nota de investigación presenta una clasificación de los partidos políticos y sistemas de partido de América Latina. La clasificación que presentamos se basa en un primer análisis de los resultados de una encuesta a expertos realizada entre 2007 y 2009, para sondear las características de los partidos políticos de la región. En base a una estrategia de análisis factorial, aplicada a un conjunto amplio de preguntas incluidas en la encuesta, construimos tres dimensiones ideológicas (latentes: estatismo, conservadurismo (moral, religioso, y nacionalista, y actitudes acerca del régimen democrático. Utilizando estas tres dimensiones ideológicas como insumo para un análisis de clusters, clasificamos a los partidos políticos de la región en diez "familias ideológicas".This research note presents a classification of Latin American parties and party systems, according to mainstream ideological currents and country-specific competitive patterns. This classification is based on a preliminary analysis of the results of an expert survey on Latin American party systems that was carried out from 2007 to 2009. We factor-analyze parties' positions on a wide set of issues and estimate three (latent ideological dimensions: statism, conservatism (moral, religious, nationalist, and attitudes towards democracy. Based on these three ideological dimensions we perform a cluster analysis and classify the political parties of the region in ten "ideological families".

  10. Prioridades de investigación en servicios sanitarios en el Sistema Nacional de Salud: Una aproximación por consenso de expertos Setting health services research priorities in the public health system: An approach through expert consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal-Delgado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar y priorizar los temas de investigación en los servicios sanitarios, adoptando una perspectiva orientada a satisfacer las necesidades de la población cubierta por el Sistema Nacional de Salud. Material y método: Reunión de 13 expertos estructurada con una técnica grupal mixta, desarrollada en 2 fases consecutivas: grupo nominal y método Delphi. Se identificaron prioridades de investigación en servicios de salud que fueron puntuadas de la siguiente manera: de 7 a 9, muy relevante; de 4 a 6, relevancia intermedia, y de 1 a 3, poco o nada relevante. Los resultados fueron ordenados en función de su puntuación mediana y su dispersión. Resultados: Se identificaron 53 temas de investigación. Se clasificaron como prioritarios los temas relacionados con estrategias para mejorar la efectividad de la atención sanitaria, la información a los pacientes, la calidad y la seguridad de la atención, la equidad y la accesibilidad de los servicios, y la sostenibilidad del sistema sanitario. El consenso entre estos temas fue muy alto: sólo 4 ítems obtuvieron una dispersión reseñable (intervalo intercuartílico (IQ ≥ 2. En un rango de prioridad intermedia se situaron los temas relacionados con las mejoras organizativas del sistema, las mejoras en productividad y eficiencia, y los recursos humanos y equipamientos. El disenso en este caso fue muy alto: el 59% de los ítems obtuvo un IQ ≥ 2. Conclusiones: Aún con diversas limitaciones, se ofrece una referencia de prioridades para los investigadores españoles en servicios de salud y, también, una referencia para los financiadores y los usuarios de esta modalidad de investigación.Objectives: The aim of the present paper was to identify and prioritise health services research issues, from the perspective of Spanish NHS enrollees' health needs. Methods: 13 experts attended to a structured consensual meeting by using a two-phase process, sharing both Nominal Group and Delphi

  11. The application of the expert system Seilum for the energy assessment in the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) illumination, phase 1: Acatlan; Aplicacion del sistema experto Seilum para la evaluacion energetica de la iluminacion en la UNAM, fase 1: Acatlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Sanchez Cifuentes, Augusto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper analyses the characteristics of the expert system Seilum and its first validation after being employed to compare the energy audit of the illumination installations carried out at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)`s Acatlan Unit. In accordance with these results, the perspectives of its generalized application in the balance of the units is proposed, as well as in the small and medium size Mexican industry. [Espanol] En este trabajo se discuten las caracteristicas del sistema experto Seilum y su primera validacion luego de haber sido empleado para comparar la auditoria energetica de las instalaciones de iluminacion llevada a cabo en la unidad de acatlan de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). De acuerdo a estos resultados se plantean las perspectivas de su empleo generalizado en las demas unidades, asi como en la pequena y mediana industria mexicana.

  12. El mantenimiento en la confiabilidad y disponibilidad de un sistema de generación de vapor // Maintenance on the reliability and availability of steam boiler systems

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    Mayra Troncoso-Fleitas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revelar y agrupar los principales hallazgos de seguridaddetectados en Sistemas de Generación de Vapor, SGV, que influyen en su confiabilidad ydisponibilidad y son causados por debilidades en la función mantenimiento. Los hallazgos han sidoidentificados mediante la aplicación de Técnicas de Identificación de Peligros, TIP, como Revisionesde Seguridad, Análisis HAZOP y Análisis Qué pasa si..?, entre otras metodologías y técnicasdisponibles, a más de una treintena de instalaciones donde los SGV han cumplido funciones tanto deapoyo a la producción como a los servicios. Agrupar y analizar estos hallazgos, problemas odesviaciones de seguridad han revelado que, independientemente del grado de cultura de seguridadque presente la instalación objeto de estudio, tienen un mismo origen y requieren de accionessimilares para su gestión.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, confiabilidad, disponibilidad, seguridad, caldera, generación de vapor.__________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper has as objective to develop and to group the main findings of safety detected in SteamBoiler Systems that influence in its reliability and availability and they are caused by weaknesses inthe function maintenance. Findings have been identified by means of the application of HazardIdentification Techniques, HIT, like Safety Revision, HAZOP Analysis, What if..? Analysis and othersmethodologies and techniques available, applied to more than a thirty of where the Steam BoilerSystems have fulfilled functions in support to the production or services. Grouping and analyzingthese findings, problems or deviations of safety have revealed that, independently of the grade ofsafety culture presents in the facility, they have common causes and they require of similar actions fortheir management.Key words: maintenance, reliability, safety, availability, steam boilers.

  13. sistemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Muñoz Gaviria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presentado a continuación, plantea en términos generales las principales posturas conceptuales del sociólogo alemán Niklas Luhmann sobre las ideas de Max Weber y su teoría de la acción social, y de Talcott Parsons y sus planteamientos en torno a la teoría de los sistemas sociales. Al final del escrito se hace especial énfasis en el rol protagónico que para Luhmann tienen las ciencias sociales y humanas en la autorreferencia del sistema social.

  14. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin) POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Giclis M. Suárez; René Florido Bacallao; Francisco Soto Carreño; Alberto Caballero Núñez

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin) por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cues...

  15. Evaluación de la ocupación del suelo con un sistema experto de evaluación de tierras y un SIG en la Zona de Especial Protección para las Aves «Encinares de los ríos Alberche y Cofio», Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Vega, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We used an expert system for land evaluation, integrated into a Geographic Information System to assess the overall capacity of land use and to compare it with the current land uses in a protected area. The mid valley of the Alberche river, located in the southwest region of Madrid (central Spain, has been declared a Special Protection Area and is part of the Natura 2000 network. Conflict zones have been identified among the development and the conservation of the nature. The results will help to drive the public policies regarding conservation of the zone natural resources and to plan the future land use in the context of sustainable development.

    Se ha utilizado un sistema experto de Evaluación de Tierras, integrado en un Sistema de Información Geográfica, para evaluar la capacidad general de uso de las tierras y compararla con los usos actuales del suelo en un área protegida. El valle medio del río Alberche, situado en el suroeste de la región de Madrid (centro de España, ha sido declarado Zona de Especial Protección para las Aves y forma parte de la red Natura 2000. Se han identificado zonas de conflicto entre el desarrollo y la conservación de la naturaleza. Los resultados ayudan a orientar las políticas públicas en materia de conservación de los recursos naturales de la zona y a planificar el uso futuro de la tierra en el contexto del desarrollo sostenible. [fr] Nous avons utilisé un système expert pour l’évaluation des terres, intégrés dans un système d’information géographique pour évaluer la capacité globale de l’utilisation des terres et de la comparer avec la terre actuelle utilise dans une zone protégée. La vallée de la rivière Alberche, situé dans la région sud-ouest de Madrid (centre de l’Espagne, a été déclarée zone de protection spéciale pour les oiseaux et fait partie du réseau Natura 2000. Ont été identifiées les zones de conflit entre développement et conservation. Les r

  16. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6 cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5 in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating

  17. Escalamiento subjetivo de conductas delictivas en legos y expertos

    OpenAIRE

    García Cueto, Eduardo; García García , Juan; Fuente Sánchez, Leticia de la; Borges del Rosal, África; Sánchez Bruno, Alfonso; San Luis Costas, Concepción; Fuente Solana, Emilia Inmaculada de la; Martín Tamayo, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    En este estudio se realiza el escalamiento subjetivo de 13 conductas delictivas del actual Código Penal español, mediante el método de las comparaciones binarias. Se utiliza una muestra de 736 personas de población general de cinco comunidades autónomas españolas, y una muestra de 141 expertos en Derecho. Las edades de las personas de la muestra general están comprendidas entre los 18 y los 63 años, mientras que en la muestra de expertos la edad oscila entre los 23 y los 63 años. Los resultad...

  18. El buen entrenador como experto adaptativo que lidera al grupo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jim\\u00E9nez S\\u00E1iz

    2010-01-01

    expertos en baloncesto, siguiendo los criterios de la literatura específica. Los resultados reflejan que los entrenadores destacan la capacidad de adaptación al contexto que les rodea, como algo prioritario para alcanzar el éxito como entrenadores. Los entrevistados subrayan que no abandonan su modelo de entrenamiento cuando cambian de contexto, sino que lo adaptan a una situación distinta.

  19. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

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    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico. Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para integrar la información en estructuras complejas de información.

  20. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  1. ENS-AI: Un sistema experto para la enseñanza

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    Clara BARROSO JEREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The E.S. being developed in named ENS-AI, acronym for ENSeñanza Artificial Intilligence. ENS-AI will work as support and guide system for education practice. It is being implemented in the expert system environment MILORD-II, developed in the Institut d'Investigació en Intel.ligencia Artificial (IIIA of the C.S.I.C. MILORD-II provides a mechanism to represent heuristic rules weighted by linguistic certainty values, based on the use of many-valued logics. This facility allows to represent poor structured knowledge domains, such as in the education case.

  2. Sistema Experto 2.0 que facilita la búsqueda de profesionales de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Estraño, Daniela; Estraño, Daniel; Alessi, Luis Enrique; Mújica, Luis Eduardo; Finol, Davcelis; Cordero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Comunicación oral presentada en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid ¿Imagina usted un mundo sin Internet o sin comunicaciones? Definitivamente, no. La tecnología ha globalizado el intercambio de información traducida en paquetes de datos que revolucionaron el siglo XX y la actualidad; transformando los paradigmas propuestos en la dimensión comunicacional de los procesos de salud. De esta ma...

  3. La dimensión de género en el saber experto en cuidado infantil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Batthyány

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta los principales hallazgos del módulo cualitativo del proyecto “Hacia un Sistema Nacional de Cuidados: preferencias de la población y propuestas para el cuidado”, que indagó sobre las claves del saber experto en cuidado infantil y sus implicancias de género. Se indagó en los discursos de profesionales de la psicología, psiquiatría, pediatría y educación así como de decisores/as en materia de infancia y cuidados. Partiendo de la gran influencia que tiene el saber experto en las prácticas de las familias y de las políticas públicas, este artículo presenta la diversidad de enfoques que lo conforman, destacando la cercanía o distancia que este saber y sus diversos enfoques mantienen con la perspectiva de equidad de género en los cuidados. // This article presents the main results of the qualitative module of the project “Towards a National System of Care: social representations and proposals for the care” which main objective was to understand the keys to child care expert discourse and its gender implications. The study explores the discourses of professional from psychology, psychiatry, pediatrics and education as well as decision makers to childhood and care. Based on the great influence of child care expert discourse in family practice of care and public policy, this paper presents the diversity of approaches and the distance or closeness it have with the perspective of gender equity in care.

  4. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giclis M. Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cuestionarios que surgieron del procesamiento estadístico sucesivo de cada ronda, donde se determinaron los parámetros: media aritmética de la evaluación de los expertos a cada pregunta, desviación estándar y varianza (dispersión de las evaluaciones de cada pregunta. A partir de estos estadígrafos se determinó el coeficiente de variación (nivel de concordancia, que unido con el nivel de relevancia, constituyeron los elementos discriminantes que permitieron proponer las variables en los cuestionarios subsiguientes. Los resultados permitieron determinar siete expertos para la consulta de las rondas de preguntas, con un nivel de competencia medio y alto, además de valoraciones promedio del coeficiente de competencia (K igual a 0,89. Se determinó que los factores genéticos, socioeconómicos y los fisiográficos no guardan relación con la definición del lugar para el desarrollo del cultivo; sin embargo, los factores climáticos (precipitaciones y temperatura y los edáficos (tipos y profundidad del suelo fueron los de mayor influencia para definir la ubicación del cacao, y constituyeron los principales elementos de las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cultivo.

  5. Sistemas basados en conocimiento usando Prolog

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    Zenaida García Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen algunos de los resultados alcanzados en la Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas en cuanto al uso de un lenguaje de Programación Lógica (Prolog en la elaboración de Sistemas Basados en Conocimiento para diferentes áreas del saber como son la medicina, soldadura, educación, sistemas eléctricos de potencia, entre otros. Todos los sistemas elaborados utilizan el paradigma de la programación lógica para la representación del conocimiento de los expertos en los temas en cuestión y además hacen uso de entornos agradables a los usuarios a través interfaces visuales elaboradas en ambientes de programación para súper lenguajes ó utilizan un conjunto de herramientas para la elaboración de sistemas sobre la Web

  6. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Estrategias de búsqueda visual en conductores expertos y noveles durante la visualización de escenas de tráfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Gómez-Valadés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las estrategias de búsqueda visual desarrolladas por un grupo de conductores expertos (n=5 y otro inexperto (n=5 en una situación simulada de conducción en laboratorio. El registro de los movimientos oculares se hace a través del sistema de seguimiento de la mirada ASL SE5000 y se analizan el número, tiempo y localización de las fijaciones visuales. Los conductores observaron una secuencia de fotogramas específicos de conducción, para emitir seguidamente una respuesta verbal tras cada ensayo. Los resultados muestran que el grupo de conductores expertos e inexpertos elaboran diferentes estrategias de búsqueda visual. Estas diferencias se encuentran en un mayor tiempo de fijación del grupo de conductores experto cuando no se tiene en cuenta la localización de la fijación visual. También presenta un mayor número y tiempo de fijación en estímulos relevantes para la conducción (señales verticales y vehículos con respecto al grupo inexperto. En cambio, este último grupo presenta un número y tiempo de fijaciones superior en localizaciones poco relevantes para la conducción. No existen diferencias entre grupos de conductores en la precisión de sus respuestas verbales, y tampoco una relación entre las variables perceptivas y la precisión de sus respuestas.

  8. FACTORES QUE FAVORECEN EL DESARROLLO DE LA PERICIA EN ENTRENADORES EXPERTOS EN BALONCESTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jiménez Saiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se considera insuficiente calificar a un entrenador como experto exclusivamente a partir de los resultados obtenidos. El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar las características que poseen dichos entrenadores expertos, en baloncesto, así como los factores que han influido en el desarrollo de su pericia. Esta investigación cualitativa se realiza desde una perspectiva biográfica, analizando el itinerario vital de los entrenadores a través de una entrevista semiestructurada. Las conclusiones indican que el proceso de llegar a ser experto es un proceso único e individualizado. No obstante, presentan características personales comunes, como son la ilusión por entrenar, el compromiso con su profesión, el deseo de mejorar y la capacidad de dirigir y liderar grupos, así como algunos factores contextuales comunes que favorecen su compromiso.

  9. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients. New possibilities...... for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  11. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating the boiler...... size. The model has been formulated with a specied building-up of the pressure during the start-up of the plant, i.e. the steam production during start-up of the boiler is output from the model. The steam outputs together with requirements with respect to steam space load have been utilized to dene...... of the boiler is (with an acceptable accuracy) proportional with the volume of the boiler. For the dynamic operation capability a cost function penalizing limited dynamic operation capability and vise-versa has been dened. The main idea is that it by mean of the parameters in this function is possible to t its...

  12. La adquisición del conocimiento en entrenadores expertos en baloncesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jiménez Sáiz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es conocer el proceso formativo utilizado, así como los medios utilizados por los entrenadores expertos en baloncesto para desarrollar su conocimiento y pericia. Para ello, se ha realizado una investigación cualitativa desde una perspectiva biográfica analizando el itinerario vital de los entrenadores expertos a través de una entrevista semiestructurada. Las conclusiones nos indican que la enseñanza informal, las experiencias prácticas, el mentoring, el intercambio de información, la reflexión sobre la práctica y un entorno adecuado, son los métodos más significativos de aprendizaje. Estas conclusiones deberían ser observadas a la hora del diseño curricular en la formación de los entrenadores noveles.

  13. El diagnóstico social como discurso experto en el área sociojurídica Diagnosis as a specialized discourse in the social-legal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina González Laurino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Como lectura de tercer orden sobre los sistemas expertos, este trabajo analiza la práctica del diagnóstico social en el sistema de protección social a la infancia y adolescencia en Uruguay, originada a partir de una derivación judicial. A través de una mirada inicialmente incómoda, se busca promover el intercambio entre los especialistas que, desde el supuesto de una biografía que se construye reflexivamente, atribuye al sujeto la responsabilidad y los riesgos de sus conductas.As third order reading on the expert systems, this work analyzes the practice of the social diagnosis in protection system in Uruguay, judicially originated. By supposing a reflectivity biography, social diagnosis attributes all responsibility and risks to the subjetc. This work seeks to promote a debate between specialist about theoretical support of their work.

  14. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...... to operate a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any fluctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as possible. Due...

  15. Modelling, simulating and optimizing Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verication as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and re tube boilers. A detailed dynamic model...... of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic- Equation system. Being able to operate...... a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any uctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as possible. Due...

  16. Optimising boiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings.

  17. Optimization of Load Assignment to Boilers in Industrial Boiler Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jia-cong; QIU Guang; CAO Shuang-hua; LIU Feng-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Along with the increasing importance of sustainable energy, the optimization of load assignment to boilers in an industrial boiler plant becomes one of the major projects for the optimal operation of boiler plants. Optimal load assignment for power systems has been a long-lasting subject, while it is quite new for industrial boiler plants. The existing methods of optimal load assignment for boiler plants are explained and analyzed briefly in the paper. They all need the fuel cost curves of boilers. Thanks to some special features of the curves for industrial boilers, a new model referred to as minimized departure model (MDM) of optimization of load assignment for boiler plants is developed and proposed in the paper. It merely relies upon the accessible data of two typical working conditions to build the model, viz. the working conditions with the highest efficiency of a boiler and with no-load. Explanation of the algorithm of computer program is given, and effort is made so as to determine in advance how many and which boilers are going to work. Comparison between the results using MDM and the results reported in references is carried out, which proves that MDM is preferable and practicable.

  18. DOWNSCALE APPLICATION OF BOILER THERMAL CALCULATION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Zbynĕk; Hrdlička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used thermal calculation methods are intended primarily for large scale boilers. Hot water small scale boilers, which are commonly used for home heating have many specifics, that distinguish them from large scale boilers especially steam boilers. This paper is focused on application of thermal calculation procedure that is designed for large scale boilers, on a small scale boiler for biomass combustion of load capacity 25 kW. Special issue solved here is influence of formation of dep...

  19. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  20. Expert systems applied to sewage treatment works; Los sistemas expertos aplicados a las estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, M.; Lafuente, J.; Sanchez, M.; Cortes, V.; Tomas, R. [Unitat d`Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The number of waste water treatment plants is increasing in order improve the water quality levels. The use of conventional automatic control systems applied to these processes deals with some difficulties, like complexity of the system, or the presence of cualitative knowledge. In this context, knowledge based systems (KBS) could be an interesting alternative to solve the management problem. In this paper, the authors present a knowledge based architecture for real time supervision and control of wastewater treatment plants that tries to overcome some of these troubles. The development of the KBS and the methodology employed are discussed. Finally a case study showing how the KBS works is presented. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Definición de un sistema experto para mejorar la gestión de inventarios: estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Errasti, Ander; Chackelson, Claudia; Poler Escoto, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Service level enhancement and stock reduction in distribution centers could aid to reinforce competitiveness when make to stock production systems are implemented. In this paper an inventory replenishment expert system with the objectives of improving quality service and reducing holding costs is proposed. The inventory replenishment expert system, based on an ABC-XYZ analysis and time series forecasting techniques, proposes the most effective replenishment strategy for each product c...

  2. ¿Podemos formar a los aprendices en base al Pensamiento de los profesores expertos?

    OpenAIRE

    Francois Tochon

    1993-01-01

    Este artículo analiza las fuentes de investigación capaces de precisar el contenido de la preparación clínica del profesor durante su formación inicial. Trata la investigación de los expertos y aprendices en psicología cognoscitiva, y su aplicación a la profesión de la enseñanza dentro del nuevo paradigma sobre "el pensamientode los profesores", paradigma descriptivo etnofenomenológico y cognoscitivo cuyo impacto reciente es considerable en las ciencias de la educación en general.

  3. ¿Podemos formar a los aprendices en base al Pensamiento de los profesores expertos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Tochon

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las fuentes de investigación capaces de precisar el contenido de la preparación clínica del profesor durante su formación inicial. Trata la investigación de los expertos y aprendices en psicología cognoscitiva, y su aplicación a la profesión de la enseñanza dentro del nuevo paradigma sobre "el pensamientode los profesores", paradigma descriptivo etnofenomenológico y cognoscitivo cuyo impacto reciente es considerable en las ciencias de la educación en general.

  4. Boiler design for fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswamy, M.P.; Sastry, C.V.R.L.; Tharakraj, M.

    1980-03-01

    In view of the limited fuel resources and ever increasing demand, Bharat Heavy Electricals, Ltd. (BHEL), as the leading boiler manufacturer, always endeavours to effect fuel economy in all possible avenues, leaving no stone unturned in this effort. This paper outlines some of the major efforts of BHEL in the area of boiler design to effect fuel economy.

  5. Boiler for ships; Hakuyo boira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, production and technology trend of boiler for ships in 1998 are described. The actual results of main boiler are as follows. As the main boiler for LNG ships, 4 boilers produced by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for Qatar Project, 8 produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for South Korea and 10 produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for domestic use and South Korea. 1998 was an active year for the main boiler for ships. The auxiliary boiler of steam pressure of 16k to 25k equipping for tanker ships was 115 (4,441t/h of steam quantity in total), it greatly increased in comparison with 88 (3,172t/h) produced in the proceeding year. Donkey boilers of steam pressure of 6k to 10k equipping for container ships and bulk cargo was 147 (672t/h), and it substantially decreased in comparison with 274 (693t/h) of the proceeding year, but capacity per boiler increased. The gas exhaust economizer for turbo power generation plants was 6 produced for VLCC. (NEDO)

  6. ESTRATEGIAS DE FORMACIÓN EN LOS ENTRENADORES EXPERTOS DE BALONCESTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jiménez Saiz

    2008-01-01

    materia y, a su vez, éstos deben ser conocidos por los propios entrenadores. Por ello, el objetivo de la presente investigación es identificar cuáles son los medios formativos utilizados por dieciséis entrenadores expertos en baloncesto, así como señalar la relevancia de cada uno de ellos en el desarrollo de su pericia. Para la investigación se ha usado una metodología cualitativa y la técnica de la entrevista semiestructurada a dieciséis entrenadores expertos en baloncesto, entre los que destacan, entre otros, campeones del Mundo, de Europa, y de la liga ACB. Los resultados muestran que, para los entrenadores, la educación formal (cursos federativos es inespecífica y claramente mejorable, realizándose casi exclusivamente por la necesidad de obtener el título federativo. Los entrenadores valoran muy positivamente otros medios como, principalmente, la educación informal (experiencias diarias como entrenador, mentoring, charlas con otros entrenadores, etc.. Finalmente, todos ellos valoran aspectos relacionados con el aprendizaje no situado, como, por ejemplo, la adquisición de liderazgo adquirido en el entorno familiar, y los aprendizajes producidos fuera del contexto del baloncesto. Esto nos hace reflexionar sobre la reestructuración de los actuales programas formativos en los entrenadores.

  7. Boilers a practical reference

    CERN Document Server

    Rayaprolu, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    AAbrasion and Abrasion Index (see Wear)Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity (æ) (see Viscosity in Fluid Characteristics)Acid Cleaning (see Commissioning)Acid Rain (also see Air Pollution Emissions and Controls and Gas Cleaning)Acid Sludge (see Refuse Fuels from Refinery in Liquid Fuels)Acid Smuts (see Oil Ash)Acoustic Soot Blowers (see Sonic Horns)Acoustic Enclosure (see Noise Control)Acoustic Leak Detection SystemAdiabatic Flame Temperature (see Combustion)Aeroderivative (see Types of GTs in Turbines, Gas)Ageing of Boiler ComponentsAgro-Fuels and FiringAir Ducts (see Draught Plant)Air Flow Measureme

  8. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  9. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  10. Procedimiento para la selección de la Comunidad de Expertos con técnicas multicriterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosvani Orlando Lao León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El nivel de competencia de los expertos a utilizar, juega un papel fundamental en la calidad de los resultados. Derivado de esto se considera invalidante una baja fiabilidad del proceso de selección de estos. Esta investigación persiguió diseñar un procedimiento que permita seleccionar la comunidad de expertos, a partir de la utilización de técnicas multicriterio como contribución a elevar la confiabilidad del proceso. El procedimiento propuesto transita por dos fases, con el cual se logra la modelación del Índice de selección (Is. Con la implementación de este se podrá decantar de un grupo de candidatos los expertos a consultar, lo que permitirá in crementar la confiabilidad del proceso.

  11. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating...

  13. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  14. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10...

  15. Opinión de expertos y entrenadores sobre el reglamento de la competición infantil en baloncesto. (Expert opinion and coaches opinion on the competition rules in youth basketball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la opinión de los entrenadores y expertos sobre la modificación del reglamento en categoría infantil. Para ello se administró el cuestionario de Modificación Reglamentaria de la Competición a un total de 101 entrenadores, y a 14 expertos. Los resultados más significativos señala que: a el 85.7% de los entrenadores y el 78.6% de los expertos cambiarían alguna regla; b los entrenadores prohibirían la posibilidad de defender en zona; c los expertos modificarían la altura de la canasta, disminuirían el tamaño del balón, acercarían la línea de tres puntos, modificarían el sistema de victorias, eliminarían la defensa en zona, y eliminarían el K.O. Todos estos datos, deben servir para realizar una profunda reflexión y futuros estudios, sobre el estado actual del reglamento en la competición infantil, con el objetivo de adaptarlo al joven deportista, y que no sea los niños los que tengan que adaptarse al deporte.AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the opinion of the coaches and experts on rule modification in basketball under-14. For this questionnaire was administered to Modify Competition to a total of 101 coaches, and 14 experts. The most significant results indicates that: a the 85.7% of the coaches and 78.6% of the experts a rule change, b prohibit coaches the opportunity to defend in zone c the experts would change the height of the basket, decrease the size of the ball, come close the three point line, victories would change the system, eliminate the zone defense, and eliminate the KO. All these data should be used to make a deep reflection and future studies on the current state of competition regulation in children, with the aim of adapting to the young sport, and not the children who have to adapt to the sport.http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2012.02803

  16. INCIDENCIA DE UN MODELO DE EXPERTO Y DE UN SIMULADOR EN LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Facundo Maldonado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo resume los resultados de una investigación orientada al estudio de las dimensiones cognitivas de la toma de decisiones en el tema específico de la selección de materiales en diseño mecánico. Se utiliza como escenario experimental un programa de computador para analizar las diferencias en variedad de alternativas que se dan entre sujetos que revisan su propio proceso de toma de decisiones en la solución de un problema y sujetos que revisan la estrategia de un experto que resuelve el mismo problema. La experimentación se llevó a cabo con diez estudiantes de quinto semestre de la Licenciatura en de Diseño Tecnológico de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Bogotá. La recolección de datos se realizó en dos formas: a registros de expresión verbal de los sujetos que resolvían problemas en voz alta; y b registros elaborados por el computador de la interacción de los estudiantes con el programa. Como metodología se utilizó el análisis de protocolos de reportes verbales. Los resultados muestran que el estudio de las estrategias seguidas por un experto lleva a los estudiantes a ajustar su proceso de toma de decisiones a la secuencia seguida por el modelo, con muy pocas alternativas de solución, en contraste con el grupo que revisa su propio proceso, que presenta mayor variedad de soluciones y valoración explícita de las consecuencias de sus decisiones. La simulación del comportamiento del experto actúa como ordenador en el proceso de toma de decisiones de los sujetos del primer grupo, quienes tratan de ajustar su comportamiento al del agente externo, reduciendo, en consecuencia, la búsqueda de alternativas de solución. Los resultados de esta investigación hacen pensar que el estudio del propio proceso de toma de decisiones repercute en mayor autonomía y variedad de soluciones, resultados que son fundamentales para formar la capacitad creativa de un diseñador.

  17. Catéter de Swan Ganz: Opinión de expertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Cohen Arazi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen dudas sobre la seguridad del uso del catéter de Swan Ganz (CSG. Para definir la opinión de los cardiólogos de nuestro país, el Consejo de Emergencias Cardiovasculares de la Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología (SAC realizó una reunión para evaluar la opinión de expertos en diferentes escenarios (cirugía no cardíaca, cardíaca, síndromes coronarios e insuficiencia cardíaca, usando el método RAND-UCLA appropiateness. Se envió la evidencia bibliográfica previa a la reunión en la SAC y en la misma los panelistas seleccionaron las variables para conformar las situaciones clínicas que luego fueron enviadas para que individualmente, en una segunda etapa, determinaran si consideraban beneficioso o perjudicial la utilización del catéter con una escala de 1 a 9 (1 significaba que los potenciales perjuicios superaban a los beneficios, 9 que los beneficios eran mayores y 5 que podía considerarse indistintamente beneficioso o perjudicial. Dos expertos analizaron los resultados, describiendo la tasa de acuerdo/desacuerdo. Finalmente, cada indicación se clasificó como “apropiada”, “dudosa” o inapropiada de acuerdo a la mediana definida por los panelistas: 1-3 se clasificó como inapropiado, 4-6 dudoso y 7-9 como indicación apropiada. Observamos gran discrepancia en la opinión sobre la indicación de CSG entre los expertos. Sin embargo, los panelistas estuvieron a favor de su utilización en situaciones que incluían shock y disfunción miocárdica, especialmente cuando se asoció disfunción orgánica. Hubo situaciones en las que los panelistas consideraron inapropiada la indicación del CSG, en pacientes sin disfunción orgánica.

  18. Medios de formación de los entrenadores expertos en baloncesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones han demostrado que los entrenadores aprenden, no sólo a través de los programas educativos, sino también a través de otros medios de aprendizaje informales que se producen en charlas con otros compañeros, mentores, observación de otros entrenadores, libros, Internet e incluso experiencias pasadas como jugador. ,Por todo ello, el objeto del presente artículo es conocer los medios formativos más utilizados por dieciséis entrenadores expertos en baloncesto, así como exponer detalladamente cada uno de ellos para su posible transferencia hacia otros entrenadores. Para la realización del estudio, se ha utilizado una metodología cualitativa y la técnica de entrevista semiestructurada en la cual se ha entrevistado a dieciséisentrenadores expertos en baloncesto. Los resultados muestran que la educación formal (cursos federativos de los entrenadores tiene un volumen claramente inferior a los medios informales. Además, estos medios informales tienen mayor relevancia en los entrenadores al tratarse de contenidos mucho más específicos. Entre estos medios destacan, principalmente, el aprendizaje situado (experiencias diarias como entrenador, la reflexión práctica, el mentoring, el aprendizaje compartido (charlas y observación de otros entrenadores, etc., así como en menor relevancia, las comunidades de práctica, las experiencias de la etapa como jugador y el aprendizaje no situado. Estos resultados nos hacen reflexionar sobre la reestructuración de los actuales programas formativos en los entrenadores, los cuales claramente tienen que ser más específicos, cercanos a la realidad y a las circunstancias del entrenador.

  19. Green boilers; La chaudiere verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrive, L.; Lebois, P.; Schlienger, M.; Moser, D. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The ``green`` boiler was designed and developed by the Gaz de France and GEC Alsthom Stein Fasel partnership. It is a new make of steam boiler with smoke tubes from 4 to 15 MW. This range meets tow of the requirements guaranteed by the engineer: a NOx emission level lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} (n) with 3% of oxygen and an combustion output of no less than 95 + 2% on n.v.c. A pilot operation was carried out by CNI Technologies in France. This 8.6 MW boiler was installed in June 1995 and performances checks were carried out by Apave Normandie in September 1995. This environmentally friendly boiler as well as the results obtained during the pilot operation are addressed in this article. (authors)

  20. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  1. Sistemas audiovisuales

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrés Ruiz, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Conté: 1. Televisión analógica y digital El libro presenta una descripción detallada de los diferentes sistemas de televisión analógica y digital e incluye un análisis exhaustivo de numerosos aspectos tecnológicos e históricos, siempre desde una perspectiva sistemática y generalista dirigida tanto a estudiantes universitarios como a técnicos de grado superior. Tras una introducción a los sistemas de comunicación visual, en la que se analizan las distintas etapas de la conversión de una...

  2. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  3. Sistema basado en casos para apoyar el proceso de clasificación penitenciaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Benavides Zaila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de clasificación del régimen de severidad, se consideran el cerebro de la gestión de un Sistema Penitenciario ya que son esenciales para proyectar las necesidades de recursos en el futuro. Un correcto funcionamiento del sistema de clasificación permite la toma de decisiones en relación a la construcción de espacios para la reclusión, contratación y capacitación del personal, establecimiento de programas de educación y rehabilitación, de acuerdo a las necesidades de los internos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el desarrollo de un sistema inteligente que permita insertarse en el proceso de calificación en los sistemas penitenciarios. El diseño del sistema estará enfocado en la técnica de Razonamiento Basado en Casos que permita utilizar la experiencia de expertos en el campo de la clasificación del nivel de severidad dadas las características de un sujeto. A partir del análisis de sistemas de clasificación utilizados en varios países, y la validación de expertos, se proponen los rasgos para conformar los casos de la Base de Casos del sistema y la relevancia de cada una de ellos. La utilización del sistema propuesto contribuirá a acelerar el proceso de clasificación y evitar o disminuir errores durante su ejecución.

  4. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  5. Sistema Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2004-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  6. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  7. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nur Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. The model describes the temperature dynamics of the boiler subsystems such as economizer, steam drum, desuperheater, and superheater. The mathematical model was examined using industrial boiler performance test data.It can be used to build a boiler simulator or help operators run a boiler effectively.

  8. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  9. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  10. Utilidad de un sistema de seguimiento óptico de instrumental en cirugía laparoscópica para evaluación de destrezas motoras

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Margallo, Juan Alberto; Sánchez Margallo, Francisco Miguel; Pagador Carrasco, J.B.; Oropesa García, Ignacio; Gómez Aguilera, Enrique J.; Moreno del Pozo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia la utilidad de un sistema de evaluación de destrezas quirúrgicas basado en el análisis de los movimientos del instrumental laparoscópico. Método: El sistema consta de un simulador físico laparoscópico y un sistema de seguimiento y evaluación de habilidades técnicas quirúrgicas. En el estudio han participado 6 cirujanos con experiencia intermedia (entre 1 y 50 intervenciones laparoscópicas) y 5 cirujanos expertos (más de 50 intervenciones laparoscópicas), todos e...

  11. El experto en alimentación en España: una visión antropológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Navas López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la situación alimentaria actual el papel del experto alimentario es esencial. Las recientes crisis alimentarias ocurridas en España así como los problemas de obesidad y sobrepeso en la población, han dado paso a muchos estudios, entre ellos destacamos las investigaciones en torno al papel determinante del experto. Desde la pluridisciplinariedad se pretende "escuchar" el punto de vista de los investigadores sociales aunque puedan en ciertos momentos cuestionar algunos de los presupuestos expertos hegemónicamente consolidados.

  12. ECUT energy data reference series: boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, A.D.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.

  13. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Nur Aziz; Yul Yunazwin Nazaruddin; Parsaulian Siregar; Yazid Bindar

    2014-01-01

    As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. T...

  14. Conceptualización de los Conocimientos de un Experto en la Monitorización del Funcionamiento de una Línea de Producción de las Pulpas de Frutas Conceptualization of an Expert’s Knowledge in Monitoring a Fruit Pulp Production Line Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Lima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la conceptualización y la representación formal de los conocimientos que utiliza un técnico experto en la monitorización del funcionamiento de una línea de elaboración de pulpas de frutas. Utilizando IDEAL, metodología de desarrollo de Sistemas Basados en Conocimientos, se obtuvieron los modelos conceptuales de los conocimientos que emplea el experto. Los modelos se documentaron en forma gráfica y se obtuvo el Mapa de Conocimientos de la tarea que realiza el experto. La formalización del modelo conceptual de conocimientos se realizó mediante un modelo híbrido de marcos con sistemas de producción, apuntando a la realización de una programación orientada a objetos. En conclusión, la conceptualización de conocimientos lograda es bastante completa y profunda y la formalización realizada es adecuada al caso analizadoThis work presents the conceptualization and formal presentation of knowledge that an expert technician uses in monitoring the functioning of a fruit pulp production line. Using IDEAL, the knowledge-based systems development methodology, conceptual models of the knowledge that an expert uses, was obtained. The models were graphically documented and the Knowledge Map of the task that the expert performs was obtained. The formalization of the conceptual knowledge model was carried out by means of hybrid model of frames and production systems, aiming at the accomplishment of an object-oriented programming. In conclusion, the knowledge conceptualization achieved is quite complete and detailed and the formalization carried out was useful in the case analyzed

  15. SISTEMA DE CONTROL INTELIGENTE PARA UN GRUPO DE ELEVADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Enrique Rosso Mateus

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se trata el problema del tráfico vertical en edificios de gran altura y se describe el análisis, diseño y evaluación de un sistema de control para un grupo elevadores que busca mejorar el desempeño respecto a un sistema de control tradicional. El controlador propuesto busca asignar de una forma inteligente las llamadas que se generan a los ascensores que hacen parte del grupo, el desempeño del sistema se traduce en una reducción de los tiempos de servicio y de la energía que invierte el sistema. El controlador propuesto está basado en lógica difusa y las reglas de inferencia expresan el conocimiento de un experto orientado hacia la obtención de los objetivos mencionados. El controlador inteligente se evalúa en un simulador gráfico desarrollado para este fin, este simulador permite ingresar parámetros de configuración para que se adapte y represente una edificación real. Se corrieron dos simulaciones, una usando un controlador convencional y otra usando el controlador inteligente, esto con el fin de comparar su desempeño y cuantificar valores como tiempo de esperar de los usuarios y energía consumida por el sistema.

  16. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  17. Conocimiento experto y etnografía audiovisual: una propuesta teórico-metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAFNE MUNTANYOLA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El debate entre el peso de la palabra y la imagen, o de lo digital y lo analógico, no tiene lugar en procesos de investigación complejos. Este artículo reclama la necesidad de trasladar parte del debate metodológico, en nuestro caso entorno al uso de instrumentos audiovisuales, al nivel teórico, mediante un modelo integrado del conocimiento experto y una estrategia de codificación. Se presenta además el proceso de entrada y la historia natural del caso de estudio hospi-talario, dando cuenta de los entornos de observación, los tipos de análisis y algunos ejemplos ilustrativos del conocimiento experto observado. Finalmente, se apuntan los riesgos y virtudes de la etnografía audiovisual y se presentan posibles estrategias de superación.

  18. Expertos culturales e intervención social: tensiones y transformaciones en antropología aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jaramillo Buenaventura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una breve revisión bibliográfica sobre la antropología aplicada y la antropología del desarrrollo este artículo explora algunos de los problemas teriricos y metodológicos sobre los retos y las implicaciones de pensar a la antropología como un "saber experto" parala intervención social.

  19. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  20. Failure Analysis of 600 MW Supercritical Boiler Water Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Huilin; Cai Zhengchun; Yan Xiaozhong; He Jinqiao; Zhou Yucai

    2013-01-01

    Boiler tube often causes abnormal boiler outage, bringing greater economic losses. This thesis mainly comes from the dynamics of boiler water, boiler furnace accident location of wall temperature distribution to explore the cause of the accident boiler. Calculation results show that the deformation will seriously reduce the boiler allowable maximum temperature difference between the screens. And the boiler is not over-temperature, low temperature difference between the screens, which have bur...

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  2. Políticas Para La Tragedia: Estado Y Expertos En Situaciones De Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Zenobi

    2017-01-01

    circuitos cada vez más complejos y tecnificados para ser aceptados como destinatarios de la atención estatal. El caso revela que las decisiones técnicas de los expertos consagraron una cierta normatividad que distinguió entre afecciones, dolencias y sufrimientos de diferente naturaleza.

  3. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  4. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  5. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Amol S. Kinkar; G. M. Dhote; R.R. Chokkar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays...

  6. Energy storage-boiler tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  7. Expertos, metaexperticias y mediadores. Supervisión ética de la investigación en escenarios multidisciplinares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Betancourt Mosquera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un estudio de caso realizado con las actas de las sesiones de un comité de ética en investigación (CEI de una universidad colombiana, en este artículo se analiza la incidencia de la conformación multidisciplinar de este organismo en el proceso de revisión ética de la investigación. Los CEI son tratados como organizaciones de frontera, en las que concurren expertos con diversas ascendencias disciplinares, y como espacios socioepistémicos, en los que se negocia y produce la ética de la investigación en la actualidad. Durante la observación realizada, se encontró que algunos integrantes del organismo percibieron la pluralidad de expertos como una anomalía que dificultaba el trabajo cotidiano del cuerpo colegiado y debía, en lo posible, evitarse. El CEI buscó la homogeneización disciplinar en el proceso de toma de decisiones con el objetivo de hacerlo operativo y para tratar de evadir la concurrencia de comunidades de prácticas, o basó su revisión en la valoración ética que el propio investigador y los pares académicos de prestigio hicieron de los proyectos. De acuerdo con lo anterior, en este artículo, se plantea que esta dinámica es, en gran medida, consecuencia del problema de las metaexperticias o la habilidad y legitimidad con la que miembros externos, como eventualmente lo son algunos miembros del CEI, emiten juicios acerca de la corrección técnica o ética de saberes expertos que no dominan. Se concluye que, en la práctica local de supervisión, el investigador goza de un radio de acción amplio para interpretar y definir la dimensión ética en su trabajo, puesto que es un actor interaccional que debe estar en capacidad de desarrollar su criterio ético y de comunicarlo al CEI. Paradójicamente, pese a que surge como escenario público para el diálogo multidisciplinar, el CEI termina siendo un espacio en el que se reafirma el esoterismo profesional de las comunidades disciplinares y

  8. Research of Boiler Combustion Regulation for Reducing Nox Emission and its Effect on Boiler Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-dong; LUAN Tao; CHENG Lin; XIAO Kun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of boiler combustion regulation on Nox emission of two 1025t/h boilers has been studied. The researches show that Nox emission is influenced by coal species, operation conditions, etc, and can be reduced by regulating the combustion conditions. The effect of combustion regulation on boiler efficiency has also been checked.

  9. Consenso experto sobre el uso clínico de los tratamientos por vía tópica en el manejo del dolor neuropático periférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pérez

    2013-12-01

    DNP y sobre su mejor aceptación por los pacientes frente a los sistémicos. Asimismo, fue criterio compartido que la combinación de estos fármacos tópicos con los tratamientos sistémicos es una opción a considerar en el manejo de varios tipos de DNP. También se alcanzó un alto grado de acuerdo en aceptar, desde un punto de vista fisiopatológico, la indicación del tratamiento con parche de capsaicina al 8 % para varios tipos de DNP. Conclusión: Los expertos en el manejo clínico del DNP muestran un elevado nivel de acuerdo profesional con diversas recomendaciones terapéuticas analizadas en el estudio. La difusión de tales recomendaciones puede ayudar a la mejora del manejo rutinario de fármacos tópicos para el dolor neuropático en nuestro sistema sanitario.

  10. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  11. Boiler corrosion. Corrosion of boilers at low boiler water temperatures. Heizkessel-Korrosion. Korrosion von Heizkesseln bei tiefen Kesselwassertemperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1989-02-01

    Thermostatic cast iron and steel 35.8 specimens were inserted between the fire tubes of a test boiler and exposed to flue gases for a period of three weeks. The corrosion rates at material temperatures between 20 and 60deg C as well as the effects of continuous and intermittent boiler operation were determined. Details are given on the specimens alloying constituents, the testing and test conditions (schematic representation of the experimental set-up). Diagrams and tables facilitate access to test results informing about corrosion rates and corrosion product structure analyses for continuous burner operation. While low boiler water temperatures (below 60deg C in the case of extra light heating oils) are found to necessarily involve higher risks and shorter boiler service lives, low flue gas temperatures alone are considered not to be increasing the risk of boiler corrosion. (HWJ).

  12. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  13. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit...... - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  14. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  15. Computer system for monitoring power boiler operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taler, J.; Weglowski, B.; Zima, W.; Duda, P.; Gradziel, S.; Sobota, T.; Cebula, A.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland). Inst. for Process & Power Engineering

    2008-02-15

    The computer-based boiler performance monitoring system was developed to perform thermal-hydraulic computations of the boiler working parameters in an on-line mode. Measurements of temperatures, heat flux, pressures, mass flowrates, and gas analysis data were used to perform the heat transfer analysis in the evaporator, furnace, and convection pass. A new construction technique of heat flux tubes for determining heat flux absorbed by membrane water-walls is also presented. The current paper presents the results of heat flux measurement in coal-fired steam boilers. During changes of the boiler load, the necessary natural water circulation cannot be exceeded. A rapid increase of pressure may cause fading of the boiling process in water-wall tubes, whereas a rapid decrease of pressure leads to water boiling in all elements of the boiler's evaporator - water-wall tubes and downcomers. Both cases can cause flow stagnation in the water circulation leading to pipe cracking. Two flowmeters were assembled on central downcomers, and an investigation of natural water circulation in an OP-210 boiler was carried out. On the basis of these measurements, the maximum rates of pressure change in the boiler evaporator were determined. The on-line computation of the conditions in the combustion chamber allows for real-time determination of the heat flowrate transferred to the power boiler evaporator. Furthermore, with a quantitative indication of surface cleanliness, selective sootblowing can be directed at specific problem areas. A boiler monitoring system is also incorporated to provide details of changes in boiler efficiency and operating conditions following sootblowing, so that the effects of a particular sootblowing sequence can be analysed and optimized at a later stage.

  16. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial...). Commercial packaged boiler means a type of packaged low pressure boiler that is industrial equipment with a... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers....

  17. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  20. 46 CFR 61.05-20 - Boiler safety valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler safety valves. 61.05-20 Section 61.05-20 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-20 Boiler safety valves. Each safety valve for a drum, superheater, or reheater of a boiler shall be tested at the interval specified by table 61.05-10....

  1. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  2. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal units per hour) or greater. (ii) A boiler or process heater into which the vent stream is... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment...

  3. Las lecciones del derrame de Luisiana en voz de dos expertos. Entrevista por Jorge Aguilar y Mónica Orozco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc LeCalvez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El equipo de la Revista Letras Verdes entrevistó a dos expertos para conocer los impactos sociales, económicos y ambientales tras la explosión de la plataforma Deepwater Horizon en el Golfo de México, a cargo de la firma British Petroleum (BP que generó el peor derrame de petróleo en la historia de los EE.UU. El derrame se registró el pasado 20 de abril y hasta el cierre de esta edición aún no era completamente controlado. En la explosión e incendio 11 trabajadores de la plataforma murieron y otros resultaron heridos. Fotografías e información de los medios de prensa muestran que hasta ahora el impacto del vertido de crudo en la vida marina ha sido devastador.

  4. Desarrollo de un Sistema de Decisión basado en Lógica Borrosa para el uso de Bombas de Insulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Galván

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basándonos en el conocimiento de un usuario experto en la utilización de bombas de insulina, hemos desarrollado un software de apoyo para usuarios noveles de dicha tecnología. Nuestro sistema de decisión tiene en cuenta problemas tales como la influencia de las características específicas de cada usuario, el ritmo circadiano, la actividad prevista y la glucemia preprandial. La base de nuestro sistema es un controlador borroso para el que se ha desarrollado un constructor semiautomático de reglas. El sistema ha sido probado con éxito por dos usuarios muy diferentes entre sí, lo que prueba que las ideas implementadas son válidas y suponen una interesante línea de desarrollo de sistemas de ayuda a pacientes diabéticos

  5. Eficacia de las políticas institucionales de prevención del consumo de alcohol en adolescentes: la opinión de expertos y adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Conclusiones: Se ha obtenido una visión general sobre aquello que según adolescentes y expertos es eficaz o ineficaz en la prevención del consumo de alcohol, y acerca de las claves que se deberían tener en cuenta para diseñar políticas eficaces.

  6. Applying an expert system to the silicon control in the blast furnace. Aplicacion de un sistema experto al control del silicio en el alto horno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosenovsky, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article shows the possibilities of applying the fuzzy sets in simulating the activity of the operator at a blast furnace and indicates, consequently, the possible concepts in compiling and expert system. By the application of the fuzzy set theory (FS) in the expert system presented, the author tries to solve the common reasons for the failure of conventional models of regulating activity of the operator, i.e. the inaccurate input information and the problem of how to formulate the experience of the operator mathematically. The theory proposed is exemplified by regulating a blast furnace by change in the amount of blown steam, V. The observed parameter is SI while the expressions of the operator, e.g. ''low content of SI'', ''high amount of V'', etc., are used. In the conclusion, the results of the regulation by computer and the operator are compared. (Author)

  7. Development of an expert system for preheating temperatures determination. Desarrollo dse uns sistema experto para la determinacion de temperatura de precalentamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, E.; Silva, M.; Gonalvez, P.; Fernandez, A.A. (Oporto Univ. (Portugal) Facultad de Ingenieria)

    1989-01-01

    This work describes the development of an expert system designed to control the cold fissuration phenomenon caused by H{sup 2} on welded joints of carbonated, C-Mn and light alloy steels, obtained through fusion welding (manual electric arc, MIG/MAG, TIG and submerged arc). This system, implemented in PROLOG language, allows a quick and simple calculation of preheating temperatures. The aim of this system, which does not require programming knowledge to be updated, is to help welding engineers to design welding procedures which are safe as regards to the joint resistance to cold fissuration. Being an expert system, the user has the opportunity to obtain interactive explanations about the way any conclusions are obtained, as well as information about the concepts and parameters on which the reasoning is based.(Author)

  8. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Valves BNon-ASME Code Boilers and Pressure Vessels CStorage of Mild Steel Covered Arc Welding Electrodes... American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box 2900, Fairfield, New Jersey 07007,...

  9. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels;

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  10. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Karstensen, Claus; Condra, Thomas Joseph;

    2003-01-01

    A model for a ue gas boiler covering the ue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been dened for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2: a zone...... submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic- Equation system (DAE). Subsequently MatLab/Simulink has...... been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results an experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  11. Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Steven L.; Griffin, Jr., Freddie; Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

  12. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  13. Los Sistemas Peatonales Como Sistemas De Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Álvarez Pomar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas peatonales han cobrado importancia dentro de los sistemas de movilidad debido al aumento de los viajes peatonales. Este aumento se ha debido a la concientización de las personas sobre las ventajas de caminar, al aumento del uso de los sistemas de transporte público y en algunos casos a los escasos recursos económicos. En la última década, los sistemas peatonales han sido incluidos en la planeación de movilidad de algunas ciudades. Sin embargo, su definición formal carece del despliegue de sus componentes, así como del análisis de las interrelaciones entre los mismos. Se presenta una propuesta que puede servir de base para su definición formal, con el fin de ser usada para su análisis y diseño. Se concluye que las definiciones actuales no cubren todos los aspectos clave de los sistemas peatonales, para que puedan ser un buen soporte para la toma de decisiones sobre este tipo de sistemas y se distinguenlos componentes estructurales que se consideran importantes.

  14. Removal of External Deposits on Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. De

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available The superheater tubes in Port and Starboard boilers were found to have completely clogged by heavy deposits, which on analysis mainly vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulphmatter. The cleaning of the deposits was accomplished by alternate spraying with 15-20 per cent hydrogen peroxide and washing with hot water jets. Over the past two years, since the date of cleaning, the IN ship is operating without any trouble in the boilers.

  15. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  16. Plan estratégico para inside B2B empresa de consultoría de sistemas

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga Nuñez, Eder Paul

    2015-01-01

    Este plan estratégico para InsideB2B, empresa de servicios de consultoría de sistemas fundada a mediados del 2012 en Lima, Perú, busca la formulación y ejecución de estrategias para lograr ventajas competitivas sostenibles. InsideB2B nació, en un mundo conectado con tecnologías de información y nuevos modelos económicos, opera con un equipo de consultores expertos y ha implementado dieciocho proyectos, obteniendo una facturación de US$ 548,956 y un resultado operativo de 23,29% en el 2014. ...

  17. IHI-FW circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Omata, K.; Ishimoto, R.; Asai, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The technology and application of the circulating fluidized bed boiler (IHI-FW) are outlined. Circulating fluidized bed boilers have various features as compared with bubbling fluidized bed boilers as follows; a high combustion efficiency, efficient use of limestone for desulfurization, low NOx emission, adaptability to various fuels and capability to cope with load change. The IHI-FW boiler is furthermore featured by water-wall furnace of all-welded structure, water-cooled/steam cooled cyclone, and simple circulating system. The 30 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler was introduced into the Tsu Works, Omikenshi Co., Ltd., Japan for private power generation. The boiler equipped with a backup heavy oil burner mainly uses semi-anthracite coal, and besides sulfur capture and NOx reduction functions of a bed, a bag filter with a high dust collecting efficiency is installed in an exhaust gas system. The installation period was reduced to 2.5 months, a half of conventional ones, by more assembly in a factory followed by less field works. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions.

  19. Corrosion of oil-fired domestic boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1989-05-01

    Depending on the surface temperature of the flue gas side the corrosion of oil fired domestic boilers proceeds either mainly by acid corrosion or by oxygen corrosion: (1) At surface temperatures of 60/sup 0/C and higher the corrosion mechanism of acid corrosion prevails and the corrosion rates amount to 0.1-0.3 mm/year (values referred to continuous burner operation). The corrosion products consist of soluble iron(II)- and iron(III)sulfates. Higher corrosion rates can be attributed to an appreciable catalytic formation of sulfur trioxide on the corrosion products formed on the convective heating surfaces. (2) At surface temperatures of 40/sup 0/C the mechanism of oxygen corrosion already dominates and the corrosion rates are about ten times higher (1.5-3 mm/year, referred to continuous burner operation). The high portion of iron oxide hydrates, especially goethit (/alpha/-FeOOH), makes the corrosion products difficult to remove. (3) Distinctly reduced service lives are also expected for the so called reduced temperature boilers ('Niedertemperaturkessel') and low temperature boilers ('Tieftemperaturkessel'): According to the manufacturers these boilers may be operated at boiler water temperatures well below 60/sup 0/C, as they are equipped with constructive measures to enhance the surface temperature on the flue gas side. However, these measures are only fully effective under stationary conditions. Some of the results were obtained from weight loss measurements on test specimen made from St 35.8 and gray cast iron, that were exposed to the flue gases of an fired experimental boiler. Other important results come from field measurements of the sulfuric acid content of about 30 boilers that are in practical use. (orig.).

  20. Fuel sulfur and boiler fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Fouling of the heat transfer surfaces of boilers and furnaces by `soot` leads to reduced efficiency and increased service requirements. The average level of annual efficiency reduction as a result of fouling if generally accepted as 2% per year. Improving the efficiency of equipment in the field may be the most important oil heat conservation opportunity at present. Improvements can be realized by reducing fouling rates, promoting lower firing rates in existing equipment, and enabling excess air levels to be set lower without raising concerns about increased service requirements. In spite of the importance of efficiency in the field there is very little data available on efficiency degradation rates with modern equipment, actual field operating conditions (excess air and smoke number settings) and service problems which affect efficiency. During 1993-94 field tests were initiated to obtain such data and to obtain information that would compliment existing and current laboratory work. Experimental work conducted on a bench scale level have included tests with various advanced burners, fuel types, and different operating conditions which have been done at the BNL Rapid Fouling Test Facility. This report will focus on the field study of fouling effects on ten residential heating service problems at each site are summarized. In addition, the technical difficulties involved with conducting such a field study shall also be discussed as the findings should serve to improve future work in this area.

  1. Scandinavian baffle boiler design revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Borivoj Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the use of baffles in a combustion chamber, one of the well-known low-cost methods for the boiler performance improvement, can be enhanced. Modern day tools like computational fluid dynamics were not present at the time when these measures were invented, developed and successfully applied. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of location and length of a baffle in a furnace, for different mass flows, on gas residence time. The numerical simulations have been performed of a simple Scandinavian stove like furnace. The isothermal model is used, while air is used as a medium and turbulence is modeled by realizable k-epsilon model. The Lagrange particle tracking is used for the residence time distribution determination. The statistical analysis yielded the average residence time. The results of the computational fluid dynamics studies for different baffle positions, dimensions and flow rates show from up to 17% decrease to up to 13 % increase of residence time. The conclusion is that vertical position of the baffle is the most important factor, followed by the length of the baffle, while the least important showed to be the mass flow. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43008: Development of methods, sensors and systems for monitoring of quality of water, air and land

  2. Sposobnost opstanka informacionih sistema

    OpenAIRE

    Bosko Rodic; Dejan Vuletic

    2005-01-01

    U radu je opisan znacaj i trend razvoja informacionih sistema u savremenom drustvu, a definisani su i drugi znacajni pojmovi radi boljeg razumevanja problema. Prikazana su i cetiri aspekta resenja sposobnosti opstanka informacionih sistema koje predlaze Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT).

  3. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  4. Percepción de la claridad de los ítems: Comparación del juicio de estudiantes y jueces-expertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino-Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente reporte de investigación preliminar tiene por objetivo evaluar la percepción de la dificultad de los ítems de un cuestionario de personalidad, en dos grupos de evaluadores: estudiantes universitarios y profesores (jueces expertos. La muestra fueron dos grupos: estudiantes y profesores identificados como jueces expertos. Independientemente, para ambos grupos se administró un formulario de opinión sobre la dificultad de lectura o claridad de los ítems del EPQR (Eysenk Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Se hallaron diferencias en los porcentajes de ítems identificados como poco claros, y el acuerdo entre ambos grupos fue mayormente bajo. Estos resultados ponen en relevancia la inclusión del examinado en la evaluación de la dificultad de los ítems usando formularios estandarizados.

  5. Introducción al modelo clásico de juicio estructurado de expertos: breve recuento del pasado y una aplicación reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Morales Nápoles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de las opiniones de expertos en las ciencias y en la toma de decisiones ha sido una práctica común especialmente después del periodo de posguerra de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. El uso de estas opiniones con métodos que permitan su evaluación y validación con bases científicas es más reciente. Este artículo presenta una introducción al juicio estructurado de expertos. Este método ha sido diseñado con el propósito de alcanzar consenso racional. Dos conceptos claves del método (calibración e información son discutidos. Una aplicación reciente que hace uso del método es brevemente presentada.

  6. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  7. Independent Research and Design of 600-MW Supercritical CFB Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to further develop and improve the technologies for large-capacity supercritical CFB boiler, the key technologies for large CFB boiler were systematically studied, based on the development of first domestically-made 210-MW and 330-MW CFB boilers. The scheme of 600-MW supercritical CFB boiler was designed, including the furnace structure, key components, steam-water system and auxiliary systems, which laid a technical foundation for the engineering applications.

  8. Application of GPRS and GIS in Boiler Remote Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchao Wang; Yifeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Application of GPRS and GIS in boiler remote monitoring system was designed in this paper by combining the advantage of GPRS and GIS in remote data transmission with configuration monitoring technology. The detail information of the operating conditions of the industrial boiler can be viewed by marking the location of boiler on the electronic map dynamically which can realize the unified management for industrial boiler of a region or city conveniently. Experimental application show that the ...

  9. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov Sergei A.; Zavorin Alexander S.; Buvakov Konstantin V.; Sheikin Vyacheslav A.

    2015-01-01

    Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  10. Policías, ladrones y gente corriente: Diferencias entre expertos y noveles en el uso de estrategias para la toma de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Retamero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Imagine que quiere invertir su dinero en una propiedad inmobiliaria, y el hecho de que ésta pueda ser objeto de hurto es crucial para usted... En este artículo analizamos las estimaciones que expertos y noveles en el ámbito de la delincuencia realizan sobre el poder de distintas claves para predecir el éxito en la conducta de hurto y las estrategias que utilizan en su toma de decisiones.

  11. 46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812... TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a.... (b) Periodic inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in subchapter...

  12. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  14. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  15. THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER IN CFB BOILER RISER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwei; Wang; Xinmu; Zhao; Yu; Wang; Xing; Xing; Jiansheng; Zhang; Guangxi; Yue

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of temperature profiles of gas-solid two-phase flow at different heights in commercial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers was carried out. Experimental results showed that the thickness of thermal boundary layer was generally independent of the distance from the air distributor, except when close to the riser outlet. Through analysis of flow and combustion characteristics in the riser, it was found that the main reasons for the phenomena were: 1) the hydrodynamic boundary layer was thinner than the thermal layer and hardly changed along the CFB boiler height, and 2) both radial and axial mass and heat exchanges were strong in the CFB boiler. Numerical simulation of gas flow in the outlet zone confirmed that the distribution of the thermal boundary layer was dominated by the flow field characteristics.

  16. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload.

  17. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  18. La experiencia del proyecto EMILIA en Barcelona. El usuario como experto: concepto, modalidades y experiencia desde el Proyecto Emilia.

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Flores; Carmen Masferrer; Eithne Leahy; Roser Izquierdo; Eduard Palomer

    2010-01-01

    Se relata la experiencia del proyecto EMILIA y se ofrece una visión global de qué se entiende por “usuario experto” y “implicación de los usuarios” en salud mental. Se discuten sus implicaciones para los profesionales, usuarios y el sistema sanitario.

  19. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  20. Planning Annual Shutdown Inspection for BFB Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sorsa, Tatu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to create an illustrative guidebook of annual inspection planning for BFB boiler to help power plant operator when planning of annual inspection is topical. This thesis was made for Andritz Oy and it is based on inspection reports and experiences of BFB boiler’s maintenance and inspection staff. In this thesis it is shown how to plan an annual inspection for BFB boiler and thesis gives good tools and hints for operator to manage inspection from the beginning ...

  1. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  2. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  3. Central heating: fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-05-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for fossil-fuel-fired steam boilers, hot-water generators, and thermal fluid generators currently available from manufacturers. Advanced-technology fluidized-bed boilers also are covered. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiencies, turndown capacity, and pollution requirements. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of both field-erected and packaged units. The information compiled in this evaluation will assist in the process of selecting energy-conversion units required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  4. Il Sistema Costituzionale Italiano

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Conferencia sobre el sistema constitucional italiano,centrándose en la forma de gobierno de Italia y sus principales instituciones. Tres fueron los perfiles en los que la ponente hizo hincapié: la relación entre el Gobierno y el Parlamento; las funciones desempeñadas por los partidos políticos en el sistema representativo italiano y las leyes electorales que a lo largo de la historia republicana del país han reglamentado el sistema electoral. I...

  5. La ciencia de la ciudadanía: más allá de la necesidad de expertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller, Steve

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available I begin by examining some largely false leads from the Greeks in defining the nature of scientific citizenship in a democracy. Nevertheless, the lineage from Plato to positivism does provide a context for understanding the evolution of the modern conception of expertise and the distinct problems it poses to modern democracies. These problems revolve around issues of institutionalisation —specifically, how to design institutions that respect the idea of knowledge as a principle of social order without succumbing to rule by expertise—. After analysing two recent German proposals along these lines, I defend the institutionalisation of «consensus conferences», or citizen juries. Finally, I consider some the more general social epistemological implications of the role of «citizen scientist ».

    Comienzo examinando algunas pistas, en gran medida falsas, que se han seguido desde los griegos para definir la naturaleza de la ciudadanía científica en una democracia. Sin embargo, el linaje que va desde Platón al positivismo proporciona un contexto útil para entender la evolución de la concepción moderna de conocimiento experto y de los diferentes problemas que éste plantea a las democracias modernas. Estos problemas giran en torno a las cuestiones de la institucionalización —en concreto, a cómo diseñar instituciones que respeten la idea de conocimiento como un principio de orden social sin caer en el gobierno del conocimiento experto—. Después de analizar dos recientes propuestas alemanas que siguen estas líneas, defiendo la institucionalización de las «conferencias de consenso», o jurados de ciudadanos. Finalmente, considero alguna de las implicaciones epistemológicas sociales más generales del papel del «ciudadano científico».

  6. Application of GPRS and GIS in Boiler Remote Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchao Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of GPRS and GIS in boiler remote monitoring system was designed in this paper by combining the advantage of GPRS and GIS in remote data transmission with configuration monitoring technology. The detail information of the operating conditions of the industrial boiler can be viewed by marking the location of boiler on the electronic map dynamically which can realize the unified management for industrial boiler of a region or city conveniently. Experimental application show that the system has convenience to use, high reliability, which play an active role to improve the operating efficiency, to prevent the boiler accident, and to decrease the energy consumption.

  7. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently

  8. Diseño y aplicación de sistema de gestión en Inventarios en empresa ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth María Apunte-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Es reflejado el resultado de la investigación al diseñar e implementar sistema de inventario dirigido empresas del sindicato de Choferes y orientada al sistema de gestión de inventarios este tipo de empresas. Los objetivos alcanzados son de diseñar un sistema de control de inventarios a través de caso de estudio; Demostrar la necesidad, ventajas y del diseño de sistema de control de inventarios; Diagnosticar los efectos y consecuencias de la ausencia de sistema de control de inventarios en las empresas pertenecientes al Sindicato de Choferes Profesionales; Verificar que la institución cumpla con los lineamientos y estándares de la administración y control de inventarios; Diseñar y entregar el manual de procedimientos de gestión de inventarios; Implementar el sistema y posterior socialización del sistema de control de inventarios. Se adoptan métodos de caso de estudio, de contradicciones dialécticas, del análisis y síntesis bibliográficas, de expertos, matemáticos estadísticos y empíricos.

  9. Sistema de arbitraje

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Con el propósito de garantizar la calidad de las publicaciones de la Revista Científica Virtual  Horizonte Empresarial, en el presente volumen 2 N° 2, 2015, queda estipulado el siguiente sistema de arbitraje.

  10. Desarrollo de un sistema de inferencia difuso para la evaluación de crédito por parte de una empresa prestadora de servicios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Soto Camargo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio realizado en una firma prestadora de servicios, se utiliza un Sistema de Inferencia Difuso para evaluar la solvencia financiera de las compañías solicitantes de crédito. El sistema evalúa indicadores financieros de la firma solicitante y recomienda tanto el Monto como el Plazo de Crédito óptimo a otorgarle. Para la construcción del Sistema de Inferencia Difuso se contó con una base de datos de los clientes de la Compañía y la opinión de expertos. Datos reales son utilizados para constatar la aplicabilidad del Modelo. Para evaluar los solicitantes de crédito pueden utilizarse diferentes técnicas tales como Credit Scoring, Técnicas Estadísticas, Análisis Discriminantes o simplemente recurriendo a Juicios de Expertos, siendo esta última técnica muy subjetiva y realizada en la mayoría de empresas pequeñas y medianas.

  11. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...

  12. Selecting Actuator Configuration for a Benson Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2009-01-01

    with particular focus on a boiler in a power plant operated by DONG Energy - a Danish energy supplier. The problem has been reformulated using mathematic notions from economics. The selection of actuator configuration has been limited to the fuel system which in the considered plant consists of three different...

  13. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Debugging and Rectification of Electric Heating Boilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE; Cheng-song

    2015-01-01

    Steam system of CRARL mainly provides steam for dissolving system,and steam was transported through pipes.The major equipment is a150kW steam electric heating boiler(FH-JZ-003),with rated evaporation 0.2T/h and rated pressure 1.0MPa.It was found during debugging

  15. Is That Boiler Ready To Blow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Glenn S.; Trombley, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses implementation of a thorough assessment program to determine the condition of boilers, pressure vessels and other plant equipment to determine the feasibility of part or entire system replacement. Assessment basics are examined as are tips for selecting the right inspection and engineering contractor for assessments. (GR)

  16. Thermal Analysis of Superheater Platen Tubesin Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Falahatkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superheaters are among the most important components of boilers and have major importance due to this operation in high temperatures and pressures. Turbines are sensitive to the fluctuation of superheaterstemperature;therefore even the slightest fluctuation in the outlet vapor temperature from the superheaters does damage the turbine axis and fins. Examining the potential damages of combustion in the boilers and components such as the superheaters can have a vital contribution to the progression of the productivity of boiler, turbine and the power plant altogether it solutions are to be fund to improve such systems. In this study, the focus is on the nearest tube set of superheaters to the combustion chamber.These types of tubes are exposed to a wide range ofcombustion flames such that the most heat transfer to them is radiation type.Here, the 320 MW boiler of Isfahan power plant (Iran, the combustion chamber, 16 burners and the platensuperheater tubes were remodeled by CFD technique. The fluid motion, the heat transfer and combustion processes are analyzed. The two-equation turbulence model of k-εis adopted to measure the eddy viscosity. The eddy dissipation model is used to calculate the combustion as well as the P-1 radiation model to quantify the radiation. The overheated zones of superheater tubes and the combustion chamber are identified in order toimprove this problem by applying the radiation thermal shields and knees with porous crust which are introduced as the new techniques.

  17. Las vacas imitadores expertos

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    La mayoría de las especies del género Hypoplectrus presentan un comportamiento conocido como mimetismo agresivo. Este fenómeno consiste en la imitación de los patrones de coloración, por parte de las vacas, de peces que no son depredadores de crustáceos y pequeños peces. Al imitar el color de peces inofensivos pueden acercarse a sus presas sin que estas huyan.

  18. Evaluación de Escenarios de Descongestión Vehicular en Bogotá mediante Dinámica de SistemasAssessment of Scenarios of Vehicular Decongestion in Bogotá D.C., using System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone el desarrollo de un modelo basado en dinámica de sistemas en el cual se caracteriza el sistema de transporte de Bogotá D.C. Para realizar esto se modelan las variables principales que intervienen en el sistema de transporte para así lograr un análisis global de la problemática de transporte y evaluar posibles soluciones propuestas por diferentes expertos.       El modelo es desarrollado mediante el software Stella, y en él se incluyen los diferentes actores que intervienen en la problemática global. Previo al desarrollo del modelo computacional, se lleva a cabo la recolección de información a través de expertos en el tema, que permita realizar una caracterización inicial, para poder así comprender la relación entre variables. Adicionalmente se evalúan sobre el modelo seis diferentes alternativas de solución a la problemática, para observar el impacto que éstas tendrían sobre el sistema de transporte.

  19. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  20. Desarrollo de productos turísticos rurales sustentables. Propuesta y validación de expertos respecto a tres variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Figueroa González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural sustentable representa una alternativa para el desarrollo económico, social y ecológico de las comunidades rurales, para lo cual es necesario desarrollar productos y servicios turísticos apropiados. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en identificar desde la validación de expertos, variables clave para el desarrollo de productos turísticos rurales sustentables. Se desarrolló una investigación exploratoria y descriptiva dividida en tres fases. La primera de ellas se apoyó en la identificación de variables a partir de la revisión de literatura identificándose tres categorías: motivación para viajes a destinos turísticos rurales, recursos e imagen del destino rural sustentable. En la segunda fase de la investigación ocho expertos agregaron nuevas variables, integrándose éstas a las obtenidas en la etapa previa. Finalmente, en la tercera fase se aplicó el método Fuzzy Delphi evaluándose y validándose las variables obtenidas a través de seis expertos. Los resultados validaron la mayor parte de las variables identificadas teórica y empíricamente, considerándose en primer lugar en motivación el contacto con la naturaleza, en la categoría de recursos predominaron los naturales y en imagen rural, la necesidad de comunicar la relevancia de la comunidad y sus recursos.

  1. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  2. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  3. El uso de expertos como forma de evaluación cualitativa: el caso de un manual de higiene para niños

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Fermán, Irma Aída; Universidad Veracruzana; Beltrán Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Universidad Veracruzana

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo se toma la evaluación de expertos como enfoque metodológico para la evaluación de un manual de higiene para niños escolares. Se trata de un estudio evaluativo de tipo descriptivo para evaluar y juzgar la calidad técnica, el contenido y los recursos didácticos empleados en dicho texto, en términos de la adecuación a sus destinatarios. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios, lo que se aplicaron a doce especialistas en educación y desarrollo. Los resultados se analizaron tomando...

  4. Las comunidades virtuales de expertos como mecanismo para transmitir el conocimiento: una propuesta metodológica para el Banco Central de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se describe la investigación teórica y práctica realizada con el fin de obtener un planteamiento metodológico para crear una comunidad de colaboración virtual como nuevo espacio de aprendizaje organizacional, que propicie el intercambio de conocimientos y experiencia práctica, moderados por quienes mejor conocen de un tema: los expertos, asistiendo a quienes lo requieran en el momento oportuno. Esta propuesta se apoya en el uso de un portal virtual como herramienta de comuni...

  5. Sistema detector d'incendis WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez López, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Sistema detector d'incendis aprofitant una xarxa de sensors sense fils (WSN) mitjançant un sistema encastat. Sistema detector de incendios aprovechando una red de sensores inalámbricos (WSN) mediante un sistema empotrado.

  6. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Las principales características del envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular reflejan cambios anatómicos y estructurales a nivel de la pared de los vasos, la relajación miocárdica, el llenado ventricular y la respuesta a las catecolaminas . Muchos de los cambios funcionales asociados con la edad están relacionados con estos fenómenos. Esta revisión describe los cambios relacionados con el envejecimiento a nivel estructural y funcional del sistema cardiovascular, sus posibles factores etiológ...

  7. Sistema Internacional de Medidas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La adopcion del Sistema Intemacional de unidades hace necesario que los profesores y maestros lo conozcan y sepan usarlo.La enseiianza de las ciencias, y en especial la didactica de la fisica, se simplifica con Ia adopcion de un sistema unico de unidades. El estudio de Ia mecanica se facilita notablemente y en los tópicos -de calor solo es necesario presentar el julio en vez de Ia caloria y adoptar la escala Kelvin de temperaturas, en tanto que la óptica no requiere de ningin cambio.

  8. El Sistema inspirerede projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Finn; Chemi, Tatiana

    Rapporten er resultat af pilotprojektet ”Forundersøgelse El Sistema DK” gennemført af Ph.D. Finn Holst (DPU, Aarhus Universitet) og Ph.D. Tatiana Chemi (Aalborg Universitet) i 2015. I rapporten indgår desuden bidrag fra Sofie Holm, Sara Fink Søndergaard og Stine Møgelbjerg Johansen. Pilotprojektet...... er gennemført for DMKLs El Sistema-udvalg med støtte fra Statens Kunstfond, Projektstøtteudvalget for Musik....

  9. SISTEMA NACIONAL DE CONTABILIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Yacsahuache Pasapera, Hernán; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    La Ley 24680 o ley del Sistema Nacional de Contabilidad determina las funciones, objetivos y estructura de los organismos y Órganos componentes del SNC, instituido por el artículo 145° de la Constitución Política del Perú de 1979, los mecanismos de coordinación de la contabilidad, así como las relaciones con otros organismos del sector público y del sector privado. Determina, además, que es un sistema autónomo, administrativa y funcionalmente, tiene a su cargo la investigación y función de l...

  10. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rowley, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Schroeder, D. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  11. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  12. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  13. Modelling, simulating and optimizing boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for optimizing the dynamic performance of boiler have been developed. Design variables related to the size of the boiler and its dynamic performance have been defined. The object function to be optimized takes the weight of the boiler and its dynamic capability into account. As constraints...... for the optimization a dynamic model for the boiler is applied. Furthermore a function for the value of the dynamic performance is included in the model. The dynamic models for simulating boiler performance consists of a model for the flue gas side, a model for the evaporator circuit and a model for the drum....... The dynamic model has been developed for the purpose of determining boiler material temperatures and heat transfer from the flue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate the circulation in the evaporator circuit and hereby the water level fluctuations in the drum. The dynamic model has been...

  14. Modelling, simulating and optimizing boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for optimizing the dynamic performance of boiler have been developed. Design variables related to the size of the boiler and its dynamic performance have been dened. The object function to be optimized takes the weight of the boiler and its dynamic capability into account. As constraints...... for the optimization a dynamic model for the boiler is applied. Furthermore a function for the value of the dynamic performance is included in the model. The dynamic models for simulating boiler performance consists of a model for the ue gas side, a model for the evaporator circuit and a model for the drum....... The dynamic model has been developed for the purpose of determining boiler material temperatures and heat transfer from the ue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate the circulation in the evaporator circuit and hereby the water level uctuations in the drum. The dynamic model has been...

  15. R&D and Demonstration of Large Domestic CFB Boilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In order to develop large CFB boilers with independent intellectual property,Xi'an Thermal Power Research Institute (TPRI) established a laboratory with complete functions for the technical development of CFB boilers.This laboratory consists ofa 1-MW and a 4-MW CFB combustion test facilities and a laboratory for limestone desulphurization performance evaluation.It carried out tests on CFB combustion and desulphurization for Chinese typical coals and limestone and research on heat-transfer characteristics and key parts,and developed the first home-made 100-MW CFB boiler.Based on the experience of R&D,the laboratory further researched key techniques for enlarging capacity systematically,and cooperating with Harbin Boiler Co.(HBC),developed the first domestic 210-MW CFB boiler with independent intellectual property and put it into engineering demonstration,laying a solid foundation for the development of CFB boilers of even larger capacity.

  16. Maximising safety in the boiler house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Carr

    2013-03-01

    Last month's HEJ featured an article, the second in our new series of guidance pieces aimed principally at Technician-level engineers, highlighting some of the key steps that boiler operators can take to maximise system performance and efficiency, and thus reduce running both costs and carbon footprint. In the third such article, Derry Carr, C.Env, I.Eng, BSc (Hons), M.I.Plant.E., M.S.O.E., technical manager & group gas manager at Dalkia, who is vice-chairman of the Combustion Engineering Association, examines the key regulatory and safety obligations for hospital energy managers and boiler technicians, a number of which have seen changes in recent years with revision to guidance and other documentation.

  17. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  18. TRIO specification of a steam boiler controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargantini, A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Electronica e Informazione; Morzenti, A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Electronica e Informazione

    1996-12-31

    We specify a controller for a steam boiler starting from an informal descriptions of its requirements. The specification is formalized in the temporal logic TRIO and its object-oriented extension TRIO+. To obtain a maximum of abstraction and reuse we make the specification parametric with respect to all equipment and hardware features, and we avoid to impose any particular strategy in the management of the available resources and in the control of the critical physical quantities. (orig.)

  19. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  20. Computer monitoring and optimization of the steam boiler performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented me...

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  2. Optimised control of coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, D.H.; MacConnell, P.F.A.; Neuffer, D.; Dando, R. [University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom). Centre for System and Control Engineering

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and specify a control methodology that will enable existing coal combustion plant to take maximum advantage of modern control techniques. The research is specifically aimed at chain-grate stoker plant (such as the test facility at the Coal Research Establishment, Cheltenham) on which little work has been done for thirty years yet which still represents a large proportion of industrial coal-fired plant in operation worldwide. In detail, the project: reviewed existing control strategies for moving grate stokers, highlighting their limitations and areas for improvements; carried out plant trials to identify the system characteristics such as response time and input/output behaviour; developed a theoretical process based on physical and chemical laws and backed up by trial data; specified control strategies for a single boiler; simulated and evaluated the control strategies using model simulations; developed of an optimised. Control strategy for a single boiler; and assessed the applicability and effects of this control strategy on multiple boiler installations. 67 refs., 34 figs.

  3. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  4. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  5. El Sistema's Open Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El…

  6. Imaginarios del cuerpo y lenguajes expertos. Aproximaciones a la imagen del cuerpo, entre el arte y la medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigiola Cáceres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una indagación sobre la medicina moderna y su impacto en la construcción de representaciones corporales. Aquí, representarse a sí mismo pasa por la apropiación que cada sujeto hace de los discursos provenientes de determinadas disciplinas científicas y/o sociales, así como de ciertas prácticas culturales, que aparentemente se conectan con los sistemas de verdad. No obstante, las apropiaciones que hacen los sujetos mutan, deforman e hibridan la noción de cuerpo, haciendo de la representación un espacio contra-discursivo, en donde se plantan críticas a las normalizaciones del cuerpo.

  7. Implementación de sistemas de control borroso en actividades académicas dirigidas en las Escuelas de Ingeniería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Pulido Calvo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Como propuesta de trabajo práctico dirigido se ha planteado el diseño, desarrollo e implementación de un sistema experto que permite la simulación de modelos de lógica borrosa o difusa. Este sistema experto se ha utilizado en la resolución de un problema de ingeniería real,  la regulación automática de los caudales de entrada de agua en balsas de plantas de acuicultura semi-intensiva (esteros mejorados. El objetivo fundamental de esta regulación es controlar la calidad del agua en las balsas de producción. El desarrollo de esta actividad académica en los programas docentes de materias de algunos grados y másteres de Ingeniería ha mostrado la consecución por parte del alumno de: (a objetivos referentes a la adquisición de conocimientos teóricos y prácticos; (b objetivos referentes a capacidades o habilidades; y (c objetivos referentes a actitudes.

  8. Application of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid in boiler water for industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Mao-Dong; Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The primary method used for boiler water treatment is the addition of chemicals to industrial boilers to prevent corrosion and scaling. The static scale inhibition method was used to evaluate the scale inhibition performance of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). Autoclave static experiments were used to study the corrosion inhibition properties of the main material for industrial boilers (20# carbon steel) with an HEDP additive in the industrial boiler water medium. The electrochemical behavior of HEDP on carbon steel corrosion control was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. Experimental results indicate that HEDP can have a good scale inhibition effect when added at a quantity of 5 to 7 mg/L at a test temperature of not more than 100 °C. To achieve a high scale inhibition rate, the HEDP dosage must be increased when the test temperature exceeds 100 °C. Electrochemical and autoclave static experimental results suggest that HEDP has a good corrosion inhibition effect on 20# carbon steel at a concentration of 25 mg/L. HEDP is an excellent water treatment agent.

  9. Materials and boiler rig testing to support chemical cleaning of once-through AGR boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, D.R.; Platts, N.; Raffel, A.S. [Serco Assurance (United Kingdom); Rudge, A. [British Energy Generation Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    An extensive programme of work has been carried out to evaluate two candidate inhibited cleaning solutions for possible implementation on plant, which would be the first chemical clean of an AGR boiler. The two candidate cleaning solutions considered were a Stannine-inhibited citric acid/formic acid mixture (GOM106) and inhibited hydrofluoric acid. Citric acid-based cleaning processes are widely used within the UK Power Industry. The GOM106 solution, comprising a mixture of 3% citric acid, 0.5% formic acid and 0.05% Stannine LTP inhibitor, buffered with ammonia to pH 3.5, was developed specifically for the AGR boilers during the 1970's. Although a considerable amount of materials testing work was carried out by British Energy's predecessor companies to produce a recommended cleaning procedure there were some remaining concerns with the use of GOM106, from these earlier studies, for example, an increased risk of pitting attack associated with the removal of thick 9Cr oxide deposits and a risk of unacceptable damage in critical locations such as the upper transition joints and other weld locations. Hence, additional testing was still required to validate the solution for use on plant. Inhibited hydrofluoric acid (HFA) was also evaluated as an alternative reagent to GOM106. HFA has been used extensively for cleaning mild and low'alloy steel boiler tubes in fossil-fired plant in the UK and elsewhere in Europe and is known to remove oxide quickly. Waste treatment is also easier than for the GOM106 process and some protection against damage to the boiler tube materials is provided by complexing of fluoride with ferric ion. Validation of the potential reagents and inhibitors was achieved by assessing the rate and effectiveness of oxide removal from specimens of helical boiler tubing and welds, together with establishing the extent of any metal loss or localised damage. The initial materials testing resulted in the inhibited ammoniated citric / formic acid

  10. Water Boiler Change-Over in Mini-TPP Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bayrashevsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers water boiler modernization by its change-over in mini-TPP mode with an expansion tank and a heating turbine of small capacity.  A software complex permitting to evaluate competitive ability of such water boiler modernization in comparison with a cogeneration plant.

  11. 46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...

  12. CFD investigation of flow through internally riffled boiler tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian; Houbak, Niels; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we show how to model the swirling flow in an internally riffled boiler tube. The flow field is visualized and the results are compared with measurements.......In this paper we show how to model the swirling flow in an internally riffled boiler tube. The flow field is visualized and the results are compared with measurements....

  13. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740... Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...

  14. Large CFB Boilers with Good Prospects in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Changsui

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since many CFB boilers have been put into use, there exist a number of problems urgent to be solved. Based on investigation and analysis on the operating condition of large CFB boilers, ten kinds of the common problems are summed up and relative countermeasures are put forward.

  15. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  16. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bed. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal units... heaters. 63.988 Section 63.988 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters....

  17. sistema Web con JSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Viloria Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.

  18. Conversion of a recovery boiler to bark burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsin, J.A.; Pottera, J.; Stewart, G.

    1988-03-01

    Georgia-Pacific (GP) operates a large integrated pulp and paper mill in Crossett, Ark., which produces in excess of 1400 dry tons/day of various grades of bleached kraft paper. Steam generation in the mill is approximately 1.2 million lb/h, which is supplied by a 1500-ton recovery boiler, a 400,000-lb/h wood-waste boiler, and two power boilers. Because GP wanted to minimize its use of natural gas as a boiler fuel and because it had a retired recovery boiler which could be converted, the decision was made to proceed with this fuel conversion product as a means of reducing energy costs per ton of product. This paper also discusses the biomass fuel handling system.

  19. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  20. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    technology a long range of research studies have been conducted, to improve our understanding of the influence and behavior of biomass ash species in suspension fired boilers. The fuel ash plays a key role with respect tooptimal boiler operation and influences phenomena’s as boiler chamber deposit formation......, corrosion of steam coils, deactivation of SCR catalysts and utilization of residual products. Abroad range of research tools as probe measurements on power plants, entrain flow reactorstudies and deposit modelling have been used to gain an improved understanding of ash transformation and ash deposit...... to generate ash particles typically in the size range of 50 to 200 μm on biomass suspension fired power plant boilers. A fragmentation rate of fuel particles of 3 have been used to describe both the residual ash formation process in laboratory entrained flow reactors and in full scale boilers.A range...

  1. Multiloop control of a drum boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kozáková

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Equivalent Subsystems Method (ESM (Kozáková et al., 2011 is methodology of decentralized controller design in the frequency domain which allows designing local controllers using any SISO frequency domain method. The paper deals with the digital ESM version where digital local PID controllers guaranteeing required performance for the full system are designed for individual equivalent subsystems using the practice-oriented Sine-wave method (Bucz et al., 2012. The proposed decentralized controller design procedure was verified on the nonlinear benchmark drum boiler simulation model (Morilla, 2012.

  2. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  3. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of $40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over $25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings.

  4. Comparación de la percepción acústica de un sistema de afinación de proporciones áureas frente a otros temperamentos tradicionales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo realiza una valoración, desde el punto de vista de la acústica subjetiva, de un sistema de afinación basado en el número áureo en sus tres versiones. Para ello la herramienta fundamental de trabajo ha sido la encuesta, la cual ha sido habilitada on line para ser realizada tanto por músicos entrenados como oyentes no expertos. Mediante la comparación de pares, los participantes han podido valorar los citados temperamentos, así como la escala pitagórica y el temperam...

  5. Sistemas Silvipastoris Silvipastoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salgado Bernardino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Apesar das pesquisas com sistemas silvipastoris terem sido iniciadas no final da década de 1970, as informações geradas até hoje não são em grande número. As vantagens advindas de um sistema silvipastoril são inúmeras e devidamente reconhecidas. Pelo fato de ser uma técnica de uso da terra capaz de recuperar ecossistemas alterados pelo mau manejo, estes sistemas, pela integração de atividades agrícolas, pecuárias e silviculturais, passam a representar uma tecnologia que confere maior sustentabilidade que os sistemas tradicionais, nos quais os monocultivos são predominantes. Nos últimos anos, instituições de ensino, pesquisa e extensão do País têm se voltado para o desenvolvimento de tais sistemas. O governo de Minas Gerais, por meio de sua Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura e de órgãos vinculados, vem promovendo a condução de modelos agrossilvipastoris num processo integrado de ocupação do solo, denominado lavoura-pecuária-silvicultura. Apesar dos grandes avanços no conhecimento de culturas anuais e dos componentes arbóreos, principalmente o eucalipto, e de gramíneas forrageiras tolerantes à diminuição da intensidade luminosa, ainda é necessário se comnhecer melhor o manejo do sub-bosque sob os efeitos do pastejo.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.77

    Although researches related to silvopastoral systems have been initiated many years ago in Brazil, there are few informations generated until now. The advantages from a silvopastoral system are inumerous and well recognized. By the fact of being a technique of land using capable of recovering several disturbed ecosystems, the silvopastoral systems by the integration of agricultural, cattle, and silvicultural activities represent a technology that can achieve higher sustainability than the traditional systems as the monocultures. Today, research centers in Brazil dedicate great attention to agrossilvopastoral systems. The government of Minas Gerais

  6. Oil condensation boilers and problems with sulphur. Sulphur separation for oil-fired condensation boilers and flue gas scrubbers - six measurements at different boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1988-11-01

    Three condensation boilers, one condensating scrubber boiler and two waste gas scrubbers were the objects of measurements made to determine to what degree sulphur is separated. The three condensation boilers which are only equipped with a condenser for the condensation of the combustion water shaved separation levels of between 0.5 and 3.5%. They are therefore not suitable for cutting the SO/sub 2/-emissions from the combustion of sulphur-containing fuel oil. The washer boilers showed better results (40-45%) despite the fact that it works with acid washing liquid (2.85 pH). To explain the high level of separation one must assume that under oxygen influence a large part of the sulphur dioxide is further oxidised to sulphuric acid. Alkaline washers showed very good separations of up to 90%. Here again a large part of the sulphur dioxide further oxidises to sulfates.

  7. SISTEMA PROCESSUAL MISTO (OU MÍTICO SISTEMA PROCESSUAL)

    OpenAIRE

    Cani, Luiz Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo demonstra que a existência de um sistema processual misto não passa de um engodo. Para tanto, são abordadas as estruturas dos sistemas processuais acusatório e inquisitório. O método de abordagem é o indutivo e o de procedimento é o comparativo. A metodologia empregada é a de análise e de cruzamento da literatura acerca do tema, apresentando-se as razões porque o chamado sistema processual misto não é, na verdade, um sistema.

  8. Eventos climáticos extremos y migración interna en Guatemala, un análisis basado en percepciones de expertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deicy Carolina Lozano Sivisaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se contribuye a comprender la migración interna en Guatemala frente a los eventos climáticos extremos (ece en el marco del cambio climático. Este análisis se hizo con base en los medios de vida de la comunidad. La información se obtuvo de entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a expertos y de revisión bibliográfica. Los resultados encontrados revelan que la migración está estrechamente ligada a los medios de vida de las comunidades porque los ece cambian las condiciones de un territorio. Sin embargo, la decisión de migrar se ve influida por las condiciones socioeconómicas de las personas. También se encontró que la seguridad alimentaria es un canal a través del cual los ece tienen impacto en la migración.

  9. Development of Expertise in Spanish Elite Basketball Coaches.(El desarrollo de la pericia en los entrenadores españoles expertos en baloncesto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jiménez Sáiz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study was designed to address two issues: first, to identify the different development stages that eight expert Spanish basketball coaches go through; and second, to determine the possible factors that have contributed to the formative or training, process of the expert coach. Qualitative data were gathered in semi-structured interviews. The coaches worked with the men’s first Spanish Basketball League (“ACB” league or the Spanish national selection. Our findings reveal four stages in the coach development process. These stages were the consequence mainly of a gradual progression in thinking and reflective practice that enabled the coach to optimize the necessary skills for high performance. In addition, all the coaches interviewed reflected an intense dedication and commitment over many years to their work, as well as an ongoing quest for improvement.ResumenEl presente estudio fue diseñado para hacer frente a dos cuestiones: en primer lugar, identificar las diferentes etapas formativas de ocho entrenadores expertos en baloncesto, y en segundo lugar, determinar los posibles factores que han contribuido a la formación del entrenador experto. La metodología utilizada es la cualitativa y la técnica de recogida de datos fue la entrevista semiestructurada. Los entrenadores entrevistados pertenecían a la liga ACB o a la selección nacional española. Nuestros resultados ponen de manifiesto cuatro etapas en el desarrollo de su pericia. Estas etapas son consecuencia principalmente de un desarrollo de su conocimiento, así como de una profunda reflexión práctica que permitió al entrenador optimizar las habilidades necesarias para trabajar en el alto rendimiento. Además, todos los entrenadores reflejan una intensa dedicación y compromiso durante muchos años hacia su trabajo, así como una búsqueda constante por mejorar.

  10. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file with the FRA Regional... the boiler. Whenever welded or riveted repairs are performed on stayed portions of a steam...

  11. 46 CFR 52.20-17 - Opening between boiler and safety valve (modifies PFT-44).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening between boiler and safety valve (modifies PFT-44). 52.20-17 Section 52.20-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Firetube Boilers § 52.20-17 Opening between boiler and safety...

  12. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  13. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  14. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  18. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-07-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

  19. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  20. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  1. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  4. Supercritical boiler material selection using fuzzy analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ranjan Maity

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of world is being adversely affected by the scarcity of power and energy. To survive in the next generation, it is thus necessary to explore the non-conventional energy sources and efficiently consume the available sources. For efficient exploitation of the existing energy sources, a great scope lies in the use of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants. Today, the gross efficiency of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants is less than 28% which has been increased up to 40% with reheating and regenerative cycles. But, it can be further improved up to 47% by using supercritical power plant technology. Supercritical power plants use supercritical boilers which are able to withstand a very high temperature (650-720˚C and pressure (22.1 MPa while producing superheated steam. The thermal efficiency of a supercritical boiler greatly depends on the material of its different components. The supercritical boiler material should possess high creep rupture strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high specific heat and very high temperature withstandability. This paper considers a list of seven supercritical boiler materials whose performance is evaluated based on seven pivotal criteria. Given the intricacy and difficulty of this supercritical boiler material selection problem having interactions and interdependencies between different criteria, this paper applies fuzzy analytic network process to select the most appropriate material for a supercritical boiler. Rene 41 is the best supercritical boiler material, whereas, Haynes 230 is the worst preferred choice.

  5. Up-date on cyclone combustion and cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Felipe Alfaia do; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rocha, Rodrigo Carnera Castro da; Gazel, Hussein Felix; Martins, Diego Henrique dos Reis [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Campus Universitario Jose da Silveira Netto], E-mails: mfmn@ufpa.br, mfmn@ufpa.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler concept has been around for more than 70 years, and there are many types available. Boilers provide steam or hot water for industrial and commercial use. The Federal University of Para (UFPA) through the research group EBMA (Energy,Biomass and Environment) has been developing cyclonic furnace with a water wall, a boiler, aiming to use regional timbers (sawdust) and agro-industries residues as fuel to produce steam to be used in industrial processes as well as in power generation,. The use of cyclonic combustion for burning waste instead of burning in a fixed bed is mainly due to two factors efficiency improvement causing a more compact boiler and less risk of explosion, since their process does not generate an accumulation of volatile. Present state-of-art for commercial cyclone boilers has as set up a cyclone combustor with two combustion chambers, in fluid communication, where there ducts for supplying air and fuel directly into the first chamber and for forming a cyclonic flow pattern and a heat exchanger surrounding the second chamber for keeping low combustion temperature in both chambers. This paper shows the results of a literature review about design, construction and operation of cyclonic boilers using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. This information has been used for the design of a cyclone boiler to be constructed at UFPA for research purposes and its basic concept is presented at the end of this article. (author)

  6. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  7. Sistemas constructivos industrializados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Águila, Alfonso

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article summarizes the main points discussed in three Innovator Buildings Systems sessions, which are about different subjects of Industrialized Building. The first part is about the topic of concrete panels, applied to building flats basically. It is given a historical summary and the general concepts, ending with "INDAGSA BUILDING SYSTEM", which is running several promotions with in Madrid. In the second part it is developed the subject of building with boxes, beginning with general points which are extended to the concept of box, its classification, its historical aspects and its applications. It is continues with a description of the "SET HOME SYSTEM" of boxes of concrete, which is dedicated to industrialization of social housing services and equipments. This part ends with the French system "TRANSLOKO" of big light boxes. Lately, it has made a building for laboratories in Madrid. The last part is dedicated to a new subject in Interior Building, which is the Dry Floor, being detailedly described the "PLADUR" point of view about this.

    El presente artículo resume lo tratado en tres jornadas de Sistemas Constructivos Innovadores, relativos a diversos temas de Construcción Industrializada. En la primera parte se trata el tema de los paneles de hormigón aplicados a la edificación, principalmente a viviendas. Se da una síntesis histórica y esquemática de conceptos generales, para terminar con una descripción del Sistema Constructivo INDAGSA que están realizando numerosas promociones en Madrid. La segunda parte, desarrolla el tema de la construcción con módulos tridimensionales, comenzando por unas consideraciones generales que abarcan el concepto de módulo tridimensional, su clasificación, aspectos históricos y campos de aplicación. Se sigue con una descripción del Sistema SET HOME, de módulos tridimensionales de hormigón, dedicado a la industrialización de servicios e instalaciones en vivienda social

  8. Los nudos del sistema

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Pieza central del antiguo régimen; pacto, acuerdo o trato con algunos actores decisivos del sistema político susceptible de ser revisado; forma cultural de relaciones de poder o de intercambio; pirámide de organizaciones o estructura sectorial: ¿qué tan invisible sigue siendo, qué tan montada sigue estando la pirámide del corporativismo mexicano antes y después del 2 de julio de 2000? Este fenómeno constituye el eje central de las reflexiones del presente ensayo. En torno al mismo, se pres...

  9. El Sistema Penitenciario Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Azaola, Elena; Bergman, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Este trabajo describe los rasgos y los problemas que caracterizan al sistema penitenciario mexicano y efectúa un análisis del papel que desempeña dentro del conjunto de las instituciones que tienen por objeto combatir la criminalidad. Se abordan los cambios en la actividad delictiva que han tenido lugar en el país durante la última década y las acciones que llevan a cabo las instituciones de seguridad y justicia para contenerla. Se incluyen los principales resultados y conclusiones de una enc...

  10. Smooth Surfaces: A review of current and planned smooth surface technologies for fouling resistance in boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkery, Robert; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Feiler, Adam

    2012-02-15

    Here we have described the basics of boilers, fuels, combustion, flue gas composition and mechanisms of deposition. We have reviewed coating technologies for boiler tubes, including their materials compositions, nano structures and performances. The surface forces in boilers, in particular those relevant to formation of unwanted deposits in boilers have also been reviewed, and some comparative calculations have been included to indicate the procedures needed for further study. Finally practical recommendations on the important considerations in minimizing deposition on boiler surfaces are made

  11. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  12. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle;

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  13. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were...... compared with available gas temperature and species concentration measurements showing good agreement. Combustionof biomass in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively high amounts of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.Based on the CFD analysis, it is suggested that poor...

  14. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle;

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  15. Improvement of steam temperature control in supercritical once thru boilers

    OpenAIRE

    黒石, 卓司; 藤川, 卓爾

    2009-01-01

     New steam temperature control logic for supercritical once thru boilers was developed from the view point of simplicity similar to that of the conventional sub-critical drum type boilers. Water wall outlet steam temperature can be controlled more easily due to larger specific heat capacity of steam than super heater outlet steam temperature. By dividing temperature control into two parts, one at water wall outlet by fuel flow and the other at SH(super heater) outlet by SH spray flow, boiler ...

  16. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  20. COAL COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN CFB BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairui Yang; Guangxi Yue

    2005-01-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, thus directly influencing the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated both in field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation,residence time and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on large amount of experimental results.A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, defined by the ratio of the volatile content to the coal heat value, is a useful parameter to analyze the char burnout. The carbon content in the fly ash depends on the coal rank strongly. CFB boilers burning anthracite, which has low coal index, usually have high carbon content in the fly ash. On the contrary, the CFB boilers burning brown coal, which has high coal index, normally have low carbon content.Poor gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Increasing the velocity and rigidity of the secondary air could extend the penetration depth and induce more oxygen into the furnace center. Better gas solid mixing will decrease the lean oxygen core area and increase char combustion efficiency.The fine char particles could be divided into two groups according to their reactivity. One group is "fresh" char particles with high reactivity and certain amount of volatile content. The other group of char particles has experienced sufficient combustion time both in the furnace and in the cyclone, with nearly no volatile. These "old" chars in the fly ash will be deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. The generated fine inert char particles by attrition of large coal particles could not easily burn out even with the fly ash recirculation. The fraction of large coal particles in coal feed should be reduced during fuel preparation process.The cyclone

  1. Controlabilidad de Sistemas Bilineales en el Plano

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Guarachi, Leonardo Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    El objeto principal de este trabajo son los sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales que dependen de un parámetro u, control del sistema, tales sistemas se llaman sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales controlables, los cuales, en general, describen procesos dinámicos de fenómenos físicos. Estos procesos se describen mediante sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarios (EDO), ecuaciones en diferencias o a través de ecuaciones derivadas parciales. Una clase de sistemas de mucha im...

  2. Study of Corrosion in a Biomass Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berlanga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plants, apart from producing energy, help to reduce CO2(g emissions. One of the biggest problems for their development is superheater corrosion due to fuel corrosivity, especially of the straw. This limits both the temperature of the vapour and also the effectiveness of the plant. In order to know more about the reactions which happen inside the boiler of biomass, thermodynamic calculations using software (HSC Chemistry have been carried out. Field tests have been carried out in the Sangüesa Biomass Plant in Navarra (Spain: determination of the types of oxides and the deposits formed on the superheaters tubes as well as a program to measure temperatures. Finally, the global results are discussed.

  3. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  4. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...... supported by a dynamical decoupling. The results indicate that input constraints will become active when the controller responds to transients in the steam flow disturbance. For this reason an MPC (model predictive control) strategy capable of handling constraints on states and control signals should...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  5. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  6. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Main power boilers and auxiliary boilers shall be designed,...

  7. Numerical simulation of a biomass fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion furnace of a biomass-fired grate boiler provides crucial insight into the boiler's performance. Quite a few factors play important roles in a general CFD analysis, such as grid, models, discretization scheme and so on....... For a grate boiler, the modeling the interaction of the fuel bed and the gas phase above the bed is also essential. Much effort can be found in literature on developing bed models whose results are introduced into CFD simulations of freeboard as inlet conditions. This paper presents a CFD analysis...... of the largest biomass-fired grate boiler in Denmark. The focus of this paper is to study how significantly an accurate bed model can affect overall CFD results, i.e., how necessarily it is to develop an accurate bed model in terms of the reliability of CFD results. The ultimate purpose of the study is to obtain...

  8. Emissions from Power Plant and Industrial Boiler Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides hourly data on SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions; gross load, steam load, and heat input; from electricity generation units and industrial boilers from...

  9. Transparent and Explicable Boiler Fouling Monitoring with Fuzzy Neural Newtwork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BinWu; You-TingShen

    1998-01-01

    Fouling on boiler beating surfaces is one of the important factors that damage boiler's economical performance and safety,with on-line monitoring of foiling states on boler heating surfaces,it is possible to optimize sootblower system,to visualize fouling states,to improve performance,as well as to remedy the insufficiency of experiment research in boiler heating surface fouling process.New method based on Fuzzy Neural Network(FNN) is presented to monitor fouling states on boiler heating surfaces on-line.Compared with regular methods,since FNN's reasoning process is transparent and comprehensible,it is possible to explain and comprehend reasoning process,which makes the FNN based system perform as an additional operation consulting system.

  10. Energy efficiency in boilers; Eficiencia energetica em caldeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ricardo Silva The [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], email: ricthe@dee.ufc.br; Barbosa, Marcos Antonio Pinheiro; Rufino, Maria da Gracas [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], emails: marcos_apb@unifor.br, gsrufino@unifor.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler is vapor generator equipment that has been widely used in industrial milieu as in electric energy generation in thermoelectric plants. Since their first conception, the boilers have been changed in order to provide security and energetic efficiency. They can present high losses of energy if they don't be operated according to some criteria. A considerable part of boilers operation cost include fuel expenses. So, the adoption of effective steps in order to reduce fuel consumption is important to industry economy, besides it brings environmental benefits through the reduction of pollution liberation. The present article has the objective of emphasizing the effective steps for the economy of energy in boilers, such as, the regulation of combustion; the control of soot and incrustations; the installation of economizers, air heaters and super heaters; the reduction in purges and reintroduction of condensed steam. (author)

  11. Sistema Integrado de Gestión de Calidad, Seguridad y Ambiental en un centro biotecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Martínez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La compatibilidad de las normas internacionales de gestión de calidad, seguridad y ambiental marcó la tendencia a la integración de los sistemas. En el año 2008 la Vicepresidencia de Calidad del Instituto Finlay se trazó como objetivo el diseño e implementación de un sistema integrado de gestión (SIG. Se analizaron las normas de gestión, aplicaciones prácticas internacionales y documentos regulatorios y recomendativos para la industria farmacéutica. Se utilizó el método de expertos y las técnicas de trabajo en grupo para la toma de decisiones durante el diseño e implementación del sistema. Como resultado del trabajo se obtuvo, entre otros: la política integrada, los documentos que soportan el SIG, un comité de revisión, el tratamiento de no conformidades de auditorías integradas con enfoque CAPA y la revisión periódica de la eficacia del sistema por la Dirección. Se analizaron sus riesgos, se evaluaron las causas asociadas a los indicadores críticos y se establecieron prioridades para su atención inmediata a través de planes de acción para mejorar. Se definió y dotó a la Dirección de la institución de una herramienta que le permitió gerenciar a través de indicadores cuantitativos las actividades operacionales desde la óptica de la calidad, el cuidado al trabajador y al medio ambiente e integrar esfuerzos y voluntades de cada parte del sistema hacia un objetivo común y lograr un aumento de la excelencia en el trabajo, para una mayor calidad y eficiencia.

  12. Multimedia tutorial system to aid the technical training in energy cogeneration; Sistema tutorial multimedio para apoyar la capacitacion tecnica en cogeneracion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Guerrero Briseno, Pedro [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Monedero De La Vega, Arturo F. [Seccion Ingenieria Energetica, DEPFI UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The incorporation of computer aided teaching technologies increases the efficiency in the transmission and acquisition of knowledge, allowing the handling of large information volumes, the knowledge homogenization among the students, the availability, the massive teaching and the permanent updating of the same. On the other hand, considering that all energy saving policy must be supported in a training and dissemination program of the respective energy technologies an immediate option is the use of computerized systems of teaching-learning. Precisely, in this paper, are presented the fundamental technical aspects for the development of a tutorial expert system, to aid the training in energy cogeneration, trying to integrate in the application, the usage of multimedia tools with the intelligent handling of the teaching-learning process through the inference machine of an expert system. [Espanol] La incorporacion de metodologias de ensenanza auxiliada por computadora incrementa la eficiencia en la transmision y adquisicion del conocimiento, permitiendo la manipulacion de grandes volumenes de informacion, la homogeneizacion del conocimiento en los educandos, la disponibilidad, masificacion y la permanente actualizacion del mismo. Por otro lado, considerando que toda politica de ahorro de energia debe estar soportada en un programa de capacitacion y de divulgacion de las tecnologias energeticas respectivas, una alternativa inmediata es el empleo de sistemas computarizados de ensenanza-aprendizaje. Precisamente, en este trabajo, se presenta los aspectos tecnicos fundamentales del desarrollo de un sistema experto tutorial para apoyar la capacitacion en cogeneracion de energia, tratando de integrar en la aplicacion, el empleo de las herramientas multimedios con el manejo inteligente del proceso de ensenanza-aprendizaje a traves de la maquina de inferencia de un sistema experto.

  13. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  14. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemele, J; Blumberga, D; Talcis, N; Burmistre, I

    2012-01-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S “Imanta” where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through ...

  15. Performance analysis of heating plants equipped with condensing boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Schibuola, L.

    1986-01-01

    The behaviour of the condensing boilers is strictly bound to the temperature of the water coming back from the plant. This temperature depends on the control modes and on the meteorological conditions. The seasonal performance has been computed for a heating plant of a building equipped with a condensing boiler simulating the load at short time intervals through a suitable modification of TRNSYS. The study has been carried out in the climate of Padova. For other towns a rough estimate is proposed.

  16. Effect of maintenance on boiler efficiency. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, J.; Gibbons, C.; Morgan, P.

    1985-01-01

    This study was carried out on fourteen boiler installations under site conditions by monitoring flue-gas oxygen content and temperature together with ambient air temperature to enable the combustion-loss to be calculated. By undertaking the tests on boilers in both clean and dirty conditions, and recording data every minute over a period of two to three days, representative mean combustion-loss figures were obtained.

  17. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; N. Pappa

    2012-01-01

    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  18. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  19. Sistemas hamiltonianos ressonantes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Atsuko Nitto

    1999-01-01

    Será analisado, neste trabalho, o problema de ressonância existente entre os corpos celestes, cujos períodos orbitais são comensuráveis na razão p:q, onde p e q são números inteiros positivos. O corpo central será considerado achatado e as excentricidades e inclinações serão quantidades pequenas e não-nulas. O sistema Hamiltoniano ressonante obtido abrange muitos casos que podem ocorrer em problemas de Mecânica Celeste.A análise do problema será feita considerando três classes particulares de...

  20. Sistema Presidencial Mexicano"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pantoja Morán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor aborda el origen doctrinal de las dimensiones institucionales y constitucionales del sistema presidencial-constitucional mexicano para tratar de encontrar ahí los posibles orígenes o explicaciones del éxito o fracaso de este tipo de régimen político. Para ello, se recupera la relevancia y significado de la constitución de 1824 para la vida nacional —desde entonces hasta nuestros días— a fin de comprender muchos de los orígenes de los aciertos y de los errores en el diseño de nuestra constitución vigente así como de la forma presidencial de gobierno, a saber, el principio de legitimidad dual y el de la rigidez o separación rígida de los Poderes.

  1. On the design of residential condensing gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    1997-02-01

    Two main topics are dealt with in this thesis. Firstly, the performance of condensing boilers with finned tube heat exchangers and premix burners is evaluated. Secondly, ways of avoiding condensate formation in the flue system are evaluated. In the first investigation, a transient heat transfer approach is used to predict performance of different boiler configurations connected to different heating systems. The smallest efficiency difference between heat loads and heating systems is obtained when the heat exchanger gives a small temperature difference between flue gases and return water, the heat transfer coefficient is low and the thermostat hysteresis is large. Taking into account heat exchanger size, the best boiler is one with higher heat transfer per unit area which only causes a small efficiency loss. The total heating cost at part load, including gas and electricity, has a maximum at the lowest simulated heat load. The heat supplied by the circulation heat pump is responsible for this. The second investigation evaluates methods of drying the flue gases. Reheating the flue gases in different ways and water removal in an adsorbent bed are evaluated. Reheating is tested in two specially designed boilers. The necessary reheating is calculated to approximately 100-150 deg C if an uninsulated masonry chimney is used. The tested boilers show that it is possible to design a proper boiler. The losses, stand-by and convective/radiative, must be kept at a minimum in order to obtain a high efficiency. 86 refs, 70 figs, 16 tabs

  2. Establishing an Energy Efficiency Recommendation for Commercial Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle, J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton’s Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25~ percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge’s goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products (e.g. commercial boilers, chillers, motors) that could substantially impact the government’s energy reduction goals. When establishing efficiency recommendations, FEMP looks at standardized performance ratings for products sold in the U.S. marketplace. Currently, the commercial boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency as metrics when specifying boiler performance. For many years, the industry has used both metrics interchangeably, causing confusion in the market place about boiler performance. This paper discusses the method used to establish FEMP’s efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers in lieu of the various, and somewhat confusing, efficiency ratings currently available. The paper also discusses potential energy cost savings for federal agencies that improve the efficiency of boilers specified and purchased.

  3. Exhaust gas side corrosion of oil fired central heating boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1987-09-01

    While Swiss boiler producers aim primarily at achieving low exhaust gas temperatures, in our northern neighbouring country, lower boiler water temperatures are being set as favourite objectives to be met. The first method aims at reducing the exhaust gas losses, i.e. of the heat content of the exhaust gases; the second one aims at reducing service life losses (= losses in the off-air of the boiler). Flue-gas caused corrosion, however, sets practical limits to the energy-saving reduction of the exhaust gas and boiler water temperatures. To be able to define this practical limit more exactly is the main goal of this project which is supported by NEFF and which is carried out in cooperation with the Institute for Energy Engineering of the ETHZ (Professor P. Suter). In addition to this, however, the author also head to find out about sill inexplained cases of corrosion in boilers which are being operated correctly, i.e. with comparably high boiler water and exhaust gas temperatures.

  4. Notice of construction for proposed backup package boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site steam plant consists of coal-fired boilers located at the 200 East and the 200 West Areas. These boilers have provided steam to heat and cool facilities in the 200 Areas since the early 1940`s. As part of Project L-017, ``Steam System Rehabilitation, Phase II``, the 200 West Area coal-fired boilers will be permanently shut down. The shut down will only occur after a proposed package backup boiler (50,000 pounds per hour (lb/hr) steam, firing No. 2 oil) is installed at the 200 West Area. The proposed backup boiler will provide back-up services when the 200 East Area steam line, which provides steam to the 200 West Area, is down for maintenance or, when the demand for steam exceeds the supply available from the 200 East Plant. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the package backup boiler. This request is being made pursuant to Washington Administration Code (WAC) Chapter 173-400, ``General Regulations for Air Pollution Sources``, and Chapter 173-460, ``Controls for New Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants``.

  5. Gestión de riesgos y controles en sistemas de información: del aprendizaje a la transformación organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Lucila Guerrero Julio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de riesgos y controles en sistemas de información (GRCSI comúnmente se ve como una función técnica encomendada a expertos en tecnologías de la información, ingenieros de software o programadores de sistemas de información. No obstante, esta labor requiere una perspectiva más amplia que aporte al aprendizaje de su sentido y a la apropiación de los procesos de cambio organizacional que ella requiere. Este artículo presenta el resultado de un proceso de investigación, abordado desde la perspectiva del pensamiento de sistemas blandos para apoyar la GRCSI en las organizaciones, mostrando el sistema de actividad humana de la dirección estratégica de tecnologías de información, la transformación organizacional necesaria y la descripción de las actividades y métodos propuestos.

  6. Sistema de control de riego

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez González, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Programación de un sistema capaz de controlar un sistema de riego mediante el microcontrolador Arduino. Dicho sistema se ha programado en la plataforma Simulink y se han llevado a cabo simulaciones del mismo para confirmar su correcto funcionamiento. Las simulaciones realizadas se basan en datos obtenidos de informes meteorológicos diarios que nos dan una idea de las posibles necesidades de riego en diferentes regiones de España. Realización de un estudio de diversos factores que influyen en ...

  7. La estructura del sistema hegeliano

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, André; Universidad de Lovaina

    2014-01-01

    Como lo expresa su título, este artículo no pretende exponer el contenido del sistema hegeliano sino el esquema del pensamiento que es inherente a la filosofía hegeliana y que aparece invariable, bajo modos distintos, en cada una de las diferentes exposiciones que hace Hegel de su sistema. El autor toma como base para su trabajo la exposición del sistema hegeliano que aparece en la última edición de la Enciclopedia de las Ciencias Filosóficas (1830). Apoyado en la teoría hegeliana del silogis...

  8. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  9. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  10. Valoración de un dvd educativo a través de un grupo de expertos. [Evaluation of an educational DVD through a group of experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil Galindo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Partimos de la idea que en la actualidad que el uso de las nuevas tecnologías son de gran utilidad en todos los órdenes y no va a ser menos en lo que concierne a la educación. Esto ha conducido a los cambios que se han producido en la sociedad y en los nuevos métodos de enseñanza. En la actualidad, el aprendizaje está centrado en el alumno no sólo por el hecho de que los materiales utilizados estén adaptados a él sino porque se deja que sea el propio el alumno el que lleve, hasta cierto punto, el control del proceso de aprendizaje, gracias a las facilidades que nos permite el uso de las nuevas tecnologías. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue analizar el proceso de validación llevado a cabo en el trabajo de investigación Diseño, Evaluación y Aplicación de un Recurso Multimedia en la enseñanza del Mini balonmano en Maestros Especialistas en Educación Física. Para dicha validación, se recurrió a la técnica del cuestionario que se pasó a una serie de expertos tanto en el contenido propiamente dicho del interactivo como en el diseño el mismo. Este cuestionario se estructuró en cuatro grandes bloques y su objetivo fundamental fue analizar las características más importantes del multimedia: Se trataba de recabar la opinión de los expertos en cuanto a si el material podría ser motivante, estimular el aprendizaje y facilitar la adquisición de los contenidos presentados. De los resultados obtenidos se desprende que el estilo de redacción fue el ítem más valorado en este cuestionario, así como los contenidos relativos al mini balonmano y a los desplazamientos. Cabe destacar, asimismo, la correlación ente los comentarios realizados en la cualitativa y las puntuaciones de la cuantitativa. Entre las sugerencias aportadas, los expertos recomendaron la inclusión de esquemas que permitieran a los alumnos tener una visión global tanto de cada uno de los apartados como del interactivo en su generalidad. Como resultado del

  11. CASO MULTIPROPÓSITO PARA LA EVALUACIÓN Y SELECCIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS BASADO EN LA DECISIÓN DE EXPERTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ariel Quesada García

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabajo presenta un caso escrito en idioma español, con un texto central vinculado con la evaluación y selección de alternativas sobre la base de la decisión de expertos, que utilizan pruebas estadísticas capaces de medir el grado de subjetividad en la toma de decisiones (coeficiente de Spearman de correlación de rangos y coeficiente de concordancia de Kendall y puede emplearse en diferentes esferas de la práctica humana, de ahí su carácter multipropósito. Se han escogido en el trabajo cuatro esferas vinculadas con la enseñanza de la ingeniería: informática, problemas ambientales, transferencia tecnológica y recursos humanos, aunque las aplicaciones pueden ser mucho más amplias. Se incluyen además en el trabajo: una sinopsis para el empleo de las cuatro esferas de perfil ingeniero seleccionadas (informática, problemas ambientales, transferencia tecnológica y recursos humanos, un ejemplo sencillo de aplicación del caso a un problema de selección de recursos humanos y las observaciones pedagógicas que precisan la forma en que debe ser aplicado el caso en los cursos de ingeniería.

  12. Valoración de un dvd educativo a través de un grupo de expertos. [Evaluation of an educational DVD through a group of experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil Galindo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Partimos de la idea que en la actualidad que el uso de las nuevas tecnologías son de gran utilidad en todos los órdenes y no va a ser menos en lo que concierne a la educación. Esto ha conducido a los cambios que se han producido en la sociedad y en los nuevos métodos de enseñanza. En la actualidad, el aprendizaje está centrado en el alumno no sólo por el hecho de que los materiales utilizados estén adaptados a él sino porque se deja que sea el propio el alumno el que lleve, hasta cierto punto, el control del proceso de aprendizaje, gracias a las facilidades que nos permite el uso de las nuevas tecnologías. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue analizar el proceso de validación llevado a cabo en el trabajo de investigación Diseño, Evaluación y Aplicación de un Recurso Multimedia en la enseñanza del Mini balonmano en Maestros Especialistas en Educación Física. Para dicha validación, se recurrió a la técnica del cuestionario que se pasó a una serie de expertos tanto en el contenido propiamente dicho del interactivo como en el diseño el mismo. Este cuestionario se estructuró en cuatro grandes bloques y su objetivo fundamental fue analizar las características más importantes del multimedia: Se trataba de recabar la opinión de los expertos en cuanto a si el material podría ser motivante, estimular el aprendizaje y facilitar la adquisición de los contenidos presentados. De los resultados obtenidos se desprende que el estilo de redacción fue el ítem más valorado en este cuestionario, así como los contenidos relativos al mini balonmano y a los desplazamientos. Cabe destacar, asimismo, la correlación ente los comentarios realizados en la cualitativa y las puntuaciones de la cuantitativa. Entre las sugerencias aportadas, los expertos recomendaron la inclusión de esquemas que permitieran a los alumnos tener una visión global tanto de cada uno de los apartados como del interactivo en su generalidad. Como resultado del

  13. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  14. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  15. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F. CADAVID

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales es una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebrados mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposasas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos alternativos de inmunidad adaptativa, sugiere que en el transcurso de la evolución distintos grupos animales han encontrado soluciones alternativas al problema del reconocimiento inmunológico.

  16. En portada SISTEMA RESPIRATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J. Flores Alés,

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La sección “En portada” de este mes está dedicada a los agentes infecciosos y al diagnóstico de algunas de las enfermedades respiratorias más habituales en los animales de compañía, estacando la relevancia adquirida por el diagnóstico mediante la obtención de de imágenes en este campo. También se hace incapie en la actuación que debe llevar a cabo elínico ante una urgencia respiratoria La obtención de imágenes por radiología o endoscopia son dos de las técnicas diagnósticas que más ayudan a dilucidar el proceso respiratorio que sufre un paciente. Sobre el momento en el que se encuentra el diagnóstico por imagen de las patologías del sistema respiratorio en veterinaria nos habla a continuación Andrés J. Flores.

  17. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  18. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandy, David W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shingledecker, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation's power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country's total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760°C (1400°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  19. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  20. Investigations of operation problems at a 200 MWe PF boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Sandile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To minimize oxides of nitrogen (NOx emission, maximize boiler combustion efficiency, achieve safe and reliable burner combustion, it is crucial to master global boiler and at-the-burner control of fuel and air flows. Non-uniform pulverized fuel (PF and air flows to burners reduce flame stability and pose risk to boiler safety by risk of reverse flue gas and fuel flow into burners. This paper presents integrated techniques implemented at pilot ESKOM power plants for the determination of global boiler air/flue gas distribution, wind-box air distribution and measures for making uniform the flow being delivered to burners within a wind-box system. This is achieved by Process Flow Modelling, at-the-burner static pressure measurements and CFD characterization. Global boiler mass and energy balances combined with validated site measurements are used in an integrated approach to calculate the total (stoichiometric + excess air mass flow rate required to burn the coal quality being fired, determine the actual quantity of air that flows through the burners and the furnace ingress air. CFD analysis and use of at-the-burner static, total pressure and temperature measurements are utilized in a 2-pronged approach to determine root-causes for burner fires and to evaluate secondary air distribution between burners.

  1. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  2. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  3. How much Energy is Embodied in your Central Heating Boiler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubogiannis, D.; Nouhou, C.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool in current research to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of a building. In the context of LCA, the Embodied Energy (EE) related to the building and the corresponding Embodied CO2 emissions are valuable data. In such a case, these data concern the constitutive materials of the building and any subsystem, component or equipment in it. Usually, after calculating the mass of these materials, embodied energy values are estimated multiplying them by the corresponding EE coefficients concerning the production of these materials (EEMP). However, apart from transportation energy costs, another part of EE is that consumed for the manufacturing of any item as a finished product. The present work focuses on the manufacturing EE (EEMFG) of central heating boilers in Hellenic dwellings. Six typical boilers of different types are studied. Each of them is analyzed to its constitutive materials and its EEMP is estimated. For four of them, the boiler house where it was constructed in Greece was visited and data were collected. Based on them the corresponding boiler EEMFG values are estimated. The results concerning the EE for material production and manufacturing, as well as the results concerning the corresponding ECO2 values are discussed and assessed. Benchmark values correlating EE and ECO2 with the mass or the heat rate of the boiler are extracted.

  4. Oil ash corrosion; A review of utility boiler experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)); Seeley, R.R. (Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    In this paper a review of experience with oil ash corrosion is presented along with current design practices used to avoid excessive tube wastage. Factors influencing oil ash corrosion include fuel chemistry, boiler operation, and boiler design. These factors are interdependent and determine the corrosion behavior in utility boilers. Oil ash corrosion occurs when vanadium-containing ash deposits on boiler tube surfaces become molten. These molten ash deposits dissolve protective oxides and scales causing accelerated tube wastage. Vanadium is the major fuel constituent responsible for oil ash corrosion. Vanadium reacts with sodium, sulfur, and chlorine during combustion to produce lower melting temperature ash compositions, which accelerate tube wastage. Limiting tube metal temperatures will prevent ash deposits from becoming molten, thereby avoiding the onset of oil ash corrosion. Tube metal temperatures are limited by the use of a parallel stream flow and by limiting steam outlet temperatures. Operating a boiler with low excess air has helped avoid oil ash corrosion by altering the corrosive combustion products. Air mixing and distribution are essential to the success of this palliative action. High chromium alloys and coatings form more stable protective scaled on tubing surfaces, which result in lower oil ash corrosion rates. However, there is not material totally resistant to oil ash corrosion.

  5. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed. Th......). In the thesis the pressure control is based on this new method when on/off burner switching is required while the water level control is handled by a model predictive controller........ This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems. This thesis presents contributions for modelling and control of the one-pass smoke tube marine boilers as well as for hybrid systems control. Much...... of the focus has been directed towards water level control which is complicated by the nature of the disturbances acting on the system as well as by low frequency sensor noise. This focus was motivated by an estimated large potential to minimise the boiler geometry by reducing water level fluctuations...

  6. Slagging in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devir, G.P.; Pohl, J.H.; Creelman, R.A. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technique to evaluate the severity of slagging of a coal in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler. There are few data in the literature on the nature of in-situ boiler slags, their rate of growth and/or their strength properties relevant to sootblowing. The latter is thought to be of more concern to boiler operators and gives rise to the significance of selecting suitable strength tests. As well as standardised methods for characterising pulverised coal performance in a boiler, several novel and less popular techniques are discussed in detail. A suite of three sub-bituminous coals from the Callide Coalfields, Biloela (600 km north of Brisbane), has been selected for slagging tests in the 350 MW{sub e} units of Callide 'B' power station. Disposable air-cooled mild steel slagging probes have been constructed to simulate the conditions for deposit formation in the boiler region. To date, tests for one of these coals has been completed and preliminary results are presented. Once testing for the remaining coals has been completed, it is anticipated that the differences exhibited in deposit growth and strength may be correlated with typical variations in physical and chemical properties of the pulverised coal.

  7. Mekanisme Proses Pemanasan Air Di Dalam Boiler Dengan Mempergunakan Heater Tambahan Untuk Efisiensi Pembakaran

    OpenAIRE

    Helmon Sihombing

    2010-01-01

    Pada proses pemanasan air, air yang berasal dari raw water (air tanah) tidak langsung dibakar didalam boiler. dalam hal ini digunakan peralatan instrumen Deaerator dan economizer yang berfungsi untuk pemanasan awal sebelum dibakar didalam boiler. Fungsi deaerator dan economizer ini adalah sebagai komponen pembantu untuk memanaskan air sebelum dibakar didalam boiler. Apabila pemanasan air langsung dilakukan didalam boiler maka akan membutuhkan waktu yang cukup lama dan menggunakan bahan b...

  8. Micoses do sistema nervoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos da Silva Lacaz

    1947-03-01

    Full Text Available As micoses do sistema nervoso central não têm merecido atenção cuidadosa dos neurologistas. Elas afetam o neuraxe em diferente percentagem: a granulomatose criptocóccica (torulose é a mais freqüente, seguindo-se a actinomicose; a granulomatose paracoccidióidica só excepcionalmente determina lesões meningoencefálicas. Do ponto de vista clínico, as neuromicoses podem ser divididas em duas formas: tumorais encefalomedulares e meningíticas. Estas predominam sobre as tumorais, das quais são mais freqüentes as de localização encefálica. Não são raros os quadros mistos, meningoencetálicos. As formas tumorals encefálicas abrangem vários tipos anátomo-patológicos - abscesso, granuloma, nódulos e cistos - sendo mais comuns os dois primeiros, todos êles produzindo o quadro clinico da síndrome hipertensiva intracraniana. As formas meningomedulares, em geral, são secundárias às lesões ósseas vertebrais, sendo a actinomicose, por ser a mais osteófila, a micose que mais freqüentemente atinge a medula. Nestes casos, o quadro clínico da síndrome compressiva é o mais comum. As meninges participam do processo fúngico, na maior parte dos casos; as manifestações clínicas variam desde o simples meningismo, até as meningites purulentas e meningoencefalites graves, havendo a possibilidade de se formarem aracnoidites císticas, ependimites e bloqueios ventriculares, do aqueduto ou mesmo do canal raquidiano. O diagnóstico das micoses do sistema nervoso central é comumente um "achado de autópsia". Somente a verificação do cogumelo no líquor e o seu isolamento permitem um diagnóstico seguro. Outros dados liquóricos, quando bem interpretados com os achados clínicos e neurológicos, orientam o analista na pesquisa do agente fúngico. O quadro anátomo-patológico nada tem de caraterístico, a não ser a presença do agente parasitário e só o seu encontro firma o diagnóstico. Examinamos 25 casos de granulomatose

  9. Blastomicose do sistema nervoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio M. Canelas

    1951-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores chamam a atenção sôbre os erros de diagnóstico nos casos de neuroblastomicose, seja nas formas meningoencefálicas, seja nas tumorais. São focalizadas a paracoccidioidose e a criptococose. Depois de caracterizarem clìnicamente a paracoccidioidose, acentuam a raridade das formas nervosas (1,2% dos casos dessa micose autopsiados no Departamento de Anatomia Patológica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Pela revisão da literatura foi verificado haver apenas 12 casos registrados. 0 caso de Casiello e Klass é o único em que o diagnóstico foi feito em vida; os demais, ou constituem achado de necropsia, ou foram inesperadamente revelados pelo exame histopatológico realizado após intervenções cirúrgicas. Os autores registram 2 casos de paracoccidioidose do sistema nervoso. No primeiro, tratava-se de meningomielorra-diculite crônica, sendo o parasito identificado no escarro; o segundo era portador de síndrome de compressão medular, cuja patogenia é discutida pelos autores, tendo sido a etiologia paracoccidióidica comprovada pelo exame da polpa e biópsia ganglionares. Considerações clínicas sôbre a criptococose precedem o relato de um caso de meningoencefalomielite subaguda, no qual fôra feito em vida o diagnóstico de paracoccidioidose, pelo exame micológico do liqüido cefalorraqueano; êste paciente, embora medicado com doses maciças de sulfa e tiossemicarbarsona, veio a falecer, tendo o exame anátomo-patológico revelado tratar-se, na realidade, de lesões nervosas produzidas pelo Crypíococcus neo-formans. Nos três casos era incisivo o caráter neurocirúrgico da sintomatologia. Entretanto, ante o diagnóstico de paracoccidioidose, foi instituído tratamento pelas sulfas, vacina específica e tiossemicarbarsona. Os resultados foram excelentes no caso 2, em que a terapêutica pôde ser instituída mais precocemente; melhoras também foram obtidas no caso 1. No caso 3, foram verificadas

  10. 46 CFR 97.30-1 - Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. 97.30-1 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-1 Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. (a) Before making any repairs to boilers or unfired pressure vessels, the chief...

  11. 46 CFR 196.30-1 - Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. 196.30-1... VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-1 Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. (a) Before making any repairs to boilers or unfired pressure vessels, the Chief...

  12. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1)...

  13. 46 CFR 167.25-5 - Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-5 Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. The inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and...

  14. 46 CFR 50.05-5 - Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. 50... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 50.05-5 Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. (a) Whenever doubt exists as to the safety of an existing boiler, pressure vessel, or piping system, the...

  15. 46 CFR 109.421 - Report of repairs to boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. 109... Report of repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. Before making repairs, except normal repairs and maintenance such as replacement of valves or pressure seals, to boilers or unfired pressure vessels...

  16. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permits for boilers and industrial... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous.... Owners and operators of new boilers and industrial furnaces (those not operating under the interim...

  17. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ25; 2060-AO12 Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers... Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards...: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'': Mr. Brian Shrager, Energy...

  18. Characterization and quantification of deposits build up and removal in straw suspension fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Wedel, Stig;

    : 1) The influence of local boiler conditions on deposit formation in suspension fired boilers using wood or co-firing straw and wood, 2) quantification of deposit removal in biomass suspension firing boilers with regards both to natural shedding and soot blower induced shedding, 3) established...

  19. Steam Boiler: Extended FOCUS Specification and its Verification in Isabelle/HOL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Spichkova

    2016-01-01

    The main idea of this case study was taken from [1]. This paper represents an extension of the Focus specification [1] of the steam boiler, its translation in Isabelle/HOL [2] and the corresponding formal Isabelle/HOL proofs for the translated specifications, which show that the specified steam boiler architecture fulfills the specified steam boiler requirements.

  20. 46 CFR 78.33-1 - Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels. 78.33-1 Section... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-1 Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels. (a) Before making any repairs to boilers or unfired pressure vessels, the chief engineer...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2833 - U.S. No. 1 Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Boilers. 51.2833 Section 51.2833 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...) Grades § 51.2833 U.S. No. 1 Boilers. U.S. No. 1 Boilers consists of onions which meet all...

  2. 46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil-fired main boilers. 62.35-20 Section 62.35-20... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-20 Oil-fired main boilers. (a) General. (1) All main boilers, regardless of intended mode of operation, must be provided with...

  3. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired...

  4. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction; Aspekty wdrazania nowych materialow w budowie kotlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, R. [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  5. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  6. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  8. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  9. Evaluation of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion - corrosion resistant boiler tube coatings in low NO{sub x} boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, J.N.; Banovic, S.W.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Low NOx burners are being installed in many fossil fired power plants in order to comply with new Clean Air Regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion is often enhanced and premature tube failures can occur. Failures due to oxidation and solid particle erosion are also a concern. A program was initiated in early 1996 to evaluate the use of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx boilers. Composite iron/aluminum wires will be used with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process to prepare overlays on boiler tubes steels with aluminum contents from 8 to 16wt%. The weldability of the composite wires will be evaluated as a function of chemical composition and welding parameters. The effect of overlay composition on corrosion (oxidation and sulfidation) and solid particle erosion will also be evaluated. The laboratory studies will be complemented by field exposures of both iron aluminide weld overlays and co-extruded tubing under actual boiler conditions.

  10. Heat flux distribution on circulating fluidized bed boiler water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The future of circulating fluidized bed (CFB)combustion technology is in raising the steam parameters to supercritical levels.Understanding the heat flux distribution on the water wall is one of the most important issues in the design and operation of supercritical pressure CFB boilers.In the present paper,the finite element analysis (FEA) method is adopted to predict the heat transfer coefficient as well as the heat flux of the membrane wall and the results are validated by direct measurement of the temperature around the tube.Studies on the horizontal heat flux distribution were conducted in three CFB boilers with different furnace size,tube dimension and water temperature.The results are useful in supercritical pressure CFB boiler design.

  11. Application of digital holography to circle flow bed boiler measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shiliang; Denis Lebrun; WANG Qinghui; CEN Kefa; REN Kuanfang

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution of particles in the boiler is very important in the study on the circle flow bed boiler (CFB). Digital in-line holography technique was applied to obtain the spatial and diameter distribution of the particles inside the boiler. A HE-NE laser was used to illuminate the particles inside the CFB through two glass windows and the in-line diffraction pattern was recorded by a CCD camera. The diffraction can be interpreted as a convolution between a family of wavelet functions and the object function. So the three-dimensional (3D) images of the particles in the two-phase flow were reconstructed by the convolution between diffraction pattern and wavelet functions. The particle diameters and 3D coordinates were calculated from the reconstructed 3D images by a series of image-processing methods, followed by a discussion of the experimental results.

  12. Corrosion protection of condensing boilers with organic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, M.; Schicker, M.; Richner, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    An investigation was conducted into whether organic coatings may be used to provide protection from the corrosive condensate which occurs in condensing boilers. The suitability of various coating systems was investigated in laboratory tests. On the basis of these results, a heat curing phenolic resin was selected for field trials in boilers from various manufacturers. The boilers were operated for up to two years. The condition of the coating was investigated during operation and after completion of the trial period. It was found that the selected coating provides good corrosion protection in areas not exposed to very high temperatures, which is precisely where condensation is most severe and there is thus the greatest risk of corrosion. (orig.)

  13. Numerical investigation of ash deposition in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    accumulation rates encountered during straw combustion in grate-fired boilers. The sub-models have been based on information about the combustion and deposition properties of straw gathered from the literature and combined into a single Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based analysis tool which can aid...... in the design phase of straw-fired boilers. Some of the primary model outputs include improved heat transfer rate predictions and detailed information about local deposit formation rates. This information is essential when boiler availability and efficiency is to be estimated. A stand-alone program has been...... developed to predict the combustion processes on the grate and the release rate of KCl vapor. These outputs form the boundary conditions for the CFD analysis. The bed model has been validated through comparison with experimental data obtained during batch combustion of straw. It was found that the heat...

  14. Modelling and Simulation of the 50 MWe CFBC Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeidouNi; ZhengLi

    1994-01-01

    A general mathematical model of CFBC boiler by taking the 50 MWe Tsinghua CFBC boiler as the object is established.the model has some distinguished features,Firstly,in order to describe the CFBC precisely,emphasis is paid to take the broad soze distribution of feeding coal and bed invertory into consideration.Secondly,the emplogying of cell model makes it possible to show the distribution of any interested vaiabled inside furnace,Thirdly,since partial aspects such as hydrodynamics,devolatilization of coal,combustion of char and the formation and reduction of harmful substances are considered in detail,therefore the emission at the outlet of the furnace can be estimated .By using the model,simulation is carried out to predict the performance of the 50 MWe Tsinghua CFBC boiler for both design and off-design operation.The results are useful for dsigners and possible improvement of design.

  15. The heat exchanger of small pellet boiler for phytomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičieta, Jozef; Lenhard, Richard; Jandačka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Combustion of pellets from plant biomass (phytomass) causes various troubles. Main problem is slagging ash because of low melting temperature of ash from phytomass. This problem is possible to solve either improving energetic properties of phytomass by additives or modification of boiler construction. A small-scale boiler for phytomass is different in construction of heat exchanger and furnace mainly. We solve major problem - slagging ash, by decreasing combustion temperature via redesign of pellet burner and boiler body. Consequence of lower combustion temperature is also lower temperature gradient of combustion gas. It means that is necessary to design larger heat exchanging surface. We plane to use underfed burner, so we would utilize circle symmetry heat exchanger. Paper deals design of heat exchanger construction with help of CFD simulation. Our purpose is to keep uniform water flux and combustion gas flux in heat exchanger without zone of local overheating and excess cooling.

  16. Boiler Tube Corrosion Characterization with a Scanning Thermal Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Jacobstein, Ronald; Reilly, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water wall tubing is a significant operational concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. Unfortunately, ultrasonic inspection is very manpower intense and slow. Therefore, thickness measurements are typically taken over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall and statistical analysis is used to determine the overall condition of the boiler tubing. Other inspection techniques, such as electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), have recently been evaluated, however they provide only a qualitative evaluation - identifying areas or spots where corrosion has significantly reduced the wall thickness. NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with ThermTech Services, has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to quantitatively measure the wall thickness and thus determine the amount of material thinning present in steel boiler tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed and accuracy for large structures such as boiler water walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented to establish the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of the application of this technology to actual water wall

  17. Condition monitoring, diagnostic and controlling tool for boiler feed pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sohail [Siemens AG, Muelheim (Germany). Energy Sector; Leithner, Reinhard; Kosyna, Guenter [TU Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The boiler feed pump is an important component of a thermal power generation cycle and demands high safety and unquestionable availability for flexible power plant operation. In this research paper, the methodology of a general purpose condition monitoring, diagnostic and controlling tool is presented, which can address the challenges of operational safety and availability as well as optimal operation of a boiler feed pump. This tool not only effectively records the life time consumption of both casings and rotors and monitors the small gaps between casings and rotors but also suggests appropriate actions in order to ensure that the pump operates within the allowable design limits. (orig.)

  18. Modelling of Boiler Heating Surfaces and Evaporator Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic models for simulating boiler performance have been developed. Models for the ue gas side and for the evaporator circuit have been developed for the purpose of determining material temperatures and heat transfer from the ue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate the circula......Dynamic models for simulating boiler performance have been developed. Models for the ue gas side and for the evaporator circuit have been developed for the purpose of determining material temperatures and heat transfer from the ue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate...

  19. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apollo Tyres LTD, Chalakudy, India for saturated process steam production. The results showed that the heat transfer increased when compared with existing inner plane wall water tubes.

  20. Expert system for assessing risk and prevention of methane explosions in coal mines. Sistema experto para evaluacion del riesgo y la prevencion de explosiones de grisu en minas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The expert system described here was developed by members of AITEMIN as part of a project financed by Ocicarbon, the General Directorate of Mines and MINER Construction. The article begins by asking the question, 'What is an expert system '. 1 tab.

  1. Algunas consideraciones sobre el uso del voto preferencial y sus efectos en los sistemas democráticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zovatto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la pluralidad de sistemas electorales en vigencia, el de voto preferencial —también llamado voto preferente o voto ordinal, con distintas variantes— supone una de las opciones más debatidas por expertos electorales y teóricos políticos. Mientras algunos países donde funcionaba desde hace años lo abandonan, otros analizan la posibilidad de instaurarlo. Sus defensores argumentan que posibilita al elector escoger a quien realmente considera su mejor candidato. Sus detractores sostienen que se debilita la unidad del sistema político, que se encarece el proceso electoral y se genera inequidad en la competencia interna de los partidos, que no mejora la representación, que añade complejidad al acto de elección y que afecta la aplicación de las cuotas de género. Este artículo se suma a la opinión de quienes postulan que el voto preferencial produce más efectos negativos que positivos

  2. Validación mediante método Delphi de un sistema de indicadores para prever, diseñar y medir el impacto sobre el desarrollo local de los proyectos de investigación en el sector agropecuario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Fernández de Castro Fabre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es validar un sistema de indicadores para la previsión, diseño y medición del impacto sobre el desarrollo local de los proyectos de investigación mediante el método Delphi de consulta a expertos, considerado uno de los métodos subjetivos de pronosticación más confiables, al combinar criterios de análisis de base subjetiva con análisis matemático-estadístico de los resultados. Este sistema de indicadores, a partir de una investigación para conocer cómo se realizaba la previsión, el diseño y la medición del impacto de los proyectos sobre el desarrollo local. Este análisis permitió situar las principales deficiencias en este proceso y establecer un sistema de indicadores para estandarizar el proceso y ayudar a la subsanación de sus deficiencias. Para la validación de este sistema de indicadores propuesto se analizaron las cuatro dimensiones utilizadas para medir el impacto: la científica, la económica, la social y la medioambiental. El sistema de indicadores validado por los expertos permite contar con una herramienta a los profesores e investigadores a la hora de diseñar un proyecto, prever determinados aspectos que tenidos en cuenta desde el inicio del proyecto, le ayudarán una vez concluido el mismo a medir el impacto de los resultados obtenidos.

  3. Efectos del sistema de pedaleo no circular Q-Ring sobre el rendimiento en el sprint de la disciplina ciclista BMX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mateo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio ha sido evaluar los efectos de un sistema de plato no circular de desarrollo variable Q-Ring (Q frente a uno convencional (NQ sobre el rendimiento en el sprint ciclista de Bicicleta de Moto Cross (BMX. Catorce deportistas pertenecientes a la Selección Nacional Española han realizado un test de sprint, desde la rampa de salida, en una pista de BMX (3.95 s de duración; orden randomizado y contrabalanceado. El análisis de contraste prueba T para muestras relacionadas no muestra diferencias estadísticamente significativas para las variables Velocidad media (Vmedia y Tiempo en 31m (T31m entre Q y NQ cuando considera al grupo en su conjunto. Sin embargo, al dividir la muestra entre deportistas Expertos y Noveles, encontramos diferencias a favor de Q respecto de NQ entre los Expertos (Vmedia: 5.91±0.03 vs 5.81±0.05 m/s; T31m: 3.21±0.02 vs 3.23±0.02 s; P < 0.05, diferencias que se traducen hasta en 40 cm de ganancia en los 3.95 primeros segundos de carrera. Estos resultados sugieren que el sistema Q mejora el rendimiento en el sprint de la especialidad ciclista BMX siempre que el deportista posea la capacidad de mover adecuadamente su desarrollo.
    Palabras clave: Eficiencia mecánica, plato no circular, pedaleo, rendimiento, sprint, BMX

  4. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Heating boilers shall be designed, constructed, inspected,...

  5. Operator's Manual, Boiler Room Operations and Maintenance. Supplement A, Air Pollution Training Institute Self-Instructional Course SI-466.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Training Inst.

    This Operator's Manual is a supplement to a self-instructional course prepared for the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This publication is the Boiler Room Handbook for operating and maintaining the boiler and the boiler room. As the student completes this handbook, he is putting together a manual for running his own boiler. The…

  6. Control of the Bed Temperature of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler by using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYGUN, H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Circulating fluidized bed boilers are increasingly used in the power generation due to their higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Such boilers require an effective control of the bed temperature, because it influences the boiler combustion efficiency and the rate of harmful emissions. A Particle-Swarm-Optimization-Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PSO-PID controller for the bed temperature of a circulating fluidized bed boiler is presented. In order to prove the capability of the proposed controller, its performances are compared at different boiler loads with those of a Fuzzy Logic (FL controller. The simulation results demonstrate some advantages of the proposed controller.

  7. The real time cascade generalized predictive control and application to a boiler circuit system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Min; Li Shaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    Boiler-circuit system in a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler is a complex and typical industrial process with a large lag and time-delay. Conventional PID algorithm can not obtain satisfied performance, especially in the presence of disturbance. A cascade generalized predictivecontrol (CGPC) strategy, is which the inner loop can restrain the disturbance while the outer loop can eliminate the offset, is proposed in this paper. We develop cascade GPC algorithm instead of conventional PID algorithm in the boiler-circuit system. Simulation on experimental boiler-circuit models of circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler shows strong robustness.

  8. Feasibility of Combustion of Petroleum Coke in 230t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-tai; SONG Zheng-chang; XU Tao

    2003-01-01

    In order to reuse the high sulfur petroleum coke, the waste in chemical industry, as fuel of power plant for energy recovery, the combustion property of petroleum coke was researched experimentally in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The performance of the boiler in burning mixed fuel with different ratios of coal to petroleum coke is obtained. Based on the experimental data, Factors influencing the stability of combustion,thermal efficiency of boiler, and emissions and desulphurisation are discussed. This study demonstrates that the combustion of petroleum coke in CFB boiler is applicable, and has great significance on the design and operation of CFB boiler to burn petroleum coke.

  9. Sistema de coordenadas para AR

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar Cabello, Arnau

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto realiza un estudio sobre las diferentes opciones referentes a la Realidad Aumentada, como primera parte. La Realidad Aumentada es una tecnología que en los últimos años ha experimentado un gran desarrollo. La Realidad Aumentada consiste en sobreponer información virtual con la ya existente realidad física. Como segunda parte, se escoge una de estas opciones, NyARToolkit, y se explica el funcionamiento del sistema de coordenadas basado en marcadores. El sistema basado en marca...

  10. Sistema de salud de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril Montekio; Guadalupe Medina; Rosana Aquino

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Brasil, que está compuesto por un sector público que cubre alrededor de 75% de la población y un creciente sector privado que ofrece atención a la salud al restante 25% de los brasileños. El sector público está constituido por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) y su financiamiento proviene de impuestos generales y contribuciones sociales recaudadas por los tres niveles de gobierno (federal, estatal y municipal). El SUS presta servicios de manera...

  11. Un sistema desconocido pero internacional

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Se presenta en este trabajo un estudio sobre el Sistema Internacional de Unidades (SI) en la etapa de Educación Secundaria (13 a 18 años), cuyo objetivo es comprobar si el alumnado conoce las siete magnitudes y unidades fundamentales, que manejan habitualmente en el aula. A partir del currículum de ciencias se han analizado las posibles causas de las deficiencias encontradas en las magnitudes fundamentales y derivadas. Los resultados muestran que el sistema a pesar de ser inter...

  12. El sistema reticulo-endotelial

    OpenAIRE

    Cuartas L., Carlos J.

    2011-01-01

    Definición.-Este nombre fue dado por Aschoff a una categoríacelular, cuyos elementos se encuentran profusamente distribuídos en la trama de sostén de diferentes órganos y tejidos; esos elementos gozan de características funcionales que justifican su individualización en un sistema celular especial. Muchos son los trabajos de investigación que han puesto de manifiesto las propiedades de este sistema celular, a pesar de su conocimiento relativamente reciente. Gracias a ellos, sabemos que esos e...

  13. Sistema de innovación tecnológica desde la perspectiva del desarrollo endógeno. Reflexión teórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Benavides de Finol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación es identificar los componentes estructurales de un sistema de innovación tecnológica en el marco del desarrollo endógeno (propuesto por el Gobierno de Venezuela que permita, reinterpretar desde una nueva perspectiva el rol de la innovación. La estrategia metódica se centró en la revisión y análisis de la literatura actualizada sobre el tema, de la información proporcionada por expertos calificados y por actores participantes en procesos de innovación tecnológica. El tratamiento de la información recabada se hizo desde la perspectiva teórico-metodológica de sistemas sociales de Luhmann (2007. Las conclusiones se expresan en la definición de los subsistemas propuestos y la explicación del papel que debe jugar cada uno de ellos en el sistema de innovación basado en los principios de desarrollo endógeno. Los cuatro subsistemas son: tejido social, marco institucional, proceso de innovación y el actor social o emprendedor en la empresa, los cuales se dinamizan en los entornos interno y externos y deben ser dinamizados en cada territorio con sus particularidades.

  14. Algunos Hechos Estilizados del Sistema Bancario Peruano

    OpenAIRE

    Espino, Freddy

    2013-01-01

    Estima el tipo de relación que existe entre las principales variables del sistema bancario (colocaciones y depósitos) y las variables macroeconómicas que afectan el desempeño del sistema bancario.

  15. Los sistemas productivos locales en la gestión del desarrollo local en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gloria Madruga-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis en torno a los sistemas productivos locales (SPL de ahora en adelante y su papel en la gestión del desarrollo en Cuba, que favorezca la sistematización del término y un acercamiento a una definición adaptada a las condiciones y características de modelo económico cubano. Se emplearon diferentes métodos, tanto teóricos como empíricos, sostenidos en la visión materialista –dialéctica en el análisis de los procesos abordados, así como la utilización de instrumentos de recopilación de la información y consulta a expertos. Se aporta una definición de SPL para el caso de Cuba, y se demuestra la necesidad del diseño de instrumentos, procedimientos o metodologías que permitan la identificación y formación de SPL en el ámbito nacional, reconociéndose este último como un problema científico aun no resuelto.

  16. Sistema de incendios inalámbrico

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez Muñiz, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Sistema de detección de incendios inalámbrico basado en dispositivos "motes" para la monitorización del estado del sistema, detección y reconocimiento de alarmas. Sistema de detecció d'incendis sense fils basat en dispositius "motes" per a la monitorització de l'estat del sistema, detecció i reconeixement d'alarmes.

  17. A mathematical model for optimized operation and control in a CDQ-Boiler system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Wang; Tao Yang; Zhi Wen; Junxiao Feng; Ning Kong; Qin Wang; Weimin Wang

    2005-01-01

    Based on analyzing the thermal process of a CDQ (coke dry quenching)-Boiler system, the mathematical model for optimized operation and control in the CDQ-Boiler system was developed. It includes a mathematical model for heat transferring process in the CDQ unit, a mathematical model for heat transferring process in the boiler and a combustion model for circulating gas in the CDQ-Boiler system. The model was verified by field data, then a series of simulations under several typical operating conditions of CDQ-Boiler were carried on, and in tum, the online relation formulas between the productivity and the optimal circulating gas, and the one between the productivity and the optimal second air, were achieved respectively. These relation equations have been successfully used in a CDQ-Boiler computer control system in the Baosteel, to realize online optimized guide and control, and meanwhile high efficiency in the CDQ-Boiler system has been achieved.

  18. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  19. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 77.411 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... standards and specifications of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  20. Combustion zone investigation in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers, Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Hvid, Søren Lovmand

    The purpose of the project is to obtain data for full-scale validation of predictive models for combustion and cocombustion of biomass in utility boilers. In addition, focus was on development of innovative optical measuring techniques as a means to increase data quality by fast measurements and ...

  1. Modelling of boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic models for simulating boiler performance have been developed. Models for the flue gas side and for the evaporator circuit have been developed for the purpose of determining material temperatures and heat transfer from the flue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate...

  2. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  3. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.S. Peregudov [Kutateladze Institute of Thermal Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-04-15

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  4. Critical review of kraft recovery boiler air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Callum, C.; Blackwell, B.R.

    1987-10-01

    Combustion air systems offered by major world suppliers of kraft recovery boilers are reviewed. A preliminary mathematical analysis of the air-jet trajectories in the furnace indicated that the conventional air systems leave room for improving the jet penetration into the furnace core. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn;

    2004-01-01

    are adopted to minimize deposit problems at the two boilers. At Masnedø the final superheater steam temperature is 520 °C, no soot blowing of the superheaters is applied and a relatively large superheater area is used. At Ensted, an external wood-fired superheater is used in order to obtain a final steam...... temperature of 542 °C, while the steam exit temperature of the straw-fired boiler is 470 °C. The mature Masnedø deposit had a thickness of 2 to 15 centimeters and consisted of three distinct main layers. The thick intermediate layer was depleted in chlorine but rich in Si, K, and Ca. This Masnedø intermediate......Straw is used as fuel in relatively small-scale combined heat and power producing (CHP) grate boilers in Denmark. The large content of potassium and chlorine in straw greatly increases the deposit formation and corrosion of the superheater coils, compared to boilers firing coal. In this study...

  6. Constrained control of a once-through boiler with recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need to operate power plants at low load for longer periods of time. When a once-through boiler operates at a sufficiently low load, recirculation is introduced, significantly altering the control structure. This paper illustrates the possibilities for using constrained con...

  7. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  8. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  9. The Boiler Room and Beyond: Bridging Standards and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Mini-field trips to the boiler room and bus garage at a South Dakota elementary school increased student interest in their school and community and resulted in increased attendance. Photographs, interviews, and a student-produced book on the trips reinforced student interest and provided the means to integrate the curriculum and incorporate…

  10. Modelling of a one pass smoke tube boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Sørensen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear state-space model with five states describing a one pass smoke tube boiler has been formulated. By means of mass- and energy-balance the model describes the dynamics of the Furnace, the Convection Zone and the Water/Steam Part and the three sub models are merged into an overall model...

  11. El sistema tributario japonés

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyasu Okada

    2002-01-01

    Este documento primeramente trata las tendencias recientes y el estado actual del sistema tributario japonés como antecedentes. Luego resume los impuestos principales y describe el actual sistema. Finalmente trata los incentivos tributarios y los aspectos internacionales del sistema japonés.

  12. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast majority continue well…

  13. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast…

  14. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  15. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  16. Las virtudes del sistema binominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Carey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema único de elecciones legislativas chileno, en el que cada distrito elige a dos representantes (M=2, ha sido objeto de controversia y de propuestas de reforma, ya que fue impuesto por el régimen autoritario saliente en 1990. La mayor parte de ellas aboga por la llamada mayor proporcionalidad. Este ensayo sostiene que, a pesar de sus orígenes no democráticos, el sistema M=2 ha funcionado relativamente bien respecto a los sistemas empleados en muchos otros países. En particular, M=2 en Chile entrega una mezcla adecuada de representatividad, gobernabilidad y responsabilidad individual del legislador. El ensayo considera varias alternativas para la reforma y perfila algunos problemas potenciales que cada una implicaría. Si se reforma el sistema chileno, entonces el autor recomienda que se haga por pasos incrementales, no fundamentales -un aumento moderado en la magnitud de cada distrito-, pero manteniendo las listas abiertas y no haciendo el salto a un sistema mixto de miembros (SMMChile's unique system of legislative elections, in which each district elects two representatives (M=2, has been subject to controversy and a target for reform proposals since it was imposed on the country by the outgoing authoritarian regime in 1990. Most reform advocates call for greater proportionality. This essay argues that, desipte its undemocratic origins, the M=2 system has performed quite well relative to systems used in many other countries. In particular, M=2 in Chile delivers a reasonable mix of representativeness, governability, and individual legislator accountability. The essay goes on to consider various alternatives for reform and outlines some potential problems each would entail. If the Chilean system is to be reformed, the essay recommends incrementalism - a moderate increase in district magnitude, perhaps, but maintaining open lists, and no change to a mixed-member system (MMS

  17. Situación de la educación en medios y la competencia crítica en el mundo actual: opinión de expertos internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los resultados de la encuesta internacional sobre la «Situación de la educación en medios y la competencia crítica en medios en el mundo actual», llevado a cabo por los autores en mayo-julio de 2014. Fueron entrevistados responsables de 64 medios de comunicación, educadores críticos e investigadores en el campo de la educación mediática y la cultura de los medios de comunicación de 18 países: USA, Reino Unido, Canadá, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Alemania, Irlanda, España, Portugal, Suecia, Finlandia, Grecia, Chipre, Hungría, Ucrania, Serbia, Turquía y Rusia. El análisis global de los datos muestra que la comunidad internacional de expertos comparte la convicción de que la situación de la educación en medios y la competencia crítica no es únicamente posible sino también necesaria, sobre todo en términos del desarrollo del pensamiento crítico de la audiencia. Sin embargo, solamente el 9,4% de los expertos en general cree que se utilizan los textos críticos de los medios en las clases de alfabetización mediática en sus respectivos países. Aproximadamente un tercio (34,4% de los expertos encuestados creen que esto está sucediendo en un nivel aceptable y un porcentaje similar (32,8% de las respuestas considera que ocurre en una mínima parte. En consecuencia, habrá mucho trabajo que hacer para que la educación en medios y su análisis crítico consiga su implementación eficaz en el mundo actual.

  18. Sistemas operativos distribuídos

    OpenAIRE

    Bastidas C., Jose Fernando; Carrillo Guzmán, Herbert; Cifuentes C., David Eduardo; Serrano B., María Fernanda; Vargas Cabas, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Desde hace algunos años el uso de los computadores ha cambiado enormemente, debido a la transición, desde los sistemas centralizados que constan de un único CPU, sus periféricos de memoria y algunas terminales, hacia sistemas de cómputo compuestos por un gran número de CPUs, conectados mediante una red de alta velocidad, conocidos como Sistemas Distribuidos. Aunque los sistemas operativos necesarios para estos Sistemas Distribuidos están apenas en etapa de sur...

  19. La mudable suerte del amerindio en el imaginario uruguayo: su lugar en las narrativas de la nación de los siglos XIX y XX y su relación con los saberes expertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Verdesio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un intento de repensar el papel de los saberes expertos o disciplinas (en especial la historia y la arqueologia en la construccion de la nacionalidad uruguaya a traves de narrrativas de la nacion. Se busca, sobre todo, ver que lugar le corresponde al indigena en dichas narrativas. Al final del trabajo se propone un papel mas activo para la arqueologia actual, a fin de que cumpla una funcion antitetica a la que ha venido cumpliendo a lo largo de los siglos XIX y XI. Es decir, se propone un rol descolonizador para dicha disciplina.

  20. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts.

  1. Applied studies in advanced boiler technology for Rankine cycle power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, F.W.; Negreanu, M.J.

    1978-02-01

    A study is presented on a new rotational boiler design which has improved passive dynamic response and two-phase flow stability characteristics. A survey of small boiler manufacturers in the United States indicated that currently available designs are based on steady-state operating requirements rather than for dynamic performance. Recent work by EPA and ERDA which addressed boiler designs for mobile automotive Rankine cycle power systems showed that boilers of a monotube or multipass tube configuration design could be developed which were physically compact, but still were subject to the two-phase flow instability problem when coupled within an operating power system. The objectives of this work were to evaluate alternative boiler configurations which would improve boiler dynamic response and also have good two-phase liquid-vapor interface flow stability. The major physical design limitation of any boiler is the small external hot gas heat transfer coefficient. Such a low coefficient requires considerable design enhancements to increase the rate of energy transfer to the circulation system fluid. The rotational boiler is a physical design configuration which addresses this problem. The results of an analytic study using several mathematical model formulations showed that a rotational boiler could have a passive response time constant which was approximately one-half the magnitude for an equivalent single pass monotube boiler. An experimental prototype rotational boiler was designed, manufactured and tested, with the experimental results confirming that the experimental passive response time constants were comparable to the estimates from the analytic models. The experimental boiler operating in two-phase flow was found to be stable and responsive to external inputs. A rotational boiler configuration is a good alternative design configuration for small compact vapor generator designs based on fast transient passive response and two-phase flow stability.

  2. Introducción al estudio de los sistemas económicos

    OpenAIRE

    García Nossa, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Interdependencia de los sistemas; Coexistencia de los sistemas; Sucesión y coexistencia; Sistemas históricos y sistemas geopolíticos; Factores cuantitativos y cualitativos de los sistemas; Principios generales de los sistemas.

  3. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  4. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  5. Nociones del Sistema Tributario Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froylán Balderas Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente información se encamina a interiorizar al lector en el tema fiscal con palabras sencillas, describiendo en forma sucinta los antecedentes de los tributos, hasta llegar y describir el sistema impositivo actual mexicano, y de ahí estudiar en forma específica el impuesto que tiene más relevancia por la cantidad que se recauda siendo el Impuesto Sobre la Renta.

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BOILERS (80 AND 40 TPH AND 21MW STEAM TURBINE OF COGEN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.TAWARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study is conducted at The Malegaon Sugar Mills, Baramati, and District Pune. Data is collected for a high pressure 80 TPH & 40TPH bagasse fired boiler. The boilers are natural circulation and bi-drum water tube type. The both boilers are equipped with super heater, air heater and economizer in order to utilize maximum available heat of flue gases. Boiler efficiency is calculated by indirect method. Also plant has 21 MW cogeneration capacity, with two turbines are installed with capacity 14MW (Back Pressure Type & 7MW (Extraction Cum Condensing Type. From the heat input given to turbines per unit of electricity generated, the turbine heat rate is calculated. Different instruments and devices are used to record the different parameters of both boilers & turbines. Steam produced per ton of bagasse is being found out for both boilers.

  7. Boiler: lossy compression of RNA-seq alignments using coverage vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jacob; Langmead, Ben

    2016-09-19

    We describe Boiler, a new software tool for compressing and querying large collections of RNA-seq alignments. Boiler discards most per-read data, keeping only a genomic coverage vector plus a few empirical distributions summarizing the alignments. Since most per-read data is discarded, storage footprint is often much smaller than that achieved by other compression tools. Despite this, the most relevant per-read data can be recovered; we show that Boiler compression has only a slight negative impact on results given by downstream tools for isoform assembly and quantification. Boiler also allows the user to pose fast and useful queries without decompressing the entire file. Boiler is free open source software available from github.com/jpritt/boiler.

  8. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.K.; Melick, T.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, was awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry (CWS) firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler was successfully operated on coal-water slurry for 800 hours. A boiler derate of 20 percent was necessary for successful operation with slurry accounting 62 percent of the total heat input with the balance provided by natural gas. Under these boiler conditions, the carbon conversion was 90 percent. Further data evaluation, a market analysis, and final report preparation remain to be completed.

  9. El experto alimentario y los medios de comunicación: las crisis alimentarias en España (EEB 2001 frente a la tranquilidad alimentaria (2007 Food expert and mass media: food crises (BBE 2001- tranquillity food (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Navas López

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo utilizo el enfoque antropológico para analizar conceptos tan importantes en salud pública como la percepción de la seguridad/inseguridad alimentaria. Aplico esta ciencia social para analizar la figura del experto en los medios de comunicación durante los momentos de tranquilidad y de crisis alimentaria. En primer lugar, cuantifico y reflexiono sobre las noticias aparecidas en diarios nacionales y regionales de España en dos períodos diferentes: durante la crisis de la EEB y durante un momento considerado como de tranquilidad alimentaria (2007. En segundo lugar, analizo paralelamente a la cuantificación, la percepción del experto alimentario frente a los medios de comunicación en estas dos situaciones a través de una metodología cualitativa. This article uses the anthropological approach to analyse such important concepts in public health as the perception of food security. We analyse to expert-mass media. First, quantify and reflect on the news appeared in national and regional newspapers in Spain in two different periods:the BSE crisis(2000-2002 and “food tranquillity”(2007. Secondly, we analysed the perception of food expert through a qualitative methodology.

  10. Software evaluación de expertos por el método Delphy para el pronóstico de la investigación agrícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idaris Gómez Ravelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consiste en la automatización del Método Delphy, el cual es considerado uno de los métodos subjetivos de predecir más confiables, constituye un procedimiento para confeccionar un cuadro de la evolución de situaciones complejas, a través de la elaboración estadística de las opiniones de expertos en el tema tratado. El mismo permite rebasar el marco de las condicionantes actuales más señaladas de un fenómeno y alcanzar una imagen integral y más amplia de su posible evolución, reflejando las valoraciones individuales de los expertos, las cuales podrán estar fundamentadas, tanto en un análisis estrictamente lógico como en su experiencia intuitiva. Este programa ha sido utilizado evaluación del impacto de la gestión tecnológica del cultivo del arroz, en el Sector Cooperativo y Campesino.

  11. Bubbling fluidized bed boiler for Vanaja power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormunen, R.; Haermae, P.; Vessonen, K.; Ketomaeki, A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    At the Vanaja Power Plant, on the outskirts of Haemeenlinna, there have been changes which reflect the central goals in IVO`s product development work. At Vanaja, efficiency is combined with environmental friendliness. In the early 1980s, the plant was modernized to produce district heat in addition to electricity. At that time, along with the new gas turbine at the plant, the main fuel, coal, while remaining the fuel for the old boilers, was replaced by natural gas. This year a new type of bubbling fluidized bed boiler enabling continuous use of peat and trial use of biofuels along with coal was introduced at the plant. In addition to the Nordic countries, this kind of technology is required in central eastern Europe, where modernization of ageing power plants is being planned to achieve the best possible solutions in respect of production and the environment. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites

  12. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  13. INCREASING OF PRECISE ESTIMATION OF OPTIMAL CRITERIA BOILER FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Skakovsk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of laboratory and industrial research allowed offering a way to improve the accuracy of estimation the optimal criterion of boilers' operation depending on fuel quality. Criterion is calculated continuously during boiler operation as heat ratio transmitted in production with superheated steam to the thermal energy obtained by combustion in boiler’s furnace fuel (natural gas .The non-linearity dependence of steam enthalpy from its temperature and pressure are considered when calculating, as well as changes in calorific value of natural gas, depending on variety in nitrogen content therein. The control algorithm and program for Ukrainian PLC MIC-52 are offered. The user selection program implements two searching modes for criterion maximum: automated and automatic. The results are going to be used for upgrading the existing control system on sugar factory.

  14. Shape optimization of a thick-walled power boiler component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and successful application of structural optimization of a T-pipe under transient thermal and mechanical loads. In order to find the optimal shape of a thick-walled power boiler component, a parametric FE model and the evolutionary algorithm (EA are applied. The power boiler start-up and shutdown curves are based on the TRD 301 guidelines. Maximum total stresses are assumed as optimization constraints. The obtained geometry is by about 18.6% lighter than the original one due to thinning of the walls. Maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the modified geometry are smaller than in the original one during the whole cycle. Additionally, lower total stress values are recorded during heating and cooling processes. Therefore, these transient processes can be accelerated and the shutdown and start-up losses can be reduced.

  15. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  16. A method for exergy analysis of sugar cane bagasse boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, L.A.B.; Gomez, E.O. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola

    1998-03-01

    This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1 st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.; e-mail: cortez at agr.unicamp.br

  17. Determination of Loading Capacity of a Direct Solar Boiler Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ikem; D. Osim-Asu; O.E. Nyong; S.A. Takim

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of solar boiler natural convection dryer used for drying agricultural products was employed to dry restaurant wastes. Practical steps were taken to determine the loading capacity of the dryer. Replicas of the dryer (dimensions and materials) were selected and employed but with varying loads. This dryer is made up of glass flat-plate collector which serves as the drying chamber cover. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points...

  18. Tuning of PID controllers for boiler-turbine units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen; Liu, Jizhen; Fang, Fang; Chen, Yanqiao

    2004-10-01

    A simple two-by-two model for a boiler-turbine unit is demonstrated in this paper. The model can capture the essential dynamics of a unit. The design of a coordinated controller is discussed based on this model. A PID control structure is derived, and a tuning procedure is proposed. The examples show that the method is easy to apply and can achieve acceptable performance.

  19. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Carlini; Sonia Castellucci; Silvia Cocchi; Elena Allegrini; Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with th...

  20. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  1. Research on Marine Boiler's Pressurized Combustion and Heat Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingjian MING; Renqiu JIANG; Yanjun LI; Baozhi SUN

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pressure on combustion and heat transfer is analyzed. The research is based on the basic combustion and heat transfer theorem. A correction for the heat calculation method for pressurized furnace is made on the basis of the normal pressure case. The correction takes the effect of pressurizing into account. The results show that the correction is reasonable and the method is applicable to combustion and heat transfer of the marine supercharged boiler.

  2. A review on biomass as a fuel for boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Abelaziz, E.A.; Demirbas, A.; Hossain, M.S.; Mekhilef, S. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    Currently, fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas represent the prime energy sources in the world. However, it is anticipated that these sources of energy will deplete within the next 40-50 years. Moreover, the expected environmental damages such as the global warming, acid rain and urban smog due to the production of emissions from these sources have tempted the world to try to reduce carbon emissions by 80% and shift towards utilizing a variety of renewable energy resources (RES) which are less environmentally harmful such as solar, wind, biomass etc. in a sustainable way. Biomass is one of the earliest sources of energy with very specific properties. In this review, several aspects which are associated with burning biomass in boilers have been investigated such as composition of biomass, estimating the higher heating value of biomass, comparison between biomass and other fuels, combustion of biomass, co-firing of biomass and coal, impacts of biomass, economic and social analysis of biomass, transportation of biomass, densification of biomass, problems of biomass and future of biomass. It has been found that utilizing biomass in boilers offers many economical, social and environmental benefits such as financial net saving, conservation of fossil fuel resources, job opportunities creation and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions reduction. However, care should be taken to other environmental impacts of biomass such as land and water resources, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and deforestation. Fouling, marketing, low heating value, storage and collections and handling are all associated problems when burning biomass in boilers. The future of biomass in boilers depends upon the development of the markets for fossil fuels and on policy decisions regarding the biomass market.

  3. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM BOILER OF LARGE-SCALE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Prateep Pattanapunt; Kanokorn Hussaro; Tika Bunnakand; Sombat Teekasap

    2013-01-01

    Many industrial heating processes generate waste energy in textile industry; especially exhaust gas from the boiler at the same time reducing global warming. Therefore, this article will present a study the way to recovery heat waste from boiler exhaust gas by mean of shell and tube heat exchanger. Exhaust gas from boiler dyeing process, which carries a large amount of heat, energy consumptions could be decrease by using of waste-heat recovery systems. In this study, using ANASYS simulation p...

  4. A review: Fly ash and deposit formation in PF fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Wu, Hao;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based heat and power production in several countries. This has included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw and the use of additives to remedy problems with biomass firing. In parallel...... in biomass suspension fired boilers is provided. Furthermore the influence of co-firing and use of additives on ash chemistry, deposit properties and boiler operation is discussed....

  5. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented me...

  6. Research on Fuzzy Diagnosis Method of Boiler Steam and Water Pipe Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianglei; Wang, Yan

    Diagnosis pipe leakage timely and accurately is of great significance for safe and economic operation for boilers. According to the characteristics of the failure of boiler, this paper gives new function to describe fault symptoms and puts forward a new method of fault fuzzy recognition. Through simulation experiment, the new method was validated and compared with the existing fault diagnosis methods. The simulation results show that the new method for boiler failure recognition has high accuracy, and is better than other methods.

  7. An optimization model for the operations of steam production in industrial boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco,Cleber Damião; Morabito, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a mixed integer linear programming model is presented to support some of the key decisions in the steam production system with industrial boilers. The model approaches the fuel management decisions (fuel replenishment and its inventory control), boiler operational decisions (start-up, warm-up, and shutdown operations), and which boiler should produce steam. The model adjustments and its validation were carried out through a case study in a large food industry. In face of the go...

  8. Analisa Efisiensi Water Tube Boiler Berbahan Bakar Fiber, Cangkang Sawit dan Kulit Kayu Menggunakan Metode Langsung

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Dosma Putra Lumban

    2016-01-01

    Some of the factors that affect the efficiency of the boiler is a superheater pressure, water feed temperature, steam temperature, the amount of steam produced, the amount of fuel consumption and calorific value fuel combustion. Steamtab chemicallogic use companion software to calculate the value of enthalpy. The aim of this study is to get relations variations in pressure superheater with boiler efficiency, the relationship of variation of temperature feed water to the boiler efficiency, the...

  9. Energy Analysis of Baby Boiler for Steaming of Raw Cashew Nut Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Mohod; Y. P. Khandetod; S. H. Sengar; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The steaming of raw cashew seeds prior to shelling is adopted widely in small-scale cashew nut processing mills with the help of baby boiler. The wide variations in energy intensity of these mills reveal the scope for energy conservation. The baby boiler coupled with cooker commonly used for steaming of raw seeds was evaluated. The variation in steam pressure, temperature and operating time with respect to fuel was observed along with thermal efficiency of a boiler. The energy intensity to pr...

  10. STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF A STEAM BOILER BENSON ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racoceanu Cristinel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on the influence of the energy efficiency of a steam boiler of 330 MW energy group on the environment. The Benson boiler works with powdered lignite. We present the results of experimental measurements on immission and emissions of pollutants resulting from burning lignite: SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2,5, TSP. Experimental measurements were performed on the boilers of 330MW power units of the thermoelectric plant of Rovinari.

  11. Pulverized-coal-firing small-size boiler for coal-cartridge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. supplied a test boiler plant to the Iwakuni Experimental Station of the Coal Cartridge System (CCS) Promotion Association in September 1985; this was the first pulverized-coal-fired small industrial boiler in Japan. Tests will be performed for two years, until fiscal 1987, at the CCS Iwakuni Experimental Station to establish a method of coal-firing with a performance comparable to heavy oil firing. The boiler plant has been operating satisfactorily.

  12. The environmental impact of orimulsion combustion in large utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    There is considerable worldwide interest in the practical use of Orimulsion as a replacement fuel in both oil and coal fired utility boilers. Practical experience of such applications has been gained in Canada, UK, Japan, Europe and USA. Fundamental work has demonstrated the different combustion characteristics of Orimulsion which has been termed the {open_quotes}fourth{close_quotes} fossil fuel to the fossil fuels normally used for power generation and how, in certain circumstances, these can be used to advantage in the application of Orimulsion in utility boiler combustion systems. Orimulsion is an emulsify ed fuel prepared from naturally occurring bitumen deposits located in the Orinoco Basin in Venezuela and comprises approximately 70% bitumen and 30% water. Compared to the heavier fuel oils the sulphur content of Orimulsion is medium to high, the ash content is high with high levels of Vanadium and Nickel. The ash content is enhanced by the addition of Magnesium compounds, to the commercial fuel, to mitigate against the potential in boiler corrosion effects arising form the Va, Na and S content in the fuel.

  13. Particle Formation in Moving Grate Boilers Fired with Wood Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Bioenergy Technology; Pagels, Joalum; Szpila, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Swietlicki, Erik [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics

    2005-07-01

    In this work the size resolved elemental particle concentration from five district heating moving grate boilers operating on different woody biofuels have been analysed in order to investigate the general formation mechanism in this kind of boiler. Aerosol particles were characterised in the five boilers operating on forest residues, pellets, or saw dust. The aerosol particles were sampled downstream of the multicyclone using a dilution system in order to decrease temperature and humidity. The proposed mechanism for formation of the fine mode is homogenous chemical reactions to form potassium sulphate, which nucleates to form the fine particle mode at high temperatures. The concentration profile of zinc indicates that zinc-containing species in some cases may form particles by gas-to particle conversion prior to the nucleation of potassium sulphate. As the flue gas temperature decrease below 650 C potassium chloride will condense on the surfaces of the previously formed particles. The proposed mechanism for inception of the coarse particle mode was fragmentation/dispersion of refractory material from the burning char or from the residual ash in the bed. The ratios of the potentially volatile elements potassium, sulphur and chlorine, were similar in the fine and the coarse mode, indicating the material had the same origin in both modes. The presence of the volatile components may be explained by non-complete vaporisation, chemical surface reactions, re-entrainment of deposited particles, and coagulation with the fine particle mode.

  14. Influence of boiler load on water tubes burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, S.A.M.; Habib, M.A.; Badr, H.M.; Mansour, R. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The influence of boiler loads on water tube burnout was investigated. The in-service boiler had 2 burners at different levels located in the front of the burner's wall. Homogenous-flow and separated-flow models were designed to simulate the water circulation and combustion processes inside the boiler tubes. Heat flux calculations were derived by solving the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations and species concentration as well as by solving turbulence, reaction rate, and radiation model equations. Results of the study showed that heat flux during full loads ranged from close to 0 to 270 kW/m2. The right side screen wall of the burner exhibited higher heat flux values in the middle region of the wall where large areas were subjected to heat flux close to a maximum of 270 kW/m2. Results also included reductions in heat flux values at partial loads. Maximum values were reduced from 270 kW/m2 ato 230 kW/m2 at 75 per cent capacity and 200 kW/m2 at 60 per cent capacity. The rate of steam generation increased from 0.1 kg/s to 0.153 kg/s when the distance from the burner wall increased from 2 meters to 12 meters. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  15. La reforma del sistema electoral chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rubano Lapasta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La modificación del sistema electoral público chileno se ha transformado nuevamente en tema de debate público, después de la Reforma Constitucional de 2005. El Gobierno ha propuesto reformar el sistema electoral, sustituirlo por otro que permita a las minorías tener representación en el Congreso. Se abordan brevemente los sistemas electorales en el derecho comparado, en especial el caso chileno, evaluando las ventajas y desventajas del sistema electoral nacional. Se propone recurrir al mecanismo de primarias a fin de elegir a los candidatos. Se concluye que no hay ningún sistema ideal, importa más las características del sistema político y no tanto el método electoral con el cual se eligen a los representantes.

  16. Efficiency of Small Scale Manually Fed Boilers —Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Savin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews test results for a biomass-fired hot water boiler with a nominal boiler thermal power of 120 kW. In the experiments, prismatic wheat straw bales were used as biomass. The impact of the quantity (220, 290, 360 and 430 m3 h−1 of inlet air fed to the boiler firebox was continuously monitored. This was to examine the influence of the quantity of inlet air and recirculation (0, 16.5 and 33% of combustion products on the boiler thermal power and boiler energy efficiency. Thus, the following mathematical models and formulas were presented: correlation between boiler thermal power and bale residence time; bale mass loss during the combustion process; correlation between boiler energy efficiency and bale residence time. Mathematical models were obtained by using experimental data and by applying nonlinear regression analysis. Adjustment evaluation of mathematical models with experimental data was performed based on the determination coefficient, t-test and F-test. Increase the amount of air throughout the firebox produced boiler thermal power increase and bale residence time decrease. It was shown that combustion products recirculation of 16.5% partly improved boiler characteristics, while the recirculation of 33% did not, comparing with the case without recirculation.

  17. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  18. On-line monitoring and control of furnace wall corrosion in pf-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, D.M.; Robbins, B.J.; Sikka, P.; Seaman, M. [Rowan Technologies Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-15

    Corrosion, fouling and sometimes failure of heat exchanger tubing that makes up the boiler walls is a major obstacle to minimising boiler downtime. Rowan Technologies Ltd., has been developing corrosion scanners to enable the condition of these heat exchanger tubes to be assessed online. These scanners are able to monitor fireside corrosion over entire boiler walls and whilst the boiler is operational. This paper describes how the scanner systems can be used to monitor this corrosion and how the corrosion can be subsequently controlled. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Model prediction of the operating behavior of a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤辉; 骆仲泱; 倪明江; 岑可法

    2002-01-01

    An improved mathematical model for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler based on the model developed earlier by the authors was applied to simulate the operation of a 12 MW CFB boiler. The influences of the excess air ratio, primary air ratio, coal particle size distribution, coal properties (ash content and volatile content) and Ca/S ratio on the boiler operation were analyzed. The results showed that the model simulation may be applied to the optimum design and economic operation of the CFB boiler.

  20. Model prediction of the operating behavior of a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤辉; 骆仲泱; 倪明江; 岑可法

    2002-01-01

    An improved mathematical model for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler baaed on the model developed earlier by the authors was applied to simulate the operation of a 12 MW CFB boiler.The influences of the excess air ratio, primary air ratio, coal particle size distribution, coal properties (ash content and volatile content) and Ca/S ratio on the boiler operation were analyzed. The results showed that the model simulation may be applied to the optimum design and economic operation of the CFB boiler.

  1. Design of Boiler Welding for Improvement of Lifetime and Cost Control

    OpenAIRE

    Atcharawadi Thong-On; Chatdanai Boonruang

    2016-01-01

    Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure. The cost of material used for steam tube and header of boiler should be controlled. This study propose a new materials design for boiler welding to improve the lifetime and cost control, using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of F...

  2. Efficiency of Small Scale Manually Fed Boilers —Mathematical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar Savin; Milan Tomic; Ondrej Ponjican; Nebojsa Dedovic; Snezana Matic-Kekic; Todor Janic; Sasa Igic

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews test results for a biomass-fired hot water boiler with a nominal boiler thermal power of 120 kW. In the experiments, prismatic wheat straw bales were used as biomass. The impact of the quantity (220, 290, 360 and 430 m3 h−1) of inlet air fed to the boiler firebox was continuously monitored. This was to examine the influence of the quantity of inlet air and recirculation (0, 16.5 and 33%) of combustion products on the boiler ther...

  3. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented method allows to the operation of steam boiler with high efficiency.

  4. Superheater corrosion in kraft recovery boilers; Korrosion hos oeverhettare i sodapannor. En oeversikt och diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, F. [AaF-IPK, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion seems to be the most essential factor limiting the life and the availability of kraft recovery boilers. The steam temperature from the kraft recovery boiler has, seen from the view of electricity production and steam turbine operation, traditionally been kept moderate, especially in comparison with steam data from normal utility power plants. So the corrosion of the superheaters has been more a limitation for the temperature of the steam produced by the boiler than a life length limitation. Both the pressure and the temperature of the steam are limited by corrosion. The temperature of the boiling water, and hence the pressure, is limited by the corrosion in the lower furnace. The temperature of the steam is limited by the corrosion in the superheater. Kraft boiler superheater corrosion is here governed not only by the boiler design, but more by the mill chemistry and boiler operation practice. This report discusses the formation and the properties of the deposits and their relation to boiler operation and the corrosion of the superheater tube material. We have tried to understand the corrosion in the kraft boiler superheaters better by comparing with the experience from the utility boilers. 86 refs, 79 figs

  5. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on

  6. Modelo de sistemas tutores inteligentes multiagente

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Alejandro; Vallejos, Félix Anibal; Jiménez Rey, Elizabeth Miriam; Grossi, María Delia; Servetto, Arturo Carlos; Perichinsky, Gregorio

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta una línea de investigación del Proyecto de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de Buenos Aires I015: Manufactura Integrada por Computadora en Sistemas Complejos para el Desarrollo Social, Industrial y de Tecnología. Se introduce conceptos básicos de los campos en los que incursiona esta línea de investigación: Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes (STI) y Sistemas Multiagentes (SMA). Se describe los aspectos esenciales que se deben considerar en el modelado de un sistema ...

  7. Nickel-chromium plasma spray coatings: A way to enhance degradation resistance of boiler tube steels in boiler environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S.

    2006-03-15

    Boiler tube steels, namely low carbon steel ASTM-SA210-Grade A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22), were used as substrate steels. Ni-22Cr-10AI-1Y powder was sprayed as a bond coat 150 {mu}m thick before a 200 {mu}m final coating of Ni-20Cr was applied. Coatings were characterized prior to testing in the environment of a coal fired boiler. The uncoated and coated steels were inserted in the platen superheater zone of a coal fired boiler at around 755{sup o}C for 10 cycles, each 100 h. Coated steels showed lower degradation (erosion-corrosion) rate than uncoated steels showed. The lowest rate was observed in the case of Ni-20Cr coated T11 steel. Among the uncoated steels, the observed rate of degradation was the lowest for the T22 steel.

  8. Nickel-chromium plasma spray coatings: A way to enhance degradation resistance of boiler tube steels in boiler environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-03-01

    Boiler tube steels, namely low carbon steel ASTM-SA-210-Grades A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-22(T22), were used as substrate steels. Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y powder was sprayed as a bond coat 150 μm thick before a 200 μm final coating of Ni-20Cr was applied Coatings were characterized prior to testing in the environment of a coal fire boiler. The uncoated and coated steels were inserted in the platen superheater zone of a coal fired boiler at around 755°C for 10 cycles, each 100 h. Coated steels showed lower degradation (erosion-corrosion) rate than uncoated steels showed. The lowest rate was observed in the case of Ni-20Cr coated T11 steel. Among the uncoated steels, the observed rate of degradation was the lowest for the T22 steel.

  9. Ash particle erosion on steam boiler convective section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuronen, V.

    1997-12-31

    In this study, equations for the calculation of erosion wear caused by ash particles on convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers are presented. A new, three-dimensional test arrangement was used in the testing of the erosion wear of convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers. When using the sleeve-method, three different tube materials and three tube constructions could be tested. New results were obtained from the analyses. The main mechanisms of erosion wear phenomena and erosion wear as a function of collision conditions and material properties have been studied. Properties of fossil fuels have also been presented. When burning solid fuels, such as pulverized coal and peat in steam boilers, most of the ash is entrained by the flue gas in the furnace. In bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers, particle concentration in the flue gas is high because of bed material entrained in the flue gas. Hard particles, such as sharp edged quartz crystals, cause erosion wear when colliding on convective heat exchanger tubes and on the rear wall of the steam boiler. The most important ways to reduce erosion wear in steam boilers is to keep the velocity of the flue gas moderate and prevent channelling of the ash flow in a certain part of the cross section of the flue gas channel, especially near the back wall. One can do this by constructing the boiler with the following components. Screen plates can be used to make the velocity and ash flow distributions more even at the cross-section of the channel. Shield plates and plate type constructions in superheaters can also be used. Erosion testing was conducted with three types of tube constructions: a one tube row, an in- line tube bank with six tube rows, and a staggered tube bark with six tube rows. Three flow velocities and two particle concentrations were used in the tests, which were carried out at room temperature. Three particle materials were used: quartz, coal ash and peat ash particles. Mass loss

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  11. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  12. Integración de un sistema de neuroseñales para detectar expresiones en el análisis de material multimedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Moreno-Cueva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los avances realizados en la integración de un dispositivo comercial de bajo costo para capturar neuroseñales, con el fin de registrar expresiones de un usuario de material multimedia. Todas las personas adoptan diversos tipos de expresiones al ver televisión, películas, comerciales u otros textos. Ejemplos de estas expresiones son: apretar los dientes en escenas de suspenso; mover la cabeza hacia atrás cuando se da la sensación de arrojar un objeto hacia fuera de la pantalla en películas 3D; desviar la mirada en las escenas de terror; sonreír en comerciales emotivos; dar carcajadas en escenas de humor, e incluso quedarse dormido por el desinterés. La idea general de este sistema es capturar todas estas expresiones en conjunto, con señales emotivas tales como el nivel de atención, frustración y meditación, para que los expertos en creación del material multimedia puedan realizar un análisis y mejorar sus productos. Se presentan pruebas experimentales que evidencian el buen funcionamiento del sistema.

  13. La evaluación de las políticas municipales de juventud a partir de un sistema de indicadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Soler-Masó, España

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico:En este artículo presentamos un sistema de indicadores (SIAPJove para evaluar políticas municipales de juventud. El sistema ha sido creado y validado por un grupo de individuos expertos y se ha aplicado en tres municipios de Cataluña en el Estado Español, en forma de estudio de caso para comprobar su aplicabilidad y eficacia. El resultado es un instrumento con 12 ámbitos de evaluación, 32 objetivos de evaluación y 83 indicadores. Permite evaluar la situación de dichas políticas, hacer evidentes las tendencias y los cambios, valorar su nivel de eficacia y contribuir a establecer objetivos a corto y medio plazo. Asimismo, se puede utilizar como herramienta para la autoevaluación, para reflexionar sobre la propia acción y aprender de los errores y las dificultades en el desarrollo de las políticas municipales de juventud.

  14. Sistemas residenciales: conceptos y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franu00E7oise Dureau

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Luego de volver sobre los orígenes de la noción de sistema residencial familiar en la investigación sobre África y América Latina, el artículo expone las técnicas de recolección desarrolladas en dos encuestas colombianas. El análisis de la morfología espacial de los sistemas residenciales familiares de los Bogotanos pone en evidencia las prácticas pluri-locales de la población, las movilidades que las subtienden y la importancia de la localización en las escogencias residenciales. Con este enfoque, el análisis de las prácticas residenciales se desplaza de la vivienda hacia el acceso a los recursos urbanos localizados: los relacionados con el entorno natural, los producidos por los actores políticos y económicos, pero también aquellos construidos por las prácticas sociales de los habitantes. De esta manera, lo que se propone aquí es una renovación de la lectura de las dinámicas espaciales en términos de territorios y un reconocimiento del habitante como actor pleno de la producción de nuevas configuraciones urbanas.

  15. Providing Boiler Inspections at US Army Installations: How to Perform Internal/Operational, Efficiency, and Emissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    following manner: 1. To secure the boiler , the steam header valve is closed. At this time, the boiler is allowed time to cool down to prevent injury to...Fuel Train and the Burner, and that the steam and water lines are directly connected to the unit. 2. Perform an external inspection of the boiler ...including visual inspec- tion of the fuel train, vent piping, safety relief valves and discharge pip- ing, steam and water piping and the boiler

  16. Los Sistemas tecnológicos Concretos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Usando un enfoque sistémico, se estudian cierto tipo de subsistemas sociales que caracterizan a la sociedad contemporánea. Específicamente se definen aquellos tecnosistemas que realizan el diseño y la ejecución de artefactos y/o sistemas artificiales, los que se denominarán sistemas tecnológicos.

  17. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM OF BOILER USED IN READYMADE GARMENT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Agnihotri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the reliability analysis of a system of boiler used in garment industry.The system consists of a single unit of boiler which plays an important role in garment industry. Usingregenerative point technique with Markov renewal process various reliability characteristics of interest areobtained.

  18. Flexibility of a 300 MW Arch Firing Boiler Burning Low Quality Coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the flexibility of a 300 MW Arch Firing (AF) coal-fired boiler when burning low quality coals is reported.Measurements of gas temperature and species concentration and char sampling using a water-cooled suction pyrometer were carried out along the furnace elevation.The carbon content and the size distributions of the char samples were obtained.The char morphology was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).The char sampling was performed on this type of boiler for the first time.The results indicate that the flexibility of this boiler burning low quality coals under a moderate boiler load is better than its flexibility under a high boiler load.Because of the insufficient capacity of the coal pulverizers used, in case of low coal quality the pulverized coal fineness will drastically decrease under high boiler loads.This causes an increase in the loss due to incomplete mechanical and chemical combustion.This is the main cause of a low burnout degree of the pulverized coal and the decrease of the flexibility of this AF boiler under a high boiler load.

  19. Optimal Switching Control of Burner Setting for a Compact Marine Boiler Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Maciejowski, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses optimal control strategies for switching between different burner modes in a novel compact  marine boiler design. The ideal behaviour is defined in a performance index the minimisation of which defines an ideal trade-off between deviations in boiler pressure and water level...

  20. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...

  1. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  2. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

  3. 40 CFR 260.32 - Variances to be classified as a boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Variances to be classified as a boiler... be classified as a boiler. In accordance with the standards and criteria in § 260.10 (definition of “boiler”), and the procedures in § 260.33, the Administrator may determine on a case-by-case basis...

  4. Studying flame combustion of coal-water slurries in the furnaces of power-generating boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osintsev, K. V.

    2012-06-01

    Matters concerned with organizing combustion of different types of coal-water slurries in coalfired boilers at thermal power stations are considered. Recommendations for improving the economic and environmental indicators and for achieving more reliable operation of furnace devices and boiler as a whole are given.

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... which have a capacity not greater than 454 liters (120 U.S. gallons) must have a current carrying... current carrying capacity of not less than 100 percent of the current rating of the appliance. Wiring... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  6. 75 FR 65023 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Heating Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Heating Boilers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of certain heating... country of origin of the heating boilers for purposes of U.S. Government procurement. DATES: The...

  7. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7506 - Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements? 63.7506 Section 63.7506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... or process heaters have limited requirements? (a) New or reconstructed boilers and process heaters...

  9. RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) Utilization in a Navy Oil-Fired Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Norfold, Va. Two Foster -Wheeler, 75 MBtu/hr. boilers 7.4 Economic Evaluation. Of the 30 active boilers listed with a rated capacity of 50 MBtu/hr. or...reduce the total net present costs to annual capital cost recovery charges. The cost of displaced oil ( Costo ) x DF /DF - the cost of RDF DO 0 N (CostRD

  10. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL. 35.25-1 Section 35.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the...

  11. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school ship to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly, and if he finds any...

  12. Boiler materials for ultra supercritical coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries of Ohio, Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Ganta, Reddy [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Weitzel, Paul [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Sarver, Jeff [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Vitalis, Brian [Riley Power Inc., Worchester, WA (United States); Gagliano, Michael [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Stanko, Greg [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Tortorelli, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have undertaken a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). A limiting factor to achieving these higher temperatures and pressures for future A-USC plants are the materials of construction. The goal of this project is to assess/develop materials technology to build and operate an A-USC boiler capable of delivering steam with conditions up to 760°C (1400°F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). The project has successfully met this goal through a focused long-term public-private consortium partnership. The project was based on an R&D plan developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and an industry consortium that supplemented the recommendations of several DOE workshops on the subject of advanced materials. In view of the variety of skills and expertise required for the successful completion of the proposed work, a consortium led by the Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) with cost-sharing participation of all the major domestic boiler manufacturers, ALSTOM Power (Alstom), Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W), Foster Wheeler (FW), and Riley Power, Inc. (Riley), technical management by EPRI and research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed. The project has clearly identified and tested materials that can withstand 760°C (1400°F) steam conditions and can also make a 700°C (1300°F) plant more economically attractive. In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys have been assessed to provide a basis for

  13. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... testing or trial or operational burns of similar boilers or industrial furnaces burning similar...

  14. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers... requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) Hot water...

  15. 46 CFR 53.05-1 - Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG... requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401). (a) The pressure relief valve requirements and the safety valve requirements for steam boilers must be as indicated in HG-400 and HG-401 of section IV...

  16. Discussion on Improvement of Chain-grate Boiler to Pulverized Coal Boiler%某链条锅炉改造为煤粉锅炉的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新龙; 王惠云; 杨林; 王鹏南

    2016-01-01

    对链条锅炉改造为煤粉锅炉做了系统的介绍。对改造中所涉及的各系统和设备进行了一定的分析,并证明链条炉改造为煤粉炉是可行的,其配套的烟气处理技术是有效的。%The improvement of the chain-grate boiler to pulverized coal boiler is systematically introduced. Based on the analysis of the related systems and equipments, it's proven that it's feasible to improve the chain-grate boiler to pulverized coal boiler and the corresponding flue gas treatment technology is efficient.

  17. FORO CON EXPERTO APLICACIÓN DE LAS NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS DE LA INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN EN LA FORMACIÓN FARMACÉUTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Badilla Baltodano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la primera experiencia de la Facultad de Farmacia de la Universidad de Costa Rica en la temática de las TIC's. El proyecto Foro con experto tiene como finalidad poner en contacto al estudiantado avanzado de la carrera de Licenciatura en Farmacia, con profesionales destacados, conocedores y especializados en una temática particular, mediante un foro asincrónico, que ha permitido el desarrollo de pensamiento crítico, la confrontación de ideas y el aprendizaje significativo, incorporando a los y las estudiantes a la realidad clínica de los procesos patológicos más prevalentes en Costa Rica y la farmacoterapia moderna, todo dentro de una metodología constructivista que permite al y la estudiante crear su propio conocimiento, con la guía de una persona experta por medio de una plataforma virtual.

  18. Contrastes en la gestión pública. La asesoría de expertos versus la acción basada en la participación social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Duque Daza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el papel que juega la tecnocracia en la gestión pública y los efectos que ello genera. El argumento central es que existen enfoques que sobrevaloran o el papel de los expertos o el de los ciudadanos en la gestión pública a partir de posiciones reduccionistas de la administración pública y que existe una opción que incorpora tanto la tecnocracia como la deliberación y la participación ciudadana y representa una perspectiva de convergencia y de concertación desde las esferas públicas con propósitos colectivos. Se trata de un artículo de revisión en la convergencia disciplinar de la Ciencia P olítica y la Administración pública.

  19. Software evaluación de expertos por el método Delphy para el pronóstico de la investigación agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Idaris Gómez Ravelo; Héctor R. de las Cuevas Milán; Astrid Fernández de Castro Fabre; Deborah González Viera

    2013-01-01

    Consiste en la automatización del Método Delphy, el cual es considerado uno de los métodos subjetivos de predecir más confiables, constituye un procedimiento para confeccionar un cuadro de la evolución de situaciones complejas, a través de la elaboración estadística de las opiniones de expertos en el tema tratado. El mismo permite rebasar el marco de las condicionantes actuales más señaladas de un fenómeno y alcanzar una imagen integral y más amplia de su posible evolución, reflejando las val...

  20. Retórica clásica y redes on line: dos realidades convergentes y análogas. Perspectivas y prospectivas de 9 expertos en Comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Berlanga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende probar la relación entre la retórica clásica y las redes sociales on line como realidades convergentes y análogas, así como las sinergias que entre ellas se establecen en aras de una comunicación más persuasiva y eficaz. Para este objetivo se sirve de la técnica cualitativa de la entrevista en profundidad a expertos en el tema, que resellen nuestra hipótesis sobre estas mutuas transferencias. En un momento de éxtasis de la comunicación, mediado por el boom de las redes on line, redescubrir los principios retóricos originales puede ser de alta pertinencia a fin de devolver a la comunicación su faceta más humana y creativa.

  1. Análisis químico y expertos en la España contemporánea: Antonio Casares Rodríguez (1812-1888) y José Casares Gil (1866-1961)

    OpenAIRE

    Suay Matallana, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigación en historia social y cultural de la ciencia que está centrada en dos químicos españoles contemporáneos: Antonio Casares Rodríguez (1812-1888) y José Casares Gil (1866-1961). No consiste en una biografía de ambos personajes sino que forma parte de un proyecto de investigación más amplio sobre la creación, el desarrollo y la consolidación de expertos en análisis químico en la España contemporánea. Para ello, se estudiarán diversos episodios de la ...

  2. El método Padovan…¿es recomendable?: opinión de los expertos en Atención Temprana de Down España

    OpenAIRE

    Candel, Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    Entre las terapias para estimular el desarrollo cognitivo y motor de los niños con síndrome de Down hay una en concreto que (por la difusión que está teniendo en contraste con lo poca información que se tiene de ella) suele despertar el interés de una gran cantidad de padres y madre: el método Padovan. Para arrojar algo de luz sobre la controversia que suele despertar, dos de los mayores expertos en Atención Temprana de nuestro país han querido ofrecer en el presente documento un análisis y u...

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  4. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  5. Optimal scheduling of sootblowers in power plant boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Urbano, Pedro Manuel

    1997-11-01

    Burning coal or other fossil fuels in a utility boiler fouls the surfaces of its heat exchangers with ash and soot residues. These deposits affect the performance of the power plant since they reduce heat transfer from the combustion gases to the water or steam. Fouling can be removed during the operation of the plant with the use of lances, called sootblowers, that direct high-pressure air or steam onto the fouled surfaces. Sootblowing operations are key to plant efficiency and boiler maintenance, but they also incur operating costs. A utility boiler may have a hundred or so sootblowers placed in fixed locations. Deciding which of these should be used at any moment is complicated by the lack of instrumentation that can monitor fouling levels. This dissertation studies the optimization problem of scheduling sootblowing activities at a utility plant. The objective is to develop an optimization approach to determine which sootblowers should be activated at any moment in order to maximize plant efficiency. To accomplish this, three issues are addressed. First, models are developed that can estimate fouling conditions indirectly during plant operation using commonly available data. The approach used relies on a sequential application of linear regression fits. Secondly, autoregressive exogenous (ARX) models are used to describe the dynamics of the fouling process and to estimate the consequences of fouling on plant efficiency. All the foregoing empirical models are developed using data from a power plant. Finally, using the empirical models, an optimization model is formulated for the sootblowing scheduling problem and different optimization approaches that combine nonlinear programming with heuristics methods are investigated for its solution. The applicability of dynamic programming to this optimization problem is also explored.

  6. APLICACIÓN DE UN SISTEMA AUTOMATIZADO PARA LANZADORES DE PENALTY EN FÚTBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    A pesar de reconocerse como la base del rendimiento de la mayoría de habilidades deportivas, pocos entrenadores reconocen que el funcionamiento de la visión es una habilidad aprendida susceptible de mejora. El objetivo principal de este estudio pretende medir la eficacia en goles y táctica individual de lanzadores expertos de penalty en fútbol utilizando un novedoso sistema automatizado de emisión de estímulos visuales aplicado en la situación habitual de campo. Lanzadores de penalty (n = 9 realizaron una prueba pre-tratamiento de 24 intentos en situación real frente a porteros (n = 3. Posteriormente, completaron un entrenamiento de 10 sesiones utilizando el sistema automatizado sin porteros y, finalmente, repitieron de nuevo la misma prueba inicial consiguiendo entonces significativamente más goles en la medida post-tratamiento. Además, se encontraron diferencias tácticas en base a la dirección de los lanzamientos respecto a la actuación del portero. Los resultados sugieren que el lanzamiento de penalty en fútbol puede plantearse como una habilidad motriz abierta, en función de la actuación del portero, reduciendo el tiempo de procesamiento de la información y de la toma de decisiones.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Entrenamiento visual, lanzador, penalty, fútbol, expertos, toma de decisiones, control motor.

    ABSTRACT

    Despite recognising like the performance’s base of the majority of sports abilities, few trainers recognise that visual function is a learned ability that can be improved. The main aim of this study tries to measure efficacy in goals and individual tactic of high-skill penalty-kickers in soccer using a new automatic system of emission visual stimulus applied in the

  7. Application of advanced technologies to ash-related problems in boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, G.; Harb, J. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1995-01-01

    Prediction of ash behavior in boilers has, for many years, been based on relatively simple relationships involving the composition of inorganic material in fuels. In recent years, advanced analyses for both fuels and deposits have seen increasing use in the solid fuel combustion community. The combination of the standard and advanced analyses, together with a knowledge of boiler design and operating conditions, allow better interpretation of ash behavior in boilers than has previously been possible. This paper discusses several case histories where advanced technologies have been applied to interpret ash behavior in boilers where standard techniques were insufficient. Included in the discussion are: (1) the behavior of blends of fuels; (2) explanations for markedly different behavior between fuels with similar ASTM characteristics; and (3) effects of boiler operating conditions on ash deposit formation.

  8. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  9. Load control and the provision of the efficiency of steam boilers equipped with an extremal governor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanin, V. P.; Kormilitsyn, V. I.; Kostyk, V. I.; Smirnov, N. I.; Koroteev, A. V.; Repin, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of main problems of controlling small- and medium-size steam boilers. Noted are deficiencies of current normative and technical documents, as well as those of the traditional concept of the process of fuel firing, the methods for and algorithms of boiler control. There is established an approach to creation of such control systems in which a boiler is treated, as to control and load channels, as a nonlinear linked controlled objects. To control load and efficiency of a boiler, an universal schematic diagram is suggested that allows for the possibility of implementation in modern controllers of both known methods and a new method using an extremal governor, which would provide minimum fuel consumption at given thermal load of a boiler.

  10. Characteristics modeling for supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicki, Adrian; Bartela, Łukasz

    2014-06-01

    Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emission, mainly carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of `zeroemission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper the results of analyses of the influence of changing two quantities, namely oxygen share in oxidant produced in the air separation unit, and oxygen share in oxidant supplied to the furnace chamber on the selected characteristics of a steam boiler including the degree of exhaust gas recirculation, boiler efficiency and adiabatic flame temperature, was examined. Due to the possibility of the integration of boiler model with carbon dioxide capture, separation and storage installation, the subject of the analysis was also to determine composition of the flue gas at the outlet of a moisture condensation installation. Required calculations were made using a model of a supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology, which was built in a commercial software and in-house codes.

  11. On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.

  12. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  13. On Propagating Requirements and Selecting Fuels for a Benson Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Mølbak, Tommy

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of optimal choice of sensors and actuators is addressed. Given a functional encapsulating information of the desired performance and production economy the objective is to choose a control instrumentation from a given set to comply with its minimum. The objective of the...... to propagate a global objective to local subsystems. Particular focus is on a boiler in a power plant operated by Dong Energy. The business objectives have been propagated to the actuator level to allow for selection of an actuator configuration....

  14. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2004-01-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter October-December 2003. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed in the previous reporting period. In this reporting period, one week of combustion parameters optimization has been performed in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. Under full-oxy conditions (100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas) in 1.5MW{sub th} coal-fired boiler, the following parameters have been varied and their impact on combustion characteristics measured: the recirculated flue gas flow rate has been varied from 80% to 95% of total flue gas flow, and the total oxygen flow rate into the primary air zone of the boiler has been set to levels ranging from 15% to 25% of the total oxygen consumption in the overall combustion. In current reporting period, significant progress has also been made in Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: mass and energy balance calculations and cost assessment have been completed on plant capacity of 533MW{sub e} gross output while applying the methodology described in previous reporting periods. Air-fired PC Boiler and proposed Oxygen-fired PC Boiler have been assessed, both for retrofit application and new unit. The current work schedule is to review in more details the experimental data collected so far as well as the economics results obtained on the 533MWe cases, and to develop a work scope for the remainder of the project. Approximately one week of pilot testing is expected during the first quarter of 2004, including mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. The project was on hold from mid-November through December 2003 due to non-availability of funds. Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $497k have been spent to date ($480 reported so far), mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $330k has been cost-shared by the

  15. Combustion zone investigation in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers, Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Hvid, Søren Lovmand;

    The purpose of the project is to obtain data for full-scale validation of predictive models for combustion and cocombustion of biomass in utility boilers. In addition, focus was on development of innovative optical measuring techniques as a means to increase data quality by fast measurements......-straw flame at conditions close to daily co-firing operation. 4 measurement ports was used for mapping of flames with a distance up to 6.72 m from burner wall using 5 m and 7 m long water-cooled probes. Gas temperatures and gas composition were measured by FTIR fibre-optic probe and extractive gas sampling...

  16. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispin, Larry G.; Weitzel, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  17. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  18. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-04-30

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream

  19. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels; Montgomery, Melanie; Hede Larsen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. To avoid such high corrosion rates, woodchip...... has also been utilised as a fuel. Combustion of woodchip results in a smaller amount of ash, and potassium and chlorine are present in lesser amounts. However, significant corrosion rates were still seen. A case study of a woodchip fired boiler is described. The corrosion mechanisms in both straw...

  20. Validación mediante criterio de usuarios del sistema de indicadores para prever, diseñar y medir el impacto en los proyectos de investigación del sector agropecuario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Fernández de Castro Fabre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de indicadores para prever, diseñar y medir el impacto de los proyectos de investigación del sector agropecuario, es una herramienta que permite a los profesores e investigadores desde el diseño de un proyecto, prever determinados aspectos que tenidos en cuenta desde la confección del mismo contribuirán a la medición del impacto de los resultados obtenidos. Este sistema de indicadores ha sido validado desde lo teórico y lo práctico, mediante la implementación de dos estudios de caso. Posteriormente, se sometieron a la validación por criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi, lo que permitió proceder a la implementación del sistema de indicadores a nivel de 12 instituciones académico investigativas del país. El objetivo del presente trabajo es validar mediante la Técnica de IADOV el grado de satisfacción de los usuarios con la implementación del sistema de indicadores. Como resultado se confirmó la factibilidad de uso, expresado cuantitativamente en el alto Índice de Satisfacción Grupal (ISG = 0,92 y cualitativamente en los criterios emitidos donde evidencian su satisfacción por la contribución del sistema de indicadores, lo que refleja aceptación de la propuesta y un reconocimiento a su utilidad.

  1. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Steve [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Knapp, David [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  2. Combustion of bark and wood waste in the fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Maslov, R. S.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Kondrat'eva, O. E.

    2016-11-01

    In the Energy Development Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2035, special attention is paid to increased use of local fuel kinds—one of which is biofuel, in particular, bark and wood waste (BWW)— whose application at thermal power plants in Russia has been not developed due to the lack of appropriate technologies mastered by domestic energy mechanical engineering. The article describes the experience of BWW combustion in fluidized bed boilers installed on the energy objects of northern European countries. Based on this, reference points were defined (it is the section of boiler air-gas path where initially the approximate temperatures are set), making it possible to carry out a thermal design of a boiler and ensure its operation reliability. Permissible gas temperature at the furnace outlet at BWW combustion amounted to 950-1000°C. Exit gas temperature, depending on the implementation of special measures on protection of air heater from corrosion, amounted to 140-190°C. Recommended hot air temperature is within the range of 200-250°C. Recommendations for determining the boiler furnace dimensions are presented. Based on the presented reference temperatures in the main reference points, the thermal design of hot water boiler of KV-F-116-150 type with 116 MW capacity was carried out. The analysis of the results and comparison of designed boiler characteristics with operating energy boilers, in which a fuel is burned in a fluidized bed, were carried out. It is shown that, with increasing the boiler capacity, the ratio of its heating power Q to the crosssectional area of furnace chamber F rises. For power-generating boiler of thermal capacity of 100 MW, the ratio is within 1.8-2.2MW/m2. The boiler efficiency exceeds 90% in the range of changes of exit gas temperature typical for such equipment.

  3. Economic Analysis for Rebuilding of an Aged Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler with a New Boiler in an Aged Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil-fired thermal power plants (TPP produce a significant part of electricity in the world. Because of the aging TPPs and so their equipment (especially boiler, thermal power plants also produce less power than their installed capacities, and there has been power loss in time. This situation affects the supply and demand balance of countries. For this reason, aging equipments such as pulverized coal-fired boiler (PCB must be renewed and power loss must be recovered, instead of building new TPPs. In this study, economic analysis of rebuilding an aged pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new pulverized coal-fired boiler including flue gas desulfurization (FGD unit and a circulating fluidized bed boiler (FBB are investigated in an existing old TPP. Emission costs are also added to model, and the developed model is applied to a 200 MWe pulverized coal-fired thermal power plant in Turkey. As a result, the payback period and the net present value are calculated for different technical and economic parameters such as power loss, load factor, electricity price, discount rate, and escalation rate by using the annual value method. The outcomes of this study show that rebuilding of a pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new one is amortized itself in a very short time.

  4. Sistema Distribuido de Gran Escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fco. Javier Luna Rosas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una nueva forma de balancear la carga dinámicamente combinando un modelo Fuzzy-Logic en conjunto con el algoritmo distribuido Request for Bids (RB, el trabajo es centrado en el modelo Fuzzy-Logic con el propósito de mejorar el balanceo dinámico de carga en un sistema distribuido a gran escala. El modelo Fuzzy-Logic y RB fueron implementados en una arquitectura para balancear la carga bajo el estándar de CORBA y fueron evaluados contra otras estrategias que son bien conocidas en la literatura usando diferentes métricas de carga y mostramos como bajo ciertas condiciones nuestra estrategia obtiene mejores resultados.

  5. Monitoring and diagnosis of condensation systems in thermoelectric power stations: behavior indicators; Monitoreo y diagnostico de sistemas de condensacion en centrales termoelectricas: indicadores de comportamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Hugo; Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    diagnostico de los equipos del sistema de condensacion. La evaluacion de los equipos se lleva a cabo mediante la comparacion entre los indicadores y los esperados, mientras que el diagnostico se realiza por medio de un sistema experto.

  6. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  7. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2005-06-30

    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  8. MSWI boiler fly ashes: magnetic separation for material recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc; Hubaux, Paul; Lucion, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, ferrous materials are usually recovered from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash by magnetic separation. To our knowledge, such a physical technique has not been applied so far to other MSWI residues. This study focuses thus on the applicability of magnetic separation on boiler fly ashes (BFA). Different types of magnet are used to extract the magnetic particles. We investigate the magnetic particle composition, as well as their leaching behaviour (EN 12457-1 leaching test). The magnetic particles present higher Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni concentration than the non-magnetic (NM) fraction. Magnetic separation does not improve the leachability of the NM fraction. To approximate industrial conditions, magnetic separation is also applied to BFA mixed with water by using a pilot. BFA magnetic separation is economically evaluated. This study globally shows that it is possible to extract some magnetic particles from MSWI boiler fly ashes. However, the magnetic particles only represent from 23 to 120 g/kg of the BFA and, though they are enriched in Fe, are composed of similar elements to the raw ashes. The industrial application of magnetic separation would only be profitable if large amounts of ashes were treated (more than 15 kt/y), and the process should be ideally completed by other recovery methods or advanced treatments.

  9. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  10. Principales sistemas osmóticos orales

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Hernández Torres; Luz María Melgoza Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas de liberación convencionales tienen poco control sobre la liberación del fármaco, lo que resulta en concentraciones plasmáticas variables. Como consecuencia, se han desarrollado sistemas de liberación controlada, como los sistemas osmóticos que han demostrado ser independientes de las condiciones psiológicas del cuerpo (pH, alimento y movimientos peristálticos). La liberación del fármaco puede controlarse conociendo de antemano las propiedades psicoquímicas del fármaco y la forma...

  11. Sistemas de conciliación financiera

    OpenAIRE

    Cerro Campón, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Los sistemas de conciliaciones financieras, son sistemas que se basan en la carga de datos. Estos datos son extraídos previamente desde las aplicaciones propias de los movimientos bancarios. Esta información bancaria esta constituida en su mayoría por información sobre precios de distintos mercados. La finalidad de los sistemas de conciliación financiera es comprobar que todas las aplicaciones están alineadas, y que las operaciones realizadas con estos precios no se desvirtualizan de un siste...

  12. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Medina García; Irina Cervantes Bravo

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuer...

  13. Sistemas de salvaguardia en reactores EPR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este documento se describe brevemente el funcionamiento de los diversos sistemas de una planta nuclear operada con un reactor de tipo PWR. Más concretamente, el proyecto se centra en una descripción exhaustiva de los sistemas de salvaguardia y seguridad que regulan el funcionamiento de un reactor de tipo EPR, así como la central nuclear que contiene a dicho reactor. El proceso ha consistido en clasificar y resumir los distintos sistemas que operan en dicha planta, estudiando sus caracterís...

  14. El sistema acusatorio oral en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Barrantes, Jessica María; Rodríguez Montoya, Carmen María; Tenorio Jara

    2014-01-01

    El 1.° de enero de 1998 entra en vigencia el nuevo Código Procesal Penal, con lo cual se experimenta una de las reformas más importantes en materia de Administración de Justicia Penal, que implica el paso de un Sistema Procesal Inquisitivo a un Sistema Acusatorio que procura la adversarialidad entre partes. El antiguo Sistema Penal Inquisitivo se caracterizaba en que las funciones de investigar y juzgar se ejercían por el Juez de instrucción, el proceso era escrito y las dil...

  15. Gestor de recursos sobre sistemas virtualizados

    OpenAIRE

    Gavilán García, Jesús Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Creacion, diseño e implementación de una nube (cloud) basado en un clúster de servidores con sistema de ficheros distribuido en red y virtualización de sistemas operativos que mejora la utilización de los recursos disponibles. Esta nueva arquitectura ofrece una nube privada que simplifica la gestión de los servicios y aporta una disminución del coste de mantenimiento, ademas de añadir flexibilidad, dinamismo y escalabilidad al sistema. Las tecnologías con las que se trabaja son GNU/Linux, Xen...

  16. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    on the basis of the sensitivity analysis and the measurements. The baseline results show an overall acceptable agreement with the measured data and the site observations, indicating the baseline model is applicable in optimization of the boiler and design of new grate boilers. However, at a few measuring...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  17. Corrosion of oil-fired boilers caused by sour combustion products of the sulfur contained in fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1987-01-01

    A corrosion model helps to experimentally explain why industrial boilers are more susceptible to corrosion than smaller boilers and why vapour dew points are relevant to heating boilers while sulfuric acid dew points are relevant to steam boilers. Analyses are based on model verifications (measurement of critical boiler factors). Access is given to the sulfur trioxide measuring methods as well as to the respective tests of 30 actively operated boilers (sulfur oxide concentrations at burner outlets), the catalytic formation of sulfur oxides, and tests of the test stand boiler (sulfur oxide deposits). The paper concludes with a description of corrosion product analyses as such as well as with an account of the results obtained. Analyses and results (wet analysis, X-ray structure analysis, influence of temperatures, FeSO/sub 4/ x H/sub 2/O tracing) are presented in the form of eight brief statements. (HWJ)

  18. Aproximación a una categorización de los sistemas de productos: el uso y la experiencia del consumidor como configuradores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Cardozo Vásquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Con la transformación en las formas de relación con los productos, los consumidores han dejado de ser receptores pasivos de funciones para transformarse en co-creadores de los productos, así como buscadores de experiencias y sensaciones. Múltiples estudios demuestran cómo los ecosistemas de productos son el ambiente en el que se realizan estas interacciones entre consumidores y productos (Jiao, Xu, Du, Zhang, Helander, Khalid y Ni, 2007; Zhou, Xu y Jiao, 2011, donde las experiencias y sensaciones del usuario son optimizadas a través de la estrategia de categorización, lo que permite establecer agrupaciones de productos basadas en la similitud percibida. Este estudio busca establecer la manera como el uso y la experiencia influyen en el diseño de los productos de una categoría. Se proponen 8 agrupaciones que describen las formas de interacción de los consumidores con los productos, las cuales son estudiadas mediante el modelo de sistemas de productos. Para evaluar estos planteamientos se aplica una encuesta a 57 expertos en el área del diseño, enfocada en determinar el grado de afectación de la experiencia y el uso en la caracterización de los sistemas de productos. A partir del análisis de los datos, se extrae una escala del grado de énfasis requerido en cada variable. Los resultados son contrastados con la literatura y se discuten sus implicaciones para el diseño de categorías mediante el modelado de sistemas de productos.

  19. A Method for Determining the Usability Potential of Ship Steam Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muślewski Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ship large-power steam boiler may serve as an example of complex critical technical system. A basis for rational control of operation of such system is knowledge on its capability of fulfilling the tasks to which it was intended. In order to make it possible to apply computer aiding to operational decision-making the capability should be described analytically. In this paper it was proposed to express the capability of ship steam boiler ( considered a complex system to perform service tasks, by calculating components of its usability potential in a given instant t. To this end , was distinguished a set of steam boiler fundamental features which formulate space of its technical states. Values and characteristic intervals of the features were defined and this way sub-spaces of serviceability and non-serviceability states of the object in question were determined. Next, in the considered space, technical state of the boiler and its usability potential was determined. Owing to this it become possible to quantitatively express the steam boiler functioning capability which served as a basis for elaborating an algorithm for controlling the operational processes of a complex technical system under action. In this paper is also described a way of application of the presented method to calculation of ship steam boiler usability potential, which may be especially instrumental in the case of operational control of the boilers of the kind , equipped with interstage reheaters, i.e. those operating with high values of operational parameters.

  20. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.